These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

[Emerging parasitic diseases].  

PubMed

Travels, migration and circulation of goods facilitate the emergence of new infectious diseases often unrecognized outside endemic areas. Most of emerging infections are of viral origin. Muscular Sarcocystis infection, an acute illness acquired during short trips to Malaysia, and Chagas disease, a chronic illness with long incubation period found among Latin American migrants, are two very different examples of emerging parasitic diseases. The former requires a preventive approach for travelers going to Malaysia and must be brought forth when they return with fever, myalgia and eosinophilia, while the latter requires a proactive attitude to screen Latin American migrant populations that may face difficulties in accessing care. PMID:24908745

Weibel Galluzzo, C; Wagner, N; Michel, Y; Jackson, Y; Chappuis, F

2014-05-01

2

Lack of molluscan host diversity and the transmission of an emerging parasitic disease in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fasciolosis is a re-emerging parasitic disease that affects an increasing number of people in developing countries. The most severe endemic affects the Bolivian Altiplano, where the liver fluke ( Fasciola hepatica ) and its hermaphroditic snail host, Lymnaea truncatula, have been introduced from Europe. To achieve a better understanding of the epidemiological situation and the consequences of the colonization event

C. Meunier; S. Hurtrez-Bousses; P. Durand; M. D. Bargues; S. Mas-Coma; J. P. Pointier; J. Jourdane; F. Renaud

2001-01-01

3

Emerging food-borne parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne

P. Dorny; N. Praet; N. Deckers; S. Gabriel

2009-01-01

4

Navigating parasite webs and parasite flow: emerging and re-emerging parasitic zoonoses of wildlife origin.  

PubMed

Wildlife are now recognised as an important source of emerging human pathogens, including parasites. This paper discusses the linkages between wildlife, people, zoonotic parasites and the ecosystems in which they co-exist, revisits definitions for 'emerging' and 're-emerging', and lists zoonotic parasites that can be acquired from wildlife including, for some, estimates of the associated global human health burdens. The paper also introduces the concepts of 'parasite webs' and 'parasite flow', provides a context for parasites, relative to other infectious agents, as causes of emerging human disease, and discusses drivers of disease emergence and re-emergence, especially changes in biodiversity and climate. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Caribbean and the southern United States, Baylisascaris procyonis in California and Georgia, Plasmodium knowlesi in Sarawak, Malaysia, Human African Trypanosomiasis, Sarcoptes scabiei in carnivores, and Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Toxoplasma in marine ecosystems are presented as examples of wildlife-derived zoonotic parasites of particular recent interest. An ecological approach to disease is promoted, as is a need for an increased profile for this approach in undergraduate and graduate education in the health sciences. Synergy among scientists and disciplines is identified as critical for the study of parasites and parasitic disease in wildlife populations. Recent advances in techniques for the investigation of parasite fauna of wildlife are presented and monitoring and surveillance systems for wildlife disease are discussed. Some of the limitations inherent in predictions for the emergence and re-emergence of infection and disease associated with zoonotic parasites of wildlife are identified. The importance of public awareness and public education in the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic infection and disease are emphasised. Finally, some thoughts for the future are presented. PMID:16168994

Polley, Lydden

2005-10-01

5

Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

2014-01-01

6

"Emerging" parasitic infections in arctic ungulates.  

PubMed

Important drivers for emergence of infectious disease in wildlife include changes in the environment, shrinking habitats or concentration of wildlife, and movement of people, animals, pathogens, or vectors. In this paper we present three case-studies of emerging parasitic infections and diseases in ungulates in the Canadian north. First we discuss climate warming as an important driver for the emergence of disease associated with Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, a nematode lungworm of muskoxen. Then we examine how Protostrongylus stilesi, the sheep lungworm, emerged (or re-emerged) in muskoxen after re-introduction of this host into its historical range made it sympatric with Dall's sheep. Finally, we consider Teladorsagia boreoarcticus, a newly described and common abomasal nematode of muskoxen that is emerging as a disease-causing parasite and may be an important regulator for muskox populations on Banks Island, Northwest Territories. These and other arctic host-parasite systems are exquisitely tuned and constrained by a harsh and highly seasonal environment. The dynamics of these systems will be impacted by climate change and other ecological disruptions. Baseline knowledge of parasite biodiversity and parasite and host ecology, together with predictive models and long-term monitoring programs, are essential for anticipating and detecting altered patterns of host range, geographic distribution, and the emergence of parasitic infections and diseases. PMID:21680491

Kutz, Susan J; Hoberg, Eric P; Nagy, John; Polley, Lydden; Elkin, Brett

2004-04-01

7

Case report: Cutaneous amebiasis: the importance of molecular diagnosis of an emerging parasitic disease.  

PubMed

Cutaneous amebiasis is the least common clinical form of human amebiasis in Mexico, sexual amebiasis was only occasionally observed before the late 1980s. However, in the last few decades, most of the documented cases of cutaneous amebiasis from around the world are sexually transmitted. We present two cases of sexually transmitted genital amebiasis. The molecular characterization of the Entamoeba species in the affected tissues underlines the importance of an etiological diagnosis using specific and sensitive techniques that avoid the rapid destruction of tissues and the irreversible sequelae to the anatomy and function of the affected organs. In addition, for those interested in the study of the human-amoebic disease relationship and its epidemiology, the detection of a new, mixed infection in an invasive case of amebiasis reveals new perspectives in the study of the extraordinarily complex host-parasite relationship in amebiasis. PMID:23208883

Morán, Patricia; Rojas, Liliana; Cerritos, René; Zermeño, Valeria; Valadez, Alicia; de Oca, Griselda Montes; Reyes, Miguel Ángel; González, Enrique; Partida, Oswaldo; Hernández, Eric; Nieves, Miriam; Portillo, Tobías; Gudiño, Marco; Ramiro, Manuel; Ximénez, Cecilia

2013-01-01

8

Cutaneous Amebiasis: The Importance of Molecular Diagnosis of an Emerging Parasitic Disease  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous amebiasis is the least common clinical form of human amebiasis in Mexico, sexual amebiasis was only occasionally observed before the late 1980s. However, in the last few decades, most of the documented cases of cutaneous amebiasis from around the world are sexually transmitted. We present two cases of sexually transmitted genital amebiasis. The molecular characterization of the Entamoeba species in the affected tissues underlines the importance of an etiological diagnosis using specific and sensitive techniques that avoid the rapid destruction of tissues and the irreversible sequelae to the anatomy and function of the affected organs. In addition, for those interested in the study of the human-amoebic disease relationship and its epidemiology, the detection of a new, mixed infection in an invasive case of amebiasis reveals new perspectives in the study of the extraordinarily complex host-parasite relationship in amebiasis. PMID:23208883

Moran, Patricia; Rojas, Liliana; Cerritos, Rene; Zermeno, Valeria; Valadez, Alicia; de Oca, Griselda Montes; Reyes, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez, Enrique; Partida, Oswaldo; Hernandez, Eric; Nieves, Miriam; Portillo, Tobias; Gudino, Marco; Ramiro, Manuel; Ximenez, Cecilia

2013-01-01

9

Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... available to diagnose parasitic diseases. The kind of test(s) your health care provider will order will be based on your ... below for a list of some commonly used tests your health care provider may order. A fecal (stool) exam, also ...

