Ecological disturbances exert an influence on the emergence and proliferation of malaria and zoonotic parasitic diseases, including, Leishmaniasis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, onchocerciasis, and loiasis. Each environmental change, whether occurring as a natural phenomenon or through human intervention, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, and transmit disease. Each species
Jonathan A. Patz; Thaddeus K. Graczyk; Nina Geller; Amy Y. Vittor
|The scourge of emerging parasitic diseases (e.g., urinary schistosomiasis, ascariasis, malaria, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trachoma, trichiuriasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, sleeping sickness, filariasis) causes tremendous pain, suffering, and eventually death in tropical African communities. Patterns of transmission of these emerging…
Onwuliri, Celestine O. E.; Anosike, Jude C.; Oguoma, Chibuzor; Onwuliri, Viola A.; Nwoke, Betram E. B.; Dozie, Ikechukwu, N. S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.
Human–parasite relationships have played an essential role in the emergence or re-emergence of some parasitic diseases. These interactions are due to numerous causes. Some are linked to humans (immunodeficiencies due to AIDS among other causes, treatments, nosocomial contaminations, genetic predisposition), others concern the parasite (particular genotypes having modified their parasitic specificity). Several of these causes were predominant in the emergence
Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne
P. Dorny; N. Praet; N. Deckers; S. Gabriel
Most emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans have arisen from animals. Identifying high-risk hosts is therefore vital for the control and surveillance of these diseases. Viewing hosts as connected through the parasites they share, we use network tools to investigate predictors of parasitism and sources of future EIDs. We generated host-parasite networks that link hosts when they share a parasite, using nonhuman primates as a model system because--owing to their phylogenetic proximity and ecological overlap with humans--they are an important source of EIDs to humans. We then tested whether centrality in the network of host species--a measurement of the importance of a given node (i.e., host species) in the network--is associated with that host serving as a potential EID source. We found that centrality covaries with key predictors of parasitism, such as population density and geographic range size. Importantly, we also found that primate species having higher values of centrality in the primate-parasite network harbored more parasites identified as EIDs in humans and had parasite communities more similar to those found in humans. These relationships were robust to the use of different centrality metrics and to multiple ways of controlling for variation in how well each species has been studied (i.e., sampling effort). Centrality may therefore estimate the role of a host as a source of EIDs to humans in other multispecific host-parasite networks. PMID:23610389
Gómez, José María; Nunn, Charles L; Verdú, Miguel
Wildlife are now recognised as an important source of emerging human pathogens, including parasites. This paper discusses the linkages between wildlife, people, zoonotic parasites and the ecosystems in which they co-exist, revisits definitions for ‘emerging’ and ‘re-emerging’, and lists zoonotic parasites that can be acquired from wildlife including, for some, estimates of the associated global human health burdens. The paper
Molecular parasitology represents an emerging field in microbiology diagnostics. Although most assays use nonstandardized, laboratory-developed methods, a few commercial systems have recently become available and are slowly being introduced into larger laboratories. In addition, a few methodologies show promise for use in field settings in which parasitic infections are endemic. This article reviews the available techniques and their applications to major parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trichomoniasis. PMID:23931835
Vasoo, Shawn; Pritt, Bobbi S
... tissue that create serious problems. Parasitic roundworms that infect humans are much more widespread than many of us realize. Diseases caused by these parasites affect not only poverty-stricken individuals in developing or remote areas of the world, but they also can be important health ...
... consideration when being treated for parasitic diseases in order to avoid harm to the fetus, especially during the first trimester. Email page link Print page Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Listen to audio/Podcast Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...
In this review on serodiagnosis of parasitic diseases, antibody detection, antigen detection, use of monoclonal antibodies in parasitic serodiagnosis, molecular biological technology, and skin tests are discussed. The focus at the Centers for Disease Control on developing improved antigens, a truly quantitative FAST-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the very specific immunoblot assays for antibody detection is highlighted. The last two assays are suitable for field studies. Identification of patient response in terms of immunoglobulin class or immunoglobulin G subclass isotypes or both is discussed. Immunoglobulin isotypes may asist in defining the stage of some diseases. In other instances, use of a particular anti-isotype conjugate may increase the specificity of the assay. Monoclonal antibodies have played important roles in antigen purification and identification, in competitive antibody assays with increased sensitivity and specificity, and in assays for antigen detection in serum, body fluids, or excreta. Molecular biological technology has allowed significant advances in the production of defined parasitic serodiagnostic antigens.
Maddison, S E
Emerging zoonoses have been defined as zoonoses that are newly recognised or newly evolved, or that have occurred previously but show an increase in incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. Among parasitic zoonoses, protozoa are particularly likely to emerge. Control and prevention of emerging parasitic zoonoses are complex tasks that require an integrative and multidisciplinary approach. Reduction
Bruno B. Chomel
Parasitic diseases cause significant global morbidity and mortality, particularly in underdeveloped regions of the world. Malaria alone causes ?800 000 deaths each year, with children and pregnant women being at highest risk. There is no licensed vaccine available for any human parasitic disease and drug resistance is compromising the efficacy of many available anti-parasitic drugs. This is driving drug discovery
Katherine T Andrews; Ashraful Haque; Malcolm K Jones
Many infectious and parasitic diseases, especially those newly emerging or reemerging, present a difficult diagnostic challenge because of their obscurity and low incidence. Important clues that could lead to an initial diagnosis are often overlooked, misinterpreted, not linked to a disease, or disregarded. We constructed a computer-based decision support system containing 223 infectious and parasitic diseases and used it to conduct a historical intervention study based on field investigation records of 200 cases of human brucellosis and 96 cases of murine typhus that occurred in Texas from 1980 through 1989. Knowledge-based screening showed that the average number of days from the initial patient visit to the time of correct diagnosis was significantly reduced (brucellosis-from 17.9 to 4.5 days, p = 0.0001, murine typhus-from 11.5 to 8.6 days, p = 0.001). This study demonstrates the potential value of knowledge-based patient screening for rare infectious and parasitic diseases.
Carter, C. N.; Ronald, N. C.; Steele, J. H.; Young, E.; Taylor, J. P.; Russell, L. H.; Eugster, A. K.; West, J. E.
The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact.
Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Kutz, Susan J.; Smith, Andrew
Determining the factors that influence the transmission of parasites among hosts is important for directing surveillance of animal parasites before they successfully emerge in humans, and increasing the efficacy of programs for the control and management of zoonotic diseases. Here we present a review of recent advances in the study of parasite sharing, wildlife ecology, and epidemiology that could be extended and incorporated into proactive surveillance frameworks for multi-host infectious diseases. These methods reflect emerging interdisciplinary techniques with significant promise for the identification of future zoonotic parasites and unknown reservoirs of current zoonoses, strategies for the reduction of parasite prevalence and transmission among hosts, and decreasing the burden of infectious diseases.
Farrell, Maxwell J.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Davies, T. Jonathan
Food-borne parasitic diseases, many known to be more prevalent in poor countries with deficient sanitary conditions, are becoming common worldwide. Among the emerging protozoan parasites, the most prominent is Trypanosoma cruzi, rarely reported in the past to be transmitted by the oral route but currently responsible for frequent outbreaks of acute cases of Chagas disease contracted orally and characterized by high mortality. Several other food-borne protozoans considered emerging include the apicomplexans Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium, as well as Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica. Here, the interactions of these protozoans with the mucosal epithelia of the host are discussed. PMID:21840261
Yoshida, Nobuko; Tyler, Kevin M; Llewellyn, Martin S
This article reviews the conditions that allow an infectious or parasitic pathogen to migrate from a wild reservoir to domestic animals and/or humans, and examines the possibility of a new disease emerging as a result. The review presents epidemiological mechanisms grouped into three principal models, illustrating them with examples: the intentional or accidental release of the reservoir host or pathogen; the exceeding of a numerical, ecological or behavioural threshold in the host populations and/or increased exposure of humans and domestic animals due to changes in behaviour; and lastly, an "adaptive" leap that ensures that a new host species finally succumbs to the pathogen and that it spreads among the conquered population. The authors examine the lessons to be drawn from such occurrences in terms of surveillance, prophylaxis and prevention. PMID:17361759
Artois, M; Caron, A; Leighton, F A; Bunn, C; Vallat, B
Parasitic infections are prevalent in certain parts of the world and may cause pleural involvement, which often goes unrecognized. Common parasites involving the pleura include Entamoeba histolytica, Echinococcus granulosus and Paragonimus westermani. Amebiasis can cause empyema with "anchovy sauce" pus, reactive pleural effusions and bronchopleural fistula with hydropneumothorax. Echinococcosis may result in pleural thickening, pneumothorax, secondary pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusions. Paragonimiasis may cause chylous and cholesterol pleural effusions, pleural thickening and pneumothorax. Less commonly, pulmonary eosinophilia, or Loeffler's syndrome, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may involve the pleura. This article provides a comprehensive review of parasitic infections involving the pleura. A high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting is required to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. PMID:22990049
Lal, Chitra; Huggins, John Terrill; Sahn, Steven A
This review summarizes the most recent updates on emerging infectious diseases of amphibia. A brief summary of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, life cycle, diagnosis, treatment, and biosecurity is provided. Ambystoma tigrinum virus, common midwife toad virus, frog virus 3, Rana grylio virus, Rana catesbeiana ranavirus, Mahaffey Road virus, Rana esculenta virus, Bohle iridovirus, and tiger frog virus ranaviruses are extensively reviewed. Emerging bacterial pathogens are discussed, including Flavobacter sp, Aeromonas sp, Citrobacter freundii, Chlamydophila sp, Mycobacterium liflandii, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and Ochrobactrum anthropi. Rhabdias sp, Ribeiroia sp, and Spirometra erinacei are among several of the parasitic infections overviewed in this article. PMID:23642863
Latney, La'Toya V; Klaphake, Eric
Standard textbooks discuss parasitic disease according to specific organisms. In contrast, patients with parasitic infections present to physicians with a variety of clinical manifestations that may involve any of several organ systems and that often mimic nonparasitic diseases. A syndromic approach to the clinical situation may help the physician in considering the most important parasitic agents. Many parasitic infections can be acquired in temperate climates. While often considered tropical or exotic, other parasitic diseases are now seen more frequently in developed countries because of immigration and increased world travel. In this review the clinical syndromes associated with common parasitic diseases in North America are discussed, with an emphasis on risk factors and diagnosis of specific infections.
Shafran, Stephen D.; Chow, Anthony W.
Fatalities caused by parasitic infections often occur as a result of tissue injury that results from a form of host-cell death known as apoptosis. However, instead of being pathogenic, parasite-induced apoptosis may facilitate host survival. Consequently, it is of utmost importance to decipher and understand the process and the role of apoptosis induced or controlled by parasites in humans. Despite
Anne-Lise Bienvenu; Elena Gonzalez-Rey; Stephane Picot
This article reviews the characteristic imaging appearances of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system, including cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, amebiasis, malariasis, sparganosis, paragonimiasis, and American and African trypanosomiases. Routine precontrast and postcontrast MR imaging helps in localization, characterization, delineation of extension, and follow-up of the parasitic lesions. Moreover, recently developed tools, such as diffusion, perfusion, and MR spectroscopy, help to differentiate parasitic diseases of the central nervous system from simulating lesions. Combining imaging findings with geographic prevalence, clinical history, and serologic tests is required for diagnosis of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:22032501
Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Watcharakorn, Arvemas; Castillo, Mauricio
It is important that reptile clinicians have an appreciation for the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnostic options, and prognostic parameters for novel and emerging infectious diseases in squamates. This article provides an update on emerging squamate diseases reported in the primary literature within the past decade. Updates on adenovirus, iridovirus, rhabdovirus, arenavirus, and paramyxovirus epidemiology, divergence, and host fidelity are presented. A new emerging bacterial disease of Uromastyx species, Devriesea agamarum, is reviewed. Chrysosporium ophiodiicola-associated mortality in North American snakes is discussed. Cryptosporidium and pentastomid infections in squamates are highlighted among emerging parasitic infections. PMID:23642865
Latney, La'toya V; Wellehan, James
Changing eating habits, population growth and movements, global trade of foodstuff, changes in food production systems, climate change, increased awareness and better diagnostic tools are some of the main drivers affecting the emergence or re-emergence of many foodborne parasitic diseases in recent years. In particular, the increasing demand for exotic and raw food is one of the reasons why reports
A. Broglia; C. Kapel
The following treatment of parasites, diseases and conditions affecting mullet hopefully serves several functions. It acquaints someone involved in rearing mullets with problems he can face and topics he should investigate. We cannot go into extensive illustrative detail on every species or group, but do provide a listing of most parasites reported or known from mullet and some pertinent general
I. Paperna; Robin M. Overstreet
Summary Antiparasitic drugs have been used successfully to control parasitic diseases in animals for many years, as they are safe, cheap and effective against a broad spectrum of parasites. One drawback of this success appears to be the emergence of drug resistance in many target parasites. Moreover, issues of residues in the food chain and environment have arisen, which threaten
J. Vercruysse; T. P. M. Schetters; D. P. Knox; P. Willadsen; E. Claerebout
A review of the life history of Plasmodium malariae, the quartan malaria parasite of humans, is presented. Much of the information is based on data obtained from induced infections in humans who were given malaria therapy for the treatment of neurosyphilis between 1940 and 1963. Prepatent periods (i.e., the time until the first day of parasite detection) fever episodes, and maximum parasitemias as a result of infection with P. malariae were obtained and are presented. Experimental and known vectors of the parasite are also discussed. Splenectomized chimpanzees and New World monkeys are readily infected and serve as sources of parasites and antigens for diagnostic and molecular studies. South American monkeys are naturally infected with a parasite known as Plasmodium brasilianum. This parasite appears to be P. malariae that has adapted from humans to grow in monkeys, probably within the last 500 years. Infection with P. malariae is associated with the production of immune complexes in the kidneys and the associated nephrotic syndrome. The essential lesions are a thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and endocapillary cell proliferation. Studies of monkeys infected with P. malariae indicate the same pathology as that demonstrated in humans.
Collins, William E.; Jeffery, Geoffrey M.
Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have again entered the public arena in recent years. This is due to factors such as evolving lifestyles, ecological and socio-political upheavals, and recent diagnostic advances. Numerous pathogens, including viruses like West Nile, Chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis on the one hand, and hemorrhagic fever viruses like Ebola and Maburg, are particular concerns. Recently, the Corona virus responsible for SARS, which caused an epidemic sufficiently worrisome to challenge crisis management concepts, was successfully isolated. It is in this context that so-called "bird flu'", may be on the verge of causing a human pandemic. Pox and Monkeypox are "virtually emerging" viruses that have potential for use in bioterrorism. The management and treatment of these emerging infectious diseases calls for new approaches, organizations and infrastructures. PMID:17140098
Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe
We report the parasites, infectious diseases, and non-infectious diseases related to toxicants found in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across its range. Documentation of population-level effects is rare although researchers have responded to the recent emergence of West Nile virus with rigorous efforts. West Nile virus shows greater virulence and potential population level effects than any infectious agent detected in
THOMAS J. CHRISTIANSEN; CYNTHIA M. TATE
Neurologists should be aware of parasitic diseases occurring in travelers and recent migrants because the world has become a global village as a result of tourism and immigration. Global warming is changing the distribution of diseases formerly confined to the tropics. The two most common parasitic diseases of the nervous system are Plasmodium falciparum malaria presenting as a febrile encephalopathy with normal CSF and neurocysticercosis causing seizures with focal MRI lesions or with intracranial hypertension. Numerous parasites may cause larva migrans with eosinophilic meningitis. Spinal cord involvement is the signature presentation of schistosomiasis. Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in the Americas, may cause myocardiopathy and embolic stroke. Sleeping sickness remains the most common manifestation of African trypanosomiasis. These conditions are challenging to diagnose unless a history of travel is elicited. Prospective travelers should be advised of preventive measures to avoid potentially severe infections of the nervous system. PMID:22810791
Román, Gustavo C
Parasitologists have not, in the past, exploited the immune system to protect fish against parasitic diseases. In the past few years, however, there has been an increased interest in adopting this strategy, and we have made steady and promising progress against a few parasites which are of economic importance. Amyloodinium ocellatum is an ectoparasitic dinoflagellate on brackish and marine fishes, which may also cause problems to aquarium fishes. Antiserum from fish inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with living dinospores of the parasite immobilizes and agglutinates living dinospores; it also reduces parasite infectivity in cell culture. Cryptobia salmositica is a pathogenic haemoflagellate of salmonids on the Pacific coast of North America, causing mortality in semi-natural and intensive salmon culture facilities. A live attenuated vaccine inoculated i.p. protects susceptible juvenile and adult fish for at least 24 months. The protection involves production of complement fixing antibodies, phagocytosis, and antibody-dependent and antibody-independent T-cell cytotoxicity. A monoclonal antibody against a surface membrane glycoprotein (199-200 kDa is therapeutic in that it significantly reduces parasitaemias when inoculated into fish with acute disease. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an ectoparasitic ciliate of freshwater fishes with world wide distribution, usually causing disease when fish are stressed and/or when environmental conditions are favourable for parasite multiplication. Live theronts injected into the body cavity protect fish, and monoclonal antibodies with immobilizing activity upon parasites have been developed. There is some evidence of passive transfer of protective immunity from immune to naive fish, and to eggs. Diplostomum spathaceum is an intestinal parasite of gulls; the metacercaria stage of the parasite encyst and causes disease and mortality in numerous species of freshwater fish in Europe and in North America. Fish injected i.p. with sonicated/killed cercariae or metacercariae have fewer metacercariae in the eyes and survives longer. Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus are parasitic copepods (sea lice), and they are important parasites of Atlantic salmon in cage cultures. A vaccine against fish lice is plausible, and the efficacy of about 20 candidate antigens in protecting fish is being tested. PMID:9270852
Woo, P T
Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). The frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in Europe,
Frederic Beugnet; Jean-Lou Marié
Observations were made concerning the diseases and parasites of a group of woodcocks (Philohela minor) caught in Massachusetts in the summer of 1960 and kept in captivity in Maryland, and of another group caught and kept in Louisiana in the winter of 1960-61. Bumblefoot, a granulomatous swelling of the foot caused by Micrococcus sp., is reported for woodcocks for the first time. Six of 31 woodcocks were infected with a renal coccidium of an undetermined species. Tetrameres sp. was found in 4 of 31 birds examined. Sarcocystis was found in one bird. Aerosaculitis was found in several.
Locke, L.N.; Stickel, W.H.; Geis, S.A.
In recent years, vector-borne parasitic and bacterial diseases have emerged or re-emerged in many geographical regions causing global health and economic problems that involve humans, livestock, companion animals and wild life. The ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases are affected by the interrelations between three major factors comprising the pathogen, the host (human, animal or vector) and the environment. Important
S. Harrus; G. Baneth
Most laboratory disease studies in tilapia to date have focused on a single parasite or a single bacterial pathogen. In intensive tilapia aquaculture, the reality of a single disease agent resulting in death-loss may be small. More likely, multiple disease agents are present (i.e., parasites, bacter...
Human enteric viruses and protozoal parasites are important causes of emerging food and waterborne disease. Epidemiologic investigation and detection of the agents in clinical, food, and water specimens, which are traditionally used to establish the cause of disease outbreaks, are either cumbersome, expensive, and frequently unavailable or unattempted for the important food and waterborne enteric viruses and protozoa. However, the recent introduction of regulatory testing mandates, alternative testing strategies, and increased epidemiologic surveillance for food and waterborne disease should significantly improve the ability to detect and control these agents. We discuss new methods of investigating foodborne viral and parasitic disease and the future of these methods in recognizing, identifying, and controlling disease agents.
Jaykus, L. A.
Various new diseases have emerged in captive and wild populations of turtles and tortoises. Several of these seem to be on the rise and have the potential to cause widespread disease. This article reviews the current literature and authors' experience with intranuclear coccidiosis, cryptosporidium, iridovirus, and adenovirus. The biology, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and pathologic changes are described for each disease. PMID:23642864
Gibbons, Paul M; Steffes, Zachary J
Rabies is a reemerging disease in China. The high incidence of rabies leads to numerous concerns: a potential carrier-dog phenomenon, undocumented transmission of rabies virus from wildlife to dogs, counterfeit vaccines, vaccine mismatching, and seroconve...
Although Ancylostoma ceylanicum is known to be an endemic and widely distributed hookworm of dogs and cats in Asia, its contribution to human morbidity as a potentially zoonotic hookworm remains largely unexplored. Since its discovery by Lane (1913) as a 'new parasite' of humans a century ago, the hookworm has been regarded as a 'rare' and 'abnormal' parasite and largely overlooked in surveys of human parasites. Recent molecular-based surveys in Asia, however, have demonstrated that A. ceylanicum is the second most common hookworm species infecting humans, comprising between 6% and 23% of total patent hookworm infections. In experimentally induced infections, A. ceylanicum mimics the clinical picture produced by the anthroponotic hookworms of 'ground itch' and moderate to severe abdominal pain in the acute phase. Natural infections with A. ceylanicum in humans have been reported in almost all geographical areas in which the hookworm is known to be endemic in dogs and cats, however for the majority of reports, no clinical data are available. Much like the anthroponotic hookworm species, patent A. ceylanicum adults can isolate within the jejunum to produce chronic infections that on occasion, may occur in high enough burdens to produce anaemia. In addition, the hookworm can act much like Ancylostoma caninum and be found lower in the gastrointestinal tract leading to abdominal distension and pain, diarrhoea and occult blood in the faeces accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. Whether A. ceylanicum is capable of producing both classical hookworm disease and evoking morbidity through an uncontrolled allergic response in some individuals remains unascertained. Future investigations combining the use of molecular diagnostic tools with clinical and pathological data will shed further light on its role as a human pathogen. The control of this zoonosis necessitates an integrated and inter-sectorial "One Health" approach be adopted in communities where large numbers of dogs share a close relationship with humans. PMID:23968813
Traub, Rebecca J
High vaccination coverage rates and the administration of a second dose of measles vaccine have resulted in a significant\\u000a decline in the incidence of measles and neurologic diseases due to measles in many countries. However, intermittent outbreaks\\u000a of measles still occur even in countries with excellent vaccination coverage, suggesting the existence of high rates of measles\\u000a virus introduction from endemic
Martin O. Ota; William J. Moss; Diane E. Griffin
The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in
David H. Molyneux
Parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis represent a significant global burden and pose a great challenge to drug discovery and delivery scientists due to their intracellular nature and disseminated locations. Moreover, poor rate of discovery in the anti-parasitic segment seen in last few decades has necessitated effective management of existing drugs by modulating their delivery. The review focuses
Abhijit A. Date; Medha D. Joshi; Vandana B. Patravale
Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests and that hyperparasites often castrate Ophiocordyceps. However, once fruiting bodies become sexually mature they appear robust. Such parasite life-history traits are consistent with iteroparity– a reproductive strategy rarely considered in fungi. We discuss how tropical habitats with high biodiversity of hyperparasites and high spore mortality has likely been crucial for the evolution and maintenance of iteroparity in parasites with low dispersal potential.
Andersen, Sandra B.; Ferrari, Matthew; Evans, Harry C.; Elliot, Simon L.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Hughes, David P.
Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests and that hyperparasites often castrate Ophiocordyceps. However, once fruiting bodies become sexually mature they appear robust. Such parasite life-history traits are consistent with iteroparity--a reproductive strategy rarely considered in fungi. We discuss how tropical habitats with high biodiversity of hyperparasites and high spore mortality has likely been crucial for the evolution and maintenance of iteroparity in parasites with low dispersal potential. PMID:22567151
Andersen, Sandra B; Ferrari, Matthew; Evans, Harry C; Elliot, Simon L; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Hughes, David P
... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Travel/Travelers International travelers can be at risk for ... The Parasitic Illnesses That Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis ...
Since the first case of strongyloidiasis reported in China in 1973, there have been 330 confirmed cases as of 2011. The present study conducted a meta-analysis on 106 cases for which detailed information on clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and outcome was available. Most (63%) cases were from the past decade. Immunocompromised patients and those given cortical hormones accounted for 68% of the cases, and case-fatality rate was 38%. General clinical symptoms included abdominal pain (53%), diarrhea (46%), fever (40%), and vomiting (39%). The parasite positivity rate in feces, sputum, and urine by microscopic diagnosis was 75%, 24%, and 8%, respectively, and gastrointestinal endoscopy or other biopsy detection rates were 17%. A lack of specific clinical manifestations makes early diagnosis and correct treatment difficult. Strongyloidiasis is an emerging disease in China, and public and clinical awareness needs to be raised to improve prevention and control. PMID:23468357
Wang, Chunmei; Xu, Jiabao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Li, Juan; Yan, Guiyun; James, Anthony A; Chen, Xiaoguang
Infectious and parasitic diseases are responsible for a significant percentage of hospital admissions among Navy and Marine Corps personnel and pose a threat to military readiness in different operational environments. The object of this study was to deve...
L. A. Palinkas T. S. Pineda R. G. Burr
Parasites from raw fish can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations and can be challenging to treat in pregnancy as result of medication exposure of the foetus. We surveyed obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) in the U.S. to determine their knowledge about the consumption of raw fish during pregnancy. In March 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) randomly selected to represent all members. Non-responding physicians were sent two additional mailings. Of the 606 ACOG members surveyed, 305 (50%) responded. Most (82%) respondents indicated that eating raw fish is not safe during pregnancy. However, few (19%) knew that thorough freezing kills parasites in fish. Nearly all (94%) respondents thought that parasitic infections can be more challenging to treat in pregnancy. U.S. ob-gyns believe that eating raw fish during pregnancy is not safe; most would benefit from information about how to prevent infection and about treatment. PMID:20042060
Jones, J L; Anderson, B; Schulkin, J; Parise, M E; Eberhard, M L
New and emerging fish and shellfish diseases represent an important constraint to the growth and sustainability of many aquaculture sectors and have also caused substantial economic and environmental impacts in wild stocks. This paper details the results of 8 years of a monitoring programme for emerging aquatic animal diseases reported around the world. The objectives were to track global occurrences and, more specifically, to identify and provide advanced warning of disease threats that may affect wild and farmed fish stocks in the UK. A range of electronic information sources, including Internet newsletters, alerting services and news agency releases, was systematically searched for reports of new diseases, new presentations of known pathogens and known diseases occurring in new geographic locations or new host species. A database was established to log the details of key findings, and 250 emerging disease events in 52 countries were recorded during the period of study. These included 14 new diseases and a further 16 known diseases in new species. Viruses and parasites accounted for the majority of reports (55% and 24%, respectively), and known diseases occurring in new locations were the most important emerging disease category (in which viruses were dominant). Emerging diseases were reported disproportionally in salmonid species (33%), in farmed populations (62%) and in Europe and North America (80%). The lack of reports from some regions with significant aquaculture or fishery production may indicate that emerging diseases are not being recognized in these areas owing to insufficient surveillance or testing or that these events are being under-reported. The results are discussed in relation to processes underpinning disease emergence in the aquatic environment. PMID:22136625
Thrush, M A; Dunn, P L; Peeler, E J
Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed.
Changing climate is not the only driver for alterations in the dynamic interaction between arthropod vectors of zoonotic parasites and their hosts, including humans. A suite of other factors ranging from urbanization and deforestation to changing demographics in both developing and developed countries, the impact of the recent economic crisis, increased global movement of people and animals and follow-on effects
Douglas D. Colwell; Filipe Dantas-Torres; Domenico Otranto
The environmental route of transmission is important for many protozoan and helminth parasites, with water, soil and food being particularly significant. Both the potential for producing large numbers of transmissive stages and their environmental robustness, being able to survive in moist microclimates for prolonged periods of time, pose a persistent threat to public and veterinary health. The increased demands on
Theresa R Slifko; Huw V Smith; Joan B Rose
Understanding the epidemiology of zoonotic parasitic infections is dependent upon the availability of accurate and sensitive diagnostic techniques. The development of molecular diagnostic methods, particularly those utilising PCR for the detection of zoonoses will contribute greatly to the identification and control of these pathogens, by increasing the speed of diagnosis, specificity and sensitivity, reproducibility and ease of interpretation. Molecular characterisation
U. M. Morgan
The environmental route of transmission is important for many protozoan and helminth parasites, with water, soil and food being particularly significant. Both the potential for producing large numbers of transmissive stages and their environmental robustness, being able to survive in moist microclimates for prolonged periods of time, pose a persistent threat to public and veterinary health. The increased demands on
Theresa R. Slifko; Huw V. Smith; Joan B. Rose
Parasite zoonoses are common in the SE Asian region. However, recent case reports and surveillance activities have revealed a number of emerging issues that threaten both biosecurity and ongoing control efforts. In all cases, the application of molecular tools has contributed to the identification of new foci of infection, novel aetiological agents and epidemiological investigations. These emerging issues are discussed
R. C. A. Thompson; J. V. Conlan
Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387
Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F
Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary
David M. Morens; Gregory K. Folkers; Anthony S. Fauci
SUMMARY Global warming can affect the world's biota and the functioning of ecosystems in many indirect ways. Recent evidence indicates that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of parasitic diseases, with potentially drastic conse- quences for their hosts. It is also possible that warmer conditions could promote the transmission of parasites and raise their local abundance. Here I have
The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field.
Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.
Parasitic diseases present a considerable socio-economic impact to society. Zoonotic parasites can result in a considerable burden of disease in people and substantive economic losses to livestock populations. Ameliorating the effects of these diseases may consist of attempts at eradicating specific diseases at a global level, eliminating them at a national or local level or controlling them to minimise incidence. Alternatively with some parasitic zoonoses it may only be possible to treat human and animal cases as they arise. The choice of approach will be determined by the potential effectiveness of a disease control programme, its cost and the cost effectiveness or cost benefit of undertaking the intervention. Furthermore human disease burden is being increasingly measured by egalitarian non-financial measures which are difficult to apply to livestock. This adds additional challenges to the assessment of socio-economic burdens of zoonotic diseases. Using examples from the group of neglected zoonotic diseases, information regarding the socio-economic effects is reviewed together with how this information is used in decision making with regard to disease control and treatment. PMID:23628712
Torgerson, Paul R
We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.
Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.
In today's world, parasitic disease agents are not restricted by geography or economy, and have become a significant global threat. The increasing globalization of the fresh produce market and greater international trade and travels, have contributed to the spread of these organisms in the industrialized world. Parasitic protozoa cause waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrhea. The unprecedented flow of people introduces cultural and behavior patterns around the world; the increasing tendency to eat raw or undercooked meat and seafood, favors the dissemination of several parasitic pathogens. Climate changes are predicted to cause a global increase in soil-transmitted helminthiases. The multidisciplinary study of these agents, and the interaction among scientists, global health organizations and governments are imperative to reduce the burden of these diseases and improve the life of a large segment of the world population. PMID:23781708
Blastocystis hominis is a common human parasite with infection rates up to 50% in developing countries, and giardiasis is the commonest intestinal one in Mexico. No doubt, various parasites as Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica can cause rheumatic diseases. This study coproparasitoscopic analysis evaluated the cysts by B. hominis, G. lamblia, E. hartmani, E. coli and E. histolytica in Mexican rheumatic disease patients. Also, ELISA was used to detect E. histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, and Trichinella spiralis in Mexican patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Thirty-six patients (24 with AS and 12 with RA) and 77 healthy control individuals were enrolled in this study. The frequencies of protozoan cysts were comparable in rheumatic disease patients (AS and RA) and healthy control donors (33 and 25 vs. 26%, respectively; p > 0.05). The frequency of antibodies to T. canis was significantly higher in AS patients than in healthy control donors (16 vs. 2.6%, respectively; p = 0.027), whereas no differences were observed for the prevalence of antibodies for the other parasites (E. histolytica, A. lumbricoides and T. spiralis) (p > 0.05). This information indicates the need to intensify educational efforts for the prevention of parasite infections associated with AS disease that cannot be controlled only by drugs. PMID:23214207
Jimenez-Balderas, F J; Camargo-Coronel, A; Gargia-Jaimes, J; Zonana-Nacach, A; Alcantara-Anguianoi, I; Carrillo-Becerril, L; Tapia-Romero, R; Gonzalez, T S; Villalobos-Gomez, F; Martinez-Hernandez, S; Ventura-Juarez, J; Jimenez-Balderas, E A; Méndez-Samperio, P; de-la-Rosa-Arana, J L
This study, based on field and laboratory observations, investigated the role of parasites as the cause of disease outbreaks and mass mortality in wild and cultured fish in Newfoundland over three decades. One ciliated protozoan, Trichodina jadranica (Ciliophora), and Loma branchialis (Microspora) were responsible for mass mortality of cultured fry and fingerling Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) while a myxozoan, Tetracapsuloides
RASUL A KHAN
Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary properties of pathogenic microorganisms and the dynamic relationships between microorganisms, their hosts and the environment. PMID:15241422
Morens, David M; Folkers, Gregory K; Fauci, Anthony S
Understanding the evolution of drug resistance in malaria is a central area of study at the intersection of evolution and medicine. Antimalarial drug resistance is a major threat to malaria control and directly related to trends in malaria attributable mortality. Artemisinin combination therapies (ACT) are now recommended worldwide as first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, and losing them to resistance would be a disaster for malaria control. Understanding the emergence and spread of antimalarial drug resistance in the context of different scenarios of antimalarial drug use is essential for the development of strategies protecting ACTs. In this study, we review the basic mechanisms of resistance emergence and describe several simple equations that can be used to estimate the probabilities of de novo resistance mutations at three stages of the parasite life cycle: sporozoite, hepatic merozoite and asexual blood stages; we discuss the factors that affect parasite survival in a single host in the context of different levels of antimalarial drug use, immunity and parasitaemia. We show that in the absence of drug effects, and despite very different parasite numbers, the probability of resistance emerging at each stage is very low and similar in all stages (for example per-infection probability of 10?10–10?9 if the per-parasite chance of mutation is 10?10 per asexual division). However, under the selective pressure provided by antimalarial treatment and particularly in the presence of hyperparasitaemia, the probability of resistance emerging in the blood stage of the parasite can be approximately five orders of magnitude higher than in the absence of drugs. Detailed models built upon these basic methods should allow us to assess the relative probabilities of resistance emergence in the different phases of the parasite life cycle.
Pongtavornpinyo, Wirichada; Hastings, Ian M; Dondorp, Arjen; White, Lisa J; Maude, Richard J; Saralamba, Sompob; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Boni, Maciej F
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section...Lands Grazing Â§ 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected...
