Sample records for emerging parasitic diseases

  1. Effects of environmental change on emerging parasitic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan A. Patza; Thaddeus K. Graczyk; Nina Geller; Amy Y. Vittor

    Ecological disturbances exert an influence on the emergence and proliferation of malaria and zoonotic parasitic diseases, including, Leishmaniasis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, onchocerciasis, and loiasis. Each environmental change, whether occurring as a natural phenomenon or through human intervention, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, and transmit disease. Each species

  2. INVASION NOTE Invasive avian malaria as an emerging parasitic disease

    E-print Network

    Sehgal, Ravinder

    ), which also has a broad geographical range including New Zealand, Africa, Asia and the Americas (BeadellINVASION NOTE Invasive avian malaria as an emerging parasitic disease in native birds of Peru in Neotropical birds from two different regions of Peru. We detected an overall prevalence of 32.4 % comprising

  3. The Impact of Cultural Behaviours, Local Beliefs, and Practices on Emerging Parasitic Diseases in Tropical Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuliri, Celestine O. E.; Anosike, Jude C.; Oguoma, Chibuzor; Onwuliri, Viola A.; Nwoke, Betram E. B.; Dozie, Ikechukwu, N. S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.

    2005-01-01

    The scourge of emerging parasitic diseases (e.g., urinary schistosomiasis, ascariasis, malaria, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trachoma, trichiuriasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, sleeping sickness, filariasis) causes tremendous pain, suffering, and eventually death in tropical African communities. Patterns of transmission of these emerging

  4. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  5. The butterfly effect: parasite diversity, environment, and emerging disease in aquatic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Adlard, Robert D; Miller, Terrence L; Smit, Nico J

    2015-04-01

    Aquatic wildlife is increasingly subjected to emerging diseases often due to perturbations of the existing dynamic balance between hosts and their parasites. Accelerating changes in environmental factors, together with anthropogenic translocation of hosts and parasites, act synergistically to produce hard-to-predict disease outcomes in freshwater and marine systems. These outcomes are further complicated by the intimate links between diseases in wildlife and diseases in humans and domestic animals. Here, we explore the interactions of parasites in aquatic wildlife in terms of their biodiversity, their response to environmental change, their emerging diseases, and the contribution of humans and domestic animals to parasitic disease outcomes. This work highlights the clear need for interdisciplinary approaches to ameliorate disease impacts in aquatic wildlife systems. PMID:25488771

  6. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

  7. Centrality in primate–parasite networks reveals the potential for the transmission of emerging infectious diseases to humans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, José María; Nunn, Charles L.; Verdú, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans have arisen from animals. Identifying high-risk hosts is therefore vital for the control and surveillance of these diseases. Viewing hosts as connected through the parasites they share, we use network tools to investigate predictors of parasitism and sources of future EIDs. We generated host–parasite networks that link hosts when they share a parasite, using nonhuman primates as a model system because—owing to their phylogenetic proximity and ecological overlap with humans—they are an important source of EIDs to humans. We then tested whether centrality in the network of host species—a measurement of the importance of a given node (i.e., host species) in the network—is associated with that host serving as a potential EID source. We found that centrality covaries with key predictors of parasitism, such as population density and geographic range size. Importantly, we also found that primate species having higher values of centrality in the primate–parasite network harbored more parasites identified as EIDs in humans and had parasite communities more similar to those found in humans. These relationships were robust to the use of different centrality metrics and to multiple ways of controlling for variation in how well each species has been studied (i.e., sampling effort). Centrality may therefore estimate the role of a host as a source of EIDs to humans in other multispecific host–parasite networks. PMID:23610389

  8. "Emerging" parasitic infections in arctic ungulates.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Susan J; Hoberg, Eric P; Nagy, John; Polley, Lydden; Elkin, Brett

    2004-04-01

    Important drivers for emergence of infectious disease in wildlife include changes in the environment, shrinking habitats or concentration of wildlife, and movement of people, animals, pathogens, or vectors. In this paper we present three case-studies of emerging parasitic infections and diseases in ungulates in the Canadian north. First we discuss climate warming as an important driver for the emergence of disease associated with Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, a nematode lungworm of muskoxen. Then we examine how Protostrongylus stilesi, the sheep lungworm, emerged (or re-emerged) in muskoxen after re-introduction of this host into its historical range made it sympatric with Dall's sheep. Finally, we consider Teladorsagia boreoarcticus, a newly described and common abomasal nematode of muskoxen that is emerging as a disease-causing parasite and may be an important regulator for muskox populations on Banks Island, Northwest Territories. These and other arctic host-parasite systems are exquisitely tuned and constrained by a harsh and highly seasonal environment. The dynamics of these systems will be impacted by climate change and other ecological disruptions. Baseline knowledge of parasite biodiversity and parasite and host ecology, together with predictive models and long-term monitoring programs, are essential for anticipating and detecting altered patterns of host range, geographic distribution, and the emergence of parasitic infections and diseases. PMID:21680491

  9. Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites Parasites Home Share Compartir Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases ... EST/ Monday-Friday Closed Holidays Contact CDC-INFO Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education ...

  10. Cultivation of Babesia and Babesia-Like Blood Parasites: Agents of an Emerging Zoonotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Frederick L.

    2002-01-01

    Babesia and its close relatives are members of a group of organisms called piroplasms, a name which comes from their pear-shaped outlines. Long associated with blood diseases of cattle and other mammals, members of the genus Babesia have been recognized since the 1950s as infectious agents in humans. Species of this protozoan blood parasite that have routinely been isolated from mice (B. microti) or cattle (B. divergens) have also been isolated from humans. In addition to these familiar species, new isolates that resist being placed in existing taxonomic categories are the basis for rethinking their phylogenetic relationships based on sequencing data. The parasite represents a threat to the safety of the blood supply in that blood from asymptomatic humans can transmit Babesia to blood recipients. Such transmissions have occurred. The development of methods for cultivation of these organisms represents a significant opportunity to study their biology and disease potential. In addition, in vitro cultivation has provided a basis for studying immune responses of mammals to these infectious agents, with the hope of ultimately producing attenuated strains that could be used for immunizing of cattle and, perhaps, humans who live in areas of endemicity. The microaerophilous stationary phase culture technique, which uses a tissue culture medium base supplemented with appropriate serum and erythrocytes, has made it possible to obtain large numbers of parasitized erythrocytes for studying the biology of this parasite. PMID:12097245

  11. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... available to diagnose parasitic diseases. The kind of test(s) your health care provider will order will be based on your ... below for a list of some commonly used tests your health care provider may order. A fecal (stool) exam, also ...

  12. Interspecific competition in honeybee intracellular gut parasites is asymmetric and favours the spread of an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Natsopoulou, Myrsini E; McMahon, Dino P; Doublet, Vincent; Bryden, John; Paxton, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing appreciation that hosts in natural populations are subject to infection by multiple parasite species. Yet the epidemiological and ecological processes determining the outcome of mixed infections are poorly understood. Here, we use two intracellular gut parasites (Microsporidia), one exotic and one co-evolved in the western honeybee (Apis mellifera), in an experiment in which either one or both parasites were administered either simultaneously or sequentially. We provide clear evidence of within-host competition; order of infection was an important determinant of the competitive outcome between parasites, with the first parasite significantly inhibiting the growth of the second, regardless of species. However, the strength of this 'priority effect' was highly asymmetric, with the exotic Nosema ceranae exhibiting stronger inhibition of Nosema apis than vice versa. Our results reveal an unusual asymmetry in parasite competition that is dependent on order of infection. When incorporated into a mathematical model of disease prevalence, we find asymmetric competition to be an important predictor of the patterns of parasite prevalence found in nature. Our findings demonstrate the wider significance of complex multi-host-multi-parasite interactions as drivers of host-pathogen community structure. PMID:25429014

  13. Serodiagnosis of parasitic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, S E

    1991-01-01

    In this review on serodiagnosis of parasitic diseases, antibody detection, antigen detection, use of monoclonal antibodies in parasitic serodiagnosis, molecular biological technology, and skin tests are discussed. The focus at the Centers for Disease Control on developing improved antigens, a truly quantitative FAST-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the very specific immunoblot assays for antibody detection is highlighted. The last two assays are suitable for field studies. Identification of patient response in terms of immunoglobulin class or immunoglobulin G subclass isotypes or both is discussed. Immunoglobulin isotypes may asist in defining the stage of some diseases. In other instances, use of a particular anti-isotype conjugate may increase the specificity of the assay. Monoclonal antibodies have played important roles in antigen purification and identification, in competitive antibody assays with increased sensitivity and specificity, and in assays for antigen detection in serum, body fluids, or excreta. Molecular biological technology has allowed significant advances in the production of defined parasitic serodiagnostic antigens. PMID:1747862

  14. The study of parasite sharing for surveillance of zoonotic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Maxwell J.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    Determining the factors that influence the transmission of parasites among hosts is important for directing surveillance of animal parasites before they successfully emerge in humans, and increasing the efficacy of programs for the control and management of zoonotic diseases. Here we present a review of recent advances in the study of parasite sharing, wildlife ecology, and epidemiology that could be extended and incorporated into proactive surveillance frameworks for multi-host infectious diseases. These methods reflect emerging interdisciplinary techniques with significant promise for the identification of future zoonotic parasites and unknown reservoirs of current zoonoses, strategies for the reduction of parasite prevalence and transmission among hosts, and decreasing the burden of infectious diseases.

  15. Together in the fight against neglected public health problems: worldwide network cooperation on waterborne diseases and emerging parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoying; Song, Langui; Liang, Jinyi; Luo, Shiqi; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    A symposium held in Guangzhou, China, aimed to become starting point of an international cooperation in the fight against waterborne diseases, which obtain more and more importance in times of global warming and globalization. PMID:25782677

  16. Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Trelis, Maria; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Osuna, Antonio; Bernal, Dolores; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Almeida, Igor C.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasite–parasite inter-communication as well as in parasite–host interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens. PMID:25536932

  17. Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

  18. Parasite Zoonoses and Wildlife: Emerging Issues

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Kutz, Susan J.; Smith, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact. PMID:19440409

  19. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Watcharakorn, Arvemas; Castillo, Mauricio

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews the characteristic imaging appearances of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system, including cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, amebiasis, malariasis, sparganosis, paragonimiasis, and American and African trypanosomiases. Routine precontrast and postcontrast MR imaging helps in localization, characterization, delineation of extension, and follow-up of the parasitic lesions. Moreover, recently developed tools, such as diffusion, perfusion, and MR spectroscopy, help to differentiate parasitic diseases of the central nervous system from simulating lesions. Combining imaging findings with geographic prevalence, clinical history, and serologic tests is required for diagnosis of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:22032501

  20. Water-Related Parasitic Diseases in China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shan; Tian, Li-Guang; Liu, Qin; Qian, Men-Bao; Fu, Qing; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Jia-Xu; Yang, Guo-Jing; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized. PMID:23685826

  1. Control of parasitic disease using vaccines: an answer to drug resistance?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vercruysse; T. P. M. Schetters; D. P. Knox; P. Willadsen; E. Claerebout

    2007-01-01

    Summary Antiparasitic drugs have been used successfully to control parasitic diseases in animals for many years, as they are safe, cheap and effective against a broad spectrum of parasites. One drawback of this success appears to be the emergence of drug resistance in many target parasites. Moreover, issues of residues in the food chain and environment have arisen, which threaten

  2. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)—Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubá?ková, Petra; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites. PMID:24386497

  3. Drug repurposing and human parasitic protozoan diseases.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Katherine T; Fisher, Gillian; Skinner-Adams, Tina S

    2014-08-01

    Parasitic diseases have an enormous health, social and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 1.1 million combined deaths annually. The global burden of these diseases is exacerbated by the lack of licensed vaccines, making safe and effective drugs vital to their prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, where drugs are available, their usefulness is being increasingly threatened by parasite drug resistance. The need for new drugs drives antiparasitic drug discovery research globally and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. In this review we discuss one of these approaches, drug repurposing or repositioning, with a focus on major human parasitic protozoan diseases such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and leishmaniasis. PMID:25057459

  4. Emerging dangers: deadly effects of an emergent parasite in a new pollinator host.

    PubMed

    Graystock, Peter; Yates, Kathryn; Darvill, Ben; Goulson, Dave; Hughes, William O H

    2013-10-01

    There is growing concern about the threats facing many pollinator populations. Emergent diseases are one of the major threats to biodiversity and a microsporidian parasite, Nosema ceranae, has recently jumped host from the Asian to the Western honeybee, spreading rapidly worldwide, and contributing to dramatic colony losses. Bumblebees are ecologically and economically important pollinators of conservation concern, which are likely exposed to N. ceranae by sharing flowers with honeybees. Whilst a further intergeneric jump by N. ceranae to infect bumblebees would be potentially serious, its capacity to do this is unknown. Here we investigate the prevalence of N. ceranae in wild bumblebees in the UK and determine the infectivity of the parasite under controlled conditions. We found N. ceranae in all seven wild bumblebee species sampled, and at multiple sites, with many of the bees having spores from this parasite in their guts. When we fed N. ceranae spores to bumblebees under controlled conditions, we confirmed that the parasite can infect bumblebees. Infections spread from the midgut to other tissues, reduced bumblebee survival by 48% and had sub-lethal effects on behaviour. Although spore production appeared lower in bumblebees than in honeybees, virulence was greater. The parasite N. ceranae therefore represents a real and emerging threat to bumblebees, with the potential to have devastating consequences for their already vulnerable populations. PMID:23816821

  5. [Anisakidosis a marine parasitic zoonosis: unknown or emerging in Peru?].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Rufino; Del Pilar, María; Altamirano, Trillo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to show the experimental studies carried out on the biological cycle, culture, pathogenicity of the anisakidae nematode larvae and to disseminate the information regarding current epidemy and the probable emergence of anisakidosis in Peru, and in addition, to propose measures of prevention and control, as well as the perspective and need for investigation. The studies of experimental pathogenicity in cats, dos, and hamsters are incomplete. Eight cases of acute human anisakidosis have been reported (5 confirmed and 3 unconfirmed). It is probable that it emerges during the "El Niño" Weather Phenomenon; however, during normal conditions it is probably due to the increase of raw fish consumption and other factors. In the coast of Peru, five and four fishes of direct human consumption are parasited by the Anisakis simplex and Anisakis physeteris larva, respectively, and two fishes are parasited by the Pseudoterranova decipiens. The main host for the Anisakis simplex is the dolphin (Delphinus delphia), but the Contracaecum osculatum is hosted by the sea lion: Otaria byronia and Arctocephalus australis, P. decipiens parasita a O. byronia. Eviscerating the fish would be most adequate prevention method to lessen the risk of human infection. There is evidence that anisakidosis is an underestimated zoonosis in Peru, and that it is probably and emerging disease. Therefore, its presence is to be suspected in patients with the prototype clinical syndrome. PMID:15614302

  6. Internal Parasites Internal Parasites can be classified into two basic groups, worms and protozoa. Parasitic disease dif-

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Internal Parasites Internal Parasites can be classified into two basic groups, worms and protozoa in controlling parasites. Modern commercial confinement systems have significantly reduced the incidence of worm para- sitic disease in these flocks. Intestinal parasites - worms - are common in backyard and free

  7. Parasites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are easily treated and some are not. The burden of these diseases often rests on communities in the tropics and subtropics, but parasitic infections also affect people in developed countries. More about parasites ... ...

  8. Bacterial and parasitic diseases of parrots.

    PubMed

    Doneley, Robert J T

    2009-09-01

    As wild-caught birds become increasingly rare in aviculture, there is a corresponding decline in the incidence of bacterial and parasitic problems and an increase in the recognition of the importance of maintaining health through better nutrition and husbandry. Nevertheless, the relatively close confines of captivity mean an increased pathogen load in the environment in which companion and aviary parrots live. This increased pathogen load leads to greater exposure of these birds to bacteria and parasites, and consequently a greater risk of infection and disease. This article discusses bacterial and parasitic infections in companion and aviary parrots. It includes the origins, pathogens, diagnosis, treatment, and some of the associated risk factors. PMID:19732702

  9. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... Divisions supporting such research. NIAID Biodefense Research Priority Pathogens List of NIAID Category A-C pathogens Additional ...

  10. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites Parasites Home Share Compartir Travel/Travelers International travelers can ... EST/ Monday-Friday Closed Holidays Contact CDC-INFO Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education ...

  11. Biodiversity and emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Jean-Charles; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2006-10-01

    First we remind general considerations concerning biodiversity on earth and particularly the loss of genetic biodiversity that seems irreversible whether its origin is directly or indirectly linked to human activities. Urgent and considerable efforts must be made from now on to cataloge, understand, preserve, and enhance the value of biodiversity while ensuring food safety and human and animal health. Ambitious integrated and multifield research programs must be implemented in order to understand the causes and anticipate the consequences of loss of biodiversity. Such losses are a serious threat to sustainable development and to the quality of life of future generations. They have an influence on the natural balance of global biodiversity in particularly in reducing the capability of species to adapt rapidly by genetic mutations to survive in modified ecosystems. Usually, the natural immune systems of mammals (both human and animal), are highly polymorphic and able to adapt rapidly to new situations. We more specifically discuss the fact that if the genetic diversity of the affected populations is low the invading microorganisms, will suddenly expand and create epidemic outbreaks with risks of pandemic. So biodiversity appears to function as an important barrier (buffer), especially against disease-causing organisms, which can function in different ways. Finally, we discuss the importance of preserving biodiversity mainly in the wildlife ecosystems as an integrated and sustainable approach among others in order to prevent and control the emergence or reemergence of diseases in animals and humans (zoonosis). Although plants are also part of this paradigm, they fall outside our field of study. PMID:17135490

  12. Emerging Foodborne Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Altekruse, S. F.

    1997-01-01

    For a scholarly (but accessible) article,taken from Emerging Infectious Diseases (discussed in the January 10, 1997 Scout Report), dealing with a variety of food-borne illnesses including E. coli, users can go to this site. It contains a bibliography and a more detailed discussion of the epidemiology and biology of E. coli and its associated diseases. Knowledgeable visitors will appreciate the abundance of detail offered on a number of food-borne culprits. Escherichia coli refers to a diverse family of hundreds of bacteria, many of which are permanent residents of human intestines, serving a beneficial purpose in digestion. The potentially deadly strain that has received recent publicity was first described in 1982, and is known as E. coli O157:H7. This strain of the bacteria produces a substance known as Vero-cytotoxin, which can cause severe illness, characterized by bloody diarrhea and occasional kidney failure in children and the elderly. Symptoms normally appear between three to six days after ingestion of the bacteria. Most illness associated with E. coli has been traced to eating undercooked, contaminated ground beef, although it can also be transmitted via person-to-person contact, by eating raw milk, contaminated vegetables or apple cider, and by swimming in or drinking sewage-contaminated water. The organism lives in the intestine of healthy cattle, and meat can become contaminated during slaughter. Because grinding mixes the bacteria into the product, ground meats represent a greater threat than do whole cuts. Contaminated meat looks and smells normal. Raw milk can be contaminated from bacteria present on a cow's udder. It appears that even small amounts of this organism can cause severe illness.

  13. Concurrent Infections (Parasitism and Bacterial Disease) in Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most laboratory disease studies in tilapia to date have focused on a single parasite or a single bacterial pathogen. In intensive tilapia aquaculture, the reality of a single disease agent resulting in death-loss may be small. More likely, multiple disease agents are present (i.e., parasites, bacter...

  14. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  15. Emerging infectious plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy plants are essential to the survival of humans and animals on earth. Despite the value of plants, however, threats to plant health are generally considered secondary in importance to those of humans and animals. Although the most extensively studied pathogens are those causing disease on s...

  16. Redox processes in malaria and other parasitic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Becker; M. Gui; A. Traxler; R. H. Schirmer; C. Kirsten

    1994-01-01

    The role of oxidative stress resulting from production of reactive oxygen species and\\/or from suppression of the cellular antioxidant capacity in parasitic infections is shortly reviewed. The experimental part of the paper deals with the glutathione (GSH) — glutathione reductase (GR) system, a cornerstone of intracellular antioxidant defence mechanisms. For studying this system in parasitic diseases such as malaria new

  17. Selected emerging diseases in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Wyre, Nicole R; Michels, Dennis; Chen, Sue

    2013-05-01

    Since their introduction as pets several decades ago, ferrets have become an increasingly popular household pet. Great strides have been made in improving their diet and understanding common diseases (eg, insulinoma, hyperadrenocorticism, lymphoma) that affect them. With the frequency with which these conditions are seen, it sometimes is easy to forget that ferrets can be affected by other diseases. Some of these diseases, such as cryptococcosis, are known, but may be increasing in incidence and range, whereas others, such as hypothyroidism and pure red cell aplasia, may be underrecognized or underreported. This review highlights new and emerging diseases not already well reviewed in the literature. PMID:23642872

  18. MFR PAPER 1343 The Principal Parasitic Diseases

    E-print Network

    , such as the ciliated protozoan Ichthy- ophthirius, cause great losses. Many helminths such as the digenean grubs appear the protozoans to be the most important group of parasites affecting fish. Fish culturists through- out the world report great losses caused by protozoans. The most devastating fish parasite is the ciliated protozoan

  19. Disease Dynamics in a Specialized Parasite of Ant Societies

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Sandra B.; Ferrari, Matthew; Evans, Harry C.; Elliot, Simon L.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Hughes, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests and that hyperparasites often castrate Ophiocordyceps. However, once fruiting bodies become sexually mature they appear robust. Such parasite life-history traits are consistent with iteroparity– a reproductive strategy rarely considered in fungi. We discuss how tropical habitats with high biodiversity of hyperparasites and high spore mortality has likely been crucial for the evolution and maintenance of iteroparity in parasites with low dispersal potential. PMID:22567151

  20. The impact of genomics on population genetics of parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hupalo, Daniel N; Bradic, Martina; Carlton, Jane M

    2015-02-01

    Parasites, defined as eukaryotic microbes and parasitic worms that cause global diseases of human and veterinary importance, span many lineages in the eukaryotic Tree of Life. Historically challenging to study due to their complicated life-cycles and association with impoverished settings, their inherent complexities are now being elucidated by genome sequencing. Over the course of the last decade, projects in large sequencing centers, and increasingly frequently in individual research labs, have sequenced dozens of parasite reference genomes and field isolates from patient populations. This 'tsunami' of genomic data is answering questions about parasite genetic diversity, signatures of evolution orchestrated through anti-parasitic drug and host immune pressure, and the characteristics of populations. This brief review focuses on the state of the art of parasitic protist genomics, how the peculiar genomes of parasites are driving creative methods for their sequencing, and the impact that next-generation sequencing is having on our understanding of parasite population genomics and control of the diseases they cause. PMID:25461572

  1. The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread

    PubMed Central

    Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

  2. Parasite virulence and disease patterns in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Hill, A V; Kwiatkowski, D; Greenwood, A M; Greenwood, B M; Day, K P

    1994-01-01

    Heterogeneity in parasite virulence is one of several factors that have been proposed to contribute to the wide spectrum of disease severity in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We used observed age-structured patterns of disease to define a population structure of P. falciparum, where the latter contains several independently transmitted antigenic types or "strains" that each induce some degree of strain-specific antidisease immunity upon infection. Patterns of incidence of severe and mild disease may be explained by assuming that a majority of these strains are associated with mild disease and that although severe malarial anemia is a complication occurring in a certain proportion of early infections with "mild" parasites, cerebral malaria is caused by a few distinct highly virulent strains. Considerable variation in parasite virulence, as a major factor of disease severity in malaria, is made possible by the absence of competition between the various parasite strains, arising from weak shared immune responses. The theoretical framework presented in this paper can explain other epidemiological observations, such as the results of interventions with insecticide-impregnated bednets. PMID:8170975

  3. [Intestinal parasitic diseases as a global health problem].

    PubMed

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2013-03-01

    In today's world, parasitic disease agents are not restricted by geography or economy, and have become a significant global threat. The increasing globalization of the fresh produce market and greater international trade and travels, have contributed to the spread of these organisms in the industrialized world. Parasitic protozoa cause waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrhea. The unprecedented flow of people introduces cultural and behavior patterns around the world; the increasing tendency to eat raw or undercooked meat and seafood, favors the dissemination of several parasitic pathogens. Climate changes are predicted to cause a global increase in soil-transmitted helminthiases. The multidisciplinary study of these agents, and the interaction among scientists, global health organizations and governments are imperative to reduce the burden of these diseases and improve the life of a large segment of the world population. PMID:23781708

  4. Antibacterial peptides in insect vectors of tropical parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Ham, P J; Albuquerque, C; Smithies, B; Chalk, R; Klager, S; Hagen, H

    1994-01-01

    The induction and characterization of immune peptides in two groups of medically important insects, the mosquitoes and blackflies, is currently an important research area. Mosquitoes transmit a variety of viral and parasitic diseases including yellow fever, dengue, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Simuliid black flies are vectors of river blindness. The diseases are together responsible for death and morbidity in millions of people each year. The relationship between inducible peptides and bacterial and parasitic infections in these insects is proving to be a complex one. The identification of an insect defensin (4 kDa) in Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, has proved to be the first peptide characterized in a vector of human disease. This inducible molecule appears in the haemolymph in response to bacterial and to a lesser extent filarial infection. The characterization of inducible blackfly peptides has revealed potent inducible anti-Gram-positive as well as anti-Gram-negative activity. In addition, non-self recognition molecules such as phenoloxidase may play a part in differentiating one species of eukaryotic pathogen from another of the same genus. The interactions between the peptides and these other proteins are likely to be important in the establishment of a successful immune response against a parasitic pathogen, particularly as we now know these peptides to have anti-eukaryotic activity (against a range of parasite species). As well as being of fundamental interest in our understanding of host-parasite relationships, the indication that antibacterial peptides are toxic to parasitic organisms has implications for their possible use in the disease vector control strategies of the future. It may also mean that a revision in our understanding of their mode of action, loose as it is, has to take place. PMID:7768149

  5. Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases C. Jewel, T. Kypraios, P. Neal & G. Roberts of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases. C. Jewell Infectious diseases both within human and animal polulations often pose serious health and socio- economic

  6. Non-native aquatic animals introductions have driven disease emergence in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmund J. PeelerBirgit; Birgit C. Oidtmann; Paul J. Midtlyng; Laurence Miossec; Rodolphe E. Gozlan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper it is argued, using examples of disease emergence in aquatic animals in Europe, that the introduction of non-native\\u000a species drives disease emergence by both extending the geographic range of parasites and pathogens and facilitating host-switching.\\u000a Enteric red mouth disease and infectious haematopoietic necrosis of salmonids have extended their geographic range from North\\u000a America to Europe with the

  7. Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities Pieter T. J, Berkeley, CA, and approved September 10, 2013 (received for review June 3, 2013) Host­parasite interactions parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite

  8. [Hepatitis E: an emerging disease].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, D; Kamar, N; Izopet, J; Alric, L

    2012-06-01

    The hepatitis E virus is endemic in countries with poor sanitation, where it has many similarities with the hepatitis A virus. It causes a strictly human, feco-oral transmitted, acute, self-limited hepatitis in young adults. The outcome is excellent, except in pregnant women and cirrhotic patients, who experience a high mortality rate. The first cases described in industrialized countries were travellers coming from endemic areas. However, there is now growing evidence that locally-acquired hepatitis E is common in these areas, where it is an emergent disease, despite it is still misdiagnosed. In industrialized countries, hepatitis E spreads sporadically and has a predilection for elderly men with comorbidity, particularly chronic liver diseases. The mortality seems to be higher in this population. In these areas, hepatitis E is due to the genotype 3 virus that is thought to be zoonotically transmitted by pigs and wild boar. Hepatitis E may evolve towards a chronic infection in immunocompromised subjects, particularly in solid organ-transplanted patients. In case of chronic infection, it may cause liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The diagnosis of hepatitis E is based on serological tests (IgM and IgG) and detection of the viral genome by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on blood and stools. Acute hepatitis E does not require any treatment but in chronically infected patients, a sustained viral response and finally a definitive viral clearance has been observed after a three-month course of low-dose ribavirin (600 to 800 mg/day). Two vaccines underwent successful human trials but are not yet commercially available. PMID:22405325

  9. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases: Old and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ndao, Momar

    2009-01-01

    Methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases have stagnated in the last 20–30 years. Few major advances in clinical diagnostic testing have been made since the introduction of PCR, although new technologies are being investigated. Many tests that form the backbone of the “modern” microbiology laboratory are based on very old and labour-intensive technologies such as microscopy for malaria. Pressing needs include more rapid tests without sacrificing sensitivity, value-added tests, and point-of-care tests for both high- and low-resource settings. In recent years, research has been focused on alternative methods to improve the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. These include immunoassays, molecular-based approaches, and proteomics using mass spectrometry platforms technology. This review summarizes the progress in new approaches in parasite diagnosis and discusses some of the merits and disadvantages of these tests. PMID:20069111

  10. Imaging of Parasitic Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roula G. Hourani; Jean C. Tamraz

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS), especially parasitic infections, have increased in the last decade secondary\\u000a to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, immunosuppressive therapy used in treatment of cancer, and in organ\\u000a transplantation. CNS infection is a life-threatening disease; the prognosis depends on early detection and the correct diagnosis\\u000a of the infection, because once an intracranial infestation is

  11. Intestinal parasitic infection among Egyptian children with chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Lerine Bahy El-Dine; El-Faramawy, Amel Abdel Magid; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Ismail, Khadiga Ahmed; Fouad, Sally Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) are often highly susceptible to parasitic infection due to a depressed immune system. The objective of this study was to detect the most commonly intestinal parasites found among Egyptian children with CLD. The present study was conducted on 50 children with CLD of different etiology (25 were having different intestinal symptoms, 25 without intestinal symptoms) and 50 non-CLD children with gastrointestinal complaints served as controls. All cases were subjected to stool examination and investigated by liver function tests. Also, anthropometric measurements were taken for all children including weight and height. It was found that the most commonly intestinal protozoa identified in the patients with CLD in order of frequency were: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (16 %), Giardia lamblia (14 %), Blastocystis hominis (14 %), Cryptosporidium parvum (10 %), E. histolytica and G. lamblia (2 %), E. histolytica and B. hominis (2 %), G. lamblia and B. hominis (2 %), B. hominis and Entamoeba coli (2 %), Microsporidium (2 %) and no cases were found infected with Strongyloides stercoralis. As compared to the controls, the observed incidence of these organisms in CLD patients was significantly higher (p < 0.045) as regards stool examination by unstained techniques while, there was no significant difference between both groups as regards stool examination by stained techniques (p < 0.478). In addition, this study showed that the weight and height of studied patients were affected by parasitic infection while, there was no significant correlation between parasitic infection and liver function tests. In conclusion, chronic liver diseases affect the immunity of the patients as shown in significant increase in the incidence of intestinal parasites in cases compared to controls. PMID:25698851

  12. Pathogenesis of Chagas' Disease: Parasite Persistence and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Hecht, Mariana M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Nitz, Nadjar

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infections can be asymptomatic, but chronically infected individuals can die of Chagas' disease. The transfer of the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle to the genome of chagasic patients can explain the pathogenesis of the disease; in cases of Chagas' disease with evident cardiomyopathy, the kDNA minicircles integrate mainly into retrotransposons at several chromosomes, but the minicircles are also detected in coding regions of genes that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and immune responses. An accurate evaluation of the role played by the genotype alterations in the autoimmune rejection of self-tissues in Chagas' disease is achieved with the cross-kingdom chicken model system, which is refractory to T. cruzi infections. The inoculation of T. cruzi into embryonated eggs prior to incubation generates parasite-free chicks, which retain the kDNA minicircle sequence mainly in the macrochromosome coding genes. Crossbreeding transfers the kDNA mutations to the chicken progeny. The kDNA-mutated chickens develop severe cardiomyopathy in adult life and die of heart failure. The phenotyping of the lesions revealed that cytotoxic CD45, CD8+ ??, and CD8?+ T lymphocytes carry out the rejection of the chicken heart. These results suggest that the inflammatory cardiomyopathy of Chagas' disease is a genetically driven autoimmune disease. PMID:21734249

  13. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps as Innate Immune Reaction against the Emerging Apicomplexan Parasite Besnoitia besnoiti

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Caro, Tamara; Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M. R.; Cortes, Helder; Taubert, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle is an important emerging protozoan disease in Europe causing economic losses and severe clinical signs, such as generalized dermatitis, orchitis, and vulvitis in affected animals. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation was recently demonstrated as an important effector mechanism of PMN acting against several invading pathogens. In the present study, interactions of bovine PMN with tachyzoites of B. besnoiti were investigated in this respect in vitro. For the demonstration and quantification of NETs, extracellular DNA was stained by Sytox Orange or Pico Green. Fluorescent illustrations as well as scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM) showed PMN-promoted NET formation rapidly being induced upon contact with B. besnoiti tachyzoites. Co-localization of extracellular DNA with histones, neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in parasite entrapping structures confirmed the classical characteristics of NET. Exposure of PMN to viable, UV attenuated and dead tachyzoites showed a significant induction of NET formation, but even tachyzoite homogenates significantly promoted NETs when compared to negative controls. NETs were abolished by DNase treatment and were reduced after PMN preincubation with NADPH oxidase-, NE- and MPO-inhibitors. Tachyzoite-triggered NET formation led to parasite entrapment as quantitative assays indicated that about one third of tachyzoites were immobilized in NETs. In consequence, tachyzoites were hampered from active invasion of host cells. Thus, transfer of tachyzoites, previously being confronted with PMN, to adequate host cells resulted in significantly reduced infection rates when compared to PMN-free infection controls. To our knowledge, we here report for the first time B. besnoiti-induced NET formation. Our results indicate that PMN-triggered extracellular traps may represent an important effector mechanism of the host early innate immune response against B. besnoiti which may lead to diminishment of initial parasite infection rates during the acute infection phase. PMID:24618849

  14. Emerging infectious diseases and animal social systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Nunn; Peter H. Thrall; Kelly Stewart; Alexander H. Harcourt

    2008-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases threaten a wide diversity of animals, and important questions remain concerning disease emergence\\u000a in socially structured populations. We developed a spatially explicit simulation model to investigate whether—and under what\\u000a conditions—disease-related mortality can impact rates of pathogen spread in populations of polygynous groups. Specifically,\\u000a we investigated whether pathogen-mediated dispersal (PMD) can occur when females disperse after the resident

  15. 67 FR 35822 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Control of Arthropod Vectors of Parasitic Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-05-21

    ...AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Prospective...Arthropod Vectors of Parasitic Diseases AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...i) that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  16. Emerging Plant Diseases: What Are Our Best

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Karen A.

    152 11 Emerging Plant Diseases: What Are Our Best Strategies for Management? Karen A. Garrett, Ari Jumpponen, and Lorena Gomez Montano The impact of plant disease can be stark. Famine can result if no sys- tems are in place to replace lost crops. Notorious famines precipitated by plant disease include

  17. Emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Dash, A P; Bhatia, Rajesh; Sunyoto, Temmy; Mourya, D T

    2013-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have become significant public health problems, with the emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases nearly worldwide. The most populated Southeast Asia region is particularly vulnerable. The arboviral diseases such as dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JE), West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya fever (CHIK), hemorrhagic fevers such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic (CCHF) fever, Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), etc. are on the rise and have spread unprecedentedly, causing considerable burden of disease. The emergence/re-emergence of these diseases is associated with complex factors, such as viral recombination and mutation, leading to more virulent and adaptive strains, urbanization and human activities creating more permissive environment for vector-host interaction, and increased air travel and commerce. Climate is a major factor in determining the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods, the characteristics of arthropod life cycles, the consequent dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses, the evolution of arboviruses; and the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. The present and future arboviral threats must be mitigated by priority actions such as improving surveillance and outbreak response, establishing collaboration and communication intersectorally, and strengthening the prevention and control programmes along with improving biosafety aspects with regards to highly infectious nature of these arboviral diseases. Evidence from research needs to be generated and priority areas for research defined. PMID:23995308

  18. Commentary: Emerging and other communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, D.; Dzenowagis, J.

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing need for integrated, sustainable; and cost-effective approaches to the management of infectious diseases. For example, an emerging disease in one country may already be endemic in another country but nearing elimination in a third. A coordinated approach by WHO towards infectious diseases is therefore needed that will facilitate more effective support of on-going efforts for the prevention and control of endemic diseases, intensify efforts against those diseases targeted for eradication and elimination, and result in better preparedness and response to new and re-emerging diseases. In order to meet these challenges, WHO has created a new Programme on Communicable Diseases (CDS), which will replace the former Division of Emerging and other Communicable Diseases (EMC). The new Programme will better integrate surveillance, prevention, control, and research over the whole spectrum of communicable diseases. CDS will function as focal point for global data and information exchange on infectious diseases, and inter alia, will reinforce laboratory-based surveillance of bacterial, viral, and zoonotic diseases to ensure early detection of threats to international public health. Changes in susceptibility to infectious disease, increased opportunities for infection, and the ability of microbes to adapt rapidly will continue to challenge WHO to improve prevention and control of infectious diseases in the future by establishing strong partnerships with both the private and public sectors. PMID:10191549

  19. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak

    2008-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940

  20. Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Daszak; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt

    2000-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of free-living wild animals can be classified into three major groups on the basis of key epizootiological criteria: (i) EIDs associated with ``spill-over'' from domestic animals to wildlife populations living in proximity; (ii) EIDs related directly to human intervention, via host or parasite translocations; and (iii) EIDs with no overt human or domestic animal involvement. These

  1. A century of bovine besnoitiosis: an unknown disease re-emerging in Europe.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-García, Gema; Frey, Caroline F; Mora, Luis Miguel Ortega; Schares, Gereon

    2013-08-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis, which is caused by the cyst-forming apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti, is a chronic and debilitating vector-borne disease characterized by both cutaneous and systemic manifestations. In Europe, this parasitic disease appeared in a few restricted areas in France and Portugal since the first recorded cases in the beginning of the 20th century. However, at present, the disease is considered to be re-emerging by the European Food Safety Authority due to an increased number of cases and the geographic expansion of besnoitiosis into cattle herds in several European countries. In this review, we will provide an update of the epidemiology and impact of B. besnoiti infection. Strategies to control this parasitic disease will also be discussed. PMID:23830145

  2. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-01-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  3. Effect of Biodiversity Changes in Disease Risk: Exploring Disease Emergence in a Plant-Virus System

    PubMed Central

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species. PMID:22792068

  4. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pello, Susan J.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.

  5. Rediscovering Biology - Unit 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Annenberg Media Learner.org

    This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.

  6. Genomic Insights into the Origin of Parasitism in the Emerging Plant Pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taisei Kikuchi; James A. Cotton; Jonathan J. Dalzell; Koichi Hasegawa; Natsumi Kanzaki; Paul McVeigh; Takuma Takanashi; Isheng J. Tsai; Samuel A. Assefa; Peter J. A. Cock; Thomas Dan Otto; Martin Hunt; Adam J. Reid; Alejandro Sanchez-Flores; Kazuko Tsuchihara; Toshiro Yokoi; Mattias C. Larsson; Johji Miwa; Aaron G. Maule; Norio Sahashi; John T. Jones; Matthew Berriman

    2011-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study

  7. Camelpox, an emerging orthopox viral disease.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Camelpox is considered as emerging public health problem during this decade due to increased reported cases and outbreaks in camels. Camelpox is a contagious, often sporadic, and notifiable skin disease of camelids and is socio-economically significant as it incurs considerable loss in terms of morbidity, mortality, loss of weight and reduction in milk yield and confined to camel-rearing countries. The causative agent, camelpox virus (CMLV) is genetically closely related to variola virus and has gained much attention from researchers due to its recent emergence in human. The virus carrying genes responsible for host immune evasion mechanisms owing to the threat posed by potential bio-warfare agents. Although the disease can be diagnosed based on clinical features, the similar confounding skin lesions necessitate identification, detection and differentiation of the CMLV by molecular techniques. Vaccines are available in some countries and the available live attenuated vaccine provides long-lasting immunity. Further, novel highly sensitive and specific techniques would be useful in the identification of emerging and re-emerging virus, thereby therapeutic, prophylactic, preventive measures would be applied in time to curtail further spread of camelpox like other zoonotic diseases. This review provide overview of the camelpox particularly on its epidemiology, pathogenesis and biology of the disease, diagnostic approaches and control measures. PMID:24426291

  8. Emerging Therapeutic Approaches to Mitochondrial Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenz, Tina; Williams, Sion L.; Bacman, Sandra R.; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are very heterogeneous and can affect different tissues and organs. Moreover, they can be caused by genetic defects in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA as well as by environmental factors. All of these factors have made the development of therapies difficult. In this review article, we will discuss emerging approaches to…

  9. Genetic variability of the neogregarine Apicystis bombi, an etiological agent of an emergent bumblebee disease.

    PubMed

    Maharramov, Jafar; Meeus, Ivan; Maebe, Kevin; Arbetman, Marina; Morales, Carolina; Graystock, Peter; Hughes, William O H; Plischuk, Santiago; Lange, Carlos E; de Graaf, Dirk C; Zapata, Nelson; de la Rosa, Jose Javier Perez; Murray, Tomás E; Brown, Mark J F; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of diseases is considered a major threat to biodiversity and a possible driver of the decline of pollinator populations, particularly when novel species or strains of parasites emerge. Previous studies have suggested that populations of introduced European honeybee (Apis mellifera) and bumblebee species (Bombus terrestris and Bombus ruderatus) in Argentina share the neogregarine parasite Apicystis bombi with the native bumblebee (Bombus dahlbomii). In this study we investigated whether A. bombi is acting as an emergent parasite in the non-native populations. Specifically, we asked whether A. bombi, recently identified in Argentina, was introduced by European, non-native bees. Using ITS1 and ITS2 to assess the parasite's intraspecific genetic variation in bees from Argentina and Europe, we found a largely unstructured parasite population, with only 15% of the genetic variation being explained by geographic location. The most abundant haplotype in Argentina (found in all 9 specimens of non-native species) was identical to the most abundant haplotype in Europe (found in 6 out of 8 specimens). Similarly, there was no evidence of structuring by host species, with this factor explaining only 17% of the genetic variation. Interestingly, parasites in native Bombus ephippiatus from Mexico were genetically distant from the Argentine and European samples, suggesting that sufficient variability does exist in the ITS region to identify continent-level genetic structure in the parasite. Thus, the data suggest that A. bombi from Argentina and Europe share a common, relatively recent origin. Although our data did not provide information on the direction of transfer, the absence of genetic structure across space and host species suggests that A. bombi may be acting as an emergent infectious disease across bee taxa and continents. PMID:24324696

  10. A clonal strain of Trichomonas gallinae is the aetiologic agent of an emerging avian epidemic disease.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A; Chantrey, Julian; Hughes, Laura A; John, Shinto K; Bunbury, Nancy; Bell, Diana J; Tyler, Kevin M

    2011-10-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite that is well characterised as a cause of trichomonosis in columbid and raptor species world-wide. The parasite emerged as a novel infection of British passerines in 2005, leading to epidemic mortality associated with significant declines of breeding populations of greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs). We characterised the extent of T. gallinae genotypic heterogeneity within the affected wild British avifauna by analysing individual isolates from 17 of the species affected. To do so, we employed improved platform-based multilocus typing tools as well as the hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase gene as a single marker locus for fine-typing. We found no evidence of heterogeneity amongst the parasites infecting British passerines, indicating that a clonal strain of T. gallinae is the causative agent of this emerging infectious disease. PMID:21712099

  11. Interest of antioxidant agents in parasitic diseases. The case study of coumarins.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Guiñez, Roberto; Matos, Maria João; Vazquez-Rodriguez, Saleta; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio; Borges, Fernanda; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Maya, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    Tropical parasitic diseases, especially those produced by protozoan parasites, are a major public health problem in many countries, and their impact in the health burden is significant. Oxidative processes proved to be related to these diseases, being the antioxidant agents promising therapeutic solutions for them. Therefore, this review provides an overview of published manuscripts regarding both activities. In particular, the interest of the coumarin derivatives as antioxidant agents with application in parasitic diseases is discussed in this manuscript. The recent findings in this field are highlighted. PMID:25697564

  12. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  13. LETTER Parasite consumption and host interference can inhibit disease spread in dense populations

    E-print Network

    Hall, Spencer

    David J. Civitello,1 * Susan Pearsall,1,2 Meghan A. Duffy3,4 and Spencer R. Hall1 Abstract Disease- mission for hosts that consume their parasites, combining experiments, models and field data. Models

  14. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology, Boston, MA 02115, USA Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are caused by pathogens that: (i

  15. Successful aquatic animal disease emergency programmes.

    PubMed

    Håstein, T; Hill, B J; Winton, J R

    1999-04-01

    The authors provide examples of emergency programmes which have been successful in eradicating or controlling certain diseases of aquatic animals. The paper is divided into four parts. The first part describes the initial isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus in North America in the autumn of 1988 from feral adult chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) returning for spawning. The fish disease control policies at both State and Federal levels in the United States of America required quarantine and emergency eradication measures upon the finding of certain exotic fish pathogens, including VHS virus. The procedures for emergency plans, destruction of stocks and disinfection of facilities are described, as well as challenge experiments with the North American strains of VHS virus and the detection of the virus in marine fish species (cod [Gadus macrocephalus] and herring [Clupea harengus pallasi]) in the Pacific Ocean. The second part of the paper outlines the aquatic animal legislation in Great Britain and within the European Union, in regard to contingency plans, initial investigations, action on the suspicion of notifiable disease and action on confirmation of infection. The legal description is followed by an account of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Great Britain, including the stamping-out process at the affected farm and investigations conducted to screen other farms in the vicinity for possible infection. The third part provides a historical review of the build-up of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Norway and the attempts to control the disease using legal measures in the absence of detailed knowledge of the aetiology, epizootiology, pathogenesis, etc. of the disease. The measures taken show that the spread of ISA can be controlled using restrictions on the movement of fish, disinfection procedures, etc. However, acceptance and understanding of the chosen strategy by the fish farmers is a pre-requisite to reach that goal. Finally, the paper summarises future needs for national and international legislation, including the development of standard approaches for control, the creation of appropriate infrastructures and a better understanding of the epidemiology of aquatic animal diseases. PMID:10190216

  16. Emergence and re-emergence of viral diseases of the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane E. Griffin

    2010-01-01

    Neurologic disease is a major cause of disability in resource-poor countries and a substantial portion of this disease is due to infections of the CNS. A wide variety of emerging and re-emerging viruses contribute to this disease burden. New emerging infections are commonly due to RNA viruses that have expanded their geographic range, spread from animal reservoirs or acquired new

  17. Evolution of parasite virulence when host responses cause disease 

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy; Graham, Andrea; Read, Andrew F

    The trade-off hypothesis of virulence evolution rests on the assumption that infection-induced mortality is a consequence of host exploitation by parasites. This hypothesis lies at the heart of many empirical and theoretical ...

  18. Prizes and parasites: incentive models for addressing Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Crager, Sara E; Price, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in immunology have provided a foundation of knowledge to understand many of the intricacies involved in manipulating the human response to fight parasitic infections, and a great deal has been learned from malaria vaccine efforts regarding strategies for developing parasite vaccines. There has been some encouraging progress in the development of a Chagas vaccine in animal models. A prize fund for Chagas could be instrumental in ensuring that these efforts are translated into products that benefit patients. PMID:19493074

  19. Parasite consumption and host interference can inhibit disease spread in dense populations.

    PubMed

    Civitello, David J; Pearsall, Susan; Duffy, Meghan A; Hall, Spencer R

    2013-05-01

    Disease dynamics hinge on parasite transmission among hosts. However, canonical models for transmission often fit data poorly, limiting predictive ability. One solution involves building mechanistic yet general links between host behaviour and disease spread. To illustrate, we focus on the exposure component of transmission for hosts that consume their parasites, combining experiments, models and field data. Models of transmission that incorporate parasite consumption and foraging interference among hosts vastly outperformed alternatives when fit to experimental data using a zooplankton host (Daphnia dentifera) that consumes spores of a fungus (Metschnikowia bicuspidata). Once plugged into a fully dynamic model, both mechanisms inhibited epidemics overall. Foraging interference further depressed parasite invasion and prevalence at high host density, creating unimodal (hump-shaped) relationships between host density and these indices. These novel results qualitatively matched a unimodal density-prevalence relationship in natural epidemics. Ultimately, a mechanistic approach to transmission can reveal new insights into disease outbreaks. PMID:23452184

  20. Prominent emerging diseases within the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Bowser, A.; Dove, A.; Goodwin, A.; Puzach, C.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript reviews disease syndromes that have become significant aquatic animal health issues within the United States since 2003. The emergence of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) disease among wild fish in the Great Lakes is probably the most problematic and political issue. The emergence of this pathogen resulted in the issuance of a 2006 VHSV Federal order that placed restrictions on the movement of certain species of fish in the eight states that border the Great Lakes (New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin and Minnesota) as well as the movement of live fish into the United States from the Ontario and Quebec Provinces, Canada. Spring Viremia of Carp (SVC) was identified for the first times in the United States during 2002. It was diagnosed as the source of mortality among koi at a private facility in North Carolina as well as from feral carp in Cedar Lake (WI). In 2004, Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) killed 8,000 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Chadakoin River (NY); it reoccurred the next year within Chautauqua Lake (NY), killing an estimated 25,000 carp (20–30 lbs. apiece). During the summers of 2007 and 2008, KHV epizootics also occurred among carp in Ontario (Canada). Finally, outbreaks of epizootic shell disease in American lobster (Homarus americanus) have generated concern along the southern New England coast and eastern Long Island Sound. The prevalence and severity of shell disease have increased within inshore areas of southern New England and resulted in significant decreases in lobster catches and marketability.