10

Histopathological diagnosis in parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

Histopathological research is very important in diagnosing human and animal diseases. Detection of histopathological changes during certain parasitic invasions is particularly important for differential diagnosis and often confirms the presence of parasitic diseases. Such studies allow also to conclude on the primary cause of the disease. PMID:25115064

So?tysiak, Zenon; Rokicki, Jerzy; Kantyka, Magdalena

2014-01-01

11

NLR proteins and parasitic disease.  

PubMed

Parasitic diseases are a serious global health concern. Many of the most common and most severe parasitic diseases, including Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis, are also classified as neglected tropical diseases and are comparatively less studied than infectious diseases prevalent in high income nations. The NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich-repeat-containing proteins) are cytosolic proteins known to be involved in pathogen detection and host response. The role of NLRs in the host response to parasitic infection is just beginning to be understood. The NLR proteins NOD1 and NOD2 have been shown to contribute to immune responses during Trypanosoma cruzi infection, Toxoplasma gondii infection, and murine cerebral malaria. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by T. cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis but also induces pathology during infection with schistosomes or malaria. Both the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes respond to T. gondii infection. The NLRs may play crucial roles in human immune responses during parasitic infection, usually acting as innate immune sensors and driving the inflammatory response against invading parasites. However, this inflammatory response can either kill the invading parasite or be responsible for destructive pathology. Therefore, understanding the role of the NLR proteins will be critical to understanding the host defense against parasites as well as the fine balance between homeostasis and parasitic disease. PMID:24989828

Clay, Gwendolyn M; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Wilson, Mary E

2014-08-01

12

The study of parasite sharing for surveillance of zoonotic diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the factors that influence the transmission of parasites among hosts is important for directing surveillance of animal parasites before they successfully emerge in humans, and increasing the efficacy of programs for the control and management of zoonotic diseases. Here we present a review of recent advances in the study of parasite sharing, wildlife ecology, and epidemiology that could be extended and incorporated into proactive surveillance frameworks for multi-host infectious diseases. These methods reflect emerging interdisciplinary techniques with significant promise for the identification of future zoonotic parasites and unknown reservoirs of current zoonoses, strategies for the reduction of parasite prevalence and transmission among hosts, and decreasing the burden of infectious diseases.

Farrell, Maxwell J.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Davies, T. Jonathan

2013-03-01

13

Parasite Zoonoses and Wildlife: Emerging Issues  

PubMed Central

The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact. PMID:19440409

Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Kutz, Susan J.; Smith, Andrew

2009-01-01

14

Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

1999-01-01

15

Parasitic diseases and urban development.  

PubMed Central

The distribution and epidemiology of parasitic diseases in both urban and periurban areas of endemic countries have been changing as development progresses. The following different scenarios involving Chagas disease, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis are discussed: (1) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas without vectors; (2) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas with vectors; (3) infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (4) non-infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (5) urbanization or domestication of natural zoonotic foci; and (6) vectors entering nonendemic urban areas. Cultural and social habits from the rural areas, such as type of house construction and domestic water usage, are adopted by migrants to urban areas and increase the risk of disease transmission which adversely affects employment in urban populations. As the urban health services must deal with the rise in parasitic diseases, appropriate control strategies for the urban setting must be developed and implemented. PMID:2127380

Mott, K. E.; Desjeux, P.; Moncayo, A.; Ranque, P.; de Raadt, P.

1990-01-01

16

Pyogenic abscesses and parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

Parasitic diseases which during their course in the host switch the immune system from a T helper 1 to a T helper 2 response may be detrimental to the host, contributing to granuloma formation, eosinophilia, hyper-IgE, and increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. Patients and animals with acute schistosomiasis and hyper-IgE in their serum develop pyogenic liver abscess in the presence of bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The Salmonella-S. mansoni association has also been well documented. The association of tropical pyomyositis (pyogenic muscle abscess) and pyogenic liver abscess with Toxocara infection has recently been described in the same context. In tropical countries that may be an interesting explanation for the great morbidity of bacterial diseases. If the association of parasitic infections and pyogenic abscesses and/or fungal diseases are confirmed, there will be a strong case in favor of universal treatment for parasitic diseases to prevent or decrease the morbidity of superinfection with bacteria and fungi. PMID:11340478

Lambertucci, J R; Rayes, A A; Serufo, J C; Nobre, V

2001-01-01

17

Molecular epidemiology of the emerging human malaria parasite "Plasmodium knowlesi".  

PubMed

Malaria is the most important parasitic disease with global concern. Plasmodium knowlesi recently has emerged from its natural simian host as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, it has been added as the fifth human Plasmodium specie which is widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Recent developments of new molecular tools enhanced our understanding about the key features of this malaria parasite. Here, we review some of the ways in which molecular approaches might be used for epidemiology of P. knowlesi and finally lead to an efficient control of malaria. PMID:24754022

Hakimi, Hassan; Kawai, Satoru; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro

2014-01-01

18

Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.  

PubMed Central

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

1999-01-01

19

Selected emerging diseases of amphibia.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the most recent updates on emerging infectious diseases of amphibia. A brief summary of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, life cycle, diagnosis, treatment, and biosecurity is provided. Ambystoma tigrinum virus, common midwife toad virus, frog virus 3, Rana grylio virus, Rana catesbeiana ranavirus, Mahaffey Road virus, Rana esculenta virus, Bohle iridovirus, and tiger frog virus ranaviruses are extensively reviewed. Emerging bacterial pathogens are discussed, including Flavobacter sp, Aeromonas sp, Citrobacter freundii, Chlamydophila sp, Mycobacterium liflandii, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and Ochrobactrum anthropi. Rhabdias sp, Ribeiroia sp, and Spirometra erinacei are among several of the parasitic infections overviewed in this article. PMID:23642863

Latney, La'Toya V; Klaphake, Eric

2013-05-01

20

Bibliography of Oyster Parasites and Diseases  

E-print Network

563: Bibliography of Oyster Parasites and Diseases SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT-FISHERIES Na 563. Pautzke, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, H. E. Crowther, Director Bibliography of Oyster Report--Fisheries 563 Washington, D.C. April 1968 #12;#12;Bibliography of Oyster Parasites and Diseases

21

Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)--Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?  

PubMed Central

Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites. PMID:24386497

Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubackova, Petra; Scholz, Tomas

2013-01-01

22

Emerging dangers: deadly effects of an emergent parasite in a new pollinator host.  