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section...PARTITIONED LANDS AREA Â§ 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands...
Gnathiid isopods are one of the most abundant groups of ectoparasites on coral reef fishes. They, and other isopods, have\\u000a been shown to significantly affect the health and behaviour of many reef fish. Whether isopod emergence differs among habitats\\u000a on coral reefs is not known. In this study, we measured emergence rates of parasitic isopods (Gnathiidea and Flabellifera)\\u000a in six
C. M. Jones; A. S. Grutter
...false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section 168.15 Indians...15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi...with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...
...false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section 700.723 Indians...723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New...with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...
...false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section 700.723 Indians...723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New...with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...
...false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section 168.15 Indians...15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi...with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...
New and emerging infectious diseases affect humans, domestic animals, livestock and wildlife and can have a significant impact\\u000a on health, trade and biodiversity. Of the emerging infectious diseases of humans, 75% are zoonotic, with wildlife being an\\u000a increasingly important source of inter-species transmission. Recent animal health emergencies have highlighted the vulnerability\\u000a of the livestock sector to the impact of infectious
Host genetic factors exert significant influences on differential susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In addition, population structure of both host and parasite may influence disease distribution patterns. In this study, we assess the effects of population structure on infectious disease in two populations in which host genetic factors influencing susceptibility to parasitic disease have been extensively studied. The first population is the Jirel population of eastern Nepal that has been the subject of research on the determinants of differential susceptibility to soil-transmitted helminth infections. The second group is a Brazilian population residing in an area endemic for Trypanosoma cruzi infection that has been assessed for genetic influences on differential disease progression in Chagas disease. For measures of Ascaris worm burden, within-population host genetic effects are generally more important than host population structure factors in determining patterns of infectious disease. No significant influences of population structure on measures associated with progression of cardiac disease in individuals who were seropositive for T. cruzi infection were found. PMID:22312056
Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Criscione, Charles D; VandeBerg, John L; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Williams, Kimberly D; Subedi, Janardan; Kent, Jack W; Williams, Jeff; Kumar, Satish; Blangero, John
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS), especially parasitic infections, have increased in the last decade secondary\\u000a to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, immunosuppressive therapy used in treatment of cancer, and in organ\\u000a transplantation. CNS infection is a life-threatening disease; the prognosis depends on early detection and the correct diagnosis\\u000a of the infection, because once an intracranial infestation is
Roula G. Hourani; Jean C. Tamraz
Unproductive enterprises that feed on productive businesses, are rampant in developing countries. These parasitic enterprises take divergent forms, some headed by violent bandits and brutal mafia bosses, others by organized middlemen or smart political insiders. All of them seem to have the profit motive in common. A consequence of parasitic enterprises is that societies may be locked into a self
Halvor Mehlum; Karl O. Moene; Ragnar Torvik
Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives.
A leading cause of biliary tract disease and pancreatitis worldwide is parasitic disease. In the United States, increased global travel and the AIDS epidemic has led to a rise in the frequency of parasitic disease. Biliary disease and pancreatic disease secondary to parasitic infestation is relatively new in this country, with the first case being described in 1977. These diseases are no longer the exclusive realm of infectious disease specialists and require general practitioners and gastroenterologists to be well versed in the spectrum of parasitic pancreatic and biliary disease. PMID:20058432
Bernstein, D E; Dickinson, G M; Kim, K J; Al Karawi, M; Barkin, J S
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the biology of this unusual parasite.
Kikuchi, Taisei; Cotton, James A.; Dalzell, Jonathan J.; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; McVeigh, Paul; Takanashi, Takuma; Tsai, Isheng J.; Assefa, Samuel A.; Cock, Peter J. A.; Otto, Thomas Dan; Hunt, Martin; Reid, Adam J.; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Yokoi, Toshiro; Larsson, Mattias C.; Miwa, Johji; Maule, Aaron G.; Sahashi, Norio; Jones, John T.; Berriman, Matthew
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the biology of this unusual parasite. PMID:21909270
Kikuchi, Taisei; Cotton, James A; Dalzell, Jonathan J; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; McVeigh, Paul; Takanashi, Takuma; Tsai, Isheng J; Assefa, Samuel A; Cock, Peter J A; Otto, Thomas Dan; Hunt, Martin; Reid, Adam J; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Yokoi, Toshiro; Larsson, Mattias C; Miwa, Johji; Maule, Aaron G; Sahashi, Norio; Jones, John T; Berriman, Matthew
Background HIV-related immune-suppression increases the risk of malaria (infection, disease and treatment failure) and probably the circulating parasite biomass, favoring the emergence of drug resistance parasites. Methods The additional malaria parasite biomass related to HIV-1 co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa was estimated by a mathematical model. Parasite biomass was computed as the incidence rate of clinical malaria episodes multiplied by the number of parasites circulating in the peripheral blood of patients at the time symptoms appear. A mathematical model estimated the influence of HIV-1 infection on parasite density in clinical malaria by country and by age group, malaria transmission intensity and urban/rural area. In a multivariate sensitivity analysis, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation. Results The model shows that in 2005 HIV-1 increased the overall malaria parasite biomass by 18.0% (95%CI: 11.6–26.9). The largest relative increase (134.9–243.9%) was found in southern Africa where HIV-1 prevalence is the highest and malaria transmission unstable. The largest absolute increase was found in Zambia, Malawi, the Central African Republic and Mozambique, where both malaria and HIV are highly endemic. A univariate sensitivity analysis shows that estimates are sensitive to the magnitude of the impact of HIV-1 infection on the malaria incidence rates and associated parasite densities. Conclusion The HIV-1 epidemic by increasing the malaria parasite biomass in sub-Saharan Africa may also increase the emergence of antimalarial drug resistance, potentially affecting the health of the whole population in countries endemic for both HIV-1 and malaria.
Van geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Menten, Joris; Colebunders, Robert; Korenromp, Eline; D'Alessandro, Umberto
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940
Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak
Zoonotic infections have emerged as a burden for millions of people in recent years, owing to re-emerging or novel pathogens often causing outbreaks in the developing world in the presence of inadequate public health infrastructure. Among zoonotic infections, those caused by parasitic pathogens are the ones that affect millions of humans worldwide, who are also at risk of developing chronic disease. The present review discusses the global effect of protozoan pathogens such as Leishmania sp., Trypanosoma sp., and Toxoplasma sp., as well as helminthic pathogens such as Echinococcus sp., Fasciola sp., and Trichinella sp. The zoonotic aspects of agents that are not essentially zoonotic are also discussed. The review further focuses on the zoonotic dynamics of fungal pathogens and prion diseases as observed in recent years, in an evolving environment in which novel patient target groups have developed for agents that were previously considered to be obscure or of minimal significance. PMID:21129103
Emerging diseases could have a devastating impact on international trade unless there is a change in the traditional approach to disease control and new holistic prevention and control strategies are adopted. The impact that emerging diseases will have on international trade will depend on several factors, such as the nature of the pathogen, the degree of co-ordination and integration between Veterinary Services and Public Health authorities, the ability to rapidly detect and respond to a disease appearance, and the existing trade relationship between countries. Strategies to control emerging diseases will be more effective if competent authorities and veterinary infrastructures in particular, integrate their public and animal health objectives into a single strategy. The co-ordinating role of international standard setting organisations such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) will be crucial. This paper discusses the events contributing to the appearance and spread of new emerging diseases and examines the changing roles of Veterinary Services and international organisations. Reference is also made to measures that can be taken towards minimising potential trade disruptions caused by the appearance of an emerging disease. PMID:15702729
Companion animals are increasingly brought along by their owners to foreign countries. Thus, small animal travel medicine is becoming more important. The field includes both prophylaxis and metaphylaxis against various infectious diseases, as well as their diagnosis and treatment. Dogs returning from Southern Europe, but also from more tropical regions, may be infected with exotic pathogens. In addition, imported pedigree or working dogs, and especially stray dogs imported through welfare organisations, are at high risk. The present overview summarises the clinical and practical aspects of exotic parasitic diseases that may affect such dogs, and the risk of such diseases becoming autochthonously transmitted in Switzerland. Furthermore, the zoonotic potential of these infections will be considered. PMID:17024974
Deplazes, P; Staebler, S; Gottstein, B
Viruses are the most important cause of infections and a major source of mortality in Kidney Transplant Recipients (KTRs). These patients may acquire viral infections through exogenous routes including community exposure, donor organs, and blood products or by endogenous reactivation of latent viruses. Beside major opportunistic infections due to CMV and EBV and viral hepatitis B and C, several viral diseases have recently emerged in KTRs. New medical practices or technologies, implementation of new diagnostic tools, and improved medical information have contributed to the emergence of these viral diseases in this special population. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on emerging viral diseases and newly discovered viruses in KTRs over the last two decades. We identified viruses in the field of KT that had shown the greatest increase in numbers of citations in the NCBI PubMed database. BKV was the most cited in the literature and linked to an emerging disease that represents a great clinical concern in KTRs. HHV-8, PVB19, WNV, JCV, H1N1 influenza virus A, HEV, and GB virus were the main other emerging viruses. Excluding HHV8, newly discovered viruses have been infrequently linked to clinical diseases in KTRs. Nonetheless, pathogenicity can emerge long after the discovery of the causative agent, as has been the case for BKV. Overall, antiviral treatments are very limited, and reducing immunosuppressive therapy remains the cornerstone of management. PMID:23132728
Moal, Valérie; Zandotti, Christine; Colson, Philippe
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of free-living wild animals can be classified into three major groups on the basis of key epizootiological criteria: (i) EIDs associated with ``spill-over'' from domestic animals to wildlife populations living in proximity; (ii) EIDs related directly to human intervention, via host or parasite translocations; and (iii) EIDs with no overt human or domestic animal involvement. These
Peter Daszak; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt
The world’s scientific community must be in a state of constant readiness to address the threat posed by newly emerging infectious\\u000a diseases. Whether the disease in question is SARS in humans or BSE in animals, scientists must be able to put into action\\u000a various disease containment measures when everything from the causative pathogen to route(s) of transmission is essentially\\u000a uncertain.
The most important viral disease of farmed deer and bison is malignant catarrhal fever. The other herpesviruses which have been isolated from these species are briefly described. Other viral agents that are recognised in these animals, including adenovirus, parapox, foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bovine virus diarrhoea, rotavirus and coronavirus, are also discussed. Ectoparasites of importance in this group in various parts of the world include a variety of ticks, as well as lice, keds, Oestridae, mange mites and fire ants. Helminth parasites include liver flukes (Fascioloides and Fasciola), gastrointestinal nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae, pulmonary lungworms of the genus Dictyocaulus and extra-pulmonary lungworms of the family Protostrongylidae. Chronic wasting disease is principally important in North America, where the disease occurs in wild cervids in a limited area and has been reported in farmed deer in a small number of states in the United States of America and one province in Canada. These diseases are summarised in terms of their classification, epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and control. PMID:11974612
Haigh, J C; Mackintosh, C; Griffin, F
Psychodid sand flies are blood-sucking fly vectors of several parasitic diseases. The oldest definitive record of this group is from the Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon (circa-135 to -125 My), but the high diversity within this group supports the idea that the psychodoids originated much earlier in history. The palaeontology demonstrates that the Lower Creataceous representatives of the different subfamilies of Psychodidae had similar morphology and were blood-feeders, which supports Hennig's hypothesis on the ground plan structure of this family. Historical relationship between sand flies and diseases is unclear up to the present time, but this relationship could be as old as the origin of psychodoids because of the blood-feeding life mode. PMID:12687760
Azar, Dany; Nel, André
The author surveys the early history of nomenclature for parasitic diseases or infections which led to the existing usage of synonymous names with diverse spellings for denominating the same disease entities. In order to diminish heterogeneity in nomenclatural usage, principles of the standardized nomenclature of parasitic diseases (SNOPAD) have been put forward by the World Association for the Advancement of
Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals.
Wilson, M. E.
Bats play important roles as pollen disseminators and pest predators. However, recent interest has focused on their role as natural reservoirs of pathogens associated with emerging infectious diseases. Prior to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), about 60 bat virus species had been reported. The number of identified bat viruses has dramatically increased since the initial SARS outbreak, and most are putative novel virus species or genotypes. Serious infectious diseases caused by previously identified bat viruses continue to emerge throughout in Asia, Australia, Africa and America. Intriguingly, bats infected by these different viruses seldom display clinical symptoms of illness. The pathogenesis and potential threat of bat-borne viruses to public health remains largely unknown. This review provides a brief overview of bat viruses associated with emerging human infectious diseases. PMID:23917838
Aim To gain deeper insight into the seroprevalence of brucellosis, which remains a zoonotic disease of worldwide public health concern, by reviewing studies from countries including North Africa, the Middle East, and India. Methods Studies on brucellosis performed in countries that are neighbors or important trading partners of the European Union and on trade animals and their products were analyzed. We reviewed 37 seroprevalence studies on brucellosis published from 1948 to 2009 retrieved from PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect. Results The set of studies was heterogeneous in the number of samples and laboratory tests used. We included studies from Algeria (n?=?1), Egypt (n?=?7), India (n?=?3), Iran (n?=?3), Iraq (n?=?1), Jordan (n?=?5), Libya (n?=?3), Saudi Arabia (n?=?3), Syria (n?=?1), Turkey (n?=?5), and Yemen (n?=?2). The total number of animals in these studies was 116?317 (cattle 75?375; buffalo 9644; sheep 10?550; goats 14?447; camels 6301). The prevalence of brucellosis in different animal species varied widely. Representative surveillance data have not recently been published in any of the countries. Conclusions Wars in the Middle East, insufficient preventive measures, the lack of adequate control programs in some countries, as well as uncontrolled animal transportation through “open” borders increased the risk that brucellosis will spread in some regions. New seroprevalence data are needed urgently to evaluate the current situation and for continuous monitoring of necessary control programs.
Gwida, Mayada; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Melzer, Falk; Rosler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich; Tomaso, Herbert
Filarioid parasites represent major health hazards with important medical, veterinary, and economic implications, and considerable potential to affect the everyday lives of tens of millions of people globally (World Health Organization, 2007). Scenarios for climate change vary latitudinally and regionally and involve direct and indirect linkages for increasing temperature and the dissemination, amplification, and invasiveness of vector-borne parasites. High latitude regions are especially influenced by global climate change and thus may be prone to altered associations and dynamics for complex host-pathogen assemblages and emergence of disease with cascading effects on ecosystem structure. Although the potential for substantial ecological perturbation has been identified, few empirical observations have emanated from systems across the Holarctic. Coincidental with decades of warming, and anomalies of high temperature and humidity in the sub-Arctic region of Fennoscandia, the mosquito-borne filarioid nematode Setaria tundra is now associated with emerging epidemic disease resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality for reindeer and moose. We describe a host-parasite system that involves reindeer, arthropods, and nematodes, which may contribute as a factor to ongoing declines documented for this ungulate species across northern ecosystems. We demonstrate that mean summer temperatures exceeding 14 degrees C drive the emergence of disease due to S. tundra. An association between climate and emergence of filarioid parasites is a challenge to ecosystem services with direct effects on public health, sustainability of free-ranging and domestic ungulates, and ultimately food security for subsistence cultures at high latitudes. PMID:20422252
Laaksonen, Sauli; Pusenius, Jyrki; Kumpula, Jouko; Venäläinen, Ari; Kortet, Raine; Oksanen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric
Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive. PMID:23642867
Pello, Susan J; Olsen, Glenn H
OBJECTIVE—To characterise postural tremors in patients with Parkinson's disease. Rest tremor is a well recognised cardinal symptom of Parkinson's disease, but postural tremors associated with the disease may cause more disability than the more typical rest tremor. Postural tremor of Parkinson's disease has been attributed to enhanced physiological tremor, clonus, or coexistent essential tremor. It is postulated that one type of postural tremor in Parkinson's disease represents a rest tremor that re-emerges after a variable delay while maintaining posture, hence "re-emergent tremor".?METHODS—Accelerometry, peak frequency, peak frequency amplitude, root mean square (RMS) amplitude, and latency were determined in 18 patients (mean age: 63.2 (SD 9.8) years) with Parkinson's disease who had clinically evident postural tremor, 20 (mean age: 66.9(SD 5.8) years) with typical essential tremor, and seven (mean age: 68.7 (SD 15.3) years) with the combination of pre-existing essential tremor and subsequent Parkinson's disease (essential tremor/Parkinson's disease). Latency, the time interval starting with the assumption of an outstretched posture and ending with the onset of postural tremor, was measured by marking the start time by a pulse produced from interrupting a beam to a photocell when the arm reached a horizontal position.?RESULTS—The latency for the re-emergent tremor (9.37 (SD 10.66) s), present in 12 of 18 patients with Parkinson's disease, was significantly (p<0.0005) longer than the latency for postural tremor of essential tremor (1.29 s in one patient, absent in 19 others); five of seven essential tremor/Parkinson's disease patients had an observed latency (6.57 (SD 8.23 s) which was also significantly (p<0.005) longer than that for essential tremor. There was no difference in the mean tremor frequency (~5.5 Hz) between the re-emergent tremor and the more typical Parkinson's disease rest tremor. The amplitudes were generally higher for the postural tremor associated with Parkinson's disease compared with those of essential tremor.?CONCLUSION—These studies suggest that the re-emergent tremor of Parkinson's disease can be differentiated from the postural tremor of essential tremor and that it may share pathophysiological mechanisms with the more typical rest tremor.??
Jankovic, J.; Schwartz, K.; Ondo, W.
Host-parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity-disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11-65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15-20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity-disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092
Johnson, Pieter T J; Preston, Daniel L; Hoverman, Jason T; Lafonte, Bryan E
The largely unanticipated difficulties of parasite vaccine development have led us to a renewed awareness of the survival strategies evolutionarily embedded within parasites over hundreds of millions of years. We have grown to appreciate that efforts to disrupt parasite-host relationships are substa...
|Mitochondrial diseases are very heterogeneous and can affect different tissues and organs. Moreover, they can be caused by genetic defects in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA as well as by environmental factors. All of these factors have made the development of therapies difficult. In this review article, we will discuss emerging approaches to…
Wenz, Tina; Williams, Sion L.; Bacman, Sandra R.; Moraes, Carlos T.
Trematode parasites in intertidal estuaries experience constantly varying conditions, with the presence or absence of water potentially limiting larval transport between hosts. Given the short life spans (< or =24 h) of cercariae, emergence timing should be optimized to enhance the probability of successful transmission. In the present study, field measurements and laboratory experiments identified processes that regulate the emergence of cercariae from their first intermediate snail hosts in an intertidal marsh. Larvae emerged over species-specific temperature ranges, exclusively during daylight hours, and only when snails were submerged. The three factors operate over different temporal scales: temperature monthly, light diurnally (24-h period), and water depth tidally (12-h period). Each stimulus creates a necessary condition for the next, forming a hierarchy of environmental cues. Emergence as the tide floods would favor transport within the estuary, and light may trigger direct (downward or upward) swimming toward host habitats. Abbreviated dispersal would retain asexually reproduced cercariae within the marsh, and local mixing would diversify the gene pool of larvae encysting on subsequent hosts. In contrast to the timing of cercarial release, emergence duration was under endogenous control. Duration of emergence decreased from sunrise to sunset, perhaps in response to the diminishing lighted interval as the day progresses. Circadian rhythms that control cercarial emergence of freshwater species (including schistosomes) are often set by the activity patterns of subsequent hosts. In this estuary, however, the synchronizing agent is the tides. Together, exogenous and endogenous factors control emergence of trematode cercariae, mitigating the vagaries of an intertidal environment. PMID:14583509
Fingerut, Jonathan T; Zimmer, Cheryl Ann; Zimmer, Richard K
Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite that is well characterised as a cause of trichomonosis in columbid and raptor species world-wide. The parasite emerged as a novel infection of British passerines in 2005, leading to epidemic mortality associated with significant declines of breeding populations of greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) and chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs). We characterised the extent of T. gallinae genotypic heterogeneity within the affected wild British avifauna by analysing individual isolates from 17 of the species affected. To do so, we employed improved platform-based multilocus typing tools as well as the hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase gene as a single marker locus for fine-typing. We found no evidence of heterogeneity amongst the parasites infecting British passerines, indicating that a clonal strain of T. gallinae is the causative agent of this emerging infectious disease. PMID:21712099
Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A; Chantrey, Julian; Hughes, Laura A; John, Shinto K; Bunbury, Nancy; Bell, Diana J; Tyler, Kevin M
The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.
The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.
Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.
Conjoined twins occur in approximately one of every 50,000 to 200,000 births. Atypical or parasitic conjoined twins result from the embryonic death of one twin, which leaves behind body parts vascularized by the primary twin. Omphalopagus refers to conjoined twins joined at the level of the umbilicus. The authors report a case of atypical omphalopagus involving an acardiac, acephalic, parasitic
Daniel A. de Ugarte; M. Ines Boechat; William W. Shaw; Hillel Laks; Holly Williams; James B. Atkinson
In the last years emerging infections represent an important problem of public health and occupational medicine. Biological agents and their hosts exist in a precariously balanced and continuously evolving relationship, influenced by their environment. RNA viruses are responsible for most of the emerging diseases. Epidemics that recently affected the world of work are zoonoses, such as cases of SARS in healthcare staff Dutch poultry workers infected with the avian virus A/H7N7 in 2003, the current threat of avian flu A/H5N1 to poultry workers. Workers at risk include those who are in contact with live or dead infected animals, with aerosols, dust or surfaces contaminated by animal secretions, persons engaged in animal breeding and trade, veterinaries, and others. Pigs are at risk of acquiring many viral and bacterial diseases and, consequently, could be able to transmit some of these infections to occupationally exposed subjects. The aim of our study is to set out some emerging zoonosis that could affect swine workers, an occupational sector where a proper assessment of biological risks is difficult to perform. PMID:18409745
Vonesch, N; Di Renzi, S; Martini, A; Melis, P; Signorini, S; Tomao, P
III health related to food-borne infection transcends all geographical, political and cultural boundaries. The incidence of food-borne diseases continues to adversely affect the health and productivity of populations in most countries, especially non-industrialised ones. However, since the 1950s, the emphasis in the industrialised world had shifted away from addressing public health problems, to problems of chemical contaminants etc., but recently
Christine A Northrop-Clewe; Christopher Shaw
In the world, economical losses due to the parasitic diseases reach enormous ratios in animal production. Both developed and developing countries set aside a considerable budget to control these parasitic diseases. This situation aids in the improvement of control methods of parasitic diseases. Also, it causes new ways of investigation that includes observation, evaluation and prevention of parasitic diseases. The Geographical Information System (GIS) has recently become one of the most common methods utilized to provide disease information technology with computer supported technology in many countries. The most important qualities of GIS are the formation of a powerful database, continual updating and rapid provision of coordination related to units. Many factors are evaluated at the same time by the system and also, results from analysis of data related to disease and their causes could reduce or prevent economical losses due to parasitic disease. In this study, possible uses of Geographical Information Systems against parasitic diseases and an approach in terms of animal health economics were presented. PMID:18985590
Ciçek, Hasan; Ciçek, Hatice; Senkul, Cetin; Tando?an, Murat
A review is presented of the serologic tests used in the diagnosis of some parasitic infections of the pulmonary system, and comments are made on the immunodiagnosis of pulmonary amebiasis, pneumocystosis, toxoplasmosis, hydatidosis, cysticercosis, schist...
J. H. Cross
...or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...or State emergency pest or disease treatment program cannot be...or State emergency pest or disease treatment program or product...Except, That: (1) Milk or milk products may be...
...or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...or State emergency pest or disease treatment program cannot be...or State emergency pest or disease treatment program or product...Except, That: (1) Milk or milk products may be...
...or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...or State emergency pest or disease treatment program cannot be...or State emergency pest or disease treatment program or product...Except, That: (1) Milk or milk products may be...
\\u000a Macro- and micro-nutrients, such as dietary protein and zinc, and plant secondary compounds, such as condensed tannins, can\\u000a affect the manifestations of immunity to parasites; the relationship between nutrition and immunity to parasites may be quantitative\\u000a and\\/or qualitative. The former is often demonstrated under nutrient scarcity, where immunity may be penalized and the penalties\\u000a in immune response can be rectified
Spiridoula Athanasiadou; Jos G. M. Houdijk
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health. Here, we apply the definition of EIDs used in the medical and veterinary fields to botany and highlight a series of emerging plant diseases. We include EIDs of cultivated and wild plants, some of which are of significant conservation concern. The underlying cause of most plant EIDs is the anthropogenic introduction of parasites, although severe weather events are also important drivers of disease emergence. Much is known about crop plant EIDs, but there is little information about wild-plant EIDs, suggesting that their impact on conservation is underestimated. We conclude with recommendations for improving strategies for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs. PMID:16701319
Anderson, Pamela K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Patel, Nikkita G; Morales, Francisco J; Epstein, Paul R; Daszak, Peter
Over the past decade, there has been a world-wide increase in the number of farm-raised ratites. The focus of ostrich production remains in South Africa, but other countries are initiating production of this bird in addition to the emu and rhea. Ostriches, emus and rheas are being produced commercially outside their native habitat, resulting in new and unique disease presentations. The authors describe bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases which are emerging in production settings. Biosecurity, together with adequate management and nutrition, will reduce the likelihood of flock exposure and limit mortality in the event of infection. The problem currently facing the industry is that most ratite facilities do not incorporate separate quarantine areas. Newly-introduced birds may contaminate soil and facilities with pathogens such as Mycobacterium spp. and Salmonella spp. Ratites have excellent production potential if producers can profitably multiply and rear healthy stock. The authors discuss the currently-known diseases which may affect the viability of an intensive production facility. PMID:8924717
Tully, T N; Shane, S M
Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).
Lafferty, Kevin D.
Emerging infectious diseases have taken on renewed significance in the public health sector since the 1990s. Worldwide, governments are preparing emergency plans to guide them; their plans acknowledge that communication will be vital in the event of an outbreak. However, much of the emerging infectious disease communication literature deals with one-way transmission of facts to the public by experts. Little
Bev J. Holmes
WIxri each passing year parasitic infections become less important problems to the American people due to continued improvement in living standards and environmental hygiene. Within this country intestinal parasitoses have become restricted mostly to low income groups of the southern United States and to penal and mental institutions. On the other hand, growth in international travel has brought into the
Rodney C. Jung; Guillermo M. Carrera
Foodborne parasitic diseases are an important cause of illness and economic loss world?wide. The public health burden imposed by parasitic diseases such as toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, cysticercosis and trematodosis are substantial even in developed countries. The rising concern generally over food safety is causing a reappraisal of the significance of foodborne parasites and the strategies to control them. It is clear
K. D. Murrell
Recent years have demonstrated the devastating health consequences of complex emergencies and natural disasters and thereby highlighted the importance of comprehensive and collaborative approaches to humanitarian responses and risk reduction. Simultaneously, noncommunicable diseases are now recognised as a real and growing threat to population health and development; a threat that is magnified by and during emergencies. Noncommunicable diseases, however, continue to receive little attention from humanitarian organisations in the acute phase of disaster and emergency response. This paper calls on all sectors to recognise and address the specific health challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases in emergencies and disaster situations. This publication aims to highlight the need for: • Increased research on morbidity and mortality patterns due to noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; • Development of technical guidelines on the clinical management of noncommunicable diseases in emergencies; • Greater integration and coordination in health service provision during and following emergencies; • Integrating noncommunicable diseases into practical and academic training of emergency workers and emergency-response coordinators. PMID:24056956
Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca; de Courten, Maximilian; Tellier, Siri
Recent years have demonstrated the devastating health consequences of complex emergencies and natural disasters and thereby highlighted the importance of comprehensive and collaborative approaches to humanitarian responses and risk reduction. Simultaneously, noncommunicable diseases are now recognised as a real and growing threat to population health and development; a threat that is magnified by and during emergencies. Noncommunicable diseases, however, continue to receive little attention from humanitarian organisations in the acute phase of disaster and emergency response. This paper calls on all sectors to recognise and address the specific health challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases in emergencies and disaster situations. This publication aims to highlight the need for: • Increased research on morbidity and mortality patterns due to noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; • Development of technical guidelines on the clinical management of noncommunicable diseases in emergencies; • Greater integration and coordination in health service provision during and following emergencies; • Integrating noncommunicable diseases into practical and academic training of emergency workers and emergency-response coordinators.
Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca; de Courten, Maximilian; Tellier, Siri
Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Toxoplasma are related apicomplexan parasites transmitted to humans worldwide through ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water. Of 15 species of Cryptosporidium- C parvum, C. hominis, C and C. meleagridis are the most prevalent infections in humans and the la...
Many transmissible diseases, endemic in the Mediterranean area have been spread to countries where they have never been diagnosed before, because of the increasing international trade and travel activities. The purpose of this review is to describe the ocular manifestations of these infectious and parasitic diseases, which are also common in Greece, along with some insights into their etiopathogenesis, differential
A. Komnenou; A. F. Koutinas
Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. PMID:23106703
Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C
Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period. PMID:20805869
Robinson, Robert A; Lawson, Becki; Toms, Mike P; Peck, Kirsi M; Kirkwood, James K; Chantrey, Julian; Clatworthy, Innes R; Evans, Andy D; Hughes, Laura A; Hutchinson, Oliver C; John, Shinto K; Pennycott, Tom W; Perkins, Matthew W; Rowley, Peter S; Simpson, Vic R; Tyler, Kevin M; Cunningham, Andrew A
ately, several emerging infectious diseases have had a great deal of play in the media, resulting in anxiety among health care workers and their patients. This article ex- plores the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of some of these emerging infections. BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY AND VARIANT CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as \\
A meeting of international experts exchanged information on recent activities dealing with new, emerging and re-emerging diseases, discussed ways of responding to this problem and to other communicable disease threats, and reviewed WHO's activities and role in this area. This Memorandum summarizes the various presentations and concludes with the recommendations and specific tasks for action at every level.
A meeting of international experts exchanged information on recent activities dealing with new, emerging and re-emerging diseases, discussed ways of responding to this problem and to other communicable disease threats, and reviewed WHO's activities and role in this area. This Memorandum summarizes the various presentations and concludes with the recommendations and specific tasks for action at every level.
Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these
J. S. Mackenzie; K. B. Chua; P. W. Daniels; B. T. Eaton; H. E. Field; R. A. Hall; K. Halpin; C. A. Johansen; P. D. Kirkland; S. K. Lam; P. McMinn; D. J. Nisbet; R. Paru; A. T. Pyke; S. A. Ritchie; P. Siba; D. W. Smith; G. A. Smith; A. F. van den Hurk; L. F. Wang; D. T. Williams
Summary The most important viral disease of farmed deer and bison is malignant catarrhal fever. The other herpesviruses which have been isolated from these species are briefly described. Other viral agents that are recognised in these animals, including adenovirus, parapox, foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bovine virus diarrhoea, rotavirus and coronavirus, are also discussed. Ectoparasites of importance
J. C. Haigh; C. Mackintosh; F. Griffin
Parasitic diseases of the biliary tract occur frequently in tropical and subtropical areas and cause high morbidity and mortality. In general, neither the clinical presentation nor the general laboratory findings are sufficiently unique to raise the possibility of a parasitic biliary infestation in the mind of the surgeon. Once considered, however, the presence of a parasitic biliary infestation is easily
Maher Osman; Susanne Bach Lausten; Talaat El-Sefi; Ibrahim Boghdadi; M-Yousri Rashed; Steen Lindkær Jensen
Advances in diagnosis and treatment of disease include understanding the behavior and susceptibilities of the vector, the parasite virus, or bacteria, and the host. Genetic studies have shown differences at the molecular level in parasites which may aid r...
Emerging diseases represent a growing worldwide problem accompanying global environmental changes, and there is tremendous interest in identifying the factors controlling the appearance and spread of these diseases. Here, we discuss emerging fungal plant diseases, and argue that they often result from host shift speciation, a particular case of ecological speciation. We consider the factors controlling local adaptation and ecological speciation and show that certain life-history traits of many fungal plant pathogens are conducive for rapid ecological speciation, thus favoring the emergence of novel pathogen species adapted to new hosts. We argue that placing the problem of emerging fungal diseases of plants within the context of ecological speciation can significantly improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms governing emergence of such diseases.