  1. Infectious disease emergencies: role of the infectious disease specialist.

    PubMed

    Norrby, S Ragnar

    2005-04-01

    The importance of infections for public health has become obvious during the last decades. Examples are emerging infections such as HIV/AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome, deliberate release of microorganisms, such as the anthrax episode in the USA, the increasing problems with organisms resistant to antimicrobial treatment, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the threat of a new influenza pandemic with a case fatality rate similar to that in the 1918 outbreak. An effective response to infectious disease emergencies requires careful planning and establishment of resources in advance. The medical specialties involved are clinical microbiology, clinical infectious diseases and epidemiology. Clinical microbiology should include bacteriology, virology, and parasitology; the technical developments during the last 15 years have clearly erased most of the methodological differences between these branches of microbiology. New techniques such as new generations of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), rapid methods for nucleic acid sequence analyses and microarrays have enabled more rapid identification of organisms and provide powerful tools in the epidemiological analysis of an outbreak. The infectious disease specialists are necessary for rapid and adequate clinical diagnoses, optimal use of antimicrobial agents and provision of facilities for containment of patients who may spread the infections. The need for isolation units became acute when many countries prepared themselves for a possible severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Europe. With few exceptions, Europe still lacks epidemiological field forces, and it has been embarrassing to be obliged to call upon the Centers for Disease Control for European outbreaks. Hopefully, this will be corrected with the creation of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). PMID:15816100

  2. Non-Communicable Diseases in Emergencies: A Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca; de Courten, Maximilian; Tellier, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have demonstrated the devastating health consequences of complex emergencies and natural disasters and thereby highlighted the importance of comprehensive and collaborative approaches to humanitarian responses and risk reduction. Simultaneously, noncommunicable diseases are now recognised as a real and growing threat to population health and development; a threat that is magnified by and during emergencies. Noncommunicable diseases, however, continue to receive little attention from humanitarian organisations in the acute phase of disaster and emergency response. This paper calls on all sectors to recognise and address the specific health challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases in emergencies and disaster situations. This publication aims to highlight the need for: • Increased research on morbidity and mortality patterns due to noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; • Development of technical guidelines on the clinical management of noncommunicable diseases in emergencies; • Greater integration and coordination in health service provision during and following emergencies; • Integrating noncommunicable diseases into practical and academic training of emergency workers and emergency-response coordinators. PMID:24056956

  3. Non-communicable diseases in emergencies: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca; de Courten, Maximilian; Tellier, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have demonstrated the devastating health consequences of complex emergencies and natural disasters and thereby highlighted the importance of comprehensive and collaborative approaches to humanitarian responses and risk reduction. Simultaneously, noncommunicable diseases are now recognised as a real and growing threat to population health and development; a threat that is magnified by and during emergencies. Noncommunicable diseases, however, continue to receive little attention from humanitarian organisations in the acute phase of disaster and emergency response. This paper calls on all sectors to recognise and address the specific health challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases in emergencies and disaster situations. This publication aims to highlight the need for: • Increased research on morbidity and mortality patterns due to noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; • Development of technical guidelines on the clinical management of noncommunicable diseases in emergencies; • Greater integration and coordination in health service provision during and following emergencies; • Integrating noncommunicable diseases into practical and academic training of emergency workers and emergency-response coordinators. PMID:24056956

  4. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  5. Tungiasis: a neglected epidermal parasitic skin disease of marginalized populations--a call for global science and policy.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal

    2013-10-01

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is an ectoparasitic skin disease caused by the female sand flea/jigger flea (Tunga penetrans). As poverty is the major driving force of the disease, it can be called as a poverty-associated plague. It is one of the emerging neglected diseases in Latin America, Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, and India. The aim of the present scrutiny was to assess the public health impact of tungiasis, associated risk factors, and emerging opportunities to prevent and control tungiasis. Searches of PubMed, Google Scholar, and online search engines (Google, AOL, and Yahoo) using keywords "parasitic skin disease," "tungiasis," "sand flea," " tungiasis-associated risk factors," "tungiasis prevention and control," and their synonyms were used as a source of references. Searches were made without time limitations. Of 167 potential articles identified by these criteria, 51 appropriate were selected for review. Tungiasis is widespread in the resource-constrained settings of low-income economies. In the tropics, it is highly prevalent among the impoverished populations, but the associated risk factors are often poorly identified and remain uncontrolled. Though it is a self-limiting disease with considerable morbidity, the parasite may cause subsequent secondary morbidity through life-threatening complications and infections like cellulitis, tetanus, and death. However, the direct and indirect sociocultural, economic, and health impact of tungiasis is often undervalued and misunderstood. A systematic assessment on disease burden is still dearth and deficient. Over the decades, tungiasis has been largely neglected by the scientific community, policy makers, and healthcare stakeholders. In the endemic regions, even tungiasis is not listed for the disease control priorities in the regional, national, and international agenda. The majority of the epidermal parasitic skin diseases particularly tungiasis needs a sustainable global scientific research and control policy. This urges intensive efforts to develop a road map that delivers a clear vision towards zero new infection by designing low-cost prevention and control strategies. Besides, there is an urgency to develop culturally appropriate communication techniques and workable collaboration on a global scale by bringing all the stakeholders of endemic countries. PMID:23949241

  6. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

  7. Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Emily H.; Brewer, Timothy F.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Pollack, Marjorie P.; Sonricker, Amy L.; Keller, Mikaela; Freifeld, Clark C.; Blench, Michael; Mawudeku, Abla; Brownstein, John S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of emerging infectious disease events that have spread internationally, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1, highlight the need for improvements in global outbreak surveillance. It is expected that the proliferation of Internet-based reports has resulted in greater communication and improved surveillance and reporting frameworks, especially with the revision of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), which went into force in 2007. However, there has been no global quantitative assessment of whether and how outbreak detection and communication processes have actually changed over time. In this study, we analyzed the entire WHO public record of Disease Outbreak News reports from 1996 to 2009 to characterize spatial-temporal trends in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and public communication about the outbreak relative to the estimated outbreak start date. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses show that overall, the timeliness of outbreak discovery improved by 7.3% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.073, 95% CI (1.038; 1.110)] per year, and public communication improved by 6.2% [HR = 1.062, 95% CI (1.028; 1.096)] per year. However, the degree of improvement varied by geographic region; the only WHO region with statistically significant (? = 0.05) improvement in outbreak discovery was the Western Pacific region [HR = 1.102 per year, 95% CI (1.008; 1.205)], whereas the Eastern Mediterranean [HR = 1.201 per year, 95% CI (1.066; 1.353)] and Western Pacific regions [HR = 1.119 per year, 95% CI (1.025; 1.221)] showed improvement in public communication. These findings provide quantitative historical assessment of timeliness in infectious disease detection and public reporting of outbreaks. PMID:21115835

  8. Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-11-01

    Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. PMID:23106703

  9. Emerging Infectious Disease Leads to Rapid Population Declines of Common British Birds

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Mike P.; Peck, Kirsi M.; Kirkwood, James K.; Chantrey, Julian; Clatworthy, Innes R.; Evans, Andy D.; Hughes, Laura A.; Hutchinson, Oliver C.; John, Shinto K.; Pennycott, Tom W.; Perkins, Matthew W.; Rowley, Peter S.; Simpson, Vic R.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period. PMID:20805869

  10. Emerging Food- and Waterborne Protozoan Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Toxoplasma are related apicomplexan parasites transmitted to humans worldwide through ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water. Of 15 species of Cryptosporidium- C parvum, C. hominis, C and C. meleagridis are the most prevalent infections in humans and the la...

  11. Review article Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp Peter J. WALKER 1*, James R. WINTON 2 1 and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular the challenges presented by climate change. disease emergence / shrimp / fish / virus Table of contents 1

  12. Pathogen–host–environment interplay and disease emergence

    PubMed Central

    Engering, Anneke; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Gaining insight in likely disease emergence scenarios is critical to preventing such events from happening. Recent focus has been on emerging zoonoses and on identifying common patterns and drivers of emerging diseases. However, no overarching framework exists to integrate knowledge on all emerging infectious disease events. Here, we propose such a conceptual framework based on changes in the interplay of pathogens, hosts and environment that lead to the formation of novel disease patterns and pathogen genetic adjustment. We categorize infectious disease emergence events into three groups: (i) pathogens showing up in a novel host, ranging from spill-over, including zoonoses, to complete species jumps; (ii) mutant pathogens displaying novel traits in the same host, including an increase in virulence, antimicrobial resistance and host immune escape; and (iii) disease complexes emerging in a new geographic area, either through range expansion or through long distance jumps. Each of these categories is characterized by a typical set of drivers of emergence, matching pathogen trait profiles, disease ecology and transmission dynamics. Our framework may assist in disentangling and structuring the rapidly growing amount of available information on infectious diseases. Moreover, it may contribute to a better understanding of how human action changes disease landscapes globally. PMID:26038452

  13. Cellular Inflammatory Response of Rainbow Trout to the Protozoan Parasite that Causes Proliferative Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Macconnell; Charlie E. Smith; Ronald P. Hedrick; C. A. Speer

    1989-01-01

    The cellular inflammatory response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) to the myxozoan parasite PKX that causes proliferative kidney disease was investigated. The response was studied from 3 to 20 weeks after the fish were injected with infected kidney homogenate. Kidney samples were examined by light and electron microscopy. In contrast to most myxosporeans, PKX provoked a severe

  14. Does the failure to acquire helminthic parasites predispose to Crohn's disease?

    PubMed

    Elliott, D E; Urban JF, J R; Argo, C K; Weinstock, J V

    2000-09-01

    Two polarized patterns (Th1 and Th2) of cytokines regulate inflammatory responses. Each cytokine pattern inhibits production of the opposing pattern. Lymphocytes from inflamed intestine due to Crohn's disease secrete a Th1 pattern of cytokines. Crohn's disease is most prevalent in highly industrialized countries with temperate climates. It occurs rarely in tropical third world countries with poor sanitation. We propose that exposure to an environmental agent predisposes individuals to Crohn's disease. Parasitic worms (helminths) are common in tropical climates and in populations subject to crowding and poor sanitation. Children are most subject to helminthic colonization. Many helminths live within or migrate through the human gut where they interact with the mucosal immune system. The host mounts a mucosal response that includes Th2 cytokine production limiting helminthic colonization. Helminths and their eggs probably are the most potent stimulators of mucosal Th2 responses. The Th2 response provoked by parasitic worms can modulate immune reactions to unrelated parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections. Many people in developed countries now live in increasingly hygienic environments, avoiding exposure to helminths. Perhaps failure to acquire these parasites and experience mucosal Th2 conditioning predisposes to Crohn's disease, which is an overly active Th1 inflammation. PMID:10973934

  15. PROJECT SUMMARY Diseases caused by parasitic species of the genus, Perkinsus, in bivalve mollusks are world

    E-print Network

    Newman, Michael C.

    and clone the gene(s) responsible for desaturation activity, (3) effects of temperature and salinity completion, disease transmission and pathogenesis of the host, but will also build a basis for future studies as potential drug targets in several protozoan parasites of humans including Plasmodium and Trypanosoma species

  16. Disease ecology in the Galápagos Hawk (Buteo galapagoensis): host genetic diversity, parasite load and natural antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Matson, Kevin D; Bollmer, Jennifer L; Parker, Patricia G

    2005-01-01

    An increased susceptibility to disease is one hypothesis explaining how inbreeding hastens extinction in island endemics and threatened species. Experimental studies show that disease resistance declines as inbreeding increases, but data from in situ wildlife systems are scarce. Genetic diversity increases with island size across the entire range of an extremely inbred Galápagos endemic bird, providing the context for a natural experiment examining the effects of inbreeding on disease susceptibility. Extremely inbred populations of Galápagos hawks had higher parasite abundances than relatively outbred populations. We found a significant island effect on constitutively produced natural antibody (NAb) levels and inbred populations generally harboured lower average and less variable NAb levels than relatively outbred populations. Furthermore, NAb levels explained abundance of amblyceran lice, which encounter the host immune system. This is the first study linking inbreeding, innate immunity and parasite load in an endemic, in situ wildlife population and provides a clear framework for assessment of disease risk in a Galápagos endemic. PMID:16618672

  17. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed. PMID:26061370

  18. A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirk?, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N; Šlapeta, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence. PMID:21541340

  19. Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture. PMID:25260074

  20. Disease emergence and resurgence: the wildlife-human connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) was organized as a global disease watchdog group to coordinate disease outbreak information and health crisis response. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the headquarters for this network.2 Understandably, the primary focus for WHO is human health. However, diseases such as the H5N1 avian influenza epizootic in Asian bird populations demonstrate the need for integrating knowledge about disease emergence in animals and in humans.

  1. Evaluation of predators as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases 

    E-print Network

    Meredith, Anna Louise

    2012-06-30

    New and emerging diseases in human and animal populations appear to be predominately associated with generalist pathogens that are able to infect multiple hosts. Carnivores are susceptible to a wide range of these pathogens ...

  2. Parasite diversity and coinfection determine pathogen infection success and host fitness

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    ecology for understanding infectious diseases. microbiome | parasite competition | emerging infectious (received for review January 31, 2012) While the importance of changes in host biodiversity for disease risk disease | ecosystem function | amphibian decline Ecological research has focused increasingly on the impor

  3. SOME INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES IN OKLAHOMA RAPTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. ALAN KOCAN; JOHN SNELLING; ELLIS C. GREINER

    Blood films and sera samples from wild Oklahoma raptors (Strigiformes -36 birds, 3 species; Falconiformes-SO birds, 7 species) were examined for hematozoa and tested for serologic antibody response to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), encephalitis (EEE and WEE), ornithosis, and influenza. Twenty-nine of 36 (80.5%) Strigiformes and 24 of 50 (48.0%) Falconiformes showed the presence of one or more hematozoa. Serologic

  4. Parasite induced genetically driven autoimmune Chagas heart disease in the chicken model.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Antonio R L; Nitz, Nadjar; Bernal, Francisco M; Hecht, Mariana M

    2012-01-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi acute infections acquired in infancy and childhood seem asymptomatic, but approximately one third of the chronically infected cases show Chagas disease up to three decades or later. Autoimmunity and parasite persistence are competing theories to explain the pathogenesis of Chagas disease. To separate roles played by parasite persistence and autoimmunity in Chagas disease we inoculate the T. cruzi in the air chamber of fertilized eggs. The mature chicken immune system is a tight biological barrier against T. cruzi and the infection is eradicated upon development of its immune system by the end of the first week of growth. The chicks are parasite-free at hatching, but they retain integrated parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle within their genome that are transferred to their progeny. Documentation of the kDNA minicircle integration in the chicken genome was obtained by a targeted prime TAIL-PCR, Southern hybridizations, cloning, and sequencing. The kDNA minicircle integrations rupture open reading frames for transcription and immune system factors, phosphatase (GTPase), adenylate cyclase and phosphorylases (PKC, NF-Kappa B activator, PI-3K) associated with cell physiology, growth, and differentiation, and other gene functions. Severe myocarditis due to rejection of target heart fibers by effectors cytotoxic lymphocytes is seen in the kDNA mutated chickens, showing an inflammatory cardiomyopathy similar to that seen in human Chagas disease. Notably, heart failure and skeletal muscle weakness are present in adult chickens with kDNA rupture of the dystrophin gene in chromosome 1. Similar genotipic alterations are associated with tissue destruction carried out by effectors CD45+, CD8??+, CD8? lymphocytes. Thus this protozoan infection can induce genetically driven autoimmune disease. PMID:22951533

  5. Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disease emergence: the past, present, and future drivers of Nipah virus emergence.

    PubMed

    Daszak, Peter; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Bogich, Tiffany L; Fernandez, Miguel; Epstein, Jonathan H; Murray, Kris A; Hamilton, Healy

    2013-02-26

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a significant threat to human health, economic stability, and biodiversity. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying disease emergence are still not fully understood, and control measures rely heavily on mitigating the impact of EIDs after they have emerged. Here, we highlight the emergence of a zoonotic Henipavirus, Nipah virus, to demonstrate the interdisciplinary and macroecological approaches necessary to understand EID emergence. Previous work suggests that Nipah virus emerged due to the interaction of the wildlife reservoir (Pteropus spp. fruit bats) with intensively managed livestock. The emergence of this and other henipaviruses involves interactions among a suite of anthropogenic environmental changes, socioeconomic factors, and changes in demography that overlay and interact with the distribution of these pathogens in their wildlife reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate how ecological niche modeling may be used to investigate the potential role of a changing climate on the future risk for Henipavirus emergence. We show that the distribution of Henipavirus reservoirs, and therefore henipaviruses, will likely change under climate change scenarios, a fundamental precondition for disease emergence in humans. We assess the variation among climate models to estimate where Henipavirus host distribution is most likely to expand, contract, or remain stable, presenting new risks for human health. We conclude that there is substantial potential to use this modeling framework to explore the distribution of wildlife hosts under a changing climate. These approaches may directly inform current and future management and surveillance strategies aiming to improve pathogen detection and, ultimately, reduce emergence risk. PMID:22936052

  6. Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-12-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses as in the case of blue tongue virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus adds additional level of complexity. The increased incidence of emerging and reemerging viral diseases could be attributed to several factors including deforestation and surge in direct contact of livestock and humans with wild animals and birds. This special issue of "Indian Journal of Virology" is focused on diverse aspects of above diseases: isolation and characterization of viruses, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention measures and vaccine development. PMID:24426290

  7. Investigation of parasitic and bacterial diseases in pigs with analysis of hematological and serum biochemical profile.

    PubMed

    Kalai, K; Nehete, R S; Ganguly, S; Ganguli, M; Dhanalakshmi, S; Mukhopadhayay, S K

    2012-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate various disease conditions prevalent in slaughtered pigs and zoonotic importance. The study was conducted on two hundred non-descript pigs slaughtered at an organized slaughter house, Mumbai. The animals included in the study were randomly selected. Post mortem examination of the animals was performed to note various disease conditions and tissues were collected for histopathology. Direct examination of stool was found negative for parasites. Gross and microscopical examination revealed presence of Ascarops strongylina, Sarcocyst, Hydatid cyst, Cysticercus cellulosae, Ascaris suum and Cysticercus tenuicollis, along with bacteria like Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Shigella, Streptococci, Proteus and Pasteurella spp. were isolated. Indirect ELISA was performed for detection of antibody titer in the pig serum against classical swine fever. Studies on hematological and serum biochemical profile revealed decreased total protein concentration and globulin level with leukocytosis and neutrophilia and in parasitic infections eosinophilia was evident. PMID:23542948

  8. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases. Grades 9-12. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This curriculum supplement guide brings the latest medical discoveries to classrooms. This module focuses on the objectives of introducing students to major concepts related to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and developing an understanding of the relationship between biomedical research and personal and public health. This module…

  9. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  10. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  11. International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases: Select Presentations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Center for Infectious Diseases has made available the audio (and in some cases, video) portion of more than 20 online presentations of selected sessions from the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, held July 16-19, 2000 in Atlanta, Georgia. Presentations are organized in chronological order of the conference but may also be searched by presenter. Some presentations may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint. For researchers interested in the field of Emerging Infectious Diseases, this resource represents an exceptionally helpful application of Internet technology.

  12. Occupational lifestyle diseases: An emerging issue.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Majumdar, P K

    2009-12-01

    Lifestyle diseases characterize those diseases whose occurrence is primarily based on the daily habits of people and are a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment. The main factors contributing to lifestyle diseases include bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body posture, and disturbed biological clock. A report, jointly prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Economic Forum, says India will incur an accumulated loss of $236.6 billion by 2015 on account of unhealthy lifestyles and faulty diet. According to the report, 60% of all deaths worldwide in 2005 (35 million) resulted from noncommunicable diseases and accounted for 44% of premature deaths. What's worse, around 80% of these deaths will occur in low and middle-income countries like India which are also crippled by an ever increasing burden of infectious diseases, poor maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies. According to a survey conducted by the Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ASSOC-HAM), 68% of working women in the age bracket of 21-52 years were found to be afflicted with lifestyle ailments such as obesity, depression, chronic backache, diabetes and hypertension. The study 'Preventive Healthcare and Corporate Female Workforce' also said that long hours and working under strict deadlines cause up to 75% of working women to suffer from depression or general anxiety disorder, compared to women with lesser levels of psychological demand at work. The study cited scientific evidence that healthy diet and adequate physical activity - at least 30 minutes of moderate activity at least five days a week - helped prevent NCDs. In India, 10% of adults suffer from hypertension while the country is home to 25-30 million diabetics. Three out of every 1,000 people suffer a stroke. The number of deaths due to heart attack is projected to increase from 1.2 million to 2 million in 2010. The diet [or lifestyle] of different populations might partly determine their rates of cancer, and the basis for this hypothesis was strengthened by results of studies showing that people who migrate from one country to another generally acquire the cancer rates of the new host country, suggesting that environmental [or lifestyle factors] rather than genetic factors are the key determinants of the international variation in cancer rates. Some of the common diseases encountered because of occupational lifestyle are Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, cancer, chronic liver disease/cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nephritis/CRF, and stroke. Occupational lifestyle diseases include those caused by the factors present in the vicinity like heat, sound, dust, fumes, smoke, cold, and other pollutants. These factors are responsible for allergy, respiratory and hearing problems, and heat or cold shock. So, A healthy lifestyle must be adopted to combat these diseases with a proper balanced diet, physical activity and by giving due respect to biological clock. Kids spending too much time slouched in front of the TV or PCs, should be encourage to find a physical sport or activity they enjoy. Fun exercises should be encouraged into family outings. A pizza-and-video evening should be replaced for a hike and picnic. Kids who do participate in sport, especially at a high competitive level, can find the pressure to succeed very stressful. To decrease the ailments caused by occupational postures, one should avoid long sitting hours and should take frequent breaks for stretching or for other works involving physical movements. PMID:20442827

  13. Same host, same lagoon, different transmission pathways: effects of exogenous factors on larval emergence in two marine digenean parasites.

    PubMed

    Born-Torrijos, Ana; Holzer, Astrid Sibylle; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-02-01

    Due to their shallow and confined nature, lagoons provide excellent conditions for the transmission of digenean trematode parasites that require two or more intermediate hosts for the completion of their complex life cycles. However, these unstable environments are characterised by an internal heterogeneity and a large variation of a range of abiotic variables. We conducted a series of experiments in a comparative framework to assess the effect of a number of exogenous factors known to exhibit marked fluctuations in the lagoonal environment, i.e. temperature, salinity, water level and photoperiod, on larval emergence of two sympatric parasites, Cainocreadium labracis and Macvicaria obovata, which share the snail intermediate host, Gibbula adansonii, and a sit-and-wait downstream host-finding strategy. Our results demonstrated contrasting patterns and rates of larval emergence indicating an overall differential response of the two species to the variation of the environmental factors. Cercariae of M. obovata exhibited increased emergence rates at elevated temperature (with a sharp increase at 15 °C), decreased salinity (35-25 practical salinity units (psu)) and low water levels, whereas larval emergence of C. labracis was unaffected by the experimental variation in temperature and water level and showed decreased rates at decreased salinity levels (35-25 psu). The differential impact of the variable environmental conditions indicates the complexity of the patterns of exogenous control modifying parasite transmission and abundance in the lagoonal environment. Most importantly, the contrasting rhythms of larval emergence indicate endogenous control associated with the different transmission pathways of the two opecoelid digeneans. PMID:24271151

  14. Prevalence of certain disease antibodies and blood parasites in wild turkeys in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Hensley, Terry Stewart

    1977-01-01

    turkeys. There was no Plasmoc!!um sp. found. Greater use of the subinocu- lation technique may chango this finding since it increases the g8 probability of detect. i. ng the parasite. The nusker of positive reactors to the diseases tested for, the...: C i f Committee ead of Depart nt e er Member) er August 1977 ABSTR/1 DT Bi. evclence of Certain Disease /tntibodies arid Blood Ranasites 'ri Mild Turkeys in Texas. (August 19v7) Tc:c;y Stewart He?-le!/, B. S. , Texas A&II University C...

  15. [Socioeconomic impacts of an emerging disease].

    PubMed

    Grisotti, Márcia; de Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias

    2011-02-01

    In 1955 a population explosion of the slug Sarasinula linguaeformis (Semper, 1885) damaged crop plantations in the municipalities of Nova Itaberaba and Planalto Alegre, western of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In this article we analyze the socioeconomic impacts caused by the emergence of this plague, which raised the suspicion, eventually confirmed, of the occurrence of human cases of abdominal angyostrongiliasis. The data were collected through the observation of a serological study during the period of August 2000 to August 2001 by a research team from the Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) together with field technicians from the Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina S.A. (Epagri-SC), and with the members of 50 local families. In order to analyze these impacts, we elaborated several analytical categories as economic losses; preventive measures, habit change and social prejudice, that emerged from the narratives of the residents interviewed. It became evident the need for sociological analyses of epidemiological problems, in addition to strictly medico-sanitary considerations. PMID:21340340

  16. Host range, amplification and arboviral disease emergence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Weaver

    Etiologic agents of arboviral diseases are primarily zoonotic pathogens that are maintained in nature in cycles involving\\u000a arthropod transmission among a variety of susceptible reservoir hosts. In the simplest form of human exposure, spillover occurs\\u000a from the enzootic cycle when humans enter zoonotic foci and\\/or enzootic amplification increases circulation near humans. Examples\\u000a include Eastern (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis viruses

  17. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debajeet Choudhuri; Tanvir Huda; Evropi Theodoratou; Harish Nair; Lina Zgaga; Rachel Falconer; Ivana Luksic; Hope L Johnson; Jian Shayne F Zhang; Shams El Arifeen; Christopher B Nelson; Ray Borrow; Harry Campbell; Igor Rudan

    2011-01-01

    Background  Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of\\u000a sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently,\\u000a the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines,

  18. Current and Emerging Therapy for Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Makharia, Govind K.

    2014-01-01

    At present, strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Even small amounts of gluten (50?mg/day) can be immunogenic; therefore all food and food items and drugs that contain gluten and its derivatives must be eliminated completely from the diet. While prescribing gluten-free diet is easy; the key to the success is the dietary counseling by a nutrition specialist and maintenance of adherence to GFD by the patient. In recent times, a number of targets to halt the process of immunological injury have been explored to find out alternative treatment for celiac disease. These targets include exploration of ancient wheat if they are less immunogenic, intra-luminal digestion of gluten using prolylendopeptidases, pretreatment of whole gluten with bacterial-derived peptidase before ingestion; prevention of passage of immunogenic peptides through the tight junctions such as zonulin antagonists, Blocking of HLA-DQ2 to prevent binding of immunogenic peptides, inhibition of transglutaminase 2, immune-modulation, and induction of tolerance to gluten using gluten tolerizing vaccines, use of gluten-sequestering polymers, use of anti-inflammatory drugs (glucocorticoids, budesonides) and anti-cytokines such as anti TNF-?, and anti-interleukin-15. While many of these targets are still in the pre-clinical phase, some of them including zonulin antagonist and endopeptidases have already reached phase II and phase III clinical trials. Furthermore, while these targets appear very exciting; they at best are likely to be used as adjunctive therapy rather than a complete replacement for gluten-free diet. PMID:25705619

  19. Host range, amplification and arboviral disease emergence.

    PubMed

    Weaver, S C

    2005-01-01

    Etiologic agents of arboviral diseases are primarily zoonotic pathogens that are maintained in nature in cycles involving arthropod transmission among a variety of susceptible reservoir hosts. In the simplest form of human exposure, spillover occurs from the enzootic cycle when humans enter zoonotic foci and/or enzootic amplification increases circulation near humans. Examples include Eastern (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV), as well as West Nile (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV) and Yellow fever viruses. Spillover can involve direct transmission to humans by primary enzootic vectors (e.g. WNV, SLEV and WEEV) and/or bridge vectors with more catholic feeding preferences that include humans (e.g. EEEV). Some viruses, such as Rift Valley fever, Japanese encephalitis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) undergo secondary amplification involving replication in livestock animals, resulting in greater levels of spillover to humans in rural settings. In the case of VEEV, secondary amplification involves equines and requires adaptive mutations in enzootic strains that allow for efficient viremia production. Two of the most important human arboviral pathogens, Yellow fever and dengue viruses (DENV), have gone one step further and adopted humans as their amplification hosts, allowing for urban disease. The ancestral forms of DENV, sylvatic viruses transmitted among nonhuman primate reservoir hosts by arboreal mosquitoes, adapted to efficiently infect the urban mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus during the past few thousand years as civilizations arose. Comparative studies of the sylvatic and urban forms of DENV may elucidate the evolution of arboviral virulence and the prospects for DENV eradication should effective vaccines be implemented. PMID:16358422

  20. Emerging and re-emerging diseases of agricultural importance: why local perspectives matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Rugalema; Giulia Muir; Kirsten Mathieson; Emily Measures; Friderike Oehler; Libor Stloukal

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines local farmers’ perspectives about emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of humans, crops\\u000a and livestock and their impact on household food security in the Tanzania-Uganda interface ecosystem to the west of Lake Victoria.\\u000a While it is increasingly accepted that such an approach could yield vital information not only regarding the extent of the\\u000a impact of EIDs but

  1. Alfalfa diseases 101: diagnosing common and emerging disease problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 50 pathogens have been identified that cause significant damage to alfalfa and prevent it from reaching its full potential for producing high yields of quality forage. There has been excellent progress by plant breeders and plant pathologists in developing cultivars with multiple disease a...

  2. Health and disease: exploring the relation between parasitic infections, child nutrition status, and markets.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Research in bioarchaeology and among living people provides insight into the biological and biocultural consequences of subsistence, political, and economic transitions. Central to this effort is examining infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections because they are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in both past and current groups. Although infection may not always result in overt disease, frequent exposure results in biological stress with a negative effect on child growth and, by extension, health. The goal of this article is to examine the association between a common class of infectious disease, soil-transmitted helminth worms, and nutritional status among youth living in communities that vary with respect to their distance from a commercial center. In 2007, anthropometric measurements and parasitological surveys were collected for 338 2-14-year-old children and adolescents living in lowland Bolivia as part of the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study. Associations between the presence of helminth infections and markers of both short- and long-term nutritional status were overall weak. Youth living in communities distant from the commercial center were more likely to be positive for multiple parasite species than youth in near communities, but youth in mid-distance communities had lower infection rates. This article demonstrates the challenge of identifying associations between nutritional and disease stress when individual and household factors are nested in a larger context of socioeconomic and environmental change. Increased collaboration between bioarchaeology and human biology should continue to examine the connections between stress and disease across time. PMID:25059318

  3. Impairment of drug metabolism in polycystic non-parasitic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sotaniemi, E A; Luoma, P V; Järvensivu, P M; Sotaniemi, K A

    1979-01-01

    1. Drug-metabolizing capacity in cases of polycystic non-parasitic liver disease was investigated using plasma antipyrine clearance as an index. 2. The four subjects with maternally inherited polycystic liver metabolized antipyrine at a significantly slower rate than the six other members of the family. 3. This reduction in antipyrine metabolism is due to the loss of active liver parenchyma, and is probably also influenced by alterations in the vascular bed due to compression by the enlarged cysts. Images Figure 2 PMID:508507

  4. "Omics" in the study of the major parasitic diseases malaria and schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega de Sousa, Taís; de Menezes Neto, Armando; Alves de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira

    2013-10-01

    Genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic projects exemplify the "omics" era, and have significantly expanded available data for biomedical research. Recently, next generation sequencing technologies have even more greatly expanded DNA and RNA information. The present challenge is mining this information to obtain meaningful data such as that identifying novel drug targets and vaccine candidates. Several bioinformatics tools and new technologies have been used to high-throughput identification of potential candidates. We illustrate the utilization of new strategies in the study of two major parasitic diseases: schistosomiasis and malaria. PMID:23871773

  5. Teaching Emerging Diseases: A Strategy for Succeeding with Nonmajors

    PubMed Central

    FASS, MARION FIELD

    2000-01-01

    A nonmajors course on emerging diseases served to introduce students to basic concepts in microbiology and to improve scientific literacy. The course used a range of learner-centered approaches to encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning. Evaluations demonstrated both student satisfaction and an increased understanding of important issues in microbiology. PMID:23653535

  6. Transmission cycles, host range, evolution and emergence of arboviral disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan D. T. Barrett; Scott C. Weaver

    2004-01-01

    Many pandemics have been attributed to the ability of some RNA viruses to change their host range to include humans. Here, we review the mechanisms of disease emergence that are related to the host-range specificity of selected mosquito-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses. We discuss viruses of medical importance, including Venezuelan equine and Japanese encephalitis viruses, dengue viruses and West Nile viruses.

  7. The Global Threat of Emergent\\/Re-emergent Vector-Borne Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duane J. Gubler

    \\u000a The past 30 years has witnessed a dramatic re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases throughout much of the world. Factors\\u000a contributing to this are many, but the principal drivers have been complacency and de-emphasis of infectious diseases in pubic\\u000a health policy, increased population growth, uncontrolled urbanization without concomitant attention to water and waste management,\\u000a increased globalization and the ease with which

  8. Pooled Sequencing and Rare Variant Association Tests for Identifying the Determinants of Emerging Drug Resistance in Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, Ian H.; McDew-White, Marina; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Nosten, François; Anderson, Timothy J.C.

    2015-01-01

    We explored the potential of pooled sequencing to swiftly and economically identify selective sweeps due to emerging artemisinin (ART) resistance in a South-East Asian malaria parasite population. ART resistance is defined by slow parasite clearance from the blood of ART-treated patients and mutations in the kelch gene (chr. 13) have been strongly implicated to play a role. We constructed triplicate pools of 70 slow-clearing (resistant) and 70 fast-clearing (sensitive) infections collected from the Thai–Myanmar border and sequenced these to high (?150-fold) read depth. Allele frequency estimates from pools showed almost perfect correlation (Lin’s concordance = 0.98) with allele frequencies at 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms measured directly from individual infections, giving us confidence in the accuracy of this approach. By mapping genome-wide divergence (FST) between pools of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive parasites, we identified two large (>150 kb) regions (on chrs. 13 and 14) and 17 smaller candidate genome regions. To identify individual genes within these genome regions, we resequenced an additional 38 parasite genomes (16 slow and 22 fast-clearing) and performed rare variant association tests. These confirmed kelch as a major molecular marker for ART resistance (P = 6.03 × 10?6). This two-tier approach is powerful because pooled sequencing rapidly narrows down genome regions of interest, while targeted rare variant association testing within these regions can pinpoint the genetic basis of resistance. We show that our approach is robust to recurrent mutation and the generation of soft selective sweeps, which are predicted to be common in pathogen populations with large effective population sizes, and may confound more traditional gene mapping approaches. PMID:25534029

  9. The emerging role of epigenetics in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is a worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular diseases causing not only a public health issue but also accounting for trillions of dollars of healthcare expenditure. Studies pertaining to epidemiology, pathophysiology, molecular biology, gene identification and genetic linkage maps have been able to lay a strong foundation for both the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular medicine. Although the concept of ‘epigenetics’ is not recent, the term in current usage is extended from the initial concept of ‘controlling developmental gene expression and signaling pathways in undifferentiated zygotes’ to include heritable changes to gene expression that are not from differences in the genetic code. The impact of epigenetics in cardiovascular disease is now emerging as an important regulatory key player at different levels from pathophysiology to therapeutics. This review focuses on the emerging role of epigenetics in major cardiovascular medicine specialties such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetes. PMID:24982752

  10. Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases. PMID:24949464

  11. Preparedness for emerging infectious diseases: pathways from anticipation to action.

    PubMed

    Brookes, V J; Hernández-Jover, M; Black, P F; Ward, M P

    2015-07-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious disease (EID) events can have devastating human, animal and environmental health impacts. The emergence of EIDs has been associated with interconnected economic, social and environmental changes. Understanding these changes is crucial for EID preparedness and subsequent prevention and control of EID events. The aim of this review is to describe tools currently available for identification, prioritization and investigation of EIDs impacting human and animal health, and how these might be integrated into a systematic approach for directing EID preparedness. Environmental scanning, foresight programmes, horizon scanning and surveillance are used to collect and assess information for rapidly responding to EIDs and to anticipate drivers of emergence for mitigating future EID impacts. Prioritization of EIDs - using transparent and repeatable methods - based on disease impacts and the importance of those impacts to decision-makers can then be used for more efficient resource allocation for prevention and control. Risk assessment and simulation modelling methods assess the likelihood of EIDs occurring, define impact and identify mitigation strategies. Each of these tools has a role to play individually; however, we propose integration of these tools into a framework that enhances the development of tactical and strategic plans for emerging risk preparedness. PMID:25500338

  12. Acute Schistosomiasis in Brazilian Traveler: The Importance of Tourism in The Epidemiology of Neglected Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guiguet Leal, Diego Averaldo; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Neves, Maria Francisca; Simões, Luciana Franceschi; Bastos, Letícia Aparecida Duart; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Zanotti-Magalhães, Eliana Maria; Magalhães, Luiz Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infectious diseases acquired in tourist areas may pose a challenge to physicians and to travel medicine practitioners. Acute schistosomiasis may be seen in returning travelers and migrants after primary infection. This form of schistosomiasis is frequently misdiagnosed due to its temporal delay and its nonspecific presentation and might occur even in countries where the disease is endemic, such as in Brazil. The patient developed the acute phase of schistosomiasis with severe clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 240 eggs per gram of stool. The treatment was administered with oxamniquine, and the control of cure of the patient was monitored and was favorable. The present paper aims to emphasize the importance of a detailed clinical history including information regarding travel history. PMID:22844623

  13. Emerging viral diseases in dromedary camels in the Southern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Touil, N; Cherkaoui, Z; Lmrabih, Z; Loutfi, C; Harif, B; El Harrak, M

    2012-04-01

    During the last fifteen years, new viral diseases such Bluetongue (BT), West Nile (WN), African horse sickness (AHS), Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) have extended their geographic distribution and emerged in North Africa and in Europe. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is considered as a potential vector in the transmission of some of these diseases while it is host-specific for Camelpox (CP). A serological survey was conducted on 1392 sera to estimate changes of these diseases prevalence in camels over two different time spans (2003 and 2009) and across different sites of South Morocco. Results indicate clearly that BT was circulating in camels before the first notified outbreak in Morocco (2004) with 42% positive sera in Guelmim in 2003. BT and WN prevalence's increased over time from 11 to 25% and from 10 to 13% respectively. Higher prevalence of both diseases was found in camels living in oases indicating an increased intensity of viral circulation in these sites. Camels have been tested negative for AHS, EHD and PPR viruses while higher CP prevalence has been detected in camels living in Smara, the most closed site to eastern borders (i.e. Mauritania). The seroprevalence of CP in camels at interval of 7 years increases from 23% to 37%. This survey could provide information on the possible use of camel as a sentinel animal for surveillance of emerging diseases such BT and WN. PMID:22222004

  14. [Emerging and reemerging diseases: a health problem in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Ridel, Guillermo Mesa; Luis, Iraida Rodríguez; Teja, Julio

    2004-04-01

    In the Region of the Americas the emerging and reemerging infectious diseases that had the greatest impact on health, in terms of their incidence and the number of deaths that they caused during the five-year period of 1999-2003, were: malaria, yellow fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, AIDS, anthrax, and SARS, as well as infection by hantavirus and by West Nile virus. The appearance of epidemics of emerging and reemerging diseases is related to biological, social, and economic factors. Growth in international trade, the movement of large numbers of people across national borders, the variability and genetic adaptability of the causative microorganisms, and inefficiencies in public health systems help to spread infections and epidemics. To avoid or reduce the serious effects of these epidemics, countries should give priority in their national agendas to surveillance of emerging and reemerging diseases and should implement a set of measures to combat the diseases. The most important of these measures is to develop a strategy that is based on early warning and rapid response mechanisms, with personnel and laboratories as well as communications networks that link laboratories with health service providers. This strategy should be backed by priority funding and adequate policies. PMID:15193185

  15. Parasitic colitis.

    PubMed

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; McQuade, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  16. Chagas disease in the 21st Century: a public health success or an emerging threat?

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health burden in Latin America and a potentially serious emerging threat to a number of countries throughout the world. Although public health programs have significantly reduced the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin America in recent decades, the number of infections in the United States and non-endemic countries in Europe and the Western Pacific Region continues to rise. Moreover, there is still no vaccine or highly effective cure available for the approximately 10 million people currently infected with T. cruzi, a third of which will develop potentially fatal cardiomyopathy and/or severe digestive tract disorders. As Chagas disease becomes an increasingly globalized public health issue in the twenty-first century, continued attentiveness from governmental and health organizations as well as improved diagnostic tools, expanded surveillance and increased research funding will be required to maintain existing public health successes and stymie the spread of the disease to new areas and populations. PMID:24626257

  17. The Transcriptome of Trichuris suis – First Molecular Insights into a Parasite with Curative Properties for Key Immune Diseases of Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cinzia Cantacessi; Neil D. Young; Peter Nejsum; Aaron R. Jex; Bronwyn E. Campbell; Ross S. Hall; Stig M. Thamsborg; Jean-Pierre Scheerlinck; Robin B. Gasser

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIatrogenic infection of humans with Trichuris suis (a parasitic nematode of swine) is being evaluated or promoted as a biological, curative treatment of immune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and ulcerative colitis, in humans. Although it is understood that short-term T. suis infection in people with such diseases usually induces a modified Th2-immune response, nothing is known about

  18. Chikungunya fever. Rheumatic manifestations of an emerging disease in Europe.

    PubMed

    Horcada, M Loreto; Díaz-Calderón, Carlos; Garrido, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease caused by an alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, transmitted by several species of Aedes mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus). It is endemic in Africa and Asia with recurrent outbreaks. It is an emerging disease and cases in Europe transmitted by A. albopictus have been established in Mediterranean areas. The first autochthonous cases detected on the Caribbean islands suppose a serious threat of spreading disease to America, which so far has been disease free. Clinical symptoms begin abruptly with fever, skin rash and polyarthritis. Although mortality is low, a high percentage of patients develop a chronic phase defined by persistent arthritis for months or even years. A severe immune response is responsible for joint inflammation. The absence of specific treatment and lack of vaccine requires detailed studies about its immunopathogenesis in order to determine the most appropriate target. PMID:25192946

  19. Emerging role of long noncoding RNAs in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Cui; Pan, Hai-Feng; Leng, Rui-Xue; Wang, De-Guang; Li, Xiang-Pei; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), with size larger than 200 nucleotides, is a new class of noncoding RNA. Emerging evidence has revealed that lncRNAs play a key role in the regulation of immunological functions and autoimmunity. Herein, we review the recent findings of lncRNA regulation in immune functions and in the development of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease. In addition, we focus on the involvement of lncRNA regulation in innate and adaptive immune responses, immune cell development, and differential expression of lncRNAs in autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), multiple sclerosis (MS), autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), psoriasis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) and Crohn's disease (CD). PMID:25989481

  20. miR-191: an emerging player in disease biology.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Neha; Kulshreshtha, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Specific microRNAs have emerged as key players in disease biology by playing crucial role in disease development and progression. This review draws attention to one such microRNA, miR-191 that has been recently reported to be abnormally expressed in several cancers (>20) and various other diseases like diabetes-type 2, Crohn' s, pulmonary hypertension, and Alzheimer' s. It regulates important cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration by targeting important transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, and cell cycle associated genes. Several studies have demonstrated it to be an excellent biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis leading to two patents already in its kitty. In this first review we summarize the current knowledge of the regulation, functions and targets of miR-191 and discuss its potential as a promising disease biomarker and therapeutic target. PMID:24795757

  1. miR-191: an emerging player in disease biology

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Neha; Kulshreshtha, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Specific microRNAs have emerged as key players in disease biology by playing crucial role in disease development and progression. This review draws attention to one such microRNA, miR-191 that has been recently reported to be abnormally expressed in several cancers (>20) and various other diseases like diabetes-type 2, Crohn’ s, pulmonary hypertension, and Alzheimer’ s. It regulates important cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration by targeting important transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, and cell cycle associated genes. Several studies have demonstrated it to be an excellent biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis leading to two patents already in its kitty. In this first review we summarize the current knowledge of the regulation, functions and targets of miR-191 and discuss its potential as a promising disease biomarker and therapeutic target. PMID:24795757

  2. Hospital preparedness to bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, G; Puro, V; Heptonstall, J

    2006-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, successive outbreaks caused by new, newly recognised and resurgent pathogens, and the risk that high-consequence pathogens might be used as bioterrorism agents amply demonstrated the need to enhance capacity in clinical and public health management of highly infectious diseases. In this article we review these recent and current threats to public health, whether naturally occurring or caused by accidental or intentional release. Moreover, we discuss some components of hospital preparedness for, and response to, infectious disease of the emergencies in developed countries. The issues of clinical awareness and education, initial investigation and management, surge capacity, communication, and caring for staff and others affected by the emergency are discussed. We also emphasise the importance of improving the everyday practice of infection control by healthcare professionals. PMID:16964581

  3. Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; de Bruijn, Irene; Jack, Allison L H; Drynan, Keith; van den Berg, Albert H; Thoen, Even; Sandoval-Sierra, Vladimir; Skaar, Ida; van West, Pieter; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; van der Voort, Menno; Mendes, Rodrigo; Mazzola, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2014-10-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases. PMID:24671087

  4. Validity of International Health Regulations in Reporting Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, David L.; Giesecke, Johan; Weinberg, Julius

    2012-01-01

    Understanding which emerging infectious diseases are of international public health concern is vital. The International Health Regulations include a decision instrument to help countries determine which public health events are of international concern and require reporting to the World Health Organization (WHO) on the basis of seriousness, unusualness, international spread and trade, or need for travel restrictions. This study examined the validity of the International Health Regulations decision instrument in reporting emerging infectious disease to WHO by calculating its sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. It found a sensitivity of 95.6%, a specificity of 38%, and a positive predictive value of 35.5%. These findings are acceptable if the notification volume to WHO remains low. Validity could be improved by setting more prescriptive criteria of seriousness and unusualness and training persons responsible for notification. However, the criteria should be balanced with the need for the instrument to adapt to future unknown threats. PMID:22710200

  5. The use of light- and electron microscopy for studies on the cell- and molecular biology of parasites and parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hehl, A B; Hemphill, A

    2006-09-01

    Lightmicroscopical (LM) and electron microscopi cal (EM) techniques, have had a major influence on the development and direction of cell biology, and particularly also on the investigation of complex host-parasite relationships. Earlier, microscopy has been rather descriptive, but new technical and scientific advances have changed the situation. Microscopy has now become analytical, quantitative and three-dimensional, with greater emphasis on analysis of live cells with fluorescent markers. The new or improved techniques that have become available include immunocytochemistry using immunogold labeling techniques or fluorescent probes, cryopreservation and cryosectioning, in situ hybridization, fluorescent reporters for subcellular localization, micro-analytical methods for elemental distribution, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and live-imaging. Taken together, these tools are providing both researchers and students with a novel and multidimensional view of the intricate biological processes during parasite development in the host. PMID:17024976

  6. Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J; De Leo, Giulio; Dobson, Andrew P; Dunne, Jennifer A; Johnson, Pieter T J; Kuris, Armand M; Marcogliese, David J; Martinez, Neo D; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A; McLaughlin, John P; Mordecai, Erin A; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W

    2008-01-01

    Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists. PMID:18462196

  7. Induction of regulatory cells by helminth parasites: exploitation for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Conor M; Walsh, Kevin P; Mills, Kingston H G

    2014-05-01

    Helminth parasites are highly successful pathogens, chronically infecting a quarter of the world's population, causing significant morbidity but rarely causing death. Protective immunity and expulsion of helminths is mediated by T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, type 2 (M2) macrophages, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, and eosinophils. Failure to mount these type 2 immune responses can result in immunopathology mediated by Th1 or Th17 cells. Helminths have evolved a wide variety of approaches for immune suppression, especially the generation of regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-?. This is a very effective strategy for subverting protective immune responses to prolong their survival in the host but has the bystander effect of modulating immune responses to unrelated antigens. Epidemiological studies in humans have shown that infection with helminth parasites is associated with a low incidence of allergy/asthma and autoimmunity in developing countries. Experimental studies in mice have demonstrated that regulatory immune responses induced by helminth can suppress Th2 and Th1/Th17 responses that mediate allergy and autoimmunity, respectively. This has provided a rational explanation of the 'hygiene hypothesis' and has also led to the exploitation of helminths or their immunomodulatory products in the development of new immunosuppressive therapies for inflammatory diseases in humans. PMID:24712468

  8. Emergence and re-emergence of viral diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Diane E

    2010-06-01

    Neurologic disease is a major cause of disability in resource-poor countries and a substantial portion of this disease is due to infections of the CNS. A wide variety of emerging and re-emerging viruses contribute to this disease burden. New emerging infections are commonly due to RNA viruses that have expanded their geographic range, spread from animal reservoirs or acquired new neurovirulence properties. Mosquito-borne viruses with expanding ranges include West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and Chikungunya virus. Zoonotic viruses that have recently crossed into humans to cause neurologic disease include the bat henipaviruses Nipah and Hendra, as well as the primate-derived human immunodeficiency virus. Viruses adapt to new hosts, or to cause more severe disease, by changing their genomes through reassortment (e.g. influenza virus), mutation (essentially all RNA viruses) and recombination (e.g. vaccine strains of poliovirus). Viruses that appear to have recently become more neurovirulent include West Nile virus, enterovirus 71 and possibly Chikungunya virus. In addition to these newer challenges, rabies, polio and measles all remain important causes of neurologic disease despite good vaccines and global efforts toward control. Control of human rabies depends on elimination of rabies in domestic dogs through regular vaccination. Poliovirus eradication is challenged by the ability of the live attenuated vaccine strains to revert to virulence during the prolonged period of gastrointestinal replication. Measles elimination depends on delivery of two doses of live virus vaccine to a high enough proportion of the population to maintain herd immunity for this highly infectious virus. PMID:20004230

  9. Consolidated and emerging inflammatory markers in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lubrano, Valter; Balzan, Silvana

    2015-02-20

    Coronary artery disease is an event of atherosclerosis characterized by a chronic vascular inflammation. Risk factors like obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and positive family history sometimes are not sufficiently adequate to the enhancement of cardiovascular risk assessment. In the past years numerous biomarkers, like C reactive protein, cytokines and adhesion molecules, have been observed to be related to adverse cardiovascular prognosis. Recently, several studies found an association among inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular diseases suggesting their utility to identify the risk of an acute ischemic event and the detection of vulnerable plaques. The emerging inflammatory markers are well divided for diagnosis and prognosis and plaque instability of coronary artery disease. Some of them, the lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 can be important both in diagnosis and in the evaluation of plaque instability, other are inserted in the above reported classification. The emerging inflammatory markers in acute-phase include amyloid A, fibrinogen and pentraxin 3 while myeloperoxidase, myeloid-related protein 8/14 and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A are recognize markers of plaque instability. Lastly, some studies demonstrated that circulating miRNAs are involved in coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction and heart failure. PMID:25699231

  10. Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    experimental data on the effect of temperature on the emergence of infective stages (cercariae) of trematode also promote the proliferation of their infective stages in many ecosystems. Key words: cercariae

  11. COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases 2014 Request for Pilot Grant Proposals

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases 2014 Request for Pilot Grant Proposals Overview The COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases is soliciting proposals for Pilot/or translational research relevant to zoonotic and/or emerging infectious diseases, and there must be a clear

  12. Re: Treatment of Parasitic Skin Diseases with Dimeticones A New Family of Compounds with a Purely Physical Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The article on use of dimeticone for treatment of epidermal parasitic skin diseases is potentially confusing and misleading because, in a practical sense, only head louse infestation can be treated with this material. Scabies mites are unaffected by silicones and use of dimeticone against other ectoparasites may have unwanted side effects such as anaphylactiform reactions or increased risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26060419

  13. Onchodermatitis--correlation between skin disease and parasitic load in an endemic focus in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Hay, R J; Mackenzie, C D; Guderian, R; Noble, W C; Proano, J R; Williams, J F

    1989-08-01

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection in which infiltration of the skin by microfilariae has been associated with a number of different pathological changes. This survey compared the prevalence of different forms of skin disease in two villages, one of which was located within the endemic zone for onchocerciasis (Zapallo Grande), in a lowland rain forest area of western Ecuador. The commonest skin diseases in both villages were scabies, pyoderma and pityriasis versicolor. In addition changes closely correlated with the presence of microfilariae in skin snips were found in Zapallo Grande--such as atrophic gluteal changes, and acute and chronic papular dermatitis. The only other skin disease associated with onchocerciasis was widespread tinea corporis due to T. rubrum. The Amerindians in the endemic onchocerciasis area were more likely than Negroes to have generalized atrophic changes of the skin, whereas in the latter group significant numbers of individuals had no obvious skin lesions but large numbers of microfilariae were detected in skin snips. Acute papular dermatitis was common in both groups and in biopsied lesions microfilariae could usually be identified within the epidermis or close to the dermo-epidermal junction. One patient had developed severe reactive onchodermatitis (Sowda). Swabs taken from onchocercal skin lesions showed no evidence of skin surface carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Changes classically associated with onchocerciasis such as pretibial hypopigmentation (leopard skin) and hanging groin were notably absent in this population. PMID:2775644

  14. New and emerging risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Akhabue, Ehimare; Thiboutot, Jeffrey; Cheng, Jeh-Wei; Vittorio, Timothy J; Christodoulidis, Georgios; Grady, Kathleen M; Lerakis, Stamatios; Kosmas, Constantine E

    2014-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Traditional risk factors such as family history, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking cannot account for the entire risk for incident coronary events. Several other potential risk factors have been identified in an effort to improve risk assessment for CHD. This article reviews the current evidence on new and emerging risk factors for CHD and their current utility in screening, specifically focusing on coronary artery calcium score, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein (a), carotid intima-media thickness, homocysteine, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, as well as high-density lipoprotein functionality. PMID:23644407

  15. VIROLOGY: What Links Bats to Emerging Infectious Diseases?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrew P. Dobson (Princeton University; Ecology and Evolutionary Biology)

    2005-10-28

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: The discovery that bats are the reservoir hosts of the coronavirus that causes SARS in humans raises important questions about how we monitor and control emergent disease outbreaks. In his Perspective, Dobson focuses on the need to know more about the distribution of pathogens in their natural reservoir hosts and asks whether the absence of pathology that characterizes these relationships may reflect subtle differences in the immune responses of bats.