PubMed

There is growing concern about the threats facing many pollinator populations. Emergent diseases are one of the major threats to biodiversity and a microsporidian parasite, Nosema ceranae, has recently jumped host from the Asian to the Western honeybee, spreading rapidly worldwide, and contributing to dramatic colony losses. Bumblebees are ecologically and economically important pollinators of conservation concern, which are likely exposed to N. ceranae by sharing flowers with honeybees. Whilst a further intergeneric jump by N. ceranae to infect bumblebees would be potentially serious, its capacity to do this is unknown. Here we investigate the prevalence of N. ceranae in wild bumblebees in the UK and determine the infectivity of the parasite under controlled conditions. We found N. ceranae in all seven wild bumblebee species sampled, and at multiple sites, with many of the bees having spores from this parasite in their guts. When we fed N. ceranae spores to bumblebees under controlled conditions, we confirmed that the parasite can infect bumblebees. Infections spread from the midgut to other tissues, reduced bumblebee survival by 48% and had sub-lethal effects on behaviour. Although spore production appeared lower in bumblebees than in honeybees, virulence was greater. The parasite N. ceranae therefore represents a real and emerging threat to bumblebees, with the potential to have devastating consequences for their already vulnerable populations. PMID:23816821

Graystock, Peter; Yates, Kathryn; Darvill, Ben; Goulson, Dave; Hughes, William O H

2013-10-01

23

Drug repurposing and human parasitic protozoan diseases.  

PubMed

Parasitic diseases have an enormous health, social and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 1.1 million combined deaths annually. The global burden of these diseases is exacerbated by the lack of licensed vaccines, making safe and effective drugs vital to their prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, where drugs are available, their usefulness is being increasingly threatened by parasite drug resistance. The need for new drugs drives antiparasitic drug discovery research globally and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. In this review we discuss one of these approaches, drug repurposing or repositioning, with a focus on major human parasitic protozoan diseases such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and leishmaniasis. PMID:25057459

Andrews, Katherine T; Fisher, Gillian; Skinner-Adams, Tina S

2014-08-01

24

Drug repurposing and human parasitic protozoan diseases  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases have an enormous health, social and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 1.1 million combined deaths annually. The global burden of these diseases is exacerbated by the lack of licensed vaccines, making safe and effective drugs vital to their prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, where drugs are available, their usefulness is being increasingly threatened by parasite drug resistance. The need for new drugs drives antiparasitic drug discovery research globally and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. In this review we discuss one of these approaches, drug repurposing or repositioning, with a focus on major human parasitic protozoan diseases such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and leishmaniasis. PMID:25057459

Andrews, Katherine T.; Fisher, Gillian; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.

2014-01-01

25

Changing dietary habits in a changing world: Emerging drivers for the transmission of foodborne parasitic zoonoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing eating habits, population growth and movements, global trade of foodstuff, changes in food production systems, climate change, increased awareness and better diagnostic tools are some of the main drivers affecting the emergence or re-emergence of many foodborne parasitic diseases in recent years. In particular, the increasing demand for exotic and raw food is one of the reasons why reports

A. Broglia; C. Kapel

2011-01-01

26

Integrated Approaches and Empirical Models for Investigation of Parasitic Diseases in Northern Wildlife  

PubMed Central

The North is a frontier for exploration of emerging infectious diseases and the large-scale drivers influencing distribution, host associations, and evolution of pathogens among persons, domestic animals, and wildlife. Leading into the International Polar Year 2007–2008, we outline approaches, protocols, and empirical models derived from a decade of integrated research on northern host–parasite systems. Investigations of emerging infectious diseases associated with parasites in northern wildlife involved a network of multidisciplinary collaborators and incorporated geographic surveys, archival collections, historical foundations for diversity, and laboratory and field studies exploring the interface for hosts, parasites, and the environment. In this system, emergence of parasitic disease was linked to geographic expansion, host switching, resurgence due to climate change, and newly recognized parasite species. Such integrative approaches serve as cornerstones for detection, prediction, and potential mitigation of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and persons in the North and elsewhere under a changing global climate. PMID:18258071

Polley, Lydden; Jenkins, Emily J.; Kutz, Susan J.; Veitch, Alasdair M.; Elkin, Brett T.

2008-01-01

27

[Emerging viral diseases].  

PubMed

Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have again entered the public arena in recent years. This is due to factors such as evolving lifestyles, ecological and socio-political upheavals, and recent diagnostic advances. Numerous pathogens, including viruses like West Nile, Chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis on the one hand, and hemorrhagic fever viruses like Ebola and Maburg, are particular concerns. Recently, the Corona virus responsible for SARS, which caused an epidemic sufficiently worrisome to challenge crisis management concepts, was successfully isolated. It is in this context that so-called "bird flu'", may be on the verge of causing a human pandemic. Pox and Monkeypox are "virtually emerging" viruses that have potential for use in bioterrorism. The management and treatment of these emerging infectious diseases calls for new approaches, organizations and infrastructures. PMID:17140098

Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

2006-03-01

28

Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti  

PubMed Central

Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised. PMID:25317697

Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

2014-01-01

29

Imaging of Parasitic Diseases of the Genitourinary System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic infections of the genitourinary system are a heterogeneous group of diseases that have some common features. Most\\u000a parasitic infections are chronic, and the host’s immune response reacts to the different stages of the parasite lifecycle\\u000a involving different parasite antigens. Although renal disease is not one of the common presenting features, many parasitic\\u000a infections are associated with glomerular lesions. While

Ahmad Farouk El-Sherbiny

30

Temperature-driven shifts in a host-parasite interaction drive nonlinear changes in disease risk  

E-print Network

decline, amphibian malformations, climate change, emerging disease, freshwater, global warming, mismatch understanding of these ecologi- cal responses to climate change, their effects on disease risk remain a pressingTemperature-driven shifts in a host-parasite interaction drive nonlinear changes in disease risk

Johnson, Pieter

31

Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Parasites Parasites Home Share Compartir Travel/Travelers International travelers can be at risk for ... The Parasitic Illnesses That Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis ...

32

Genetic aspects of sheep parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

There is evidence of genetically determined host resistance mechanisms for most of the sheep parasites evaluated. The mechanisms vary; from no or reduced establishment, early expulsion, to suppression of parasites resulting in reduced size and fecundity. There is a need to integrate breeding for parasite resistance with the genetic improvement of production traits in farm animals, aiming for optimum solutions for potentially conflicting responses. Sustainable parasite control must be based on Integrated Parasite Management utilising an interdisciplinary approach. PMID:22525587

Karlsson, L J E; Greeff, J C

2012-09-30

33

Vector-borne parasitic zoonoses: emerging scenarios and new perspectives.  