Giraud, Tatiana; Gladieux, Pierre; Gavrilets, Sergey
Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus are mermithid nematodes that parasitize mosquito larvae. We describe host penetration and emergence patterns of Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus in laboratory exposures against Culex pipiens pipiens larvae. The mermithid species differed in host penetration behavior, with R. iyengari juveniles attaching to the host integument before assuming a rigid penetration posture at the lateral thorax (66.7%) or abdominal segments V to VIII (33.3%). Strelkovimermis spiculatus attached first to a host hair in a coiled posture that provided a stable base for penetration, usually through the lateral thorax (83.3%). Superparasitism was reduced by discriminating against previously infected hosts, but R. iyengari's ability to avoid superparasitism declined at a higher inoculum rate. Host emergence was signaled by robust nematode movements that induced aberrant host swimming. Postparasites of R. iyengari usually emerged from the lateral prothorax (93.2%), whereas S. spiculatus emergence was peri-anal. In superparasitized hosts, emergence was initiated by males in R. iyengari and females in S. spiculatus; emergence was otherwise nearly synchronous. Protandry was observed in R. iyengari. The ability of S. spiculatus to sustain an optimal sex ratio suggested superior self-regulation. Mermithid penetration and emergence behaviors and sites may be supplementary clues for identification. Species differences could be useful in developing production and release strategies. PMID:23589657
Sanad, Manar M; Shamseldean, Muhammad S M; Elgindi, Abd-Elmoneim Y; Gaugler, Randy
The evolution of parasite-imposed host harm (virulence) will be affected by numerous factors, not least the range of hosts that parasites can infect. Here, we consider four ways that parasite host range (generalism) might directly affect observed levels of parasite virulence: costs of generalism, multiplicity of infection, maladaptive virulence, and host availability. Integrating parasite infectivity range with life-history evolution will generate novel general hypotheses for the evolutionary ecology of virulence, as well as explicit predictions about the virulence of emerging diseases resulting from host shifts. PMID:23968968
Leggett, Helen C; Buckling, Angus; Long, Gráinne H; Boots, Mike
... CBER works with other federal agencies and industry, through the Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasure Enterprise (PHEMCE) on a ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/productsecurity
The cellular inflammatory response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) to the myxozoan parasite PKX that causes proliferative kidney disease was investigated. The response was studied from 3 to 20 weeks after the fish were injected with infected kidney homogenate. Kidney samples were examined by light and electron microscopy. In contrast to most myxosporeans, PKX provoked a severe
Elizabeth Macconnell; Charlie E. Smith; Ronald P. Hedrick; C. A. Speer
Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans is an important public problem in co-endemic areas in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of studies on co-infection and even fewer reviews. This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host’s immunity of co-infection. The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility such as renal transplant recipients, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HIV positive patients and migrants, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases were shown to be risk factors for each other. Co-infection may significantly inhibit the host’s immune system, increase antibacterial therapy intolerance and be detrimental to the prognosis of the disease; in addition, infection with parasitic diseases can alter the protective immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The diseases of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) are reviewed in this paper. Kafue lechwe are an important natural resource for Zambia. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread within the lechwe population and they are host to many parasites, especially the warble Strobiloestrous vanzyli. PMID:1758033
Stafford, K J
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a significant threat to human health, economic stability, and biodiversity. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying disease emergence are still not fully understood, and control measures rely heavily on mitigating the impact of EIDs after they have emerged. Here, we highlight the emergence of a zoonotic Henipavirus, Nipah virus, to demonstrate the interdisciplinary and macroecological approaches necessary to understand EID emergence. Previous work suggests that Nipah virus emerged due to the interaction of the wildlife reservoir (Pteropus spp. fruit bats) with intensively managed livestock. The emergence of this and other henipaviruses involves interactions among a suite of anthropogenic environmental changes, socioeconomic factors, and changes in demography that overlay and interact with the distribution of these pathogens in their wildlife reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate how ecological niche modeling may be used to investigate the potential role of a changing climate on the future risk for Henipavirus emergence. We show that the distribution of Henipavirus reservoirs, and therefore henipaviruses, will likely change under climate change scenarios, a fundamental precondition for disease emergence in humans. We assess the variation among climate models to estimate where Henipavirus host distribution is most likely to expand, contract, or remain stable, presenting new risks for human health. We conclude that there is substantial potential to use this modeling framework to explore the distribution of wildlife hosts under a changing climate. These approaches may directly inform current and future management and surveillance strategies aiming to improve pathogen detection and, ultimately, reduce emergence risk. PMID:22936052
Daszak, Peter; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Bogich, Tiffany L; Fernandez, Miguel; Epstein, Jonathan H; Murray, Kris A; Hamilton, Healy
Elimination of pathogens is the basis of host resistance to infections; however, relationship between persisting pathogens\\u000a and disease has not been clarified. Leishmania major infection in mice is an important model of host–pathogen relationship. Infected BALB\\/c mice exhibit high parasite numbers\\u000a in lymph nodes and spleens, and a chronic disease with skin lesions, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, increased serum IgE levels
Iryna Kurey; Tetyana Kobets; Helena Havelková; Martina Slapni?ková; Lei Quan; Kate?ina Trtková; Igor Grekov; Milena Svobodová; Alphons P. Stassen; Alan Hutson; Peter Demant; Marie Lipoldová
Haplosporidan parasites of oysters have been reported from four continents. Those of the general Minchinia, Haplosporidium, and Marteilia, which cause serious diseases of oysters, have been intensively studied. Epizootiology of these highly pathogenic species is well known. Life cycles are obscure for all haplosporidans because artificial infections have not been achieved. The high pathogenicity of newly-discovered haplosporidan diseases to native oysters in eastern North America and western Europe may indicate that these are exotic pathogens parasitizing susceptible oysters not previously exposed to these disease agents. Epizootiology of two haplosporidan pathogens along the middle Atlantic Coast of North America during 25 years of disease activity is discussed. Haplosporidium nelsoni sporulates only rarely and its life cycle remains unconfirmed. Resistant oysters were developed in nature and from laboratory breeding. Haplosporidium costale which causes “Seaside Disease” in high-salinity waters appears to be a more acclimated disease with regular patterns of infection and mortality. Several minor parasites whose life cycles and host species need more study are mentioned.
Andrews, J. D.
Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence.
Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dykova, Iva; Jirku, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N.; Slapeta, Jan
Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence. PMID:21541340
Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirk?, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N; Šlapeta, Jan
Pets offer individuals and the community significant benefits, however cognisance must be taken of the potential for transmission of infectious agents from these animals to humans. The prevalence of many parasites, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium, has increased over the past few decades while others, such as Toxocara and Ancylostoma, have decreased. These changes could be real, associated with the
I. D. Robertson; P. J. Irwin; A. J. Lymbery; R. C. A. Thompson
Newly emerging and re-emerging infections are recognized as a global problem and 75% of these are potentially zoonotic (Woolhouse\\u000a & Gowtage-Sequeria, 2005). Emergence of a new “killer” disease in any part of the world is likely to be a threat world wide\\u000a in today’s society with very rapid means of transportation of both human and animal\\/animal products. Recent examples include
Lin-Fa Wang; John S. Mackenzie; Bryan T. Eaton
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that is more common than was previously thought. This disease is caused by an inappropriate immune response to wheat gluten, barley, and rye. Three main pathways cause celiac disease: the environmental trigger (gluten), genetic susceptibility, and unusual gut permeability. The only treatment currently available is a strict gluten-free diet. Unfortunately, a majority of patients have difficulty complying with this diet, and the response to therapy is poor. Therefore, alternative treatments are being developed, and new insights into the pathophysiology of celiac disease have led to research into novel therapies. New treatments include engineering gluten-free grains, decreasing intestinal permeability by blockage of the epithelial zonulin receptor, inducing oral tolerance to gluten with a therapeutic vaccine, and degrading immunodominant gliadin peptides using probiotics with endopeptidases or transglutaminase inhibitors. These nondiet-based therapies provide hope for enhanced, lifelong celiac disease management with improved patient compliance and better quality of life.
Bakshi, Anita; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.
Plant diseases are a significant constraint to agricultural productivity. Exotic plant diseases pose a continued threat to profitable agriculture in the United States. The extent of this threat has increased dramatically in the 1980s and 1990s due to the expansion of international trade in agricultural products and frequent movement of massive volume of people and goods across national boundaries. Introduction of new diseases has not only caused farm losses, but has also diminished export revenue since phytosanitary issues are linked to international commerce. Plant pathogens and their vectors have also moved across national boundaries, sometimes naturally and at other times influenced by the recent changes in trade practices. Sorghum ergot, Karnal bunt of wheat, potato late blight, and citrus tristeza are some of the most recent examples of enhanced importance of diseases due to the introduction of plant pathogens or vectors. PMID:10681966
Bandyopadhyay, R; Frederiksen, R A
Understanding factors responsible for reemergence of diseases believed to have been controlled and outbreaks of previously\\u000a unknown infectious diseases is one of the most difficult scientific problems facing society today. Significant knowledge gaps\\u000a exist for even the most studied emerging infectious diseases. Coupled with failures in the response to the resurgence of infectious\\u000a diseases, this lack of information is embedded
Bruce A. Wilcox; Rita R. Colwell
Lifestyle diseases characterize those diseases whose occurrence is primarily based on the daily habits of people and are a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment. The main factors contributing to lifestyle diseases include bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body posture, and disturbed biological clock. A report, jointly prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Economic Forum, says India will incur an accumulated loss of $236.6 billion by 2015 on account of unhealthy lifestyles and faulty diet. According to the report, 60% of all deaths worldwide in 2005 (35 million) resulted from noncommunicable diseases and accounted for 44% of premature deaths. What's worse, around 80% of these deaths will occur in low and middle-income countries like India which are also crippled by an ever increasing burden of infectious diseases, poor maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies. According to a survey conducted by the Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ASSOC-HAM), 68% of working women in the age bracket of 21-52 years were found to be afflicted with lifestyle ailments such as obesity, depression, chronic backache, diabetes and hypertension. The study ‘Preventive Healthcare and Corporate Female Workforce’ also said that long hours and working under strict deadlines cause up to 75% of working women to suffer from depression or general anxiety disorder, compared to women with lesser levels of psychological demand at work. The study cited scientific evidence that healthy diet and adequate physical activity - at least 30 minutes of moderate activity at least five days a week - helped prevent NCDs. In India, 10% of adults suffer from hypertension while the country is home to 25-30 million diabetics. Three out of every 1,000 people suffer a stroke. The number of deaths due to heart attack is projected to increase from 1.2 million to 2 million in 2010. The diet [or lifestyle] of different populations might partly determine their rates of cancer, and the basis for this hypothesis was strengthened by results of studies showing that people who migrate from one country to another generally acquire the cancer rates of the new host country, suggesting that environmental [or lifestyle factors] rather than genetic factors are the key determinants of the international variation in cancer rates. Some of the common diseases encountered because of occupational lifestyle are Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, cancer, chronic liver disease/cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nephritis/CRF, and stroke. Occupational lifestyle diseases include those caused by the factors present in the vicinity like heat, sound, dust, fumes, smoke, cold, and other pollutants. These factors are responsible for allergy, respiratory and hearing problems, and heat or cold shock. So, A healthy lifestyle must be adopted to combat these diseases with a proper balanced diet, physical activity and by giving due respect to biological clock. Kids spending too much time slouched in front of the TV or PCs, should be encourage to find a physical sport or activity they enjoy. Fun exercises should be encouraged into family outings. A pizza-and-video evening should be replaced for a hike and picnic. Kids who do participate in sport, especially at a high competitive level, can find the pressure to succeed very stressful. To decrease the ailments caused by occupational postures, one should avoid long sitting hours and should take frequent breaks for stretching or for other works involving physical movements.
Sharma, Mukesh; Majumdar, P. K.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate various disease conditions prevalent in slaughtered pigs and zoonotic importance. The study was conducted on two hundred non-descript pigs slaughtered at an organized slaughter house, Mumbai. The animals included in the study were randomly selected. Post mortem examination of the animals was performed to note various disease conditions and tissues were collected for histopathology. Direct examination of stool was found negative for parasites. Gross and microscopical examination revealed presence of Ascarops strongylina, Sarcocyst, Hydatid cyst, Cysticercus cellulosae, Ascaris suum and Cysticercus tenuicollis, along with bacteria like Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Shigella, Streptococci, Proteus and Pasteurella spp. were isolated. Indirect ELISA was performed for detection of antibody titer in the pig serum against classical swine fever. Studies on hematological and serum biochemical profile revealed decreased total protein concentration and globulin level with leukocytosis and neutrophilia and in parasitic infections eosinophilia was evident. PMID:23542948
Kalai, K; Nehete, R S; Ganguly, S; Ganguli, M; Dhanalakshmi, S; Mukhopadhayay, S K
Exotic and emerging diseases of poultry continue to be a threat to US poultry. Studies over the past year have demonstrated: 1) cooking poultry meat at minimum of 70C kills avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in a few seconds, 2) low pathogenicity (LP) AI viruses isolated from fr...
The National Center for Infectious Diseases has made available the audio (and in some cases, video) portion of more than 20 online presentations of selected sessions from the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, held July 16-19, 2000 in Atlanta, Georgia. Presentations are organized in chronological order of the conference but may also be searched by presenter. Some presentations may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint. For researchers interested in the field of Emerging Infectious Diseases, this resource represents an exceptionally helpful application of Internet technology.
Finch trichomonosis emerged in Great Britain in 2005 and led to epidemic mortality and a significant population decline of greenfinches, Carduelis chloris and chaffinches, Fringilla coelebs, in the central and western counties of England and Wales in the autumn of 2006. In this article, we show continued epidemic spread of the disease with a pronounced shift in geographical distribution towards eastern England in 2007. This was followed by international spread to southern Fennoscandia where cases were confirmed at multiple sites in the summer of 2008. Sequence data of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal region and part of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene showed no variation between the British and Fennoscandian parasite strains of Trichomonas gallinae. Epidemiological and historical ring return data support bird migration as a plausible mechanism for the observed pattern of disease spread, and suggest the chaffinch as the most likely primary vector. This finding is novel since, although intuitive, confirmed disease spread by migratory birds is very rare and, when it has been recognised, this has generally been for diseases caused by viral pathogens. We believe this to be the first documented case of the spread of a protozoal emerging infectious disease by migrating birds. PMID:21935745
Lawson, Becki; Robinson, Robert A; Neimanis, Aleksija; Handeland, Kjell; Isomursu, Marja; Agren, Erik O; Hamnes, Inger S; Tyler, Kevin M; Chantrey, Julian; Hughes, Laura A; Pennycott, Tom W; Simpson, Vic R; John, Shinto K; Peck, Kirsi M; Toms, Mike P; Bennett, Malcolm; Kirkwood, James K; Cunningham, Andrew A
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, with a rapidly increasing worldwide prevalence. Although no cure for AD has yet been found, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of AD pathogenesis. This progress has led to the development of numerous promising compounds in various stages of clinical testing. In this review, the current pharmacologic treatments for AD are discussed in detail, followed by an overview of the main experimental strategies that will shape AD therapeutics over the next decade. PMID:24139420
Nygaard, Haakon B
Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678
Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya
The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994 - December 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia. The infecti...
This paper examines local farmers’ perspectives about emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of humans, crops\\u000a and livestock and their impact on household food security in the Tanzania-Uganda interface ecosystem to the west of Lake Victoria.\\u000a While it is increasingly accepted that such an approach could yield vital information not only regarding the extent of the\\u000a impact of EIDs but
Gabriel Rugalema; Giulia Muir; Kirsten Mathieson; Emily Measures; Friderike Oehler; Libor Stloukal
BACKGROUND: Many North American-based HIV patients originate from parasitic disease-endemic regions. Strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis are important due to their wide distribution and potential for severe morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, as determined by serological screening, of strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis among patients in an HIV-focused, primary care practice in Toronto, Ontario. A secondary objective was to determine factors associated with positive serological screens. METHODS: A retrospective review of electronic patient records was conducted. Results of serological screens for parasites and relevant laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were identified. The patients’ mean CD4+ count was 0.45×109/L, median viral load was undetectable and 68% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Most originated from Africa (37%) and South America (35%). Of the 97 patients, 10.4% and 8.3% had positive or equivocal screening results for strongyloidiasis, respectively, 7.4% and 4.2% had positive or equivocal screening results for schistosomiasis and 5.5% and 6.8% had positive or equivocal screens for filariasis. Persons with positive parasitic serologies were more often female (28% versus 9%, P=0.03), younger in age (36 versus 43 years of age, P<0.01), had been in Canada for a shorter duration (5 versus 12 years, P<0.0001) and had a higher viral load (10,990 copies/mL versus <50 copies/mL, P <0.001). All patients were asymptomatic. Eosinophilia was not associated with positive screening results. CONCLUSIONS: Using symptoms and eosinophilia to identify parasitic infection was not reliable. Screening for strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis among patients with HIV from parasite-endemic countries is simple and benign, and may prevent future complications. The clinical benefits of screening for filariasis require further elucidation, but this practice appears to be the least warranted.
Costiniuk, Cecilia T; Cooper, Curtis L; Doucette, Steve; Kovacs, Colin M
Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of\\u000a sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently,\\u000a the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines,
Debajeet Choudhuri; Tanvir Huda; Evropi Theodoratou; Harish Nair; Lina Zgaga; Rachel Falconer; Ivana Luksic; Hope L Johnson; Jian Shayne F Zhang; Shams El Arifeen; Christopher B Nelson; Ray Borrow; Harry Campbell; Igor Rudan
This review considers three case studies based on macroparasites of anurans: (a) natural infections in the permanently-aquatic Xenopus laevis which represent the worm burdens acquired, and the implications for pathology, when hosts are exposed to continuous, year-round, transmission; (b) the desert toad, Scaphiopus couchii, which experiences invasion very briefly each year and provides a simplified system involving only a single significant infection (Pseudodiplorchis americanus); (c) the mesic Bufo bufo which has been the subject of experimental laboratory studies designed to measure the effects of Rhabdias bufonis infection on host growth, physical performance and survival. Experimental manipulation of both Scaphiopus and Bufo provide quantitative data on disease effects of macroparasites, including precise measurements of parasite-induced host mortality. Field data for Xenopus and Scaphiopus show that, despite high initial worm burdens from efficient transmission, infection levels at parasite maturity are modulated below those leading to significant disease. Experimental data for Scaphiopus and Bufo have documented the time-course and magnitude of this decline in intensities, and there is circumstantial evidence for Scaphiopus that this regulation is host-mediated. Immunological studies on Xenopus show that disease effects of the pathogenic Pseudocapillaroides xenopodis are exacerbated in thymectomised hosts and reversed by implantation of thymuses from MHC-compatible donors. Thus, whilst factorial experiments can demonstrate the potential of helminths to cause significant disease and mortality in anuran host-macroparasite interactions, powerful post-invasion regulation of worm burdens appears to exert a strong control of parasite-induced disease in natural host populations. PMID:8632921
Tinsley, R C
The stable fly has been of great significance to livestock production in the county of Espirito Santo do Pinhal; it has a painful bite, sucks blood, and carries many diseases. The aim of this study was to establish a relationship between the parasitism of Stomoxys calcitrans, manure management, cattle diseases, and technical support. According to the farmers the stable fly reaches its highest level in the rainy season, the same period in which diseases were detected. Most of the farmers said that they did not receive technical assistance. The association of inappropriate manure management, verified in this survey, with the low frequency of technical visits, resulted in a low level of technology utilization. Better technological assistance could moderate the stable fly infestation and help manage serious cattle diseases. PMID:15604496
Bittencourt, Avelino J; de Castro, Bruno G
Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America, and both the annual incidence and geographic range are increasing. The emergence of Lyme disease has been attributed to a century-long recovery of deer, an important reproductive host for adult ticks. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease risk may now be more dynamically linked to fluctuations in the abundance of small-mammal hosts that are thought to infect the majority of ticks. The continuing and rapid increase in Lyme disease over the past two decades, long after the recolonization of deer, suggests that other factors, including changes in the ecology of small-mammal hosts may be responsible for the continuing emergence of Lyme disease. We present a theoretical model that illustrates how reductions in small-mammal predators can sharply increase Lyme disease risk. We then show that increases in Lyme disease in the northeastern and midwestern United States over the past three decades are frequently uncorrelated with deer abundance and instead coincide with a range-wide decline of a key small-mammal predator, the red fox, likely due to expansion of coyote populations. Further, across four states we find poor spatial correlation between deer abundance and Lyme disease incidence, but coyote abundance and fox rarity effectively predict the spatial distribution of Lyme disease in New York. These results suggest that changes in predator communities may have cascading impacts that facilitate the emergence of zoonotic diseases, the vast majority of which rely on hosts that occupy low trophic levels. PMID:22711825
Levi, Taal; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Mangel, Marc; Wilmers, Christopher C
\\u000a The past 30 years has witnessed a dramatic re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases throughout much of the world. Factors\\u000a contributing to this are many, but the principal drivers have been complacency and de-emphasis of infectious diseases in pubic\\u000a health policy, increased population growth, uncontrolled urbanization without concomitant attention to water and waste management,\\u000a increased globalization and the ease with which
Duane J. Gubler
Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases present critical issues of national security, public health, and economic welfare.\\u000a For example, in recent years, highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza have emerged in Asia, spread through Eastern Europe,\\u000a and threaten to become pandemic. As demonstrated by the coordinated response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and\\u000a influenza, agents of infectious disease are being
D. Janies; D. Pol
BACKGROUND. Although most tick bites in humans in areas of the northeastern United States in which Lyme disease is highly endemic are due to Ixodes dammini, no study documents the frequency of I. dammini bites in low-prevalence or emerging areas for Lyme disease. Data on the proportion of tick bites in humans that are due to I. dammini in a region may have implications for public health policy and clinical management. METHODS. A statewide survey of the tick species that parasitized humans in Maine was conducted during 1989 and 1990. Tick submissions from throughout the state were elicited through media announcements. All ticks that had been removed from humans were identified, and data were collected that included bite seasonality and geography and demographics of tick bite victims. RESULTS. Of 709 ticks submitted, only 17% were I. dammini. Ixodes cookei, a vector for Powassan encephalitis, accounted for 34% of bites, and Dermacentor variabilis accounted for 45%. Other tick species were occasionally implicated. CONCLUSIONS. The likelihood that a tick bite was due to I. dammini was lower in Maine than in areas in the northeastern United States in which Lyme disease is highly endemic. Other tick vectors, associated with diseases other than Lyme disease, were more frequently implicated. Regional tick bite surveys may prove useful in assessing the risk of Lyme disease following a tick bite.
Smith, R P; Lacombe, E H; Rand, P W; Dearborn, R
Trypanosoma cruzi invades heart cells via a calcium-dependent, G protein-mediated mechanism, leading to severe cardiac inflammation considered by some to be autoimmune in nature. Cannabinoids inhibit calcium flux and G protein signalling; as potent immunosuppressive agents, they are effective in the treatment of autoimmune disease but contraindicated for the treatment of infections. We compared the action of the synthetic cannabinoid R(+)WIN55,212 and its inactive isomer S(-)WIN55,212 on cardiac myoblast invasion: R(+)WIN55,212 inhibited invasion by over 85%. We then tested for efficacy in modulating pathogenesis in mice by assaying parasite burden in heart and blood, cellular and humoral immunity to parasite and self antigens, and mortality. R(+)WIN55,212 significantly reduced cardiac inflammation but led to considerably increased parasitaemia. Cardiac parasitosis and mortality were not significantly different in treatment and control groups. We conclude that cannabinoids can block cardiac cell puncture repair mechanisms, thereby inhibiting trypanosome invasion as predicted by the mode of drug action, but, also inhibit immune cell effector functions, offsetting the benefit of inhibition parasite cell invasion. Refined use of cannabinoids may prove therapeutic in the future, but our results raise concern about the effect of cannabis use on those chronically infected by T. cruzi and on heart cell homeostasis generally. PMID:16207246
Croxford, J Ludovic; Wang, Kegiang; Miller, Stephen D; Engman, David M; Tyler, Kevin M
A nonmajors course on emerging diseases served to introduce students to basic concepts in microbiology and to improve scientific literacy. The course used a range of learner-centered approaches to encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning. Evaluations demonstrated both student satisfaction and an increased understanding of important issues in microbiology.
FASS, MARION FIELD
The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in the United States, and minority populations in particular seem to be affected. In the past, it was thought that type 2 diabetes occurred only in adults. However, an alarming epidemic has emerged, and children as young as 8 years of age are now being diagnosed with the disease. The purpose of
Christine A. Brosnan; Sandra Upchurch; Barb Schreiner
Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, is an obligate intracellular parasite that invades various organs including several cell types in the nervous system that express the Trk receptor tyrosine kinase. Activation of Trk is a major cell-survival and repair mechanism, and parasites could use Trks to invade cells as a strategy to protect their habitat and prolong parasitism of vertebrate hosts. We show that T. cruzi binds to TrkA specifically and activates TrkA-dependent survival mechanisms. This interaction facilitates parasite adherence and promotes efficient invasion of neuronal, epithelial, and phagocytic cells via a process that requires TrkA kinase activity. Diffusible TrkA and TrkA-blocking agents neutralized infection in cellular and animal models of acute Chagas' disease, suggesting cellular receptors as therapeutic targets against parasitic diseases. Thus, TrkA, the nerve growth factor receptor commonly associated with neural survival and protection, may also underlie clinical progression of an important human parasitic disease. PMID:18005706
de Melo-Jorge, Milena; PereiraPerrin, Mercio
Genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic projects exemplify the "omics" era, and have significantly expanded available data for biomedical research. Recently, next generation sequencing technologies have even more greatly expanded DNA and RNA information. The present challenge is mining this information to obtain meaningful data such as that identifying novel drug targets and vaccine candidates. Several bioinformatics tools and new technologies have been used to high-throughput identification of potential candidates. We illustrate the utilization of new strategies in the study of two major parasitic diseases: schistosomiasis and malaria. PMID:23871773
Nóbrega de Sousa, Taís; de Menezes Neto, Armando; Alves de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira
Ectoparasitic diseases are endemic in many poor communities in north-east Brazil, and heavy infestation is frequent. We conducted two studies to assess disease perception and health care seeking behaviour in relation to parasitic skin diseases and to determine their public health importance. The first study comprised a representative cross-sectional survey of the population of a slum in north-east Brazil. Inhabitants were examined for the presence of scabies, tungiasis, pediculosis and cutaneous larva migrans (CLM). The second study assessed health care seeking behaviour related to these ectoparasitic diseases of patients attending a Primary Health Care Centre (PHCC) adjacent to the slum. Point prevalence rates in the community were: head lice 43.3% (95% CI: 40.5-46.3), tungiasis 33.6% (95% CI: 30.9-36.4), scabies 8.8% (95% CI: 7.3-10.6) and CLM 3.1% (95% CI: 2.2-4.3). Point prevalence rates of patients attending the PHCC were: head lice 38.2% (95% CI: 32.6-44.1), tungiasis 19.1% (95% CI: 14.7-24.1), scabies 18.8% (95% CI: 14.4-23.7) and CLM 2.1% (95% CI: 0.8-4.5). Only 28 of 54 patients with scabies, three of 55 patients with tungiasis, four of six patients with CLM and zero of 110 patients with head lice sought medical assistance. The physicians of the PHCC only diagnosed a parasitic skin disease when it was pointed out by the patient himself. In all cases patients were correctly informed about the ectoparasites they carried. The results show that tungiasis and pediculosis, and to a lesser extent scabies and CLM, are hyperendemic but neglected by both population and physicians, and that prevalence rates of tungiasis and scabies at the PHCC do not reflect the true prevalence of these diseases in the community. PMID:12667157
Heukelbach, Jörg; van Haeff, Evelien; Rump, Babette; Wilcke, Thomas; Moura, Rômulo César Sabóia; Feldmeier, Hermann
Using social representations theory this paper casts light on the pattern of content that characterises the public response to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID). The pattern is: distancing the disease from the self/ one's in-groups; blame of particular entities for the disease's origin and/or spread; and stigmatisation of those who have contracted it and/or who are represented as having intensified its spread. This pattern is not unique to EID but extends to many risks, making EID fruitful events for understanding public apprehension of potential dangers. This process may be driven by worry, fear and anxiety since when levels of these are low, as has arguably been the case with the 2009/10 "Swine Flu" pandemic, the pattern transforms. The distancing-blame-stigma pattern may also be transformed by growing reflexivity, a feature of late modern societies, as well as material features of the epidemic and "EID fatigue". PMID:21936260
Influenza virus infection is a common respiratory pathogen. Emerging of new atypical influenza is usually a big public health threat. H7N9 bird flu is the newest atypical influenza virus infection that has just been reported since early 2013. The emerging of this new disease occurred in China and becomes the present focus for possible worldwide pandemic. In this specific article, the author will discus and describe on epidemiology, symptomatology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this new bird flu. The literature researching by PubMed and Google is used for data gathering in this collective review.
Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P < 0.01) and field (P < 0.01) conditions. However, M. ornatum rate of reproduction increased significantly in pots receiving the lowest Pi level of 10 nematodes/plant compared with the pots receiving Pi levels of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nematodes 75 DAI. Plant-parasitic nematode populations were determined in commercial blueberry replant sites in Georgia and North Carolina during the 2010 growing season. Mesocriconema ornatum and Dolichodorus spp. were the predominant plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia and North Carolina, respectively, with M. ornatum occurring in nearly half the blueberry fields sampled in Georgia. Other nematode genera detected in both states included Tylenchorhynchus spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Hemicycliophora spp., and Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum and its relationship to BRD warrants further investigation. PMID:23833323
Jagdale, Ganpati B; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P M; Cline, W O; Agudelo, P; Nyczepir, A P; Noe, J P
The US National Center for Infectious Diseases, Center for Disease Control, offers the full text of its quarterly, peer reviewed journal Emerging Infectious Diseases at its web site. The issues are divided into three categories: Perspectives, dealing with the underlying causes of infectious disease emergence; Synopses, summaries of specific diseases; and Dispatches, "brief laboratory or epidemiologic reports with an international scope." The October-December 1996 issue contains articles on protecting against dangerous emerging pathogens, "Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Virulence," and Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease in the US, among others. Issues are available in HTML, ASCII, .pdf, and PostScript format. A limited number of issues are available in Spanish, French and Chinese.
A number of food- and waterborne parasitic diseases that are common in the United States can adversely impact women during pregnancy. Therapeutic considerations during pregnancy for these diseases are reviewed. Also, the level of knowledge of obstetrician-gynecologists about diagnosis and treatment of these diseases (toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, amebiasis, cyclosporiasis, trichinellosis, ascariasis, and taeniasis) was estimated by means of a questionnaire
Jeffrey L. Jones; Jay Schulkin; James H. Maguire
Environmental effects on the transmission of many parasitic diseases are well recognized, but the role of specific factors like climate and agricultural practices in modulating transmission is seldom characterized quantitatively. Based on studies of Schistosoma japonicum transmission in irrigated agricultural environments in western China, a mathematical model was used to quantify environmental impacts on transmission intensity. The model was calibrated by using field data from intervention studies in three villages and simulated to predict the effects of alternative control options. Both the results of these interventions and earlier epidemiological findings confirm the central role of environmental factors, particularly those relating to snail habitat and agricultural and sanitation practices. Moreover, the findings indicate the inadequacy of current niclosamide-praziquantel strategies alone to achieve sustainable interruption of transmission in some endemic areas. More generally, the analysis suggests a village-specific index of transmission potential and how this potential is modulated by time-varying factors, including climatological variables, seasonal water-contact patterns, and irrigation practices. These time-variable factors, a village's internal potential, and its connectedness to its neighbors provide a framework for evaluating the likelihood of sustained schistosomiasis transmission and suggest an approach to quantifying the role of environmental factors for other parasitic diseases.
Liang, Song; Seto, Edmund Y. W.; Remais, Justin V.; Zhong, Bo; Yang, Changhong; Hubbard, Alan; Davis, George M.; Gu, Xueguang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Spear, Robert C.
The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium
Robert E. Ricklefs; Sylvia M. Fallon
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic debilitating disorder affecting erythrocytes, which is especially prevalent throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and among individuals of African descent. Because malaria is thought to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SCD, malaria chemoprophylaxis is often recommended for these patients. In SCD, malaria chemoprophylaxis reduces malaria parasite count, anaemia and the need for blood transfusion, and improves clinical outcomes. However, the effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis in the setting of SCD is based on a few studies conducted prior to the emergence of widespread antimalarial drug resistance. Consequently, it is uncertain what the optimal strategy for managing patients with SCD in malarious areas should be. Despite the widespread use of hydroxyurea in non-malarious regions, little is known about its effect in malaria-endemic areas or on malaria-related outcomes. On the one hand, hydroxyurea upregulates intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), the cell surface receptor for adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, and theoretically, it could enhance parasite replication. On the other hand, hydroxyurea increases levels of foetal haemoglobin, which is protective against malaria. We explore what is currently known about the interactions between SCD and malaria and review the published literature on the efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis in SCD. We also consider alternative strategies, including hydroxyurea, in the reduction of malaria-associated morbidity and mortality in patients with SCD. PMID:23320577
Aneni, Ehimen C; Hamer, Davidson H; Gill, Christopher J
Zoonoses are estimated to make up to 75% of today's emerging infectious diseases. Many of these diseases are carried and transmitted by exotic pets and wildlife. Exotic animal practitioners must be aware of these risks not only to protect their health but also to safeguard the health of staff and clients. This article reviews selected bacterial and parasitic zoonoses associated
Marcy J. Souza
OBJECTIVE. To analyse outcomes of patients who underwent emergency gastrectomy for complicated peptic ulcer disease. DESIGN. Prognostic study on a historical cohort. SETTING. A regional hospital in Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Patients who underwent emergency gastrectomy from 2000 to 2009 in our hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Primary outcome measures were in-hospital mortality and the predictors of such deaths. Secondary outcome measures were 7-day mortality, 30-day mortality, and morbidities. RESULTS. In all, 112 patients had emergency gastrectomies performed for complicated peptic ulcer disease during the study period. In-hospital mortality was 30%. In the univariate analysis, old age, duodenal ulcer, failed primary surgery, gastrojejunostomy anastomosis for reconstruction, hand-sewn technique for duodenal stump closure, use of a sump drain, low haemoglobin level, preoperative blood transfusion, prolonged prothrombin time, and high creatinine or bilirubin levels were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. In the multivariate analysis, failed primary surgery, old age, and high creatinine level turned out to be independent risk factors. CONCLUSIONS. Emergency gastrectomy should be considered seriously as the primary treatment option in appropriately selected elderly patients, instead of salvage procedures to repair a perforation or control bleeding by plication. PMID:22865172
Cheng, Mina; Li, W H; Cheung, M T
Worldwide increases in human and wildlife diseases have challenged ecologists to understand how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earth's ecosystems is the alteration of global nutrient cycles, including those of phosphorus (P) and especially nitrogen (N). Along with the obvious direct benefits of nutrient application for food production, anthropogenic inputs of N and P can indirectly affect the abundance of infectious and noninfectious pathogens. The mechanisms underpinning observed correlations, however, and how such patterns vary with disease type, have long remained conjectural. Here, we highlight recent experimental advances to critically evaluate the relationship between environmental nutrient enrichment and disease. Given the interrelated nature of human and wildlife disease emergence, we include a broad range of human and wildlife examples from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. We examine the consequences of nutrient pollution on directly transmitted, vector-borne, complex life cycle, and noninfectious pathogens, including West Nile virus, malaria, harmful algal blooms, coral reef diseases, and amphibian malformations. Our synthetic examination suggests that the effects of environmental nutrient enrichment on disease are complex and multifaceted, varying with the type of pathogen, host species and condition, attributes of the ecosystem, and the degree of enrichment; some pathogens increase in abundance whereas others decline or disappear. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that ecological changes associated with nutrient enrichment often exacerbate infection and disease caused by generalist parasites with direct or simple life cycles. Observed mechanisms include changes in host/vector density, host distribution, infection resistance, pathogen virulence or toxicity, and the direct supplementation of pathogens. Collectively, these pathogens may be particularly dangerous because they can continue to cause mortality even as their hosts decline, potentially leading to sustained epidemics or chronic pathology. We suggest that interactions between nutrient enrichment and disease will become increasingly important in tropical and subtropical regions, where forecasted increases in nutrient application will occur in an environment rich with infectious pathogens. We emphasize the importance of careful disease management in conjunction with continued intensification of global nutrient cycles. PMID:20349828
Johnson, Pieter T J; Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C; Glibert, Patricia M; Howarth, Robert W; McKenzie, Valerie J; Rejmankova, Eliska; Ward, Mary H
Emergency vaccination is one of several measures which may be deployed to control outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease. It can be a valuable adjunct to the application of the essential zoosanitary controls which must include rapid diagnosis, tracing, movement control and disinfection and which may also include slaughter of infected and in-contact animals and their safe disposal. Criteria which determine the
P. Barnett; A. J. M. Garland; R. P. Kitching; C. G. Schermbrucker
Nonpathogenic bacteria in a genetically susceptible individual play a suggestive role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics are living organisms that exert a protective effect on intestinal mucosa. Although evidence supporting their use for inducing or maintaining remission of IBD remains limited, it may be reasonable to use probiotics as an adjunct to standard therapy for mild-to-moderate disease. Genetically modified probiotics may provide novel delivery methods of therapeutic payloads to inflamed intestinal mucosa. This review focuses on the emerging use of probiotics in the treatment of IBD.