  16. Emergence of Zaire Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Baize, Sylvain; Pannetier, Delphine; Oestereich, Lisa; Rieger, Toni; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Soropogui, Barrè; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Keïta, Sakoba; De Clerck, Hilde; Tiffany, Amanda; Dominguez, Gemma; Loua, Mathieu; Traoré, Alexis; Kolié, Moussa; Malano, Emmanuel Roland; Heleze, Emmanuel; Bocquin, Anne; Mély, Stephane; Raoul, Hervé; Caro, Valérie; Cadar, Dániel; Gabriel, Martin; Pahlmann, Meike; Tappe, Dennis; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Impouma, Benido; Diallo, Abdoul Karim; Formenty, Pierre; Van Herp, Michel; Günther, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    In March 2014, the World Health Organization was notified of an outbreak of a communicable disease characterized by fever, severe diarrhea, vomiting, and a high fatality rate in Guinea. Virologic investigation identified Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) as the causative agent. Full-length genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that EBOV from Guinea forms a separate clade in relationship to the known EBOV strains from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Gabon. Epidemiologic investigation linked the laboratory-confirmed cases with the presumed first fatality of the outbreak in December 2013. This study demonstrates the emergence of a new EBOV strain in Guinea. PMID:24738640

  17. The emerging role of robotics and laparoscopy in stone disease.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Mitchell R

    2013-02-01

    The surgical management of urolithiasis has undergone a remarkable clinical evolution over the past three decades. The once common practice of open stone surgery has nearly been relegated to historical interest by modern technology. The introduction of minimally invasive techniques, laparoscopy and robot-assisted surgery, have emerged to complete the urologist's armamentarium. The benefits to patients when other endourologic procedures have failed include less pain, shorter hospitalization and convalescence, and improved cosmesis. This chapter explores the historical shift from open to minimally invasive management for stone disease and the unique risks and outcomes associated with these procedures in modern urology. PMID:23177639

  18. [Emerging disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Jin

    2014-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis(MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with yet undetermined etiology. The incidence of MS is rapidly rising in Japan, and in addition to four already-approved disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), namely interferon ?1b, interferon?1a, fingolimod and natalizumab, several new DMTs are currently under clinical trials. In this article, emerging DMTs such as alemtuzumab, dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide as well as fampridine, a novel symptomatic treatment for gait disturbance, and anti-LINGO-1 monoclonal antibody, a possible candidate for future remyelination therapy, will be reviewed. Future treatment strategies such as induction therapy and combined therapy for MS will also be discussed. PMID:25518389

  19. Hsp90 Inhibitors as New Leads To Target Parasitic Diarrheal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shahinas, Dea; Bryant, Clifford; Hirata, Ken; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Hwang, Grace; Gut, Jiri; Renslo, Adam R.; Pillai, Dylan R.; Eckmann, Lars; Reed, Sharon L.; McKerrow, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are anaerobic protozoan parasites that cause amebiasis and giardiasis, two of the most common diarrheal diseases worldwide. Current therapy relies on metronidazole, but resistance has been reported and the drug has significant adverse effects. Therefore, it is critical to search for effective, better-tolerated antiamebic and antigiardial drugs. We synthesized several examples of a recently reported class of Hsp90 inhibitors and evaluated these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Several of these inhibitors showed strong in vitro activity against both E. histolytica and G. lamblia trophozoites. The inhibitors were rescreened to discriminate between amebicidal and giardicidal activity and general cytotoxicity toward a mammalian cell line. No mammalian cytotoxicity was found at >100 ?M for 48 h for any of the inhibitors. To understand the mechanism of action, a competitive binding assay was performed using the fluorescent ATP analogue bis-ANS (4,4?-dianilino-1,1?-binaphthyl-5,5?-disulfonic acid dipotassium salt) and recombinant E. histolytica Hsp90 preincubated in both the presence and absence of Hsp90 inhibitors. There was significant reduction in fluorescence compared to the level in the control, suggesting that E. histolytica Hsp90 is a selective target. The in vivo efficacy and safety of one Hsp90 inhibitor in a mouse model of amebic colitis and giardiasis was demonstrated by significant inhibition of parasite growth at a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 days and 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Considering the results for in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy, Hsp90 inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option for amebiasis and giardiasis. PMID:24820073

  20. Infectious and parasitic diseases of captive carnivores, with special emphasis on the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes).

    PubMed

    Williams, E S; Thorne, E T

    1996-03-01

    Captive carnivores are susceptible to a wide array of infectious and parasitic diseases, which reflects the diversity of the seven families of Carnivora. Unfortunately, relatively few in-depth studies have been conducted on diseases of non-domestic carnivores, and much remains to be learned, especially regarding diseases of small carnivores (e.g. mustelids, viverrids and procyonids). The more important infectious diseases of carnivores include rabies, canine distemper, and diseases caused by parvoviruses, coronaviruses and herpesviruses. Few parasitic or bacterial pathogens are significant in captive populations, and appropriate husbandry, therapy, vaccines and quarantine minimize the risk of disease. Extrapolations from one species to another regarding disease susceptibility may be incorrect. The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) serves as an example of a carnivore significantly affected by infectious diseases, some of which were expected while others could not have been predicted from generalized knowledge of diseases of mustelids. This highlights the need to understand the natural history of each species maintained in captivity. PMID:8924718

  1. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-09-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

  2. Human anthrax as a re-emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores and the etiological agent is B. anthracis which is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, and rod shaped bacterium. Bacillus anthracis spores are highly resistant to heat, pressure, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, chemical agents and disinfectants. For these reasons, B. anthracis spores are an attractive choice as biological agents for the use of bioweapon and/or bioterrorism. Soil is the main reservoir for the infectious agent. The disease most commonly affects wild and domestic mammals. Human are secondarily infected by contact with infected animals and contaminated animal products or directly expose to B. anthracis spores. Anthrax occurs worldwide. This infection is still endemic or hyperendemic in both animals and humans in some part of areas of the world; particularly in Middle East, West Africa, Central Asia, some part of India, South America. However, some countries are claiming free of anthrax, and anthrax has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with the intentional outbreak. Currently, anthrax is classified according to its setting as (1) naturally occurring anthrax, (2) bioterrorism-related anthrax. Vast majority of human anthrax are occurring as naturally occurring anthrax in the world. It is also a threaten disease for western countries. The aim of this paper is to review the relevant patents, short historical perspective, microbiological and epidemiological features, clinical presentations and treatment. PMID:25851429

  3. Viruses and disease: emerging concepts for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Herrington, C S; Coates, P J; Duprex, W P

    2015-01-01

    Viruses cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from acute self-resolving conditions to acute fatal diseases. Effects that arise long after the primary infection can also increase the propensity for chronic conditions or lead to the development of cancer. Recent advances in the fields of virology and pathology have been fundamental in improving our understanding of viral pathogenesis, in providing improved vaccination strategies and in developing newer, more effective treatments for patients worldwide. The reviews assembled here focus on the interface between virology and pathology and encompass aspects of both the clinical pathology of viral disease and the underlying disease mechanisms. Articles on emerging diseases caused by Ebola virus, Marburg virus, coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS, Nipah virus and noroviruses are followed by reviews of enteroviruses, HIV infection, measles, mumps, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The issue concludes with a series of articles reviewing the relationship between viruses and cancer, including the role played by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of lymphoma and carcinoma; how human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the development of skin cancer; the involvement of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma; and the mechanisms by which Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) leads to Kaposi's sarcoma. We hope that this collection of articles will be of interest to a wide range of scientists and clinicians at a time when there is a renaissance in the appreciation of the power of pathology as virologists dissect the processes of disease. PMID:25366544

  4. The Emergence of ActualThe Emergence of Actual Human Disease as a Model forHuman Disease as a Model for

    E-print Network

    Boguski, Mark S.

    + Chromosomome +e + ""icsics"" == GenomicsGenomics 1990 Human Genome Project launched1990 Human Genome Project launched 1998 Human Genome Project1998 Human Genome Project acceleratedaccelerated 20002000 ""DraftThe Emergence of ActualThe Emergence of Actual Human Disease as a Model forHuman Disease as a Model

  5. Infectious and parasitic diseases and contaminant-related problems of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis): a review.

    PubMed

    Kimber, K R; Kollias, G V

    2000-12-01

    The aquatic North American river otter (Lontra canadensis), a charismatic nonendangered mustelid, presently occupies a greatly reduced range. The species is common in zoos and has economic value as a furbearer. At least 17 states and one Canadian province have undertaken recent reintroduction programs. Nevertheless, little has been published on nonparasitic diseases of river otters, and little is known of the clinical significance of most of their parasitic infections. Records of environmental contaminant-related diseases and traumatic injuries in free-ranging North American river otters are also rare. This paper reviews present knowledge of North American river otter diseases, especially those with the greatest potential for impacting reintroduction programs. PMID:11428392

  6. Ills in the pipeline: emerging infectious diseases and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In the recent film Contagion, a medical thriller released in fall 2011, the fictitious MEV-1 virus—passed from bat to pig to humans—spreads across the globe as easily as the common cold, killing millions of humans and causing mass hysteria as medical researchers race to find a cure. Though it's Hollywood hyperbole, the film holds a kernel of truth: Researchers believe that the close proximity of Malaysian hog farms to forested areas—the natural habitat for fruit bats—allowed the previously unknown Nipah virus to spill from bats into pigs and subsequently into people, resulting in more than 100 human deaths (Epstein et al. 2006). There is no doubt that in recent times we have seen an unprecedented number of emerging infectious diseases, defined by the Institute for Medicine as new, reemerging, or drug-resistant infections whose incidence has increased or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future. Many of these have a wildlife origin (Taylor et al. 2001). While this jump may be due, in part, to increased vigilance and reporting, there is a general consensus that current global conditions are creating a situation that is very favorable to the transmission of microbes that cause diseases. (For reviews, see Daszak et al. 2001 and Keesing et al. 2010). Likewise, it's increasingly important that wildlife professionals become aware of how and why new infectious diseases spread and what, if anything, can be done to minimize impacts on wildlife.

  7. Emerging foodborne diseases: an evolving public health challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Tauxe, R. V.

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne disease is changing. New pathogens have emerged, and some have spread worldwide. Many, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica, have reservoirs in healthy food animals, from which they spread to an increasing variety of foods. These pathogens cause millions of cases of sporadic illness and chronic complications, as well as large and challenging outbreaks over many states and nations. Improved surveillance that combines rapid subtyping methods, cluster identification, and collaborative epidemiologic investigation can identify and halt large, dispersed outbreaks. Outbreak investigations and case-control studies of sporadic cases can identify sources of infection and guide the development of specific prevention strategies. Better understanding of how pathogens persist in animal reservoirs is also critical to successful long-term prevention. In the past, the central challenge of foodborne disease lay in preventing the contamination of human food with sewage or animal manure. In the future, prevention of foodborne disease will increasingly depend on controlling contamination of feed and water consumed by the animals themselves. PMID:9366593

  8. An Emerging Infectious Disease Triggering Large-Scale Hyperpredation

    PubMed Central

    Moleón, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:18523587

  9. Inferring host-parasite relationships using stable isotopes: implications for disease transmission and host specificity.

    PubMed

    Stapp, Paul; Salkeld, Daniel J

    2009-11-01

    Identifying the roles of different hosts and vectors is a major challenge in the study of the ecology of diseases caused by multi-host pathogens. Intensive field studies suggested that grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster) help spread the bacterium that causes plague (Yersinia pestis) in prairie dog colonies by sharing fleas with prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus); yet conclusive evidence that prairie dog fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta) feed on grasshopper mice is lacking. Using stable nitrogen isotope analysis, we determined that many blood-engorged O. hirsuta collected from wild grasshopper mice apparently contained blood meals of prairie dogs. These results suggest that grasshopper mice may be infected with Y. pestis via mechanisms other than flea feeding, e.g., early phase or mechanical transmission or scavenging carcasses, and raise questions about the ability of grasshopper mice to maintain Y. pestis in prairie dog colonies during years between plague outbreaks. They also indicate that caution may be warranted when inferring feeding relationships based purely on the occurrence of fleas or other haematophagous ectoparasites on hosts. Stable-isotope analysis may complement or provide a useful alternative to immunological or molecular techniques for identifying hosts of cryptically feeding ectoparasites, and for clarifying feeding relationships in studies of host-parasite interactions. PMID:19967881

  10. Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

    2012-01-01

    Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163

  11. One World-One Health and neglected zoonotic disease: elimination, emergence and emergency in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Smith, James; Taylor, Emma Michelle; Kingsley, Pete

    2015-03-01

    This paper traces the emergence and tensions of an internationally constructed and framed One World-One Health (OWOH) approach to control and attempt to eliminate African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda. In many respects Trypanosomiasis is a disease that an OWOH approach is perfectly designed to treat, requiring an integrated approach built on effective surveillance in animals and humans, quick diagnosis and targeting of the vector. The reality appears to be that the translation of global notions of OWOH down to national and district levels generates problems, primarily due to interactions between: a) international, external actors not engaging with the Ugandan state; b) actors setting up structures and activities parallel to those of the state; c) actors deciding when emergencies begin and end without consultation; d) weak Ugandan state capacity to coordinate its own integrated response to disease; e) limited collaboration between core Ugandan planning activities and a weak, increasingly devolved district health system. These interrelated dynamics result in the global, international interventionalist mode of OWOH undermining the Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU), the body within the Ugandan state mandated expressly with managing a sustainable One Health response to trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Uganda. This does two things, firstly it suggests we need a more grounded, national perspective of OWOH, where states and health systems are acknowledged and engaged with by international actors and initiatives. Secondly, it suggests that more support needs to be given to core coordinating capacity in resource-poor contexts. Supporting national coordinating bodies, focused around One Health, and ensuring that external actors engage with and through those bodies can help develop a sustained, effective OWOH presence in resource-poor countries, where after all most zoonotic disease burden remains. PMID:24984807

  12. Prevalence of parasitic diseases among nomadic Fulanis of south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Onwuliri, Celestine O E; Obiukwu, Charles E; Duru, Akuchinyere F; Nwachukwu, Micheal I; Ukaga, Chinyere N; Uwaezuoke, Joseph C; Uduji, Olga S; Amajuoyi, Oliver U; Nkem, Benjamin I

    2004-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections among the nomadic Fulanis of south-eastern Nigeria between September 2003-March 2004. Urine, stool and blood specimens were collected from each of 231 subjects. Of these, 98 (42.4%) were infected with one or more of 14 parasitic species, of which Plasmodium malariae had the highest prevalence (15.3%). Others included 6 intestinal helminth parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichocephalus trichiurus, 2 protozoan parasites: Entamoeba histolytica and E. coli, 4 blood parasites: Mansonella perstans, Loa loa, Trypanosoma sp, Plasmodium falciparum, as well as Schistosoma haematobium recovered in the urine. Prevalence of these parasitic infections varied significantly among bush encampments, sexes, and age groups. They had evidence of onchocerciasis. Their occupational imperatives, beliefs and general life style are contributing factors to the prevalence of parasitic infections among the nomadic Fulanis of south eastern Nigeria. Aspects of prevalence and control of parasitic infections are discussed. PMID:15627328

  13. Antibody-based therapies for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the 19th century, it was discovered that immune sera were useful in treating infectious diseases. Serum therapy was largely abandoned in the 1940s because of the toxicity associated with the administration of heterologous sera and the introduction of effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. Recent advances in the technology of monoclonal antibody production provide the means to generate human antibody reagents and reintroduce antibody therapies, while avoiding the toxicities associated with serum therapy. Because of the versatility of antibodies, antibody-based therapies could, in theory, be developed against any existing pathogen. The advantages of antibody-based therapies include versatility, low toxicity, pathogen specificity, enhancement of immune function, and favorable pharmacokinetics; the disadvantages include high cost, limited usefulness against mixed infections, and the need for early and precise microbiologic diagnosis. The potential of antibodies as antiinfective agents has not been fully tapped. Antibody-based therapies constitute a potentially useful option against newly emergent pathogens. PMID:8903230

  14. Emerging diseases and ecosystem instability: new threats to public health.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, P R

    1995-01-01

    Ecologists have begun to describe an environmental distress syndrome, whereby widespread loss of top predators and harsh environmental conditions are encouraging the selection of opportunistic pests and pathogens across a wide taxonomic range of plants and animals. Environmental change and pollutants stress individuals and populations, and this may be reflected in the global resurgence of infectious disease as these stresses cascade through the community assemblages of species. In 1993, the sudden appearance of a virulent, rodent-borne hantavirus in the arid US Southwest accompanied anomalous weather patterns, and a novel Vibrio cholerae variant (O139 Bengal) emerged in Asia where marine ecosystems are experiencing a pandemic of coastal algal blooms, apparently harboring and amplifying the agent. This paper suggests a framework for integrating the surveillance of health outcomes and key reservoir and vector species, with ecological and climatic monitoring. PMID:7856775

  15. Influence of multiple infection and relatedness on virulence: disease dynamics in an experimental plant population and its castrating parasite.

    PubMed

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

  16. Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

  17. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures), and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future. PMID:25949827

  18. Detection of Infectious Cryptosporidium in Drinking Water Waterborne transmission of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium remains a significant threat of disease with severe consequences

    E-print Network

    Detection of Infectious Cryptosporidium in Drinking Water Waterborne transmission of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium remains a significant threat of disease with severe consequences for persons to minimize the risk of Cryptosporidium on public health. Properly operating drinking water treatment plants

  19. Heteromeric Dopamine Receptor Signaling Complexes: Emerging Neurobiology and Disease Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Melissa L; Hasbi, Ahmed; O'Dowd, Brian F; George, Susan R

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological modification of dopamine transmission has long been employed as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of many mental health disorders. However, as many of the pharmacotherapies today are not without significant side effects, or they alleviate only a particular subset of symptoms, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is imperative. In light of these challenges, the recognition that dopamine receptors can form heteromers has significantly expanded the range of physiologically relevant signaling complexes as well as potential drug targets. Furthermore, as the physiology and disease relevance of these receptor heteromers is further understood, their ability to exhibit pharmacological and functional properties distinct from their constituent receptors, or modulate the function of endogenous homomeric receptor complexes, may allow for the development of alternate therapeutic strategies and provide new avenues for drug design. In this review, we describe the emerging neurobiology of the known dopamine receptor heteromers, their physiological relevance in brain, and discuss the potential role of these receptor complexes in neuropsychiatric disease. We highlight their value as targets for future drug development and discuss innovative research strategies designed to selectively target these dopamine receptor heteromers in the search for novel and clinically efficacious pharmacotherapies. PMID:23774533

  20. Immune responses of wild birds to emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Staley, M; Bonneaud, C

    2015-05-01

    Over the past several decades, outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in wild birds have attracted worldwide media attention, either because of their extreme virulence or because of alarming spillovers into agricultural animals or humans. The pathogens involved have been found to infect a variety of bird hosts ranging from relatively few species (e.g. Trichomonas gallinae) to hundreds of species (e.g. West Nile Virus). Here we review and contrast the immune responses that wild birds are able to mount against these novel pathogens. We discuss the extent to which these responses are associated with reduced clinical symptoms, pathogen load and mortality, or conversely, how they can be linked to worsened pathology and reduced survival. We then investigate how immune responses to EIDs can evolve over time in response to pathogen-driven selection using the illustrative case study of the epizootic outbreak of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild North American house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). We highlight the need for future work to take advantage of the substantial inter- and intraspecific variation in disease progression and outcome following infections with EID to elucidate the extent to which immune responses confer increased resistance through pathogen clearance or may instead heighten pathogenesis. PMID:25847450

  1. Diseases and parasites of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Lake Huron basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLain, Alberton L.

    1952-01-01

    Sea lampreys from the Lake Huron basin carried no external parasites and showed a fairly low degree of infection by internal parasites. The material examined represented three life-history stages of the sea lamprey. Recently transformed downstream migrants (215 specimens) harbored only nematodes belonging to the genus Camallanus. The percentage of infection was 2.3. Active feeders from the lake (29 lampreys) revealed the highest degree of parasitism (31.0 percent) with the following parasites present: Echinorhynchus coregoni Linkins; Triaenophorus crasses Forel; and Camallanus sp. Among the 257 sexually mature upstream migrants (14.8 percent infected) Echinorhynchus coregoni and E. leidyi Van Cleave were the most common. Only occasional nematodes and cestodes were found, which fact indicates a failure of the lamprey to carry these parasites to the end of its natural life. Of the parasites observed, only the nematodes gave evidence of serious damage to the host. The study suggests that the role played by parasites in the natural control of the sea lamprey in its new habitat in the upper Great Lakes is of minor importance.

  2. Collaborative Research Approaches to the Role of Wildlife in Zoonotic Disease Emergence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Daszak; J. H. Epstein; A. M. Kilpatrick; A. A. Aguirre; W. B. Karesh; A. A. Cunningham

    Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to public health and the majority are caused by zoonotic pathogens. Here we\\u000a discuss new collaborative approaches to understanding the process of zoonotic disease emergence that link veterinary medicine,\\u000a public health, and ecological approaches: conservation medicine and one health. We demonstrate how studies on the underlying\\u000a drivers of disease emergence (bushmeat hunting, wildlife

  3. Emerging viral threats in Gabon: health capacities and response to the risk of emerging zoonotic diseases in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bourgarel, M; Wauquier, N; Gonzalez, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are currently the major threat to public health worldwide and most EID events have involved zoonotic infectious agents. Central Africa in general and Gabon in particular are privileged areas for the emergence of zoonotic EIDs. Indeed, human incursions in Gabonese forests for exploitation purposes lead to intensified contacts between humans and wildlife thus generating an increased risk of emergence of zoonotic diseases. In Gabon, 51 endemic or potential endemic viral infectious diseases have been reported. Among them, 22 are of zoonotic origin and involve 12 families of viruses. The most notorious are dengue, yellow fever, ebola, marburg, Rift Valley fever and chikungunya viruses. Potential EID due to wildlife in Gabon are thereby plentiful and need to be inventoried. The Gabonese Public Health system covers geographically most of the country allowing a good access to sanitary information and efficient monitoring of emerging diseases. However, access to treatment and prevention is better in urban areas where medical structures are more developed and financial means are concentrated even though the population is equally distributed between urban and rural areas. In spite of this, Gabon could be a good field for investigating the emergence or re-emergence of zoonotic EID. Indeed Gabonese health research structures such as CIRMF, advantageously located, offer high quality researchers and facilities that study pathogens and wildlife ecology, aiming toward a better understanding of the contact and transmission mechanisms of new pathogens from wildlife to human, the emergence of zoonotic EID and the breaking of species barriers by pathogens. PMID:22460397

  4. Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Infectious Disease Hospital Kano, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, Ebenezer Feyisayo; Oyeyi, Esther Tinuade Ibijoke; Bichi, ArmaYau Hamisu; Mbah, Henry Akwen; Torpey, Kwasi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of morbidity in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites and its association with immunological status and risk factors among HIV infected patients in Kano, Nigeria. Methods 105 HIV+ subjects and 50 HIV- controls were recruited into the studies from June to December 2010. Clinical information was collected using a questionnaire. Single stool and venous blood samples were collected from each subject. Stool examination and CD4+ count were performed. Results Prevalence of intestinal parasites was 11.4% and 6% among the HIV+ and control subjects respectively with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.389). Specifically, the following intestinal parasites were isolated from HIV+ subjects: Entamoebahistolytica (5.7%), hookworm (3.8%), Entamoeba coli (1%), Blastocystishominis (1%). Only Entamoebahistolytica was isolated among the control subjects. The mean CD4+ count of HIV+ and control subjects was 287 cells/ul and 691 cells/µlrespectively while the median was 279(Q1-120, Q3-384) cell/µl and 691(Q1-466, Q3-852) cell/µlrespectively with statistically significant difference (P= 0.021). Diarrhea and the absence of anti-parasitic therapy seem to be important risk factors associated with the occurrence of intestinal parasites among HIV+ subjects. A higher prevalence (14.5%) of intestinal parasites was observed in subject with CD4+ count 350cell/µl. Conclusion Routine examination for intestinal parasites should be carried out for better management of HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:25328591

  6. Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Certain foodborne ...

  7. Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut Indiana Emergency Rule Indiana's Emergency Rule for Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut (TCD) will be effective

    E-print Network

    Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut ­ Indiana Emergency Rule Indiana's Emergency Rule, and recently added Tennessee may not come into Indiana without an inspection at the point of origin by a state before they are to come into Indiana. The primary concern is Tennessee as it is the most likely source

  8. Tradition and transition: parasitic zoonoses of people and animals in Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zoonotic parasites have been recognized as important causes of endemic and emerging human disease in northern North America and Greenland, with increased prevalence of some parasites in Indigenous and northern residents as compared to the general North American population. This is in part due to tr...

  9. Diversification and host switching in avian malaria parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E; Fallon, Sylvia M

    2002-01-01

    The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management. PMID:12028770

  10. Treatment of Parasitic Skin Diseases with Dimeticones A New Family of Compounds with a Purely Physical Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) are common in the tropics and sub-tropics. They are caused by mites, lice and other blood-sucking insects. In resource-poor countries they are associated with considerable morbidity. Hitherto, EPSD are treated with insecticides with a neurotoxic mode of action. The efficacy of this treatment is variable, and the development and spread of resistant mites and lice is alarming. A new concept for treating EPSD is presented which is based on the topical application of dimeticones, silicone oils of low viscosity which rapidly kill insects and mites by a physical mode of action. They creep into the respiratory system and block oxygen supply. The physical mode of action makes the development of resistant parasite strains very unlikely. Due to their safety and efficacy, dimeticones are promising candidates for population-based intervention programmes targeted against EPSD in resource-poor settings. PMID:25425946

  11. Treatment of parasitic skin diseases with dimeticones a new family of compounds with a purely physical mode of action.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, Hermann

    2014-06-01

    Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) are common in the tropics and sub-tropics. They are caused by mites, lice and other blood-sucking insects. In resource-poor countries they are associated with considerable morbidity. Hitherto, EPSD are treated with insecticides with a neurotoxic mode of action. The efficacy of this treatment is variable, and the development and spread of resistant mites and lice is alarming. A new concept for treating EPSD is presented which is based on the topical application of dimeticones, silicone oils of low viscosity which rapidly kill insects and mites by a physical mode of action. They creep into the respiratory system and block oxygen supply. The physical mode of action makes the development of resistant parasite strains very unlikely. Due to their safety and efficacy, dimeticones are promising candidates for population-based intervention programmes targeted against EPSD in resource-poor settings. PMID:25425946

  12. The Role of HLA-G Molecule and HLA-G Gene Polymorphisms in Tumors, Viral Hepatitis, and Parasitic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fabrício C; Castelli, Erick C; Collares, Cristhianna V A; Moreau, Philippe; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2015-01-01

    Considering that the non-classical HLA-G molecule has well-recognized tolerogenic properties, HLA-G expression is expected to be deleterious when present in tumor cells and in cells chronically infected by viruses, whereas HLA-G expression is expected to be advantageous in autoimmune disorders. The expression of HLA-G on tissue or peripheral blood cells, the levels of soluble HLA-G and polymorphic sites along the gene have been studied in several disorders. In this study, we revised the role of the molecule and polymorphic sites along the HLA-G gene in tumors, viral hepatitis, and parasitic disorders. Overall, several lines of evidence clearly show that the induction of HLA-G expression in tumors has been associated with worse disease outcome and disease spread. In addition, the few studies conducted on hepatitis and parasitic disorders indicate that HLA-G may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Few isolated polymorphic sites, primarily located at the coding or 3' untranslated HLA-G region, have been evaluated in these disorders, and a complete HLA-G typing together with the study of gene regulatory elements may further help on the understanding of the influence of the genetic background on disease susceptibility. PMID:25699038

  13. The "other diseases" of the Millennium Development Goals: rhetoric and reality of free drug distribution to cure the poor's parasites.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tim; Parker, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The sixth MDG aims 'to combat HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria and other diseases'. The residual category of 'other diseases' has become the focus of intense interest, partly because it has provided an opportunity to increase resources for the control of the mostly parasitic 'neglected tropical diseases' (NTDs). Intense lobbying has secured large amounts of funding from donors, as well as generous donations of medicines from the major drug companies. A massive programme is now underway to treat the parasites of the poor in Africa via integrated vertical interventions of mass drug administration in endemic areas. The approach has been hailed as remarkably effective, with claims that there is now a real prospect of complete control and, for some NTDs, even elimination. However, a closer look at evaluation and research data reveals that much less is known about what is being achieved than is suggested. Competition between implementing organisations is leading to potentially counterproductive exaggerations about treatment coverage. Detailed local-level research in Uganda and Tanzania shows that actual rates of drug take-up among target populations are often lower than is necessary to effectively control the diseases, and that methods of drug distribution may even lead to active resistance to treatment. If current trends are not corrected, declining rates of NTD infection will not be sustained. Much more rigorous and effective monitoring is essential. PMID:21591302

  14. Emerging Therapeutic Strategies for Treating Alzheimer's Disease in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    This Academic Highlights section of The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry presents a report from “Global Challenges in Alzheimer's Disease: Emerging Therapeutic Strategies,” a satellite symposium of the Eleventh Annual International Congress of the International Psychogeriatric Association held August 20, 2003, in Chicago, Ill. The symposium and this Academic Highlights were sponsored by an unrestricted educational grant from Forest Laboratories, Inc. The chair was George T. Grossberg, M.D., Department of Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Louis University Health Science Center and Wohl Clinic, St. Louis, Mo. The other faculty members were Jody Corey-Bloom, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego and Veteran's Affairs Medical Center, La Jolla, Calif.; Gary W. Small, M.D., Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles; and Pierre N. Tariot, M.D., Departments of Psychiatry, Medicine, and Neurology and the Center for Aging and Developmental Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center and Monroe Community Hospital, Rochester, N.Y. PMID:15213797

  15. Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan: Disease Emergence, Clinical Signs, Complications and Preliminary-associated Economic Losses.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Ababneh, M M; Al Zoubi, I G; Al Sheyab, O M; Al Zoubi, M G; Alekish, M O; Al Gharabat, R J

    2013-10-21

    The objectives of this study are to report the emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Jordan and associated clinical signs, complications and preliminary economic losses. In mid-April, 2013, two adult dairy cattle developed clinical signs suggestive of LSD and were confirmed as positive by PCR. The two cases were in Bani Kenanah district, Irbid governorate, on the Jordanian border of Israel and Syria. The disease spread rapidly to all the districts of Irbid governorate. During the month following the emergence of the disease, data were collected related to the epidemiology of the disease and the numbers of affected cattle on the premises. Forty-one dairy cattle holdings were surveyed. The morbidity rate ranged from 3% to 100%, (Mean = 35.1%, SD ±28.5%). The mortality rate ranged from 0% to 20%, (Mean = 1.3%, SD ±4.4%). The case fatality rate ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 6.2%, SD ±22%). The overall morbidity rate was 26%, mortality rate 1.9% and case fatality rate 7.5%. Skin nodules, anorexia, decreased milk production and decreased body weight were common clinical signs, while mastitis and myiasis were seen as complications in a few affected animals. Decreased body weight ranged from 0% to 80%, (Mean = 23.1%, SD ±15.7%). Decreased milk production ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 51.5%, SD ±22.2%). Affected cattle were treated mainly with broad-spectrum antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. The cost of treatment ranged from 0 to 84.3 British Pound/animal, (Mean = 27.9 GBP, SD ±22.5 GBP). LSD continues to spread through the Middle East region and poses a serious threat to the rest of Asia and Europe. International collaboration and communication is warranted to prevent the further spread of the disease to the rest of Asia and Europe. PMID:24148185

  16. Parasitic gastro-enteritis in lambs — A model for estimating the timing of the larval emergence peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J. R.; Thomas, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    The life history of the nematode parasites of domestic ruminants usually involves the development and survival of free-living stages on pasture. The pasture is, therefore, the site of deposition, development and transmission of nematode infection and meteorological factors affecting the pasture will affect the parasites. Recently Thomas and Starr (1978) discussed an empirical technique for forecasting the timing of the summer wave of gastro-intestinal parasitism in North-East England in the lamb crop using meteorological data and in particular estimates of the duration of “surface wetness”. This paper presents an attempt to model “surface wetness” and the temperature limitation to nematode development.

  17. Emergence of Polycystic Neotropical Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Stich, August; Frosch, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis of increasing concern. In 1903, the first cases of human polycystic echinococcosis, a disease resembling alveolar echinococcosis, emerged in Argentina. One of the parasites responsible, Echinococcus oligarthrus, had been discovered in its adult strobilar stage before 1850. However, >100 years passed from the first description of the adult parasite to the recognition that this species is responsible for some cases of human neotropical polycystic echinococcosis and the elucidation of the parasite’s life cycle. A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972. Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species. To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries. PMID:18258123

  18. Worms, slugs and humans: the medical and popular construction of an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Grisotti, Márcia; Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias de

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the worm Angiostrongylus costaricensis parasitizing land snails and humans in Southern Brazil suggests under-diagnosis and under-notification of patients with abdominal angiostrongyliasis. This article analyzes how the concept of abdominal angiostrongyliasis was constructed in different ways in Costa Rica and Brazil and how these changes affected the understanding of its clinical and epidemiological diagnosis. The research shows that abdominal angiostrongyliasis is, de facto, a sociocultural construct, although the parasites and vectors are real. The analisys also shows the importance of an interdisciplinary approach for understanding disease. PMID:22012103

  19. Risk Analysis For Invasive Species And Emerging Infectious Diseases: Concepts And Applications

    E-print Network

    Risk Analysis For Invasive Species And Emerging Infectious Diseases: Concepts And Applications JOHN ABSTRACT.--Management and control of biological invasions and emerging infectious diseases are leading the dynamics of feral nutria (Myocastor coypus) in East Anglia, UK, and infection by bovine tuberculosis

  20. Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Anderson, M; Ritchie, B W; Ciembor, P; Rimoldi, G; Piazza, M; Pesti, D; Clifford, D L; Giannitti, F

    2014-12-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California. PMID:25445322

  1. Emerging infectious diseases: a 10-year perspective from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fauci, Anthony S; Touchette, Nancy A; Folkers, Gregory K

    2005-04-01

    Although optimists once imagined that serious infectious disease threats would by now be conquered, newly emerging (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), reemerging (e.g., West Nile virus), and even deliberately disseminated infectious diseases (e.g., anthrax bioterrorism) continue to appear throughout the world. Over the past decade, the global effort to identify and characterize infectious agents, decipher the underlying pathways by which they cause disease, and develop preventive measures and treatments for many of the world's most dangerous pathogens has resulted in considerable progress. Intramural and extramural investigators supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have contributed substantially to this effort. This overview highlights selected NIAID-sponsored research advances over the past decade, with a focus on progress in combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, and potential bioterror agents. Many basic research discoveries have been translated into novel diagnostics, antiviral and antimicrobial compounds, and vaccines, often with extraordinary speed. PMID:15829188

  2. Bartonellosis: one health perspectives for an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Breitschwerdt, Edward Bealmear

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of Bartonella species have been identified as zoonotic pathogens, transmitted by animal bites, scratches, arthropods and even by needle sticks. Considering the diversity of newly discovered Bartonella species and subspecies and the large number and ecologically diverse animal reservoir hosts and the evolving spectrum of arthropod vectors that can transmit these bacteria among animals and humans, the clinical and diagnostic challenges posed by Bartonella transmission in nature are presumably much more complex than is currently appreciated by diagnosticians, vector biologists, ecologists, physicians, or veterinarians. Historically the term "bartonellosis" was attributed to infections with Bartonella bacilliformis, transmitted by sandflies in the Peruvian Andes. Currently, however, bartonellosis now includes infections caused by any Bartonella sp. anywhere in the world. Potentially, because Bartonella spp. can infect erythrocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, CD34(+) progenitor cells, and various macrophage-type cells, including microglial cells, dendritic cells, and circulating monocytes in vitro, the clinical and pathological manifestations of bartonellosis appear to be very diverse in both sick animals and human patients. Because 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, many of which are vector-transmitted by an arthropod, a One Health approach to bartonellosis and other zoonotic infections is needed to properly address animal health, public health, and environmental factors that influence the distribution and transmission of these bacteria. The One Health concept encourages a spirit of cooperation among animal, environmental, and human health professionals and promotes developing integrated solutions for complex problems that impact the health of animals, humans, and the planet. Importantly, substantial research is needed to define the medical importance of this genus as a cause of animal and human illnesses. PMID:24936029

  3. Quantifying Trends in Disease Impact to Produce a Consistent and Reproducible Definition of an Emerging Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Sebastian; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Jones, Kate E.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The proper allocation of public health resources for research and control requires quantification of both a disease's current burden and the trend in its impact. Infectious diseases that have been labeled as “emerging infectious diseases” (EIDs) have received heightened scientific and public attention and resources. However, the label ‘emerging’ is rarely backed by quantitative analysis and is often used subjectively. This can lead to over-allocation of resources to diseases that are incorrectly labelled “emerging,” and insufficient allocation of resources to diseases for which evidence of an increasing or high sustained impact is strong. We suggest a simple quantitative approach, segmented regression, to characterize the trends and emergence of diseases. Segmented regression identifies one or more trends in a time series and determines the most statistically parsimonious split(s) (or joinpoints) in the time series. These joinpoints in the time series indicate time points when a change in trend occurred and may identify periods in which drivers of disease impact change. We illustrate the method by analyzing temporal patterns in incidence data for twelve diseases. This approach provides a way to classify a disease as currently emerging, re-emerging, receding, or stable based on temporal trends, as well as to pinpoint the time when the change in these trends happened. We argue that quantitative approaches to defining emergence based on the trend in impact of a disease can, with appropriate context, be used to prioritize resources for research and control. Implementing this more rigorous definition of an EID will require buy-in and enforcement from scientists, policy makers, peer reviewers and journal editors, but has the potential to improve resource allocation for global health. PMID:23967065

  4. The Emergency Response Network of the Great Lakes Regional Center of Excellence exists to provide aid during a bio-defense emergency related to emerging infectious diseases or an act of bioterrorism.

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    aid during a bio- defense emergency related to emerging infectious diseases or an act of bioterrorism. The Emergency Response Plan (ERP) incorporates and supplements each entity's existing bioterror or pathogen

  5. Radiology — including computed tomography — of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bhargava

    1983-01-01

    Summary Neurocysticercosis is the commonest parasitic infection seen in India. Echinococcus is rare. In cysticercosis multiple diffuse cystic parenchymal lesions predominate in the East, whereas multiple diffuse basal racemose ones predominate in the West. Because of their protean and varied clinical picture, each patient in the past had at least two contrast studies and some even three such studies, before

  6. Emerging horizons of salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, L; Yakob, M; Wong, D T W

    2014-11-01

    The field of salivary diagnostics to allow risk determination for periodontal diseases is advancing. New technologies in proteomics, genomics and nanotechnologies have continued the discovery of discriminatory periodontal disease biomarkers. This review briefly overviews biomarker studies that have been completed in saliva for the detection of periodontal disease since 2010. Disease specific biomarkers could be used in risk determination, treatment planning and disease progression. Currently, diagnostic tests are commercially available, and the development of point-of-care tests is expanding. Even though challenges remain, salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease is promising and could facilitate the diagnostics and treatment in a clinical practice by dental practitioners. PMID:25415010

  7. Diabetic emergencies: new strategies for an old disease.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Gerald

    2014-06-01

    Diabetic emergencies are common presentations to the emergency department. It is estimated that diabetes affects 25.8 million people in the United States, at an annual total cost of over $174 billion. There are 2 general categories of diabetic emergencies: hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic. The hyperglycemic emergencies include diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Management of these conditions requires a careful hydration strategy to restore volume and improve perfusion, intravenous insulin therapy, and electrolyte monitoring. Management of hypoglycemia includes identification of the underlying etiology, oral food and/or glucose, intravenous dextrose, and consideration of glucagon. This review evaluates the current strategies for management of diabetic emergencies and offers new information regarding effective diagnostic strategies, selection of fluids for rehydration, correction of potassium, the use of subcutaneous insulin for mild hyperglycemia, and management of metformin-induced lactic acidosis. PMID:25299033

  8. Cassava brown streak disease re-emerges in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Omongo; R. J. Hillocks; R. Kawuki; G. W. Otim-Nape

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is an important virus disease that damages the starch-bearing tuberous roots of cassava. The disease is endemic in the coastal lowlands of Eastern Africa and the coastal strip of Lake Malawi. CBSD has rarely been seen at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level, although the reason for this is unknown. CBSD is maintained through

  9. 76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products.'' The purpose of the public...

  10. Evidence-based management of Kawasaki disease in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Kara K; Kharbanda, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, was first described in Japan in 1967. It is currently the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in the United States. Untreated Kawasaki disease may lead to the formation of coronary artery aneurysms and sudden cardiac death in children. This vasculitis presents with fever for ? 5 days, plus a combination of key criteria. Because each of the symptoms commonly occurs in other childhood illnesses, the disease can be difficult to diagnose, especially in children who present with an incomplete form of the disease. At this time, the etiology of the disease remains unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test to confirm the diagnosis. This issue reviews the presentation, diagnostic criteria, and management of Kawasaki disease in the emergency department. Emergency clinicians should consider Kawasaki disease as a diagnosis in pediatric patients presenting with prolonged fever, as prompt evaluation and management can significantly decrease the risk of serious cardiac sequelae. PMID:25693305

  11. Emerging novel concept of chaperone therapies for protein misfolding diseases

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Chaperone therapy is a newly developed molecular therapeutic approach to protein misfolding diseases. Among them we found unstable mutant enzyme proteins in a few lysosomal diseases, resulting in rapid intracellular degradation and loss of function. Active-site binding low molecular competitive inhibitors (chemical chaperones) paradoxically stabilized and enhanced the enzyme activity in somatic cells by correction of the misfolding of enzyme protein. They reached the brain through the blood-brain barrier after oral administration, and corrected pathophysiology of the disease. In addition to these inhibitory chaperones, non-competitive chaperones without inhibitory bioactivity are being developed. Furthermore molecular chaperone therapy utilizing the heat shock protein and other chaperone proteins induced by small molecules has been experimentally tried to handle abnormally accumulated proteins as a new approach particularly to neurodegenerative diseases. These three types of chaperones are promising candidates for various types of diseases, genetic or non-genetic, and neurological or non-neurological, in addition to lysosomal diseases. PMID:24814990

  12. Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: A Global Problem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Morse (Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University; )

    2004-05-01

    The issue-focused interview reflects on how infectious diseases, such as SARS and AIDS, are a more serious global problem than in the past because: urban populations are growing, thereby increasing opportunities for person-to-person transmittal of these diseases, people are more prone to be in contact with animals that may pass on zoonotic diseases, and public health services may not be equipped to deal with some infectious outbreaks.

  13. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings. PMID:24232191

  14. Inbreeding and parasite sex ratios 

    E-print Network

    Nee, Sean; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F

    2002-01-01

    The breeding system of parasitic protozoa affects the evolution of drug resistance and virulence, and is relevant to disease diagnosis and the development of chemo- and immunotherapy. A major group of protozoan parasites, ...