PubMed

Changing climate is not the only driver for alterations in the dynamic interaction between arthropod vectors of zoonotic parasites and their hosts, including humans. A suite of other factors ranging from urbanization and deforestation to changing demographics in both developing and developed countries, the impact of the recent economic crisis, increased global movement of people and animals and follow-on effects of major catastrophes. This article reviews the most important vector-borne parasites of zoonotic concern that are changing/expanding their distribution patterns in both endemic and/or previously non-endemic areas. We include the discussion of the changing aspects of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, Chagas disease as well as of some spirurid and filarioid nematodes. PMID:21852040

Colwell, Douglas D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

2011-11-24

34

[Chagas disease: an emerging public health problem in Italy?].  

PubMed

Chagas' disease is an endemic parasitic illness in the American continent, affecting around 16 to 18 million people. Given that 9.5% of immigrants to Italy are from Latin America and that the infection can be transmitted in non-endemic countries congenitally by organ donations and blood transfusions, Chagas disease should be regarded as an emerging public health problem in Italy. Clinical guidelines as well as health protocols are needed to deal with this rarely recognized disease. PMID:19359818

Guerri-Guttenberg, R A; Ciannameo, A; Di Girolamo, C; Milei, J J

2009-03-01

35

Emerging diseases: Measles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High vaccination coverage rates and the administration of a second dose of measles vaccine have resulted in a significant\\u000a decline in the incidence of measles and neurologic diseases due to measles in many countries. However, intermittent outbreaks\\u000a of measles still occur even in countries with excellent vaccination coverage, suggesting the existence of high rates of measles\\u000a virus introduction from endemic

Martin O. Ota; William J. Moss; Diane E. Griffin

2005-01-01

36

Redox processes in malaria and other parasitic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of oxidative stress resulting from production of reactive oxygen species and\\/or from suppression of the cellular antioxidant capacity in parasitic infections is shortly reviewed. The experimental part of the paper deals with the glutathione (GSH) — glutathione reductase (GR) system, a cornerstone of intracellular antioxidant defence mechanisms. For studying this system in parasitic diseases such as malaria new

K. Becker; M. Gui; A. Traxler; R. H. Schirmer; C. Kirsten

1994-01-01

37

The anther smut disease on Gypsophila repens: a case of parasite sub-optimal performance following a recent host shift?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of how parasites adapt to new hosts is of great importance for understanding the emergence of new diseases. Here, we report a study of the anther smut disease on Gypsophila repens (Caryophyllaceae). In contrast to what is usually found on other host species, infected natural populations of G. repens are extremely rare. Moreover, symptoms of diseased plants are

M. LOPEZ-VILLAVICENCIO; J. ENJALBERT; M. E. HOOD; J. A. SHYKOFF; C. RAQUIN; T. GIRAUD

2005-01-01

38

Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935). Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115) prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935). The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5%) at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29) of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112) frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be considered one of the luckiest parasites, because it has found an empty niche in Australia. It now flourishes in > 20 endemic and exotic frog species, but its consequences are yet to be fully understood. PMID:20537137

2010-01-01

39

Plastic behaviors in hosts promote the emergence of retaliatory parasites  

PubMed Central

Mafia like behavior, where individuals cooperate under the threat of punishment, occurs not only in humans, but is also observed in several animal species. Observations suggest that avian hosts tend to accept a certain degree of parasitism in order to avoid retaliating punishment from the brood parasite. To understand under which conditions it will be beneficial for a host to cooperate, we model the interaction between hosts and parasites as an evolutionary game. In our model, the host's behavior is plastic, and thus, its response depends on the previous interactions with the parasite. We find that such learned behavior in turn is crucial for the evolution of retaliating parasites. The abundance of this kind of mafia behavior oscillates in time and does not settle to an equilibrium. Our results suggest that retaliation is a mechanism for the parasite to evade specialization and to induce acceptance by the host. PMID:24589512

Chakra, Maria Abou; Hilbe, Christian; Traulsen, Arne

2014-01-01

40

Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.  

PubMed

Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387

Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

2006-06-01

41

Huntington's disease: underlying molecular mechanisms and emerging  

E-print Network

Huntington's disease: underlying molecular mechanisms and emerging concepts John Labbadia, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegen- erative disorder for which no disease modifying treat- ments exist. Many molecular changes and cellular

Morimoto, Richard

42

The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread  

PubMed Central

The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

2011-01-01

43

Parasites causing disease in wild and cultured fish in Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, based on field and laboratory observations, investigated the role of parasites as the cause of disease outbreaks and mass mortality in wild and cultured fish in Newfoundland over three decades. One ciliated protozoan, Trichodina jadranica (Ciliophora), and Loma branchialis (Microspora) were responsible for mass mortality of cultured fry and fingerling Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) while a myxozoan, Tetracapsuloides

RASUL A KHAN

44

Balamuthia mandrillaris amoebic encephalitis: an emerging parasitic infection.  

PubMed

Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free living amoeba that can be isolated from soil. It is an emerging pathogen causing skin lesions as well as CNS involvement with a fatal outcome if untreated. The infection has been described more commonly in inmunocompetent individuals, mostly males, many children, and with a predilection for population with Hispanic background in cases occurring in the United States. Except for Africa, all continents have reported the disease, although a majority of cases are seen in North and South America. In published reported cases from North America, most patients will debut with neurological symptoms, where as in countries like Peru, a skin lesion will precede other symptoms. The classical skin lesion is a plaque, mostly located on face or knee. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion. Therapeutic strategies require a multidrug approach, than includes at least one amebicidal drug, and prolonged periods of treatment. PMID:22729402

Bravo, Francisco G; Seas, Carlos

2012-08-01

45

The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary

David M. Morens; Gregory K. Folkers; Anthony S. Fauci

2004-01-01

46

25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.  

...diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such livestock must be treated and the movement thereof restricted in...

2014-04-01

47

25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such livestock must be treated and the movement thereof restricted in...

2010-04-01

48

25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such livestock must be treated and the movement thereof restricted in...

2012-04-01

49

25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such livestock must be treated and the movement thereof restricted in...

2013-04-01

50

25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such livestock must be treated and the movement thereof restricted in...

2011-04-01

51

Bacterial parasite shows potential in disease control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article reports that researchers have sequenced the complete genome of one strain of Wolbachia pipientis and are gaining new insight into the biology and evolution of Wolbachia-host interactions. It discusses practical applications such as disease and pest control.

Bram, Lon; Scientist, Australian L.

52

Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases C. Jewel, T. Kypraios, P. Neal & G. Roberts of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Bayesian Analysis for Emerging Infectious Diseases. C. Jewell Infectious diseases both within human and animal polulations often pose serious health and socio- economic

Sidorov, Nikita

53

Confl ict and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in confl ict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well

Michelle Gayer; Dominique Legros; Pierre Formenty; Maire A. Connolly

2007-01-01

54

Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Global warming can affect the world's biota and the functioning of ecosystems in many indirect ways. Recent evidence indicates that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of parasitic diseases, with potentially drastic conse- quences for their hosts. It is also possible that warmer conditions could promote the transmission of parasites and raise their local abundance. Here I have

R. POULIN

2005-01-01

55

Emerging parasite zoonoses associated with water and food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental route of transmission is important for many protozoan and helminth parasites, with water, soil and food being particularly significant. Both the potential for producing large numbers of transmissive stages and their environmental robustness, being able to survive in moist microclimates for prolonged periods of time, pose a persistent threat to public and veterinary health. The increased demands on

Theresa R. Slifko; Huw V. Smith; Joan B. Rose

56

25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section...Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock...infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed...