Chandler, Matthew; Wollins, Eric; Toles, Anastasia; Borum, Marie
Background The control of emergence and spread of infectious diseases depends critically on the details of the genetic makeup of pathogens and hosts, their immunological, behavioral and ecological traits, and the pattern of temporal and spatial contacts among the age/stage-classes of susceptible and infectious host individuals. Methods and Findings We show that failing to acknowledge the existence of heterogeneities in the transmission rate among age/stage-classes can make traditional eradication and control strategies ineffective, and in some cases, policies aimed at controlling pathogen emergence can even increase disease incidence in the host. When control strategies target for reduction in numbers those subsets of the population that effectively limit the production of new susceptible individuals, then control can produce a flush of new susceptibles entering the population. The availability of a new cohort of susceptibles may actually increase disease incidence. We illustrate these general points using Classical Swine Fever as a reference disease. Conclusion Negative effects of culling are robust to alternative formulations of epidemiological processes and underline the importance of better assessing transmission structure in the design of wildlife disease control strategies.
Bolzoni, Luca; Real, Leslie; De Leo, Giulio
The increasing threat of infectious diseases in humans has renewed interest in factors leading to the emergence of new diseases and the re-emergence of familiar diseases. Examples of seemingly novel diseases currently spreading in human populations include HIV, dengue hemorrhagic fever and Lyme disease; drug-resistant forms of well-known diseases such as tuberculosis are also increasing. The problem of disease emergence
Stephanie J. Schrag; Pamela Wiener
We present a synthesis of empirical and theoretical work investigating how parasites influence competitive and predatory interactions between other species. We examine the direct and indirect effects of parasitism and discuss examples of density and parasite-induced trait-mediated effects. Recent work reveals previously unrecognized complexity in parasite-mediated interactions. In addition to parasite-modified and apparent competition leading to species exclusion or enabling coexistence, parasites and predators interact in different ways to regulate or destablize the population dynamics of their joint prey. An emerging area is the impact of parasites on intraguild predation (IGP). Parasites can increase vulnerability of infected individuals to cannibalism or predation resulting in reversed species dominance in IGP hierarchies. We discuss the potential significance of parasites for community structure and biodiversity, in particular their role in promoting species exclusion or coexistence and the impact of emerging diseases. Ongoing invasions provide examples where parasites mediate native/invader interactions and play a key role in determining the outcome of invasions. We highlight the need for more quantitative data to assess the impact of parasites on communities, and the combination of theoretical and empirical studies to examine how the effects of parasitism scale up to community-level processes. PMID:17040328
Hatcher, Melanie J; Dick, Jaimie T A; Dunn, Alison M
A survey of infectious and parasitic diseases of stray cats was carried out using biological samples collected from animals captured during a catch-neuter-release programme in four counties of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. The main objective was to investigate the potential threat of stray cats for animal and public health. Samples of blood, stool, hair and auricular swabs were collected from 231 cats in 27 colonies. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in 47/194 samples (24.2%); anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in 1/180 cats (0.6%); intestinal parasites in 23/74 samples (Toxocara cati, Isospora felis, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Dipylidium caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina) and Otodectes cynotis in 4/182 cats (2.2%); dermatophyte fungi were isolated in 40/136 samples (29.4%); feline immunodeficiency virus antibodies were detected in 23/226 samples (10.2%); feline leukaemia virus antigen in 14/198 samples (7.1%); and feline coronavirus RNA in 9/127 samples (7.1%). Our results revealed that zoonotic agents, namely dermatophyte fungi and Toxocara cati were present in stray cat colonies in the investigated counties. Overall the low frequency of major pathogens suggests a balanced relationship between host and agents. PMID:20466573
Duarte, Ana; Castro, Isabel; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel M; Almeida, Virgilio; Madeira de Carvalho, Luis M; Meireles, José; Fazendeiro, Maria I; Tavares, Luis; Vaz, Yolanda
Heterophyidiasis is an infection of the small bowel by minute intestinal flukes of the genus Heterophyes or related members of the family Heterophyidae. To provide a better understanding of this rarely reported condition, this study attempted to determine the infection rate, intensity of infection as well as the clinical spectrum of heterophyid infection. A stool survey was conducted in barangay San Isidro, Monkayo, Compostela Valley. Thirty-six percent of patients with history of bowel disturbance (abdominal discomfort/pain and/or diarrhea) in the past 4 weeks were found to have heterophyidiasis. All age groups were infected, with the youngest patient being 1 year 7 months of age, while the oldest patient was 73 years of age. Prevalence was highest in the 15 to 30 years old group at 55.3%. The most common clinical manifestations of heterophyidiasis were signs and symptoms of acid peptic or peptic ulcer disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to ensure prompt resolution of heterophyid infection, hence, decreased morbidity and decreased chances for complications like heart or brain involvement. Proficiency of laboratory staff should be enhanced to ensure accurate diagnosis which will then make appropriate treatment possible. PMID:12041601
Belizario, V Y; Bersabe, M J; de Leon, W U; Hilomen, V Y; Paller, G V; de Guzman, A D; Bugayon, M G
The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is thought to have contributed to many of the recent alarming declines in amphibian populations. Mortalities associated with these declines have often occurred during cooler seasons and at high elevations, suggesting that environmental temperature may be an important factor in disease emergence. We found that thermal environment affects the progress of the disease, and that housing frogs Litoria chloris at an environmental temperature of 37 degrees C for less than 16 h can clear them of the chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Our experiment demonstrated that elevated body temperatures similar to those experienced in behavioral fever and during normal thermoregulation can clear frogs of chytrid infection; therefore, variation in thermoregulatory opportunities and behaviors are likely to contribute to the differences in disease incidence observed among host species, populations, and regions. Although further refinement of the technique is needed to encompass various host species, appropriately applied thermal manipulations of amphibians and their enclosures may prove to be a safe and effective way of eliminating the fungal pathogen from captive amphibian populations and: preventing accidental spread of the pathogen when animals are translocated or released from captivity. PMID:12887256
Woodhams, Douglas C; Alford, Ross A; Marantelli, Gerry
BackgroundIatrogenic infection of humans with Trichuris suis (a parasitic nematode of swine) is being evaluated or promoted as a biological, curative treatment of immune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and ulcerative colitis, in humans. Although it is understood that short-term T. suis infection in people with such diseases usually induces a modified Th2-immune response, nothing is known about
Cinzia Cantacessi; Neil D. Young; Peter Nejsum; Aaron R. Jex; Bronwyn E. Campbell; Ross S. Hall; Stig M. Thamsborg; Jean-Pierre Scheerlinck; Robin B. Gasser
The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis - lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles - becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially.
Michael, Edwin; Malecela, Mwele N.; Zervos, Mihail; Kazura, James W.
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is an IL-10 family cytokine member that was recently discovered to be mainly produced by Th17 cells. Previous studies have indicated the importance of IL-22 in host defense against Gram-negative bacterial organisms (in gut and lung). Recently, there is emerging evidence that IL-22 is involved in the development and pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and psoriasis. Therapeutics targeting IL-22 therefore may have promise for treating various autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss the recent progression of the involvement of IL-22 in the development and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, as well as its clinical implications and therapeutic potential. PMID:22906768
Pan, Hai-Feng; Li, Xiang-Pei; Zheng, Song Guo; Ye, Dong-Qing
The disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has caused dramatic amphibian population declines and extinctions in Australia, Central and North America, and Europe. Bd is associated with >200 species extinctions of amphibians, but not all species that become infected are susceptible to the disease. Specifically, Bd has rapidly emerged in some areas of the world, such as in Australia, USA, and throughout Central and South America, causing population and species collapse. The mechanism behind the rapid global emergence of the disease is poorly understood, in part due to an incomplete picture of the global distribution of Bd. At present, there is a considerable amount of geographic bias in survey effort for Bd, with Asia being the most neglected continent. To date, Bd surveys have been published for few Asian countries, and infected amphibians have been reported only from Indonesia, South Korea, China and Japan. Thus far, there have been no substantiated reports of enigmatic or suspected disease-caused population declines of the kind that has been attributed to Bd in other areas. In order to gain a more detailed picture of the distribution of Bd in Asia, we undertook a widespread, opportunistic survey of over 3,000 amphibians for Bd throughout Asia and adjoining Papua New Guinea. Survey sites spanned 15 countries, approximately 36° latitude, 111° longitude, and over 2000 m in elevation. Bd prevalence was very low throughout our survey area (2.35% overall) and infected animals were not clumped as would be expected in epizootic events. This suggests that Bd is either newly emerging in Asia, endemic at low prevalence, or that some other ecological factor is preventing Bd from fully invading Asian amphibians. The current observed pattern in Asia differs from that in many other parts of the world.
Swei, Andrea; Rowley, Jodi J. L.; Rodder, Dennis; Diesmos, Mae L. L.; Diesmos, Arvin C.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brown, Rafe; Cao, Trung Tien; Cheng, Tina L.; Chong, Rebecca A.; Han, Ben; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hoang, Huy Duc; Kusrini, Mirza D.; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Min, Mi-Sook; Mulcahy, Daniel G.; Neang, Thy; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Rao, Ding-Qi; Reeder, Natalie M.; Schoville, Sean D.; Sivongxay, Niane; Srei, Narin; Stock, Matthias; Stuart, Bryan L.; Torres, Lilia S.; Tran, Dao Thi Anh; Tunstall, Tate S.; Vieites, David; Vredenburg, Vance T.
An exhaustive review on the organic illnesses presenting with psychiatric manifestations, properly defined pseudopsychiatric emergencies, is presented. A systematic classification of the numerous organic causes of psychiatric disorders, based on authors' experience and literature revision, is carefully analysed, and their suitable diagnostic management in emergency setting is proposed. Moreover, the role of bedside ultrasonography in Emergency Department is emphasized. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are separately discussed. A particular significance is given to "neuropsychological studies", displaying the complex connection between the central nervous system and the endocrine system. The role of immune system in influencing the central nervous system, explaining the model of "sickness behaviour" in inflammatory disease, is also described, according to recent reports of "psychoneuroimmunology". Moreover, the immune-mediated mechanism explaining how neoplasm can influence brain function in the "paraneoplastic syndromes" is shown. In order to facilitate the teaching method, organic illnesses presenting with acute psychic manifestations or mimicking specific psychiatric disorders are subdivided into three groups: (1) Endocrine and metabolic disorders and deficiency states; (2) Internal diseases; (3) Neurologic disorders. PMID:23436670
Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Daini, S; Bernardini, L; Petrongolo, L; Gentiloni Silveri, N
Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are parasitized by the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha throughout their geographical range. Monarchs inhabiting seasonally fluctuating environments migrate annually, and parasite prevalence is lower among migratory relative to non-migratory populations. One explanation for this pattern is that long-distance migration weeds out infected animals, thus reducing parasite prevalence and transmission between generations. In this study we experimentally infected
Catherine A. Bradley; Altizer Sonia
The paper describes the epizootic situation associated with parasitic diseases in dogs and cats in the megapolis of Moscow. The situation becomes particular dangerous in the dogs kept in the flats of the city's dwellers wherein 30 (28%) out of the 107 dogs examined have been found to be infested with T. canis, T. leonine, T. vulpis, Taenia sp., D. caninum, and two protozoan species: Cystoisospora canis and C. ohioenensis. Out of the 80 cats examined, there are 22 (27.5%) infested cats. T. mystax, T. leonine, Taenia sp., and Cystoisospora felis are detectable in this group of the animals. This situation constitutes a serious hazard in the infection of the city's population with zoonoses. PMID:17436724
Sergiev, V P; Uspenski?, A V; Gorokhov, V V; Romanenko, N A; Novosel'tsev, G I; Peshkov, R A; Guzeeva, M V
In support of a project on porcine cysticercosis in Tanzania, an educational video was prepared to inform the rural communities on the health risks and prevention of the parasitic disease. This paper describes the process involved in making the video, especially the importance of establishing a good understanding between veterinary public health officials and the video producer. Important steps in the process include determining the target audience, the film's core message, the construction of the "story", script development, the filming and editing activities, and, importantly, the development of strategies for production and use of the film as extension material. Suggestions on logistical and technical aspects of filming and viewing are also discussed. The experience gained in Tanzania will be of value to others planning similar projects elsewhere. PMID:12781393
Vaccination, when available, is undoubtedly the most cost-effective means of preventing and controlling, and even eradicating, infectious diseases. In recent years vaccination has also been used for other purposes in animal health, production and welfare, e.g. immunocastration. Vaccination of animals serves many different purposes, such as controlling animal infections and infestations, thus improving animal health and welfare; controlling anthropozoonoses and food poisoning in humans, thereby protecting public health; solving problems associated with antibiotic and anthelmintic resistance; helping to leave food-producing animals free of chemical residues; protecting the environment and biodiversity and ensuring animal farming sustainability. The problem is nevertheless more complex when facing emerging or re-emerging infections particularly zoonotic ones. PMID:19559117
The aim of the study was to assess the quantity and nature of emergencies affecting adults with congenital cardiac disease (CCD) and evaluate infrastructural requirements for adequate management. There is an increasing number of adults with CCD requiring specialized complex care. This multicenter study evaluated all emergency admissions to 1 of 5 centers for adults with CCD within 1 year. Within 1 year, there were 1,033 admissions of adults with CCD, and 201 (160 patients; age 16 to 71 years) were emergencies. Underlying cardiac anomalies were univentricular heart (22%), complete transposition (14%), tetralogy of Fallot (21%), and others (43%). Seventy percent of patients had undergone previous cardiac surgery. The main reason for acute admission was cardiovascular (arrhythmia, heart failure, syncope, aortic dissection, and endocarditis). Diagnostic procedures most often assigned were echocardiography (n = 223), chest x-ray (n = 95), Holter electrocardiography (n = 85), cardiac catheterization/electrophysiologic study (n = 39), and others (n = 143). Forty-six patients underwent surgery (cardiovascular n = 41, general n = 5) or electrophysiologic treatment (n = 41). One hundred twenty-six of 201 emergencies (63%) required cooperation with another specialized department: surgery (n = 46), internal medicine (n = 42), neurology (n = 12), ophthalmology (n = 6), otorhinolaryngology (n = 5), gynecology (n = 5), psychiatry (n = 4), radiology (n = 3), dermatology (n = 2), and orthopedics (n = 2). In conclusion, physicians and consultants attending adult patients with CCD need a high degree of specialized experience concerning the cardiac anomaly to manage emergencies properly. Furthermore, a wide range of noncardiac diagnostic and therapeutic procedures must be available. Data support the demand for a multidisciplinary approach in specialized centers for adequate care of adults with CCD. PMID:18312770
Kaemmerer, Harald; Bauer, Ulrike; Pensl, Ulrike; Oechslin, Erwin; Gravenhorst, Verena; Franke, Andreas; Hager, Alfred; Balling, Gunter; Hauser, Michael; Eicken, Andreas; Hess, John
Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important factor in determining the clinical outcome of leishmaniasis.
Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fatima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Luis C. C.
The surgical management of urolithiasis has undergone a remarkable clinical evolution over the past three decades. The once common practice of open stone surgery has nearly been relegated to historical interest by modern technology. The introduction of minimally invasive techniques, laparoscopy and robot-assisted surgery, have emerged to complete the urologist's armamentarium. The benefits to patients when other endourologic procedures have failed include less pain, shorter hospitalization and convalescence, and improved cosmesis. This chapter explores the historical shift from open to minimally invasive management for stone disease and the unique risks and outcomes associated with these procedures in modern urology. PMID:23177639
Humphreys, Mitchell R
Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: The discovery that bats are the reservoir hosts of the coronavirus that causes SARS in humans raises important questions about how we monitor and control emergent disease outbreaks. In his Perspective, Dobson focuses on the need to know more about the distribution of pathogens in their natural reservoir hosts and asks whether the absence of pathology that characterizes these relationships may reflect subtle differences in the immune responses of bats.
Andrew P. Dobson (Princeton University;Ecology and Evolutionary Biology)
Soil management practices were examined for their effects on plant parasitic nematodes and soilborne diseases of field grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum). Replicated field plots were established on a diversified organic vegetable farm that had been under certification for 5 years and on a conventi...
The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994-Dec. 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, that set on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia, in Augus...
The life history of the nematode parasites of domestic ruminants usually involves the development and survival of free-living stages on pasture. The pasture is, therefore, the site of deposition, development and transmission of nematode infection and meteorological factors affecting the pasture will affect the parasites. Recently Thomas and Starr (1978) discussed an empirical technique for forecasting the timing of the summer wave of gastro-intestinal parasitism in North-East England in the lamb crop using meteorological data and in particular estimates of the duration of “surface wetness”. This paper presents an attempt to model “surface wetness” and the temperature limitation to nematode development.
Starr, J. R.; Thomas, R. J.
An increased susceptibility to disease is one hypothesis explaining how inbreeding hastens extinction in island endemics and threatened species. Experimental studies show that disease resistance declines as inbreeding increases, but data from in situ wildlife systems are scarce. Genetic diversity increases with island size across the entire range of an extremely inbred Galápagos endemic bird, providing the context for a natural experiment examining the effects of inbreeding on disease susceptibility. Extremely inbred populations of Galápagos hawks had higher parasite abundances than relatively outbred populations. We found a significant island effect on constitutively produced natural antibody (NAb) levels and inbred populations generally harboured lower average and less variable NAb levels than relatively outbred populations. Furthermore, NAb levels explained abundance of amblyceran lice, which encounter the host immune system. This is the first study linking inbreeding, innate immunity and parasite load in an endemic, in situ wildlife population and provides a clear framework for assessment of disease risk in a Galápagos endemic.
Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Matson, Kevin D; Bollmer, Jennifer L; Parker, Patricia G
A synthetic glycoarray containing non-reducing ?-galactopyranosyl moieties related to mucin O-glycans of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated by a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with sera from patients with chronic Chagas disease. Our data revealed the disaccharide Gal?(1,3)Gal? as the immunodominant glycotope, which may eventually be employed as a diagnostic antigen for Chagas disease. PMID:23863943
Ashmus, Roger A; Schocker, Nathaniel S; Cordero-Mendoza, Yanira; Marques, Alexandre F; Monroy, Erika Y; Pardo, Andrew; Izquierdo, Luis; Gállego, Montserrat; Gascon, Joaquim; Almeida, Igor C; Michael, Katja
The world wide spread of emerging and re-emerging infections caused by increased mobility and trade, changes in biodiversity and genetic changes of pathogens demand a global disease control based on a reliable diagnostic system. The main front-line techniques used nowadays in a cen- ter for disease control are molecularbiology, serology, virus isolation and microscopy particularly EM. Especially the combination of
China has experienced an epidemiological transition shifting from the infectious to the chronic diseases in much shorter time than many other countries. The pace and spread of behavioural changes, including changing diets, decreased physical activity, high rates of male smoking, and other high risk behaviours, has accelerated to an unprecedented degree. As a result, the burden of chronic diseases, preventable morbidity and mortality, and associated health-care costs could now increase substantially. China already has 177 million adults with hypertension; furthermore, 303 million adults smoke, which is a third of the world's total number of smokers, and 530 million people in China are passively exposed to second-hand smoke. The prevalence of overweight people and obesity is increasing in Chinese adults and children, because of dietary changes and reduced physical activity. Emergence of chronic diseases presents special challenges for China's ongoing reform of health care, given the large numbers who require curative treatment and the narrow window of opportunity for timely prevention of disease. PMID:18930526
Yang, Gonghuan; Kong, Lingzhi; Zhao, Wenhua; Wan, Xia; Zhai, Yi; Chen, Lincoln C; Koplan, Jeffrey P
Introduction Inflammation has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. C-reactive protein is an established nonspecific prognostic inflammatory biomarker for patients with acute coronary syndrome in the medical literature. This has led to a concerted effort to identify circulating inflammatory biomarkers to facilitate predicting the risk for and diagnosing coronary artery disease in at-risk subjects. The objective of this study was to search after novel inflammatory biomarkers reported as useful for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Methods The PubMed database was searched for reports published from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2012 of novel circulating biomarkers for coronary artery disease in addition to the established biomarker, C-reactive protein. The search terms used were “infarction”, “biomarkers”, and “markers”, and only original articles describing clinical trials that were written in English were included. All published articles were separately examined carefully after novel inflammatory markers for acute coronary syndrome. All irrelevant publications without content pertaining to inflammatory biomarkers for acute coronary syndrome were excluded from this study. Our results reflect all articles concerning biomarkers in humans. Results The PubMed search yielded 4,415 research articles. After further analysis, all relevant published original articles examining 53 biomarkers were included in this review, which identified 46 inflammation biomarkers useful for detecting coronary artery disease. Conclusion The emergence of diverse novel biomarkers for coronary artery disease has provided insight into the varied pathophysiology of this disease. Inflammatory biomarkers have tremendous potential in aiding the prediction of acute coronary syndrome and recurrent ischemic episodes, and will eventually help improve patient care and management.
By using the criteria that define emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of humans, we can identify a similar group of EIDs in wildlife. In the current review we highlight an important series of wildlife EIDs: amphibian chytridiomycosis; diseases of marine invertebrates and vertebrates and two recently-emerged viral zoonoses, Nipah virus disease and West Nile virus disease. These exemplify the varied etiology,
P. Daszak; A. A. Cunningham; A. D. Hyatt
Biosecurity issues as they impact on agriculture, health and the environment are becoming increasingly important. Surveillance is crucial in maintaining a country's biosecurity and this article looks at some of the issues in the context of Australia and its neighbors in the Asia–Pacific region, and emerging threats from parasitic diseases. The important threats to agriculture, public health and wildlife are
R. C. Andrew Thompson; Ifor L. Owen; Ilagi Puana; David Banks; Timothy M. E. Davis; Simon A Reid
Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163
Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo
Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales.
Moleon, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Sanchez-Zapata, Jose A.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain associated with memory impairment, progressive cognitive decline and changes in personality and behavior, with rising incidence among elderly people. Reflecting the world population ageing, the scenario is expected to worsen in the next decades if novel drugs or mechanisms that help to counteract neurodegeneration will not be identified. The complex neuropathology of AD is characterized by cholinergic loss, extracellular deposition of amyloid-? plaques, formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, chronic brain inflammation and oxidative damage. To date, there are no effective treatments that can slow or halt the disease, and currently approved drugs only seem to act as palliative by temporary ameliorating cognitive impairment. On the other hand, the role played by other biological systems in the pathogenetic process is now clearly growing and, as knowledge on how AD develops and triggers brain damage proceeds, drug discovery attempts to identify new potential therapeutic targets. This review will focus on these emerging strategies, some of which could open new therapeutic perspectives in Alzheimer's disease, adding new elements for the medicinal chemist to handle and combine for the design of novel multi-target-directed ligands able to simultaneously modulate 'old classic' and newly identified targets. PMID:23931436
Rampa, Angela; Gobbi, Silvia; Belluti, Federica; Bisi, Alessandra
The epidemiology of foodborne disease is changing. New pathogens have emerged, and some have spread worldwide. Many, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica, have reservoirs in healthy food animals, from which they spread to an increasing variety of foods. These pathogens cause millions of cases of sporadic illness and chronic complications, as well as large and challenging outbreaks over many states and nations. Improved surveillance that combines rapid subtyping methods, cluster identification, and collaborative epidemiologic investigation can identify and halt large, dispersed outbreaks. Outbreak investigations and case-control studies of sporadic cases can identify sources of infection and guide the development of specific prevention strategies. Better understanding of how pathogens persist in animal reservoirs is also critical to successful long-term prevention. In the past, the central challenge of foodborne disease lay in preventing the contamination of human food with sewage or animal manure. In the future, prevention of foodborne disease will increasingly depend on controlling contamination of feed and water consumed by the animals themselves.
Tauxe, R. V.
We have analyzed the activities of the antifolates pyrimethamine (PM), chlorcycloguanil (CCG), WR99210, trimethoprim (TMP), methotrexate (MTX), and trimetrexate (TMX) against Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum isolates adapted in vitro for long-term culture. We have also assessed the relationship between these drug activities and mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), a domain of the gene associated with antifolate resistance. As expected, WR99210 was the most potent drug, with a median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of <0.075 nM, followed by TMX, with a median IC50 of 30 nM. The median IC50 of CCG was 37.80 nM, and that of MTX was 83.60 nM. PM and TMP were the least active drugs, with median IC50s of 733.26 nM and 29,656.04 nM, respectively. We analyzed parasite dhfr genotypes by the PCR-enzyme restriction technique. No wild-type dhfr parasite was found. Twenty-four of 33 parasites were triple mutants (mutations at codons 108, 51, and 59), and only 8/33 were double mutants (mutations at codons 108 and 51 or at codons 108 and 59). IC50s were 2.1-fold (PM) and 3.6-fold (TMP) higher in triple than in double mutants, though these differences were not statistically significant. Interestingly, we have identified a parasite harboring a mutation at codon 164 (Ile-164-Leu) in addition to mutations at codons 108, 51, and 59. This quadruple mutant parasite had the highest TMP IC50 and was in the upper 10th percentile against PM and CCG. We confirmed the presence of this mutation by sequencing. Thus, TMX and MTX are potent against P. falciparum, and quadruple mutants are now emerging in Africa.
Kiara, Steven M.; Okombo, John; Masseno, Victor; Mwai, Leah; Ochola, Isabella; Borrmann, Steffen; Nzila, Alexis
We have analyzed the activities of the antifolates pyrimethamine (PM), chlorcycloguanil (CCG), WR99210, trimethoprim (TMP), methotrexate (MTX), and trimetrexate (TMX) against Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum isolates adapted in vitro for long-term culture. We have also assessed the relationship between these drug activities and mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), a domain of the gene associated with antifolate resistance. As expected, WR99210 was the most potent drug, with a median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of <0.075 nM, followed by TMX, with a median IC50 of 30 nM. The median IC50 of CCG was 37.80 nM, and that of MTX was 83.60 nM. PM and TMP were the least active drugs, with median IC50s of 733.26 nM and 29,656.04 nM, respectively. We analyzed parasite dhfr genotypes by the PCR-enzyme restriction technique. No wild-type dhfr parasite was found. Twenty-four of 33 parasites were triple mutants (mutations at codons 108, 51, and 59), and only 8/33 were double mutants (mutations at codons 108 and 51 or at codons 108 and 59). IC50s were 2.1-fold (PM) and 3.6-fold (TMP) higher in triple than in double mutants, though these differences were not statistically significant. Interestingly, we have identified a parasite harboring a mutation at codon 164 (Ile-164-Leu) in addition to mutations at codons 108, 51, and 59. This quadruple mutant parasite had the highest TMP IC50 and was in the upper 10th percentile against PM and CCG. We confirmed the presence of this mutation by sequencing. Thus, TMX and MTX are potent against P. falciparum, and quadruple mutants are now emerging in Africa. PMID:19528269
Kiara, Steven M; Okombo, John; Masseno, Victor; Mwai, Leah; Ochola, Isabella; Borrmann, Steffen; Nzila, Alexis
...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease...and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging Infections Sentinel Network (EISN...the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
More than 40 species of marine fishes are cultured in China and a wide variety of parasites are reported as lethal pathogens of these fishes in culture conditions. In the case of net cages, the culture facil- ities provides a good substrate for monogenean eggs to become entangled and the intensive aggregation of fishes facilitates the transmission of parasites between
T. B. Yang; A. P. Chen; W. Chen; A. X. Li; Y. Y. Yan
Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more) for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%). Deliverability, acceptability to health workers, end users and the effect on equity were all seen as highly likely (~ 90%). In terms of the maximum potential impact on meningitis disease burden, the median potential effectiveness of the vaccines in reduction of overall meningitis mortality was estimated to be 20%; (interquartile range 20-40% and min. 8%, max 50 %). For the multivalent meningococcal vaccines the experts had similar optimism for most of the 12 CHNRI criteria with slightly lower optimism in answerability and low development cost criteria. The main concern was expressed over the cost of product, its affordability and cost of implementation. Conclusions With increasing recognition of the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially during epidemics in Africa, it is vitally important that strategies are taken to reduce the morbidity and mortality attributable to this disease. Improved MC vaccines are a promising investment that could substantially contribute to reduction of child meningitis mortality world-wide.
An increasing number of scientists have recently raised concerns about the threat posed by human intervention on the evolution of parasites and disease agents. New parasites (including pathogens) keep emerging and parasites which previously were considered to be ‘under control’ are re-emerging, sometimes in highly virulent forms. This re-emergence may be parasite evolution, driven by human activity, including ecological changes related to modern agricultural practices. Intensive farming creates conditions for parasite growth and transmission drastically different from what parasites experience in wild host populations and may therefore alter selection on various traits, such as life-history traits and virulence. Although recent epidemic outbreaks highlight the risks associated with intensive farming practices, most work has focused on reducing the short-term economic losses imposed by parasites, such as application of chemotherapy. Most of the research on parasite evolution has been conducted using laboratory model systems, often unrelated to economically important systems. Here, we review the possible evolutionary consequences of intensive farming by relating current knowledge of the evolution of parasite life-history and virulence with specific conditions experienced by parasites on farms. We show that intensive farming practices are likely to select for fast-growing, early-transmitted, and hence probably more virulent parasites. As an illustration, we consider the case of the fish farming industry, a branch of intensive farming which has dramatically expanded recently and present evidence that supports the idea that intensive farming conditions increase parasite virulence. We suggest that more studies should focus on the impact of intensive farming on parasite evolution in order to build currently lacking, but necessary bridges between academia and decision-makers.
Nilsen, Frank; Ebert, Dieter; Skorping, Arne
Identifying the roles of different hosts and vectors is a major challenge in the study of the ecology of diseases caused by multi-host pathogens. Intensive field studies suggested that grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster) help spread the bacterium that causes plague (Yersinia pestis) in prairie dog colonies by sharing fleas with prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus); yet conclusive evidence that prairie dog fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta) feed on grasshopper mice is lacking. Using stable nitrogen isotope analysis, we determined that many blood-engorged O. hirsuta collected from wild grasshopper mice apparently contained blood meals of prairie dogs. These results suggest that grasshopper mice may be infected with Y. pestis via mechanisms other than flea feeding, e.g., early phase or mechanical transmission or scavenging carcasses, and raise questions about the ability of grasshopper mice to maintain Y. pestis in prairie dog colonies during years between plague outbreaks. They also indicate that caution may be warranted when inferring feeding relationships based purely on the occurrence of fleas or other haematophagous ectoparasites on hosts. Stable-isotope analysis may complement or provide a useful alternative to immunological or molecular techniques for identifying hosts of cryptically feeding ectoparasites, and for clarifying feeding relationships in studies of host-parasite interactions. PMID:19967881
Stapp, Paul; Salkeld, Daniel J
Sea lampreys from the Lake Huron basin carried no external parasites and showed a fairly low degree of infection by internal parasites. The material examined represented three life-history stages of the sea lamprey. Recently transformed downstream migrants (215 specimens) harbored only nematodes belonging to the genus Camallanus. The percentage of infection was 2.3. Active feeders from the lake (29 lampreys) revealed the highest degree of parasitism (31.0 percent) with the following parasites present: Echinorhynchus coregoni Linkins; Triaenophorus crasses Forel; and Camallanus sp. Among the 257 sexually mature upstream migrants (14.8 percent infected) Echinorhynchus coregoni and E. leidyi Van Cleave were the most common. Only occasional nematodes and cestodes were found, which fact indicates a failure of the lamprey to carry these parasites to the end of its natural life. Of the parasites observed, only the nematodes gave evidence of serious damage to the host. The study suggests that the role played by parasites in the natural control of the sea lamprey in its new habitat in the upper Great Lakes is of minor importance.
McLain, Alberton L.
The determination of mean intensity of parasitism for colony-forming sessile protozoan such as Epistylis has been a great problem in parasitological studies. Some alternatives have been proposed by researchers for laboratory and field conditions. This study describes the criteria to establish the parasitic intensity score for epistylidid infestation in fish. Parasite distribution and the host-parasite relationship in four species of Brazilian cultured catfish and their hybrids are discussed. The highest prevalence rates were found in the hybrid jundiara, Leiarius marmoratus male × Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum female (96.4 %), followed by jurupoca, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (60 %), and the hybrid surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans male × P. reticulatum female (52.7 %). Positive correlation between parasitic intensity score and the fish size, weight, and relative condition factor were also observed. These findings indicate that Epistylis infestation in Brazilian catfish is an emerging disease in cultured fish. PMID:22890898
de Pádua, Santiago Benites; Ishikawa, Márcia Mayumi; Ventura, Arlene Sobrinho; Jerônimo, Gabriela Tomas; Martins, Maurício Laterça; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland
Summary Invasive strains of non-typhoidal salmonellae have emerged as a prominent cause of bloodstream infection in African adults and children, with an associated case fatality of 20–25%. The clinical presentation of invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease in Africa is diverse: fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and respiratory symptoms are common, and features of enterocolitis are often absent. The most important risk factors are HIV infection in adults, and malaria, HIV, and malnutrition in children. A distinct genotype of Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium, ST313, has emerged as a new pathogenic clade in sub-Saharan Africa, and might have adapted to cause invasive disease in human beings. Multidrug-resistant ST313 has caused epidemics in several African countries, and has driven the use of expensive antimicrobial drugs in the poorest health services in the world. Studies of systemic cellular and humoral immune responses in adults infected with HIV have revealed key host immune defects contributing to invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease. This emerging pathogen might therefore have adapted to occupy an ecological and immunological niche provided by HIV, malaria, and malnutrition in Africa. A good understanding of the epidemiology of this neglected disease will open new avenues for development and implementation of vaccine and public health strategies to prevent infections and interrupt transmission.