  15. Chikungunya virus: is this the next emerging disease threat to the americas?

    PubMed

    Girimont, Trina M

    2014-12-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne infection for which no cure or vaccine is available. It made its first appearance in the Americas in December 2013. Seven months later, two locally acquired cases of the disease emerged in the United States. The emergence of chikungunya fever cases in the Americas emphasizes the need for sustained vector control, clear public health information, and disease awareness and surveillance. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(12):489-490.]. PMID:25486680

  16. Emerging Marine Diseases: Climate Links and Anthropogenic Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Harvell; K. Kim; J. M. Burkholder; R. R. Colwell; P. R. Epstein; D. J. Grimes; E. E. Hoffmann; E. K. Lipp; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; Robin M. Overstreet; J. W. Porter; G. W. Smith; G. R. Vasta

    1999-01-01

    Mass mortalities due to disease outbreaks have recently affected major taxa in the oceans. For closely monitored groups like corals and marine mammals, reports of the frequency of epidemics and the number of new diseases have increased recently. A dramatic global increase in the severity of coral bleaching in 1997-98 is coincident with high El Niño temperatures. Such climate-mediated, physiological

  17. Parasite infection and tuberculosis disease among children: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Franke, Molly F; Del Castillo, Hernán; Pereda, Ynés; Lecca, Leonid; Fuertes, Jhoelma; Cárdenas, Luz; Becerra, Mercedes C; Bayona, Jaime; Murray, Megan

    2014-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study to examine associations between parasite infection, including protozoa infection, and tuberculosis (TB) in children in Lima, Peru. We enrolled 189 matched-pairs. In multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses, Blastocystis hominis infection (rate ratio = 0.30, 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.64, P = 0.002) was strongly associated with a lower risk of TB. We observed a statistically significant inverse linear dose-response relationship between Blastocystis hominis infection and TB. These findings should be confirmed in future prospective studies. PMID:24379242

  18. Parasite Infection and Tuberculosis Disease among Children: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Molly F.; del Castillo, Hernán; Pereda, Ynés; Lecca, Leonid; Fuertes, Jhoelma; Cárdenas, Luz; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Bayona, Jaime; Murray, Megan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a case–control study to examine associations between parasite infection, including protozoa infection, and tuberculosis (TB) in children in Lima, Peru. We enrolled 189 matched-pairs. In multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses, Blastocystis hominis infection (rate ratio = 0.30, 95% confidence interval = 0.14–0.64, P = 0.002) was strongly associated with a lower risk of TB. We observed a statistically significant inverse linear dose-response relationship between Blastocystis hominis infection and TB. These findings should be confirmed in future prospective studies. PMID:24379242

  19. Parasite host range and the evolution of host resistance.

    PubMed

    Gorter, F A; Hall, A R; Buckling, A; Scanlan, P D

    2015-05-01

    Parasite host range plays a pivotal role in the evolution and ecology of hosts and the emergence of infectious disease. Although the factors that promote host range and the epidemiological consequences of variation in host range are relatively well characterized, the effect of parasite host range on host resistance evolution is less well understood. In this study, we tested the impact of parasite host range on host resistance evolution. To do so, we used the host bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and a diverse suite of coevolved viral parasites (lytic bacteriophage ?2) with variable host ranges (defined here as the number of host genotypes that can be infected) as our experimental model organisms. Our results show that resistance evolution to coevolved phages occurred at a much lower rate than to ancestral phage (approximately 50% vs. 100%), but the host range of coevolved phages did not influence the likelihood of resistance evolution. We also show that the host range of both single parasites and populations of parasites does not affect the breadth of the resulting resistance range in a naïve host but that hosts that evolve resistance to single parasites are more likely to resist other (genetically) more closely related parasites as a correlated response. These findings have important implications for our understanding of resistance evolution in natural populations of bacteria and viruses and other host-parasite combinations with similar underlying infection genetics, as well as the development of phage therapy. PMID:25851735

  20. Preparing for Emergencies: A Checklist for People with Neuromuscular Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as a manual wheelchair, at a neighbor’s home, school or your workplace. F or the millions of Americans with limited mobility, emergencies such as fires and floods present a special challenge. Protecting yourself and your family when disaster strikes requires planning ahead. This checklist will help ...

  1. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. PMID:23812027

  2. NOD2 prevents emergence of disease-predisposing microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Secher, Thomas; Normand, Sylvain; Chamaillard, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The gut flora is composed of a huge number of diverse, well-adapted symbionts that interact with epithelial lining throughout the host's entire life. Not all commensals have the same ability to maintain quiescent, protective inflammation. Importantly, instability in the composition of gut microbial communities (referred to as dysbiosis) has been linked to loss of gut barrier in the context of common human illnesses with increasing socio-economic impacts, such as Crohn disease and colorectal cancer. Our recent findings suggest that disease-predisposing dysbiosis can now be intentionally manipulated by targeting the major Crohn disease-predisposing NOD2 gene. That knowledge will not only add a new dimension to the often overlooked microbiology of Crohn disease and colorectal cancer, but will also have a broad impact on biomedical sciences worldwide. PMID:23778641

  3. Immuno-pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease: Current and Emerging Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Nasi; Gibson, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is a highly complex disease involving many factors; however, two principal facets central to initiation and progression of the majority of PD are the composition of the microbes in the sub-gingival plaque, and the host immune response to these organisms. Numerous studies point to the complexity of PD, and to the fact that despite innate and adaptive immune activation, and resultant inflammation, our immune response fails to cure disease. Stunning new findings have begun to clarify several complexities of the host-pathogen interaction of PD pointing to key roles for microbial dysboisis and immune imbalance in the pathogenesis of disease. Furthermore, these investigations have identified novel translational opportunities to intercede in PD treatment. In this review we will highlight a select few recent findings in innate and adaptive immunity, and host pathogen interactions of PD at a micro-environmental level that may have profound impact on PD progression. PMID:24839590

  4. NOD2 prevents emergence of disease-predisposing microbiota.

    PubMed

    Secher, Thomas; Normand, Sylvain; Chamaillard, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The gut flora is composed of a huge number of diverse, well-adapted symbionts that interact with epithelial lining throughout the host's entire life. Not all commensals have the same ability to maintain quiescent, protective inflammation. Importantly, instability in the composition of gut microbial communities (referred to as dysbiosis) has been linked to loss of gut barrier in the context of common human illnesses with increasing socio-economic impacts, such as Crohn disease and colorectal cancer. Our recent findings suggest that disease-predisposing dysbiosis can now be intentionally manipulated by targeting the major Crohn disease-predisposing NOD2 gene. That knowledge will not only add a new dimension to the often overlooked microbiology of Crohn disease and colorectal cancer, but will also have a broad impact on biomedical sciences worldwide. PMID:23778641

  5. The Emerging Role of Interleukin1? in Autoinflammatory Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen J. Lachmann

    The autoinflammatory syndromes are a group of multisystem disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and systemic\\u000a inflammation affecting the eyes, joints, skin, and serosal surfaces in the absence of an immune reaction. Recent advances\\u000a have revealed the importance of interleukin-1?, not only in the pathogenesis of many of these rare inherited diseases, but\\u000a also in acquired diseases. The development

  6. Parasites in marine food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Most species interactions probably involve parasites. This review considers the extent to which marine ecologists should consider parasites to fully understand marine communities. Parasites are influential parts of food webs in estuaries, temperate reefs, and coral reefs, but their ecological importance is seldom recognized. Though difficult to observe, parasites can have substantial biomass, and they can be just as common as free-living consumers after controlling for body mass and trophic level. Parasites have direct impacts on the energetics of their hosts and some affect host behaviors, with ecosystem-level consequences. Although they cause disease, parasites are sensitive components of ecosystems. In particular, they suffer secondary extinctions due to biodiversity loss. Some parasites can also return to a system after habitat restoration. For these reasons, parasites can make good indicators of ecosystem integrity. Fishing can indirectly increase or decrease parasite populations and the effects of climate change on parasites are likely to be equally as complex.

  7. Surveillance for pneumonic plague in the United States during an international emergency: a model for control of imported emerging diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, C. L.; Dennis, D. T.; Tipple, M. A.; Campbell, G. L.; McCance, C. R.; Gubler, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    In September 1994, in response to a reported epidemic of plague in India, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) enhanced surveillance in the United States for imported pneumonic plague. Plague information materials were rapidly developed and distributed to U.S. public health officials by electronic mail, facsimile, and expedited publication. Information was also provided to medical practitioners and the public by recorded telephone messages and facsimile transmission. Existing quarantine protocols were modified to effect active surveillance for imported plague cases at U.S. airports. Private physicians and state and local health departments were relied on in a passive surveillance system to identify travelers with suspected plague not detected at airports. From September 27 to October 27, the surveillance system identified 13 persons with suspected plague; no case was confirmed. This coordinated response to an international health emergency may serve as a model for detecting other emerging diseases and preventing their importation. PMID:8964057

  8. Emerging prion disease drives host selection in a wildlife population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Johnson, Chad J; Adams, Marie; McKenzie, Debbie I

    2012-04-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly recognized as an important force driving population dynamics, conservation biology, and natural selection in wildlife populations. Infectious agents have been implicated in the decline of small or endangered populations and may act to constrain population size, distribution, growth rates, or migration patterns. Further, diseases may provide selective pressures that shape the genetic diversity of populations or species. Thus, understanding disease dynamics and selective pressures from pathogens is crucial to understanding population processes, managing wildlife diseases, and conserving biological diversity. There is ample evidence that variation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) impacts host susceptibility to prion diseases. Still, little is known about how genetic differences might influence natural selection within wildlife populations. Here we link genetic variation with differential susceptibility of white-tailed deer to chronic wasting disease (CWD), with implications for fitness and disease-driven genetic selection. We developed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay to efficiently genotype deer at the locus of interest (in the 96th codon of the PRNP gene). Then, using a Bayesian modeling approach, we found that the more susceptible genotype had over four times greater risk of CWD infection; and, once infected, deer with the resistant genotype survived 49% longer (8.25 more months). We used these epidemiological parameters in a multi-stage population matrix model to evaluate relative fitness based on genotype-specific population growth rates. The differences in disease infection and mortality rates allowed genetically resistant deer to achieve higher population growth and obtain a long-term fitness advantage, which translated into a selection coefficient of over 1% favoring the CWD-resistant genotype. This selective pressure suggests that the resistant allele could become dominant in the population within an evolutionarily short time frame. Our work provides a rare example of a quantifiable disease-driven selection process in a wildlife population, demonstrating the potential for infectious diseases to alter host populations. This will have direct bearing on the epidemiology, dynamics, and future trends in CWD transmission and spread. Understanding genotype-specific epidemiology will improve predictive models and inform management strategies for CWD-affected cervid populations. PMID:22645831

  9. Is Type D personality here to stay? Emerging evidence across cardiovascular disease patient groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne S. Pedersen; Johan Denollet

    2006-01-01

    The distressed personality (Type D) is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) that incurs a risk on par with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ischemic heart disease. Type D is defined as the co-occurring tendencies to experience increased negative emotions and to inhibit self-expression in social interactions. Evidence is ac- cumulating that Type D may also be

  10. GIS-Based Epidemiological Modeling of an Emerging Forest Disease: Spread of

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    247 GIS-Based Epidemiological Modeling of an Emerging Forest Disease: Spread of Sudden Oak Death applied in a GIS to real-world wildland landscapes. In this paper, we present and evaluate a GIS model was implemented (1990-2005) in a GIS to simulate disease spread across California at a spatial

  11. The emerging mysteries of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Smit, Wouter; Barnes, Eleanor

    2014-12-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is increasingly recognised in Western societies as a multi-system, inflammatory, fibrosing disease of unknown aetiology that typically, though not exclusively, presents in older men. The clinical manifestations are diverse and almost any organ may be affected. The cardinal histological features are a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis and an abundance of IgG4+ plasma cells in affected organs. Serum IgG4 levels are elevated in approximately 70% of patients and are a useful biomarker when present. IgG4-RD is frequently misdiagnosed as malignancy. Making the correct diagnosis is important as the disease is usually steroid responsive, although relapse rates are high. Second-line immunosuppressive agents and B-cell depletion therapy have also been used in retreatment strategies. Recent data suggests that the disease is associated with both progressive organ failure and malignancy. The biological mechanisms driving IgG4-RD remain unclear but this is currently an area of intense scientific investigation. Broadly, IgG4+ B cells are thought to exhibit a regulatory phenotype, but it is not known if these are pathogenic or simply represent a bystander effect. Extending our understanding of the role of IgG4 immunoglobulins in health and disease, the assessment of B and T cell immune phenotype, and large genetic studies of IgG4-RD may enhance our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Ultimately it may be that there is not a single, simple unifying aetiology and so careful stratification of disease by clinical phenotype will be required in multi-centre prospective clinical cohorts. These cohorts will also be essential for the study of treatment outcomes with novel therapies. PMID:25468921

  12. Emerging links between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Gumpeny R; Lakshmi, Gumpeny; Nagamani, Gumpeny

    2015-06-10

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease are both associated with increasing age, and each increases the risk of development of the other. Epidemiological, clinical, biochemical and imaging studies have shown that elevated glucose levels and diabetes are associated with cognitive dysfunction, the most prevalent cause of which is Alzheimer's disease. Cross sectional studies have clearly shown such an association, whereas longitudinal studies are equivocal, reflecting the many complex ways in which the two interact. Despite the dichotomy, common risk and etiological factors (obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and sedentary habits) are recognized; correction of these by lifestyle changes and pharmacological agents can be expected to prevent or retard the progression of both diseases. Common pathogenic factors in both conditions span a broad sweep including chronic hyperglycemia per se, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, acute hypoglycemic episodes, especially in the elderly, microvascular disease, fibrillar deposits (in brain in Alzheimer's disease and in pancreas in type 2 diabetes), altered insulin processing, inflammation, obesity, dyslipidemia, altered levels of insulin like growth factor and occurrence of variant forms of the protein butyrylcholinesterase. Of interest not only do lifestyle measures have a protective effect against the development of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease, but so do some of the pharmacological agents used in the treatment of diabetes such as insulin (especially when delivered intranasally), metformin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? agonists, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Diabetes must be recognized as a risk for development of Alzheimer's disease; clinicians must ensure preventive care be given to control and postpone both conditions, and to identify cognitive impairment early to manage it appropriately. PMID:26069723

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi in the Chicken Model: Chagas-Like Heart Disease in the Absence of Parasitism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio R. L. Teixeira; Clever Gomes; Nadjar Nitz; Alessandro O. Sousa; Rozeneide M. Alves; Maria C. Guimaro; Ciro Cordeiro; Francisco M. Bernal; Ana C. Rosa; Jiri Hejnar; Eduardo Leonardecz; Mariana M. Hecht

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe administration of anti-trypanosome nitroderivatives curtails Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Chagas disease patients, but does not prevent destructive lesions in the heart. This observation suggests that an effective treatment for the disease requires understanding its pathogenesis.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo understand the origin of clinical manifestations of the heart disease we used a chicken model system in which infection can be initiated in

  14. Malaria is a complex disease, mediated by obligate eukaryot-ic parasites with a life cycle requiring adaption to both ver-

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    Reports Malaria is a complex disease, mediated by obligate eukaryot- ic parasites with a life cycle- brates (1), and has also influenced mosquito evolution (2). Human malaria is transmitted only malaria vectors: The genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes DanielE. Neafsey,1 * RobertM. Waterhouse,2

  15. Cerato-ulmin, a hydrophobin secreted by the causal agents of Dutch elm disease, is a parasitic fitness factor.

    PubMed

    Temple, B; Horgen, P A; Bernier, L; Hintz, W E

    1997-08-01

    Dutch elm disease is caused by the aggressive Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and the nonaggressive O. ulmi. Both secrete the protein cerato-ulmin (CU). To determine what role CU plays in the pathology of Dutch elm disease, we constructed a CU overexpression mutant of the nonaggressive O. ulmi H5. Stable integration of a single copy of the cu gene from the aggressive O. novo-ulmi into the genome of the nonaggressive isolate resulted in increased secretion of CU protein. Trials with American elm, Ulmus americana, suggested no alteration of virulence of this overexpressing transformant. Using aggressive and nonaggressive wild types, the cu overexpressing mutant, and our cu- mutant (Bowden et al., 1996), we have demonstrated that CU production is correlated with an altered phenotype and more hydrophobic and adherent yeast-like cells. Our results also demonstrate that CU has a role in protecting infectious propagules from desiccation. These biological roles for CU would affect transmission of Dutch elm disease, and we therefore propose that this hydrophobin acts as a parasitic fitness factor. PMID:9344630

  16. Uncertainty in predictions of disease spread and public health responses to bioterrorism and emerging diseases

    PubMed Central

    Elderd, Bret D.; Dukic, Vanja M.; Dwyer, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Concerns over bioterrorism and emerging diseases have led to the widespread use of epidemic models for evaluating public health strategies. Partly because epidemic models often capture the dynamics of prior epidemics remarkably well, little attention has been paid to how uncertainty in parameter estimates might affect model predictions. To understand such effects, we used Bayesian statistics to rigorously estimate the uncertainty in the parameters of an epidemic model, focusing on smallpox bioterrorism. We then used a vaccination model to translate the uncertainty in the model parameters into uncertainty in which of two vaccination strategies would provide a better response to bioterrorism, mass vaccination, or vaccination of social contacts, so-called “trace vaccination.” Our results show that the uncertainty in the model parameters is remarkably high and that this uncertainty has important implications for vaccination strategies. For example, under one plausible scenario, the most likely outcome is that mass vaccination would save ?100,000 more lives than trace vaccination. Because of the high uncertainty in the parameters, however, there is also a substantial probability that mass vaccination would save 200,000 or more lives than trace vaccination. In addition to providing the best response to the most likely outcome, mass vaccination thus has the advantage of preventing outcomes that are only slightly less likely but that are substantially more horrific. Rigorous estimates of uncertainty thus can reveal hidden advantages of public health strategies, suggesting that formal uncertainty estimation should play a key role in planning for epidemics. PMID:17030819

  17. Emerging Pathologies in Aquaculture: Effects on Production and Food Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ghittino; M. Latini; F. Agnetti; C. Panzieri; L. Lauro; R. Ciappelloni; G. Petracca

    2003-01-01

    Infectious diseases represent a limiting factor for the further development of Italian aquaculture. The recent introduction and spreading of new pathogens, along with the global climatic change, has contributed to a considerable decrease in trout production. Emerging pathologies in rainbow trout culture include viral diseases, e.g. infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN), bacterial diseases, such as lactococcosis and visceral flavobacteriosis, and parasitical

  18. Machine Learning for Zoonotic Emerging Disease Detection Xiaojin Zhu

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

    jerryzhu@cs.wisc.edu Abstract We might have had an earlier identification of West Nile virus ten years ago a wildlife monitoring system for far upstream detection of zoonotic disease outbreaks. Our system integrates wildlife surveillance from experts, news organizations, citizen scien- tists, and incidental observers. We

  19. Emerging links between homeostatic synaptic plasticity and neurological disease

    PubMed Central

    Wondolowski, Joyce; Dickman, Dion

    2013-01-01

    Homeostatic signaling systems are ubiquitous forms of biological regulation, having been studied for hundreds of years in the context of diverse physiological processes including body temperature and osmotic balance. However, only recently has this concept been brought to the study of excitatory and inhibitory electrical activity that the nervous system uses to establish and maintain stable communication. Synapses are a primary target of neuronal regulation with a variety of studies over the past 15 years demonstrating that these cellular junctions are under bidirectional homeostatic control. Recent work from an array of diverse systems and approaches has revealed exciting new links between homeostatic synaptic plasticity and a variety of seemingly disparate neurological and psychiatric diseases. These include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, schizophrenia, and Fragile X Syndrome. Although the molecular mechanisms through which defective homeostatic signaling may lead to disease pathogenesis remain unclear, rapid progress is likely to be made in the coming years using a powerful combination of genetic, imaging, electrophysiological, and next generation sequencing approaches. Importantly, understanding homeostatic synaptic plasticity at a cellular and molecular level may lead to developments in new therapeutic innovations to treat these diseases. In this review we will examine recent studies that demonstrate homeostatic control of postsynaptic protein translation, retrograde signaling, and presynaptic function that may contribute to the etiology of complex neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:24312013

  20. Weissellosis – An important emerging disease in farmed rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2007, disease outbreaks associated with Weissella sp. bacteria in cultured rainbow trout have been reported on farms in China and Brazil. In the summer and fall of 2011, we visited two trout farms in North Carolina to investigate reports of severe, prolonged mortalities in larger fish approach...

  1. Emerging Candidate Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Saracchi, Enrico; Fermi, Silvia; Brighina, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive motor impairment affecting more than 1% of the over-65 population. In spite of considerable progress in identifying the genetic and biochemical basis of PD, to date the diagnosis remains clinical and disease-modifying therapies continue to be elusive. A cornerstone in recent PD research is the investigation of biological markers that could help in identifying at-risk population or to track disease progression and response to therapies. Although none of these parameters has been validated for routine clinical practice yet, however some biochemical candidates hold great promise for application in PD patients, especially in the early stages of disease, and it is likely that in the future the diagnosis of PD will require a combination of genetic, imaging and laboratory data. In this review we discuss the most interesting biochemical markers for PD (including the “-omics” techniques), focusing on the methodological challenges in using ex vivo blood/CSF/tissue-based biomarkers and suggesting alternative strategies to overcome the difficulties that still prevent their actual use. PMID:24490114

  2. The emerging use of zebrafish to model metabolic disease

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Asha; Stemple, Derek L.; Barroso, Inês

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish research community is celebrating! The zebrafish genome has recently been sequenced, the Zebrafish Mutation Project (launched by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) has published the results of its first large-scale ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen, and a host of new techniques, such as the genome editing technologies TALEN and CRISPR-Cas, are enabling specific mutations to be created in model organisms and investigated in vivo. The zebrafish truly seems to be coming of age. These powerful resources invoke the question of whether zebrafish can be increasingly used to model human disease, particularly common, chronic diseases of metabolism such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In recent years, there has been considerable success, mainly from genomic approaches, in identifying genetic variants that are associated with these conditions in humans; however, mechanistic insights into the role of implicated disease loci are lacking. In this Review, we highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of zebrafish to address the organism’s utility as a model system for human metabolic diseases. PMID:24046387

  3. Migrations and the introduction of wild ruminants as a source of parasite exchange and emergence of new parasitoses.

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between European bison and cervidae is a good model for studies on the influence of migration and introduction of new species on the helmhninthofauna of wild ruminants and the occurrence of new parasitoses. Changes in the helminthofauna of bison and deer under the influence of changes in the environment and living conditions, as well as the introduction and migration of other species, are discussed in detail. The exchange of helminths between bison, cervids and domestic ruminants is demonstrated. Examples of helminth introduction from specific Cervidae species, the formation of the new host-parasite systems and the appearance of new parasitoses are also presented. PMID:24930243

  4. Ethical issues in the response to Ebola virus disease in US emergency departments: a position paper of the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Wolf, Lisa; Geiderman, Joel M; Asher, Shellie L; Marco, Catherine A; McGreevy, Jolion; Derse, Arthur R; Otten, Edward J; Jesus, John E; Kreitzer, Natalie P; Escalante, Monica; Levine, Adam C

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has presented a significant public health crisis to the international health community and challenged US emergency departments to prepare for patients with a disease of exceeding rarity in developed nations. With the presentation of patients with Ebola to US acute care facilities, ethical questions have been raised in both the press and medical literature as to how US emergency departments, emergency physicians, emergency nurses and other stakeholders in the healthcare system should approach the current epidemic and its potential for spread in the domestic environment. To address these concerns, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine developed this joint position paper to provide guidance to US emergency physicians, emergency nurses and other stakeholders in the healthcare system on how to approach the ethical dilemmas posed by the outbreak of EVD. This paper will address areas of immediate and potential ethical concern to US emergency departments in how they approach preparation for and management of potential patients with EVD. PMID:25770003

  5. Emerging viral disease risk to pollinating insects: ecological, evolutionary and anthropogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Robyn; Boots, Mike; Wilfert, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The potential for infectious pathogens to spillover and emerge from managed populations to wildlife communities is poorly understood, but ecological, evolutionary and anthropogenic factors are all likely to influence the initial exposure and subsequent infection, spread and impact of disease. Fast-evolving RNA viruses, known to cause severe colony losses in managed honeybee populations, deserve particular attention for their propensity to jump between host species and thus threaten ecologically and economically important wild pollinator communities. We review the literature on pollinator viruses to identify biological and anthropogenic drivers of disease emergence, highlight gaps in the literature, and discuss potential management strategies. We provide evidence that many wild pollinator species are exposed to viruses from commercial species, resulting in multiple spillover events. However, it is not clear whether species become infected as a result of spillover or whether transmission is occurring within these wild populations. Ecological traits of pollinating insects, such as overlapping ranges, niches and behaviours, clearly promote cross-species transmission of RNA viruses. Moreover, we conclude that the social behaviour and phylogenetic relatedness of social pollinators further facilitate within- and between-host transmission, leaving these species particularly vulnerable to emerging diseases. We argue that the commercial use of pollinators is a key driver of disease emergence in these beneficial insects and that this must be addressed by management and policy. Synthesis and applications. There are important knowledge gaps, ranging from disease distribution and prevalence, to pathogen life history and virulence, to the impacts of disease emergence, which need to be addressed as research priorities. It is clear that avoiding anthropogenic pathogen spillover is crucial to preventing and managing disease emergence in pollinators, with far-reaching effects on our food security, ecosystem services and biodiversity. We argue that it is crucial to prevent the introduction of diseased pollinators into natural environments, which can be achieved through improved monitoring and management practices. PMID:25954053

  6. Does the failure to acquire helminthic parasites predispose to Crohn's disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID E. ELLIOTT; JOE F. URBAN; CURTIS K. ARGO; JOEL V. WEINSTOCK

    2000-01-01

    Two polarized patterns (Th1 and Th2) of cytokines regulate inflammatory responses. Each cytokine pattern inhibits production of the opposing pattern. Lymphocytes from inflamed intestine due to Crohn's disease secrete a Th1 pattern of cytokines. Crohn's disease is most prevalent in highly industri- alized countries with temperate climates. It occurs rarely in tropical third world countries with poor sanitation. We propose

  7. Status of mastitis as an emerging disease in improved and periurban dairy farms in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sachin; Gokhale, Suresh

    2006-10-01

    While reviewing present status of mastitis in India, results of investigations from periurban dairy farms on epidemiological, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, bacterial isolation, in vitro drug sensitivity, and treatment of subclinical mastitis have been presented. Mastitis, on account of its causing serious wastage and undesirable milk quality, is emerging as a major challenge among the others (like breeding improvement, nutrition management, control of infectious, tick-borne, blood, and internal parasitic diseases) in dairy development of tropics. Subclinical mastitis was found more important in India (varying from 10-50% in cows and 5-20% in buffaloes) than clinical mastitis (1-10%). The incidence was highest in Purebred Holsteins and Jerseys and lowest in local cattle and buffaloes. An investigation on 250 animals from periurban farms indicated that the monsoon season was more prone to subclinical mastitis than summer or winter, prevalence increased with higher lactation number and animals in 4th-5th month of lactation were found more susceptible (59.49%), hind quarters were found more affected (56.52%) than fore quarters (43.47%). The factors like herd size, agro climatic conditions of the region, variations in sociocultural practices, milk marketing, literacy level of the animal owner, system of feeding, and management were found important affecting the incidence of subclinical mastitis. Comparison of efficacy of different diagnostic techniques for subclinical mastitis, such as modified California mastitis test (MCMT), bromo thymol blue (BTB), modified whiteside test, trypsin inhibition test, milk pH, and electric conductivity indicated MCMT to be most sensitive (95.16%) and specific (98.02%) test. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that most of the bacterial strains (gram positive, gram negative, and mixed) isolated from subclinical mastitis milk samples, were highly sensitive to enrofloxacin 53.91%, least sensitive to oxytetracycline 17.39% and ampicillin 7.83%, and resistant to streptomycin. The therapy with enrofloxacin and nimesulide was found more efficacious (92.30%) in treating subclinical mastitis cows. It was concluded that consideration of socioecological factors for mastitis control in periurban area would help to reduce the cost of mastitis control in clean milk production. PMID:17135496

  8. Disease prevention and preparedness: the Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention System.

    PubMed

    Cheneau, Y; Roeder, P L; Obi, T U; Rweyemamu, M M; Benkirane, A; Wojciechowski, K J

    1999-04-01

    In 1994, the Food and Agriculture Organization undertook to revitalise its activities in the control of transboundary animal disease by establishing a new special programme known as the Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) against transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases. The emphasis of the EMPRES livestock component is placed on pre-empting outbreaks and losses experienced by agriculture through the enhancement of local capacity to detect and react rapidly to plague events. EMPRES concentrates on the co-ordination of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme--a time-bound eradication programme--whilst addressing the progressive control of the most serious epidemic diseases within a broad framework of emergency preparedness. Programme activities are discussed in relation to early warning, early reaction, facilitating research and co-ordination. In addition to rinderpest, particular attention has been paid to contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, a re-emerging disease in Africa targeted for strategic attention, and foot and mouth disease, for which co-ordinated regional control in Latin America and South-East Asia has been initiated. Tactical responses to other disease emergencies such as African swine fever, classical swine fever (hog cholera), Rift Valley fever, peste des petits ruminants and lumpy skin disease are described. PMID:10190209

  9. Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Nong Zhou; Shan Lv; Guo-Jing Yang; Thomas K Kristensen; N Robert Bergquist; Jürg Utzinger; John B Malone

    2009-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases

  10. Exploiting dendrimer multivalency to combat emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mintzer, Meredith A.; Dane, Eric L.; O’Toole, George A.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of bacterial strains that are resistant to current antibiotics reveals the clinical need for new agents that possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Furthermore, bacteriophobic coatings that repel bacteria are important for medical devices, as the lifetime, reliability, and performance of implant devices are hindered by bacterial adhesion and infection. Dendrimers, a specific class of monodisperse macromolecules, have recently shown potential to function as both antibacterial agents as well as antimicrobial surface coatings. This review discusses the limitations with currently used antibacterial agents and describes how various classes of dendrimers, including glycodendrimers, cationic dendrimers, anionic dendrimers, and peptide dendrimers, have the potential to improve upon or replace certain antibiotics. Furthermore, the unexplored areas in this field of research will be mentioned to present opportunities for additional studies regarding the use of dendrimers as antimicrobial agents. PMID:22126461

  11. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

  12. Sliding mode control of outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanni; Xu, Xiaxia; Tang, Sanyi

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a mathematical model of an infectious disease system with a piecewise control function concerning threshold policy for disease management strategy. The proposed models extend the classic models by including a piecewise incidence rate to represent control or precautionary measures being triggered once the number of infected individuals exceeds a threshold level. The long-term behaviour of the proposed non-smooth system under this strategy consists of the so-called sliding motion-a very rapid switching between application and interruption of the control action. Model solutions ultimately approach either one of two endemic states for two structures or the sliding equilibrium on the switching surface, depending on the threshold level. Our findings suggest that proper combinations of threshold densities and control intensities based on threshold policy can either preclude outbreaks or lead the number of infected to a previously chosen level. PMID:22836868

  13. Emerging hurdles in stem cell therapy for peripheral vascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xabier L. Aranguren; Catherine M. Verfaillie; Aernout Luttun

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a growing medical problem in Western societies and presents itself mainly in two different\\u000a clinical forms. Intermittent claudication is an early moderate manifestation, while patients with critical limb ischemia suffer\\u000a from severe muscle tissue loss or ulcers and are at high risk for limb amputation. Unfortunately, many patients cannot be\\u000a helped with currently available surgical

  14. Saliva: An emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor post-treatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future. PMID:19824562

  15. The emerging role of epigenetics in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gay, Steffen; Wilson, Anthony G

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetics is a key mechanism regulating the expression of genes. There are three main and interrelated mechanisms: DNA methylation, post-translational modification of histone proteins and non-coding RNA. Gene activation is generally associated with lower levels of DNA methylation in promoters and with distinct histone marks such as acetylation of amino acids in histones. Unlike the genetic code, the epigenome is altered by endogenous (e.g. hormonal) and environmental (e.g. diet, exercise) factors and changes with age. Recent evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of common rheumatic disease, including RA, OA, SLE and scleroderma. Epigenetic drift has been implicated in age-related changes in the immune system that result in the development of a pro-inflammatory status termed inflammageing, potentially increasing the risk of age-related conditions such as polymyalgia rheumatica. Therapeutic targeting of the epigenome has shown promise in animal models of rheumatic diseases. Rapid advances in computational biology and DNA sequencing technology will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of common rheumatic diseases. PMID:24026248

  16. Emerging Roles for Cholesterol and Lipoproteins in Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gowdy, Kymberly M.; Fessler, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, the condition of elevated serum triglycerides, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and/or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is a public health problem of growing concern. Dyslipidemia clusters with other disorders of the metabolic syndrome that together influence, and may derive from, chronic inflammation. While best recognized as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, lipid dysregulation has recently been shown to influence a variety of disease processes in several organ systems. This review highlights our current understanding of the role of cholesterol and its homeostatic trafficking in pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology. Gene-targeted mice deficient in regulatory proteins that govern reverse cholesterol transport (e.g., ATP Binding Cassette transporter G1, apolipoprotein E) have recently been shown to have abnormal lung physiology, including dysregulated pulmonary innate and adaptive immune responses to the environment. It has also recently been shown that diet-induced dyslipidemia alters trafficking of immune cells to the lung in a manner that may have important implications for the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, asthma, pneumonia, and other lung disorders. Conversely, cholesterol-targeting pharmacologic agents, such as statins, apolipoprotein mimetic peptides, and Liver X Receptor agonists, have shown early promise in the treatment of several lung disorders. An improved understanding of the precise molecular mechanisms by which cholesterol and its trafficking modify pulmonary immunity will be required before the full implications of dyslipidemia as a lung disease modifier, and the full potential of lipid-targeting agents as pulmonary therapeutics, can be realized. PMID:22706330

  17. [Epidemiology of digestive parasitic diseases of young cattle in northern Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Chollet, J Y; Martrenchar, A; Bouchel, D; Njoya, A

    1994-01-01

    Studies of gastro-intestinal parasites of zebu calves were carried out in traditional herds in Northern Cameroon through monthly faecal analysis in 17 herds for a period of two years. Toxocarosis appeared to be the most important parasitic infection in the North province where its prevalence reached 58% in calves aged 0-6 months; 60% of the infested calves passed large numbers of eggs at least once. Samples revealing high egg counts were more frequent in the dry season. Deworming calves aged one month with a cheap anthelmintic against Toxocara is likely to be economically profitable in the North. Seventy-five and a half per cent of the calves 0-12 months old were infested with Strongyloides; high counts of Strongyloides eggs were registered at least once for 31% of these calves. As for toxocarosis, calves seemed to be more often and more heavily infested with Strongyloides in the North than in the Far North province. Strongyloidosis was apparently of low clinical importance, with the rare clinical manifestations accompanied by toxocarosis. The importance of digestive tract strongylosis was difficult to evaluate. Every steer was affected at one stage of its life in a similar manner in the two provinces; 6.8% of samples showed high egg counts and 35% of the steers aged over six months passed large numbers of eggs at least once. These results did not permit a priori recommendation of a systematic deworming programme against strongyles; instead, several less intensive deworming programmes have to be tested in order to determine their economic profitability. Coccidia were found in 77.4% of calves aged 0-12 months, with heavier and more frequent infections in the North. However, infections of high intensity were generally rare. Trichuris, Moniezia, Fasciola and paramphistomes were rarely found. Concerning nematodosis, curative treatments and cost-profit studies of deworming programmes should be aimed at toxocarosis in calves aged 0-3 months in the North, and strongylosis in steers aged 6-12 months, in both provinces. PMID:7770660

  18. Emergent properties define the subjective nature of health and dis-ease.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim P

    2014-08-01

    Health and dis-ease by their etymological origins refer to an evaluative, not objective, state. Health is an adaptive state, constantly reestablishing itself through interactions between the many biological, social, emotional, and cognitive factors in a person's life. Such adaptive processes define health as an emergent state. Outcomes of emergent phenomena are not precisely predictable and reside in a phase space that contains all possible states ranging from perfect to poor health states, the latter reflecting dis-ease. However, we have seen a migration of meaning from the subjective, dis-ease, to the objective, disease, referring to uniquely identifiable biomedical change. Clinical reality though teaches us that many experiences of dis-ease are not associated with any objective abnormality, an insight with important implications for clinical care and health policy. PMID:24943661

  19. Review of the diseases, parasites and miscellaneous pathological conditions of North American bison

    PubMed Central

    Tessaro, Stacy V.

    1989-01-01

    The involvement of veterinarians in the health management of North American bison will continue to increase, particularly in regard to the development of the bison ranching industry. More intensive management of bison will lead to greater recognition of diseases, and will raise concerns about the transmission of diseases between bison and other livestock species. This review of the infectious and noninfectious diseases of free-ranging and captive bison populations indicates that bison are susceptible to a wide range of indigenous and foreign diseases that occur in cattle and other livestock species. Most of the available information is based on necropsy results or serological surveys, and there is much less information on clinical, diagnostic and preventive medicine, or on the evaluation of conventional diagnostic tests, therapeutic regimens, or vaccines in bison. PMID:17423322

  20. Pets and Parasites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... make me sick? Household pets such as dogs, cats, birds and reptiles can carry diseases or parasites ... might be used as litter boxes by neighborhood cats. Keep your children out of the dirt in ...

  1. Emergency care necessity for sickle cell disease patients at Rio de Janeiro State Coordinating Blood Bank

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Mario Sant'Anna; de Matos, Haroldo José; Fidlarczyk, Delaine

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, in particular sickle cell disease, is the most prevalent group of genetically transmitted diseases in the Brazilian population and should thus be treated as a public health problem. Many of these patients frequently present with complications and require emergency care at the blood bank Coordinator in Rio de Janeiro. This study was developed with the aim of characterizing the emergency assistance required by sickle cell disease patients registered in the blood bank from January 2007 to December 2008. A retrospective study of medical records was made of 78, mostly children, patients from the date of their registration until December 2009. Most attendances (63.7%) were not considered emergency care. The use of specialized services for cases that do not require this level of complexity may saturate the capacity of these centers. However, delay of intervention for complications due to the transportation of patients to specialist centers may lead to deterioration in the clinical condition. PMID:23284258

  2. Current and emerging treatment options for Peyronie’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Ahmet; Wang, Julie C; Powers, Mary K; Hellstrom, Wayne JG

    2013-01-01

    Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a condition of the penis, characterized by the presence of localized fibrotic plaque in the tunica albuginea. PD is not an uncommon disorder, with recent epidemiologic studies documenting a prevalence of 3–9% of adult men affected. The actual prevalence of PD may be even higher. It is often associated with penile pain, anatomical deformities in the erect penis, and difficulty with intromission. As the definitive pathophysiology of PD has not been completely elucidated, further basic research is required to make progress in the understanding of this enigmatic condition. Similarly, research on effective therapies is limited. Currently, nonsurgical treatments are used for those men who are in the acute stage of PD, whereas surgical options are reserved for men with established PD who cannot successfully penetrate. Intralesional treatments are growing in clinical popularity as a minimally invasive approach in the initial treatment of PD. A surgical approach should be considered when men with PD do not respond to conservative, medical, or minimally invasive therapies for approximately 1 year and cannot have satisfactory sexual intercourse. As scientific breakthroughs in the understanding of the mechanisms of this disease process evolve, novel treatments for the many men suffering with PD are anticipated. PMID:24400231

  3. Understanding the emergence of ebola virus disease in sierra leone: stalking the virus in the threatening wake of emergence.

    PubMed

    Wauquier, Nadia; Bangura, James; Moses, Lina; Humarr Khan, Sheik; Coomber, Moinya; Lungay, Victor; Gbakie, Michael; Sesay, Mohammed S K; Gassama, Ibrahim A K; Massally, James L B; Gbakima, Aiah; Squire, James; Lamin, Mohamed; Kanneh, Lansana; Yillah, Mohammed; Kargbo, Kandeh; Roberts, Willie; Vandi, Mohammed; Kargbo, David; Vincent, Tom; Jambai, Amara; Guttieri, Mary; Fair, Joseph; Souris, Marc; Gonzalez, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Since Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was first identified in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, and despite the numerous outbreaks recorded to date, rarely has an epidemic origin been identified. Indeed, among the twenty-one most documented EVD outbreaks in Africa, an index case has been identified four times, and hypothesized in only two other instances. The initial steps of emergence and spread of a virus are critical in the development of a potential outbreak and need to be thoroughly dissected and understood in order to improve on preventative strategies. In the current West African outbreak of EVD, a unique index case has been identified, pinpointing the geographical origin of the epidemic in Guinea. Herein, we provide an accounting of events that serve as the footprint of EVD emergence in Sierra Leone and a road map for risk mitigation fueled by lessons learned. PMID:25969797

  4. Understanding the Emergence of Ebola Virus Disease in Sierra Leone: Stalking the Virus in the Threatening Wake of Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Wauquier, Nadia; Bangura, James; Moses, Lina; Humarr Khan, Sheik; Coomber, Moinya; Lungay, Victor; Gbakie, Michael; Sesay, Mohammed S.K.; Gassama, Ibrahim A.K.; Massally, James L.B.; Gbakima, Aiah; Squire, James; Lamin, Mohamed; Kanneh, Lansana; Yillah, Mohammed; Kargbo, Kandeh; Roberts, Willie; Vandi, Mohammed; Kargbo, David; Vincent, Tom; Jambai, Amara; Guttieri, Mary; Fair, Joseph; Souris, Marc; Gonzalez, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Since Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was first identified in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, and despite the numerous outbreaks recorded to date, rarely has an epidemic origin been identified. Indeed, among the twenty-one most documented EVD outbreaks in Africa, an index case has been identified four times, and hypothesized in only two other instances. The initial steps of emergence and spread of a virus are critical in the development of a potential outbreak and need to be thoroughly dissected and understood in order to improve on preventative strategies. In the current West African outbreak of EVD, a unique index case has been identified, pinpointing the geographical origin of the epidemic in Guinea. Herein, we provide an accounting of events that serve as the footprint of EVD emergence in Sierra Leone and a road map for risk mitigation fueled by lessons learned. PMID:25969797

  5. Congenital Heart Disease: emerging themes linking genetics and development

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shiaulou; Zaidi, Samir; Brueckner, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Although congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common survivable birth defect, the etiology of most CHD remains unclear. Several lines of evidence from humans and vertebrate models have supported a genetic component for CHD, yet the extreme locus heterogeneity and lack of a distinct genotype-phenotype correlation has limited causative gene discovery. However, recent advances in genomic technologies are permitting detailed evaluation of the genetic abnormalities in large cohorts of CHD patients. This has lead to the identification of copy-number variation and de-novo mutations together accounting for up to 15% of CHD. Further, new strategies coupling human genetics with model organisms have provided mechanistic insights into the molecular and developmental pathways underlying CHD pathogenesis, notably chromatin remodeling and ciliary signaling. PMID:23790954

  6. The emerging roles of GPRC5A in diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Honglei; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2014-01-01

    The ‘Retinoic Acid-Inducible G-protein-coupled receptors’ or RAIG are a group comprising the four orphan receptors GPRC5A, GPRC5B, GPRC5C and GPRC5D. As the name implies, their expression is induced by retinoic acid but beyond that very little is known about their function. In recent years, one member, GPRC5A, has been receiving increasing attention as it was shown to play important roles in human cancers. As a matter of fact, dysregulation of GPRC5A has been associated with several cancers including lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Here we review the current state of knowledge about the heterogeneity and evolution of GPRC5A, its regulation, its molecular functions, and its involvement in human disease. PMID:25621293

  7. Infectious disease emergence and global change: thinking systemically in a shrinking world

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Concern intensifying that emerging infectious diseases and global environmental changes that could generate major future human pandemics. Method A focused literature review was undertaken, partly informed by a forthcoming report on environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty, facilitated by the Special Programme for Tropical Diseases. Results More than ten categories of infectious disease emergence exist, but none formally analyse past, current or future burden of disease. Other evidence suggests that the dominant public health concern focuses on two informal groupings. Most important is the perceived threat of newly recognised infections, especially viruses that arise or are newly discovered in developing countries that originate in species exotic to developed countries, such as non-human primates, bats and rodents. These pathogens may be transmitted by insects or bats, or via direct human contact with bushmeat. The second group is new strains of influenza arising from intensively farmed chickens or pigs, or emerging from Asian “wet markets” where several bird species have close contact. Both forms appear justified because of two great pandemics: HIV/AIDS (which appears to have originated from bushmeat hunting in Africa before emerging globally) and Spanish influenza, which killed up to 2.5% of the human population around the end of World War I. Insufficiently appreciated is the contribution of the milieu which appeared to facilitate the high disease burden in these pandemics. Additionally, excess anxiety over emerging infectious diseases diverts attention from issues of greater public health importance, especially: (i) existing (including neglected) infectious diseases and (ii) the changing milieu that is eroding the determinants of immunity and public health, caused by adverse global environmental changes, including climate change and other components of stressed life and civilisation-supporting systems. Conclusions The focus on novel pathogens and minor forms of anti-microbial resistance in emerging disease literature is unjustified by their burden of disease, actual and potential, and diverts attention from far more important health problems and determinants. There is insufficient understanding of systemic factors that promote pandemics. Adverse global change could generate circumstances conducive to future pandemics with a high burden of disease, arising via anti-microbial and insecticidal resistance, under-nutrition, conflict, and public health breakdown. PMID:23849217

  8. Bottlenecks in domestic animal populations can facilitate the emergence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Tustin, Aaron; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Mabud, Tarub S; Levy, Katelyn; Barbu, Corentin M; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2015-07-01

    Faeces-mediated transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (the aetiological agent of Chagas disease) by triatomine insects is extremely inefficient. Still, the parasite emerges frequently, and has infected millions of people and domestic animals. We synthesize here the results of field and laboratory studies of T. cruzi transmission conducted in and around Arequipa, Peru. We document the repeated occurrence of large colonies of triatomine bugs (more than 1000) with very high infection prevalence (more than 85%). By inoculating guinea pigs, an important reservoir of T. cruzi in Peru, and feeding triatomine bugs on them weekly, we demonstrate that, while most animals quickly control parasitaemia, a subset of animals remains highly infectious to vectors for many months. However, we argue that the presence of these persistently infectious hosts is insufficient to explain the observed prevalence of T. cruzi in vector colonies. We posit that seasonal rains, leading to a fluctuation in the price of guinea pig food (alfalfa), leading to annual guinea pig roasts, leading to a concentration of vectors on a small subpopulation of animals maintained for reproduction, can propel T. cruzi through vector colonies and create a considerable force of infection for a pathogen whose transmission might otherwise fizzle out. PMID:26085582

  9. The emerging role of rituximab in autoimmune blistering diseases.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A Razzaque; Shetty, Shawn

    2015-06-01

    Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to the CD20 molecule on B cells, resulting in their lysis. In autoimmune blistering diseases, the auto-antibody-producing B cells are destroyed and auto-antibody levels are reduced or eliminated. In the majority of patients, rituximab produces rapid clinical response and early resolution. In part, this accounts for the increased use of rituximab. Rituximab does not distinguish normal from pathologic B cells. Hence, shortly after its use, B-cell levels are zero and remain so for several months. In most patients, the use of systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents are continued after rituximab therapy, while their dosages are significantly decreased. In the majority of patients rituximab is used according to the protocol used in treating lymphoma patients or patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Approximately 50 % of patients experience a relapse, requiring additional therapy. Serious adverse events and fatal outcomes have been reported, although their incidence is less than that observed with conventional therapy. Nonetheless, the causes, i.e. infections and septicemia, are similar. Several gaps exist in our understanding of how to optimally benefit from the use of this valuable biological agent. Future studies need to be targeted in designing and implanting protocols that maximize the benefit of rituximab and result in producing sustained prolonged remissions with minimal adverse events and a high quality of life. PMID:25791770

  10. Emerging significance of NLRs in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Davis, Beckley K; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Eden, Kristin; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Allen, Irving C

    2014-12-01

    Pattern recognition receptors are essential mediators of host defense and inflammation in the gastrointestinal system. Recent data have revealed that toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) function to maintain homeostasis between the host microbiome and mucosal immunity. The NLR proteins are a diverse class of cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors. In humans, only about half of the identified NLRs have been adequately characterized. The majority of well-characterized NLRs participate in the formation of a multiprotein complex, termed the inflammasome, which is responsible for the maturation of interleukin-1? and interleukin-18. However, recent observations have also uncovered the presence of a novel subgroup of NLRs that function as positive or negative regulators of inflammation through modulating critical signaling pathways, including NF-?B. Dysregulation of specific NLRs from both proinflammatory and inhibitory subgroups have been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in genetically susceptible human populations. Our own preliminary retrospective data mining efforts have identified a diverse range of NLRs that are significantly altered at the messenger RNA level in colons from patients with IBD. Likewise, studies using genetically modified mouse strains have revealed that multiple NLR family members have the potential to dramatically modulate the immune response during IBD. Targeting NLR signaling represents a promising and novel therapeutic strategy. However, significant effort is necessary to translate the current understanding of NLR biology into effective therapies. PMID:25153506

  11. Rickettsioses as paradigms of new or emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Raoult, D; Roux, V

    1997-01-01

    Rickettsioses are caused by species of Rickettsia, a genus comprising organisms characterized by their strictly intracellular location and their association with arthropods. Rickettsia species are difficult to cultivate in vitro and exhibit strong serological cross-reactions with each other. These technical difficulties long prohibited a detailed study of the rickettsiae, and it is only following the recent introduction of novel laboratory methods that progress in this field has been possible. In this review, we discuss the impact that these practical innovations have had on the study of rickettsiae. Prior to 1986, only eight rickettsioses were clinically recognized; however, in the last 10 years, an additional six have been discovered. We describe the different steps that resulted in the description of each new rickettsiosis and discuss the influence of factors as diverse as physicians' curiosity and the adoption of molecular biology-based identification in helping to recognize these new infections. We also assess the pathogenic potential of rickettsial strains that to date have been associated only with arthropods, and we discuss diseases of unknown etiology that may be rickettsioses. PMID:9336669

  12. Emergency Duties and Deaths from Heart Disease among Firefighters in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanos N. Kales; Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Costas A. Christophi; David C. Christiani

    2007-01-01

    Results Deaths from coronary heart disease were associated with suppressing a fire (32.1% of all such deaths), responding to an alarm (13.4%), returning from an alarm (17.4%), engaging in physical training (12.5%), responding to nonfire emergencies (9.4%), and performing nonemergency duties (15.4%). As compared with the odds of death from coronary heart disease during nonemergency duties, the odds were 12.1

  13. Leishmaniasis Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease Ulcerative skin lesion, with ... with some of the species (types) of the parasite that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis in parts of Latin ...