2011-04-01

57

Emergency medicine and the public's health: emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

In recent years, multiple global forces have contributed to the emergence and widespread distribution of previously unknown disease entities. This article discusses Ebola virus, West Nile virus, and Hantavirus as representative emerging infectious diseases. Smallpox is discussed along with concerns about the safety of the smallpox vaccine, given the uncertain risk of bioterrorism and smallpox exposure. ED physicians must become familiar with the presentation, management, and public health impact of all of these entities, as well as understand the potential impact of other emerging infectious diseases. PMID:16982350

Saks, Mark A; Karras, David

2006-11-01

58

Parasitic diseases of remote Indigenous communities in Australia.  

PubMed

Indigenous Australians suffer significant disadvantage in health outcomes and have a life expectancy well below that of non-Indigenous Australians. Mortality rates of Indigenous Australians are higher than that of Indigenous populations in developed countries elsewhere in the world. A number of parasitic diseases which are uncommon in the rest of the Australian population contribute to the high burden of disease in many remote Indigenous communities. High rates of infection with enteric parasites such as Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris have been recorded and infection of the skin with the ecto-parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei is also a substantial problem. Secondary infection of scabies lesions, including with Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus, can produce serious sequelae such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Transmission of many parasites in many remote communities is facilitated by overcrowded living conditions and infrastructure problems which result in poor sanitation and hygiene. Improvements in environmental health conditions must accompany medical initiatives to achieve sustainable improvement in the health of Indigenous Australians. PMID:20412810

Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James S; Carapetis, Jonathan R

2010-08-15

59

Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases: Old and New Approaches  

PubMed Central

Methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases have stagnated in the last 20–30 years. Few major advances in clinical diagnostic testing have been made since the introduction of PCR, although new technologies are being investigated. Many tests that form the backbone of the “modern” microbiology laboratory are based on very old and labour-intensive technologies such as microscopy for malaria. Pressing needs include more rapid tests without sacrificing sensitivity, value-added tests, and point-of-care tests for both high- and low-resource settings. In recent years, research has been focused on alternative methods to improve the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. These include immunoassays, molecular-based approaches, and proteomics using mass spectrometry platforms technology. This review summarizes the progress in new approaches in parasite diagnosis and discusses some of the merits and disadvantages of these tests. PMID:20069111

Ndao, Momar

2009-01-01

60

Parasitic and Infectious Disease Responses to Changing Global Nutrient Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic and infectious diseases (PIDs) are a significant threat to human, livestock, and wildlife health and are changing\\u000a dramatically in the face of human-induced environmental changes such as those in climate and land use. In this article we\\u000a explore the little-studied but potentially important response of PIDs to another major environmental change, that in the global\\u000a nutrient cycles. Humans have

Valerie J. McKenzie; Alan R. Townsend

2007-01-01

61

Epidemiology and history of human parasitic diseases in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal parasitic diseases such as enterobiasis, giardiasis, and ascariasis are detected most frequently in Romania, but\\u000a their importance is definitely surpassed by trichinellosis, cystic echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis. Malaria was common until\\u000a its eradication in 1963, and only imported cases are reported nowadays. The aim of this review was to bring together essential\\u000a data on the epidemiology and history of human

Raul Neghina; Adriana M. Neghina; Iosif Marincu; Ioan Iacobiciu

2011-01-01

62

Travel and the Emergence of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to

Mary E. Wilson

1996-01-01

63

Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24808250

Montgomery, Susan P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Cantey, Paul T.; Edwards, Morven S.; Meymandi, Sheba K.

2014-01-01

64

Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243

Farmer, P.

1996-01-01

65

Immune reconstitution disease associated with parasitic infections following antiretroviral treatment  

PubMed Central

HIV-associated immune reconstitution disease (IRD) is the clinical presentation or deterioration of opportunistic infections that results from enhancement of pathogen-specific immune responses among patients responding to antiretroviral treatment (ART). The vast majority of reported cases of IRD have been associated with mycobacterial, chronic viral and invasive fungal infections; such cases result from dysregulated augmentation of cell-mediated type 1 cytokine-secreting host immune responses. However, the spectrum of infections now recognized as associated with IRD is expanding and includes a number of parasitic infections, which may be mediated by different immunopathological mechanisms. These include leishmaniasis (visceral, cutaneous, mucosal and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis), schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis. Since the major burden of HIV lies in resource-limited countries where access to ART is now rapidly expanding, increased awareness and knowledge of these phenomena is important. Here we review the clinical spectrum and pathogenesis of IRD associated with parasitic infections. PMID:17042934

LAWN, S D; WILKINSON, R J

2006-01-01

66

Helminthic eosinophilic meningitis: emerging zoonotic diseases in the South.  

PubMed

Today most emerging infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), arise in the natural environment as zoonoses and are often imported into the United States (US). The most common helminthic infections that can cause eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) in the US, neuroangiostrongyliasis and baylisascariasis, share many of the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases. Neuroangiostrongyliasis, a rodent zoonosis caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is now endemic in the US following the importation of infected rats on container ships and African land snails, the parasite's intermediate hosts, as biological controls and exotic pets. Baylisascariasis, a raccoon zoonosis, caused by the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, has extended its US distribution range from suburban neighborhoods in the northern US to the Southeast and West Coast since the 1980s. Both A. cantonensis and B. procyonis are now enzootic in Louisiana and have caused EoM in humans. This review analyzes scientific articles selected by MEDLINE search, 1966-2008, in order to assess the evolving epidemiology of EoM in the US, and specifically in Louisiana; and to alert Louisiana clinicians to populations at increased risk of helminthic EoM as a result of age, ethnicity, lifestyle, food choices, location of permanent residence, or recent travel in the Americas or Caribbean. Most parasitic diseases causing EoM are no longer confined to tropical countries; they are now endemic in the US and in Louisiana and more cases may be anticipated. PMID:19283982

Diaz, James H

2008-01-01

67

Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?  

PubMed Central

A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues. PMID:20427329

Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.