Feasey, Nicholas A; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A
The parasite-stress model of human sociality proposes that humans' ontogenetic experiences with infectious diseases as well as their evolutionary historical interactions with these diseases exert causal influences on human psychology and social behavior. This model has been supported by cross-national relationships between parasite prevalence and human personality traits, and between parasite prevalence and societal values. Importantly, the parasite-stress model emphasizes the causal role of non-zoonotic parasites (which have the capacity for human-to-human transmission), rather than zoonotic parasites (which do not), but previous studies failed to distinguish between these conceptually distinct categories. The present investigation directly tested the differential predictive effects of zoonotic and non-zoonotic (both human-specific and multihost) parasite prevalence on personality traits and societal values. Supporting the parasite-stress model, cross-national differences in personality traits (unrestricted sexuality, extraversion, openness to experiences) and in societal values (individualism, collectivism, gender equality, democratization) are predicted specifically by non-zoonotic parasite prevalence. PMID:22947787
Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L; Murray, Damian R; Schaller, Mark
The monthly administration of broad-spectrum heartworm medications can effectively prevent a variety of internal and external parasitic diseases in cats. Although not every parasite can be stopped, many of the common feline parasites are susceptible to these agents. This article discusses the epidemiology and prevention strategies for those parasites that can be controlled by the administration of ivermectin, milbemycin oxime, or selamectin, either alone or in conjunction with an external parasiticide. PMID:16299672
Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A
Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in naive populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino
Milton Friend; Robert G. McLean; F. Joshua Dein
Context Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited hematological disease marked by intense pain. Early in life the pain is episodic, but it becomes increasingly chronic in many cases. Little is known about this emergence of a chronic pain state. Objectives The goal of this study was to determine whether adult SCD patients whose pain is still largely episodic show early signs of the disturbed pain processing (hyperalgesia, increased temporal summation) and cognition (hypervigilance and catastrophizing) that are characteristic of a chronic pain state. Methods SCD patients (n=22) and healthy controls (n=52) received noxious pressure stimulation for up to three minutes, and periodically reported pain intensity and unpleasantness on 0–10 scales, allowing the rate of pain increase (temporal summation) to be determined. Pain intensity discrimination also was measured, and attitudes toward pain were assessed. Results There were no overall differences in pain ratings or temporal summation between patient and control groups. However, patients’ experimental pain ratings tended to increase with age, and those reporting a history of very painful episodes showed particularly rapid temporal summation of pain unpleasantness. Patients were significantly impaired at discriminating intensities of noxious stimulation. Patients were more hypervigilant than controls, but catastrophizing was elevated only during pain episodes. Conclusion Most SCD patients whose pain remits entirely between episodes are not in a chronic pain state, but some—those who are older and have a history of highly painful episodes—appear to be transitioning into it. These early signs of disturbed processing may aid clinicians seeking to forestall disease progression.
Hollins, Mark; Stonerock, Gregory L.; Kisaalita, Nkaku R.; Jones, Susan; Orringer, Eugene; Gil, Karen M.
25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...parasites. 168.15 Section 168.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA Â§...
The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management.
Ricklefs, Robert E; Fallon, Sylvia M
Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to public health and the majority are caused by zoonotic pathogens. Here we\\u000a discuss new collaborative approaches to understanding the process of zoonotic disease emergence that link veterinary medicine,\\u000a public health, and ecological approaches: conservation medicine and one health. We demonstrate how studies on the underlying\\u000a drivers of disease emergence (bushmeat hunting, wildlife
P. Daszak; J. H. Epstein; A. M. Kilpatrick; A. A. Aguirre; W. B. Karesh; A. A. Cunningham
This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.
Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.
Zoonotic parasites have been recognized as important causes of endemic and emerging human disease in northern North America and Greenland, with increased prevalence of some parasites in Indigenous and northern residents as compared to the general North American population. This is in part due to tr...
The early consequences of global climate change (GCC) are well documented. However, future impacts on ecosystem health, and on the health of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, are much less well understood. Evidence of increasing frequency of extreme weather events (the 2003 trans-European heat wave, extended droughts in Australia and South America), of geographic changes in vector-borne disease (bluetongue and hanta viruses emerging in northern Europe, dengue virus expanding in central and northern America), and of altered animal behavioral responses (changes in bird migration patterns and fishery numbers) warrants action. To make valid choices, however, practitioners and decision makers must understand what is known about GCC and what is only theory. There will be a multitude of microbial, vector, and host responses to climate change, for example, and not all organisms will respond similarly or across equal time scales. Unfortunately, for many organisms and ecosystems the scientific community has a relatively poor understanding of current effectors and balances, making it problematic to describe the current situation, let alone to validate future predictions. The need for enhanced basic research and systematic surveillance programs is obvious, but putting such programs into place is daunting. However, the threats are real and fast approaching. What is done in the next few years may be decisive, whether for the good or the ill of all. PMID:20080481
Slenning, B D
Wild primate populations, an unexplored source of information regarding emerging infectious disease, may hold valuable clues to the origins and evolution of some important pathogens. Primates can act as reservoirs for human pathogens. As members of biologically diverse habitats, they serve as sentinels for surveillance of emerging pathogens and provide models for basic research on natural transmission dynamics. Since emerging
Nathan D. Wolfe; Ananias A. Escalante; William B. Karesh; Annelisa Kilbourn; Andrew Spielman; Altaf A. Lal
Our understanding of origins and spread of emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically because of recent applications of phylogenetic theory. Iridoviruses are emerging pathogens that cause global amphibian epizootics, including tiger salamander ( Ambystoma tigrinum ) die-offs throughout western North America. To explain phylogeographical rela- tionships and potential causes for emergence of western North American salamander iridovirus strains, we sequenced
J. K. J ANCOVICH; E. W. D AVIDSON; N. PARAMESWARAN; J. MAO; V. G. C HINCHAR; J. P. C OLLINS; B. L. J ACOBS
Patients with bleeding disorders such as hemophilia A, hemophilia B, and von Willebrand disease (VWD) are routinely treated at home, with their care managed in specialized centers. In emergency situations, these patients often present to their local emergency department (ED), where their management can represent a challenge to the emergency physicians and staff who rarely encounter them. Delays in diagnosis
Tammuella Singleton; Rebecca Kruse-Jarres; Cindy Leissinger
Host selection in blood-sucking arthropods has important evolutionary and ecological implications for the transmission dynamics, distribution and host-specificity of the parasites they transmit. The black salt-marsh mosquito (Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann) is distributed throughout tropical to temperate coastal zones in the Americas, and continental populations are primarily mammalphilic. It is the only indigenous mosquito in the Galápagos Islands, having colonised the archipelago around 200,000 years ago, potentially adapting its host selection, and in the process, altering the dynamics of vector mediated pathogen interactions in the archipelago. Here, we use blood-meal analysis and PCR-based parasite screening approach to determine the blood-feeding patterns of A. taeniorhynchus in the Galápagos Islands and identify potential parasite transmission with which this mosquito could be involved. Our results show that A. taeniorhynchus feeds equally on mammals and reptiles, and only one avian sample was observed in 190 successful PCR amplifications from blood meals. However, we detected endemic filarial worms and Haemoproteus parasites known to infect various Galápagos bird species in mosquito thoraces, suggesting that feeding on birds must occur at low frequency, and that A. taeniorhynchus may play a role in maintaining some avian vector-borne pathogens, although more work is needed to explore this possibility. We also isolated three different DNA sequences corresponding to hemogregarine parasites of the genus Hepatozoon from mosquito and iguana blood samples, suggesting that more than one species of Hepatozoon parasites are present in Galápagos. Phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon 18sRNA sequences indicates that A. taeniorhynchus may have facilitated a recent breakdown in host-species association of formerly isolated Hepatozoon spp. infecting the reptile populations in the Galápagos Islands. PMID:22921730
Bataille, Arnaud; Fournié, Guillaume; Cruz, Marilyn; Cedeño, Virna; Parker, Patricia G; Cunningham, Andrew A; Goodman, Simon J
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health. Here, we apply the definition of EIDs used in the medical and veterinary fields to botany and highlight a series of emerging plant diseases. We include EIDs of cultivated and wild plants, some of which are of significant conservation concern. The underlying cause of most plant EIDs is the
Pamela K. Anderson; Andrew A. Cunningham; Nikkita G. Patel; Francisco J. Morales; Paul R. Epstein; Peter Daszak
Fifty years ago, the age-old scourge of infectious disease was receding in the developed world in response to improved public health measures, while the advent of antibiotics, better vaccines, insecticides and improved surveillance held the promise of eradicating residual problems. By the late twentieth century, however, an increase in the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases was evident in many
Robin A Weiss; Anthony J McMichael
Most newly emerging human infections of global importance are of animal origin, 1w 1 but early accurate predictions of zoonotic risk of emerging animal diseases are difficult, as shown by the epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United Kingdom. w2
Stephen Palmer; David Brown; Dilys Morgan; Mansel Talbot
Background and Objectives Only a few studies have specifically investigated the reasons for emergency room (ER) visits in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to identify the major reasons for ER presentation among patients with CHD that were acutely and seriously ill at a tertiary medical center in Korea. Subjects and Methods All 368 admissions of patients with CHD via the ER from 2003 to 2008 were enrolled. We conducted a retrospective study with review of the medical records. Results Eighty two patients were newly diagnosed as having CHD. Their major presentations were: symptoms of heart failure (41.5%), murmur (31.7%), and cyanosis (18.3%). There were 286 visits that were cases with known CHD. Their major presentations were respiratory tract infection (24.1%, 2.7±4.1 years of age), dysrhythmia (16.4%, 16.7±9.5 years), symptoms of heart failure (14.3%, 7.6±9.4 years), aggravated cyanosis (5.6%, 0.8±1.4 years), protein-losing enteropathy (4.9%), hemoptysis (4.5%), drug side effects (4.1%), and infective endocarditis (3.0%). There were significant correlations between the age distributions and major modes of presentation. Surgical treatments were required within 1 month in 38%, and 2.7% of all patients died during hospitalization. The patient group with respiratory infections and CHD showed the highest mortality (5.8%). Atrial flutter was the most frequent arrhythmia (70.2%) and 70% of these patients were post-Fontan surgery condition. The causes of heart failure in the patients with previous surgical repair were: pulmonary hypertension, myocardial dysfunction, valve regurgitation, and uncorrected lesions. Conclusion Improved understanding of the common problems in the ER can help prepare clinicians to manage patients that present with CHD.
Lee, Yun Sik; Baek, Jae Suk; Kwon, Bo Sang; Kim, Gi Beom; Noh, Chung Il; Choi, Jung Yun; Yun, Yong Soo
Summary Disease is one of the gravest threats to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A good understanding of biosecurity and disease causation is essential for developing and implementing farm-level plans and husbandry measures to respond to disease emergencies. Using epidemiological approaches, it is possible to identify pond- and farm-level risk factors for disease outbreaks and develop intervention strategies. Better
C. V. Mohan; M. J. Phillips; B. V. Bhat; N. R. Umesh; P. A. Padiyar
INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigation of voluntary feed intake (VFI) and nitrogen retention (NRET) during parasitic infections in small ruminants is the central theme of this thesis. An attempt was made to examine the effects of trypanosomiasis on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen retention and animal products. In addition, a similar investigation was conducted during a low to medium level fascioliasis infection in Menz
O. O. Akinbamijo
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Fifty-five collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) were collected from October 1988 through April 1991 from five counties within the Trans-Pecos region of Texas (USA) to monitor for diseases and parasites. No endoparasites were recovered on gross examination. Antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi was documented in one (2%) of 55 specimens. Three (6%) of 54 collared peccaries were positive for Yersinia pestis antibodies. All collared peccaries were negative for antibodies against Brucella spp., Francisella tularensis, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Rickettsia typhi. This is the first report of Borrelia sp. and Yersinia sp. pathogens in collared peccaries from this region of Texas. PMID:8827690
Gruver, K S; Guthrie, J W
We designed and tested a computational model of emerging viruses that simulates the evolution of real biological viruses. Knowledge of viral molecular replication mechanisms was used to instruct the development of this genetic algorithm-based C language '...
J. J. Grefenstette
Hepatozoon canis was first described from dogs in 1905 in India and Rhipicephalus sanguineus was identified as the vector. Dogs on the Texas Gulf Coast were recognized in 1978 to have hepatozoonosis, and it was thought that H. canis had entered the New World. Later, it was realized that American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is more debilitating than its Old World counterpart, often resulting in death. When the malady and parasite were characterized, a new species, H. americanum, was described, in 1997. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 18S rRNA gene sequence and classical taxonomic features, revealed that the two dog parasites are closely related. Amblyomma maculatum, the Gulf Coast tick (GCT), has been demonstrated to be an excellent vector; nymphal ticks were readily infected and oocysts from newly molted adults were uniformly infectious for dogs. The merogonic cycle of H. americanum in dogs and the sporogonic development in the invertebrate host have been described. ACH is diagnosed primarily by histologic examination of skeletal muscle. Curative therapy is not available, but anti-protozoal and anti-inflammatory drugs may prolong life. Naturally infected coyotes have been found in Oklahoma and Texas, and experimental infections have been produced in this canid. Additional effort is needed to determine the vertebrate host range of H. americanum and to define the enzootic cycle of which dogs have become a part; likewise, more work is required to determine whether larval GCTs can acquire infection and transmit it as nymphs. PMID:11193705
Ewing, S A; Panciera, R J; Mathew, J S; Cummings, C A; Kocan, A A
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder that affects about 1% of the population worldwide. Despite significant advances in the identification of genetic mutations and signaling pathways that are associated with the disease, the precise mechanisms implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease are not well understood. More importantly, treatments that are effective in reversing the progression
Zelda H Cheung; Nancy Y Ip
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is an important virus disease that damages the starch-bearing tuberous roots of cassava. The disease is endemic in the coastal lowlands of Eastern Africa and the coastal strip of Lake Malawi. CBSD has rarely been seen at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level, although the reason for this is unknown. CBSD is maintained through
C. Omongo; R. J. Hillocks; R. Kawuki; G. W. Otim-Nape
Contents: Emerging Infectious Diseases: an NIAID Perspective; Recurring Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment; Infecting Prairie Dogs with Monkeypox Virus; Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli, Spain...
The proper allocation of public health resources for research and control requires quantification of both a disease's current burden and the trend in its impact. Infectious diseases that have been labeled as "emerging infectious diseases" (EIDs) have received heightened scientific and public attention and resources. However, the label 'emerging' is rarely backed by quantitative analysis and is often used subjectively. This can lead to over-allocation of resources to diseases that are incorrectly labelled "emerging," and insufficient allocation of resources to diseases for which evidence of an increasing or high sustained impact is strong. We suggest a simple quantitative approach, segmented regression, to characterize the trends and emergence of diseases. Segmented regression identifies one or more trends in a time series and determines the most statistically parsimonious split(s) (or joinpoints) in the time series. These joinpoints in the time series indicate time points when a change in trend occurred and may identify periods in which drivers of disease impact change. We illustrate the method by analyzing temporal patterns in incidence data for twelve diseases. This approach provides a way to classify a disease as currently emerging, re-emerging, receding, or stable based on temporal trends, as well as to pinpoint the time when the change in these trends happened. We argue that quantitative approaches to defining emergence based on the trend in impact of a disease can, with appropriate context, be used to prioritize resources for research and control. Implementing this more rigorous definition of an EID will require buy-in and enforcement from scientists, policy makers, peer reviewers and journal editors, but has the potential to improve resource allocation for global health. PMID:23967065
Funk, Sebastian; Bogich, Tiffany L; Jones, Kate E; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Daszak, Peter
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is increasingly being recognized as a severe sight-threatening ocular infection worldwide. Although contact lens wear is the leading risk factor for AK, Acanthamoeba parasites are also an important cause of keratitis in non-contact lens wearers. Diagnosis of AK is challenging, and the available treatments are lengthy and not fully effective against all strains. The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba is still under study, and the identification of the key factors involved in this process should be useful for the development of fully effective therapies. This review focuses on recent developments on AK pathogenesis and diagnosis as well as novel strategies for the evaluation of anti-amoebic agents that could be applied in the near future against these pathogens. PMID:23433689
Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio
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Host-parasite relationships can be conceptualised either narrowly, where the parasite is metabolically dependent on the host, or more broadly, as suggested by an ecological-evolutionary and complex systems perspective. In this view Host-parasite relationships are part of a larger set of ecological and co-evolutionary interdependencies and a complex adaptive system. These interdependencies affect not just the hosts, vectors, parasites, the immediate agents, but also those indirectly or consequentially affected by the relationship. Host-parasite relationships also can be viewed as systems embedded within larger systems represented by ecological communities and ecosystems. So defined, it can be argued that Host-parasite relationships may often benefit their hosts and contribute significantly to the structuring of ecological communities. The broader, complex adaptive system view also contributes to understanding the phenomenon of disease emergence, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms involved, and the role of parasitology in research and management of ecosystems in light of the apparently growing problem of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and humans. An expanded set of principles for integrated parasite management is suggested by this perspective. PMID:15925596
Horwitz, Pierre; Wilcox, Bruce A
Benthic invertebrate samples were collected from six sites in the upper Colorado River basin in north-central Colorado to determine the distribution, abundance, and infection rates of Tubifex tubifex, the aquatic oligochaete host for the salmonid whirling disease parasite Myxobolus cerebralis. The disease has been implicated as a factor in severe recruitment declines in wild rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in this
Joseph S. Zendt; Eric P. Bergersen
Understanding how environmental variation influences the distribution of parasite diversity is critical if we are to anticipate disease emergence risks associated with global change. However, choosing the relevant variables for modelling current and future parasite distributions may be difficult: candidate predictors are many, and they seldom are statistically independent. This problem often leads to simplistic models of current and projected future parasite distributions, with climatic variables prioritized over potentially important landscape features or host population attributes. We studied avian blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon (which are viewed as potential emergent pathogens) in 37 Iberian blackcap Sylvia atricapilla populations. We used Partial Least Squares regression to assess the relative importance of a wide array of putative determinants of variation in the diversity of these parasites, including climate, landscape features and host population migration. Both prevalence and richness of parasites were predominantly related to climate (an effect which was primarily, but not exclusively driven by variation in temperature), but landscape features and host migration also explained variation in parasite diversity. Remarkably, different models emerged for each parasite genus, although all parasites were studied in the same host species. Our results show that parasite distribution models, which are usually based on climatic variables alone, improve by including other types of predictors. Moreover, closely related parasites may show different relationships to the same environmental influences (both in magnitude and direction). Thus, a model used to develop one parasite distribution can probably not be applied identically even to the most similar host-parasite systems. PMID:23606561
Pérez-Rodríguez, Antón; Fernández-González, Sofía; de la Hera, Iván; Pérez-Tris, Javier
Autophagy is a highly conserved process that degrades cellular long-lived proteins and organelles. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy plays a critical role in kidney maintenance, diseases and aging. Ischemic, toxic, immunological, and oxidative insults can cause an induction of autophagy in renal epithelial cells modifying the course of various kidney diseases. This review summarizes recent insights on the role of autophagy in kidney physiology and diseases alluding to possible novel intervention strategies for treating specific kidney disorders by modifying autophagy.
Huber, Tobias B.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Hartleben, Bjorn; Inoki, Ken; Jiang, Man; Koya, Daisuke; Kume, Shinji; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Pallet, Nicolas; Quiroga, Alejandro; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Susztak, Katalin; Yoshida, Sei; Dong, Zheng
Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode, Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ...
The parasite-host-environment system is dynamic, with several points of equilibrium. This makes it difficult to trace the thresholds between benefit and damage, and therefore, the definitions of commensalism, mutualism, and symbiosis become worthless. Therefore, the same concept of parasitism may encompass commensalism, mutualism, and symbiosis. Parasitism is essential for life. Life emerged as a consequence of parasitism at the molecular
Adauto Araújo; Ana Maria Jansen; Françoise Bouchet; Karl Reinhard; Luiz Fernando Ferreira
In September 1994, in response to a reported epidemic of plague in India, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) enhanced surveillance in the United States for imported pneumonic plague. Plague information materials were rapidly developed and distributed to U.S. public health officials by electronic mail, facsimile, and expedited publication. Information was also provided to medical practitioners and the public by recorded telephone messages and facsimile transmission. Existing quarantine protocols were modified to effect active surveillance for imported plague cases at U.S. airports. Private physicians and state and local health departments were relied on in a passive surveillance system to identify travelers with suspected plague not detected at airports. From September 27 to October 27, the surveillance system identified 13 persons with suspected plague; no case was confirmed. This coordinated response to an international health emergency may serve as a model for detecting other emerging diseases and preventing their importation. PMID:8964057
Fritz, C L; Dennis, D T; Tipple, M A; Campbell, G L; McCance, C R; Gubler, D J
In September 1994, in response to a reported epidemic of plague in India, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) enhanced surveillance in the United States for imported pneumonic plague. Plague information materials were rapidly developed and distributed to U.S. public health officials by electronic mail, facsimile, and expedited publication. Information was also provided to medical practitioners and the public by recorded telephone messages and facsimile transmission. Existing quarantine protocols were modified to effect active surveillance for imported plague cases at U.S. airports. Private physicians and state and local health departments were relied on in a passive surveillance system to identify travelers with suspected plague not detected at airports. From September 27 to October 27, the surveillance system identified 13 persons with suspected plague; no case was confirmed. This coordinated response to an international health emergency may serve as a model for detecting other emerging diseases and preventing their importation.
Fritz, C. L.; Dennis, D. T.; Tipple, M. A.; Campbell, G. L.; McCance, C. R.; Gubler, D. J.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition with an increasing prevalence. A number of comorbidities are associated with CKD and prognosis is poor, with many patients experiencing disease progression. Recognizing the factors associated with CKD progression enables high-risk patients to be identified and given more intensive treatment if necessary. The identification of new predictive markers might improve our understanding
As a route to providing a framework for elucidating the content of public thinking concerning emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID), this article examines public engagement with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It explores how British lay publics represent MRSA utilising a social representations framework. For this group, MRSA is associated primarily with dirty National Health Service (NHS) hospitals that have
Hélène Joffe; Peter Washer; Christian Solberg
Advances in epidemiologic modeling offer new opportunities for emerging infectious disease (EID) prediction, detection, and control. Recent applications across diverse fields include simulations of pandemic influenza to evaluate containment strategies, ecological niche modeling to identify potential...
The care of patients with cancer disease in the final stage amounts to 2.5% of all emergency-medical applications. This corresponded to the number of pediatric emergency cases. For this every emergency physician can be involved in the care of those patients. Emergency physicians may allow adapted treatment in the will or supposed will of the patient always. Therefore it is necessary to know special legal bearings of the case. We analysed seven emergency cases with patients in the final stage of their cancer disease retrospectively. For this we present seven different emergency cases with different regulatory framework for each emergency physician. The cases have shown seven possible care concepts of patients in the final stage of a cancer disease. All patients could be categorised as palliative ones. Nevertheless, the emergency physicians were alarmed by the patients' relatives because of needing professional help at the moment. The differences of the cases appeared in the regulatory framework. The seven cases have shown that different legal meanings could be important in emergency therapy of palliative patients. PMID:18671179
Wiese, Christoph H R; Duttge, Gunnar; Bartels, Utz; Klie, Susanne; Graf, Bernhard Martin; Hanekop, Gerd Gunnar
The practical difficulties in measuring the prevalence, incidence, and pathogenicity of diseases in wild Atlantic salmon populations cause serious problems in determining the possible implications of disease. Limited research has been undertaken on wild salmon disease associated with environmental effects of fish farming, or with the disease implications of possible changes to the genetic make-up of wild salmonid stocks as
A. H. McVicar
A disaster both natural and man made is managed in time according to separate phases that respond to specific requirements and needs. In the late and post emergency phases problems of public health are priority and in particular the identification and containment of epidemic clusters. Epidemiological surveillance is the main instrument used and in this paper it is analysed both in theory and in its application in the Italian Red Cross mission in Sri Lanka devastated by the 2004 Tsunami. PMID:17598992
Riccardo, F; Russo, G; Scaroni, E; De Rosa, A G; Pacini, A; Nardi, L; Pacifici, L E
Microvascular disease is a prominent feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and leads to Raynaud's phenomenon, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and scleroderma renal crisis. The presence of macrovascular disease is less well established, and, in particular, it is not known whether the prevalence of coronary heart disease in SSc is increased. Furthermore, in terms of cardiac involvement in SSc, there remains conjecture about the relative contributions of atherosclerotic macrovascular disease and myocardial microvascular disease. In this review, we summarize the literature describing cardiovascular disease in SSc, discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms common to SSc and atherosclerosis, and review the surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease which have been examined in SSc. Proposed mediators of the vasculopathy of SSc which have also been implicated in atherosclerosis include endothelial dysfunction, a reduced number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, and an increased number of microparticles. Excess cardiovascular risk in SSc is suggested by increased arterial stiffness and carotid intima thickening and reduced flow-mediated dilatation. Cohort studies of adequate size are required to resolve whether this translates into an increased incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with SSc.
Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), Monagas and Anzoátegui States (endemics). The isolates, genetically typed by PCR-RFLP as belonging to the TcIII DTU, have demonstrated in murine model heterogenic parasitemia, mortality and histotropism with marked parasitism in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth myocytes that showed correlation with lymphobasophilic inflammatory infiltrates. Our finding of T. cruzi infected armadillos in Isla Margarita (Nueva Esparta State), together with reports of triatomine vectors in this region, the accentuated synanthropy of armadillos, intense economic activity, migration due to tourism and the lack of environmental education programs all of them represent risks that could cause the emergence of Chagas' disease in this area. This is the first report of the TcIII DTU in Northeastern Venezuela, thus widening the geographic distribution of this DTU. PMID:22902748
Morocoima, Antonio; Carrasco, Hernán J; Boadas, Johanna; Chique, José David; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio
Physical, chemical, and biological factors of soil may reduce damage caused by plant-parasitic nematodes. Suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes is particularly challenging in soils in which there are short crop sequences, sequential susceptible host crops, or infestations of multiple nematode species. In southern Indiana, a watermelon production system involving rotations with soybean and corn does not suppress Meloidogyne incognita, but several aspects of such systems can be modified to reduce nematode damage in an integrated management approach. Cash crops with resistance to M. incognita can be used to reduce population densities of M. incognita. Small grains as cover crops can be replaced by cover crops with resistance to M. incognita or by crops with biofumigation potential. Mycorrhizal fungal inoculations of potting mixes during transplanting production of watermelon seedlings may improve early crop establishment. Other approaches to nematode management utilize soil suppressiveness. One-year rotations of soybean with corn neither reduced the soil-borne complex of sudden death syndrome (SDS) nor improved soybean root health over that in soybean monoculture. Reduced tillage combined with crop rotation may reduce the activity of soil-borne pathogens in some soils. For example in a long-term trial, numbers of Heterodera glycines and severity of foliar SDS symptoms were reduced under minimum tillage. Thus, sustainable management strategies require holistic approaches that consider entire production systems rather than focus on a single crop in its year of production.
Parkinson’s disease is a commonly encountered neurodegenerative disorder primarily found in aged populations. A number of medications are available to control symptoms, although these are less effective in advanced disease. Deep brain stimulation provides a practicable alternative at this stage, although a minority of patients meet the strict criteria for surgery. Novel medications that provide enhanced symptomatic control remain in developmental demand. Both gene and cell-based therapies have shown promise in early clinical studies. A major unmet need is a treatment that slows or stops disease progression.
Hickey, Patrick; Stacy, Mark
Babesia microti-like parasites were detected for the first time in Ixodes ovatus in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, where two reported types of B. microti-like parasites were recognized in many rodents. Of 80 adult I. ovatus ticks collected, 5 possessed the reported type and 1 possessed a new type of B. microti-like parasite. PMID:15131209
Saito-Ito, Atsuko; Yano, Yasuhiro; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Takada, Nobuhiro
Babesia microti-like parasites were detected for the first time in Ixodes ovatus in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, where two reported types of B. microti-like parasites were recognized in many rodents. Of 80 adult I. ovatus ticks collected, 5 possessed the reported type and 1 possessed a new type of B. microti-like parasite.
Saito-Ito, Atsuko; Yano, Yasuhiro; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Takada, Nobuhiro
Therapeutic strategies using stem cells for treating neurological diseases are receiving more attention as the scientific community appreciates cell-autonomous contributions to several diseases of the central nervous system. The transplantation of stem cells from various sources is now being employed for both neuronal and glial replacement. This review provides an assessment of glial contributions to some of the central nervous system diseases and the advancements in cellular replacement approaches. The rationale for glial replacement in individual diseases and the potential hurdles for cell-replacement strategies are also emphasized. The significant progress in the field of stem cell biology with the advent of tools such as induced pluripotent stem cells and imaging techniques holds promise for the clinical application of cell therapeutics.
The gut flora is composed of a huge number of diverse, well-adapted symbionts that interact with epithelial lining throughout the host's entire life. Not all commensals have the same ability to maintain quiescent, protective inflammation. Importantly, instability in the composition of gut microbial communities (referred to as dysbiosis) has been linked to loss of gut barrier in the context of common human illnesses with increasing socio-economic impacts, such as Crohn disease and colorectal cancer. Our recent findings suggest that disease-predisposing dysbiosis can now be intentionally manipulated by targeting the major Crohn disease-predisposing NOD2 gene. That knowledge will not only add a new dimension to the often overlooked microbiology of Crohn disease and colorectal cancer, but will also have a broad impact on biomedical sciences worldwide. PMID:23778641
Secher, Thomas; Normand, Sylvain; Chamaillard, Mathias
Abnormal autoimmune activity has been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, the authors discuss a newly recognized class of synaptic autoimmune encephalitides as well as behavioral and cognitive manifestations of systemic autoimmune diseases.
Kayser, Matthew S.; Dalmau, Josep
The spectrum of pathological lesions observed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is wide and strongly resembles that of alcohol-induced liver disease. It ranges from fatty liver to steatohepatitis, progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a possible complication of NAFLD, but whether it is related to frequently associated metabolic disorders (e.g., overweight, diabetes) or to underlying cirrhosis is unclear.
For Central European veterinarians, Borna disease (BD) has been known for a long time as a sporadically occurring, progressive viral polioencephalomyelitis predominantly affecting horses and sheep and—as discovered in the last decade—an increasing number of domestic and zoo animals. The aetiological agent, the Borna disease virus (BDV), a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus classified in the new virus family Bornaviridae within
J. A. RICHT; R. ROTT
The autoinflammatory syndromes are a group of multisystem disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and systemic\\u000a inflammation affecting the eyes, joints, skin, and serosal surfaces in the absence of an immune reaction. Recent advances\\u000a have revealed the importance of interleukin-1?, not only in the pathogenesis of many of these rare inherited diseases, but\\u000a also in acquired diseases. The development
Helen J. Lachmann
A wide range of single- and multi-cellular parasites infect humans and other animals, causing some of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases on the planet. There have been virtually no published studies on the TRP channels of this diverse group of organisms. However, since many parasite genomes have been sequenced, it is simple to demonstrate that they are present in all parasitic metazoans and that sequences related to the yeast trp are present in many protozoans, including all the kinetoplastids. We compared the TRP genes of three species of animal and plant parasitic nematode to those of C. elegans and found that the parasitic species all had fewer such genes. These differences may reflect the phylogenetic distance between the species studied, or may be due to loss of specific gene functions following the evolution of the parasitic lifestyle. Other helminth groups, the trematodes and cestodes, seem to possess many TRPC and TRPM genes, but lack TRPV and TRPN. Most ectoparasites are insects or arachnids. We compared the TRP genes of a plant parasitic aphid and an animal parasite louse and tick with those of Drosophila. Again, all the parasitic species seemed to have fewer types of TRP channel, though the difference was less marked than for the nematodes. The aphid lacks TRPP and TRPML channel genes, whereas the tick lacked those encoding TRPVs. Again, these differences may reflect adaptation to parasitism, and could enable TRP channels to be targeted in the development of novel antiparasitic drugs. PMID:21290306
Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Williamson, Sally M; Reaves, Barbara J
The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is affected by two protozoan parasites, Perkinsus marinus which causes Dermo disease and Haplosporidium nelsoni which causes MSX (Multinucleated Sphere Unknown) disease. Both diseases are largely controlled by water temperature and salinity\\u000a and thus are potentially sensitive to climate variations resulting from the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which influences\\u000a climate along the Gulf of Mexico
Thomas M. Soniat; Eileen E. Hofmann; John M. Klinck; Eric N. Powell
West Nile virus (WNV) is a small, enveloped, spherical virus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis serocomplex. Natural reservoirs of WNV are birds, and the main vectors are mosquitoes of the genus Culex. There are seven genetic lineages of WNV. Lineages 1 and 2 are the most widely distributed (Africa, North and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia). About 80% of infections are asymptomatic. In 20% of patients nonspecific febrile disease occurs (West Nile fever). Less than 1% of infected persons will develop neuroinvasive WNV disease (meningitis, encephalitis, and poliomyelitis). In Croatia, antibodies to WNV were demonstrated in humans,bears and horses. In August-September 2012 clinical cases of human WNV neuroinvasive disease and asymptomatic acute infection in horses were reported for the first time in three eastern Croatian counties. The diagnosis was confirmed by serologic tests (enzyme immunoassay, IgG avidity, plaque-reduction neutralization test). PMID:23898697
Vilibi?-Cavlek, Tatjana; Barbi?, Ljubo; Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Stevanovi?, Vladimir; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Mlinari?-Galinovi?, Gordana
The discovery of an increasing number of histone demethylases has highlighted the dynamic nature of the regulation of histone methylation, a key chromatin modification that is involved in eukaryotic genome and gene regulation. A flurry of recent studies has offered glimpses into the specific biological roles of these enzymes and their potential connections to human diseases. These advances have also
Objectives: To determine the relative prevalence of human infections attributable to Streptobacillus moniliformis in California over the past 3 decades.Methods: A retrospective analysis of all the data collected was conducted on S. moniliformis cultures identified by the Microbial Diseases Laboratory (MDL) from January 1970 to December 1998.Results: Information on a total of 45 S. moniliformis isolates was analyzed. Overall, 91
Margot H. Graves; J. Michael Janda
Cystatin C (cys-C) is a small protein molecule (120 amino acid peptide chain, approximately 13kDa) produced by virtually all nucleated cells in the human body. It belongs to the family of papain-like cysteine proteases and its main biological role is the extracellular inhibition of cathepsins. It's near constant production rate, the fact that it is freely filtered from the glomerular membrane and then completely reabsorbed without being secreted from the proximal tubular cells, made it an almost perfect candidate for estimating renal function. The strong correlation between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) along with the growing understanding of the role of cysteinyl cathepsins in the pathophysiology of CVD inspired researchers to explore the potential association of cys-C with CVD. Throughout the spectrum of CVD (peripheral arterial disease, stroke, abdominal aortic aneurysm, heart failure, coronary artery disease) adverse outcomes and risk stratification have been associated with high plasma levels of cys-C. The exact mechanisms behind the observed correlations have not been comprehensively clarified. Plausible links between high cys-C levels and poor cardiovascular outcome could be impaired renal function, atherogenesis and inflammatory mediators, remodeling of myocardial tissue and others (genetic factors, aging and social habits). The scope of the present article is to systematically review the current knowledge about cys-C biochemistry, metabolism, methods of detection and quantification and pathophysiological associations with different aspects of CVD. PMID:23470076
Angelidis, Christos; Deftereos, Spyridon; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Anatoliotakis, Nikolaos; Bouras, Georgios; Hatzis, Georgios; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Pyrgakis, Vlasios; Cleman, Michael W
Increasing evidence indicates that hypertension in pregnancy is an under-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Compared with women who have had normotensive pregnancies, those who are hypertensive during pregnancy are at greater risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and have a less favorable overall risk profile for CVD years after the affected pregnancies. One factor that might underlie this
Suzanne R Hayman; Vesna D Garovic
Parkinson’s disease therapy is still focused on the use of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa or L-dopa) for the symptomatic treatment of the main clinical features of the disease, despite intensive pharmacological research in the last few decades. However, regardless of its effectiveness, the long-term use of levodopa causes, in combination with disease progression, the development of motor complications termed levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs). LIDs are the result of profound modifications in the functional organization of the basal ganglia circuitry, possibly related to the chronic and pulsatile stimulation of striatal dopaminergic receptors by levodopa. Hence, for decades the key feature of a potentially effective agent against LIDs has been its ability to ensure more continuous dopaminergic stimulation in the brain. The growing knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of LIDs and the increasing evidence on involvement of nondopaminergic systems raises the possibility of more promising therapeutic approaches in the future. In the current review, we focus on novel therapies for LIDs in Parkinson’s disease, based mainly on agents that interfere with glutamatergic, serotonergic, adenosine, adrenergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission that are currently in testing or clinical development.