  14. K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture and linked natural systems using 1 ecological principles. Pages 368-386 in Infectious disease ecology: The effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Karen A.

    K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture and linked natural systems using 1 ecological principles. Pages 368-386 in Infectious disease ecology: The effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease on ecosystems. R. Ostfeld, F. Keesing, and V

  15. Parasite Prolyl Oligopeptidases and the Challenge of Designing Chemotherapeuticals for Chagas Disease, Leishmaniasis and African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, I.M.D; Motta, F.N; Grellier, P; Santana, J.M

    2013-01-01

    The trypanosomatids Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis, respectively. It is estimated that over 10 million people worldwide suffer from these neglected diseases, posing enormous social and economic problems in endemic areas. There are no vaccines to prevent these infections and chemotherapies are not adequate. This picture indicates that new chemotherapeutic agents must be developed to treat these illnesses. For this purpose, understanding the biology of the pathogenic trypanosomatid-host cell interface is fundamental for molecular and functional characterization of virulence factors that may be used as targets for the development of inhibitors to be used for effective chemotherapy. In this context, it is well known that proteases have crucial functions for both metabolism and infectivity of pathogens and are thus potential drug targets. In this regard, prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, both members of the S9 serine protease family, have been shown to play important roles in the interactions of pathogenic protozoa with their mammalian hosts and may thus be considered targets for drug design. This review aims to discuss structural and functional properties of these intriguing enzymes and their potential as targets for the development of drugs against Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis. PMID:23514419

  16. Vector-borne parasitic diseases: new trends in data collection and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, N R

    2001-04-27

    Climates and topography effectively restrict vector-borne infections to certain geographical areas, a clear illustration of how strongly the spatial distributions of these diseases rely on environmental factors. This is hardly a new revelation, but just a few years back, without the support of computer-assisted collection and handling of data, we were far less able to grasp the full picture. Fortunately climate data collection by Remote Sensing (RS) by earth-observing satellites, a technology particularly well suited to pinpointing constraining endemic factors, has not only become affordable but also reached a high degree of sophistication. Meanwhile, geographical information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) permit spatial information of great accuracy as well as digitalization of collected data on the spot enabling visualization of the data in relation to physical maps and facilitating comparisons of the results of longitudinal investigations. Adoption of these technologies at the national level promotes intersectoral collaboration and promises improved planning and management in the control of endemic diseases. Applications in areas such as malaria, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, trypanosomiasis and schistosomiasis are briefly reviewed. Reports in the fields of the former two diseases dominate the literature, while information is lagging with regard to the others. The need for a broadening of the GIS approach is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of epidemiological studies. PMID:11378138

  17. Unhealthy Landscapes: Policy Recommendations on Land Use Change and Infectious Disease Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Patz, Jonathan A.; Daszak, Peter; Tabor, Gary M.; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Pearl, Mary; Epstein, Jon; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Molyneux, David; Bradley, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes drive a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and modify the transmission of endemic infections. These drivers include agricultural encroachment, deforestation, road construction, dam building, irrigation, wetland modification, mining, the concentration or expansion of urban environments, coastal zone degradation, and other activities. These changes in turn cause a cascade of factors that exacerbate infectious disease emergence, such as forest fragmentation, disease introduction, pollution, poverty, and human migration. The Working Group on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence grew out of a special colloquium that convened international experts in infectious diseases, ecology, and environmental health to assess the current state of knowledge and to develop recommendations for addressing these environmental health challenges. The group established a systems model approach and priority lists of infectious diseases affected by ecologic degradation. Policy-relevant levels of the model include specific health risk factors, landscape or habitat change, and institutional (economic and behavioral) levels. The group recommended creating Centers of Excellence in Ecology and Health Research and Training, based at regional universities and/or research institutes with close links to the surrounding communities. The centers’ objectives would be 3-fold: a) to provide information to local communities about the links between environmental change and public health; b) to facilitate fully interdisciplinary research from a variety of natural, social, and health sciences and train professionals who can conduct interdisciplinary research; and c) to engage in science-based communication and assessment for policy making toward sustainable health and ecosystems. PMID:15238283

  18. Human tularemia in Italy. Is it a re-emerging disease?

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, D; Napoli, C; Nusca, A; Bella, A; Funari, E

    2015-07-01

    Tularemia is a contagious infectious disease due to Francisiella tularensis that can cause serious clinical manifestations and significant mortality if untreated. Although the frequency and significance of the disease has diminished over the last decades in Central Europe, over the past few years, there is new evidence suggesting that tularemia has re-emerged worldwide. To know the real epidemiology of the disease is at the root of correct control measures. In order to evaluate whether tularemia is re-emerging in Italy, data on mortality and morbidity (obtained by the National Institute of Statistics; ISTAT), Italian cases described in the scientific literature and data concerning hospitalizations for tularemia (obtained by the National Hospital Discharge Database) were analysed. From 1979 to 2010, ISTAT reported 474 cases and no deaths. The overall number of cases obtained from the literature review was at least 31% higher than that reported by ISTAT. Moreover, the number of cases reported by ISTAT was 3·5 times smaller than hospitalized cases. In Italy tularemia is sporadic, rarely endemic and self-limiting; but, although the trend of reported tularemia does not support the hypothesis of a re-emerging disease, the study demonstrates a wide underreporting of the disease. The real frequency of the disease should be carefully investigated and taken into account in order to implement specific prevention measures. PMID:25336123

  19. The Emerging Functions of Long Noncoding RNA in Immune Cells: Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ao; Wang, Yin; Duan, Lihua; Zhang, YanLin

    2015-01-01

    The long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNA transcripts more than 200 nucleotides in length, which do not encode proteins. The lncRNAs are emerging as an important regulator of biological process, such as chromatin remodeling, gene transcription, protein transport, and trafficking through diverse mechanisms. The lncRNAs play crucial role in various multigenetics human diseases including cancers and neurological diseases and currently its role in autoimmune diseases is attracting many researchers. Recent studies have reported that differentiation and activation of immune cells, T cells, B cells, macrophages, and NK cells have correlation with lncRNAs, which have also an essential role in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and SLE. Therefore, elucidation of the roles of lncRNAs in autoimmunity could be beneficial to understand the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In this review article we attempt to highlight the recent progress regarding lncRNAs studies and summarize its role in autoimmune diseases.

  20. Survey of Rodents and Ticks in Human Babesiosis Emergence Area in Japan: First Detection of Babesia microti-Like Parasites in Ixodes ovatus

    PubMed Central

    Saito-Ito, Atsuko; Yano, Yasuhiro; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Takada, Nobuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Babesia microti-like parasites were detected for the first time in Ixodes ovatus in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, where two reported types of B. microti-like parasites were recognized in many rodents. Of 80 adult I. ovatus ticks collected, 5 possessed the reported type and 1 possessed a new type of B. microti-like parasite. PMID:15131209

  1. The emerging infectious disease crisis and pathogen pollution: a question of ecology and evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Risk of emerging infectious diseases (EID) on a global scale has accelerated over the past 10,000 years in conjunction with agriculture, domestication, and globalization as the interfaces for people and environments have been altered over time. EID exist at the junction of 3 ongoing global challenge...

  2. Giardiasis as a re-emerging infectious disease and its zoonotic potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Andrew Thompson

    2000-01-01

    The reasons for considering giardiasis as a re-emerging infectious disease are presented, with emphasis on Giardia infections in child care centres, livestock and pets, and the role of zoonotic transmission. However, the aetiology and control of giardiasis is complicated by the genetic and phenotypic variability of Giardia species infective to mammals. Of particular significance has been the uncertainty about host

  3. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance: Cambodia, Indonesia, and NAMRU-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophal Ear

    2011-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. The following questions stimulated the research described in this report: What infrastructure is necessary to enable EID surveillance in developing countries? What are the cultural, political, and economic challenges that are faced? Are there generalizations that may

  4. 616 SAGE-GROUSE AND WEST NILE VIRUS Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious

    E-print Network

    Naugle, Dave

    words Centrocercus urophasianus, emerging infectious disease, monitoring, population decline, sage-grouse, survival, West Nile virus #12;concern for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Gunnison sage. Mortality associated with WNv infection decreased survival of female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus

  5. EMERGENCE OF BACTERIAL DISEASES CAUSED BY FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS SPP. IN CENTRAL COASTAL CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research has resulted in the identification of one new pathogen (Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis) and the identification of several pathogens on new hosts and/or new to Monterey County. It is not clear if the emergence of bacterial diseases caused by fluorescent pseudomonads in the past 8 y...

  6. Emergence of a new disease as a result of interspecific virulence gene transfer

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Bruce

    virulence and leading to the emergence of a new damaging disease of wheat. Host-specific toxins-repentis, causal agent of tan (or yellow) spot in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Virulence of the fungus on wheat genotypes carrying a dominant susceptibility gene Tsn1 (ref. 6) is dependant on the production of the toxin

  7. [Lymnic snails from the microregion of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil with an emphasis on parasite disease vectors].

    PubMed

    de Souza, C P; Lima, L C; Jannotti-Passos, L K; Ferreira, S S; Guimarães, C T; Vieira, I B; Mariani Júnior, R

    1998-01-01

    A malacological survey to detect foci of transmission of schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases was undertaken into water-courses from 13 municipalities of microregion of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. From 1990 to 1996, 22,066 snails were collected. From those, 378 (1.7%) were found infected by trematodes: Biomphalaria glabrata (7,920), infected by Schistosoma mansoni (1.9%), Echinostomatidae (1.2%), Strigeidae (0.6%), Cercaria minense (0.1%) and Derogenidae (-0.1%); B. straminea (4,093) infected by Strigeidae (0.6%), Echinostomatidae (0.2%), Clinostomatidae (-0.1%) and two unidentified cercariae; B. tenagophila (1,338), infected by Strigeidae (0.1%) and Physa marmorata (1,776) by Echinostomatidae (1.6%). The snails Biomphalaria peregrina, B. occidentalis, B. schrammi, Drepanotrema depressissimum, D. lucidum, D. cimex, Physa cubensis, Lymnaea columella, Melania tuberculata, Idiopyrgus souleyetianus, Pomacea sp, Anodontites sp and Ancylidae were found noninfected. Snails from 9 municipalities were infected by S. mansoni and from 11 by other trematodes. PMID:9789443

  8. Ethical issues in the response to ebola virus disease in United States emergency departments: a position paper of the american college of emergency physicians, the emergency nurses association, and the society for academic emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Asher, Shellie L; Wolf, Lisa; Geiderman, Joel M; Marco, Catherine A; McGreevy, Jolion; Derse, Arthur R; Otten, Edward J; Jesus, John E; Kreitzer, Natalie P; Escalante, Monica; Levine, Adam C

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has presented a significant public health crisis to the international health community and challenged U.S. emergency departments (EDs) to prepare for patients with a disease of exceeding rarity in developed nations. With the presentation of patients with Ebola to U.S. acute care facilities, ethical questions have been raised in both the press and medical literature as to how U.S. EDs, emergency physicians (EPs), emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system should approach the current epidemic and its potential for spread in the domestic environment. To address these concerns, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association, and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine developed this joint position paper to provide guidance to U.S. EPs, emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system on how to approach the ethical dilemmas posed by the outbreak of EVD. This paper will address areas of immediate and potential ethical concern to U.S. EDs in how they approach preparation for and management of potential patients with EVD. PMID:25903144

  9. [Hypotheses on the role of the prehistoric Sahara in the spread of parasitic and hematologic diseases].

    PubMed

    Nozais, J P

    1987-01-01

    15,000 years ago, the Sahara was moist, inhabited by tropical fauna and travelled over by nomadic populations. Later, the dryness incited human migrations to North or West Africa. African bilharziasis (S. mansoni and S. haematobium) could have been carried by nomadic populations infected in the Nile River. Sickle cell disease and alpha-thalassemia are derived from Saudi Arabia (unless in the case of alpha-thalassemia there was an identical mutation in several regions). Echinococcosis was brought with the dromedary in the ptolemaic era whereas ankylostomiasis was brought by the Romans or the Arabs. PMID:3301031

  10. Parasite Virulence 14Parasite Virulence

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    Parasite Virulence 14Parasite Virulence Jos J. Schall Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA The Problem Some parasites exact a terrible price from their hosts, causing severe pathology and reducing the host's fitness, whereas other parasites are essentially benign. Several kinds

  11. Emerging infectious diseases and public health policy: insights from Cambodia, Hong Kong and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Burgos, S; Ear, S

    2015-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases affect the health of animal and human populations, but the impact goes beyond health as it extends to political, economic, social and environmental domains, as well as inter-state relations. Deeper understanding of these impacts aids public health authorities in their duties of protection and improvement of the health of their communities, promotion of healthy practices and research on disease, injury and threat prevention and mitigation. This empirical essay gathers insights from Cambodia, Hong Kong and Indonesia as they attempt to design and implement control and surveillance systems against avian influenza - an infectious disease. PMID:23551938

  12. Association between Temperature and Emergency Room Visits for Cardiorespiratory Diseases, Metabolic Syndrome-Related Diseases, and Accidents in Metropolitan Taipei

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Lin, Yu-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated risks of the emergency room visits (ERV) for cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive diseases, chronic renal failure (CRF), diabetes mellitus (DM), asthma, chronic airway obstruction not elsewhere classified (CAO), and accidents associated with the ambient temperature from 2000 to 2009 in metropolitan Taipei. Methods The distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate the cumulative relative risk (RR) and confidence interval (CI) of cause-specific ERV associated with daily temperature from lag 0 to lag 3 after controlling for potential confounders. Results This study identified that temperatures related to the lowest risk of ERV was 26 °C for cerebrovascular diseases, 18 °C for CRF, DM, and accidents, and 30 °C for hypertensive diseases, asthma, and CAO. These temperatures were used as the reference temperatures to measure RR for the corresponding diseases. A low temperature (14°C) increased the ERV risk for cerebrovascular diseases, hypertensive diseases, and asthma, with respective cumulative 4-day RRs of 1.56 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.97), 1.78 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.34), and 2.93 (95% CI: 1.26, 6.79). The effects were greater on, or after, lag one. At 32°C, the cumulative 4-day RR for ERV was significant for CRF (RR?=?2.36; 95% CI: 1.33, 4.19) and accidents (RR?=?1.23; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.33) and the highest RR was seen on lag 0 for CRF (RR?=?1.69; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58), DM (RR?=?1.69; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.61), and accidents (RR?=?1.19; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.27). Conclusions Higher temperatures are associated with the increased ERV risks for CRF, DM, and accidents and lower temperatures with the increased ERV risks for cerebrovascular diseases, hypertensive diseases, and asthma in the subtropical metropolitan. PMID:24932702

  13. 2002 Nature Publishing Group Trypanosomatid protozoans are important parasites

    E-print Network

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    © 2002 Nature Publishing Group REVIEWS Trypanosomatid protozoans are important parasites of humans PARASITE GENETICS COMES OF AGE Stephen M. Beverley Trypanosomatid protozoans cause important diseases

  14. Using Biotic Interaction Networks for Prediction in Biodiversity and Emerging Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Christopher R.; Heau, Joaquín Giménez; González, Camila; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; González-Salazar, Constantino

    2009-01-01

    Networks offer a powerful tool for understanding and visualizing inter-species ecological and evolutionary interactions. Previously considered examples, such as trophic networks, are just representations of experimentally observed direct interactions. However, species interactions are so rich and complex it is not feasible to directly observe more than a small fraction. In this paper, using data mining techniques, we show how potential interactions can be inferred from geographic data, rather than by direct observation. An important application area for this methodology is that of emerging diseases, where, often, little is known about inter-species interactions, such as between vectors and reservoirs. Here, we show how using geographic data, biotic interaction networks that model statistical dependencies between species distributions can be used to infer and understand inter-species interactions. Furthermore, we show how such networks can be used to build prediction models. For example, for predicting the most important reservoirs of a disease, or the degree of disease risk associated with a geographical area. We illustrate the general methodology by considering an important emerging disease - Leishmaniasis. This data mining methodology allows for the use of geographic data to construct inferential biotic interaction networks which can then be used to build prediction models with a wide range of applications in ecology, biodiversity and emerging diseases. PMID:19478956

  15. An official ATS workshop report: Emerging issues and current controversies in HIV-associated pulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Morris, Alison; Crothers, Kristina; Beck, James M; Huang, Laurence

    2011-03-01

    Pulmonary diseases are major causes of morbidity and death in persons with HIV infection. Millions of people with HIV/AIDS throughout the world are at risk of opportunistic pneumonias such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, and Pneumocystis pneumonia. However, the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy has turned HIV into a chronic disease, and noninfectious lung diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary arterial hypertension are also emerging as important causes of illness. Despite the importance of these diseases and the rapidly evolving understanding of their pathogenesis and epidemiology, few avenues exist for the discussion and dissemination of new clinical and basic insights. In May of 2008, the American Thoracic Society sponsored a 1-day workshop, "Emerging Issues and Current Controversies in HIV-Associated Pulmonary Diseases," which brought together basic and clinical researchers in HIV-associated pulmonary disease. A review of the literature was performed by workshop participants, and the workshop included 18 presentations on diverse topics summarized in this article. PMID:21364216

  16. An Unusual Case of Darier Disease Complicated With a Parasitic Infestation.

    PubMed

    Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Cabezas, Fausto; Díaz, Claudia Juliana

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman living in the countryside near Cali, Colombia, presented with exacerbation of papules located on her face and neck and an ulcer located on the left retroauricular area of 2 weeks' duration. She stated that her skin lesions appeared erratically, beginning at 13 years of age and that her father and daughter had similar skin lesions. Physical examination revealed multiple erythematous, hyperkeratotic papules, and yellowish brown crusts that coalesced to plaques located on symmetrical areas of the forehead, neck, and periauricular areas with excoriation and malodor (Figure 1a and 1b). There were flat-topped papules on the dorsal aspect of her hands. The fingernails exhibited subungual hyperkeratotic fragments, V-shaped notches at the free edges of some nails, distal onycholysis, and white longitudinal bands (Figure 1c). We also discovered a foul-smelling left retroauricular cavity, approximately 3 cm in length and 3 cm in depth, with multiple fly larvae inside of it (Figure 2). We made the diagnosis of retroauricular myiasis and obtained skin biopsy specimens from her forehead and scalp, to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of Darier disease. PMID:26137743

  17. Systematic review of emergent laparoscopic colorectal surgery for benign and malignant disease

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Manish; Siddiqui, Muhammed RS; Gupta, Ashish; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Tekkis, Paris; Parvaiz, Amjad; Mirnezami, Alex H; Qureshi, Tahseen

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become well established in the management of both and malignant colorectal disease. The last decade has seen increasing numbers of surgeons trained to a high standard in minimally-invasive surgery. However there has not been the same enthusiasm for the use of laparoscopy in emergency colorectal surgery. There is a perception that emergent surgery is technically more difficult and may lead to worse outcomes. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive and critical appraisal of the available literature on the use of laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) in the emergency setting. The literature is broadly divided by the underlying pathology; that is, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis and malignant obstruction. There were no randomized trials and the majority of the studies were case-matched series or comparative studies. The overall trend was that LCS is associated with shorter hospital stay, par or fewer complications but an increased operating time.Emergency LCS can be safely undertaken for both benign and malignant disease providing there is appropriate patient selection, the surgeon is adequately experienced and there are sufficient resources to allow for a potentially more complex operation. PMID:25493008

  18. The infectious diseases impact statement: a mechanism for addressing emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    McSweegan, E

    1996-01-01

    The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:8903209

  19. A novel Botrytis species is associated with a newly emergent foliar disease in cultivated Hemerocallis.

    PubMed

    Grant-Downton, Robert T; Terhem, Razak B; Kapralov, Maxim V; Mehdi, Saher; Rodriguez-Enriquez, M Josefina; Gurr, Sarah J; van Kan, Jan A L; Dewey, Frances M

    2014-01-01

    Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids) showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as 'spring sickness' were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s) of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight) which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of 'spring sickness' symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants. PMID:24887415

  20. Diphyllobothrium: Neolithic parasite?

    PubMed

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Leuzinger, Urs; Schlichtherle, Helmut; Bouchet, Françoise

    2005-08-01

    During paleoparasitological analyses on several Neolithic sites in Switzerland (Arbon-Bleiche 3) and southwestern Germany (Hornstaad-Hörnle I, Torwiesen II, and Seekirch-Stockwiesen), numerous eggs of Diphyllobothrium sp. were recovered. This is one of the earliest occurrences of this parasite during the prehistoric period in the Old World. The prevalence of this helminth in the samples studied raises the question as to how important parasitic diseases were during the Neolithic period and what their actual consequences were. PMID:17089775

  1. Unexpected redwood mortality from synergies between wildfire and an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Metz, Margaret R; Varner, J Morgan; Frangioso, Kerri M; Meentemeyer, Ross K; Rizzo, David M

    2013-10-01

    An under-examined component of global change is the alteration of disturbance regimes due to warming climates, continued species invasions, and accelerated land-use change. These drivers of global change are themselves novel ecosystem disturbances that may interact with historically occurring disturbances in complex ways. Here we use the natural experiment presented by wildfires in redwood forests impacted by an emerging infectious disease to demonstrate unexpected synergies of novel disturbance interactions. The dominant tree, coast redwood (fire resistant without negative disease impacts), experienced unexpected synergistic increases in mortality when fire and disease co-occurred. The increased mortality risk, more than fourfold at the peak of the effect, was not predictable from impacts of either disturbance alone. Changes in fire behavior associated with changes to forest fuels that occurred through disease progression overwhelmed redwood's usual resilience to wildfire. Our results demonstrate the potential for interacting disturbances to initiate novel successional trajectories and compromise ecosystem resilience. PMID:24358700

  2. An Emerging Molecular Understanding and Novel Targeted Treatment Approaches in Pediatric Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liebau, Max Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation and treatment of the heterogeneous group of kidney diseases poses a challenging field in pediatrics. Many of the pediatric disorders resulting in severe renal affection are exceedingly rare and therapeutic approaches have remained symptomatic for most of these disease entities. The insights obtained from cellular and molecular studies of rare disorders by recent genetic studies have now substantially changed our mechanistic understanding of various important pediatric renal diseases and positive examples of targeted treatment approaches are emerging. Three fields of recent breathtaking developments in pediatric nephrology are the pathophysiology of nephrotic syndrome and proteinuria, the molecular mechanisms underlying atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and the genetics and cellular biology of inherited cystic kidney diseases. In all three areas, the combined power of molecular basic science together with deeply characterizing clinical approaches has led to the establishment of novel pathophysiological principles and to the first clinical trials of targeted treatment approaches. PMID:25050320

  3. Medical Management of Endometriosis: Emerging Evidence Linking Inflammation to Disease Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Herington, Jennifer L.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone action normally mediates the balance between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory processes throughout the female reproductive tract. However, in women with endometriosis, endometrial progesterone resistance, characterized by alterations in progesterone responsive gene and protein expression, is now considered a central element in disease pathophysiology. Recent studies additionally suggest that the peritoneal microenvironment of endometriosis patients exhibits altered physiological characteristics that may further promote inflammation-driven disease development and progression. Within this review, we summarize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of endometriosis with an emphasis on the role that inflammation plays in generating not only the progesterone-resistant eutopic endometrium but also a peritoneal microenvironment that may contribute significantly to disease establishment. Viewing endometriosis from the emerging perspective that a progesterone resistant endometrium and an immunologically compromised peritoneal microenvironment are biologically linked risk factors for disease development provides a novel mechanistic framework to identify new therapeutic targets for appropriate medical management. PMID:23598784

  4. [Climate changes and emerging diseases. What new infectious diseases and health problem can be expected?].

    PubMed

    Stark, K; Niedrig, M; Biederbick, W; Merkert, H; Hacker, J

    2009-07-01

    Increasing temperatures, but also other climatic factors, will have an impact on human health. Apart from the direct consequences of extreme weather conditions (e.g., heat-related fatalities), indirect health consequences in the long-term are also of great importance. In addition to a likely increase in allergic diseases and additional complications in the course of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, infectious diseases are of particular interest. In Germany, endemic pathogens, such as hantavirus (with its reservoir in small rodents), tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi, tick-borne encephalitis virus), and certain food- and water-borne pathogens, are of concern. Mild winters favor rodent populations and may result in hantavirus epidemics in the subsequent summer period. Statistical analyses show a significant association between temperature and campylobacter incidence in Germany. An outbreak of rodent-borne leptospirosis among strawberry harvesters enhanced by heavy rainfalls illustrates how weather conditions may influence disease occurrence. Pathogens that are non-endemic in Germany but are imported by humans, vectors, and reservoir animals pose an additional risk to the population. Increasing temperatures improve the conditions for establishment of new vectors and for autochthonous transmission of some pathogens (e.g., chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, malaria, or leishmaniasis). Climatic and ecologic conditions in Germany currently do not favor autochthonous outbreaks for most of these pathogens. However, if temperatures increase, as expected, such outbreaks will become more likely. Germany should enhance its research in public health activities in the field of climate change and infectious diseases. PMID:19536444

  5. Evaluation and optimization of surveillance systems for rare and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Hadorn, Daniela C; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2008-01-01

    Surveillance for rare and emerging infectious diseases poses a special challenge to veterinary services. Most emerging infectious diseases like bovine tuberculosis (bTB) are zoonoses, affecting both human and animal populations. Despite the low prevalence of such an emerging infectious disease at time of incursion, the surveillance system should be able to detect the presence of the disease as early as possible. Because passive surveillance is a relatively cost-effective and therefore commonly used process, it is the basic tool for infectious disease surveillance. Because of under-reporting in passive surveillance, cost-intensive active surveillance is often required to increase the sensitivity of the surveillance system. Using scenario tree modelling, the sensitivity of passive and active surveillance system components (SSC) can be quantified and an optimal, cost-effective surveillance system developed considering the contributions of each SSC. We illustrate this approach with the example of bTB surveillance in Switzerland where the surveillance system for bTB consists of meat inspection at the slaughterhouse (SLI), passive clinical surveillance on farm (CLIN) and human surveillance (HS). While the sensitivities for CLIN and HS were both negligible (<1%), SLI was assessed to be 55.6%. The scenario tree model showed that SLI is increasable up to 80.4% when the disease awareness of meat inspectors in Switzerland is enhanced. A hypothetical random survey (RS) was also compared with a targeted survey (TS) in high-risk strata of the cattle population, and the sensitivity of TS was 1.17-fold better than in RS but with 50% of the sample size. PMID:18651991

  6. Modeling climate impact on an emerging disease, the Phytophthora alni-induced alder decline.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Jaime; Elegbede, Fabrice; Husson, Claude; Saintonge, François-Xavier; Marçais, Benoît

    2014-10-01

    Alder decline caused by Phytophthora alni is one of the most important emerging diseases in natural ecosystems in Europe, where it has threatened riparian ecosystems for the past 20 years. Environmental factors, such as mean site temperature and soil characteristics, play an important role in the occurrence of the disease. The objective of the present work was to model and forecast the effect of environment on the severity of alder Phytophthora outbreaks, and to determine whether recent climate change might explain the disease emergence. Two alder sites networks in NE and SW France were surveyed to assess the crown health of trees; the oomycete soil inoculum was also monitored in the NE network. The main factors explaining the temporal annual variation in alder crown decline or crown recovery were the mean previous winter and previous summer temperatures. Both low winter temperatures and high summer temperatures were unfavorable to the disease. Cold winters promoted tree recovery because of poor survival of the pathogen, while hot summer temperature limited the incidence of tree decline. An SIS model explaining the dynamics of the P. alni-induced alder decline was developed using the data of the NE site network and validated using the SW site network. This model was then used to simulate the frequency of declining alder over time with historical climate data. The last 40 years' weather conditions have been generally favorable to the establishment of the disease, indicating that others factors may be implicated in its emergence. The model, however, showed that the climate of SW France was much more favorable for the disease than that of the Northeast, because it seldom limited the overwintering of the pathogen. Depending on the European area, climate change could either enhance or decrease the severity of the alder decline. PMID:24729529

  7. Parasites and Parasitism (CAMB 549) Course organizer: Jay Farrell ( farrellj@vet.upenn.edu) 217 Rosenthal

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Parasites and Parasitism (CAMB 549) Course organizer: Jay Farrell ( farrellj@vet.upenn.edu) 217 and control of Chagas disease (Levy) 9/28 -- Parasite invasion/egress (Greenbaum) 9/30 -- Filariasis: balancing host protection and immunopathology (Nair) 10/14 -- Innate immunity to helminth parasites

  8. Applying Biotechnology and Bioengineering to Pediatric Lung Disease: Emerging Paradigms and Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Kelley L.; Yeager, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric lung diseases remain a costly worldwide health burden. For many children with end-stage lung disease, lung transplantation remains the only therapeutic option. Due to the limited number of lungs available for transplantation, alternatives to lung transplant are desperately needed. Recently, major improvements in tissue engineering have resulted in newer technology and methodology to develop viable bioengineered lungs. These include critical advances in lung cell biology, stem cell biology, lung extracellular matrix, microfabrication techniques, and orthotopic transplantation of bioartificial lungs. The goal of this short review is to engage the reader’s interest with regard to these emerging concepts and to stimulate their interest to learn more. We review the existing state of the art of lung tissue engineering, and point to emerging paradigms and platforms in the field. Finally, we summarize the challenges and unmet needs that remain to be overcome.

  9. A framework for assessing and managing risks posed by emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Walshe, Terry; Burgman, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Frameworks for analyzing the risks of emerging diseases and invasive species often have relied on unstructured estimates of likelihoods and consequences. We suggest a flexible alternative that offers more transparent analysis without need for additional data. Its strength lies in explicit and complementary treatment of technical and social judgments. We describe a system in which cognitive maps, Bayes nets, and multicriteria analysis can be used in tandem to structure a problem, identify exposure pathways, combine data and expert judgement to estimate the likelihoods, and assess consequences of alternative decisions. These tools may be employed in participatory settings or as part of standard regulatory practice. We illustrate this approach with an assessment of the management of an emerging disease that poses a hazard to Australia. PMID:19878485

  10. Emerging Mechanisms of Glutathione-dependent Chemistry in Biology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M. W.; Nolin, James D.; Hoffman, Sidra M.; van der Velden, Jos L.; Tully, Jane E.; Lahue, Karolyn G.; Abdalla, Sarah T.; Chapman, David G.; Reynaert, Niki L.; van der Vliet, Albert; Anathy, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione has traditionally been considered as an antioxidant that protects cells against oxidative stress. Hence, the loss of reduced glutathione and formation of glutathione disulfide is considered a classical parameter of oxidative stress that is increased in diseases. Recent studies have emerged that demonstrate that glutathione plays a more direct role in biological and pathophysiological processes through covalent modification to reactive cysteines within proteins, a process known as S-glutathionylation. The formation of an S-glutathionylated moiety within the protein can lead to structural and functional modifications. Activation, inactivation, loss of function, and gain of function have all been attributed to S-glutathionylation. In pathophysiological settings, S-glutathionylation is tightly regulated. This perspective offers a concise overview of the emerging field of protein thiol redox modifications. We will also cover newly developed methodology to detect S-glutathionylation in situ, which will enable further discovery into the role of S-glutathionylation in biology and disease. PMID:23554102

  11. Differential modulation of eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) disease parasites by the El-Niño-Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.; Powell, Eric N.

    2009-02-01

    The eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) is affected by two protozoan parasites, Perkinsus marinus which causes Dermo disease and Haplosporidium nelsoni which causes MSX (Multinucleated Sphere Unknown) disease. Both diseases are largely controlled by water temperature and salinity and thus are potentially sensitive to climate variations resulting from the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which influences climate along the Gulf of Mexico coast, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which influences climate along the Atlantic coast of the United States. In this study, a 10-year time series of temperature and salinity and P. marinus infection intensity for a site in Louisiana on the Gulf of Mexico coast and a 52-year time series of air temperature and freshwater inflow and oyster mortality from Delaware Bay on the Atlantic coast of the United States were analyzed to determine patterns in disease and disease-induced mortality in C. virginica populations that resulted from ENSO and NAO climate variations. Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the environmental, disease infection intensity and oyster mortality time series into a time-frequency space to determine the dominant modes of variability and the time variability of the modes. For the Louisiana site, salinity and Dermo disease infection intensity are correlated at a periodicity of 4 years, which corresponds to ENSO. The influence of ENSO on Dermo disease along the Gulf of Mexico is through its effect on salinity, with high salinity, which occurs during the La Niña phase of ENSO at this location, favoring parasite proliferation. For the Delaware Bay site, the primary correlation was between temperature and oyster mortality, with a periodicity of 8 years, which corresponds to the NAO. Warmer temperatures, which occur during the positive phase of the NAO, favor the parasites causing increased oyster mortality. Thus, disease prevalence and intensity in C. virginica populations along the Gulf of Mexico coast is primarily regulated by salinity, whereas temperature regulates the disease process along the United States east coast. These results show that the response of an organism to climate variability in a region is not indicative of the response that will occur over the entire range of a particular species. This has important implications for management of marine resources, especially those that are commercially harvested.

  12. Prospects for control of emerging infectious diseases with plasmid DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Moss, Ronald B

    2009-01-01

    Experiments almost 20 years ago demonstrated that injections of a sequence of DNA encoding part of a pathogen could stimulate immunity. It was soon realized that "DNA vaccination" had numerous potential advantages over conventional vaccine approaches including inherent safety and a more rapid production time. These and other attributes make DNA vaccines ideal for development against emerging pathogens. Recent advances in optimizing various aspects of DNA vaccination have accelerated this approach from concept to reality in contemporary human trials. Although not yet licensed for human use, several DNA vaccines have now been approved for animal health indications. The rapid manufacturing capabilities of DNA vaccines may be particularly important for emerging infectious diseases including the current novel H1N1 Influenza A pandemic, where pre-existing immunity is limited. Because of recent advances in DNA vaccination, this approach has the potential to be a powerful new weapon in protecting against emerging and potentially pandemic human pathogens. PMID:19735569

  13. Prospects for control of emerging infectious diseases with plasmid DNA vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Ronald B

    2009-01-01

    Experiments almost 20 years ago demonstrated that injections of a sequence of DNA encoding part of a pathogen could stimulate immunity. It was soon realized that "DNA vaccination" had numerous potential advantages over conventional vaccine approaches including inherent safety and a more rapid production time. These and other attributes make DNA vaccines ideal for development against emerging pathogens. Recent advances in optimizing various aspects of DNA vaccination have accelerated this approach from concept to reality in contemporary human trials. Although not yet licensed for human use, several DNA vaccines have now been approved for animal health indications. The rapid manufacturing capabilities of DNA vaccines may be particularly important for emerging infectious diseases including the current novel H1N1 Influenza A pandemic, where pre-existing immunity is limited. Because of recent advances in DNA vaccination, this approach has the potential to be a powerful new weapon in protecting against emerging and potentially pandemic human pathogens. PMID:19735569

  14. The Emerging Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Epidemic: Clinical Impact, Economic Burden, and Opportunities for Disease Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick Carter; Brian L. Tiep; Rebecca E. Tiep

    2008-01-01

    The incidence and economic impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is escalating worldwide and is projected to remain on a positive trajectory for many years to come. At some point in this escalation, COPD may be regarded as a true epidemic. Unfortunately, the incidence among women is escalating more rapidly than in men, reflecting the social anthropology of changing

  15. Emerging diseases and their impact on animal commerce: the Argentine lesson.

    PubMed

    Cané, B G; Leanes, L F; Mascitelli, L O

    2004-10-01

    As a result of the Argentine experience with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001, a need was postulated for the establishment of efficient supranational schemes for continuous surveillance of the interrelations between tropical extractives livestock systems and the prairies that are optimal for the feeding of livestock in the southern region of South America. FMD in Argentina and in other countries, new or re-emerging risks from avian influenza with potential risks for public health, the spongiform encephalopathies, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, and classical swine fever, among other animal diseases, have generated a strong reaction and evolution within the veterinary services of the country. These present lessons will influence decision-making within countries and should be accepted by the technical and scientific community. From the perspective of the official animal health sector and with the FMD eradication plan as a basis within the national territory, we have worked not only to achieve international recognition and credibility within animal health systems, but also to realize the formation of a regional block of countries that can be recognized internationally as an area with equivalent animal health status. We emphasize not only that this lesson is useful in FMD, but also that it is possible to apply the valuable conclusions reached for other emerging or re-emerging diseases. PMID:15604465

  16. Emergence and Prevalence of Human Vector-Borne Diseases in Sink Vector Populations

    PubMed Central

    Rascalou, Guilhem; Pontier, Dominique; Menu, Frédéric; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining ‘source’ populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector populations, but where immigration allows them to persist. We built an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of six major human vector borne-diseases in such non self-sustaining ‘sink’ vector populations. The model was parameterized through a review of the literature, and we performed extensive sensitivity analysis to look at the emergence and prevalence of the pathogen that could be encountered in these populations. Despite the low vector abundance in typical sink populations, all six human diseases were able to spread in 15–55% of cases after accidental introduction. The rate of spread was much more strongly influenced by vector longevity, immigration and feeding rates, than by transmission and virulence of the pathogen. Prevalence in humans remained lower than 5% for dengue, leishmaniasis and Japanese encephalitis, but substantially higher for diseases with longer duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were again the key factors, although their influence was lower than on pathogen emergence. Our results emphasize the need for ecology and evolution to be thought in the context of metapopulations made of a mosaic of sink and source habitats, and to design vector control program not only targeting areas of high vector density, but working at a larger spatial scale. PMID:22629337

  17. The interactive effect of an emerging infectious disease and an emerging contaminant on Woodhouse's toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer R; Miiller, Tyler; Kerby, Jacob L

    2013-09-01

    Two factors that influence amphibian population declines are infectious diseases and exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. The authors examined an emerging fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and its interaction with an emerging contaminant, the antimicrobial triclosan. They first conducted a 2?×?2?×?4 factorial study to examine the interactive impacts of dragonfly predator cues, Bd, and triclosan (0?µg/L, 10?µg/L, 100?µg/L, and 1000?µg/L) on Woodhouse's toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii) tadpoles. The authors measured the lethal and sublethal impacts of these stressors on tadpoles over 4 wk. All tadpoles in the 100-µg/L and 1000-µg/L concentrations of triclosan died within 24?h of exposure, but tadpoles in the low concentration (10?µg/L) survived. Tadpoles exposed to only Bd (no triclosan) exhibited a low survival rate (67.5%), whereas those exposed to both 10?µg/L triclosan and Bd exhibited a high survival rate (91.1%), implying that triclosan inhibits effects of Bd on tadpoles. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and predator cue exposure individually increased the developmental rate of the surviving tadpoles, but this effect was absent when these factors were combined with triclosan. In a follow-up study, the authors found Bd growth in culture was significantly inhibited at the 10-µg/L concentration of triclosan and completely inhibited at 100?µg/L. These findings suggest that interactions among multiple stressors can be complex and require examination in conjunction with one another to evaluate actual impacts to aquatic fauna. PMID:23637083

  18. Hookworm Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools Print this page Get email updates Order publications Volunteer for Clinical Studies Help people who are suffering from hookworm by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Parasitic Roundworm Diseases Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases ...

  19. Adiponectin, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease: emerging data on complex interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan M. Lo; Mark Mitsnefes

    Over the past decade, adiponectin has been a subject of interest in many fields of medicine. The effect of adiponectin in\\u000a metabolism and inflammation has been described for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in animal studies and the general population,\\u000a generally as a protective factor. Extensive literature pertaining to adult studies indicates that low adiponectin levels are\\u000a associated with increased CVD morbidity

  20. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries are at increased risk for adverse effects of malaria infection (for example, miscarriage, low birth weight). Women ...

  1. Parasitic Diseases: Glossary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Water: water from swimming pools, hot tubs, Jacuzzis, spas, fountains, lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, streams, or the ... having contact with contaminated water from swimming pools, spas, lakes, rivers, or the ocean. Back To Top S ...

  2. Epidemiology of the emergent disease Paridae pox in an intensively studied wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Lachish, Shelly; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A; Sheldon, Ben C

    2012-01-01

    Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (<1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations. PMID:23185230

  3. Early warning disease surveillance after a flood emergency--Pakistan, 2010.

    PubMed

    2012-12-14

    During July-August 2010, Pakistan experienced extreme flooding that affected approximately 18 million persons. In response to the emergency, Pakistan's Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) enhanced an existing disease early warning system (DEWS) for outbreak detection and response. This report summarizes surveillance results early after implementation, describes system usefulness, and identifies areas for strengthening. Daily disease counts were reported from health facilities in four provinces containing 98% of the flood-affected population. During July 29, 2010-September 15, 2010, approximately 5.6 million new patient visits were reported. The most frequent conditions reported were skin diseases (18.3%), acute respiratory infection (15.1%), and acute diarrhea (13.3%). A total of 130 outbreak alerts were documented, of which 115 (88.5%) were for acute watery diarrhea (AWD) (suspected cholera). Of these, 55 alerts (47.8%) had at least one microbiological sample with confirmed cholera. Overall, DEWS was useful in detecting outbreaks, but it was limited by problems with data quality. Improvements in DEWS have increased system usefulness in subsequent emergencies. This report highlights the need to follow updated WHO guidelines on early warning disease surveillance systems to improve their usefulness. PMID:23235297

  4. Epidemiology of the Emergent Disease Paridae pox in an Intensively Studied Wild Bird Population

    PubMed Central

    Lachish, Shelly; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2012-01-01

    Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (<1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations. PMID:23185230

  5. Do intestinal parasitic infestations in patients with clinically acute appendicitis increase the rate of negative laparotomy? Analysis of 3863 cases from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Senlikci, Abdullah; K?zanoglu, Hale; Ustüner, Mehmet Akif; Vardar, Enver; Aykas, Ahmet; Yeldan, Eyup; Y?ld?r?m, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Acute appendicitis is the most frequently observed disease requiring emergency surgery. The role of parasites in its pathogenesis has long been discussed. The signs of the parasitic infestations can mimic the signs of acute appendicitis. Therefore, it can cause a negative laparotomy. Aim To evaluate the parasitic infestations of the appendix vermiformis whether increas the rate of negative laparotomy. Material and methods The histopathology results of a total of 3863 patients who underwent appendectomy with clinically acute appendicitis were evaluated retrospectively. All appendectomy materials in which parasites were observed were evaluated with respect to the nature of the parasites and the findings of inflammation. Cases in which parasite tissue fragments and/or eggs as well as findings of inflammation were histopathologically observed in the appendix lumen were diagnosed with parasitic appendicitis. Results Evidence of parasites was observed in 19 (0.49%) of the evaluated appendectomy materials. In 9 (47.3%) of these specimens that had evidence for parasites, findings for acute appendicitis and localized peritonitis were identified. Findings of acute appendicitis had not been identified in the other ten (52.7%) of the specimens. Enterobius vermicularis was the most frequently identified parasite. Conclusions In parasitic acute appendicitis, appendectomy in itself is not sufficient for treatment. Pharmacological treatment should also be administered after surgery. Patients should be evaluated prior to surgery for parasites, and diagnosis of acute appendicitis should be considered more cautiously in order to avoid negative laparotomies. PMID:24868285

  6. Tick-Borne Rickettsioses around the World: Emerging Diseases Challenging Old Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Parola, Philippe; Paddock, Christopher D.; Raoult, Didier

    2005-01-01

    During most of the 20th century, the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsioses could be summarized as the occurrence of a single pathogenic rickettsia on each continent. An element of this paradigm suggested that the many other characterized and noncharacterized rickettsiae isolated from ticks were not pathogenic to humans. In this context, it was considered that relatively few tick-borne rickettsiae caused human disease. This concept was modified extensively from 1984 through 2005 by the identification of at least 11 additional rickettsial species or subspecies that cause tick-borne rickettsioses around the world. Of these agents, seven were initially isolated from ticks, often years or decades before a definitive association with human disease was established. We present here the tick-borne rickettsioses described through 2005 and focus on the epidemiological circumstances that have played a role in the emergence of the newly recognized diseases. PMID:16223955

  7. Humans, Evolutionary and Ecologic Forces Shaped the Phylogeography of Recently Emerged Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Keim, Paul S.; Wagner, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Many infectious diseases have emerged and circulated around the world with the development of human civilizations and global commerce. Anthrax, plague and tularemia are three such zoonotic diseases that have been intensely studied through genome characterization and phylogeographic analyses. A few highly fit genotypes within each of the causative species represent the vast majority of observed disease cases. Mutational and selective forces working together create highly adapted pathogens, but this has to be coupled with ecological opportunities for global expansion. This Review describes the distributions of the bacteria that cause anthrax, plague and tularemia and investigates the forces that created a clonal structure in both these species, and specific groups within these species. PMID:19820723

  8. Global warming is changing the dynamics of Arctic host–parasite systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Kutz; E. P. Hoberg; L. Polley; E. J. Jenkins

    2005-01-01

    Global climate change is altering the ecology of infectious agents and driving the emergence of disease in people, domestic animals, and wildlife. We present a novel, empirically based, predictive model for the impact of climate warming on development rates and availability of an important parasitic nematode of muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic, a region that is particularly vulnerable to climate

  9. Emerging technologies for oral diagnostics: lessons from chronic graft-versus-host disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Jacqueline W.; Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Bassim, Carol W.; Melvin, James E.

    2013-05-01

    Saliva is a protein-rich oral fluid that contains information about systemic and oral-specific disease pathogenesis and diagnosis. Technologies are emerging to improve detection of protein components of human saliva for use not only in biomarker discovery, but also for the illumination of pathways involved in oral disease. These include the optimization of liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of saliva in health and disease. Downstream of saliva component identification and validation comes the complex task of connecting salivary proteomic data to biological function, disease state, and other clinical patient information in a meaningful way. Augmentation of database information with biological expertise is crucial for effective analysis of potential biomarkers and disease pathways in order to improve diagnosis and identify putative therapeutic targets. This presentation will use LC-MS/MS analysis of saliva from chronic Graft-versus-Host disease (cGVHD) patients to illustrate these principles, and includes a discussion of the complex clinical and diagnostic issues related to proteomics and biomarker research in cGVHD.

  10. The burden of emergency department use for sickle-cell disease: an analysis of the national emergency department sample database.

    PubMed

    Lanzkron, Sophie; Carroll, C Patrick; Haywood, Carlton

    2010-10-01

    It is estimated that there are 100,000 people living with sickle-cell disease (SCD) in the United States [1]. The most common manifestation of SCD is vaso-occlusive crisis, which is characterized by intermittent, unexpected episodes of excruciating pain. As these episodes often come on suddenly, much of the care for these crises occurs within emergency departments (EDs). Several studies have examined ED use and costs for certain groups of patients with SCD [2-4]. For example, in 1997, Woods et al. [2] found that 85.7% of 7,202 hospital admissions for SCD in Illinois were for patients that came through the ED, and the total charges for sickle-cell admissions in Illinois were found to be $30 million a year. A recent study of healthcare use by children with SCD demonstrated that children insured by Medicaid had higher ED utilization than those with private insurance (57% vs.45%) [5]. The purpose of our study was to provide national level estimates of ED utilization by SCD patients, which have not previously been available. PMID:20730795

  11. Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

    2014-05-01

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential. PMID:23912715

  12. Strategies to Circumvent Testosterone Surge and Disease Flare in Advanced Prostate Cancer: Emerging Treatment Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Pokuri, Venkata K; Nourkheyani, Houman; Betsy, Bodie; Herbst, Laurie; Sikorski, Marcus; Spangenthal, Edward; Fabiano, Andrew; George, Saby

    2015-07-01

    The testosterone surge and disease flare is a feared complication from initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment in advanced prostate adenocarcinoma. It is a common practice to start an average 7-day pretreatment regimen with an antiandrogen agent before initiating GnRH agonist therapy, to circumvent disease flare from testosterone surge. However, this might not be the best strategy and can be harmful, especially in patients at high risk of imminent organ damage from minimal testosterone surge. Surgical castration is a simple and cost-effective method that should be considered in these scenarios. But most patients refuse this procedure because of the permanent and psychologic impact of surgery. Novel GnRH antagonists, such as degarelix, and cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, achieve castrate-equivalent serum testosterone levels much faster than traditional GnRH agonists without the need for coadministration of antiandrogens. This article reports on 3 cases of impending oncologic emergencies in advanced prostate adenocarcinoma treated promptly with degarelix and ketoconazole without any disease flare related to testosterone surge. In the setting of symptomatic hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer, the authors suggest clinical trials using abiraterone, orteronel, and other newer agents that target the CYP17 axis (eg, ketoconazole) for fine-tuning the emergent medical castration methods and avoiding the dangers from the flare phenomenon. PMID:26150586

  13. Air pollution and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A 5-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Sunyer, J.; Saez, M.; Murillo, C.; Castellsague, J.; Martinez, F.; Anto, J.M. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain))

    1993-04-01

    An association between sulfur dioxide levels in urban air and the daily number of emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was previously reported in Barcelona, Spain, for the period 1985-1986. The present study assesses this association over a longer period of time, 1985-1989. This made it possible to carry out separate analyses for the winter and summer seasons and thus to control more adequately for weather and influenza epidemics. An increase of 25 micrograms/m3 in sulfur dioxide (24-hour average) produced adjusted changes of 6% and 9% in emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during winter and summer, respectively. For black smoke, a similar change was found during winter, although the change was smaller in summer. The association of each pollutant with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions remained significant after control for the other pollutant. The present findings support the conclusion that current levels of sulfur dioxide and black smoke may have an effect on the respiratory health of susceptible persons.