2010-01-01

68

The emergence of Lyme disease  

PubMed Central

Since its identification nearly 30 years ago, Lyme disease has continued to spread, and there have been increasing numbers of cases in the northeastern and north central US. The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes infection by migration through tissues, adhesion to host cells, and evasion of immune clearance. Both innate and adaptive immune responses, especially macrophage- and antibody-mediated killing, are required for optimal control of the infection and spirochetal eradication. Ecological conditions favorable to the disease, and the challenge of prevention, predict that Lyme disease will be a continuing public health concern. PMID:15085185

Steere, Allen C.; Coburn, Jenifer; Glickstein, Lisa

2004-01-01

69

[Emerging viral diseases in Europe].  

PubMed

Emergence of viral agents in Europe is influenced by various factors. Climatic changes influencing possible vectors, insufficient vaccination, and travel of man and goods are among the most important reasons to explain these changes. Fever and arthralgia are the leading symptoms in infection with Dengue, Sindbis, or Chikungunya virus. In contrast, tick-born encephalitis (TBE), Toscana, or West Nile virus infections mainly lead to meningo-encephalitis. In Europe, hemorrhagic fever is caused by Crimean Congo and Hanta virus. Protective vaccines are available for emerging viral agents like TBE, influenza and measles. PMID:22511281

Löbermann, M; Gürtler, L G; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Reisinger, E C

2012-04-01

70

Variation in emergence of parasitic and predatory isopods among habitats at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gnathiid isopods are one of the most abundant groups of ectoparasites on coral reef fishes. They, and other isopods, have\\u000a been shown to significantly affect the health and behaviour of many reef fish. Whether isopod emergence differs among habitats\\u000a on coral reefs is not known. In this study, we measured emergence rates of parasitic isopods (Gnathiidea and Flabellifera)\\u000a in six

C. M. Jones; A. S. Grutter

2007-01-01

71

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940

Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak

2008-01-01

72

Genomic insights into the origin of parasitism in the emerging plant pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the biology of this unusual parasite. PMID:21909270

Kikuchi, Taisei; Cotton, James A; Dalzell, Jonathan J; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; McVeigh, Paul; Takanashi, Takuma; Tsai, Isheng J; Assefa, Samuel A; Cock, Peter J A; Otto, Thomas Dan; Hunt, Martin; Reid, Adam J; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Yokoi, Toshiro; Larsson, Mattias C; Miwa, Johji; Maule, Aaron G; Sahashi, Norio; Jones, John T; Berriman, Matthew

2011-09-01

73

Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

2003-01-01

74

Sickle cell disease in the emergency department.  

PubMed

Acute painful episodes are the most common reason for emergency department visits among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Early and aggressive pain management is a priority. Emergency providers (EPs) must also diagnose other emergent diagnoses in patients with SCD and differentiate them from vaso-occlusive crisis. EPs should be aware of cognitive biases that may misdirect the diagnostic process. Administration of intravenous fluids should be used judiciously. Blood transfusion may be considered. Coordination of care with hematology is an important part of the effective emergency department and long-term management of patients with SCD. PMID:25060254

Lovett, Paris B; Sule, Harsh P; Lopez, Bernard L

2014-08-01

75

Emerging Treatments in Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a critical review on the most recent developments in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. New symptomatic therapies include the use of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, new dopamine agonists and of surgical treatments (such as pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation). Protective strategies include the use of COMT and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors, of dopamine agonists and of trophic factors.

Alberto Albanese

1997-01-01

76

Emerging Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Amazon Basin, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is enzootic, involving a variety of wild mammals and at least 10 of the 16 reported silvatic triatomine bug species. Human cases of Chagas disease are increasing, indicating that the disease may be emerging as a wider public health problem in the region: 38 cases from 1969 to 1992, and 167 in the

José Rodrigues Coura; Angela C. V. Junqueira; Octavio Fernandes; Sebastiao A. S. Valente; Michael A. Miles

2002-01-01

77

Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of free-living wild animals can be classified into three major groups on the basis of key epizootiological criteria: (i) EIDs associated with ``spill-over'' from domestic animals to wildlife populations living in proximity; (ii) EIDs related directly to human intervention, via host or parasite translocations; and (iii) EIDs with no overt human or domestic animal involvement. These

Peter Daszak; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt

2000-01-01

78

Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus

Donato Traversa; Angela Di Cesare; Gary Conboy

2010-01-01

79

[Ebola fever: an emerging disease].  

PubMed

One of the most fatal diseases encountered by mankind so far is Ebola fever. Ebola fever is caused by a highly pathogenic virus from the Filoviridae family which is found in nature in four different sub-types which differ among others also by their pathogenicity for man. The hitherto detected EBO sub-types are stable do not change in the course of an epidemic nor in the course of the patient's illness, nor during passage of the virus from one subject to another. The author presents a historical review of epidemics, nosocomial and laboratory infections, spread and epizoonosis caused by the Ebola virus. The author presents a detailed clinical picture describing the frequency and evolution of different clinical symptoms and signs based on the observation of 103 patients infected with the Ebola virus in Kikwit, Zaire (nowadays Democratic Republic of Congo) in 1995. In the laboratory diagnosis individual tests are mentioned assessing the presence of the virus, viral antigens and antibodies, incl. the most recent immunohistochemical test. The author mentions the problem of patient care and his therapy, incl. available antiviral drugs and passive immunotherapy. He also discusses the possibility and probability of spread of the Ebola virus into our environment. He mentions principles for transport of subjects with suspected disease, demands for their strict isolation and maximum protection of the attending staff incl. barrier nursing technique. The author discusses also principles of epidemiological work, detection and isolation of sources, identification and follow up of contacts and epidemiological supervision of affected areas. Past epidemics made it possible to assemble many scientific findings and practical experience. These make it possible to cope nowadays with any attack of the Ebola virus not only in areas of its epizootic occurrence. PMID:11329728

Jezek, Z

2001-04-01

80

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities.  

PubMed

Host-parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity-disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11-65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15-20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity-disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T J; Preston, Daniel L; Hoverman, Jason T; LaFonte, Bryan E

2013-10-15

81

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities  

PubMed Central

Host–parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity–disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11–65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15–20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity–disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Preston, Daniel L.; Hoverman, Jason T.; LaFonte, Bryan E.

2013-01-01

82

Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.

Pello, Susan J.; Olsen, Glenn H.

2013-01-01

83

Climate Change Promotes the Emergence of Serious Disease Outbreaks of Filarioid Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Filarioid parasites represent major health hazards with important medical, veterinary, and economic implications, and considerable potential to affect the everyday lives of tens of millions of people globally (World Health Organization, 2007). Scenarios for climate change vary latitudinally and regionally and involve direct and indirect linkages for increasing temperature and the dissemination, amplification, and invasiveness of vector-borne parasites. High latitude regions are especially influenced by global climate change and thus may be prone to altered associations and dynamics for complex host-pathogen assemblages and emergence of disease with cascading effects on ecosystem structure. Although the potential for substantial ecological perturbation has been identified, few empirical observations have emanated from systems across the Holarctic. Coincidental with decades of warming, and anomalies of high temperature and humidity in the sub-Arctic region of Fennoscandia, the mosquito-borne filarioid nematode Setaria tundra is now associated with emerging epidemic disease resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality for reindeer and moose. We describe a host-parasite system that involves reindeer, arthropods, and nematodes, which may contribute as a factor to ongoing declines documented for this ungulate species across northern ecosystems. We demonstrate that mean summer temperatures exceeding 14°C drive the emergence of disease due to S. tundra. An association between climate and emergence of filarioid parasites is a challenge to ecosystem services with direct effects on public health, sustainability of free-ranging and domestic ungulates, and ultimately food security for subsistence cultures at high latitudes. PMID:20422252

Pusenius, Jyrki; Kumpula, Jouko; Venalainen, Ari; Kortet, Raine; Oksanen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric

2010-01-01

84

Emerging diseases: a global and biological perspective.  