Bargiotas, Panagiotis; Konitsiotis, Spyridon
The zebrafish research community is celebrating! The zebrafish genome has recently been sequenced, the Zebrafish Mutation Project (launched by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) has published the results of its first large-scale ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen, and a host of new techniques, such as the genome editing technologies TALEN and CRISPR-Cas, are enabling specific mutations to be created in model organisms and investigated in vivo. The zebrafish truly seems to be coming of age. These powerful resources invoke the question of whether zebrafish can be increasingly used to model human disease, particularly common, chronic diseases of metabolism such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In recent years, there has been considerable success, mainly from genomic approaches, in identifying genetic variants that are associated with these conditions in humans; however, mechanistic insights into the role of implicated disease loci are lacking. In this Review, we highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of zebrafish to address the organism's utility as a model system for human metabolic diseases. PMID:24046387
Seth, Asha; Stemple, Derek L; Barroso, Inês
The distressed personality (Type D) is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) that incurs a risk on par with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ischemic heart disease. Type D is defined as the co-occurring tendencies to experience increased negative emotions and to inhibit self-expression in social interactions. Evidence is ac- cumulating that Type D may also be
Susanne S. Pedersen; Johan Denollet
APOE is the major known genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Though relationships between APOE-encoded apolipoprotein E and ?-amyloid are increasingly well described, mounting evidence supports wide-ranging effects of APOE on the brain. Specifically, APOE appears to affect brain network activity and closely related neuroenergetic functions that might be involved in vulnerability to neurodegenerative pathophysiology. These effects highlight the salience of further investigation into the diverse influences of APOE. Therefore, this article reviews the interplay between APOE and neuroenergetics and proposes areas for further investigation. This research might lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment and/or prevention of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23159550
Wolf, Andrew B; Caselli, Richard J; Reiman, Eric M; Valla, Jon
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which no disease modifying treatments exist. Many molecular changes and cellular consequences that underlie HD are observed in other neurological disorders, suggesting that common pathological mechanisms and pathways may exist. Recent findings have enhanced our understanding of the way cells regulate and respond to expanded polyglutamine proteins such as mutant huntingtin. These studies demonstrate that in addition to effects on folding, aggregation, and clearance pathways, a general transcriptional mechanism also dictates the expression of polyglutamine proteins. Here, we summarize the key pathways and networks that are important in HD in the context of recent therapeutic advances and highlight how their interplay may be of relevance to other protein folding disorders. PMID:23768628
Labbadia, John; Morimoto, Richard I
Phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic degradation of cyclic GMP – an essential intracellular second messenger that modulates diverse biological processes in living cells. Three selective inhibitors of PDE-5 – sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil – have been successfully used by millions of men worldwide for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Also, sildenafil and tadalafil are currently approved for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Recent powerful basic science data and clinical studies suggest potential nonurological applications of PDE-5 inhibitors, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases and other circulatory disorders including Raynaud’s phenomenon. Future carefully controlled clinical trials would hopefully expedite their expanding therapeutic use in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Kukreja, Rakesh C; Salloum, Fadi N; Das, Anindita; Koka, Saisudha; Ockaili, Ramzi A; Xi, Lei
The use of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of malignancy and autoimmune diseases has rapidly expanded in the last decade. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody to the CD20 antigen on B cells, was first approved by the US FDA in 1997 to treat non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma. It is now used, however, for a variety of diseases in both on- and off-label uses. It was approved by the FDA for use in refractory rheumatoid arthritis in 2007, and in April 2011 it was approved for the treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides (including granulomatosis with polyangiitis [Wegener's granulomatosis] and microscopic polyangiitis), based on the promising results of the RAVE trial. Within the field of nephrology, in addition to its use in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides, it is has been used in the treatment of membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and lupus nephritis. PMID:22882216
Kattah, Andrea G; Fervenza, Fernando C
The recent emergence of virulent respiratory infectious diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Influenza A/H1N1 viruses predisposes nurses to occupational risks. This qualitative study investigated how Chinese Singaporean nurses perceived the risks of exposure to these infectious diseases and the factors that influenced this risk perception. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using Braun and Clarke's process of thematic analysis. Three themes emerged: living with risk; the experience of SARS; and acceptance of risk. The nature of nursing work was perceived to place participants at risk of infection. Another significant finding of this study is that the government's, organizations' and nurses' perceptions of new emerging respiratory infectious diseases were influenced by their previous experience with SARS. Similar to previous studies, nurses working at the 'front line' believed that infection from these diseases was an unavoidable occupational hazard. PMID:22435984
Koh, Yiwen; Hegney, Desley; Drury, Vicki
Conclusion There is considerable epidemiological evidence, which confirms the importance of plasma homocysteine as a powerful predictor\\u000a of future risk of coronary heart disease and other complications of atherosclerosis. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia varies\\u000a with the underlying cause. However, an inexpensive vitamin supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B 6 is\\u000a generally effective in reducing homocysteine concentrations. Several randomised, controlled
V. Govindaraju; C. N. Manjunath; H. Venkataramiah; T. R. Raghu
Although assessment of traditional coronary heart disease risk factors can often stratify individuals into low- or high-risk\\u000a categories, additional means are needed to more precisely classify people clinically defined as intermediate-risk, to guide\\u000a the intensity of risk-reducing therapies. The recognition that inflammatory pathways are important in the progression of atherosclerosis\\u000a and its complications has prompted investigation to identify circulating risk
Marshall A. Corson
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an established reproductive option for couples at risk of conceiving a pregnancy affected with a known genetic disease, who wish to avoid an (additional) affected child, termination of pregnancy or recurrent miscarriages. Early technologies concentrated on different approaches to direct mutation testing for monogenic diseases using single cell PCR protocols, or sex selection by fluorescent in situ hybridization for X-linked monogenic disease. Development of multiplex fluorescent PCR allowed simultaneously testing of linked markers alongside the mutation test, increasing the accuracy by controlling for contamination and identifying allele drop-out. The advent of highly effective whole genome amplification methods has opened the way for new technologies such as preimplantation genetic haplotyping and microarrays, thus increasing the number of genetic defects that can be detected in preimplantation embryos; the number of cases carried out and the new indications tested increases each year. Different countries have taken very different approaches to legislating and regulating PGD, giving rise to the phenomenon of reproductive tourism. PGD is now being performed for scenarios previously not undertaken using prenatal diagnosis, some of which raise significant ethical concerns. While PGD has benefited many couples aiming to have healthy children, ethical concerns remain over inappropriate use of this technology. PMID:17187482
Renwick, Pamela; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie
Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111
Patterns of future urban growth, combined with advances in the treatment of traditional scourges of communicable diseases,\\u000a will cause a shift in the burden of disease toward category 2 (noncommunicable) and 3 (injury) conditions over the next 30 years.\\u000a Communicable diseases, particularly HIV\\/AIDs, will continue to be the most important killers among the poor. However, new\\u000a risks will emerge for several
Tim Campbell; Alana Campbell
In 1994, the Food and Agriculture Organization undertook to revitalise its activities in the control of transboundary animal disease by establishing a new special programme known as the Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) against transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases. The emphasis of the EMPRES livestock component is placed on pre-empting outbreaks and losses experienced by agriculture through the enhancement of local capacity to detect and react rapidly to plague events. EMPRES concentrates on the co-ordination of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme--a time-bound eradication programme--whilst addressing the progressive control of the most serious epidemic diseases within a broad framework of emergency preparedness. Programme activities are discussed in relation to early warning, early reaction, facilitating research and co-ordination. In addition to rinderpest, particular attention has been paid to contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, a re-emerging disease in Africa targeted for strategic attention, and foot and mouth disease, for which co-ordinated regional control in Latin America and South-East Asia has been initiated. Tactical responses to other disease emergencies such as African swine fever, classical swine fever (hog cholera), Rift Valley fever, peste des petits ruminants and lumpy skin disease are described. PMID:10190209
Cheneau, Y; Roeder, P L; Obi, T U; Rweyemamu, M M; Benkirane, A; Wojciechowski, K J
The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospecti...
Parasitic diseases, like babesiosis and theileriosis are transmitted by ticks: their occur- rence is therefore linked to the size of the tick stock and the seasonality of the vectors. Babesia divergens bovine babesiosis transmitted by Ixodes ricinus is widespread and often reported in France. Serological prevalence is high, ranging from 20 to 80% according to the farms. Clinical incidence is
Monique L'HOSTISa; Henri Seegers
The bitter and related constituents have been isolated fromVernonia amygdalina (Compositae), a plant ingested by wild chimpanzees possibly suffering from parasite-related diseases in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Isolated from the plant were four known sesquiterpene lactones, seven new steroid glucosides, and two aglycones of the glucosides. The sesquiterpene lactones showed significant in vitro antischistosomal, plasmodicidal, and leishmanicidal activities.
Hajime Ohigashi; Michael A. Huffman; Daisuke Izutsu; Koichi Koshimizu; Masanori Kawanaka; Hiromu Sugiyama; Geoffrey C. Kirby; David C. Warhurst; David Allen; Colin W. Wright; J. David Phillipson; Pierre Timon-David; Florence Delmas; Riad Elias; Guy Balansard
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Before the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) there were few treatment options available to patients with metastatic GIST. Surgery was the mainstay of treatment and the prognosis was dismal. With the advent of imatinib and second-line TKIs the prognosis of metastatic GIST has improved dramatically; however, there is still a need for therapies for patients with disease refractory to TKI therapy. Newer agents are under investigation and may have promise. This article discusses the current standard of care in terms of standard and investigational pharmacotherapy in the management of metastatic GIST. PMID:24093167
Vadakara, Joseph; von Mehren, Margaret
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a key regulator of systemic blood pressure and renal function and a key player in renal and cardiovascular disease. However, its (patho)physiological roles and its architecture are more complex than initially anticipated. Novel RAAS components that may add to our understanding have been discovered in recent years. In particular, the human homologue of ACE (ACE2) has added a higher level of complexity to the RAAS. In a short period of time, ACE2 has been cloned, purified, knocked-out, knocked-in; inhibitors have been developed; its 3D structure determined; and new functions have been identified. ACE2 is now implicated in cardiovascular and renal (patho)physiology, diabetes, pregnancy, lung disease and, remarkably, ACE2 serves as a receptor for SARS and NL63 coronaviruses. This review covers available information on the genetic, structural and functional properties of ACE2. Its role in a variety of (patho)physiological conditions and therapeutic options of modulation are discussed. PMID:17464936
Hamming, I; Cooper, M E; Haagmans, B L; Hooper, N M; Korstanje, R; Osterhaus, A D M E; Timens, W; Turner, A J; Navis, G; van Goor, H
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Currently available therapies are symptomatic but do not alter underlying disease progression. Immunotherapeutic approaches such as anti A? peptide active vaccination trials have had limited success to date. Intravenous immunoblobulin (IVIg) is widely used in immune-mediated neurological disorders such myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These preparations have been obtained from the pooled plasma of healthy human donors and contain natural anti-amyloid antibodies and are well tolerated. A small pilot study of passive immunotherapy using IVIg has suggested cognitive improvement. A multicenter phase III trial is ongoing and will determine whether or not this treatment can ameliorate cognitive deficits in mild-to-moderate AD. Here, we briefly review the pathogenic role of amyloid and tau in AD, as well as immunotherapeutic efforts to date. We also summarize what is known about naturally occurring anti-A? and tau antibodies in IVIg with a view toward explaining potential mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects. PMID:23861639
Kayed, Rakez; Jackson, George R; Estes, D Mark; Barrett, Alan D T
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Currently available therapies are symptomatic but do not alter underlying disease progression. Immunotherapeutic approaches such as anti A? peptide active vaccination trials have had limited success to date. Intravenous immunoblobulin (IVIg) is widely used in immune-mediated neurological disorders such myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These preparations have been obtained from the pooled plasma of healthy human donors and contain natural anti-amyloid antibodies and are well tolerated. A small pilot study of passive immunotherapy using IVIg has suggested cognitive improvement. A multicenter phase III trial is ongoing and will determine whether or not this treatment can ameliorate cognitive deficits in mild-to-moderate AD. Here, we briefly review the pathogenic role of amyloid and tau in AD, as well as immunotherapeutic efforts to date. We also summarize what is known about naturally occurring anti-A? and tau antibodies in IVIg with a view toward explaining potential mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects.
Kayed, Rakez; Jackson, George R.; Estes, D. Mark; Barrett, Alan D.T.
Offers various reasons why the study of parasites and the diseases they cause should be incorporated into classroom biology discussions. Examples of several parasitic diseases and their ecological significance are provided. (JN)
Flannery, Maura C.
Chagas' disease is a major health problem in Latin America, where it constitutes one of the leading causes of heart failure. About one fourth of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals develop chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CChC), the most severe form of the disease. CChC is histologically characterized by the presence of multifocal inflammatory infiltrates in the heart, composed mainly by mononuclear cells, usually
MILENA B. P. SOARES; LAIN PONTES-DE-CARVALHO; RICARDO RIBEIRO-DOS-SANTOS
Although congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common survivable birth defect, the etiology of most CHD remains unclear. Several lines of evidence from humans and vertebrate models have supported a genetic component for CHD, yet the extreme locus heterogeneity and lack of a distinct genotype-phenotype correlation have limited causative gene discovery. However, recent advances in genomic technologies are permitting detailed evaluation of the genetic abnormalities in large cohorts of CHD patients. This has led to the identification of copy-number variation and de novo mutations together accounting for up to 15% of CHD. Further, new strategies coupling human genetics with model organisms have provided mechanistic insights into the molecular and developmental pathways underlying CHD pathogenesis, notably chromatin remodeling and ciliary signaling. PMID:23790954
Yuan, Shiaulou; Zaidi, Samir; Brueckner, Martina
Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic infection endemic in Latin America. The late onset chronic complications can be fatal. Several cases have been recently diagnosed in Switzerland, where systematic screening of groups at risk should be implemented. Considering the variable transmission patterns, screening strategies should be adapted to the different groups at risk. As the vast majority of persons at risk belong to marginalized communities with limited access to care, systematic screening and treatment of infected individuals represent a major challenge in order to interrupt the congenital transmission and improve the long-term prognosis. PMID:18561827
Jackson, Yves; Chappuis, François; Loutan, Louis
The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases
Xiao-Nong Zhou; Shan Lv; Guo-Jing Yang; Thomas K Kristensen; N Robert Bergquist; Jürg Utzinger; John B Malone
Rickettsioses are caused by species of Rickettsia, a genus comprising organisms characterized by their strictly intracellular location and their association with arthropods. Rickettsia species are difficult to cultivate in vitro and exhibit strong serological cross-reactions with each other. These technical difficulties long prohibited a detailed study of the rickettsiae, and it is only following the recent introduction of novel laboratory methods that progress in this field has been possible. In this review, we discuss the impact that these practical innovations have had on the study of rickettsiae. Prior to 1986, only eight rickettsioses were clinically recognized; however, in the last 10 years, an additional six have been discovered. We describe the different steps that resulted in the description of each new rickettsiosis and discuss the influence of factors as diverse as physicians' curiosity and the adoption of molecular biology-based identification in helping to recognize these new infections. We also assess the pathogenic potential of rickettsial strains that to date have been associated only with arthropods, and we discuss diseases of unknown etiology that may be rickettsioses.
Raoult, D; Roux, V
Since 1986, approximately 170,000 cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have occurred among approximately one million animals infected by contaminated feed in the United Kingdom. A ruminant feed ban in 1988 resulted in the rapid decline of the epidemic. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies due to agents indistinguishable from BSE have appeared in small numbers of exotic zoo animals; a small outbreak among domestic cats is declining. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been intensively monitored since 1990 because of the risk BSE could pose to public health. In 1995, two adolescents in the United Kingdom died of CJD, and through the early part of 1996, other relatively young people had cases of what became known as new variant CJD, whose transmissible agent (indistinguishable from that of BSE) is responsible for 26 cases in the United Kingdom and one in France. Areas of concern include how many cases will appear in the future and whether or not use of human blood and blood products may cause a second cycle of human infections. PMID:9716952
Ciguatera poisoning is a food-borne neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of finfish that have accumulated ciguatoxins in their tissues. Ciguatera is a distressing and sometimes disabling condition that presents with a self-limiting though occasionally severe gastro-intestinal illness, progressing to a suite of aberrant sensory symptoms. Recovery can take from days to years; second and subsequent attacks may manifest in a more severe illness. Ciguatera remains largely a pan-tropical disease, although tourism and export fish markets facilitate increased presentation in temperate latitudes. While ciguatera poisoning in the South Pacific was recognised and eloquently described by seafarers in the 18th Century, it remains a public-health challenge in the 21st Century because there is neither a confirmatory diagnostic test nor a reliable, low-cost screening method to ascertain the safety of suspect fish prior to consumption. A specific antidote is not available, so treatment is largely supportive. The most promising pharmacotherapy of recent decades, intravenous mannitol, has experienced a relative decline in acceptance after a randomized, double-blind trial failed to confirm its efficacy. Some questions remain unanswered, however, and the use of mannitol for the treatment of acute ciguatera poisoning arguably deserves revisiting. The immunotoxicology of ciguatera is poorly understood, and some aspects of the epidemiology and symptomatology of ciguatera warrant further enquiry. PMID:21092393
Stewart, I; Lewis, R J; Eaglesham, G K; Graham, G C; Poole, S; Craig, S B
Since 1986, approximately 170,000 cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have occurred among approximately one million animals infected by contaminated feed in the United Kingdom. A ruminant feed ban in 1988 resulted in the rapid decline of the epidemic. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies due to agents indistinguishable from BSE have appeared in small numbers of exotic zoo animals; a small outbreak among domestic cats is declining. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been intensively monitored since 1990 because of the risk BSE could pose to public health. In 1995, two adolescents in the United Kingdom died of CJD, and through the early part of 1996, other relatively young people had cases of what became known as new variant CJD, whose transmissible agent (indistinguishable from that of BSE) is responsible for 26 cases in the United Kingdom and one in France. Areas of concern include how many cases will appear in the future and whether or not use of human blood and blood products may cause a second cycle of human infections.
An outbreak of Chagas disease occurred in Mazagão, Amapá, Brazilian Amazon in 1996. Seventeen of 26 inhabitants presented symptoms compatible with acute Chagas disease and were submitted to parasitological and serological tests. All 17 were positive in at least one parasitological test and 11 were also IgM or IgG anti-Trypanosoma cruzi positive. The nine asymptomatic patients were negative for parasites and one was positive for IgG anti-T. cruzi. Sixty-eight triatomines were captured (66 Rhodnius pictipes; two Panstrongylus geniculatus); 45 were infected with T. cruzi (43 R. pictipes; two P. geniculatus). Thirteen trypanosomatid strains were isolated: eight from humans and five from R. pictipes. Four were genotyped as T. cruzi I (two from humans; two from R. pictipes), seven as T. cruzi Z3 (six from humans; one from R. pictipes) and two as T. cruzi Z3 and T. rangeli (from R. pictipes). Treatment started for all patients leading to a decrease in parasitaemia in 16 during the follow-up period (6 months, 1, 5 and 7 years). All were serologically negative 7 years post-treatment. There was an overlap of genotypes in the same ecotope, raising the possibility of transmission through the oral route and the need for early therapeutic intervention for better patient management in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:19118852
Valente, Sebastião Aldo da Silva; da Costa Valente, Vera; das Neves Pinto, Ana Yecê; de Jesus Barbosa César, Maria; dos Santos, Marivaldo Picanço; Miranda, Clóvis Omar Sá; Cuervo, Patrícia; Fernandes, Octavio
Biochemical and structural modifications were investigated in axenic cultured Trypanosoma cruzi after treatment with gangliosides. Fluorescence anisotropy showed dose dependent increments in parasite membranes of ganglioside treated epimastigotes. NADP-GDH activity increased in parasites treated at day 4 (13%), 7 (137.2%), and 14 (28.50%) while NAD-MDH but decreased from day 7 to 21 (?5.74%, ?32.22%, ?27.92%). Treated parasites presented electron-lucent vacuoles
S. Cossy Isasi; M. Rodríguez; B. M. I. Pereira; C. Díaz-luján; R. E. Fretes; D. I. Haüen
This article reviews emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and provides insights regarding the evolution of our understanding of natural diseases and how that knowledge impacts the development of plans and methods for defending against the deliberate use of biological agents. Also discussed are forensic and legal issues for the pathologist concerning agents of biological terrorism and biological warfare, the concept of chain of custody, transport, storage, and biosafety levels. It defines the importance of the pathologist in managing the threat posed by biological weapons. PMID:11572135
Marty, A M; Conran, R M; Kortepeter, M G
We analyzed parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (KMC) from 1984 to 2005. The total number of parasite infection cases was 150 (0.07%) out of the total 211,859 biopsy specimens submitted for histopathological examinations. They consisted of 62 cysticercosis, 23 sparganosis, 16 paragonimiasis, 15 amebiasis, 11 anisakiasis, 11 clonorchiasis, 3 ascariasis, 2 scabies, 2 enterobiasis, 2 trichuriasis, 1 leishmaniasis, 1 taeniasis, and 1 thelaziasis. Out of 62 cysticercosis cases, 55 were detected in subcutaneous tissues or the central nerve system. Eighteen out of 23 sparganosis cases were involved in muscular and subcutaneous tissues. In most anisakiasis cases, the involved organ was the stomach. The lung and the pleura were the most common site of paragonimiasis. The incidence of parasitic diseases during the first 5 years (1984-1988) was the highest of all observed periods. After 1989, similar incidences were shown throughout the period. Whereas cysticercosis was diagnosed in 34 cases during 1984-1988, no case has been diagnosed since 2000. In the case of sparganosis, the chronological incidence was almost uniform throughout the period 1984-2005. Paragonimiasis showed a similar tendency to cysticercosis. In gender and age distribution of parasitic diseases, men showed higher incidence rates than females, and the age groups of the 40s or older indicated higher infection frequencies than other age groups. Therefore, these results are a significant report to appear the tendency of human parasitic disease diagnosed by tissue biopsy in association with parasitosis at KMC in Seoul.
Chu, Jong-Phil; Jiang, Meihua; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Bum-Shik; Kim, Deog-Gon; Park, Yong-Koo
Diseases that afflict aquatic animals living in waters suspected or known to be polluted are described. The following pollutants are discussed with regard to their effects on the environment and the animals of the estuaries; pesticides, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and fecal pollution. Microorganisms are discussed with regard to public health and fish health. Transmission of the virus of infectious
Robin M. Overstreet; Harold D. Howse
Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ,i sa nemerging infectious disease implicated in declines of amphibian populations around the globe. An emerging infectious disease is one that has recently been discovered; has recently increased in incidence, geography, or host range; or is newly evolved. For any given outbreak of an emerging disease, it is therefore possible to state
LARA J. RACHOWICZ; JEAN-MARC HERO; ROSS A. ALFORD; JOHN W. TAYLOR; JESS A. T. MORGAN; VANCE T. VREDENBURG; JAMES P. COLLINS; CHERYL J. BRIGGS
Background Concern intensifying that emerging infectious diseases and global environmental changes that could generate major future human pandemics. Method A focused literature review was undertaken, partly informed by a forthcoming report on environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty, facilitated by the Special Programme for Tropical Diseases. Results More than ten categories of infectious disease emergence exist, but none formally analyse past, current or future burden of disease. Other evidence suggests that the dominant public health concern focuses on two informal groupings. Most important is the perceived threat of newly recognised infections, especially viruses that arise or are newly discovered in developing countries that originate in species exotic to developed countries, such as non-human primates, bats and rodents. These pathogens may be transmitted by insects or bats, or via direct human contact with bushmeat. The second group is new strains of influenza arising from intensively farmed chickens or pigs, or emerging from Asian “wet markets” where several bird species have close contact. Both forms appear justified because of two great pandemics: HIV/AIDS (which appears to have originated from bushmeat hunting in Africa before emerging globally) and Spanish influenza, which killed up to 2.5% of the human population around the end of World War I. Insufficiently appreciated is the contribution of the milieu which appeared to facilitate the high disease burden in these pandemics. Additionally, excess anxiety over emerging infectious diseases diverts attention from issues of greater public health importance, especially: (i) existing (including neglected) infectious diseases and (ii) the changing milieu that is eroding the determinants of immunity and public health, caused by adverse global environmental changes, including climate change and other components of stressed life and civilisation-supporting systems. Conclusions The focus on novel pathogens and minor forms of anti-microbial resistance in emerging disease literature is unjustified by their burden of disease, actual and potential, and diverts attention from far more important health problems and determinants. There is insufficient understanding of systemic factors that promote pandemics. Adverse global change could generate circumstances conducive to future pandemics with a high burden of disease, arising via anti-microbial and insecticidal resistance, under-nutrition, conflict, and public health breakdown.
Text Version... Parasite. (Plasmodium spp). Other/emerging. (Yersinia pestis); (Staphylococcus aureus); Allergenic products; (Probiotics). 5 /15. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
The new dialogue between stakeholders, that is, scientists, research administrators and donors as well as the populations victimized by endemic infections, is initiating a virtuous circle leading to lower disease-burdens, improved public health and the mitigation of poverty. There is now general agreement that control activities need research collaboration to advance, while surveillance plays an increasingly important role in sustaining long-term relief. On the part of the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)), this has led to a new vision not only focused on general strengthening of research capabilities but also on furthering efforts to close the gap between research and control and bridge different branches of science. From its original, exclusive focus on schistosomiasis, RNAS(+) has expanded to include food-borne and soil-transmitted helminth infections as well. Its current repository of data on the distribution, prevalence and severity of these diseases is increasingly utilised by decision makers charged with epidemiological control in the endemic countries. Thanks to a more rapid translation of research results into control applications and the dissemination of data and new technology through networking, the overall situation is improving. Working as a virtual organisation of researchers and control officers in the endemic countries of Southeast Asia, RNAS(+) is playing an important role in this conversion. Its responsibilities are divided along disease lines into five main areas, but no serious, endemic disease is considered to be outside the network's sphere of interest. This chapter recounts some of the more important RNAS(+) accomplishments, pinpoints potential directions for future operations and highlights areas where research is most needed. PMID:20624528
Olveda, Remigio; Leonardo, Lydia; Zheng, Feng; Sripa, Banchob; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
The trypanosomatids Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis, respectively. It is estimated that over 10 million people worldwide suffer from these neglected diseases, posing enormous social and economic problems in endemic areas. There are no vaccines to prevent these infections and chemotherapies are not adequate. This picture indicates that new chemotherapeutic agents must be developed to treat these illnesses. For this purpose, understanding the biology of the pathogenic trypanosomatid-host cell interface is fundamental for molecular and functional characterization of virulence factors that may be used as targets for the development of inhibitors to be used for effective chemotherapy. In this context, it is well known that proteases have crucial functions for both metabolism and infectivity of pathogens and are thus potential drug targets. In this regard, prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, both members of the S9 serine protease family, have been shown to play important roles in the interactions of pathogenic protozoa with their mammalian hosts and may thus be considered targets for drug design. This review aims to discuss structural and functional properties of these intriguing enzymes and their potential as targets for the development of drugs against Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis.