  14. Heat-related Emergency Hospitalizations for Respiratory Diseases in the Medicare Population

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G. Brooke; Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; McCormack, Meredith C.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The heat-related risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases among the elderly has not been quantified in the United States on a national scale. With climate change predictions of more frequent and more intense heat waves, it is of paramount importance to quantify the health risks related to heat, especially for the most vulnerable. Objectives: To estimate the risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases associated with outdoor heat in the U.S. elderly. Methods: An observational study of approximately 12.5 million Medicare beneficiaries in 213 United States counties, January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008. We estimate a national average relative risk of hospitalization for each 10°F (5.6°C) increase in daily outdoor temperature using Bayesian hierarchical models. Measurements and Main Results: We obtained daily county-level rates of Medicare emergency respiratory hospitalizations (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, 464–466, 480–487, 490–492) in 213 U.S. counties from 1999 through 2008. Overall, each 10°F increase in daily temperature was associated with a 4.3% increase in same-day emergency hospitalizations for respiratory diseases (95% posterior interval, 3.8, 4.8%). Counties’ relative risks were significantly higher in counties with cooler average summer temperatures. Conclusions: We found strong evidence of an association between outdoor heat and respiratory hospitalizations in the largest population of elderly studied to date. Given projections of increasing temperatures from climate change and the increasing global prevalence of chronic pulmonary disease, the relationship between heat and respiratory morbidity is a growing concern. PMID:23491405

  15. Current and emerging drug treatment options for Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Nathan; Chau, Sarah A; Kircanski, Ida; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2011-10-22

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and ultimately fatal condition that causes debilitating memory loss and extensive deterioration of cognitive and functional abilities. Currently available treatments for AD (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine and memantine) are symptomatic and do not decelerate or prevent the progression of the disease. These therapies demonstrate modest, but particularly consistent, benefit for cognition, global status and functional ability. The search for disease-modifying interventions has focused largely on compounds targeting the amyloid-? pathway. To date, the treatments targeting this pathway, such as tramiprosate and semagacestat, have been unsuccessful in demonstrating efficacy in clinical stages of testing. At this point, it is likely that not only amyloid-? aggregation but other possible neuronal mechanisms - such as hyperphosphorylated tau, neuro-inflammation and other processes - play important roles in the pathophysiology of this multifactorial disorder. Development of better disease models and biomarkers is essential for the advancement of knowledge of the disease mechanisms. This systematic review critically examines the efficacy and safety data for currently approved drugs and emerging treatments in AD, as well as discussing the present and future directions of innovation in this field. PMID:21985169

  16. The Emerging Role of Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uzoigwe, Jacinta C.; Prum, Thavaleak; Bresnahan, Eric; Garelnabi, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor air pollution poses a significant cardiovascular risk, and has been associated with atherosclerosis, the main underlying pathology in many cardiovascular diseases. Although, it is well known that exposure to air pollution causes pulmonary disease, recent studies have shown that cardiovascular health consequences of air pollution generally equal or exceed those due to pulmonary diseases. The objective of this article is to evaluate the current evidence on the emerging role of environmental air pollutions in cardiovascular disease, with specific focus on the types of air pollutants and mechanisms of air pollution-induced cardiotoxicity. Published literature on pollution was systematically reviewed and cited in this article. It is hoped that this review will provide a better understanding of the harmful cardiovascular effects induced by air pollution exposure. This will help to bring a better understanding on the possible preventive health measures and will also serve regulatory agencies and researchers. In addition, elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying the link between air pollution and cardiovascular disease is an essential target in developing novel pharmacological strategies aimed at decreasing adverse effects of air pollution on cardiovascular system. PMID:24083218

  17. Goats, birds, and emergent diseases: apparent and hidden effects of exotic species in an island environment.

    PubMed

    Carrete, Martina; Serrano, David; Illera, Juan C; López, Guillermo; Vögeli, Matthias; Delgado, Antonio; Tella, José L

    2009-06-01

    Exotic species can have devastating effects on recipient environments and even lead to the outbreak of emergent diseases. We present here several hidden effects that the introduction of goats has had on the Lesser Short-toed Lark, Calandrella rufescens, the commonest native bird inhabiting the island of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands). Vegetation structure varied with grazing pressure, and indeed, vegetation was all but eradicated from the locality with greatest goat densities, which was also where the lowest density of Lesser Short-toed Larks was recorded. The impact of habitat impoverishment, however, was partially compensated for by changes in the foraging behavior of birds, which benefited from the abundant food provided to goats on farms. Capture-resighting methods showed that birds visiting farms outnumbered the estimates for birds obtained in the surrounding natural habitat, suggesting that there was recruitment from a much larger area. Stable isotope analyses of feathers indicated that island birds feed largely on the maize supplied at goat farms, showing poorer body condition than birds from populations not associated with farms (peninsular Spain and Morocco). Moreover, larks from Fuerteventura had a very high prevalence of poxvirus lesions compared with other bird populations worldwide and may increase the risk of contracting the disease by feeding on farms, where they aggregate and coexist atypically with domestic birds. The island birds also had lower average productivity, which may be the consequence of the emergent disease and/or the poor nutritional state resulting from feeding on a low-protein diet. Diseased and non-diseased birds from Fuerteventura showed similar body condition and annual survival rates. However, the isotopic traces of delta 13C indicate that the diet of diseased birds was more uniform than that of non-diseased birds, being based on food from goat farms. Our results show how the combination of species frequently introduced onto islands (goats, poultry, and associated pathogens) can create ecological traps for native species that are not always easy to identify. Moreover, we stress that nutrition and infectious diseases are important determinants of the well-being and dynamics of animal populations, and thus health research must be included in the design of monitoring programs and conservation strategies. PMID:19544728

  18. Chagas’ Disease: An Emergent Urban Zoonosis. The Caracas Valley (Venezuela) as an Epidemiological Model

    PubMed Central

    Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas’ disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas’ disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control, and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty, and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of emergent diseases. PMID:25520950

  19. Infectious disease emergencies in returning travelers: special reference to malaria, dengue fever, and chikungunya.

    PubMed

    Wattal, Chand; Goel, Neeraj

    2012-11-01

    This review article discusses important infectious illnesses, namely malaria, dengue, and chikungunya, in travelers returning from endemic areas. Malaria and dengue are two of the most common systemic illnesses reported in returning travelers. Because chikungunya is gaining importance, it is also briefly discussed. The clinical significance of these diseases is mainly due to the possibility of sudden deterioration with high mortality in clinically healthy looking patients. The key clinical features, their diagnosis, and treatment algorithms are discussed in detail to help in early diagnosis and appropriate clinical management of such travelers presenting in emergency departments. PMID:23102486

  20. Emerging issues for our nation's health: the intersection of marijuana use and cardiometabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Vidot, Denise C; Prado, Guillermo; Hlaing, WayWay M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Current marijuana use rates are the highest they have been in the past decade and are not likely to decrease given the legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational use. Concurrently, the nation is facing epidemic levels of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus; but, little is known about the intersecting relationships of marijuana use and cardiometabolic health. The objective of this study was to explore emerging issues in context with the intersection of cardiometabolic risk and marijuana use. This topic has potential important implications for our nation's health as we relax our approach to marijuana but continue to have unacceptable rates of cardiometabolic illnesses. PMID:24471513

  1. Emergency total thyroidectomy due to non traumatic disease. Experience of a surgical unit and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory failure due to thyroid compression or invasion of the tracheal lumen is a surgical emergency requiring urgent management. The aim of this paper is to describe a series of six patients treated successfully in the emergency setting with total thyroidectomy due to ingravescent dyspnoea and asphyxia, as well as review related data reported in literature. Methods During 2005-2010, of 919 patients treated by total thyroidectomy at our Academic Hospital, 6 (0.7%; 4 females and 2 men, mean age: 68.7 years, range 42-81 years) were treated in emergency. All the emergency operations were performed for life-threatening respiratory distress. The clinical picture at admission, clinical features, type of surgery, outcomes and complications are described. Mean duration of surgery was 146 minutes (range: 53-260). Results In 3/6 (50%) a manubriotomy was necessary due to the extension of the mass into the upper mediastinum. In all cases total thyroidectomy was performed. In one case (16.7%) a parathyroid gland transplantation and in another one (16.7%) a tracheotomy was necessary due to a condition of tracheomalacia. Mean post-operative hospital stay was 6.5 days (range: 2-10 days). Histology revealed malignancy in 4/6 cases (66.7%), showing 3 primitive, and 1 secondary tumors. Morbidity consisted of 1 transient recurrent laryngeal palsy, 3 transient postoperative hypoparathyroidism, and 4 pleural effusions, treated by medical therapy in 3 and by drains in one. There was no mortality. Conclusion On the basis of our experience and of literature review, we strongly advocate elective surgery for patients with thyroid disease at the first signs of tracheal compression. When an acute airway distress appears, an emergency life-threatening total thyroidectomy is recommended in a high-volume centre. PMID:22494456

  2. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, an emerging infectious disease for hematologists.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by tick-borne SFTS virus infection that was first described in rural areas of China in 2011. Since then, SFTS has also been found in the western part of Japan in 2013. The clinical pictures of SFTS are characterized by abrupt onset of fever and gastrointestinal symptoms, followed by a progressive decline in platelet and white blood cell counts. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis are also frequently observed in the patients with advanced phase of SFTS. No specific treatment of SFTS is available, and avoiding tick bites is an important way to prevent the infection of SFTS virus. Standard precautions should be applied to SFTS patients to prevent human-to-human transmission of SFTS virus. Since ticks bearing SFTS virus are found in all area of Japan including Hokkaido, this disease has become a substantial risk to public health in all parts of Japan. PMID:25745960

  3. Nursing and complex humanitarian emergencies: Ebola is more than a disease.

    PubMed

    Downes, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To effectively address the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, it must be viewed in terms of the connections between health, politics, security, the environment, and poverty. For the people in the countries involved and those responding, it is more than the viral illness. Although the medical management of the disease is far from simple, it is really only the proximal event of much greater social upheaval in the region, creating what is known as a complex humanitarian emergency (CHE). This article describes a course to introduce nursing students to CHEs and the role of nurses in the field of global response. CHEs are becoming more frequent with high death and disease rates. Nurses must become familiar with their complexity and multifaceted response. Although the planning for the course predated the current epidemic, the Ebola outbreak in West Africa served as an excellent exemplar for the health sector response in CHEs. PMID:25645474

  4. Dengue in the Middle East: a neglected, emerging disease of importance.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, Ananda; Letson, G William

    2012-01-01

    Dengue transmission has increased worldwide, particularly in Asia and Latin America since the 1970s, but limited information on the disease is available from the Middle East. Saudi Arabia and Yemen have reported a few epidemics of dengue. Three of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-3) have been reported in the region. Climate conditions in the Middle East are not favourable for the disease vector, but all other risk factors for dengue are potentially increasing. The existence of a large immigrant work force from dengue-endemic countries, increased travel from and to dengue-endemic countries and increased urbanization are expected to increase the likelihood of the emergence of dengue in the Middle East. PMID:22137535

  5. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis: an emergent disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Fernandez, Monica; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) is an acute disease that affects the central nervous system. It is primarily caused by infection with the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This infection was previously restricted to certain Asian countries and the Pacific Islands, but it was first reported in Brazil in 2007. Since then, intermediate and definitive hosts infected with A. cantonensis have been identified within the urban areas of many states in Brazil, including those in the northern, northeastern, southeastern and southern regions. The goals of this review are to draw the attention of the medical community and health centres to the emergence of EoM in Brazil, to compile information about several aspects of the human infection and mode of transmission and to provide a short protocol of procedures for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:25075779

  6. The Key Role of Genomics in Modern Vaccine and Drug Design for Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Seib, Kate L.; Dougan, Gordon; Rappuoli, Rino

    2009-01-01

    It can be argued that the arrival of the “genomics era” has significantly shifted the paradigm of vaccine and therapeutics development from microbiological to sequence-based approaches. Genome sequences provide a previously unattainable route to investigate the mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. Genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, structural genomics, proteomics, and immunomics are being exploited to perfect the identification of targets, to design new vaccines and drugs, and to predict their effects in patients. Furthermore, human genomics and related studies are providing insights into aspects of host biology that are important in infectious disease. This ever-growing body of genomic data and new genome-based approaches will play a critical role in the future to enable timely development of vaccines and therapeutics to control emerging infectious diseases. PMID:19855822

  7. Galectins in parasite infection and allergic inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna R. Young; Els N. Meeusen

    2002-01-01

    Galectins are increasingly recognised as important immunological mediators of homeostasis and disease regulation. This paper gives an overview of current knowledge of galectin involvement in parasite infection and allergic inflammation, two very different but immunologically linked phenomena. Galectins are produced by both the parasite and the host and appear to be intimately involved in parasite establishment, as well as directing

  8. Canine Distemper Virus: an Emerging Disease in Wild Endangered Amur Tigers (Panthera tigris altaica)

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Tracie A.; Miquelle, Dale G.; Chang, Tylis Y.; Newton, Alisa L.; Korotkova, Irina; Ivanchuk, Galina; Lyubchenko, Elena; Tupikov, Andre; Slabe, Evgeny; McAloose, Denise

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fewer than 500 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) remain in the wild. Due to low numbers and their solitary and reclusive nature, tiger sightings across their range in the Russian Far East and China are rare; sightings of sick tigers are rarer still. Serious neurologic disease observed in several wild tigers since 2001 suggested disease emergence in this endangered species. To investigate this possibility, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were performed on tissues from 5 affected tigers that died or were destroyed in 2001, 2004, or 2010. Our results reveal canine distemper virus (CDV) infection as the cause of neurologic disease in two tigers and definitively establish infection in a third. Nonsuppurative encephalitis with demyelination, eosinophilic nuclear viral inclusions, and positive immunolabeling for CDV by IHC and ISH were present in the two tigers with available brain tissue. CDV phosphoprotein (P) and hemagglutinin (H) gene products were obtained from brains of these two tigers by RT-PCR, and a short fragment of CDV P gene sequence was detected in lymph node tissue of a third tiger. Phylogenetically, Amur tiger CDV groups with an Arctic-like strain in Baikal seals (Phoca siberica). Our results, which include mapping the location of positive tigers and recognition of a cluster of cases in 2010, coupled with a lack of reported CDV antibodies in Amur tigers prior to 2000 suggest wide geographic distribution of CDV across the tiger range and recent emergence of CDV as a significant infectious disease threat to endangered Amur tigers in the Russian Far East. PMID:23943758

  9. Parasites of Urological Importance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elijah O. Kehinde; Jehoram T. Anim; Parsotam R. Hira

    2008-01-01

    With the world increasingly becoming a global village, transnational and transcontinental migration has become the order of the day. It is expected that migrants will take with them some diseases (including parasites) which are normally endemic in their countries of origin, to their host countries. Similarly, environmental changes that result from development of water resources, global warming, growth and migration

  10. Pseudomonas cichorii as the causal agent of midrib rot, an emerging disease of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce in Flanders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Cottyn; Kim Heylen; Jeroen Heyrman; Katrien Vanhouteghem; Ellen Pauwelyn; Peter Bleyaert; Johan Van Vaerenbergh; Monica Höfte; Paul De Vos; Martine Maes

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial midrib rot of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) is an emerging disease in Flanders (Belgium) and fluorescent pseudomonads are suspected to play an important role in the disease. Isolations from infected lettuces, collected from 14 commercial greenhouses in Flanders, yielded 149 isolates that were characterized polyphasically, which included morphological characteristics, pigmentation, pathogenicity tests by both injection

  11. The Emerging Adult with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Challenges and Recommendations for the Adult Gastroenterologist

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising. Adult gastroenterologists are seeing increasing numbers of young adults with IBD, a subpopulation with unique needs and challenges that can impair their readiness to thrive in an adult healthcare system. Most adult gastroenterologists might not have the training or resources to address these needs. “Emerging adulthood” is a useful developmental lens through which this group can be studied. With complex disease phenotype and specific concerns of medication side effects and reproductive health, compounded by challenges of geographical and social flux and lack of adequate health insurance, emerging adults with IBD (EAI) are at risk of disrupted care with lack of continuity. Lessons learned from structured healthcare transition process from pediatric to adult services can be applied towards challenges in ongoing care of this population in the adult healthcare system. This paper provides an overview of the challenges in caring for the post transition EAI from the perspective of adult gastroenterologists and offers a checklist of provider and patient skills that enable effective care. This paper discusses the system-based challenges in care provision and search for meaningful patient-oriented outcomes and presents a conceptual model of determinants of continuity of care in this unique population. PMID:26064089

  12. The Emerging Adult with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Challenges and Recommendations for the Adult Gastroenterologist.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Itishree; Keefer, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising. Adult gastroenterologists are seeing increasing numbers of young adults with IBD, a subpopulation with unique needs and challenges that can impair their readiness to thrive in an adult healthcare system. Most adult gastroenterologists might not have the training or resources to address these needs. "Emerging adulthood" is a useful developmental lens through which this group can be studied. With complex disease phenotype and specific concerns of medication side effects and reproductive health, compounded by challenges of geographical and social flux and lack of adequate health insurance, emerging adults with IBD (EAI) are at risk of disrupted care with lack of continuity. Lessons learned from structured healthcare transition process from pediatric to adult services can be applied towards challenges in ongoing care of this population in the adult healthcare system. This paper provides an overview of the challenges in caring for the post transition EAI from the perspective of adult gastroenterologists and offers a checklist of provider and patient skills that enable effective care. This paper discusses the system-based challenges in care provision and search for meaningful patient-oriented outcomes and presents a conceptual model of determinants of continuity of care in this unique population. PMID:26064089

  13. Anthropogenics: human influence on global and genetic homogenization of parasite populations.

    PubMed

    Zarlenga, Dante S; Hoberg, Eric; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, abundance, and diversity of life on Earth have been greatly shaped by human activities. This includes the geographic expansion of parasites; however, measuring the extent to which humans have influenced the dissemination and population structure of parasites has been challenging. In-depth comparisons among parasite populations extending to landscape-level processes affecting disease emergence have remained elusive. New research methods have enhanced our capacity to discern human impact, where the tools of population genetics and molecular epidemiology have begun to shed light on our historical and ongoing influence. Only since the 1990s have parasitologists coupled morphological diagnosis, long considered the basis of surveillance and biodiversity studies, with state-of-the-art tools enabling variation to be examined among, and within, parasite populations. Prior to this time, populations were characterized only by phenotypic attributes such as virulence, infectivity, host range, and geographical location. The advent of genetic/molecular methodologies (multilocus allozyme electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction-DNA [PCR-DNA] fragments analysis, DNA sequencing, DNA microsatellites, single nucleotide polymorphisms, etc.) have transformed our abilities to reveal variation among, and within, populations at local, regional, landscape, and global scales, and thereby enhanced our understanding of the biosphere. Numerous factors can affect population structure among parasites, e.g., evolutionary and ecological history, mode of reproduction and transmission, host dispersal, and life-cycle complexity. Although such influences can vary considerably among parasite taxa, anthropogenic factors are demonstrably perturbing parasite fauna. Minimal genetic structure among many geographically distinct (isolated) populations is a hallmark of human activity, hastened by geographic introductions, environmental perturbation, and global warming. Accelerating environmental change now plays a primary role in defining where hosts, parasites, and other pathogens occur. This review examines how anthropogenic factors serve as drivers of globalization and genetic homogenization of parasite populations and demonstrates the impact that human intervention has had on the global dissemination of parasites and the accompanying diseases. PMID:25198251

  14. Microarray in parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Misra, Shubham; Anand, Namrata; Sharma, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Modern biology and genomic sciences are rooted in parasitic disease research. Genome sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of new biological information that promises to have a major impact on our understanding of parasites. Microarrays provide one of the major high-throughput platforms by which this information can be exploited in the laboratory. Many excellent reviews and technique articles have recently been published on applying microarrays to organisms for which fully annotated genomes are at hand. However, many parasitologists work on organisms whose genomes have been only partially sequenced. This review is mainly focused on how to use microarray in these situations. PMID:23508469

  15. Invited Review Malaria parasite colonisation of the mosquito midgut Placing

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    Invited Review Malaria parasite colonisation of the mosquito midgut ­ Placing the Plasmodium 3 March 2012 Keywords: Malaria Plasmodium Mosquito Anopheles Ookinete Oocyst Midgut traversal drugs is emerging. Malaria parasite migration through the mosquito host constitutes a major population

  16. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-04-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83·3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  17. The emerging role of resident memory T cells in protective immunity and inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ook; Kupper, Thomas S

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decade, it has become clear that there is an important subset of memory T cells that resides in tissues-tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells. There is an emerging understanding that TRM cells have a role in human tissue-specific immune and inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, the nature of the molecular signals that maintain TRM cells in tissues is the subject of much investigation. In addition, whereas it is logical for TRM cells to be located in barrier tissues at interfaces with the environment, these cells have also been found in brain, kidney, joint and other non-barrier tissues in humans and mice. Given the biology and behavior of these cells, it is likely that they have a role in chronic relapsing and remitting diseases of both barrier and non-barrier tissues. In this Review we discuss recent insights into the biology of TRM cells with a particular focus on their roles in disease, both proven and putative. PMID:26121195

  18. The Emerging Use of In Vivo Optical Imaging in the Study of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Stephanie A.; Saba, Reuben

    2014-01-01

    The detection and subsequent quantification of photons emitted from living tissues, using highly sensitive charged-couple device (CCD) cameras, have enabled investigators to noninvasively examine the intricate dynamics of molecular reactions in wide assortment of experimental animals under basal and pathophysiological conditions. Nevertheless, extrapolation of this in vivo optical imaging technology to the study of the mammalian brain and related neurodegenerative conditions is still in its infancy. In this review, we introduce the reader to the emerging use of in vivo optical imaging in the study of neurodegenerative diseases. We highlight the current instrumentation that is available and reporter molecules (fluorescent and bioluminescent) that are commonly used. Moreover, we examine how in vivo optical imaging using transgenic reporter mice has provided new insights into Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Prion disease, and neuronal damage arising from excitotoxicity and inflammation. Furthermore, we also touch upon studies that have utilized these technologies for the development of therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative conditions that afflict humans. PMID:25147799

  19. The role of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in cardiovascular disease. An emerging field.

    PubMed

    Polyzos, K A; Ketelhuth, D F J

    2015-05-01

    Coronary heart disease and stroke, the deadliest forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), are mainly caused by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall driven by maladaptive immune responses in the vessel wall. Various risk factors for CVD influence this pathogenic process, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and obesity. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, is strongly induced by inflammation in several tissues, including the artery wall. An increasing body of evidence indicates that IDO promotes immune tolerance, decreases inflammation, and functions as a homeostatic mechanism against excessive immune reactions. This review provides an overview of the emerging field of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation in CVD, emphasizing the role of IDO-mediated tryptophan metabolism and its metabolites in the modulation of 'classical' cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, lipid metabolism, diabetes mellitus, and in the development of atherosclerotic CVD. In diesem Review geben wir einen Überblick über das neue Forschungsgebiet zum Kynurenin-Stoffwechselweg des Tryptophanabbaus bei CVD, mit Schwerpunkt auf der Rolle des IDO-vermittelten Stoffwechsels von Tryptophan und seiner Abbauprodukte bei der Modulation "klassischer" kardiovaskulärer Risikofaktoren wie Hypertonie, Adipositas, Lipidstoffwechsel oder Diabetes mellitus, und bei der Entwicklung einer atherosklerotischen CVD. PMID:25599530

  20. Parasites and conservation biology: the `ibex-ecosystem'

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    -1 Parasites and conservation biology: the `ibex-ecosystem' JESU´ S M. PE´ REZ1,* , PIER G. MENEGUZ, Parasites, Protected areas, Wildlife diseases Abstract. Parasites, as organisms with a particular way conservation of parasites, at least within natural and protected areas. Little is known about such complex

  1. Compound processes as models for clumped parasite data

    E-print Network

    Barbour, Andrew

    Compound processes as models for clumped parasite data Dominik Heinzmann1,2 , A.D. Barbour1 by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The hypothesis of a clumped infection process against single ingestions infection, mixed Poisson, parasite data, Echinococcus. 1 Introduction Parasitic disease data often consist

  2. Scabies: Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease When a person is ... reaction) to the proteins and feces of the parasite. Severe itching (pruritus), especially at night, is the ...

  3. Impact of protozoan cell death on parasite-host interactions and pathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten GK Lüder; Jenny Campos-Salinas; Elena Gonzalez-Rey; Ger van Zandbergen

    2010-01-01

    PCD in protozoan parasites has emerged as a fascinating field of parasite biology. This not only relates to the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary implications but also to the impact on the parasite-host interactions within mammalian hosts and arthropod vectors. During recent years, common functions of apoptosis and autophagy in protozoa and during parasitic infections have emerged. Here, we review

  4. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Fungal Disease Emergence and Spread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton J.; Yager, Karina; Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence from multiple sources show the Earth has been warming since the late 19th century. More recently, evidence for this warming trend is strongly supported by satellite data since the late 1970s from the cryosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and land that confirms increasing temperature trends and their consequences (e.g., reduced Arctic sea ice, rising sea level, ice sheet mass loss, etc.). At the same time, satellite observations of the Sun show remarkably stable solar cycles since the late 1970s, when direct observations of the Sun's total solar irradiance began. Numerical simulation models, driven in part by assimilated satellite data, suggest that future-warming trends will lead to not only a warmer planet, but also a wetter and drier climate depending upon location in a fashion consistent with large-scale atmospheric processes. Continued global warming poses new opportunities for the emergence and spread of fungal disease, as climate systems change at regional and global scales, and as animal and plant species move into new niches. Our contribution to this proceedings is organized thus: First, we review empirical evidence for a warming Earth. Second, we show the Sun is not responsible for the observed warming. Third, we review numerical simulation modeling results that project these trends into the future, describing the projected abiotic environment of our planet in the next 40 to 50 years. Fourth, we illustrate how Rift Valley fever outbreaks have been linked to climate, enabling a better understanding of the dynamics of these diseases, and how this has led to the development of an operational predictive outbreak model for this disease in Africa. Fifth, We project how this experience may be applicable to predicting outbreaks of fungal pathogens in a warming world. Lastly, we describe an example of changing species ranges due to climate change, resulting from recent warming in the Andes and associated glacier melt that has enabled amphibians to colonize higher elevation lakes, only to be followed shortly by the emergence of fungal disease in the new habitats.

  5. Pro-inflammatory cytokines: emerging players regulating HSC function in normal and diseased hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Mirantes, Cristina; Passegué, Emmanuelle; Pietras, Eric M

    2014-12-10

    Hematopoiesis is the hierarchical process in which all lineages of blood cells are produced by self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow (BM). While the regulatory factors that maintain proper HSC function and lineage output under normal conditions are well understood, significantly less is known about how HSC fate is regulated in response to inflammation or disease. As many blood disorders are associated with overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, significant interest has emerged in understanding the impact of these factors on HSC function. In this review we highlight key advances demonstrating the impact of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the biology of HSCs and the BM niche, and address ongoing questions regarding their role in normal and pathogenic hematopoiesis. PMID:25149680

  6. The emerging link between O-GlcNAc and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanping; Shan, Xiaoyang; Yuzwa, Scott A; Vocadlo, David J

    2014-12-12

    Regional glucose hypometabolism is a defining feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). One emerging link between glucose hypometabolism and progression of AD is the nutrient-responsive post-translational O-GlcNAcylation of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAc is abundant in neurons and occurs on both tau and amyloid precursor protein. Increased brain O-GlcNAcylation protects against tau and amyloid-? peptide toxicity. Decreased O-GlcNAcylation occurs in AD, suggesting that glucose hypometabolism may impair the protective roles of O-GlcNAc within neurons and enable neurodegeneration. Here, we review how O-GlcNAc may link cerebral glucose hypometabolism to progression of AD and summarize data regarding the protective role of O-GlcNAc in AD models. PMID:25336656

  7. Emerging roles for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells receptor family signaling in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Pelham, Christopher J; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-02-01

    Innate immune receptors represent important therapeutic targets for inflammatory disorders. In particular, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family has emerged as a promoter of chronic inflammation that contributes to obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Importantly, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) has been characterized as an 'amplifier' of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling. TREM-1- and TREM-2-dependent signaling, as opposed to TREM-like transcript-1 (TLT-1 or TREML1), are mediated through association with the transmembrane adaptor DNAX activation protein of 12 kDa (DAP12). Recessive inheritance of rare mutations in DAP12 or TREM-2 results in a disorder called polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy, and surprisingly these subjects are not immunocompromised. Recent progress into the roles of TREM/DAP12 signaling is critically reviewed here with a focus on metabolic, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. The expanding repertoire of putative ligands for TREM receptors is also discussed. PMID:24325404

  8. Emerging Roles for FCRL Family Members in Lymphocyte Biology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.J.; Won, W.J.; Becker, E.J.; Easlick, J.L.; Tabengwa, E.; Li, R.; Shakhmatov, M.; Burrows, P.D.; Davis, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the extended Fc receptor-like (FCRL) family in humans and mice are preferentially expressed by B cells and possess tyrosine-based immunoregulatory function. Although the majority of these proteins repress B cell receptor-mediated activation, there is emerging evidence for their bifunctionality and capacity to counter-regulate adaptive and innate signaling pathways. In light of these findings, the recent discovery of ligands for several of these molecules has begun to reveal exciting potential for them in normal lymphocyte biology and is launching a new phase of FCRL investigation. Importantly, these fundamental developments are also setting the stage for defining their altered roles in the pathogenesis of a growing number of immune-mediated diseases. Here we review recent advances in the FCRL field and highlight the significance of these intriguing receptors in normal and perturbed immunobiology. PMID:25116094

  9. [Chikungunya, an emerging viral disease. Proposal of an algorithm for its clinical management].

    PubMed

    Palacios-Martínez, D; Díaz-Alonso, R A; Arce-Segura, L J; Díaz-Vera, E

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an emerging viral disease. It is caused by the Chikungunya virus, an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. They are also involved in the transmission of dengue, malaria, etc. CHIK is now endemic in any region of Africa and Southeast-Asia. Cases of CHIK have been reported in America, the Caribbean, and Europe (France, Italy and Spain). There are reservoirs of these mosquitoes in some regions of Spain (Catalonia, Alicante, Murcia and Balearic islands). CHIK is characterized by a sudden high and debilitating fever, and severe or disabling symmetrical arthralgia. It tends to improve in days or weeks. There are severe and chronic forms of CHIK. There is no specific treatment or prophylaxis for CHIK. An algorithm is proposed for the clinical management of CHIK based in the latest guidelines. PMID:25440971

  10. Poxviral disease in red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris in the UK: spatial and temporal trends of an emerging threat.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Anthony W; Deaville, Robert; Lawson, Becki; Cooley, William A; Farelly, Stephan S J; Stack, Michael J; Duff, Paul; McInnes, Colin J; Gurnell, John; Russell, Peter H; Rushton, Stephen P; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Nettleton, Peter; Lurz, Peter W W

    2008-09-01

    The squirrel poxvirus (SQPV) is the probable mediator of apparent competition between the introduced invading gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in the UK, and modeling studies have shown that this viral disease has had a significant impact on the decline of the red squirrel in the UK. However, given our limited understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, and more generally the effects of invasive species on parasite ecology, there is a need to investigate the transmission dynamics and the relative pathogenicity of the virus between species. We aimed to increase our knowledge of these processes through an empirical study in which we: (i) used pathological signs and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to diagnose SQPV disease in red squirrels found dead during scanning surveillance between 1993 and 2005; (ii) detected antibody to SQPV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the same animals; and (iii) mapped cases of the disease, and the gray squirrel distribution, using a geographical information system. We analyzed the distribution of cases of SQPV disease according to woodland type, a measure of squirrel density. SQPV disease occurred only in areas of England also inhabited by seropositive gray squirrels, and as the geographical range of gray squirrels expanded, SQPV disease occurred in these new gray squirrel habitats, supporting a role for the gray squirrel as a reservoir host of the virus. There was a delay between the establishment of invading gray squirrels and cases of the disease in red squirrels which implies gray squirrels must reach a threshold number or density before the virus is transmitted to red squirrels. The spatial and temporal trend in SQPV disease outbreaks suggested that SQPV disease will have a significant effect on Scottish populations of red squirrels within 25 years. The even spread of cases of disease across months suggested a direct rather than vector-borne transmission route is more likely. Eight juvenile and sub-adult free-living red squirrels apparently survived exposure to SQPV by mounting an immune response, the first evidence of immunity to SQPV in free-living red squirrels, which possibly suggests a changing host-parasite relationship and that the use of a vaccine may be an effective management tool to protect remnant red squirrel populations. PMID:18923872

  11. IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease, an Emerging Entity: A Review of a Multi-System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Divatia, Mukul; Kim, Sun A

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) is a recently defined emerging entity characterized by a diffuse or mass forming inflammatory reaction rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with fibrosclerosis and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4-RSD usually affects middle aged and elderly patients, with a male predominance. It is associated with an elevated serum titer of IgG4, which acts as a marker for this recently characterized entity. The prototype is IgG4-related sclerosing pancreatitis or autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Other common sites of involvement are the hepatobiliary tract, salivary gland, orbit, and lymph node, however practically any organ can be involved, including upper aerodigestive tract, lung, aorta, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, soft tissue, skin, central nervous system, breast, kidney, and prostate. Fever or constitutional symptoms usually do not comprise part of the clinical picture. Laboratory findings detected include raised serum globulin, IgG and IgG4. An association with autoantibody detection (such as antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor) is seen in some cases. Steroid therapy comprises the mainstay of treatment. Disease progression with involvement of multiple organ-sites may be encountered in a subset of cases and may follow a relapsing-remitting course. The principal histopathologic findings in several extranodal sites include lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, lymphoid follicle formation, sclerosis and obliterative phlebitis, along with atrophy and destruction of tissues. Immunohistochemical staining shows increased IgG4+ cells in the involved tissues (>50 per high-power field, with IgG4/IgG ratio >40%). IgG4-RSD may potentially be rarely associated with the development of lymphoma and carcinoma. However, the nature and pathogenesis of IgG4-RSD are yet to be fully elucidated and provide immense scope for further studies. PMID:22187229

  12. Parasite predators exhibit a rapid numerical response to increased parasite abundance and reduce transmission to hosts

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Skylar R; Wyderko, Jennie A; Sheehy, Robert R; Belden, Lisa K; Wojdak, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    Predators of parasites have recently gained attention as important parts of food webs and ecosystems. In aquatic systems, many taxa consume free-living stages of parasites, and can thus reduce parasite transmission to hosts. However, the importance of the functional and numerical responses of parasite predators to disease dynamics is not well understood. We collected host–parasite–predator cooccurrence data from the field, and then experimentally manipulated predator abundance, parasite abundance, and the presence of alternative prey to determine the consequences for parasite transmission. The parasite predator of interest was a ubiquitous symbiotic oligochaete of mollusks, Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei, which inhabits host shells and consumes larval trematode parasites. Predators exhibited a rapid numerical response, where predator populations increased or decreased by as much as 60% in just 5 days, depending on the parasite:predator ratio. Furthermore, snail infection decreased substantially with increasing parasite predator densities, where the highest predator densities reduced infection by up to 89%. Predators of parasites can play an important role in regulating parasite transmission, even when infection risk is high, and especially when predators can rapidly respond numerically to resource pulses. We suggest that these types of interactions might have cascading effects on entire disease systems, and emphasize the importance of considering disease dynamics at the community level. PMID:24340184

  13. Parasite predators exhibit a rapid numerical response to increased parasite abundance and reduce transmission to hosts.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Skylar R; Wyderko, Jennie A; Sheehy, Robert R; Belden, Lisa K; Wojdak, Jeremy M

    2013-11-01

    Predators of parasites have recently gained attention as important parts of food webs and ecosystems. In aquatic systems, many taxa consume free-living stages of parasites, and can thus reduce parasite transmission to hosts. However, the importance of the functional and numerical responses of parasite predators to disease dynamics is not well understood. We collected host-parasite-predator cooccurrence data from the field, and then experimentally manipulated predator abundance, parasite abundance, and the presence of alternative prey to determine the consequences for parasite transmission. The parasite predator of interest was a ubiquitous symbiotic oligochaete of mollusks, Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei, which inhabits host shells and consumes larval trematode parasites. Predators exhibited a rapid numerical response, where predator populations increased or decreased by as much as 60% in just 5 days, depending on the parasite:predator ratio. Furthermore, snail infection decreased substantially with increasing parasite predator densities, where the highest predator densities reduced infection by up to 89%. Predators of parasites can play an important role in regulating parasite transmission, even when infection risk is high, and especially when predators can rapidly respond numerically to resource pulses. We suggest that these types of interactions might have cascading effects on entire disease systems, and emphasize the importance of considering disease dynamics at the community level. PMID:24340184

  14. The Importance of Veterinary Policy in Preventing the Emergence and Re-Emergence of Zoonotic Disease: Examining the Case of Human African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Okello, Anna L.; Welburn, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in human behavior, resource utilization, and other extrinsic environmental factors continue to threaten the current distribution of several endemic and historically neglected zoonoses in many developing regions worldwide. There are numerous examples of zoonotic diseases which have circulated within relatively localized geographical areas for some time, before emerging into new regions as a result of changing human, environmental, or behavioral dynamics. While the world’s focus is currently on the Ebola virus gaining momentum in western Africa, another pertinent example of this phenomenon is zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), endemic to south and eastern Africa, and spread via infected cattle. In recent years, the ongoing northwards spread of this disease in the country has posed a serious public health threat to the human population of Uganda, increasing the pressure on both individual families and government services to control the disease. Moreover, the emergence of HAT into new areas of Uganda in recent years exemplifies the important role of veterinary policy in mitigating the severe human health and economic impacts of zoonotic disease. The systemic challenges surrounding the development and enforcement of veterinary policy described here are similar across sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the necessity to consider and support zoonotic disease control in broader human and animal health systems strengthening and associated development programs on the continent. PMID:25405148

  15. Emergence of a Novel Avian Pox Disease in British Tit Species

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Becki; Lachish, Shelly; Colvile, Katie M.; Durrant, Chris; Peck, Kirsi M.; Toms, Mike P.; Sheldon, Ben C.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major) from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Britain, 2006–2010. Reports of affected Paridae (211 incidents) outnumbered reports in non-Paridae (91 incidents). The majority (90%) of Paridae incidents involved great tits. Paridae pox incidents were more likely to involve multiple individuals (77.3%) than were incidents in non-Paridae hosts (31.9%). Unlike the small wart-like lesions usually seen in non-Paridae with avian pox in Great Britain, lesions in Paridae were frequently large, often with an ulcerated surface and caseous core. Spatial analyses revealed strong clustering of suspected avian pox incidents involving Paridae hosts, but only weak, inconsistent clustering of incidents involving non-Paridae hosts. There was no spatial association between Paridae and non-Paridae incidents. We documented significant spatial spread of Paridae pox from an origin in south-east England; no spatial spread was evident for non-Paridae pox. For both host clades, there was an annual peak of reports in August/September. Sequencing of the avian poxvirus 4b core protein produced an identical viral sequence from each of 20 great tits tested from Great Britain. This sequence was identical to that from great tits from central Europe and Scandinavia. In contrast, sequence variation was evident amongst virus tested from 17 non-Paridae hosts of 5 species. Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia. PMID:23185231

  16. Emerging infectious diseases and pandemic potential: status quo and reducing risk of global spread.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Brian; Dar, Osman; Zumla, Alimuddin; Heymann, David L

    2014-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are an important public health threat and infections with pandemic potential are a major global risk. Although much has been learned from previous events the evidence for mitigating actions is not definitive and pandemic preparedness remains a political and scientific challenge. A need exists to develop trust and effective meaningful collaboration between countries to help with rapid detection of potential pandemic infections and initiate public health actions. This collaboration should be within the framework of the International Health Regulations. Collaboration between countries should be encouraged in a way that acknowledges the benefits that derive from sharing biological material and establishing equitable collaborative research partnerships. The focus of pandemic preparedness should include upstream prevention through better collaboration between human and animal health sciences to enhance capacity to identify potential pathogens before they become serious human threats, and to prevent their emergence where possible. The one-health approach provides a means to develop this and could potentially enhance alignment of global health and trade priorities. PMID:25189351

  17. Fire fighting truck-based emergency mosquito biolarviciding to prevent outbreaks of malaria and arboviral disease in Kabul, Afghanistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Faulde; J. J. Scharninghausen; M. Tisch

    2008-01-01

    Emergency control of disease vectors requires high efficacy, rapid reaction and safe use of biocides in order interrupt transmission\\u000a cycles without harming humans, non-target animals and the environment. In countries with complex emergencies, air-borne large-scale\\u000a vector control is often limited, or impossible, due to questionable security as well as military, safety, equipment, or logistical\\u000a constraints. While facing a potential outbreak

  18. The Effect and Relative Importance of Neutral Genetic Diversity for Predicting Parasitism Varies across Parasite

    E-print Network

    Gompper, Matthew E.

    The Effect and Relative Importance of Neutral Genetic Diversity for Predicting Parasitism Varies across Parasite Taxa Mari´a Jose´ Ruiz-Lo´ pez1,2 *, Ryan J. Monello1¤ , Matthew E. Gompper1 , Lori S of parasitism across individuals is a major challenge in disease ecology. It is known that genetic makeup plays

  19. Monitoring parasite diversity for malaria elimination in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ghansah, Anita; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Andagalu, Ben; Apinjoh, Tobias; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle; Cornelius, Victoria; Golassa, Lemu; Andrianaranjaka, Voahangy Hanitriniaina; Ishengoma, Deus; Johnson, Kimberly; Kamau, Edwin; Maïga-Ascofaré, Oumou; Mumba, Dieudonne; Tindana, Paulina; Tshefu-Kitoto, Antoinette; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; William, Yavo; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Djimde, Abdoulaye A

    2014-09-12

    The African continent continues to bear the greatest burden of malaria and the greatest diversity of parasites, mosquito vectors, and human victims. The evolutionary plasticity of malaria parasites and their vectors is a major obstacle to eliminating the disease. Of current concern is the recently reported emergence of resistance to the front-line drug, artemisinin, in South-East Asia in Plasmodium falciparum, which calls for preemptive surveillance of the African parasite population for genetic markers of emerging drug resistance. Here we describe the Plasmodium Diversity Network Africa (PDNA), which has been established across 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa to ensure that African scientists are enabled to work together and to play a key role in the global effort for tracking and responding to this public health threat. PMID:25214619

  20. The emerging phenotype of long-term survivors with infantile Pompe disease

    PubMed Central

    Prater, Sean N.; Banugaria, Suhrad G.; DeArmey, Stephanie M.; Botha, Eleanor G.; Stege, Erin M.; Case, Laura E.; Jones, Harrison N.; Phornphutkul, Chanika; Wang, Raymond Y.; Young, Sarah P.; Kishnani, Priya S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa for infantile Pompe disease has improved survival creating new management challenges. We describe an emerging phenotype in a retrospective review of long-term survivors. Methods Inclusion criteria included ventilator-free status and age ?6 months at treatment initiation, and survival to age ?5 years. Clinical outcome measures included invasive ventilator-free survival and parameters for cardiac, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, gross motor and ambulatory status; growth; speech, hearing, and swallowing; and gastrointestinal and nutritional status. Results Eleven of 17 patients met study criteria. All were cross-reactive immunologic material-positive, alive, and invasive ventilator-free at most recent assessment, with a median age of 8.0 years (range: 5.4 to 12.0 years). All had marked improvements in cardiac parameters. Commonly present were gross motor weakness, motor speech deficits, sensorineural and/or conductive hearing loss, osteopenia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and dysphagia with aspiration risk. Seven of 11 patients were independently ambulatory and four required the use of assistive ambulatory devices. All long-term survivors had low or undetectable anti-alglucosidase alfa antibody titers. Conclusions Long-term survivors exhibited sustained improvements in cardiac parameters and gross motor function. Residual muscle weakness, hearing loss, risk for arrhythmias, hypernasal speech, dysphagia with risk for aspiration, and osteopenia were commonly observed findings. PMID:22538254

  1. Hepcidin: an emerging biomarker for iron disorders, inflammatory diseases, and infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerman, Mark E.; Olbina, Gordana; Ostland, Vaughn E.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2010-04-01

    The peptide hormone hepcidin, has emerged as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of hepcidin is a principal or contributing factor in most genetic and acquired systemic iron disorders, including anemia of inflammation (anemia of chronic disease). Hepcidin maintains healthy blood iron levels by regulating dietary iron absorption and transport from body iron stores to plasma. High serum hepcidin levels observed in chronic and acute inflammatory conditions can cause anemia by limiting plasma iron available for erythropoiesis. Chronically low serum hepcidin levels cause iron-overload and ultimately, accumulation of iron in liver and heart. We recently validated the first immunoassay for serum hepcidin and established the normal ranges in adults. Hepcidin has excellent potential as a biomarker and has a known mechanism of action, good stability, and rapid response to iron stores, inflammatory stimuli, and bacterial infections. Hepcidin can be measured in blood, urine, and saliva, and is generally not measurable in iron deficient/anemic patients and highly elevated in inflammatory diseases and infections. Intrinsic LifeSciences (ILS) is developing second generation hepcidin immunoassays and lateral-flow POC devices for hepcidin, a well characterized multi-purpose biomarker with applications in global health security.

  2. Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calum N. L. Macpherson

    2005-01-01

    The behaviour of Homo sapiens has a pivotal role to play in the macro and microepidemiology of emerging or re-emerging parasitic zoonoses. Changing demographics and the concomitant alterations to the environment, climate, technology, land use and changes in human behavior, converge to favour the emergence and spread of parasitic zoonoses. The recent unprecedented movements of people, their animals and their

  3. Morphological and Molecular Descriptors of the Developmental Cycle of Babesia divergens Parasites in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rossouw, Ingrid; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Niemand, Jandeli; van Biljon, Riette; Smit, Annel; Olivier, Nicholas A.; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Human babesiosis, especially caused by the cattle derived Babesia divergens parasite, is on the increase, resulting in renewed attentiveness to this potentially life threatening emerging zoonotic disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and intra-erythrocytic development of these parasites are poorly understood. This impedes concerted efforts aimed at the discovery of novel anti-babesiacidal agents. By applying sensitive cell biological and molecular functional genomics tools, we describe the intra-erythrocytic development cycle of B. divergens parasites from immature, mono-nucleated ring forms to bi-nucleated paired piriforms and ultimately multi-nucleated tetrads that characterizes zoonotic Babesia spp. This is further correlated for the first time to nuclear content increases during intra-erythrocytic development progression, providing insight into the part of the life cycle that occurs during human infection. High-content temporal evaluation elucidated the contribution of the different stages to life cycle progression. Moreover, molecular descriptors indicate that B. divergens parasites employ physiological adaptation to in vitro cultivation. Additionally, differential expression is observed as the parasite equilibrates its developmental stages during its life cycle. Together, this information provides the first temporal evaluation of the functional transcriptome of B. divergens parasites, information that could be useful in identifying biological processes essential to parasite survival for future anti-babesiacidal discoveries. PMID:25955414

  4. Parasites and the conservation of small populations: The case of Baylisascaris procyonis.

    PubMed

    Kristen Page, L

    2013-12-01

    Human demands on natural resources result in landscape changes that facilitate the emergence of disease. Most emerging diseases are zoonotic, and some of these pathogens play a role in the decline of vulnerable wildlife species. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common roundworm parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor), is a well recognized zoonotic infection that has many of the properties associated with a pathogen capable of driving extinction. It is highly non-specific and frequently pathogenic with regard to paratenic hosts, which contact eggs of B. procyonis at raccoon latrines. Eggs accumulate at latrines and remain viable for many years. Transmission of B. procyonis is sensitive to changes in land-use, and fragmented habitats increase contact rates between raccoons, potential paratenic hosts, and the parasite. Raccoons, and subsequently B. procyonis, have been introduced to Europe and Japan, where naïve vertebrates may be exposed to the parasite. Finally, domestic animals and exotic pets can carry patent infections with B. procyonis, thus increasing environmental contamination beyond raccoon latrines, and expanding the area of risk to potential paratenic hosts. This parasite can potentially contribute to extinctions of vulnerable species, as exemplified by the case of the Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister), a species that has experienced local declines and extinctions that are linked to B. procyonis. Conservation strategies for vulnerable species should consider the transmission ecology of parasitic pathogens, like B. procyonis. PMID:24533336

  5. Parasites and the conservation of small populations: The case of Baylisascaris procyonis?

    PubMed Central

    Kristen Page, L.