PubMed

The 'Livestock Revolution' and globalization with enormous increases in free trade of animals and food products are not a choice but a reality (Thiermann, J. Vet. Med. Educ., 28, 2001, 56). Conditions of modern life, some of them related to or being the result of globalization, ensure that factors responsible for disease emergence are more prevalent than ever. Categorization of the factors is somewhat arbitrary but are representative of the underlying processes that cause emergence. Major responsible factors include ecological changes, such as changes due to agriculture or economic development or to anomalies in climates, human demographical changes and behaviour, travel and commerce, technology and industry, microbial adaptation and change, and the breakdown of public health measures (Morse, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 1, 1995, 7). Furtheron, concerning pathogens, their most striking feature emerging and re-emerging is their diversity, ranging from viruses and prions, over bacteria and rickettsia, fungi, protozoa to helminths. As presently the epidemiological perspective does not permit reliable prediction and prevention of most damaging new pathogens, and as the evolutionary perspective only provides rough theoretical estimates for selective processes in pathogen populations, surveillance and monitoring remain the most important methods to recognize early that 'something has happened'. In light of the complexity and diversity of likely new emerging diseases, such surveillance may be more broadly targeted and aimed more realistically at early recognition of disease syndromes rather than at identifying microbial diseases. The complex and rapid-paced development of international trade, coupled with increasing societal demands for not only abundant and inexpensive food as well as for protection from diseases originating from animals, demands immediate attention from the veterinary community. The inter-relationship at the minimum between animal production, animal diseases and human diseases demands that we consider our concepts, methods and structures. There exists a huge growth area for the veterinary profession; substantial need exists for trained individuals who understand the science of foreign diseases, who can facilitate emergency management operations against diseases (Brown, J. Vet. Med. Educ., 30, 2003, 112) and who can contribute to adjust and strategically develop animal production systems further. PMID:17123357

Zessin, K-H

2006-12-01

85

Rediscovering Biology - Unit 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.

Learner.org, Annenberg M.

86

Effect of Biodiversity Changes in Disease Risk: Exploring Disease Emergence in a Plant-Virus System  

PubMed Central

The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species. PMID:22792068

Pagan, Israel; Gonzalez-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Pinero, Daniel; Garcia-Arenal, Fernando

2012-01-01

87

Multimorbidity and chronic disease: an emergent perspective.  

PubMed

The concept of emergence offers a new way of thinking about multimorbidity and chronic disease. Multimorbidity and chronic disease are the end result of ongoing perturbations and interconnected activities of simpler substructures that collectively constitute the complex adaptive superstructure known as us, the person or patient. Medical interventions cause perturbations of many different sub-systems within the patient, hence they are not limited to the person's bodily function, but also affect his general health perception and his interactions with his external environments. Changes in these domains inevitably have consequences on body function, and close the feedback loop of illness/disease, recovery and regained health. PMID:24702685

Sturmberg, Joachim P

2014-08-01

88

Assessing the role of reproduction and stress in the spring emergence of haematozoan parasites in birds.  

PubMed

A spring emergence of avian haemosporidian infections is nearly universal among temperate zone birds and is often described as a cost of reproductive effort. We take advantage of the opportunistic (i.e. aseasonal) breeding schedule of the red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) to determine the relative contributions of season versus host physiology to the timing and intensity of Haemoproteus infections in the temperate zone. Despite breeding activity in both the winter and summer, Haemoproteus infections were highly seasonal--occurring largely from May through September--and measures of host physiology (i.e. reproductive condition and stress parameters) did not explain parasite prevalence. However, within the spring-summer peak, infection intensity (i.e. parasite density) was positively correlated with plasma levels of testosterone and free corticosterone and negatively correlated with corticosterone binding globulin capacity. These data are discussed in terms of the behavioral ecology of host and vector, and suggest that both seasonal increases in vector activity and relapse of latent (i.e. dormant) infections contribute to the spring emergence in birds. Relapse of latent infections does not appear to be induced by reproductive activity or increased allostatic (i.e. energy) load, but rather by a season-specific change in host or parasite physiology (e.g. melatonin or endogenous rhythms). PMID:24265426

Cornelius, J M; Zylberberg, M; Breuner, C W; Gleiss, A C; Hahn, T P

2014-03-15

89

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID 'events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940 and 2004, and demonstrate non-random global patterns. EID events have risen significantly over time after controlling for reporting bias, with their peak incidence (in the 1980s) concomitant with the HIV pandemic. EID events are dominated by zoonoses (60.3% of EIDs): the majority of these (71.8%) originate in wildlife (for example, severe acute respiratory virus, Ebola virus), and are increasing significantly over time. We find that 54.3% of EID events are caused by bacteria or rickettsia, reflecting a large number of drug-resistant microbes in our database. Our results confirm that EID origins are significantly correlated with socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, and provide a basis for identifying regions where new EIDs are most likely to originate (emerging disease 'hotspots'). They also reveal a substantial risk of wildlife zoonotic and vector-borne EIDs originating at lower latitudes where reporting effort is low. We conclude that global resources to counter disease emergence are poorly allocated, with the majority of the scientific and surveillance effort focused on countries from where the next important EID is least likely to originate. PMID:18288193

Jones, Kate E; Patel, Nikkita G; Levy, Marc A; Storeygard, Adam; Balk, Deborah; Gittleman, John L; Daszak, Peter

2008-02-21

90

Controlling emerging diseases in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presentation addressed the following points: the role of veterinary epidemiology in emerging and global disease outbreaks; the contribution of veterinary epidemiology discipline to understanding and prevention of infections and other emerging animal disease, and the challenges for the discipline of veterinary epidemiology in the near future.The emerging and re-emerging infections animal diseases have contributed to expand the outlook of

M. D. Salman

2004-01-01

91

Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

Greene, Marjorie

2010-04-01

92

Emerging infectious disease: global response, global alert.  