Bastos, I.M.D; Motta, F.N; Grellier, P; Santana, J.M
Anthropogenic land use changes drive a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and modify the transmission of endemic infections. These drivers include agricultural encroachment, deforestation, road construction, dam building, irrigation, wetland modification, mining, the concentration or expansion of urban environments, coastal zone degradation, and other activities. These changes in turn cause a cascade of factors that exacerbate infectious disease emergence, such as forest fragmentation, disease introduction, pollution, poverty, and human migration. The Working Group on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence grew out of a special colloquium that convened international experts in infectious diseases, ecology, and environmental health to assess the current state of knowledge and to develop recommendations for addressing these environmental health challenges. The group established a systems model approach and priority lists of infectious diseases affected by ecologic degradation. Policy-relevant levels of the model include specific health risk factors, landscape or habitat change, and institutional (economic and behavioral) levels. The group recommended creating Centers of Excellence in Ecology and Health Research and Training, based at regional universities and/or research institutes with close links to the surrounding communities. The centers' objectives would be 3-fold: a) to provide information to local communities about the links between environmental change and public health; b) to facilitate fully interdisciplinary research from a variety of natural, social, and health sciences and train professionals who can conduct interdisciplinary research; and c) to engage in science-based communication and assessment for policy making toward sustainable health and ecosystems. PMID:15238283
Patz, Jonathan A; Daszak, Peter; Tabor, Gary M; Aguirre, A Alonso; Pearl, Mary; Epstein, Jon; Wolfe, Nathan D; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Molyneux, David; Bradley, David J
A risk framework has been developed to examine the influence of climate change on disease emergence in the United Kingdom. The fish immune response and the replication of pathogens are often correlated with water temperature, which manifest as temperature ranges for infection and clinical diseases. These data are reviewed for the major endemic and exotic disease threats to freshwater fish. Increasing water temperatures will shift the balance in favour of either the host or pathogen, changing the frequency and distribution of disease. A number of endemic diseases of salmonids (e.g. enteric red mouth, furunculosis, proliferative kidney disease and white spot) will become more prevalent and difficult to control as water temperatures increase. Outbreaks of koi herpesvirus in carp fisheries are likely to occur over a longer period each summer. Climate change also alters the threat level associated with exotic pathogens. The risk of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHSV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) declines as infection generally only establishes when water temperatures are less than 14°C for VHSV and IHNV and 17°C for SCVC. The risk of establishment of other exotic pathogens (epizootic haematopoietic necrosis and epizootic ulcerative syndrome) increases. The spread of Lactococcus garvieae northwards in Europe is likely to continue, and thus is more likely to be both introduced and become established. Measures to reduce the threat of exotic pathogens need to be revised to account for the changing exotic diseases threat. Increasing water temperatures and the negative effects of extreme weather events (e.g. storms) are likely to alter the freshwater environment adversely for both wild and farmed salmonid populations, increasing their susceptibility to disease and the likelihood of disease emergence. For wild populations, surveillance and risk mitigation need to be focused on locations where disease emergence, as a result of climate change, is most likely. PMID:20561287
Marcos-López, M; Gale, P; Oidtmann, B C; Peeler, E J
15,000 years ago, the Sahara was moist, inhabited by tropical fauna and travelled over by nomadic populations. Later, the dryness incited human migrations to North or West Africa. African bilharziasis (S. mansoni and S. haematobium) could have been carried by nomadic populations infected in the Nile River. Sickle cell disease and alpha-thalassemia are derived from Saudi Arabia (unless in the case of alpha-thalassemia there was an identical mutation in several regions). Echinococcosis was brought with the dromedary in the ptolemaic era whereas ankylostomiasis was brought by the Romans or the Arabs. PMID:3301031
Nozais, J P
The reasons for considering giardiasis as a re-emerging infectious disease are presented, with emphasis on Giardia infections in child care centres, livestock and pets, and the role of zoonotic transmission. However, the aetiology and control of giardiasis is complicated by the genetic and phenotypic variability of Giardia species infective to mammals. Of particular significance has been the uncertainty about host
R. C. Andrew Thompson
During the past 20 years there has been a dramatic resurgence or emergence of epidemic arboviral diseases affecting both humans and domestic animals. These epidemics have been caused primarily by viruses thought to be under control such as dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis, or viruses that have expanded their geographic distribution such as West Nile and
Duane J Gubler
During the past 20 years there has been a dramatic resurgence or emergence of epidemic arboviral diseases affecting both humans and domestic animals. These epidemics have been caused primarily by viruses thought to be under control such as dengue, Japanese en- cephalitis, yellow fever, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis, or viruses that have ex- panded their geographic distribution such as West
Duane J. Gubler
Emerging vector-borne diseases are an important issue in global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, while many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and emergence of endemic pathogens are often considered to be distinct processes, many endemic pathogens are actually spreading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. We draw attention to key differences between dynamics and disease burden that result from increased pathogen transmission after habitat change and after introduction into new regions. Local emergence is commonly driven by changes in human factors as much as by enhanced enzootic cycles, whereas pathogen invasion results from anthropogenic trade and travel where and when conditions (eg, hosts, vectors, and climate) are suitable for a pathogen. Once a pathogen is established, ecological factors related to vector characteristics can shape the evolutionary selective pressure and result in increased use of people as transmission hosts. We describe challenges inherent in the control of vector-borne zoonotic diseases and some emerging non-traditional strategies that could be effective in the long term. PMID:23200503
Kilpatrick, A Marm; Randolph, Sarah E
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in a world where information about infectious disease outbreaks travels at speeds and in ways not imagined just 30 years ago, and where scientists are increasingly working together on detecting and responding to public health events that threaten international public health and economic security. The SARS outbreak clearly demonstrated that it is no longer
David L Heymann
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. The following questions stimulated the research described in this report: What infrastructure is necessary to enable EID surveillance in developing countries? What are the cultural, political, and economic challenges that are faced? Are there generalizations that may
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare to deliver a scientific statement on bovine besnoitiosis. Recent epidemiological data confirm an increased number of cases and geographic expansion of besnoitiosis in cattle herds in some EU MS therefore bovine besnoitiosis should be considered an emerging disease in the EU. However many aspects of the
The basis for therapeutic strategies targeting the amyloid-? protein (A?) has come from studies showing that accumulation and aggregation of the A? within the brain is likely to cause Alzheimer's disease (AD). Along with an ever-increasing understanding of A? metabolism, many potential therapeutic strategies aimed at altering A? metabolism have emerged. Among the more intriguing targets for therapy are enzymes
Todd E Golde; Christopher B Eckman
Globalisation is leading to a rise in the emergence of diseases and the author describes the new challenges that this brings for individual countries and the international community. The paper describes the existing international early warning systems and response mechanisms, discusses the role of international organisations in managing diseases that have the potential for cross-border spread, and underlines the importance of disease surveillance, detection and response at national level. While international collaboration exists in dealing with disease emergency situations, there is a need to develop regional and international contingency plans that can be launched as soon as an emergency situation arises. This will only be possible if there is the political will to tackle problems wherever they occur. The Global Early Warning System, which is a system currently being developed jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Organisation for Animal Health and the World Health Organization, could provide an effective framework in which to achieve a higher level of international emergency preparedness. PMID:15702730
Jebara, K Ben
We use a compartmental model to illustrate a possible mechanism for multiple outbreaks or even sustained periodic oscillations of emerging infectious diseases due to the psychological impact of the reported numbers of infectious and hospitalized individuals. This impact leads to the change of avoidance and contact patterns at both individual and community levels, and incorporating this impact using a simple
Rongsong Liu; Jianhong Wu; Huaiping Zhu
Parasitic protozoa infecting humans have a staggering impact on public health, especially in the developing world. Furthermore, several protozoan species are major pathogens of domestic animals and have a considerable impact on food production. In many instances, the parasites have developed resistance against available chemotherapeutic agents, making the search for alternative drugs a priority. In line with the current interest in protein kinases inhibitors as potential drugs against a variety of diseases, the possibility that protein kinases may represent targets for novel anti-parasitic agents is being explored. Research into parasite protein kinases has benefited greatly from genome and EST sequencing projects, with the genomes of a few species fully sequenced (notably that of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum) and several more under way. The overall picture that emerged from research in this area shows that the phylogenetic isolation of parasitic protozoa is reflected by atypical structural and functional properties of many of their protein kinase homologues. Likewise, evidence is emerging, which suggests that the organisation of some otherwise well-conserved signal transduction pathways is divergent in some parasitic species. The differences between protein kinases of a parasite and their homologues in its host cell suggest that specific inhibition of the former can be achieved. The development of anti-parasitic drugs based on protein kinase inhibition is being pursued following two avenues: one consists of screening chemical libraries on recombinant enzymes; several protein kinases from parasitic protozoa are now available for this approach. The second approach relies on the identification of the molecular targets of kinase inhibitors which display anti-parasitic properties. This has led to promising developments in a few instances, in particular regarding PKG as a drug target against Eimeria and Toxoplasma, and purvalanol B, a purine-based CDK inhibitor which appears to affect unexpected targets in several protozoan parasites. The recent resolution of the structure of a Plasmodium protein kinase complexed with small inhibitory molecules opens the way to a rational approach towards the design of anti-parasitic drugs based on kinase inhibition. PMID:15023358
Many infectious diseases have emerged and circulated around the world with the development of human civilizations and global commerce. Anthrax, plague and tularemia are three such zoonotic diseases that have been intensely studied through genome characterization and phylogeographic analyses. A few highly fit genotypes within each of the causative species represent the vast majority of observed disease cases. Mutational and selective forces working together create highly adapted pathogens, but this has to be coupled with ecological opportunities for global expansion. This Review describes the distributions of the bacteria that cause anthrax, plague and tularemia and investigates the forces that created a clonal structure in both these species, and specific groups within these species.
Keim, Paul S.; Wagner, David M.
A case of parkinson's disease starting 7 yrs. ago in 1993 with 2 episodes of mania is presented. The 1st episode (1993) was of 1-1/2 months duration, when early parkinsons symptoms had already set in. This was treated with anti-psychotic medications for a month, the picture was complicated with stroke and post-stroke sequlae for 5-6 months, where anti-psychotics were continued. He developed dyskinesia, when antipsychotics were stopped. The patient was on selegiline for Parkinson's disease for 2 years and off all medications subsequently. The 2nd episode of mania occurred after 7 years in January 2000. This episode of mania lasting for 2 months duration was treated with divalproate sodium and I-dopa for Parkinson's. Treatment emergent dyskinesia had to be treated with Clozapine. This unusual combination of bipolar-l disorer (2 episodes of mania) with Parkinson's disease and treatment emergent dyskinesia is presented with management strategy. PMID:21407984
Yadav, R; Pinto, C
A case of parkinson's disease starting 7 yrs. ago in 1993 with 2 episodes of mania is presented. The 1st episode (1993) was of 1-1/2 months duration, when early parkinsons symptoms had already set in. This was treated with anti-psychotic medications for a month, the picture was complicated with stroke and post-stroke sequlae for 5-6 months, where anti-psychotics were continued. He developed dyskinesia, when antipsychotics were stopped. The patient was on selegiline for Parkinson's disease for 2 years and off all medications subsequently. The 2nd episode of mania occurred after 7 years in January 2000. This episode of mania lasting for 2 months duration was treated with divalproate sodium and I-dopa for Parkinson's. Treatment emergent dyskinesia had to be treated with Clozapine. This unusual combination of bipolar-l disorer (2 episodes of mania) with Parkinson's disease and treatment emergent dyskinesia is presented with management strategy.
Yadav, Rajeev; Pinto, Charles
After a long period of endemicity until the 1950s, the World Health Organization considered autochthonous malaria eliminated from Réunion in 1979. To prevent secondary transmission and re-emergence of autochthonous malaria, permanent epidemiologic and entomological surveillance and vector control measures are conducted. The objective of this study is to report sociodemographic characteristics of imported malaria patients and incidence rates from 2003-2008 using mandatory notification with the aim of identifying risk groups and destinations. During this period, 684 imported malaria cases were reported. Median age of patients was 34.4 years and 22.1% were children = 15 years. Men represented 67.7% of cases and 59.1% of patients reported having taken chemoprophylaxis based on chloroquine alone. Incidence of malaria was considerably different by country destination. For Comoros, incidence was stable and high during the period accounting for 1481 cases per 100000 travels in 2008. The rate was lower for travels to Madagascar, South Africa and Mayotte and decreased over the period to 37, 19 and 3 per 100000 respectively, by 2008. To avoid re-emergence of malaria on the island and to protect themselves, travelers should reduce their risks of acquisition and importation of parasites by using adequate preventive measures. A special preventive program and social mobilisation should be a priority, essentially for the Comorian community in Réunion. PMID:19914673
D'Ortenzio, E; Sissoko, D; Dehecq, J S; Renault, P; Filleul, L
Summary While some sceptics remain unconvinced that global climate change is a reality, there is no doubt that during the past 50 years or so, patterns of emerging arbovirus diseases have changed significantly. Can this be attributed to climate change? Climate is a major factor in determining: (1) the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods; (2) characteristics of arthropod life cycles; (3) dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses; (4) the evolution of arboviruses; and (5) the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. Thus, under the influence of increasing temperatures and rainfall through warming of the oceans, and alteration of the natural cycles that stabilise climate, one is inevitably drawn to the conclusion that arboviruses will continue to emerge in new regions. For example, we cannot ignore the unexpected but successful establishment of chikungunya fever in northern Italy, the sudden appearance of West Nile virus in North America, the increasing frequency of Rift Valley fever epidemics in the Arabian Peninsula, and very recently, the emergence of Bluetongue virus in northern Europe. In this brief review we ask the question, are these diseases emerging because of climate change or do other factors play an equal or even more important role in their emergence?
Gould, E.A.; Higgs, S.
Sickle cell disease is the most common inherited blood disorder in the United States. This disorder of hemoglobin structure leads to a chronic hemolytic anemia and complex chronic disease manifested by sudden, severe, and life-threatening complications. These acute complications can occur in any organ system beginning in early childhood and lasting throughout life. The intermittent nature and acuity of these complications lend the emergency department to be an important site of care. The hallmark of sickle cell disease is the vasoocclusive painful event. Other more “typical” complications include fever, acute chest syndrome, priapism, and ischemic stroke. Children with sickle cell disease can also present with other “atypical” complications that can have devastating consequences if they are unrecognized. Detailed discussion of these “atypical” sickle cell disease complications, organized by organ system involved, will be the focus of this article.
Brandow, Amanda M.; Liem, Robert
Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in infectious disease outbreaks. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required, and given limited resources, policy decision makers need rational methods with which to prioritise pathogen threats. Here expert opinion was collected to determine what criteria could be used to prioritise diseases according to the likelihood of emergence in response to climate change and according to their impact. We identified a total of 40 criteria that might be used for this purpose in the Canadian context. The opinion of 64 experts from academic, government and independent backgrounds was collected to determine the importance of the criteria. A weight was calculated for each criterion based on the expert opinion. The five that were considered most influential on disease emergence or impact were: potential economic impact, severity of disease in the general human population, human case fatality rate, the type of climate that the pathogen can tolerate and the current climatic conditions in Canada. There was effective consensus about the influence of some criteria among participants, while for others there was considerable variation. The specific climate criteria that were most likely to influence disease emergence were: an annual increase in temperature, an increase in summer temperature, an increase in summer precipitation and to a lesser extent an increase in winter temperature. These climate variables were considered to be most influential on vector-borne diseases and on food and water-borne diseases. Opinion about the influence of climate on air-borne diseases and diseases spread by direct/indirect contact were more variable. The impact of emerging diseases on the human population was deemed more important than the impact on animal populations.
Cox, Ruth; Revie, Crawford W.; Sanchez, Javier
Most emerging diseases of humans originate in animals, and zoonotic emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) threaten human, animal, and environment health. We report on a scoping study to assess actors, linkages, priorities, and needs related to management of these diseases from the perspective of key stakeholders in three countries in Southeast Asia. A comprehensive interview guide was developed and in-depth interviews completed with 21 key stakeholders in Vietnam, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia. We found numerous relevant actors with a predominance of public sector and medical disciplines. More capacity weaknesses than strengths were reported, with risk analysis and research skills most lacking. Social network analysis of information flows showed policy-makers were regarded as mainly information recipients, research institutes as more information providers, and universities as both. Veterinary and livestock disciplines emerged as an important "boundary-spanning" organization with linkages to both human health and rural development. Avian influenza was regarded as the most important zoonotic EID, perhaps reflecting the priority-setting influence of actors outside the region. Stakeholders reported a high awareness of the ecological and socioeconomic drivers of disease emergence and a demand for disease prioritization, epidemiological skills, and economic and qualitative studies. Evaluated from an ecohealth perspective, human health is weakly integrated with socioeconomics, linkages to policy are stronger than to communities, participation occurs mainly at lower levels, and equity considerations are not fully considered. However, stakeholders have awareness of ecological and social determinants of health, and a basis exists on which transdisciplinarity, equity, and participation can be strengthened. PMID:21174223
Grace, Delia; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Lapar, M Lucila; Unger, Fred; Fèvre, Sonia; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Schelling, Esther
Experiments almost 20 years ago demonstrated that injections of a sequence of DNA encoding part of a pathogen could stimulate immunity. It was soon realized that "DNA vaccination" had numerous potential advantages over conventional vaccine approaches including inherent safety and a more rapid production time. These and other attributes make DNA vaccines ideal for development against emerging pathogens. Recent advances in optimizing various aspects of DNA vaccination have accelerated this approach from concept to reality in contemporary human trials. Although not yet licensed for human use, several DNA vaccines have now been approved for animal health indications. The rapid manufacturing capabilities of DNA vaccines may be particularly important for emerging infectious diseases including the current novel H1N1 Influenza A pandemic, where pre-existing immunity is limited. Because of recent advances in DNA vaccination, this approach has the potential to be a powerful new weapon in protecting against emerging and potentially pandemic human pathogens.
Moss, Ronald B
Genes underlying important phenotypic differences between Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria, are frequently found in only a subset of species and cluster at dynamically evolving subtelomeric regions of chromosomes. We hypothesized that chromosome-internal regions of Plasmodium genomes harbour additional species subset-specific genes that underlie differences in human pathogenicity, human-to-human transmissibility, and human virulence. We combined sequence similarity searches with synteny block analyses to identify species subset-specific genes in chromosome-internal regions of six published Plasmodium genomes, including Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium berghei, and Plasmodium chabaudi. To improve comparative analysis, we first revised incorrectly annotated gene models using homology-based gene finders and examined putative subset-specific genes within syntenic contexts. Confirmed subset-specific genes were then analyzed for their role in biological pathways and examined for molecular functions using publicly available databases. We identified 16 genes that are well conserved in the three primate parasites but not found in rodent parasites, including three key enzymes of the thiamine (vitamin B1) biosynthesis pathway. Thirteen genes were found to be present in both human parasites but absent in the monkey parasite P. knowlesi, including genes specifically upregulated in sporozoites or gametocytes that could be linked to parasite transmission success between humans. Furthermore, we propose 15 chromosome-internal P. falciparum-specific genes as new candidate genes underlying increased human virulence and detected a currently uncharacterized cluster of P. vivax-specific genes on chromosome 6 likely involved in erythrocyte invasion. In conclusion, Plasmodium species harbour many chromosome-internal differences in the form of protein-coding genes, some of which are potentially linked to human disease and thus promising leads for future laboratory research.
Frech, Christian; Chen, Nansheng
The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks.
Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) is a common, important cause of paraspinal hyperesthesia, pelvic limb ataxia, paraparesis, paraplegia, and urinary and fecal incontinence in dogs. Research offers insights into the pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disorder. The comparative efficacy of many familiar therapies remains unknown and controversial. This article reviews the pathophysiology and epidemiology of this condition and the examination and emergency medical therapy of dogs with suspected thoracolumbar IVDD. PMID:19412899
Griffin, John F; Levine, Jonathan; Kerwin, Sharon
During the past decades Neural Stem Cells have been considered as an alternative source of cells to replace lost neurons and NSC transplantation has been indicated as a promising treatment for neurodegenerative disorders. Nevertheless, the current understanding of NSC biology suggests that, far from being mere spare parts for cell replacement therapies, NSCs could play a key role in the pharmacology of neuroprotection and become protagonists of innovative treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review this new emerging concept of NSC biology.
Carletti, Barbara; Piemonte, Fiorella; Rossi, Ferdinando
We report the draft genome sequence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain ST672, an emerging disease clone in India, from a septicemia patient. The genome size is about 2.82 Mb with 2,485 open reading frames (ORFs). The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element (type V) and immune evasion cluster appear to be different from those of strain ST772 on preliminary examination.
Khedkar, Supriya; Prabhakara, Sushma; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; S, Chandana; Gowda, Malali
\\u000a Introduction Adolescents are often seen in Emergency departments (ED) for urgent care. Rates of treatable sexually transmitted diseases\\u000a (Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis) are highest in this age group. This study examines the prevalence of these sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the\\u000a health seeking characteristics of adolescents presenting to an urban pediatric ED.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Participants were enrolled between January 2000 and July
Kathy W. Monroe; Marga Jones; Renee Desmond; Edward W. Hook
The July-August 2001 issue of the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) Emerging Infectious Diseases (see the January 10, 1997 Scout Report) is devoted to the West Nile Virus. The journal offers a large number of articles, many focused on the virus' presence in New York and the use of birds as early warning systems for the virus. The articles also cover outbreaks in Israel, detection of the virus in other mammals, and more. Users can read articles online in HTML, download them as .pdf files, or download the whole issue as a .pdf file via the link in the upper left-hand corner of the page.
The re-emergence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Botswana is reported. The disease outbreak occurred in the Matsiloje Extension Area of Francistown veterinary district situated in the northeastern part of the country in an Office International des épízooties (OIE) recognized FMD free zone without vaccination. The disease affected cattle only and did not spillover into sheep and goats resident in the same extension area, as demonstrated by lack of seroconversion to FMD when tested. The virus isolate associated with the outbreak was identified as FMD virus; Southern African Territories (SAT) type SAT-2. The disease outbreak is discussed in relation to FMD outbreaks that have occurred previously within and outside Botswana. PMID:15158214
Baipoledi, E K; Matlho, G; Letshwenyo, M; Chimbombi, M; Adom, E K; Raborokgwe, M V; Hyera, J M K
Despite numerous advances in the diagnosis and control of infectious diseases of nonhuman primates in the laboratory setting, a number of infectious agents continue to plague colonies. Some, such as measles virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, cause sporadic outbreaks despite well-established biosecurity protocols, whereas others, such as retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus, have only recently been discovered, often as a result of immunosuppressive experimental manipulation. Owing to the unique social housing requirements of nonhuman primates, importation of foreign-bred animals, and lack of antemortem diagnostic assays for many new diseases, elimination of these agents is often difficult or impractical. Recognition of these diseases is therefore essential because of their confounding effects on experimental data, impact on colony health, and potential for zoonotic transmission. This review summarizes the relevant pathology and pathogenesis of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases of laboratory nonhuman primates. PMID:20472806
Bailey, C; Mansfield, K
Progesterone action normally mediates the balance between anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory processes throughout the female reproductive tract. However, in women with endometriosis, endometrial progesterone resistance, characterized by alterations in progesterone responsive gene and protein expression, is now considered a central element in disease pathophysiology. Recent studies additionally suggest that the peritoneal microenvironment of endometriosis patients exhibits altered physiological characteristics that may further promote inflammation-driven disease development and progression. Within this review, we summarize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of endometriosis with an emphasis on the role that inflammation plays in generating not only the progesterone-resistant eutopic endometrium but also a peritoneal microenvironment that may contribute significantly to disease establishment. Viewing endometriosis from the emerging perspective that a progesterone resistant endometrium and an immunologically compromised peritoneal microenvironment are biologically linked risk factors for disease development provides a novel mechanistic framework to identify new therapeutic targets for appropriate medical management. PMID:23598784
Bruner-Tran, K L; Herington, J L; Duleba, A J; Taylor, H S; Osteen, K G
Broad-scale clearing of native vegetation for agriculture in southwestern Australia has resulted in severe ecosystem degradation, which has been compounded by the subsequent development of large areas of dryland salinity; decreased transevaporation allows the water table to rise, dissolving ancient aeolian salt deposits and creating saline surface pools. The mosquito-borne disease Ross River virus has been noted as a potential adverse human health outcome in salinity-affected regions because the principal vector, Aedes camptorhynchus, is salt tolerant and thrives preferentially in such systems. To understand the geology and ecology underlying the relationship between land clearing and disease emergence, we examine the relationship between dryland salinity processes that determine the dissolved solids profile of saline pools in affected areas, the mosquito vectors and interactions with the human population within the disease cycle. Aedes camptorhynchus is able to survive in a wide range of salinities in pools created by dryland salinity processes. The link with disease emergence is achieved where population distribution and activity overlaps with the convergence of environmental and ecological conditions that enhance disease transmission. PMID:21416220
Jardine, Andrew; Corkeron, Maree; Weinstein, Phil
The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR.
Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut
Increasing temperatures, but also other climatic factors, will have an impact on human health. Apart from the direct consequences of extreme weather conditions (e.g., heat-related fatalities), indirect health consequences in the long-term are also of great importance. In addition to a likely increase in allergic diseases and additional complications in the course of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, infectious diseases are of particular interest. In Germany, endemic pathogens, such as hantavirus (with its reservoir in small rodents), tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi, tick-borne encephalitis virus), and certain food- and water-borne pathogens, are of concern. Mild winters favor rodent populations and may result in hantavirus epidemics in the subsequent summer period. Statistical analyses show a significant association between temperature and campylobacter incidence in Germany. An outbreak of rodent-borne leptospirosis among strawberry harvesters enhanced by heavy rainfalls illustrates how weather conditions may influence disease occurrence. Pathogens that are non-endemic in Germany but are imported by humans, vectors, and reservoir animals pose an additional risk to the population. Increasing temperatures improve the conditions for establishment of new vectors and for autochthonous transmission of some pathogens (e.g., chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, malaria, or leishmaniasis). Climatic and ecologic conditions in Germany currently do not favor autochthonous outbreaks for most of these pathogens. However, if temperatures increase, as expected, such outbreaks will become more likely. Germany should enhance its research in public health activities in the field of climate change and infectious diseases. PMID:19536444
Stark, K; Niedrig, M; Biederbick, W; Merkert, H; Hacker, J
Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining 'source' populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector populations, but where immigration allows them to persist. We built an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of six major human vector borne-diseases in such non self-sustaining 'sink' vector populations. The model was parameterized through a review of the literature, and we performed extensive sensitivity analysis to look at the emergence and prevalence of the pathogen that could be encountered in these populations. Despite the low vector abundance in typical sink populations, all six human diseases were able to spread in 15-55% of cases after accidental introduction. The rate of spread was much more strongly influenced by vector longevity, immigration and feeding rates, than by transmission and virulence of the pathogen. Prevalence in humans remained lower than 5% for dengue, leishmaniasis and Japanese encephalitis, but substantially higher for diseases with longer duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were again the key factors, although their influence was lower than on pathogen emergence. Our results emphasize the need for ecology and evolution to be thought in the context of metapopulations made of a mosaic of sink and source habitats, and to design vector control program not only targeting areas of high vector density, but working at a larger spatial scale. PMID:22629337
Rascalou, Guilhem; Pontier, Dominique; Menu, Frédéric; Gourbière, Sébastien
Over the last decade, there has been a major shift in the study of adaptive patterns and processes towards including the role of host-parasite interactions, informed by concepts from evolutionary ecology. As a consequence, a number of major questions have emerged. For example, how genetics affects host-parasite interactions, whether parasitism selects for offspring diversification, whether parasite virulence is an adaptive
BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is a complex mixture of particles and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological studies are moving toward a multipollutant approach, requiring an understanding of possible interactions among the pollutants. We aim to estimate the joint effects of particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10?m (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on emergency hospital admissions for cardiac diseases, and to explore the possible interactions between PM10 and NO2. METHODS: We collected daily time series data from 1998 to 2007 on emergency hospital admissions for cardiac diseases in Hong Kong, as well as PM10 and NO2 concentrations. Generalized additive Poisson model was used to examine the relationship between air pollution and hospital admissions. We then used three parallel time series approaches (bivariate response surface model, joint effect model and parametric stratified model) to explore the possible interactions between PM10 and NO2. RESULTS: Results showed the greatest joint effect of PM10 and NO2 on emergency cardiac hospitalizations when PM10 and NO2 concentrations were both at high levels. The effect of PM10 was significantly greatest on the days with high NO2 level, and vice versa. A 10?g/m(3) increase of lag0 PM10 and NO2 was associated with an increase of emergency cardiac hospitalizations by 0.55% (95% CI: 0.29-0.80%) and 1.20% (95% CI: 0.87-1.53%) respectively, when the other pollutant was at high level. CONCLUSIONS: We found consistent synergistic interaction between PM10 and NO2 on emergency cardiac hospitalizations in Hong Kong. These findings contribute to the development of a new paradigm for multipollutant air quality management. PMID:23608392
Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Qiu, Hong; Wang, Xiaorong; Tian, Linwei; Tse, Lap Ah
The spectrum of Th1 to Th2 cytokine profiles forms the basis for host defense against infectious disease; however, the mechanisms responsible for the Th2-mediated immune response to enteric nematode parasites are of particular interest for several reasons. First, intestinal parasites continue to be...
BACKGROUND: Concern over bio-terrorism has led to recognition that traditional public health surveillance for specific conditions is unlikely to provide timely indication of some disease outbreaks, either naturally occurring or induced by a bioweapon. In non-traditional surveillance, the use of health care resources are monitored in \\
Judith C Brillman; Tom Burr; David Forslund; Edward Joyce; Rick Picard; Edith Umland
The changing epidemiology of vector-borne diseases represents a growing threat to human health. Contemporary surveillance systems have to adapt to these changes. We describe temporal trends and geographic origins of vector-borne diseases in Germany with regard to strengths of existing disease surveillance and to areas marked for improvement. We focused on hantavirus infection (endemic in Germany), chikungunya fever (recently emerging in Europe) and dengue fever (imported from tropical regions), representing important subgroups of vector-borne infections. Routine surveillance data on demographics, origin of infection and the date of reporting were analysed. From 2001 through 2007, 3,005 symptomatic hantavirus infections, and 85 cases of chikungunya fever were reported, similarly 1,048 cases of dengue fever in 2002 through 2007. The geographic origin of hantavirus infection was reported for 95.5% of all cases (dengue virus, 98.4%; chikungunya virus, 100%). Hantavirus infections were acquired in Germany in 97.6% of cases (n = 2800). In 2007, there was a marked increase of hantavirus cases, mainly in areas known to be endemic for hantavirus. In 2006, imported cases of chikungunya fever primarily returned from several islands of the Indian Ocean, while the majority of imported cases in 2007 came from India. The reported number of dengue fever cases have increased since 2004. Thailand contributed the largest proportion of cases (17-43% in individual years), followed by India, Brazil and Indonesia. Surveillance of notifiable vector-borne diseases in Germany is able to timely detect spatial and temporal changes of autochthonous an imported infections. Geographic and temporal data obtained by routine surveillance served as a basis for public health recommendations. In addition to surveillance of vector-borne infections in humans, nationwide monitoring programs and inventory techniques for emerging and reemerging vectors and for wildlife disease are warranted. PMID:19030882
Jansen, Andreas; Frank, Christina; Koch, Judith; Stark, Klaus
Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. PMID:21214867
Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M
Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (<1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations.
Lachish, Shelly; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Sheldon, Ben C.
|In this study, we tested the parasite-stress hypothesis for the distribution of intelligence among the USA states: the hypothesis proposes that intelligence emerges from a developmental trade-off between maximizing brain vs. immune function. From this we predicted that among the USA states where infectious disease stress was high, average…
Eppig, Christopher; Fincher, Corey L.; Thornhill, Randy
Between 2009 and September 2012, locally acquired cases of P. vivax infection were reported in Greece, mostly from the agricultural area of Evrotas, Lakonia (n = 48), but also sporadically from five other regions (n = 14), suggesting that conditions in these areas are favourable for local transmission of malaria. The risk of re-establishment of malaria in Greece will depend on whether the receptivity for disease transmission (presence of the mosquito vector and adequate ecological and climatic factors) and the vulnerability (importation of the parasite in human reservoirs or presence of infected mosquito vectors) continue to be present in the country. The continuous implementation of the integrated preparedness and response plan for malaria that covers all aspects from surveillance and laboratory diagnosis to vector control and the reorganization of public health infrastructures are necessary to prevent transmission and control the disease in the long term. However, the impact of the severe economic crisis on current health-care, public health infrastructures and vector control constitute a great challenge for the future. The current threat of renewed sustained local malaria transmission in Greece (and thus in continental Europe) merits an international response, including financial and technical support, from European and international stakeholders. PMID:23434287
Danis, Kostas; Lenglet, Annick; Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Tsiodras, Sotiris; Bonovas, Stefanos
Epigenetics acts as an interface between environmental / exogenous factors, cellular responses and pathological processes. Aberrant epigenetic signatures are a hallmark of complex multifactorial diseases, including non-neoplastic disorders (e.g., cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune diseases, and some infectious diseases) and neoplasms (e.g., leukemias, lymphomas, sarcomas, and breast, lung, prostate, liver and colorectal cancers). Epigenetic signatures (DNA methylation, mRNA and microRNA expression, etc.) may serve as biomarkers for risk stratification, early detection, and disease classification, as well as targets for therapy and chemoprevention. DNA methylation assays are widely applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tissue specimens as clinical pathology tests. To better understand the interplay between etiologic factors, cellular molecular characteristics, and disease evolution, the field of “Molecular Pathological Epidemiology (MPE)” has emerged as an interdisciplinary integration of “molecular pathology” and “epidemiology”, with a similar conceptual framework to systems biology and network medicine. In contrast to traditional epidemiologic research including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), MPE is founded on the unique disease principle; that is, each disease process results from unique profiles of exposomes, epigenomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes, microbiomes, and interactomes in relation to the macro-environment and tissue microenvironment. The widespread application of epigenomics (e.g., methylome) analyses will enhance our understanding of disease heterogeneity, epigenotypes (CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 hypomethylation, etc.), and host-disease interactions. MPE may represent a logical evolution of GWAS, termed “GWAS-MPE approach”. Though epigenome-wide association study attracts increasing attention, currently, it has a fundamental problem in that each cell within one individual has a unique, time-varying epigenome. This article will illustrate increasing contribution of modern pathology to broader public health sciences, which attests pivotal roles of pathologists in the new integrated MPE science towards our ultimate goal of personalized medicine and prevention.
Ogino, Shuji; Lochhead, Paul; Chan, Andrew T.; Nishihara, Reiko; Cho, Eunyoung; Wolpin, Brian M.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Meissner, Alexander; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward
With recent spread of infectious diseases, worldwide emergency strategies against them have been made. As one of such efforts we planned to develop an educational program for public health manpower using IT, and produced 4 to 8 minute-long flash animations of the following subjects selected by Education Training Expert Committee: Self-care guideline on H1N1; Instruction for medical hospital; Prevention of hospital acquired infections; Method of sampling & transporting. Demonstrative education using an online education system was conducted targeting 10 doctors working in a rural health center to evaluate the developed animations. They received good marks in the factors of credibility and accuracy, but needed to improve in that of interaction with educatees. Our suggestion is that we use the result of our study as a prototype of education contents on infectious diseases, and modify its contents accordingly when a specific disease breaks out. PMID:22874407
Koh, Myungja; Dev, Parvati; Lee, Eun-Jung; Koo, Byung-Ki; Lee, Kyung-Oak; Ha, Kukhwa; Yang, Heesun; Kang, Gilwon; Lee, Youngsung
During most of the 20th century, the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsioses could be summarized as the occurrence of a single pathogenic rickettsia on each continent. An element of this paradigm suggested that the many other characterized and noncharacterized rickettsiae isolated from ticks were not pathogenic to humans. In this context, it was considered that relatively few tick-borne rickettsiae caused human disease. This concept was modified extensively from 1984 through 2005 by the identification of at least 11 additional rickettsial species or subspecies that cause tick-borne rickettsioses around the world. Of these agents, seven were initially isolated from ticks, often years or decades before a definitive association with human disease was established. We present here the tick-borne rickettsioses described through 2005 and focus on the epidemiological circumstances that have played a role in the emergence of the newly recognized diseases.
Parola, Philippe; Paddock, Christopher D.; Raoult, Didier
A National Companion Animal Surveillance Program (NCASP) was established at Purdue University to monitor clinical syndromes and diseases using the electronic medical records of >80,000 companion animals visiting >500 Banfield hospitals weekly in 44 states. With funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NCASP was initially developed for syndromic surveillance of Category A agents of bioterrorism. Surveillance was expanded through inclusion of electronic reports from Antech Diagnostics, a nationwide network of integrated veterinary diagnostic laboratories serving >18,000 private veterinary practices. NCASP characterizes and displays temporal and spatial patterns of diseases in dogs, cats, and other companion animals. It detects unusual clusters of potential emerging/zoonotic infections and monitors flea and tick activity. Data is processed and analyzed using SAS and ESRI software products. The NCASP can be used by veterinarians to enhance their practice of evidence-based medicine by providing information needed to individualize vaccine protocols for animals in specific geographic areas. PMID:16584323
Glickman, Larry T; Moore, George E; Glickman, Nita W; Caldanaro, Richard J; Aucoin, David; Lewis, Hugh B
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) constitute a family of key homeostatic regulators, with wide implications on physiology and disease. Recent findings have unveiled that the biological activity of PTPs goes beyond the dephosphorylation of phospho-proteins to shut down protein tyrosine kinase-driven signaling cascades. Substrates dephosphorylated by clinically relevant PTPs extend to phospholipids and phosphorylated carbohydrates as well. In addition, non-catalytic functions are also used by PTPs to regulate essential cellular functions. Consequently, PTPs have emerged as novel potential therapeutic targets for human diseases, including cancer predispositions, myopathies and neuropathies. In this review, we highlight recent advances on the multifaceted role of lipid-phosphatase PTPs in human pathology, with an emphasis on hereditary diseases. The involved PTP regulatory networks and PTP modulatory strategies with potential therapeutic application are discussed. PMID:23900072
Pulido, Rafael; Stoker, Andrew W; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J
The authors assessed the relation between sulfur dioxide and other air pollutants (black smoke, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone) and daily emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Barcelona, Spain, during 1985-1986. Barcelona is a Mediterranean city of 1.7 million inhabitants that has air pollution levels lower than standard values. A weak but statistically significant association between emergency room admissions and levels of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, and carbon monoxide was observed. Daily emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased by 0.02 and 0.01 for each microgram of sulfur dioxide and black smoke per cubic meter, respectively, and 0.11 for each milligram of carbon monoxide per cubic meter, after adjusting for meteorologic and temporal variables. Similar estimations were obtained after controlling for the autocorrelation effect by means of time series analysis. In addition, when the data were stratified by season, the effects remained in summer. This strengthened the conclusion that the relation observed in winter, spring, and throughout the study period was indeed real. After truncating the data according to sulfur dioxide or black smoke levels, the authors still found effects for these pollutants at levels below the air quality guideline of 100 micrograms/m3 established by the World Health Organization. The consistency of these results with other recent toxicologic and epidemiologic observations suggest that current air pollution standards do not totally protect public health with a margin of safety in specific places. PMID:1877586
Sunyer, J; Antó, J M; Murillo, C; Saez, M
A B S T R A C T : Since the advent of highly active anti- re t roviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of specific fungal and parasitic opportunistic infections as observed in HIVdisease has been in decline. However, in many parts of the world, and in areas where access to HAART is limited, these specific opport u n i
Jeffrey MARTINEZ; Zelalem TEMESGEN
Micronemal proteins (MICs) are key mediators of cytoadherence and invasion for Toxoplasma gondii. Emerging evidence indicates that carbohydrate binding facilitates Toxoplasma entry into host cells. TgMIC1s recently solved structure reveals the presence of novel specialized domains able to discriminate between glycan residues. Comparison with Plasmodium erythrocyte-binding antigen 175 reveals that terminal sialic acid residues may represent a shared but tailored invasion pathway among apicomplexan parasites.