    2013-01-01

    Human demands on natural resources result in landscape changes that facilitate the emergence of disease. Most emerging diseases are zoonotic, and some of these pathogens play a role in the decline of vulnerable wildlife species. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common roundworm parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor), is a well recognized zoonotic infection that has many of the properties associated with a pathogen capable of driving extinction. It is highly non-specific and frequently pathogenic with regard to paratenic hosts, which contact eggs of B. procyonis at raccoon latrines. Eggs accumulate at latrines and remain viable for many years. Transmission of B. procyonis is sensitive to changes in land-use, and fragmented habitats increase contact rates between raccoons, potential paratenic hosts, and the parasite. Raccoons, and subsequently B. procyonis, have been introduced to Europe and Japan, where naïve vertebrates may be exposed to the parasite. Finally, domestic animals and exotic pets can carry patent infections with B. procyonis, thus increasing environmental contamination beyond raccoon latrines, and expanding the area of risk to potential paratenic hosts. This parasite can potentially contribute to extinctions of vulnerable species, as exemplified by the case of the Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister), a species that has experienced local declines and extinctions that are linked to B. procyonis. Conservation strategies for vulnerable species should consider the transmission ecology of parasitic pathogens, like B. procyonis. PMID:24533336

  6. Foodborne protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Dawson, David

    2005-08-25

    This report addresses Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and more briefly, Toxoplasma as the main parasitic protozoa of concern to food production worldwide. Other parasitic protozoa may be spread in food or water but are not considered as great a risk to food manufacture. The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora have proven potential to cause waterborne and foodborne disease. Toxoplasma gondii has been considered a risk in specific cases, but humans are not its primary host. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are widespread in the environment, particularly the aquatic environment, and major outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have occurred as a result of contaminated drinking water. Large outbreaks of waterborne cyclosporiasis have not been identified. Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora have potential significance in the preparation and consumption of fresh produce and in catering practice, in which ready-to-eat foods may be served that have not received heat treatment. None of the three organisms Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora has been shown to be a problem for heat processed food or tap water that has undergone appropriate treatment at a water treatment works. All three are sensitive to standard pasteurisation techniques. Although humans are not a primary host for T. gondii, the potential exists for both waterborne and foodborne toxoplasmosis. Parasitic protozoa do not multiply in foods, but they may survive in or on moist foods for months in cool, damp environments. Their ecology makes control of these parasites difficult. For general control of parasitic protozoa in the food chain, the following steps are necessary: - Follow good hygienic practice in food service and catering industries.- Minimise dissemination of cysts and oocysts in the farming environment and via human waste management.- Include these microorganisms in Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plans of water suppliers, industries or sectors that use fresh produce, and operations in which contaminated process or ingredient water could end up in the product (e.g., where water supplies may become contaminated). PMID:16083823

  7. Multi-criteria decision analysis tools for prioritising emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases associated with climate change in Canada.

    PubMed

    Cox, Ruth; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is known to result in the emergence or re-emergence of some infectious diseases. Reliable methods to identify the infectious diseases of humans and animals and that are most likely to be influenced by climate are therefore required. Since different priorities will affect the decision to address a particular pathogen threat, decision makers need a standardised method of prioritisation. Ranking methods and Multi-Criteria Decision approaches provide such a standardised method and were employed here to design two different pathogen prioritisation tools. The opinion of 64 experts was elicited to assess the importance of 40 criteria that could be used to prioritise emerging infectious diseases of humans and animals in Canada. A weight was calculated for each criterion according to the expert opinion. Attributes were defined for each criterion as a transparent and repeatable method of measurement. Two different Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis tools were tested, both of which used an additive aggregation approach. These were an Excel spreadsheet tool and a tool developed in software 'M-MACBETH'. The tools were trialed on nine 'test' pathogens. Two different methods of criteria weighting were compared, one using fixed weighting values, the other using probability distributions to account for uncertainty and variation in expert opinion. The ranking of the nine pathogens varied according to the weighting method that was used. In both tools, using both weighting methods, the diseases that tended to rank the highest were West Nile virus, Giardiasis and Chagas, while Coccidioidomycosis tended to rank the lowest. Both tools are a simple and user friendly approach to prioritising pathogens according to climate change by including explicit scoring of 40 criteria and incorporating weighting methods based on expert opinion. They provide a dynamic interactive method that can help to identify pathogens for which a full risk assessment should be pursued. PMID:23950868

  8. A framework for the study of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers: spillover of bat pathogens as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, James L. N.; Leach, Melissa; Waldman, Linda; MacGregor, Hayley; Fooks, Anthony R.; Jones, Kate E.; Restif, Olivier; Dechmann, Dina; Hayman, David T. S.; Baker, Kate S.; Peel, Alison J.; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Fahr, Jakob; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breiman, Robert F.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Field, Hume E.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health and human health remain poorly understood and responding appropriately to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial societal challenge. In the context of disease emergence from wildlife, wildlife and habitat should be conserved, which in turn will preserve vital ecosystem structure and function, which has broader implications for human wellbeing and environmental sustainability, while simultaneously minimizing the spillover of pathogens from wild animals into human beings. In this review, we propose a novel framework for the holistic and interdisciplinary investigation of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers, using the spillover of bat pathogens as a case study. This study has been developed to gain a detailed interdisciplinary understanding, and it combines cutting-edge perspectives from both natural and social sciences, linked to policy impacts on public health, land use and conservation. PMID:22966143

  9. Cholesterol-conjugated peptide antivirals: a path to a rapid response to emerging viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Pessi, Antonello

    2015-05-01

    While it is now possible to identify and genetically fingerprint the causative agents of emerging viral diseases, often with extraordinary speed, suitable therapies cannot be developed with equivalent speed, because drug discovery requires information that goes beyond knowledge of the viral genome. Peptides, however, may represent a special opportunity. For all enveloped viruses, fusion between the viral and the target cell membrane is an obligatory step of the life cycle. Class I fusion proteins harbor regions with a repeating pattern of amino acids, the heptad repeats (HRs), that play a key role in fusion, and HR-derived peptides such as enfuvirtide, in clinical use for HIV, can block the process. Because of their characteristic sequence pattern, HRs are easily identified in the genome by means of computer programs, providing the sequence of candidate peptide inhibitors directly from genomic information. Moreover, a simple chemical modification, the attachment of a cholesterol group, can dramatically increase the antiviral potency of HR-derived inhibitors and simultaneously improve their pharmacokinetics. Further enhancement can be provided by dimerization of the cholesterol-conjugated peptide. The examples reported so far include inhibitors of retroviruses, paramyxoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses, and filoviruses. For some of these viruses, in vivo efficacy has been demonstrated in suitable animal models. The combination of bioinformatic lead identification and potency/pharmacokinetics improvement provided by cholesterol conjugation may form the basis for a rapid response strategy, where development of an emergency cholesterol-conjugated therapeutic would immediately follow the availability of the genetic information of a new enveloped virus. PMID:25331523

  10. Environmental and social influences on emerging infectious diseases: past, present and future.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, A J

    2004-01-01

    During the processes of human population dispersal around the world over the past 50 000-100 000 years, along with associated cultural evolution and inter-population contact and conflict, there have been several major transitions in the relationships of Homo sapiens with the natural world, animate and inanimate. Each of these transitions has resulted in the emergence of new or unfamiliar infectious diseases.The three great historical transitions since the initial advent of agriculture and livestock herding, from ca. 10 000 years ago, occurred when: (i) early agrarian-based settlements enabled sylvatic enzootic microbes to make contact with Homo sapiens; (ii) early Eurasian civilizations (such as the Greek and Roman empires, China and south Asia) came into military and commercial contact, ca. 3000-2000 years ago, swapping their dominant infections; and (iii) European expansionism, over the past five centuries, caused the transoceanic spread of often lethal infectious diseases. This latter transition is best known in relation to the conquest of the Americas by Spanish conquistadores, when the inadvertent spread of measles, smallpox and influenza devastated the Amerindian populations.Today, we are living through the fourth of these great transitional periods. The contemporary spread and increased lability of various infectious diseases, new and old, reflect the combined and increasingly widespread impacts of demographic, environmental, behavioural, technological and other rapid changes in human ecology. Modern clinical medicine has, via blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and the use of hypodermic syringes, created new opportunities for microbes. These have contributed to the rising iatrogenic problems of hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS and several other viral infections. Meanwhile, the injudicious use of antibiotics has been a rare instance of human action actually increasing 'biodiversity'.Another aspect of this fourth transition is that modern hyper-hygienic living restricts microbial exposure in early life. This, in the 1950s, may have contributed to an epidemic of more serious, disabling, poliomyelitis, affecting older children than those affected in earlier, more endemic decades. As with previous human-microbe transitions, a new equilibrial state may lie ahead. However, it certainly will not entail a world free of infectious diseases. Any mature, sustainable, human ecology must come to terms with both the need for, and the needs of, the microbial species that help to make up the interdependent system of life on Earth. Humans and microbes are not "at war"; rather, both parties are engaged in amoral, self-interested, coevolutionary struggle. We need to understand better, and therefore anticipate, the dynamics of that process. PMID:15306389

  11. Nucleic acids in disease and disorder: Understanding the language of life emerging from the `ABC' of DNA

    E-print Network

    Bansal, Manju

    Nucleic acids in disease and disorder: Understanding the language of life emerging from the `ABC in, and contributing towards, understanding the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids com- pared structure and dynamics of nucleic acids (Jayaraman and Yathindra 1981; Maiti et al. 1983; Malathi

  12. Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

  13. 429Vol. 5, No. 3, MayJune 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Yellow fever (YF) is a serious public health

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    429Vol. 5, No. 3, MayJune 1999 Emerging Infectious Diseases Dispatches Yellow fever (YF Tonate and Mayaro), and a new world First Case of Yellow Fever in French Guiana since 1902 J.M. Heraud@pasteur-cayenne.fr. The first case of yellow fever in French Guiana since 1902 was reported in March 1998. The yellow fever

  14. Cerato-ulmin, a Hydrophobin Secreted by the Causal Agents of Dutch Elm Disease, Is a Parasitic Fitness Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley Temple; Paul A. Horgen; Louis Bernier; William E. Hintz

    1997-01-01

    Dutch elm disease is caused by the aggressiveOphiostoma novo-ulmiand the nonaggressiveO. ulmi.Both secrete the protein cerato-ulmin (CU). To determine what role CU plays in the pathology of Dutch elm disease, we constructed a CU overexpression mutant of the nonaggressiveO. ulmiH5. Stable integration of a single copy of thecugene from the aggressiveO. novo-ulmiinto the genome of the nonaggressive isolate resulted in

  15. Parasitic Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh K. Gupta; Kee-Hyun Chang

    Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by different parasites is in endemic proportion in different parts of the world. The distribution of the type of infection depends on the food habits, prevalence of the type of infection in the region, and local hygienic conditions in many developing countries in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, and Mexico. These infections

  16. Current and emerging treatment options for the elderly patient with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fassett, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the current and emerging treatments of CKD prior to dialysis in the elderly. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of people who are aged over 65 years. In parallel, there are increasing numbers of elderly patients presenting with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in the more advanced stages. The elderly have quite different health care needs related to their associated comorbidity, frailty, social isolation, poor functional status, and cognitive decline. Clinical trials assessing treatments for CKD have usually excluded patients older than 70–75 years; therefore, it is difficult to translate current therapies recommended for younger patients with CKD across to the elderly. Many elderly people with CKD progress to end-stage kidney disease and face the dilemma of whether to undertake dialysis or accept a conservative approach supported by palliative care. This places pressure on the patient, their family, and on health care resources. The clinical trajectory of elderly CKD patients has in the past been unclear, but recent evidence suggests that many patients over 75 years of age with multiple comorbidities have greatly reduced life expectancies and quality of life, even if they choose dialysis treatment. Offering a conservative pathway supported by palliative care is a reasonable option for some patients under these circumstances. The elderly person who chooses to have dialysis will frequently have different requirements than younger patients. Kidney transplantation can still result in improved life expectancy and quality of life in the elderly, in carefully selected people. There is a genuine need for the inclusion of the elderly in CKD clinical trials in the future so we can produce evidence-based therapies for this group. In addition, new therapies to treat and slow CKD progression are needed for all age groups. PMID:24477220

  17. DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS Dis Aquat Org

    E-print Network

    August 27 INTRODUCTION The spread of infectious pathogens may be enhanced by direct human dispersal infected males are function- ally castrated, and high castration rates can result in effectively unisexual.int-res.com*Email: sunday@sfu.ca NOTE Emerging infectious disease in sea stars: castrating ciliate parasites in Patiria

  18. Of parasites and men.

    PubMed

    Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Thomas, Frédéric; Renaud, François

    2013-12-01

    The living world has evolved and is evolving through interspecific relationships between organisms. The diversity of these interactions is enormous going from mutualism to parasitism. Humans live with a multitude of microorganisms, essential for their biology. However, interactions are not always advantageous. Indeed, many organisms might become pathogens, such as the Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria. Like many other microorganisms, they are «Machiavellian» in their capacity to elaborate a range of reproduction strategies, giving them a huge advantage in terms of adaptation. Here, we discuss the role played by parasites in the ecology and evolution of living organisms and particularly of humans. In the study of infectious diseases, humans are legitimately the focal point, although they represent only one ecosystem among many others and not taking this into account certainly biases our global view of the system. Indeed, we know only a minimal fraction of the microorganisms we live with. However, parasites have shaped and are still shaping the human genome. Several genetic signatures are the proofs of the selection pressures by parasites that humankind has endured during its evolution. But, ultimately, what are the solutionsfor living with pathogens? Should we eradicate them or should we learn how to control and manage them? PMID:23954419

  19. Diabetic Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 million people in the United States have diabetes, ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  20. Emergence of Hydrogen Sulfide as an Endogenous Gaseous Signaling Molecule in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polhemus, David J.; Lefer, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Long recognized as a malodorous and highly toxic gas, recent experimental studies have revealed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced enzymatically in all mammalian species including man and exerts a number of critical actions to promote cardiovascular homeostasis and health. During the past 15 years, scientists have determined that H2S is produced by three endogenous enzymes and exerts powerful effects on endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclear transcription factors. These effects have been reported in multiple organ systems and the vast majority of data clearly indicate that H2S produced by the endogenous enzymes exerts cytoprotective actions. Recent preclinical studies investigating cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated that the administration of physiological or pharmacological levels of H2S attenuates myocardial injury, protects blood vessels, limits inflammation, and regulates blood pressure. H2S has emerged as a critical cardiovascular signaling molecule similar to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) with a profound impact on the heart and circulation (Figure 1). Our improved understanding of how H2S elicits protective actions, coupled with the very rapid development of novel H2S releasing agents, has resulted in heightened enthusiasm for the clinical translation of this ephemeral gaseous molecule. This review will examine our current state of knowledge regarding the actions of H2S within the cardiovascular system with an emphasis on the therapeutic potential and molecular crosstalk between H2S, NO, and CO. PMID:24526678

  1. Strategies for collaboration in the interdisciplinary field of emerging zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Anholt, R M; Stephen, C; Copes, R

    2012-06-01

    The integration of the veterinary, medical and environmental sciences necessary to predict, prevent or respond to emerging zoonotic diseases requires effective collaboration and exchange of knowledge across these disciplines. There has been no research into how to connect and integrate these professions in the pursuit of a common task. We conducted a literature search looking at the experiences and wisdom resulting from collaborations built in health partnerships, health research knowledge transfer and exchange, business knowledge management and systems design engineering to identify key attributes of successful interdisciplinary (ID) collaboration. This was followed by a workshop with 16 experts experienced in ID collaboration including physicians, veterinarians and biologists from private practice, academia and government agencies. The workshop participants shared their perspectives on the facilitators and barriers to ID collaboration. Our results found that the elements that can support or impede ID collaboration can be categorized as follows: the characteristics of the people, the degree to which the task is a shared goal, the policies, practices and resources of the workplace, how information technology is used and the evaluation of the results. Above all, personal relationships built on trust and respect are needed to best assemble the disciplinary strength of the professions. The challenge of meeting collaborators outside the boundaries of one's discipline or jurisdiction may be met by an independent third party, an ID knowledge broker. The broker would know where the knowledge could be found, would facilitate introductions and would help to build effective ID teams. PMID:22273426

  2. Extended disease resistance emerging from the faecal nest of a subterranean termite

    PubMed Central

    Chouvenc, Thomas; Efstathion, Caroline A.; Elliott, Monica L.; Su, Nan-Yao

    2013-01-01

    Social insects nesting in soil environments are in constant contact with entomopathogens but have evolved a range of defence mechanisms, resulting in both individual and social immunity that reduce the chance for epizootics in the colony, as in the case of subterranean termites. Coptotermes formosanus uses its faeces as building material for its nest structure that result into a ‘carton material’, and here, we report that the faecal nest supports the growth of Actinobacteria which provide another level of protection to the social group against entomopathogens. A Streptomyces species with in vivo antimicrobial activity against fungal entomopathogens was isolated from the nest material of multiple termite colonies. Termite groups were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae, a fungal entomopathogen, during their foraging activity and the presence of Streptomyces within the nest structure provided a significant survival benefit to the termites. Therefore, this report describes a non-nutritional exosymbiosis in a termite, in the form of a defensive mutualism which has emerged from the use of faecal material in the nesting structure of Coptotermes. The association with an Actinobacteria community in the termite faecal material provides an extended disease resistance to the termite group as another level of defence, in addition to their individual and social immunity. PMID:24048157

  3. Dispelling an urban legend: frequent emergency department users have substantial burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Billings, John; Raven, Maria C

    2013-12-01

    Urban legend has often characterized frequent emergency department (ED) patients as mentally ill substance users who are a costly drain on the health care system and who contribute to ED overcrowding because of unnecessary visits for conditions that could be treated more efficiently elsewhere. This study of Medicaid ED users in New York City shows that behavioral health conditions are responsible for a small share of ED visits by frequent users, and that ED use accounts for a small portion of these patients' total Medicaid costs. Frequent ED users have a substantial burden of disease, and they have high rates of primary and specialty care use. They also have linkages to outpatient care that are comparable to those of other ED patients. It is possible to use predictive modeling to identify who will become a repeat ED user and thus to help target interventions. However, policy makers should view reducing frequent ED use as only one element of more-comprehensive intervention strategies for frequent health system users. PMID:24301392

  4. Emergence and Distribution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A and O in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S P; Rahman, M Z; Momtaz, S; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Bangladesh and is predominantly due to FMDV serotype O. In 2012, FMD outbreaks were identified in five different districts of Bangladesh. Of 56 symptomatic cattle epithelial tissue samples, diagnostic PCR assay based on 5'-URT detected 38 FMDV infections. Viral genotyping targeting VP1-encoding region confirmed emergence of two distinct serotypes, A and O with an abundance of serotype A in Chittagong and Gazipur districts and serotype O in Pabna and Faridpur. Only single lineage of both A and O was retrieved from samples of five different regions. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences revealed that serotype O sequences were closely related to the Ind 2001 sublineage of Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype that was previously circulating in Bangladesh, and serotype A sequences belonging to the genotype VII that was dominant in India during the last decade. The results suggest that extensive cross-border animal movement from neighbouring countries is the most likely source of FMDV serotypes in Bangladesh. PMID:23734722

  5. Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jason; Wright, Edward; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel; Barclay, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases pose a threat to the global population as intervention strategies are mainly limited to basic containment due to the lack of efficacious and approved vaccines and antiviral drugs. The former was the only available intervention when the current unprecedented Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa began. Prior to this, the development of EBOV vaccines and anti-viral therapies required time and resources that were not available. Therefore, focus has turned to re-purposing of existing, licenced medicines that may limit the morbidity and mortality rates of EBOV and could be used immediately. Here we test three such medicines and measure their ability to inhibit pseudotype viruses (PVs) of two EBOV species, Marburg virus (MARV) and avian influenza H5 (FLU-H5). We confirm the ability of chloroquine (CQ) to inhibit viral entry in a pH specific manner. The commonly used proton pump inhibitors, Omeprazole and Esomeprazole were also able to inhibit entry of all PVs tested but at higher drug concentrations than may be achieved in vivo. We propose CQ as a priority candidate to consider for treatment of EBOV.

  6. The Dialogue of the Host-Parasite Relationship: Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Carlos Gustavo Vieira; Castro Lima, Ana Karina; dos Santos, Rosiane Freire; Da-Silva, Silvia Amaral Gonçalves; Dutra, Patrícia Maria Lourenço

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular protozoa Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi and the causative agents of Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, respectively, belong to the Trypanosomatidae family. Together, these two neglected tropical diseases affect approximately 25 million people worldwide. Whether the host can control the infection or develops disease depends on the complex interaction between parasite and host. Parasite surface and secreted molecules are involved in triggering specific signaling pathways essential for parasite entry and intracellular survival. The recognition of the parasite antigens by host immune cells generates a specific immune response. Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi have a multifaceted repertoire of strategies to evade or subvert the immune system by interfering with a range of signal transduction pathways in host cells, which causes the inhibition of the protective response and contributes to their persistence in the host. The current therapeutic strategies in leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are very limited. Efficacy is variable, toxicity is high, and the emergence of resistance is increasingly common. In this review, we discuss the molecular basis of the host-parasite interaction of Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi infection and their mechanisms of subverting the immune response and how this knowledge can be used as a tool for the development of new drugs.

  7. QUANTITATIVE GENETIC AND FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS APPROACHES TO INVESTIGATING PARASITE DISEASE RESISTANCE AND PROTECTIVE IMMUNE MECHANISMS IN AVIAN COCCIDIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major challenge for the commercial poultry production is controlling enteric disease-causing pathogens in the absence of prophylactic drugs. Although traditional genetic approaches have contributed to enhanced efficiency of poultry production and increased the ability of the industry to provide sa...

  8. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control...Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

  9. Hazard analysis of critical control points assessment as a tool to respond to emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kelly L; Hunter, Paul R; Few, Roger; Bell, Diana J

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam's domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam's domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases. PMID:23967294

  10. Role of smoke-free legislation on emergency department admissions for smoking-related diseases in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Y?ld?z, F; Bar??, S A; Ba?yi?it, I; Boyac?, H; Ayd?nl?k, H; Sönmez, P Ö

    2014-12-01

    Legislation banning smoking in all indoor public places was introduced in Turkey in July 2009. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of smoke-free legislation on the number of emergency department admissions for smoking-related diseases in Kocaeli city. A retrospective analysis was made of hospital records from the first 6 months of 2009 and 2010 (before and after legislation). Total admissions for smoking-related diseases were 83 089 in 2009 and 64 314 in 2010, a 22.6% decrease. Time-series analysis showed that the decreases were significant for bronchitis and lower respiratory tract infections. Emergency admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, myocardial infarction and allergic rhinitis were lower but not significantly so. The number of patients admitted with asthma showed a non-significant increase. Smoke-free legislation might have important short-term effects on emergency department admissions, but further studies are needed in order to evaluate the long-term effects of legislation on smoking-related diseases. PMID:25664515

  11. Parasitic pneumonia and lung involvement.

    PubMed

    Cheepsattayakorn, Attapon; Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches. PMID:24995332

  12. External Parasites of Cattle.

    E-print Network

    Price, Manning A.; Hamman, Philip J.; Newton, Weldon H.

    1969-01-01

    and only partially recognized because insect, tick or mite infestations are usually not fatal. Losses from irritation, annoyance and nutritional competition are more diffi- cult to assess. The actual monetary loss caused by cattle parasites is difficult... Unfed nymphs and adults overwinter in most of[t tick tlistributional range in Texas. In the extrbu southern range, all stages may be found on hosts throulN out the year, but during the winter months they oclt t only in small numbers. Males emerge...

  13. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic "puppet masters", with their twisted, self-serving life history strategies and impressive evolutionary takeovers of host minds, capture the imagination of listeners—even those that might not normally fi nd the topic of parasitism appealing (which includes most everyone). A favorite anecdote concerns the trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum migrating to the eyestalks of its intermediate host snail and pulsating its colored body, presumably to attract the predatory birds that are the final hosts for the worm. Identifying a parasite as “manipulative” infers that a change in host behavior or appearance is a direct consequence of the parasite’s adaptive actions that, on average, will increase the fi tness of the parasite. The list of parasites that manipulate their hosts is long and growing. Holmes and Bethel (1972) presented the earliest comprehensive review and brought the subject to mainstream ecologists. Over two decades ago, Andy Dobson (1988) listed seven cestodes, seven trematodes, ten acanthocephalans, and three nematodes that manipulated host behavior. Fifteen years later, Janice Moore (2002) filled a book with examples. The five infectious trophic strategies, typical parasites (macroparasites), pathogens, trophically transmitted parasites, parasitic castrators, and parasitoids (Kuris and Lafferty 2000; Lafferty and Kuris 2002, 2009) can modify host behavior, but the likelihood that a parasite manipulates behavior differs among strategies. The most studied infectious agents, non-trophically transmitted pathogens and macroparasites, have enormous public health, veterinary, and wildlife disease importance, yet few manipulate host behavior. The beststudied manipulative infectious agents are trophically transmitted parasites in their prey intermediate hosts. Parasitoids and parasitic castrators can also manipulate host behavior, but for different purposes and with different implications. Several studies of manipulative parasites conclude with phrases such as “may ultimately infl uence community structure” (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1999), yet few demonstrate ecological effects. Here, we consider the conditions under which manipulative parasites might have a substantial ecological effect in nature and highlight those for which evidence exists (see also Chapter 10).

  14. [Parasitic infection causing appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Jarry, J; Fall, O; Blandel, B; Crevon, L; Michel, P

    2011-10-01

    Retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who underwent acute appendectomy in the Gastrointestinal Surgery Department of the Desgenettes Military Hospital in Lyon, France from the 1st of November 2009 to the 21th of February 2011, turned up two cases of appendicular parasitosis for a prevalence of 3.3%. Both patients presented acute appendicular oxyuriasis caused by Enterobius vermicularis that was discovered inadvertently after appendectomy. This unexpected diagnosis raises questions about the exact role of parasites in the physiopathology of appendicitis. Though appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency in France, appendix vermicularis is rare. In comparison, developing countries and particularly endemic areas such as sub-Saharan Africa show considerably higher appendicular parasitosis prevalence rates and greater variety in the parasites involved. The purpose of this article is to describe the different parasites with potential to affect the appendix, to discuss the different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying acute appendicitis, and to recall the need for medical treatment after appendectomy. PMID:22235628

  15. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection.

    PubMed

    Randall, J; Cable, J; Guschina, I A; Harwood, J L; Lello, J

    2013-10-22

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641

  16. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Randall, J.; Cable, J.; Guschina, I. A.; Harwood, J. L.; Lello, J.

    2013-01-01

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641

  17. Early developmental stages of a protozoan parasite, Marteilioides chungmuensis (Paramyxea), the causative agent of the ovary enlargement disease in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Itoh; Hideki Komiyama; Noriyuki Ueki; Kazuo Ogawa

    2004-01-01

    A paramyxea, Marteilioides chungmuensis, causes the irregular enlargement of the ovary in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in Korea and Japan. The knowledge about the life cycle of the parasite has been limited to the sporulation stages within the oocyte of oysters. In this study, we used the parasite-specific DNA probes and electron microscopy to experimentally infected oysters in a

  18. Evolution of seasonal transmission patterns in avian blood-borne parasites.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Antón; de la Hera, Iván; Bensch, Staffan; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2015-08-01

    In temperate regions, many vector-borne parasites maximise their transmission prospects by adjusting reproduction to seasonal cycles of host susceptibility and vector availability. Nevertheless, in these regions there are areas where environmental conditions are favourable throughout the year, so that parasites could benefit from a year-round transmission strategy. We analysed how different transmission strategies (strict summer transmission, extended summer transmission - including spring and autumn, and year round transmission) have evolved among the different genetic lineages of Haemoproteus parabelopolskyi, an avian blood-borne parasite shared by three sibling species of passerine hosts. Our results indicate that the ancestral state of this clade of parasites had a strict summer transmission with the blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) as the host. Other transmission strategies and switches to the other host species (Sylvia abyssinica and Sylvia borin) evolved recently, several times, independently. This suggests that, although year-round transmission is ecologically successful at present, seasonal transmission may have become more stable over evolutionary time. Switches from strict summer to an extended or year-round transmission strategy could have ecological consequences, if they promote the spread of parasites into more distant regions, transported by the migrating bird hosts. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of how different parasite transmission strategies are structured among birds in temperate areas is essential for understanding how disease emergence risks may develop in the future. PMID:25957160

  19. Emerging infectious diseases of crop plants in developing countries: impact on agriculture and socio-economic consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Vurro; Barbara Bonciani; Giovanni Vannacci

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) caused by plant pathogens can develop into unexpected and very serious epidemics, owing\\u000a to the influence of various characteristics of the pathogen, host and environment. Devastating epidemics, having social implications\\u000a by increasing the rate of urbanization, occurred in the past in Europe, and many other EIDs still occur with high frequency\\u000a in developing countries. Although the

  20. Parasitic Nematodes - From Genomes to Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases caused by parasitic nematodes in domestic and companion animals are major factors that decrease production and quality of the agricultural products. Methods available for the control of the parasitic nematode infections are mainly based on chemical treatment, non-chemical management pra...

  1. Parasitic nematodes—From genomes to control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makedonka Mitreva; Dante S. Zarlenga; James P. McCarter; Douglas P. Jasmer

    2007-01-01

    The diseases caused by parasitic nematodes in domestic and companion animals are major factors that decrease production and quality of the agricultural products. Methods available for the control of the parasitic nematode infections are mainly based on chemical treatment, non-chemical management practices, immune modulation and biological control. However, even with integrated pest management that frequently combines these approaches, the effective

  2. The emergence of tan spot disease caused by toxigenic Pyrenophora tritici-repentis in Australia is not associated with increased deployment of toxin-sensitive cultivors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat disease tan (or yellow leaf) spot, caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, was first described in 1941 in the USA. It was first noted in Australia in 1953 and only became a serious disease in the 1970s. The recent emergence of this disease has been attributed to the acquisition by P. triti...

  3. ESCHERICHIA COLI O147: AN EMERGING SEROGROUP OF EDEMA DISEASE OUTBREAKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edema disease is a systemic disease of weanling pigs caused by E. coli strains that produce a variant of Shiga toxin, Stx2e. These strains usually produce F18ab fimbriae and heat stable enterotoxin b (STb). Historically, edema disease strains from U.S. outbreaks have not produced heat stable enter...

  4. Frequent utilization of the emergency department for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about patients who frequently visit the emergency department (ED) for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). We aimed to quantify the proportion and characteristics of patients with frequent ED visits for AECOPD and associated healthcare utilization. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults aged ?40 years with at least one ED visit for AECOPD between 2010 and 2011, derived from population-based all-payer data of State ED and Inpatient Databases for two large and diverse states: California and Florida. Outcome measures were frequency of ED visits for AECOPD, 30-day ED revisits, subsequent hospitalizations, near-fatal events (AECOPD involving mechanical ventilation), and charges for both ED and inpatient services (available only for Florida) during the year after the first ED visit. Results The analytic cohort comprised 98,280 unique patients with 154,736 ED visits for AECOPD. During the 1-year period, 29.4% (95% CI, 29.1%-29.7%) of the patients had two or more (frequent) visits, accounting for 55.2% (95% CI, 54.9%-55.4%) of all ED visits for AECOPD. In the multivariable model, significant predictors of frequent ED visits were age 55–74 years (vs. 40–54 years), male sex, non-Hispanic white or black race, Medicaid insurance (vs. private), and lower median household income (all P?

  5. Virulence and Local Adaptation of a Horizontally Transmitted Parasite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Ebert

    1994-01-01

    Parasites are thought to maximize the number of successfully transmitted offspring by trading off propagule production against host survival. In a horizontally transmitted microparasitic disease in Daphnia, a planktonic crustacean, increasing geographic distance between host and parasite origin was found to be correlated with a decrease in spore production and virulence. This finding indicates local adaptation of the parasite, but

  6. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan C; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25185005

  7. Celiac Disease: A Disorder Emerging from Antiquity, Its Evolving Classification and Risk, and Potential New Treatment Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Hugh J.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic genetically based gluten-sensitive immune-mediated enteropathic process primarily affecting the small intestinal mucosa. The disorder classically presents with diarrhea and weight loss; however, more recently, it has been characterized by subclinical occult or latent disease associated with few or no intestinal symptoms. Diagnosis depends on the detection of typical histopathological biopsy changes followed by a gluten-free diet response. A broad range of clinical disorders may mimic celiac disease, along with a wide range of drugs and other therapeutic agents. Recent and intriguing archeological data, largely from the Gobleki Tepe region of the Fertile Crescent, indicate that celiac disease probably emerged as humans transitioned from hunter-gatherer groups to societies dependent on agriculture to secure a stable food supply. Longitudinal studies performed over several decades have suggested that changes in the prevalence of the disease, even apparent epidemic disease, may be due to superimposed or novel environmental factors that may precipitate its appearance. Recent therapeutic approaches are being explored that may supplement, rather than replace, gluten-free diet therapy and permit more nutritional options for future management. PMID:25547088

  8. Emerging and exotic zoonotic disease preparedness and response in the United States - coordination of the animal health component.

    PubMed

    Levings, Randall L

    2012-09-01

    For the response to a zoonotic disease outbreak to be effective, animal health authorities and disease specialists must be involved. Animal health measures are commonly directed at known diseases that threaten the health of animals and impact owners. The measures have long been applied to zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis and brucellosis, and can be applied to emerging diseases. One Health (veterinary, public, wildlife and environmental health) and all-hazards preparedness work have done much to aid interdisciplinary understanding and planning for zoonotic diseases, although further improvements are needed. Actions along the prevention, preparedness, response and recovery continuum should be considered. Prevention of outbreaks consists largely of import controls on animals and animal products and biosecurity. Preparedness includes situational awareness, research, tool acquisition, modelling, training and exercises, animal movement traceability and policy development. Response would include detection systems and specialized personnel, institutions, authorities, strategies, methods and tools, including movement control, depopulation and vaccination if available and appropriate. The specialized elements would be applied within a general (nationally standardized) system of response. Recovery steps begin with continuity of business measures during the response and are intended to restore pre-event conditions. The surveillance for novel influenza A viruses in swine and humans and the preparedness for and response to the recent influenza pandemic illustrate the cooperation possible between the animal and public health communities. PMID:22958252

  9. Transcontinental migratory connectivity predicts parasite prevalence in breeding populations of the European barn swallow.

    PubMed

    von Rönn, J A C; Harrod, C; Bensch, S; Wolf, J B W

    2015-03-01

    Parasites exert a major impact on the eco-evolutionary dynamics of their hosts and the associated biotic environment. Migration constitutes an effective means for long-distance invasions of vector-borne parasites and promotes their rapid spread. Yet, ecological and spatial information on population-specific host-parasite connectivity is essentially lacking. Here, we address this question in a system consisting of a transcontinental migrant species, the European barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) which serves as a vector for avian endoparasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon. Using feather stable isotope ratios as geographically informative markers, we first assessed migratory connectivity in the host: Northern European breeding populations predominantly overwintered in dry, savannah-like habitats in Southern Africa, whereas Southern European populations were associated with wetland habitats in Western Central Africa. Wintering areas of swallows breeding in Central Europe indicated a migratory divide with both migratory programmes occurring within the same breeding population. Subsequent genetic screens of parasites in the breeding populations revealed a link between the host's migratory programme and its parasitic repertoire: controlling for effects of local breeding location, prevalence of Africa-transmitted Plasmodium lineages was significantly higher in individuals overwintering in the moist habitats of Western Central Africa, even among sympatrically breeding individuals with different overwintering locations. For the rarer Haemoproteus parasites, prevalence was best explained by breeding location alone, whereas no clear pattern emerged for the least abundant parasite Leucocytozoon. These results have implications for our understanding of spatio-temporal host-parasite dynamics in migratory species and the spread of avian borne diseases. PMID:25611126

  10. Encysted parasitic larvae in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L S; Allard, R H

    1984-04-01

    Oral appearances of intestinal parasitic disease are rare. One such appearance is the presence in oral tissues of encysted or encapsulated larvae of organisms from the classes Cestoidea and Nematoda. Cestode larvae form cyst-like lesions that are often clinically diagnosed as mucoceles. In these lesions, the cyst cavity is lined by fibrous tissue with inflammatory cells, and contains fluid and the larval stage of a parasite. The diagnosis of these parasitic cysts is more frequently made in younger persons. The cysts may be treated by simple excision, but care must be taken that the cyst does not rupture, as in some parasites this may result in new cyst formation. Nematode infection in the oral cavity, the most common of which appears to be trichinosis, is rarely reported. Patients with oral or maxillofacial (or both) parasitic disease must undergo a thorough medical investigation to exclude possible life-threatening involvement in other parts of the body. PMID:6586809

  11. Strength in numbers: high parasite burdens increase transmission of a protozoan parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).

    PubMed

    de Roode, Jacobus C; Chi, Jean; Rarick, Rachel M; Altizer, Sonia

    2009-08-01

    Parasites often produce large numbers of offspring within their hosts. High parasite burdens are thought to be important for parasite transmission, but can also lower host fitness. We studied the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, a common parasite of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), to quantify the benefits of high parasite burdens for parasite transmission. This parasite is transmitted vertically when females scatter spores onto eggs and host plant leaves during oviposition; spores can also be transmitted between mating adults. Monarch larvae were experimentally infected and emerging adult females were mated and monitored in individual outdoor field cages. We provided females with fresh host plant material daily and quantified their lifespan and lifetime fecundity. Parasite transmission was measured by counting the numbers of parasite spores transferred to eggs and host plant leaves. We also quantified spores transferred from infected females to their mating partners. Infected monarchs had shorter lifespans and lower lifetime fecundity than uninfected monarchs. Among infected females, those with higher parasite loads transmitted more parasite spores to their eggs and to host plant leaves. There was also a trend for females with greater parasite loads to transmit more spores to their mating partners. These results demonstrate that high parasite loads on infected butterflies confer a strong fitness advantage to the parasite by increasing between-host transmission. PMID:19418070

  12. Managing Behçet's disease: An update on current and emerging treatment options.

    PubMed

    van Daele, P La; Kappen, J H; van Hagen, P M; van Laar, J Am

    2009-04-01

    Behçet's disease is an autoinflammatory vasculitis of unknown origin characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, arthritis and skin lesions. Additionally, involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and large vessels may occur. The disease is prevalent in countries along the ancient Silk Road from Eastern Asia to the Mediterranean Basin. Many treatment modalities are currently available. The choice of treatment depends on organ involvement and severity of disease. Topical treatment with corticosteroids is often sufficient for mucocutaneous involvement, however for more severe disease with vasculitis or neurological involvement a more aggressive approach is warranted. Newer drugs (biologicals) influencing cytokines and thereby T-cell function are promising with an acceptable side effect profile. Unfortunately, reimbursement of the costs of biologicals for rare disease is still a problem in various countries. In this report we discuss the current treatment modalities for Behçet's disease. PMID:19536320

  13. Managing Behçet’s disease: An update on current and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    van Daele, P LA; Kappen, J H; van Hagen, P M; van Laar, J AM

    2009-01-01

    Behçet’s disease is an autoinflammatory vasculitis of unknown origin characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, arthritis and skin lesions. Additionally, involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and large vessels may occur. The disease is prevalent in countries along the ancient Silk Road from Eastern Asia to the Mediterranean Basin. Many treatment modalities are currently available. The choice of treatment depends on organ involvement and severity of disease. Topical treatment with corticosteroids is often sufficient for mucocutaneous involvement, however for more severe disease with vasculitis or neurological involvement a more aggressive approach is warranted. Newer drugs (biologicals) influencing cytokines and thereby T-cell function are promising with an acceptable side effect profile. Unfortunately, reimbursement of the costs of biologicals for rare disease is still a problem in various countries. In this report we discuss the current treatment modalities for Behçet’s disease. PMID:19536320

  14. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  15. Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.

    PubMed

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

    2013-10-01

    Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks. PMID:23560798

  16. Presence of natural genetic resistance in Fraxinus excelsior (Oleraceae) to Chalara fraxinea (Ascomycota): an emerging infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, L V; Nielsen, L R; Hansen, J K; Kjær, E D

    2011-01-01

    Fraxinus excelsior, common ash native to Europe, is threatened by a recently identified pathogenic fungus Chalara fraxinea, which causes extensive damage on ash trees across Europe. In Denmark, most stands are severely affected leaving many trees with dead crowns. However, single trees show notably fewer symptoms. In this study, the impact of the emerging infectious disease on native Danish ash trees is assessed by estimating presence of inherent resistance in natural populations. Disease symptoms were assessed from 2007 to 2009 at two different sites with grafted ramets of 39 selected clones representing native F. excelsior trees. A strong genetic variation in susceptibility to C. fraxinea infections was observed. No genetic or geographic structure can explain the differences, but strong genetic correlations to leaf senescence were observed. The results suggest that a small fraction of trees in the Danish population of ash possess substantial resistance against the damage. Though this fraction is probably too low to avoid population collapse in most natural or managed ash forests, the observed presence of putative resistance against the emerging infectious disease in natural stands is likely to be of evolutionary importance. This provides prospects of future maintenance of the species through natural or artificial selection in favour of remaining healthy individuals. PMID:20823903

  17. Genomic analysis of the Kiwifruit pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae provides insight into the origins of an emergent plant disease.

    PubMed

    McCann, Honour C; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Bertels, Frederic; Fiers, Mark; Lu, Ashley; Rees-George, Jonathan; Andersen, Mark T; Gleave, Andrew P; Haubold, Bernhard; Wohlers, Mark W; Guttman, David S; Wang, Pauline W; Straub, Christina; Vanneste, Joel L; Vanneste, Joel; Rainey, Paul B; Templeton, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    The origins of crop diseases are linked to domestication of plants. Most crops were domesticated centuries--even millennia--ago, thus limiting opportunity to understand the concomitant emergence of disease. Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is an exception: domestication began in the 1930s with outbreaks of canker disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) first recorded in the 1980s. Based on SNP analyses of two circularized and 34 draft genomes, we show that Psa is comprised of distinct clades exhibiting negligible within-clade diversity, consistent with disease arising by independent samplings from a source population. Three clades correspond to their geographical source of isolation; a fourth, encompassing the Psa-V lineage responsible for the 2008 outbreak, is now globally distributed. Psa has an overall clonal population structure, however, genomes carry a marked signature of within-pathovar recombination. SNP analysis of Psa-V reveals hundreds of polymorphisms; however, most reside within PPHGI-1-like conjugative elements whose evolution is unlinked to the core genome. Removal of SNPs due to recombination yields an uninformative (star-like) phylogeny consistent with diversification of Psa-V from a single clone within the last ten years. Growth assays provide evidence of cultivar specificity, with rapid systemic movement of Psa-V in Actinidia chinensis. Genomic comparisons show a dynamic genome with evidence of positive selection on type III effectors and other candidate virulence genes. Each clade has highly varied complements of accessory genes encoding effectors and toxins with evidence of gain and loss via multiple genetic routes. Genes with orthologs in vascular pathogens were found exclusively within Psa-V. Our analyses capture a pathogen in the early stages of emergence from a predicted source population associated with wild Actinidia species. In addition to candidate genes as targets for resistance breeding programs, our findings highlight the importance of the source population as a reservoir of new disease. PMID:23935484

  18. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the far infrasound range and emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didyk, L. A.; Gorgo, Yu. P.; Dirckx, J. J. J.; Bogdanov, V. B.; Buytaert, J. A. N.; Lysenko, V. A.; Didyk, N. P.; Vershygora, A. V.; Erygina, V. T.

    2008-09-01

    This study examines whether a relation exists between rapid atmospheric pressure fluctuations, attributed to the far infrasound frequency range (APF), and a number of emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases (EEC). Over an entire year, the average integral amplitudes of APF in the range of periods from 3 s to 120 s over each hour (HA) were measured. Daily dynamics of HA averaged over the year revealed a wave shape with smooth increase from night to day followed by decrease from day to night. The total daily number of EEC within the city of Kiev, Ukraine, was related to the daily mean of HA (DHA) and to the ratio of HA averaged over the day time to HA averaged over the night time (Rdn), and was checked for confounding effects of classical meteorological variables through non-parametric regression algorithms. The number of EEC were significantly higher on days with high DHA (3.72 11.07 Pa, n = 87) compared to the low DHA (0.7 3.62 Pa, n = 260, p = 0.01), as well at days with low Rdn (0.21 1.64, n = 229) compared to the high Rdn (1.65 7.2, n = 118, p = 0.03). A difference between DHA and Rdn effects on the emergency events related to different categories of circulatory diseases points to a higher sensitivity of rheumatic and cerebro-vascular diseases to DHA, and ischaemic and hypertensive diseases to Rdn. Results suggest that APF could be considered as a meteorotropic factor capable of influencing circulatory system diseases.

  19. Genomic Analysis of the Kiwifruit Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Provides Insight into the Origins of an Emergent Plant Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Honour C.; Rikkerink, Erik H. A.; Bertels, Frederic; Fiers, Mark; Lu, Ashley; Rees-George, Jonathan; Andersen, Mark T.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Haubold, Bernhard; Wohlers, Mark W.; Guttman, David S.; Wang, Pauline W.; Straub, Christina; Vanneste, Joel; Rainey, Paul B.; Templeton, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    The origins of crop diseases are linked to domestication of plants. Most crops were domesticated centuries – even millennia – ago, thus limiting opportunity to understand the concomitant emergence of disease. Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is an exception: domestication began in the 1930s with outbreaks of canker disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) first recorded in the 1980s. Based on SNP analyses of two circularized and 34 draft genomes, we show that Psa is comprised of distinct clades exhibiting negligible within-clade diversity, consistent with disease arising by independent samplings from a source population. Three clades correspond to their geographical source of isolation; a fourth, encompassing the Psa-V lineage responsible for the 2008 outbreak, is now globally distributed. Psa has an overall clonal population structure, however, genomes carry a marked signature of within-pathovar recombination. SNP analysis of Psa-V reveals hundreds of polymorphisms; however, most reside within PPHGI-1-like conjugative elements whose evolution is unlinked to the core genome. Removal of SNPs due to recombination yields an uninformative (star-like) phylogeny consistent with diversification of Psa-V from a single clone within the last ten years. Growth assays provide evidence of cultivar specificity, with rapid systemic movement of Psa-V in Actinidia chinensis. Genomic comparisons show a dynamic genome with evidence of positive selection on type III effectors and other candidate virulence genes. Each clade has highly varied complements of accessory genes encoding effectors and toxins with evidence of gain and loss via multiple genetic routes. Genes with orthologs in vascular pathogens were found exclusively within Psa-V. Our analyses capture a pathogen in the early stages of emergence from a predicted source population associated with wild Actinidia species. In addition to candidate genes as targets for resistance breeding programs, our findings highlight the importance of the source population as a reservoir of new disease. PMID:23935484

  20. Hygiene and Biosecurity: The Language and Politics of Risk in an Era of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Brown; Brigitte Nerlich; Paul Crawford; Nelya Koteyko; Ronald Carter

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and avian influenza, have recently been high on the agenda of policy makers and the public. Although hygiene and biosecu- rity are preferred options for disease management, policy makers have become increasingly aware of the critical role that communication assumes in protecting people during outbreaks and epi- demics. This article makes the case

  1. Emergence of new sub-genotypes of virulent Newcastle disease virus with panzootic features

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains with epizootic characteristics from three new sub-genotypes of genotypes VII and XIII are rapidly spreading through Asia and the Middle East causing outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) that are producing significant illness and mortality in vaccinated poultry, s...

  2. Decreased Renal Parenchymal Density on Unenhanced Helical Computed Tomography for Diagnosis of Ureteral Stone Disease in Emergent Patients with Acute Flank Pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Chih Huang; Yon-Cheong Wong; Li-Jen Wang; Te-Fa Chiu; Chip-Jen Ng; Jih-Chang Chen

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness and optimal cutoff point of decreased renal parenchymal density (DRD) for diagnosis of ureteral stone disease (USD) in emergent patients with acute flank pain. Methods: A total of 85 emergency patients with acute flank pain who underwent unen- hanced helical computed tomography (UHCT) were prospectively included in this study

  3. Different meal, same flavor: cospeciation and host switching of haemosporidian parasites in some non-passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that haemosporidian parasites (Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) and Plasmodium) infecting passerine birds have an evolutionary history of host switching with little cospeciation, in particular at low taxonomic levels (e.g., below the family level), which is suggested as the main speciation mechanism of this group of parasites. Recent studies have characterized diverse clades of haemosporidian parasites (H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus)) infecting non-passerine birds (e.g., Columbiformes, Pelecaniiformes). Here, we explore the cospeciation history of H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus) parasites with their non-passerine hosts. Methods We sequenced the mtDNA cyt b gene of both haemosporidian parasites and their avian non-passerine hosts. We built Bayesian phylogenetic hypotheses and created concensus phylograms that were subsequently used to conduct cospeciation analyses. We used both a global cospeciation test, PACo, and an event-cost algorithm implemented in CoRe-PA. Results The global test suggests that H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus) parasites have a diversification history dominated by cospeciation events particularly at the family level. Host-parasite links from the PACo analysis show that host switching events are common within families (i.e., among genera and among species within genera), and occasionally across different orders (e.g., Columbiformes to Pelecaniiformes). Event-cost analyses show that haemosporidian coevolutionary history is dominated by host switching and some codivergence, but with duplication events also present. Genetic lineages unique to raptor species (e.g., FALC11) commonly switch between Falconiformes and Strigiformes. Conclusions Our results corroborate previous findings that have detected a global cospeciation signal at the family taxonomic level, and they also support a history of frequent switching closer to the tips of the host phylogeny, which seems to be the main diversification mechanism of haemosporidians. Such dynamic host-parasite associations are relevant to the epidemiology of emerging diseases because low parasite host specificity is a prerequisite for the emergence of novel diseases. The evidence on host distributions suggests that haemosporidian parasites have the potential to rapidly develop novel host-associations. This pattern has also been recorded in fish-monogenean interactions, suggesting a general diversification mechanism for parasites when host choice is not restricted by ecological barriers. PMID:24957563

  4. The Emerging Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome in Pulmonary Biology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weathington, Nathaniel M.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2013-01-01

    Derangements in normal cellular homeostasis at the protein level can cause or be the consequence of initiation and progression of pulmonary diseases related to genotype, infection, injury, smoking, toxin exposure, or neoplasm. We discuss one of the fundamental mechanisms of protein homeostasis, the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), as it relates to lung disease. The UPS effects selective degradation of ubiquitinated target proteins via ubiquitin ligase activity. Important pathobiological mechanisms relating to the UPS and lung disease have been the focus of research, with inappropriate cellular proteolysis now a validated therapeutic target. We review the contributions of this system in various lung diseases, and discuss the exciting area of UPS-targeting drug development for pulmonary disease. PMID:23713962

  5. Resting heart rate: risk indicator and emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Michael; Reil, Jan-Christian; Deedwania, Prakash; Kim, Jae B; Borer, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    Resting heart rate is central to cardiac output and is influenced by changes occurring in numerous diseases. It predicts longevity and cardiovascular diseases, and current evidence suggests that it is also an important marker of outcome in cardiovascular disease, including heart failure. Beta-blockers improve outcomes in heart failure; however, they have effects outside reducing heart rate. Ivabradine has demonstrated efficacy in reducing rehospitalizations and mortality in heart failure and in improving exercise tolerance and reducing angina attacks in patients with coronary artery disease, whereas selective heart rate reduction may also prove to be beneficial in therapeutic areas outside those in which ivabradine has already demonstrated clinical efficacy. This review provides an update on the associations between heart rate and cardiovascular outcomes in various conditions, the experimental effects of heart rate reduction with ivabradine, and the potential new indications in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25447617

  6. Survey of Wild Mammal Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasites in Panamá and Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D.; Adler, Gregory H.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America. PMID:25859156

  7. Operationalising Factors That Explain the Emergence of Infectious Diseases: A Case Study of the Human Campylobacteriosis Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Norval J. C.; Rotariu, Ovidiu; MacRae, Marion; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Cowden, John; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Forbes, Ken J.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of general factors for infectious disease emergence was made operational for Campylobacter utilising explanatory variables including time series and risk factor data. These variables were generated using a combination of empirical epidemiology, case-case and case-control studies, time series analysis, and microbial sub-typing (source attribution, diversity, genetic distance) to unravel the changing/emerging aetiology of human campylobacteriosis. The study focused on Scotland between 1990–2012 where there was a 75% increase in reported cases that included >300% increase in the elderly and 50% decrease in young children. During this period there were three phases 1990–2000 a 75% rise and a 20% fall to 2006, followed by a 19% resurgence. The rise coincided with expansions in the poultry industry, consumption of chicken, and a shift from rural to urban cases. The post-2000 fall occurred across all groups apart from the elderly and coincided with a drop of the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken and a higher proportion of rural cases. The increase in the elderly was associated with uptake of proton pump inhibitors. During the resurgence the increase was predominantly in adults and the elderly, again there was increasing use of PPIs and high prevalences in chicken and ruminants. Cases associated with foreign travel during the study also increased from 9% to a peak of 16% in 2006 before falling to an estimated 10% in 2011, predominantly in adults and older children. During all three periods source attribution, genetic distance, and diversity measurements placed human isolates most similar to those in chickens. A combination of emergence factors generic for infectious diseases were responsible for the Campylobacter epidemic. It was possible to use these to obtain a putative explanation for the changes in human disease and the potential to make an informed view of how incidence rates may change in the future. PMID:24278127

  8. Models of Parasite Virulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Frank

    1996-01-01

    Several evolutionary processes influence virulence, the amount of damage a parasite causes to its host. For example, parasites are favored to exploit their hosts prudently to prolong infection and avoid killing the host. Parasites also need to use some host resources to reproduce and transmit infections to new hosts. Thus parasites face a tradeoff between prudent exploitation and rapid reproduction—

  9. ATP7A-related copper transport diseases—emerging concepts and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    This Review summarizes recent advances in understanding copper-transporting ATPase 1 (ATP7A), and examines the neurological phenotypes associated with dysfunction of this protein. Involvement of ATP7A in axonal outgrowth, synapse integrity and neuronal activation underscores the fundamental importance of copper metabolism to neurological function. Defects in ATP7A cause Menkes disease, an infantile-onset, lethal condition. Neonatal diagnosis and early treatment with copper injections enhance survival in patients with this disease, and can normalize clinical outcomes if mutant ATP7A molecules retain small amounts of residual activity. Gene replacement rescues a mouse model of Menkes disease, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for patients with complete loss-of-function ATP7A mutations. Remarkably, a newly discovered ATP7A disorder—isolated distal motor neuropathy—has none of the characteristic clinical or biochemical abnormalities of Menkes disease or its milder allelic variant occipital horn syndrome (OHS), instead resembling Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2. These findings indicate that ATP7A has a crucial but previously unappreciated role in motor neuron maintenance, and that the mechanism underlying ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy is distinct from Menkes disease and OHS pathophysiology. Collectively, these insights refine our knowledge of the neurology of ATP7A-related copper transport diseases and pave the way for further progress in understanding ATP7A function. PMID:21221114

  10. Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin Infection: an Emerging Infectious Disease for the Northeastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PATRICK L. MCDONOUGH; DAVID FOGELMAN; SANG J. SHIN; MICHAEL A. BRUNNER; DONALD H. LEIN

    1999-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Dublin (S. enterica Dublin) emerged for the first time in New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio in 1988. Since that time this host-adapted serotype has spread throughout the veal- and dairy beef-raising operations in the region; very few dairy farms have experienced clinical S. enterica Dublin infections. This study details the epidemiology of the outbreaks in

  11. Vivax malaria and chloroquine resistance: a neglected disease as an emerging threat.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Anam A; Ghanchi, Najia K; Rehman, Karim A; Raza, Afsheen; Mahmood, Syed F; Beg, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    In Pakistan, Plasmodium vivax contributes to major malaria burden. In this case, a pregnant woman presented with P. vivax infection and which was not cleared by chloroquine, despite adequate treatment. This is probably the first confirmed case of chloroquine-resistant vivax from Pakistan, where severe malaria due to P. vivax is already an emerging problem. PMID:25889875

  12. Environmental and social influences on emerging infectious diseases: past, present and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. McMichael

    2004-01-01

    During the processes of human population dispersal around the world over the past 50 000-100 000 years, along with associated cultural evolution and inter-population contact and conflict, there have been several major transitions in the relationships of Homo sapiens with the natural world, animate and inanimate. Each of these transitions has resulted in the emergence of new or unfamiliar infectious

  13. Emergence and Prevalence of Human Vector-Borne Diseases in Sink Vector Populations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were and African trypanosomiasis [3]. All these diseases have severe impacts on many tropical and subtropical

  14. Canine respiratory coronavirus: an emerging pathogen in the canine infectious respiratory disease complex.

    PubMed

    Erles, Kerstin; Brownlie, Joe

    2008-07-01

    Infectious respiratory disease in dogs is a constant challenge because of the involvement of several pathogens and environmental factors. Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) is a new coronavirus of dogs, which is widespread in North America, Japan, and several European countries. CRCoV has been associated with respiratory disease, particularly in kenneled dog populations. The virus is genetically and antigenically distinct from enteric canine coronavirus; therefore, specific tests are required for diagnosis. PMID:18501280

  15. DNA-Based Nanobiosensors as an Emerging Platform for Detection of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Salah, Khalid M.; Zourob, Mohammed M.; Mouffouk, Fouzi; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Alaamery, Manal A.; Ansari, Anees A.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of disease at an early stage is one of the biggest challenges in medicine. Different disciplines of science are working together in this regard. The goal of nanodiagnostics is to provide more accurate tools for earlier diagnosis, to reduce cost and to simplify healthcare delivery of effective and personalized medicine, especially with regard to chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) that have high healthcare costs. Up-to-date results suggest that DNA-based nanobiosensors could be used effectively to provide simple, fast, cost-effective, sensitive and specific detection of some genetic, cancer, and infectious diseases. In addition, they could potentially be used as a platform to detect immunodeficiency, and neurological and other diseases. This review examines different types of DNA-based nanobiosensors, the basic principles upon which they are based and their advantages and potential in diagnosis of acute and chronic diseases. We discuss recent trends and applications of new strategies for DNA-based nanobiosensors, and emphasize the challenges in translating basic research to the clinical laboratory. PMID:26102488

  16. DNA-Based Nanobiosensors as an Emerging Platform for Detection of Disease.

    PubMed

    Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Zourob, Mohammed M; Mouffouk, Fouzi; Alrokayan, Salman A; Alaamery, Manal A; Ansari, Anees A

    2015-01-01

    Detection of disease at an early stage is one of the biggest challenges in medicine. Different disciplines of science are working together in this regard. The goal of nanodiagnostics is to provide more accurate tools for earlier diagnosis, to reduce cost and to simplify healthcare delivery of effective and personalized medicine, especially with regard to chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) that have high healthcare costs. Up-to-date results suggest that DNA-based nanobiosensors could be used effectively to provide simple, fast, cost-effective, sensitive and specific detection of some genetic, cancer, and infectious diseases. In addition, they could potentially be used as a platform to detect immunodeficiency, and neurological and other diseases. This review examines different types of DNA-based nanobiosensors, the basic principles upon which they are based and their advantages and potential in diagnosis of acute and chronic diseases. We discuss recent trends and applications of new strategies for DNA-based nanobiosensors, and emphasize the challenges in translating basic research to the clinical laboratory. PMID:26102488

  17. Epidemics of emerging animal diseases and food-borne infection problems over the last 5 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Itsuro

    2006-10-01

    There have been several emerging animal diseases and food-borne infection problems occurring in Japan over the last 5 years. We describe brief pictures of these epidemics and our control activities. As acute contagious and/or emerging animal diseases, the foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak caused by the Pan-Asian topotype of the type O virus occurred in March 2000 after 92 years of FMD-free status. In 2004, four cases of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), which was the first outbreak after 79 years, and caused by the H5N1 subtype, were identified. As part of the responses against these outbreaks, all the animals in the affected farms were destroyed, and movement control areas were established around the infected premises, and a nation-wide intensive survey for FMD and HPAI was performed. As for food-borne or feed-borne infections, the first bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was identified in September 2001 and 19 more cases have been reported until June 2005. A large outbreak of food-borne infection caused by low-fat milk contaminated with enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus, involving more than 13,000 patients, occurred in 2000. In 2003, people who consumed uncooked liver and meat from wild boar and deer developed clinical signs of hepatitis caused by the hepatitis E virus. Pork is also suspected as natural source of virus transmission. Early detection of the first cases and rapid action in preventing and controlling the spread of infections are very important combined with proper risk communication about correct information of the diseases. PMID:17135492

  18. Secretory Pathway of Trypanosomatid Parasites

    PubMed Central

    McConville, Malcolm J.; Mullin, Kylie A.; Ilgoutz, Steven C.; Teasdale, Rohan D.

    2002-01-01

    The Trypanosomatidae comprise a large group of parasitic protozoa, some of which cause important diseases in humans. These include Trypanosoma brucei (the causative agent of African sleeping sickness and nagana in cattle), Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative agent of Chagas' disease in Central and South America), and Leishmania spp. (the causative agent of visceral and [muco]cutaneous leishmaniasis throughout the tropics and subtropics). The cell surfaces of these parasites are covered in complex protein- or carbohydrate-rich coats that are required for parasite survival and infectivity in their respective insect vectors and mammalian hosts. These molecules are assembled in the secretory pathway. Recent advances in the genetic manipulation of these parasites as well as progress with the parasite genome projects has greatly advanced our understanding of processes that underlie secretory transport in trypanosomatids. This article provides an overview of the organization of the trypanosomatid secretory pathway and connections that exist with endocytic organelles and multiple lytic and storage vacuoles. A number of the molecular components that are required for vesicular transport have been identified, as have some of the sorting signals that direct proteins to the cell surface or organelles in the endosome-vacuole system. Finally, the subcellular organization of the major glycosylation pathways in these parasites is reviewed. Studies on these highly divergent eukaryotes provide important insights into the molecular processes underlying secretory transport that arose very early in eukaryotic evolution. They also reveal unusual or novel aspects of secretory transport and protein glycosylation that may be exploited in developing new antiparasite drugs. PMID:11875130

  19. Emerging links between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Gumpeny R; Lakshmi, Gumpeny; Nagamani, Gumpeny

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease are both associated with increasing age, and each increases the risk of development of the other. Epidemiological, clinical, biochemical and imaging studies have shown that elevated glucose levels and diabetes are associated with cognitive dysfunction, the most prevalent cause of which is Alzheimer’s disease. Cross sectional studies have clearly shown such an association, whereas longitudinal studies are equivocal, reflecting the many complex ways in which the two interact. Despite the dichotomy, common risk and etiological factors (obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and sedentary habits) are recognized; correction of these by lifestyle changes and pharmacological agents can be expected to prevent or retard the progression of both diseases. Common pathogenic factors in both conditions span a broad sweep including chronic hyperglycemia per se, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, acute hypoglycemic episodes, especially in the elderly, microvascular disease, fibrillar deposits (in brain in Alzheimer’s disease and in pancreas in type 2 diabetes), altered insulin processing, inflammation, obesity, dyslipidemia, altered levels of insulin like growth factor and occurrence of variant forms of the protein butyrylcholinesterase. Of interest not only do lifestyle measures have a protective effect against the development of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease, but so do some of the pharmacological agents used in the treatment of diabetes such as insulin (especially when delivered intranasally), metformin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? agonists, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Diabetes must be recognized as a risk for development of Alzheimer’s disease; clinicians must ensure preventive care be given to control and postpone both conditions, and to identify cognitive impairment early to manage it appropriately. PMID:26069723

  20. Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?

    PubMed

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Chistophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopictus in central Africa, its larval ecology and its impact on indigenous species such as Ae. aegypti. We explore the potential of Ae. albopictus to affect the epidemiology of emerging or re-emerging arboviruses and discuss the conventional means for its control, while emphasizing the importance of data on its susceptibility to insecticides to cope with potential outbreaks. PMID:25885461

  1. The emerging functions of UCP2 in health, disease, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mattiasson, Gustav; Sullivan, Patrick G

    2006-01-01

    The uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are attracting an increased interest as potential therapeutic targets in a number of important diseases. UCP2 is expressed in several tissues, but its physiological functions as well as potential therapeutic applications are still unclear. Unlike UCP1, UCP2 does not seem to be important to thermogenesis or weight control, but appears to have an important role in the regulation of production of reactive oxygen species, inhibition of inflammation, and inhibition of cell death. These are central features in, for example, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disease, and experimental evidence suggests that an increased expression and activity of UCP2 in models of these diseases has a beneficial effect on disease progression, implicating a potential therapeutic role for UCP2. UCP2 has an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes by inhibiting insulin secretion in islet beta cells. At the same time, type 2 diabetes is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis where an increased expression of UCP2 appears to be beneficial. This illustrates that therapeutic applications involving UCP2 likely will have to regulate expression and activity in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:16487034

  2. Short-term association between air pollution and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Nis, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milutinovi?, Suzana; Niki?, Dragana; Stosi?, Ljiljana; Stankovi?, Aleksandra; Bogdanovi?, Dragan

    2009-03-01

    The present study assesses the short-term association between black smoke (BS) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) levels in urban air and the daily number of emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Nis, Serbia. Generalised linear models extending Poisson regression were fitted controlling for time trend, seasonal variations, days of the week, temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, precipitation, rainfall, snowfall, overcast, and wind velocity. The emergency room admissions for all ages for COPD were significantly associated with previous-day level of BS and lag 0-2 (1,60% and 2,26% increase per 10 microg/m3, respectively). After controlling for SO2, single lagged (lag 1 and lag 2) as well as mean lagged values of BS (up to lag 0-3) were significantly associated with COPD emergencies. No effect was found for SO2, even after controlling for black smoke. The present findings support the conclusion that current levels of ambient BS may have an effect on the respiratory health of susceptible persons. PMID:19418713

  3. Wheat Diseases Atlas. 

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ........................ . DISSEMINATION OF WHEAT DISEASES ... . ROOT DISEASES ......................... . Root, Crown and Foot Rots ............... . Plant Parasitic Nematodes ................ . Seedling Diseases... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FOLIAGE DISEASES ..................... . 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 Rusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Leaf Rust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Stem Rust...

  4. Parasites or Cohabitants: Cruel Omnipresent Usurpers or Creative “Éminences Grises”?

    PubMed Central

    Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Lenzi, Henrique L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents many types of interplays between parasites and the host, showing the history of parasites, the effects of parasites on the outcome of wars, invasions, migrations, and on the development of numerous regions of the globe, and the impact of parasitic diseases on the society and on the course of human evolution. It also emphasizes the pressing need to change the look at the parasitism phenomenon, proposing that the term “cohabitant” is more accurate than parasite, because every living being, from bacteria to mammals, is a consortium of living beings in the pangenome. Even the term parasitology should be replaced by cohabitology because there is no parasite alone and host alone: both together compose a new adaptive system: the parasitized-host or the cohabitant-cohabited being. It also suggests switching the old paradigm based on attrition and destruction, to a new one founded on adaptation and living together. PMID:21785696

  5. When combination therapy isn’t working: Emerging therapies for the management of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Krishnareddy, Suneeta; Swaminath, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Although antagonists of tumor necrosis factor have resulted in major therapeutic benefits in inflammatory bowel disease, the magnitude and durability of response are variable. Similar to previously available drugs such as 5-aminosalicylates and immunomodulators, the therapeutic effect is not universal leaving many people searching for options. The development of newer agents has benefited from advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. Uncontrolled activation of the acquired immune system has an important role, and lymphocytes, cytokines, and adhesion molecules are broadly targeted for therapeutic intervention. There is increasing evidence of an important role of the innate immune system and the intestinal epithelium, and the therapeutic paradigm is also shifting from immunosuppression to the reinforcement of the intestinal barrier, and modification of the disease process. In this review, we explore the limitation of current therapy as well as mechanisms of actions of new drugs and the efficacy and adverse events from data from clinical trials. PMID:24574790

  6. New and re-emerging cutaneous infectious diseases in Latin America and other geographic areas.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Francisco; Sanchez, Miguel R

    2003-10-01

    Due to environmental factors and inadequate public health measures in many developing countries, new tropical infections, as well as infections that were previously isolated to remote locales, are becoming more prevalent in several areas of Latin America. This article discusses some tropical infections and infestations with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. Previously uncommon diseases such as gnathostomiasis, mycobacteria ulcerans infection, paederus dermatitis, Balamuthia mandrillaris infection, and human T-lymphotrophic virus 1 dermatitis are increasingly being reported. Well-known tropical infections such as bartonellosis, leishmaniasis, chromomycosis, larva migrans, and larva currens are also becoming more prevalent. On the other hand, the incidence of Hansen's disease, the quintessential tropical infection, is dwindling all over the globe thanks to a highly effective eradication campaign launched by the World Health Organization. Because of increased immigration and tourist travel, the number of cases of these diseases in the United States may escalate. PMID:14717406

  7. Emerging translational approaches to target STAT3 signalling and its impact on vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Dutzmann, Jochen; Daniel, Jan-Marcus; Bauersachs, Johann; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Sedding, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic inflammation responses characterize the vascular remodelling processes in atherosclerosis, restenosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and angiogenesis. The functional and phenotypic changes in diverse vascular cell types are mediated by complex signalling cascades that initiate and control genetic reprogramming. The signalling molecule's signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a key role in the initiation and continuation of these pathophysiological changes. This review highlights the pivotal involvement of STAT3 in pathological vascular remodelling processes and discusses potential translational therapies, which target STAT3 signalling, to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, current clinical trials using highly effective and selective inhibitors of STAT3 signalling for distinct diseases, such as myelofibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis, are discussed with regard to their vascular (side-) effects and their potential to pave the way for a direct use of these molecules for the prevention or treatment of vascular diseases. PMID:25784694

  8. Periodontal disease -- the emergence of a risk for systemic conditions: pre-term low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Yeo, B K; Lim, L P; Paquette, D W; Williams, R C

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of adverse pregnancy outcome in relation to periodontal disease. There is compelling evidence that a link exists between pre-term low birth weight (PLBW) and periodontitis. Although 25% to 50% of PLBW deliveries occur without any known aetiology, there is increasing evidence that infection may play a significant role in pre-term delivery. A model explaining the plausible relationship is proposed based upon the concept of infection leading to a cascade of inflammatory reactions associated with pre-term labour and periodontal disease. Current evidence has pointed to an interest in dental intervention studies to control periodontal disease as one of the potential strategies to reduce pre-term labour. This paper reviews the potential association between periodontal infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:15726229

  9. Emergence of Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease vector and agent, in Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Glowacki, Meaghan N.; Hoet, Armando E.; Needham, Glen R.; Smith, Kathleen A.; Gary, Richard E.; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, is caused by a tick-borne infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Currently, Ohio is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to be non-endemic for Lyme disease. The low incidence of Lyme disease in this state was largely attributed to the absence of the transmitting vector, Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged tick. However, a tick surveillance program established by Ohio Department of Health indicated that the number of I. scapularis in Ohio had increased sharply in recent years, from 0 - 5 ticks per year during 1983–2008 to 15 in 2009, 40 in 2010, and 184 in 2011. During the fall deer hunting season, examination of deer heads submitted to Ohio Department of Agriculture found 29 I. scapularis from 7 counties in 2010 and 1,830 from 25 counties in 2011. As of 2012, the tick had been found in 57 of the 88 counties of Ohio. In addition, all three active stages (larva, nymph, and adult) of I. scapularis were found in Tiverton Township of Coshocton County, demonstrating the presence of established tick populations at this central Ohio location. Of 530 nymphal or adult I. scapularis analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), 32 (6.1%) tested positive for the B. burgdorferi flaB gene, ranging from 36 to 390,000 copies per tick. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens were detected in 2 of 10 (20%) field-captured Peromyscus leucopus from Tiverton Township, and in 41 of 355 (11.5%) dogs residing in Ohio. Collectively, these data suggest that the enzootic life cycle of B. burgdorferi has become established in Ohio, which poses risk of Lyme disease to people and animals in the area. PMID:24926441

  10. Emergence of Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease vector and agent, in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Glowacki, Meaghan N; Hoet, Armando E; Needham, Glen R; Smith, Kathleen A; Gary, Richard E; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, is caused by a tick-borne infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Currently, Ohio is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to be non-endemic for Lyme disease. The low incidence of Lyme disease in this state was largely attributed to the absence of the transmitting vector, Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged tick. However, a tick surveillance program established by Ohio Department of Health indicated that the number of I. scapularis in Ohio had increased sharply in recent years, from 0 - 5 ticks per year during 1983-2008 to 15 in 2009, 40 in 2010, and 184 in 2011. During the fall deer hunting season, examination of deer heads submitted to Ohio Department of Agriculture found 29 I. scapularis from 7 counties in 2010 and 1,830 from 25 counties in 2011. As of 2012, the tick had been found in 57 of the 88 counties of Ohio. In addition, all three active stages (larva, nymph, and adult) of I. scapularis were found in Tiverton Township of Coshocton County, demonstrating the presence of established tick populations at this central Ohio location. Of 530 nymphal or adult I. scapularis analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), 32 (6.1%) tested positive for the B. burgdorferi flaB gene, ranging from 36 to 390,000 copies per tick. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi antigens were detected in 2 of 10 (20%) field-captured Peromyscus leucopus from Tiverton Township, and in 41 of 355 (11.5%) dogs residing in Ohio. Collectively, these data suggest that the enzootic life cycle of B. burgdorferi has become established in Ohio, which poses risk of Lyme disease to people and animals in the area. PMID:24926441

  11. People, Pets, and Parasites: One Health Surveillance in Southeastern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; Ndao, Momar; Quewezance, Helen; Elmore, Stacey A.; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    Residents of remote and Indigenous communities might experience higher exposure to some zoonotic parasites than the general North American population. Human sero-surveillance conducted in two Saulteaux communities found 113 volunteers exposed as follows: Trichinella (2.7%), Toxocara canis (4.4%), Echinococcus (4.4%), and Toxoplasma gondii (1.8%). In dogs, 41% of 51 fecal samples were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, 3% of 77 were sero-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, and 21% of 78 for T. gondii. Echinococcus exposure was more likely to occur in non-dog owners (odds ratio [OR]: 11.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–107, P = 0.03); while T. canis was more likely to occur in children (ages 4–17) (OR: 49, 95% CI: 3.9–624; P = 0.003), and those with a history of dog bites (OR: 13.5, 95% CI: 1.02–179; P = 0.048). Our results emphasize the use of dogs as sentinels for emerging pathogens such as Lyme disease, and the need for targeted surveillance and intervention programs tailored for parasite species, cultural groups, and communities. PMID:24639298

  12. Insights from GWAS: emerging landscape of mechanisms underlying complex trait disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There are now over 2000 loci in the human genome where genome wide association studies (GWAS) have found one or more SNPs to be associated with altered risk of a complex trait disease. At each of these loci, there must be some molecular level mechanism relevant to the disease. What are these mechanisms and how do they contribute to disease? Results Here we consider the roles of three primary mechanism classes: changes that directly alter protein function (missense SNPs), changes that alter transcript abundance as a consequence of variants close-by in sequence, and changes that affect splicing. Missense SNPs are divided into those predicted to have a high impact on in vivo protein function, and those with a low impact. Splicing is divided into SNPs with a direct impact on splice sites, and those with a predicted effect on auxiliary splicing signals. The analysis was based on associations found for seven complex trait diseases in the classic Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC1) GWA study and subsequent studies and meta-analyses, collected from the GWAS catalog. Linkage disequilibrium information was used to identify possible candidate SNPs for involvement in disease mechanism in each of the 356 loci associated with these seven diseases. With the parameters used, we find that 76% of loci have at least of these mechanisms. Overall, except for the low incidence of direct impact on splice sites, the mechanisms are found at similar frequencies, with changes in transcript abundance the most common. But the distribution of mechanisms over diseases varies markedly, as does the fraction of loci with assigned mechanisms. Many of the implicated proteins have previously been suggested as relevant, but the specific mechanism assignments are new. In addition, a number of new disease relevant proteins are proposed. Conclusions The high fraction of GWAS loci with proposed mechanisms suggests that these classes of mechanism play a major role. Other mechanism types, such as variants affecting expression of genes remote in the DNA sequence, will contribute in other loci. Each of the identified putative mechanisms provides a hypothesis for further investigation. PMID:26110739

  13. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an emerging disease in childhood - review of diagnostic and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Dias, Jorge Amil

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune/antigen mediated inflammatory disease of the esophagus. It comprises a separate entity of increasing incidence and prevalence in children and adults. The disease is characterized by histological evidence of dense esophageal tissue eosinophilia in the presence of a variety of upper GI symptoms including vomiting, dysphagia, food impaction, and odynophagia. Cornerstone of treatment is dietary intervention and/or the off-label use of swallowed topical corticosteroids. New drug therapies are under investigation. In this review, we focus on the diagnostic approach and the currently available treatment strategies. PMID:25485261

  14. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: An Emerging Disease in Childhood – Review of Diagnostic and Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Dias, Jorge Amil

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune/antigen mediated inflammatory disease of the esophagus. It comprises a separate entity of increasing incidence and prevalence in children and adults. The disease is characterized by histological evidence of dense esophageal tissue eosinophilia in the presence of a variety of upper GI symptoms including vomiting, dysphagia, food impaction, and odynophagia. Cornerstone of treatment is dietary intervention and/or the off-label use of swallowed topical corticosteroids. New drug therapies are under investigation. In this review, we focus on the diagnostic approach and the currently available treatment strategies. PMID:25485261

  15. Injuries and noncommunicable diseases: emerging health problems of children in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Deen, J. L.; Vos, T.; Huttly, S. R.; Tulloch, J.

    1999-01-01

    The present article identifies, for children living in developing countries, the major causes of ill-health that are inadequately covered by established health programmes. Injuries and noncommunicable diseases, notably asthma, epilepsy, dental caries, diabetes mellitus and rheumatic heart disease, are growing in significance. In countries where resources are scarce it is to be expected that increasing importance will be attached to the development and implementation of measures against these problems. Their control may benefit from the application of elements of programmes directed against infectious, nutritional and perinatal disorders, which continue to predominate. PMID:10427938

  16. Parasitic and rare spinal infections.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Lázaro Luís Faria; Nunes, Renato Hoffmann; da Rocha, Antonio Jose

    2015-05-01

    The imaging features of spinal parasitic diseases and other rare infections are herein discussed. These diseases are distributed worldwide, with increased prevalence in areas with poor sanitary conditions and in developing countries. In nonendemic areas, sporadic cases may occur, consequent to increased international travel and immunocompromising conditions. Infectious diseases are usually treatable, and early detection is often crucial. A thorough comprehension of the imaging patterns associated with the clinical features, epidemiology, and laboratory results allows the radiologist to narrow down the options for differential diagnosis and facilitates the timely implementation of appropriate therapies. PMID:25952177

  17. High-density lipoproteins: an emerging target in the prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belinda A Cutri; Neil J Hime; Stephen J Nicholls

    2006-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have been well established to protect against the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It has become apparent that in addition to the promotion of reverse cholesterol transport, HDLs possess a number of additional functional properties that may contribute to their beneficial influence on the arterial wall. A number of exciting therapeutic strategies have been developed that target

  18. Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: a neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we ...

  19. BREEDING FOR RESISTANCE TO NEW AND EMERGING LETTUCE DISEASES IN CALIFORNIA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preventing crop loss due to diseases has historically been the primary focus of public lettuce (Lactuca sativa) breeding efforts in the United States. Recent years have seen a shift in the industry, with increasing percentages of romaine and mixed lettuces being grown under intensive production syst...

  20. Reversal of proteinuric renal disease and the emerging role of endothelin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Barton

    2008-01-01

    Proteinuria is a major long-term clinical consequence of diabetes and hypertension, conditions that lead to progressive loss of functional renal tissue and, ultimately, end-stage renal disease. Proteinuria is also a strong predictor of cardiovascular events. Convincing preclinical and clinical evidence exists that proteinuria and the underlying glomerulosclerosis are reversible processes. This Review outlines the mechanisms involved in the development of

  1. Focus on emerging drugs for the treatment of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Federico, Alessandro; Zulli, Claudio; de Sio, Ilario; Del Prete, Anna; Dallio, Marcello; Masarone, Mario; Loguercio, Carmela

    2014-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disorder in Western countries and is increasingly being recognized in developing nations. Fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of hepatic pathology, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and end-stage liver disease. Moreover, NAFLD is often associated with other metabolic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia and visceral obesity. The most recent guidelines suggest the management and treatment of patients with NAFLD considering both the liver disease and the associated metabolic co-morbidities. Diet and physical exercise are considered the first line of treatment for patients with NAFLD, but their results on therapeutic efficacy are often contrasting. Behavior therapy is necessary most of the time to achieve a sufficient result. Pharmacological therapy includes a wide variety of classes of molecules with different therapeutic targets and, often, little evidence supporting the real efficacy. Despite the abundance of clinical trials, NAFLD therapy remains a challenge for the scientific community, and there are no licensed therapies for NAFLD. Urgently, new pharmacological approaches are needed. Here, we will focus on the challenges facing actual therapeutic strategies and the most recent investigated molecules. PMID:25492998

  2. Complete genome sequences of new emerging Newcastle disease virus strains isolated from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains were isolated from geese in China during 2010 to 2011. The complete sequences of two NDV strains and the sequences of the envelop glyprotein genes (F and HN) of three other strains were determined. Phylogenetic analysis classified then into a new g...

  3. Tackling the emerging pandemic of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Unwin; F Mugusi; T Aspray; D Whiting; R Edwards; JC Mbanya; E Sobgnwi; S Rashid; KGMM Alberti

    1999-01-01

    There is evidence that the prevalence of certain non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension, is increasing rapidly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Others, such as asthma and epilepsy, are known to be common but to be poorly managed. This paper describes a project, funded by the Department for International Development of the British Government, which aims to provide costed

  4. Non-communicable diseases: is their emergence in industrialized societies related to changes in neuroendocrine function?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Bickler

    2000-01-01

    This hypothesis suggests that industrialization alters the human neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine changes come about because of changes in environmental stimuli. It is further proposed that changes in neuroendocrine function can account for the contrasting pattern of non-communicable diseases in traditional and industrialized societies. The hypothesis is based on subtle clinical differences in traditional and industrialized societies, and the evolving

  5. Phenotypic Diversity and Emerging New Tools to Study Macrophage Activation in Bacterial Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ka, Mignane B.; Daumas, Aurélie; Textoris, Julien; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage polarization is a concept that has been useful to describe the different features of macrophage activation related to specific functions. Macrophage polarization is responsible for a dichotomic approach (killing vs. repair) of the host response to bacteria; M1-type conditions are protective, whereas M2-type conditions are associated with bacterial persistence. The use of the polarization concept to classify the features of macrophage activation in infected patients using transcriptional and/or molecular data and to provide biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis has most often been unsuccessful. The confrontation of polarization with different clinical situations in which monocytes/macrophages encounter bacteria obliged us to reappraise this concept. With the exception of M2-type infectious diseases, such as leprosy and Whipple’s disease, most acute (sepsis) or chronic (Q fever, tuberculosis) infectious diseases do not exhibit polarized monocytes/macrophages. This is also the case for commensals that shape the immune response and for probiotics that alter the immune response independent of macrophage polarization. We propose that the type of myeloid cells (monocytes vs. macrophages) and the kinetics of the immune response (early vs. late responses) are critical variables for understanding macrophage activation in human infectious diseases. Explorating the role of these new markers will provide important tools to better understand complex macrophage physiology. PMID:25346736

  6. The Emerging Role of Leptin Antagonist as Potential Therapeutic Option for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Guan, Hongbing; Busbee, Brandon; Price, Robert L.; Taub, Dennis D.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Fayad, Raja; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that affects millions of people around the world. Leptin is a satiety hormone produced primarily by adipose tissue and acts both centrally and peripherally. Leptin has been shown to play a major role in regulating metabolism, which increases during IBD progression. Leptin mediates several physiological functions including elevated blood pressure, tumorogenesis, cardiovascular pathologies and enhanced immune response in many autoimmune diseases. Recent development of a leptin mutant antagonist that blocks leptin activity raises great hope and opens up new possibilities for therapy in many autoimmune diseases including IBD. To this end, preliminary data from an ongoing study in our laboratory on pegylated leptin antagonist mutant L39A/D40A/F41A (PEG-MLA) treatment shows an inhibition of chronic colitis in IL-10?/? mice. PEG-MLA effectively attenuates the overall clinical scores, reverses colitis-associated pathogenesis including a decrease in body weight, and decreases systemic leptin level. PEG-MLA induces both central and peripheral leptin deficiency by mediating the cellular immune response. In summary, after blocking leptin activity, the correlative outcome between leptin-mediated cellular immune response, systemic leptin levels, and amount of adipose tissue together may provide new strategies for therapeutic intervention in autoimmune diseases, especially for intestinal inflammation. PMID:23841494

  7. Chikungunya, a paradigm of neglected tropical disease that emerged to be a new health global risk.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, Virginie; Sam, I-Ching; Caron, Mélanie; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric; Roques, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family that causes chronic and incapacitating arthralgia in human populations. Since its discovery in 1952, CHIKV was responsible for sporadic and infrequent outbreaks. However, since 2005, global Chikungunya outbreaks have occurred, inducing some fatalities and associated with severe and chronic morbidity. Chikungunya is thus considered as an important re-emerging public health problem in both tropical and temperate countries, where the distribution of the Aedes mosquito vectors continues to expand. This review highlights the most recent advances in our knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, biology, treatment and vaccination strategies of CHIKV. PMID:25453326

  8. Emerging bioinformatics approaches for analysis of NGS-derived coding and non-coding RNAs in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guffanti, Alessandro; Simchovitz, Alon; Soreq, Hermona

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases in general and specifically late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) involve a genetically complex and largely obscure ensemble of causative and risk factors accompanied by complex feedback responses. The advent of “high-throughput” transcriptome investigation technologies such as microarray and deep sequencing is increasingly being combined with sophisticated statistical and bioinformatics analysis methods complemented by knowledge-based approaches such as Bayesian Networks or network and graph analyses. Together, such “integrative” studies are beginning to identify co-regulated gene networks linked with biological pathways and potentially modulating disease predisposition, outcome, and progression. Specifically, bioinformatics analyses of integrated microarray and genotyping data in cases and controls reveal changes in gene expression of both protein-coding and small and long regulatory RNAs; highlight relevant quantitative transcriptional differences between LOAD and non-demented control brains and demonstrate reconfiguration of functionally meaningful molecular interaction structures in LOAD. These may be measured as changes in connectivity in “hub nodes” of relevant gene networks (Zhang etal., 2013). We illustrate here the open analytical questions in the transcriptome investigation of neurodegenerative disease studies, proposing “ad hoc” strategies for the evaluation of differential gene expression and hints for a simple analysis of the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) part of such datasets. We then survey the emerging role of long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) in the healthy and diseased brain transcriptome and describe the main current methods for computational modeling of gene networks. We propose accessible modular and pathway-oriented methods and guidelines for bioinformatics investigations of whole transcriptome next generation sequencing datasets. We finally present methods and databases for functional interpretations of lncRNAs and propose a simple heuristic approach to visualize and represent physical and functional interactions of the coding and non-coding components of the transcriptome. Integrating in a functional and integrated vision coding and ncRNA analyses is of utmost importance for current and future analyses of neurodegenerative transcriptomes. PMID:24723850

  9. Emerging bioinformatics approaches for analysis of NGS-derived coding and non-coding RNAs in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Guffanti, Alessandro; Simchovitz, Alon; Soreq, Hermona

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases in general and specifically late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) involve a genetically complex and largely obscure ensemble of causative and risk factors accompanied by complex feedback responses. The advent of "high-throughput" transcriptome investigation technologies such as microarray and deep sequencing is increasingly being combined with sophisticated statistical and bioinformatics analysis methods complemented by knowledge-based approaches such as Bayesian Networks or network and graph analyses. Together, such "integrative" studies are beginning to identify co-regulated gene networks linked with biological pathways and potentially modulating disease predisposition, outcome, and progression. Specifically, bioinformatics analyses of integrated microarray and genotyping data in cases and controls reveal changes in gene expression of both protein-coding and small and long regulatory RNAs; highlight relevant quantitative transcriptional differences between LOAD and non-demented control brains and demonstrate reconfiguration of functionally meaningful molecular interaction structures in LOAD. These may be measured as changes in connectivity in "hub nodes" of relevant gene networks (Zhang etal., 2013). We illustrate here the open analytical questions in the transcriptome investigation of neurodegenerative disease studies, proposing "ad hoc" strategies for the evaluation of differential gene expression and hints for a simple analysis of the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) part of such datasets. We then survey the emerging role of long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) in the healthy and diseased brain transcriptome and describe the main current methods for computational modeling of gene networks. We propose accessible modular and pathway-oriented methods and guidelines for bioinformatics investigations of whole transcriptome next generation sequencing datasets. We finally present methods and databases for functional interpretations of lncRNAs and propose a simple heuristic approach to visualize and represent physical and functional interactions of the coding and non-coding components of the transcriptome. Integrating in a functional and integrated vision coding and ncRNA analyses is of utmost importance for current and future analyses of neurodegenerative transcriptomes. PMID:24723850

  10. Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Jardine, Claire M

    2014-01-01

    In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

  11. Geography, Deer, and Host Biodiversity Shape the Pattern of Lyme Disease Emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K.; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K.; Leighton, Patrick A.; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Jardine, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

  12. Common intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Kucik, Corry Jeb; Martin, Gary L; Sortor, Brett V

    2004-03-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases caused by Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica occur in the United States. E. vermicularis, or pinworm, causes irritation and sleep disturbances. Diagnosis can be made using the "cellophane tape test." Treatment includes mebendazole and household sanitation. Giardia causes nausea, vomiting, malabsorption, diarrhea, and weight loss. Stool ova and parasite studies are diagnostic. Treatment includes metronidazole. Sewage treatment, proper handwashing, and consumption of bottled water can be preventive. A. duodenale and N. americanus are hookworms that cause blood loss, anemia, pica, and wasting. Finding eggs in the feces is diagnostic. Treatments include albendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, iron supplementation, and blood transfusion. Preventive measures include wearing shoes and treating sewage. E. histolytica can cause intestinal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, fever, gastrointestinal obstruction, and peritonitis. Amebas can cause abscesses in the liver that may rupture into the pleural space, peritoneum, or pericardium. Stool and serologic assays, biopsy, barium studies, and liver imaging have diagnostic merit. Therapy includes luminal and tissue amebicides to attack both life-cycle stages. Metronidazole, chloroquine, and aspiration are treatments for liver abscess. Careful sanitation and use of peeled foods and bottled water are preventive. PMID:15023017

  13. Population genetics of Toxoplasma gondii: new perspectives from parasite genotypes in wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Wendte, Jered M.; Gibson, Amanda K.; Grigg, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic protozoal parasite, is well-known for its global distribution and its ability to infect virtually all warm-blooded vertebrates. Nonetheless, attempts to describe the population structure of T. gondii have been primarily limited to samples isolated from humans and domesticated animals. More recent studies, however, have made efforts to characterize T. gondii isolates from a wider range of host species and geographic locales. These findings have dramatically changed our perception of the extent of genetic diversity in T. gondii and the relative roles of sexual recombination and clonal propagation in the parasite’s lifecycle. In particular, identification of novel, disease-causing T. gondii strains in wildlife has raised concerns from both a conservation and public health perspective as to whether distinct domestic and sylvatic parasite gene pools exist. If so, overlap of these cycles may represent regions of high probability of disease emergence. Here, we attempt to answer these key questions by reviewing recent studies of T. gondii infections in wildlife, highlighting those which have advanced our understanding of the genetic diversity and population biology of this important zoonotic pathogen. PMID:21824730

  14. Schizophrenia as a network disease: disruption of emergent brain function in patients with auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Rish, Irina; Cecchi, Guillermo; Thyreau, Benjamin; Thirion, Bertrand; Plaze, Marion; Paillere-Martinot, Marie Laure; Martelli, Catherine; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Poline, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that has eluded characterization in terms of local abnormalities of brain activity, and is hypothesized to affect the collective, "emergent" working of the brain. Indeed, several recent publications have demonstrated that functional networks in the schizophrenic brain display disrupted topological properties. However, is it possible to explain such abnormalities just by alteration of local activation patterns? This work suggests a negative answer to this question, demonstrating that significant disruption of the topological and spatial structure of functional MRI networks in schizophrenia (a) cannot be explained by a disruption to area-based task-dependent responses, i.e. indeed relates to the emergent properties, (b) is global in nature, affecting most dramatically long-distance correlations, and (c) can be leveraged to achieve high classification accuracy (93%) when discriminating between schizophrenic vs control subjects based just on a single fMRI experiment using a simple auditory task. While the prior work on schizophrenia networks has been primarily focused on discovering statistically significant differences in network properties, this work extends the prior art by exploring the generalization (prediction) ability of network models for schizophrenia, which is not necessarily captured by such significance tests. PMID:23349665

  15. Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Janet; Clifford, Deana; Castle, Kevin; Cryan, Paul; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fatal disease of bats that hibernate. The etiologic agent of WNS is the fungus Geomyces destructans, which infects the skin and wing membranes. Over 1 million bats in six species in eastern North America have died from WNS since 2006, and as a result several species of bats may become endangered or extinct. Information is lacking on the pathogenesis of G. destructans and WNS, WNS transmission and maintenance, individual and site factors that contribute to the probability of an outbreak of WNS, and spatial dynamics of WNS spread in North America. We considered how descriptive and analytical epidemiology could be used to fill these information gaps, including a four-step (modified) outbreak investigation, application of a set of criteria (Hill's) for assessing causation, compartment models of disease dynamics, and spatial modeling. We cataloged and critiqued adaptive-management options that have been either previously proposed for WNS or were helpful in addressing other emerging diseases of wild animals. These include an ongoing program of prospective surveillance of bats and hibernacula for WNS, treatment of individual bats, increasing population resistance to WNS (through vaccines, immunomodulators, or other methods), improving probability of survival from starvation and dehydration associated with WNS, modifying hibernacula environments to eliminate G. destructans, culling individuals or populations, controlling anthropogenic spread of WNS, conserving genetic diversity of bats, and educating the public about bats and bat conservation issues associated with WNS.

  16. Epidemic potential of an emerging vector borne disease in a marginal environment: Schmallenberg in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Bessell, Paul R; Searle, Kate R; Auty, Harriet K; Handel, Ian G; Purse, Bethan V; Bronsvoort, B Mark deC

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 Schmallenberg virus (SBV) presented as a novel disease of cattle and sheep that had apparently spread through northern Europe over a relatively short period of time, but has yet to infect Scotland. This paper describes the development of a model of SBV spread applied to Scotland in the event of an incursion. This model shows that SBV spread is very sensitive to the temperature, with relatively little spread and few reproductive losses predicted in years with average temperatures but extensive spread (>1?million animals infected) and substantial reproductive losses in the hottest years. These results indicate that it is possible for SBV to spread in Scotland, however spread is limited by climatic conditions and the timing of introduction. Further results show that the transmission kernel shape and extrinsic incubation period parameter have a non-linear effect on disease transmission, so a greater understanding of the SBV transmission parameters is required. PMID:23378911

  17. Wallerian degeneration: an emerging axon death pathway linking injury and disease.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Laura; Gilley, Jonathan; Coleman, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Axon degeneration is a prominent early feature of most neurodegenerative disorders and can also be induced directly by nerve injury in a process known as Wallerian degeneration. The discovery of genetic mutations that delay Wallerian degeneration has provided insight into mechanisms underlying axon degeneration in disease. Rapid Wallerian degeneration requires the pro-degenerative molecules SARM1 and PHR1. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (NMNAT2) is essential for axon growth and survival. Its loss from injured axons may activate Wallerian degeneration, whereas NMNAT overexpression rescues axons from degeneration. Here, we discuss the roles of these and other proposed regulators of Wallerian degeneration, new opportunities for understanding disease mechanisms and intriguing links between Wallerian degeneration, innate immunity, synaptic growth and cell death. PMID:24840802

  18. Glomerular Diseases: Emerging Tests and Therapies for IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Appel, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The last decade has seen major progress in understanding the pathogenesis as well as the prognosis and treatment of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Although the diagnostic criterion of a kidney biopsy demonstrating dominant or codominant IgA deposition remains unchanged, much more is known about the genetic and environmental factors predisposing to disease development and progression. These advances have led to the identification of novel diagnostic and prognostic markers. Among the most promising clinically are genetic profiling, quantification of galactose-deficient IgA1 levels, and measurement of anti-IgA1 immunoglobulins. While targeted treatment for IgAN remains elusive, there is mounting evidence for therapeutic interventions that alter the disease course. The appropriate validation and integration of these discoveries into clinical care represent a major challenge, but one that holds tremendous promise for refining prognostication, guiding therapy, and improving the lives of patients with IgAN. PMID:24071652

  19. Emerging Role of Mast Cells and Macrophages in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are essential in allergic immune responses. Recent discoveries have revealed their direct participation in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Although more sophisticated mechanisms are still unknown, data from animal studies suggest that mast cells act similarly to macrophages and other inflammatory cells and contribute to human diseases through cell–cell interactions and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and proteases to induce inflammatory cell recruitment, cell apoptosis, angiogenesis, and matrix protein remodeling. Reduced cardiovascular complications and improved metabolic symptoms in animals receiving over-the-counter antiallergy medications that stabilize mast cells open another era of mast cell biology and bring new hope to human patients suffering from these conditions. PMID:22240242

  20. Emerging Role of High-Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruochan; Hou, Wen; Zhang, Qiuhong; Kang, Rui; Fan, Xue-Gong; Tang, Daolin

    2013-01-01

    Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules are essential for the initiation of innate inflammatory responses to infection and injury. The prototypic DAMP molecule, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is an abundant architectural chromosomal protein that has location-specific biological functions: within the nucleus as a DNA chaperone, within the cytosol to sustain autophagy and outside the cell as a DAMP molecule. Recent research indicates that aberrant activation of HMGB1 signaling can promote the onset of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, raising interest in the development of therapeutic strategies to control their function. The importance of HMGB1 activation in various forms of liver disease in relation to liver damage, steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, tumorigenesis and regeneration is discussed in this review. PMID:24306421