Hager, Kristin M.; Carruthers, Vern B.
Many populations of amphibians are declining on all six continents on which they occur. Some causes of amphibian declines, such as habitat destruction, direct application of xenobiotics, and introduction of predators or competitors, are clearly attributable to human activities. Infectious disease appears to be the direct cause of mass amphibian die-offs in relatively undisturbed areas of the world where anthropomorphic environmental disruption is minimal. In these cases, it is not yet clear whether these epizootics result from the natural evolution of new pathogens or from environmental changes that promote the emergence of pathogenic forms and/or that weaken the immune defenses of amphibians. Because some aspects of pathogen-related amphibian mass mortalities are similar to outbreaks of new diseases in humans and coral reef organisms, amphibian declines may be part of a much larger pattern than previously appreciated.
With the world increasingly becoming a global village, transnational and transcontinental migration has become the order of the day. It is expected that migrants will take with them some diseases (including parasites) which are normally endemic in their countries of origin, to their host countries. Similarly, environmental changes that result from development of water resources, global warming, growth and migration
Elijah O. Kehinde; Jehoram T. Anim; Parsotam R. Hira
Saliva is a protein-rich oral fluid that contains information about systemic and oral-specific disease pathogenesis and diagnosis. Technologies are emerging to improve detection of protein components of human saliva for use not only in biomarker discovery, but also for the illumination of pathways involved in oral disease. These include the optimization of liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of saliva in health and disease. Downstream of saliva component identification and validation comes the complex task of connecting salivary proteomic data to biological function, disease state, and other clinical patient information in a meaningful way. Augmentation of database information with biological expertise is crucial for effective analysis of potential biomarkers and disease pathways in order to improve diagnosis and identify putative therapeutic targets. This presentation will use LC-MS/MS analysis of saliva from chronic Graft-versus-Host disease (cGVHD) patients to illustrate these principles, and includes a discussion of the complex clinical and diagnostic issues related to proteomics and biomarker research in cGVHD.
Mays, Jacqueline W.; Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Bassim, Carol W.; Melvin, James E.
Background Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C has emerged as a cause of epidemic disease in Hefei. The establishment of serogroup C as the predominant cause of endemic disease has not been described. Methods We conducted national laboratory-based surveillance for invasive meningococcal disease during 2000–2010. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Results A total of 845 cases of invasive meningococcal disease were reported. The incidence increased from 1.25 cases per 100,000 population in 2000 to 3.14 cases per 100,000 in 2003 (p?0.001), and peaked at 8.43 cases per 100,000 in 2005. The increase was mainly the result of an increase in the incidence of serogroup C disease. Serogroup C disease increased from 2/23 (9%) meningococcal cases and 0.11 cases per 100,000 in 2000 to 33/58 (57%) cases and 1.76 cases per 100,000 in 2003 (p?0.01). Patients infected with serogroup C had serious complications more frequently than those infected with other serogroups. Specifically, 161/493 (32.7%) cases infected with serogroup C had at least one complication. The case-fatality rate of serogroup C meningitis was 11.4%, significantly higher than for serogroup A meningitis (5.3%, p?=?0.021). Among patients with meningococcal disease, factors associated with death in univariate analysis were age of 15–24?years, infection with serogroup C, and meningococcemia. Conclusions The incidence of meningococcal disease has substantially increased and serogroup C has become endemic in Hefei. The serogroup C strain has caused more severe disease than the previously predominant serogroup A strain.
Summary: Parasitic infections previously seen only in developing tropical settings can be currently diagnosed worldwide due to travel and population migration. Some parasites may directly or indirectly affect various anatomical structures of the heart, with infections manifested as myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, or pulmonary hypertension. Thus, it has become quite relevant for clinicians in developed settings to consider parasitic infections in the differential diagnosis of myocardial and pericardial disease anywhere around the globe. Chagas' disease is by far the most important parasitic infection of the heart and one that it is currently considered a global parasitic infection due to the growing migration of populations from areas where these infections are highly endemic to settings where they are not endemic. Current advances in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis offer hope to prevent not only the neurological complications but also the frequently identified cardiac manifestations of this life-threatening parasitic infection. The lack of effective vaccines, optimal chemoprophylaxis, or evidence-based pharmacological therapies to control many of the parasitic diseases of the heart, in particular Chagas' disease, makes this disease one of the most important public health challenges of our time.
Hidron, Alicia; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Santos-Preciado, Jose I.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rassi, Anis
The concept of emerging microbial disease is discussed both in a historical and contemporary perspective. Major factors contributing to emergence of viral, bacterial, rickettsial, and parasitic diseases over the last 25 years are discussed. Forty agents are listed in a table by year of recognition/emergence, mode of transmission, geographical distribution, and symptom complex. Public health prevention and control measures and long-term public health implications are also summarized. Suggestions are offered on how to retrieve appropriate information on newly emerging pathogens and to obtain authoritative and timely information on surveillance data using electronic mail access. PMID:10186609
Malloy, C D; Gallo, R J; Leib, H B; Marr, J S
Our understanding of origins and spread of emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically because of recent applications of phylogenetic theory. Iridoviruses are emerging pathogens that cause global amphibian epizootics, including tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) die-offs throughout western North America. To explain phylogeographical relationships and potential causes for emergence of western North American salamander iridovirus strains, we sequenced major capsid protein and DNA methyltransferase genes, as well as two noncoding regions from 18 geographically widespread isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence data from the capsid protein gene showed shallow genetic divergence (< 1%) among salamander iridovirus strains and monophyly relative to available fish, reptile, and other amphibian iridovirus strains from the genus Ranavirus, suggesting a single introduction and radiation. Analysis of capsid protein sequences also provided support for a closer relationship of tiger salamander virus strains to those isolated from sport fish (e.g. rainbow trout) than other amphibian isolates. Despite monophyly based on capsid protein sequences, there was low genetic divergence among all strains (< 1.1%) based on a supergene analysis of the capsid protein and the two noncoding regions. These analyses also showed polyphyly of strains from Arizona and Colorado, suggesting recent spread. Nested clade analyses indicated both range expansion and long-distance colonization in clades containing virus strains isolated from bait salamanders and the Indiana University axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) colony. Human enhancement of viral movement is a mechanism consistent with these results. These findings suggest North American salamander ranaviruses cause emerging disease, as evidenced by apparent recent spread over a broad geographical area. PMID:15643965
Jancovich, J K; Davidson, E W; Parameswaran, N; Mao, J; Chinchar, V G; Collins, J P; Jacobs, B L; Storfer, A
Chagas disease is an emerging infectious disease in North America due to the immigration of individuals from endemic areas. The parasite has been transmitted to patients in non-endemic areas by blood transfusion and organ donation. Only six autochthonous cases have been described in humans in the United States yet the parasite is widespread among native mammals and resident triatomines are
Stephen A. Klotz; Patricia L. Dorn; John H. Klotz; Jacob L. Pinnas; Christiane Weirauch; Jonathan R. Kurtz; Justin Schmidt
The Mediterranean basin is a biodiversity hotspot; it has historically had a large human presence that has shaped ecosystems for millennia. As the cradle of many civilizations, the area was one of the main theatres for transitions that punctuated both human and pathogen histories, which are intimately linked. Today we are living through another great historical transition summarized in the expression 'global changes'. In this context, we are witnessing a rise in the emergence of pathogens widely associated with aforementioned global changes. The Mediterranean basin might be especially vulnerable to this phenomenon due to the acute consequences global changes will have in this key intercontinental interface region. In addition, Arab revolutions and European economic crisis are creating both sanitary issues and presenting new opportunities to improve infectious disease control and prevention in the region. The aim of this review is to identify the impacts that ongoing changes might have on the risk of infectious disease emergence in the Mediterranean basin. We focussed on three key domains undergoing transformations: (i) resources, namely safe drinking water and animal products, (ii) socio-economic factors including health inequalities within countries and poor sanitary conditions linked to ongoing conflicts and (iii) movements of people and goods that are reshaped by current changes and are intimately linked to the risk of disease proliferation. Building on recent examples, we try to identify upcoming challenges and discuss ways to meet them in the light of existing international human and veterinary health guidelines and their possible improvements. PMID:22998374
Vittecoq, M; Thomas, F; Jourdain, E; Moutou, F; Renaud, F; Gauthier-Clerc, M
Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 published reports have been screened for M. genitalium urogenital infection in high- or low-risk populations worldwide with an overall prevalence of 7.3% and 2.0%, respectively. M. genitalium was present in the general population at rates between those of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Considering more than 20 studies of lower tract inflammation, M. genitalium has been positively associated with urethritis, vaginal discharge, and microscopic signs of cervicitis and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge in seven of 14 studies. A consistent case definition of cervicitis is lacking and will be required for comprehensive understanding of these associations. Importantly, evidence for M. genitalium PID and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that a significant proportion of upper tract inflammation may be attributed to this elusive pathogen. Collectively, M. genitalium is highly prevalent in high- and low-risk populations, and should be considered an etiologic agent of select reproductive tract disease syndromes in women.
McGowin, Chris L.; Anderson-Smits, Colin
Background Acute respiratory failure due to thyroid compression or invasion of the tracheal lumen is a surgical emergency requiring urgent management. The aim of this paper is to describe a series of six patients treated successfully in the emergency setting with total thyroidectomy due to ingravescent dyspnoea and asphyxia, as well as review related data reported in literature. Methods During 2005-2010, of 919 patients treated by total thyroidectomy at our Academic Hospital, 6 (0.7%; 4 females and 2 men, mean age: 68.7 years, range 42-81 years) were treated in emergency. All the emergency operations were performed for life-threatening respiratory distress. The clinical picture at admission, clinical features, type of surgery, outcomes and complications are described. Mean duration of surgery was 146 minutes (range: 53-260). Results In 3/6 (50%) a manubriotomy was necessary due to the extension of the mass into the upper mediastinum. In all cases total thyroidectomy was performed. In one case (16.7%) a parathyroid gland transplantation and in another one (16.7%) a tracheotomy was necessary due to a condition of tracheomalacia. Mean post-operative hospital stay was 6.5 days (range: 2-10 days). Histology revealed malignancy in 4/6 cases (66.7%), showing 3 primitive, and 1 secondary tumors. Morbidity consisted of 1 transient recurrent laryngeal palsy, 3 transient postoperative hypoparathyroidism, and 4 pleural effusions, treated by medical therapy in 3 and by drains in one. There was no mortality. Conclusion On the basis of our experience and of literature review, we strongly advocate elective surgery for patients with thyroid disease at the first signs of tracheal compression. When an acute airway distress appears, an emergency life-threatening total thyroidectomy is recommended in a high-volume centre.
Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent reinfection of host species. In addition, development of resistance to nematicides and anthelmintics by these parasites and reduced availability of some
Douglas P. Jasmer; Aska Goverse; Geert Smant
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. The following questions stimulated the research described in this paper...
This DTRA-sponsored research examines the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs; it also provides lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries. It is the thi...
Chagas' disease is a major health and economic problem caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Multiple independently evolving clones define a complex parasite population that can be arranged into two broad genetic lineages termed T. cruzi I and II. These lineages have different evolutionary origin and display distinct ecological and biological traits. Here we describe a novel molecule termed TSSA for trypomastigote small surface antigen that provides the first immunological marker allowing discrimination between lineages. TSSA is a surface, glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored mucin-like protein, highly antigenic during the infection. TSSA sequences from different parasite isolates reveal a population dimorphism that perfectly matches with the two T. cruzi lineages. Interestingly, this dimorphism is restricted to the central region of the molecule, which comprises the immunodominant B cell epitopes. This sequence variability has a major impact on TSSA antigenicity, leading to no immunological cross-reactivity between both isoforms for antibodies present either in immunization or infection sera. Furthermore, the absolute seroprevalence for TSSA in confirmed Chagasic patients is restricted to T. cruzi II isoform, strongly suggesting that human infections are due to this particular subgroup. Even though association of T. cruzi II with Chagas' disease has been proposed based on molecular markers, this is the first immunological evidence supporting this hypothesis. The implications of these results for the future research on Chagas' disease could be envisaged.
Di Noia, Javier M.; Buscaglia, Carlos A.; De Marchi, Claudia R.; Almeida, Igor C.; Frasch, Alberto C.C.
Background Cooking and heating remain the most energy intensive activities among the world's poor, and thus improved access to clean energies for these tasks has been highlighted as a key requirement of attaining the major objectives of the UN Millennium Development Goals. A move towards clean energy technologies such as biogas systems (which produce methane from human and animal waste) has the potential to provide immediate benefits for the control of neglected tropical diseases. Here, an assessment of the parasitic disease and energy benefits of biogas systems in Sichuan Province, China, is presented, highlighting how the public health sector can leverage the proliferation of rural energy projects for infectious disease control. Methodology/Findings First, the effectiveness of biogas systems at inactivating and removing ova of the human parasite Schistosoma japonicum is experimentally evaluated. Second, the impact of biogas infrastructure on energy use and environmental quality as reported by surveyed village populations is assessed, as is the community acceptance of the technology. No viable eggs were recovered in the effluent collected weekly from biogas systems for two months following seeding with infected stool. Less than 1% of ova were recovered viable from a series of nylon bags seeded with ova, a 2-log removal attributable to biochemical inactivation. More than 90% of Ascaris lumbricoides ova (used as a proxy for S. japonicum ova) counted at the influent of two biogas systems were removed in the systems when adjusted for system residence time, an approximate 1-log removal attributable to sedimentation. Combined, these inactivation/removal processes underscore the promise of biogas infrastructure for reducing parasite contamination resulting from nightsoil use. When interviewed an average of 4 years after construction, villagers attributed large changes in fuel usage to the installation of biogas systems. Household coal usage decreased by 68%, wood by 74%, and crop waste by 6%. With reported energy savings valued at roughly 600 CNY per year, 2–3 years were required to recoup the capital costs of biogas systems. In villages without subsidies, no new biogas systems were implemented. Conclusions Sustainable strategies that integrate rural energy needs and sanitation offer tremendous promise for long-term control of parasitic diseases, while simultaneously reducing energy costs and improving quality of life. Government policies can enhance the financial viability of such strategies by introducing fiscal incentives for joint sanitation/sustainable energy projects, along with their associated public outreach and education programs.
Remais, Justin; Chen, Lin; Seto, Edmund
In the setting of infectious disease emergencies, rapid and accurate identification of the causative agent is critical to optimizing antimicrobial therapy in a timely manner. It is clearly evident that the age of molecular diagnostics is now upon us, with real-time PCR becoming the standard of diagnosis for many infectious disease emergencies in either monoplex or multiplex format. Other molecular techniques such as whole or partial genome sequencing, microarrays, broad-range PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and molecular typing are also being used. However, for most small clinical laboratories, implementation of these advanced molecular techniques is not feasible owing to the high cost of instrumentation and reagents. If these tests are not available in-house, samples can be sent to national reference laboratories (eg, Mayo Medical Laboratories and Quest Diagnostics) for real-time PCR assays that can be completed in 1 day. It is anticipated that over time commercial real-time PCR tests and instrumentation will become more standardized and affordable, allowing individual laboratories to conduct tests locally, thus further reducing turnaround time. Although real-time PCR has been proved to expand our diagnostic capability, it must be stressed that such molecular methodology constitutes only an additional tool in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in emergency situations. Phenotypic methodologies (staining, cultures, biochemical tests, and serology) still play a critical role in identifying, confirming, and providing antibiotic susceptibility testing for many microbial pathogens. As multiplex assays become increasingly available, there will be even greater temptation for taking a “shotgun” approach to diagnostic testing. These new technologies will not substitute for a proper history and physical examination leading to a thoughtful differential diagnosis. None the less, these new molecular tests increase the capability of the diagnostician to rapidly identify the microbiological etiology of an infection. An added advantage of rapid diagnostic tests often not emphasized is the capability to rule out certain diagnoses for which unnecessary antimicrobial therapy may otherwise be instituted and/or continued. PMID:23102477
Krishna, Neel K; Cunnion, Kenji M
This article surveys the most important gastrointestinal parasites that affect humans. The modes of acquisition, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment are all briefly examined. Gastrointestinal parasites have become increasingly important in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, as a result of a number of circumstances. These circumstances include: increasing travel to developing countries; increased numbers, for one reason or another, of immunocompromised individuals; increased consumption of raw or partially cooked ethnic delicacies; more crowding in day-care centres; increased immigration from developing countries; and an endemic pocket of individuals with certain unhygienic or unsanitary practices.
Embil, Juan A.; Embil, John M.
We analyzed submission data from a wildlife care group during amphibian disease surveillance in Queensland, Australia. Between January 1999 and December 2004, 877 white-lipped tree frogs Litoria infrafrenata were classified according to origin, season and presenting category. At least 69% originated from urban Cairns, significantly more than from rural and remote areas. Total submissions increased during the early and late dry seasons compared with the early wet season. Frogs most commonly presented each year with injury, followed by 'other', sparganosis and irreversible emaciation of unknown aetiology. This is the first report of Spirometra erinacei infection in this species. A high prevalence (28%) of visible S. erinacei infection was found in emaciated frogs, but this was not statistically different from that in non-emaciated diseased frogs (25%). However, 14 emaciated specimens that were necropsied all had heavy S. erinacei infections, and the odds of visible sparganosis were statistically greater in emaciated frogs compared with injured, non-diseased frogs. We provide a detailed case definition for a new endemic disease manifesting as irreversible emaciation, for which S. erinacei may be the primary aetiological agent. The lack of significant spatial or temporal patterns in case presentation suggests that this is not a currently emerging disease. We show that community wildlife groups can play a valuable role in monitoring disease trends, particularly in urban areas, but identify a number of limitations associated with passive syndromic surveillance. We conclude that it is critical that professionals be involved in establishing syndromic case definitions, diagnostic pathology, complementary active disease surveillance, and data analysis and interpretation in all wildlife disease investigations. PMID:22422125
Young, Sam; Skerratt, Lee F; Mendez, Diana; Speare, Rick; Berger, Lee; Steele, Mike
The use of emergency vaccination is considered in different contingency national plans as part of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control strategy in countries whether vaccination is practised or not. The development of the inter-governmental and national FMD vaccine and antigen banks and some technical and operational problems that could affect their efficiency are analysed. The possibility of improving and implementing a more rational use of the antigen and vaccine banks through the creation of a Global Virtual Network of Vaccine and Antigen Banks is discussed. PMID:15742643
Palma, E L
Nanomedicine is an emerging field of medicine which utilizes nanotechnology concepts for advanced therapy and diagnostics. This convergent discipline, which merges research areas such as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics and engineering thus bridging the gap between molecular and cellular interactions, has a potential to revolutionize current medical practice. This review presents recent developments in nanomedicine research, which are poised to have an important impact on cardiovascular disease and treatment by improving therapy and diagnosis of such cardiovascular disorders as atherosclerosis, restenosis and myocardial infarction. Specifically, we discuss the use of nanoparticles for molecular imaging and advanced therapeutics, specially designed drug eluting stents and in vivo/ex vivo early detection techniques.
Godin, Biana; Sakamoto, Jason H.; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and ultimately fatal condition that causes debilitating memory loss and extensive deterioration of cognitive and functional abilities. Currently available treatments for AD (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine and memantine) are symptomatic and do not decelerate or prevent the progression of the disease. These therapies demonstrate modest, but particularly consistent, benefit for cognition, global status and functional ability. The search for disease-modifying interventions has focused largely on compounds targeting the amyloid-? pathway. To date, the treatments targeting this pathway, such as tramiprosate and semagacestat, have been unsuccessful in demonstrating efficacy in clinical stages of testing. At this point, it is likely that not only amyloid-? aggregation but other possible neuronal mechanisms - such as hyperphosphorylated tau, neuro-inflammation and other processes - play important roles in the pathophysiology of this multifactorial disorder. Development of better disease models and biomarkers is essential for the advancement of knowledge of the disease mechanisms. This systematic review critically examines the efficacy and safety data for currently approved drugs and emerging treatments in AD, as well as discussing the present and future directions of innovation in this field. PMID:21985169
Herrmann, Nathan; Chau, Sarah A; Kircanski, Ida; Lanctôt, Krista L
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the higher prevalence of heart disease-related illnesses in women in urban areas may be attributed to lack of knowledge. DESIGN: A prospective survey of 224 women presenting to an urban emergency department. INTERVENTION: All study participants were surveyed about their knowledge of heart disease and associated risk factors. RESULTS: Two-hundred participants correctly completed the surveys. Only 25 (13%) of women correctly identified heart disease as the leading cause of death in women. Similarly, only 12 (6%) of women surveyed felt heart disease was the greatest health issue facing women today. The majority of women felt breast cancer was the most important health issue and responsible for the greatest mortality in women. Only three of the traditional cardiac risk factors were correctly identified by half of the women surveyed: hypercholesteremia (56%), hypertension (54%), and tobacco (52%). Family history was correctly identified by 44%, and only 20% of women felt diabetes was a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Despite increased medical education and media time spent on women's health issues, up to 87% of women in this urban population did not know the leading cause of death for their gender.
Prendergast, Heather M.; Bunney, E. Bradshaw; Roberson, Thessa; Davis, Theresa
Outdoor and indoor air pollution poses a significant cardiovascular risk, and has been associated with atherosclerosis, the main underlying pathology in many cardiovascular diseases. Although, it is well known that exposure to air pollution causes pulmonary disease, recent studies have shown that cardiovascular health consequences of air pollution generally equal or exceed those due to pulmonary diseases. The objective of this article is to evaluate the current evidence on the emerging role of environmental air pollutions in cardiovascular disease, with specific focus on the types of air pollutants and mechanisms of air pollution-induced cardiotoxicity. Published literature on pollution was systematically reviewed and cited in this article. It is hoped that this review will provide a better understanding of the harmful cardiovascular effects induced by air pollution exposure. This will help to bring a better understanding on the possible preventive health measures and will also serve regulatory agencies and researchers. In addition, elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying the link between air pollution and cardiovascular disease is an essential target in developing novel pharmacological strategies aimed at decreasing adverse effects of air pollution on cardiovascular system.
Uzoigwe, Jacinta C.; Prum, Thavaleak; Bresnahan, Eric; Garelnabi, Mahdi
The molecular pathways that govern human disease consist of molecular circuits that coalesce into complex, overlapping networks. These network pathways are presumably regulated in a coordinated fashion, but such regulation has been difficult to decipher using only reductionistic principles. The emerging paradigm of "network medicine" proposes to utilize insights garnered from network topology (eg, the static position of molecules in relation to their neighbors) as well as network dynamics (eg, the unique flux of information through the network) to understand better the pathogenic behavior of complex molecular interconnections that traditional methods fail to recognize. As methodologies evolve, network medicine has the potential to capture the molecular complexity of human disease while offering computational methods to discern how such complexity controls disease manifestations, prognosis, and therapy. This review introduces the fundamental concepts of network medicine and explores the feasibility and potential impact of network-based methods for predicting individual manifestations of human disease and designing rational therapies. Wherever possible, we emphasize the application of these principles to cardiovascular disease. PMID:22821909
Chan, Stephen Y; Loscalzo, Joseph
Pathogens rarely cause extinctions of host species, and there are few examples of a pathogen changing species richness and diversity of an ecological community by causing local extinctions across a wide range of species. We report the link between the rapid appearance of a pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in an amphibian community at El Copé, Panama, and subsequent mass mortality and loss of amphibian biodiversity across eight families of frogs and salamanders. We describe an outbreak of chytridiomycosis in Panama and argue that this infectious disease has played an important role in amphibian population declines. The high virulence and large number of potential hosts of this emerging infectious disease threaten global amphibian diversity. PMID:16481617
Lips, Karen R; Brem, Forrest; Brenes, Roberto; Reeve, John D; Alford, Ross A; Voyles, Jamie; Carey, Cynthia; Livo, Lauren; Pessier, Allan P; Collins, James P
Dengue transmission has increased worldwide, particularly in Asia and Latin America since the 1970s, but limited information on the disease is available from the Middle East. Saudi Arabia and Yemen have reported a few epidemics of dengue. Three of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-3) have been reported in the region. Climate conditions in the Middle East are not favourable for the disease vector, but all other risk factors for dengue are potentially increasing. The existence of a large immigrant work force from dengue-endemic countries, increased travel from and to dengue-endemic countries and increased urbanization are expected to increase the likelihood of the emergence of dengue in the Middle East. PMID:22137535
Amarasinghe, Ananda; Letson, G William
In this activity (on pages 26-33), learners play parasitologists, solving several "mysteries" about people who got sick from various parasites. In teams of four, each member solves one mystery. They highlight clues in the reading, identify and glue down "Clue Cards" that summarize the clues, and choose and glue down the "Parasite I.D. Card" so that it can be folded to hide the answer. Learners then trade mysteries, and can solve and check their solution. Older learners or more advanced readers can do this activity on their own, while an educator can read it aloud to younger learners.
Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development
In this activity (on pages 2-8), learners experience how scientists use classification in their study of animals. They sort pictures of parasites according to characteristics such as shape, size, wings, legs, body sections, cells, site on host organism, and food source. The "What We Know" section introduces divisions in the animal kingdom, including two broad groups of parasitesâendoparasites that live inside a host organism, and ectoparasites that live on the exterior of or outside a host organism. Excerpts from the video and biography of parasitologist Judy Sakanari are available online, and the full version of the video can be purchased in the commercial Wonderwise Parasite Sleuth Kit.
Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development
Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to wildlife populations. To enhance our understanding of the dynamics of these diseases, we investigated how host reproductive behavior and seasonal temperature variation drive transmission of infections among wild hosts, using the model system of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) disease in common carp. Our main findings were as follows: (1) a seroprevalence survey showed that CyHV-3 infection occurred mostly in adult hosts, (2) a quantitative assay for CyHV-3 in a host population demonstrated that CyHV-3 was most abundant in the spring when host reproduction occurred and water temperature increased simultaneously and (3) an analysis of the dynamics of CyHV-3 in water revealed that CyHV-3 concentration increased markedly in breeding habitats during host group mating. These results indicate that breeding habitats can become hot spots for transmission of infectious diseases if hosts aggregate for mating and the activation of pathogens occurs during the host breeding season.
Uchii, Kimiko; Telschow, Arndt; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Honjo, Mie N; Matsui, Kazuaki; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro
Hepatic lymphocytes are enriched in NK and NKT cells that play important roles in antiviral and antitumor defenses and in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease. In this review, we discuss the differential distribution of NK and NKT cells in mouse, rat, and human livers, the ultrastructural similarities and differences between liver NK and NKT cells, and the regulation of liver NK and NKT cells in a variety of murine liver injury models. We also summarize recent findings about the role of NK and NKT cells in liver injury, fibrosis, and repair. In general, NK and NKT cells accelerate liver injury by producing proinflammatory cytokines and killing hepatocytes. NK cells inhibit liver fibrosis via killing early-activated and senescent-activated stellate cells and producing IFN-?. In regulating liver fibrosis, NKT cells appear to be less important than NK cells as a result of hepatic NKT cell tolerance. NK cells inhibit liver regeneration by producing IFN-? and killing hepatocytes; however, the role of NK cells on the proliferation of liver progenitor cells and the role of NKT cells in liver regeneration have been controversial. The emerging roles of NK/NKT cells in chronic human liver disease will also be discussed. Understanding the role of NK and NKT cells in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease may help us design better therapies to treat patients with this disease.
Gao, Bin; Radaeva, Svetlana; Park, Ogyi
Recent evidence suggests that most parasites can infect multiple host species and that these are primarily responsible for emerging infectious disease outbreaks in humans and wildlife. However, the ecologic and evolutionary factors that constrain or facilitate such emergences are poorly understood. We propose a conceptual framework based on the pathogen's between- and within-species transmission rates to describe possible configurations of a multihost-pathogen community that may lead to disease emergence. We establish 3 dynamic thresholds separating 4 classes of disease outcomes, spillover, apparent multihost, true multihost, and potential emerging infectious disease; describe possible disease emergence scenarios; outline the population dynamics of each case; and clarify existing terminology. We highlight the utility of this framework with examples of disease threats in human and wildlife populations, showing how it allows us to understand which ecologic factors affect disease emergence and predict the impact of host shifts in a range of disease systems.
Pedersen, Amy B.
Background The evolutionary history of many parasites is dependent on the evolution of their hosts, leading to an association between host and parasite phylogenies. However, frequent host switches across broad phylogenetic distances may weaken this close evolutionary link, especially when vectors are involved in parasites transmission, as is the case for malaria pathogens. Several studies suggested that the evolution of the primate-infective malaria lineages may be constrained by the phylogenetic relationships of their hosts, and that lateral switches between distantly related hosts may have been occurred. However, no systematic analysis has been quantified the degree of phylogenetic association between primates and their malaria parasites. Methods Here phylogenetic approaches have been used to discriminate statistically between events due to co-divergence, duplication, extinction and host switches that can potentially cause historical association between Plasmodium parasites and their primate hosts. A Bayesian reconstruction of parasite phylogeny based on genetic information for six genes served as basis for the analyses, which could account for uncertainties about the evolutionary hypotheses of malaria parasites. Results Related lineages of primate-infective Plasmodium tend to infect hosts within the same taxonomic family. Different analyses testing for congruence between host and parasite phylogenies unanimously revealed a significant association between the corresponding evolutionary trees. The most important factor that resulted in this association was host switching, but depending on the parasite phylogeny considered, co-speciation and duplication may have also played some additional role. Sorting seemed to be a relatively infrequent event, and can occur only under extreme co-evolutionary scenarios. The concordance between host and parasite phylogenies is heterogeneous: while the evolution of some malaria pathogens is strongly dependent on the phylogenetic history of their primate hosts, the congruent evolution is less emphasized for other parasite lineages (e.g. for human malaria parasites). Estimation of ancestral states of host use along the phylogenetic tree of parasites revealed that lateral transfers across distantly related hosts were likely to occur in several cases. Parasites cannot infect all available hosts, and they should preferentially infect hosts that provide a similar environment for reproduction. Marginally significant evidence suggested that there might be a consistent variation within host ranges in terms of physiology. Conclusion The evolution of primate malarias is constrained by the phylogenetic associations of their hosts. Some parasites can preserve a great flexibility to infect hosts across a large phylogenetic distance, thus host switching can be an important factor in mediating host ranges observed in nature. Due to this inherent flexibility and the potential exposure to various vectors, the emergence of new malaria disease in primates including humans cannot be predicted from the phylogeny of parasites.
Garamszegi, Laszlo Zsolt
This paper presents the key findings from the collaborative study among APEC members to address the possibilities on the future development of emerging infectious diseases and the opportunities\\/challenges that technologies can be effectively exploited to deal with diseases. The scenario planning technique has been applied in the study and integrated with bibliometric analysis and technology roadmapping. As a result, experts
Ponpiboon Satangput; Nathasit Gerdsri; Nares Damrongchai
The behaviour of Homo sapiens has a pivotal role to play in the macro and microepidemiology of emerging or re-emerging parasitic zoonoses. Changing demographics and the concomitant alterations to the environment, climate, technology, land use and changes in human behavior, converge to favour the emergence and spread of parasitic zoonoses. The recent unprecedented movements of people, their animals and their
Calum N. L. Macpherson
Patterns of future urban growth, combined with advances in the treatment of traditional scourges of communicable diseases, will cause a shift in the burden of disease toward category 2 (noncommunicable) and 3 (injury) conditions over the next 30 years. Communicable diseases, particularly HIV/AIDs, will continue to be the most important killers among the poor. However, new risks will emerge for several reasons. First, the marked sprawl of cities in the developing world will make access to care more difficult. Second, increasing motor vehicles and the likelihood of inadequate infrastructure will make air pollution and accidents in road traffic more common than in the past. Third, impoverished urban populations have already shown a propensity toward undernourishment, and its obverse, obesity, is already emerging as a major risk. Also, the large projected increase in slums suggests that violence and homicide will become a more important burden of health, and very large hazards will be created by fire-prone, insubstantial dwellings that will house nearly two billion people by 2030. In addition, decentralized governance will exacerbate the tensions and discontinuities that have plagued the management of health issues on the urban fringe over the past decade. Accordingly, public health agencies will need to adjust to the regional and country-specific factors to address the changing profile of risk. This analysis suggests that four factors--levels of poverty, speed of city growth, sprawl in cities, and degree of decentralization--will have importance in shaping health strategies. These factors vary in pace and intensity by region, suggesting that health care strategies for Category II and III conditions will need to be differentiated by region of the world. Also, interventions will have to rely increasingly on actors outside the ranks of public health specialists. PMID:17453349
Campbell, Tim; Campbell, Alana
Reliable communication on the Internet is guaranteed by a standard set of protocols, used by all computers. Here we show that these protocols can be exploited to compute with the communication infrastructure, transforming the Internet into a distributed computer in which servers unwittingly perform computation on behalf of a remote node. In this model, which we call `parasitic computing', one
Albert-László Barabási; Vincent W. Freeh; Hawoong Jeong; Jay B. Brockman