PubMed

Despite spectacular progress in the eradication of infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are making a comeback in many parts of the world. After years of decline, plague, diphtheria, dengue, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, and cholera have reappeared as public health threats. In the last 20 years [before 1997] more than 30 new and highly infectious diseases have been identified, including Ebola-type hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, and hepatitis C. Antibiotic resistance has also emerged during this period, and fewer new antibiotics are being produced because of high development costs and licensing. Drugs no longer offer protection or cure for many infectious diseases, and consequently more people need hospitalization with higher treatment costs. The causes of the appearance of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones include the rapid increase in international travel, the growth of mega-cities with high population densities, inadequate safe water and sanitation, food-borne diseases by the globalization of trade, and human penetration into remote animal and insect habitats. Meanwhile, resources for public health are being reduced, with the result that either the appearance of new diseases or resistance to drugs go unnoticed. A recent example is the human immunodeficiency virus, which went unrecognized until a large number of people got infected. For this very reason the 1997 World Health Day featured the theme of emerging infectious diseases and global response. Such forums are held to help countries rebuild the foundations of disease surveillance and control, while the public and private sectors may be encouraged to develop better techniques for surveillance to confront a common global threat. PMID:12348002

Nakajima, H

1997-01-01

93

Ocular parasitic diseases: a review on toxocariasis and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis.  

PubMed

Parasitic infections may damage various ocular tissues, thereby causing visual dysfunction. In 1950, Wilder described the first case in which larval forms of nematodal intestinal roundworms (Ascaridoidea: Ascaris, Toxocara, Ancylostoma, Necator, and Strongyloides) were implicated as a cause of intraocular disease. This review focuses on two disorders associated with parasitic infections: ocular toxocariasis and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis. PMID:20669882

Cortez, Rafael T; Ramirez, Gema; Collet, Lucienne; Giuliari, Gian Paolo

2011-01-01

94

The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention: a new administrative structure for schistosomiasis control.  

PubMed

Since more than 5 decades, the overall responsibility for the national programme on schistosomiasis control in China resides at the government level, i.e. Ministry of Health. Day-to-day activities are carried out by independent provincial parasitic institutes situated in the endemic areas. Along with the general economic development and the steady progress in the medical sciences, successful developments in control and research of the parasitic diseases in the country were achieved. This necessitated a corresponding reorganization of the administrative structures which has taken place at several levels. In January 2002, the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention was reorganized and the Institute of Parasitic Diseases in Shanghai became part of this new organization under the name of the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases to better reflect its new role. By assigning all administrative tasks regarding research and control of parasitic diseases under the umbrella of one administrative central laboratory, the new task force for epidemiological surveys and direction of parasitic control programmes is well suited to respond to the daunting challenges of the future. The new institution has only existed for a few years but has already become a well-functioning force with a broad contact net of national and international experts on research and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:16126154

Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Ming-Gang; Bergquist, Robert

2005-01-01

95

[Use of geographical information systems in parasitic diseases and the importance of animal health economics].  

PubMed

In the world, economical losses due to the parasitic diseases reach enormous ratios in animal production. Both developed and developing countries set aside a considerable budget to control these parasitic diseases. This situation aids in the improvement of control methods of parasitic diseases. Also, it causes new ways of investigation that includes observation, evaluation and prevention of parasitic diseases. The Geographical Information System (GIS) has recently become one of the most common methods utilized to provide disease information technology with computer supported technology in many countries. The most important qualities of GIS are the formation of a powerful database, continual updating and rapid provision of coordination related to units. Many factors are evaluated at the same time by the system and also, results from analysis of data related to disease and their causes could reduce or prevent economical losses due to parasitic disease. In this study, possible uses of Geographical Information Systems against parasitic diseases and an approach in terms of animal health economics were presented. PMID:18985590

Ciçek, Hasan; Ciçek, Hatice; Senkul, Cetin; Tando?an, Murat

2008-01-01

96

Nutrition and Immunity in Animal Disease: Lessons from Parasitic Gastroenteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Macro- and micro-nutrients, such as dietary protein and zinc, and plant secondary compounds, such as condensed tannins, can\\u000a affect the manifestations of immunity to parasites; the relationship between nutrition and immunity to parasites may be quantitative\\u000a and\\/or qualitative. The former is often demonstrated under nutrient scarcity, where immunity may be penalized and the penalties\\u000a in immune response can be rectified

Spiridoula Athanasiadou; Jos G. M. Houdijk

97

Prizes and parasites: incentive models for addressing Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Recent advances in immunology have provided a foundation of knowledge to understand many of the intricacies involved in manipulating the human response to fight parasitic infections, and a great deal has been learned from malaria vaccine efforts regarding strategies for developing parasite vaccines. There has been some encouraging progress in the development of a Chagas vaccine in animal models. A prize fund for Chagas could be instrumental in ensuring that these efforts are translated into products that benefit patients. PMID:19493074

Crager, Sara E; Price, Matt

2009-01-01

98

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change  

E-print Network

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology, Boston, MA 02115, USA Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are caused by pathogens that: (i

Schweik, Charles M.

99

Emerging or re-emerging bacterial zoonotic diseases: bartonellosis, leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis, plague  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There are a whole series of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases present in the Northern Hemisphere and the author describes four of them, namely, bartonellosis, leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis and plague. Reasons for the emergence or re-emergence of such diseases are not clear, but factors such as human demographics, economic development and land use, international travel and commerce, and microbial

R. Higgins

2004-01-01

100

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

PubMed Central

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

2010-01-01

101

Prominent emerging diseases within the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manuscript reviews disease syndromes that have become significant aquatic animal health issues within the United States since 2003. The emergence of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) disease among wild fish in the Great Lakes is probably the most problematic and political issue. The emergence of this pathogen resulted in the issuance of a 2006 VHSV Federal order that placed restrictions on the movement of certain species of fish in the eight states that border the Great Lakes (New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin and Minnesota) as well as the movement of live fish into the United States from the Ontario and Quebec Provinces, Canada. Spring Viremia of Carp (SVC) was identified for the first times in the United States during 2002. It was diagnosed as the source of mortality among koi at a private facility in North Carolina as well as from feral carp in Cedar Lake (WI). In 2004, Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) killed 8,000 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Chadakoin River (NY); it reoccurred the next year within Chautauqua Lake (NY), killing an estimated 25,000 carp (20–30 lbs. apiece). During the summers of 2007 and 2008, KHV epizootics also occurred among carp in Ontario (Canada). Finally, outbreaks of epizootic shell disease in American lobster (Homarus americanus) have generated concern along the southern New England coast and eastern Long Island Sound. The prevalence and severity of shell disease have increased within inshore areas of southern New England and resulted in significant decreases in lobster catches and marketability.

Cipriano, R. C.; Bowser, A.; Dove, A.; Goodwin, A.; Puzach, C.

2011-01-01

102

Human-Wildlife Contact and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

E-print Network

Chapter 4 Human-Wildlife Contact and Emerging Infectious Diseases Michael P. Muehlenbein Abstract diseases. 4.1 Emerging Infectious Diseases The patterns of morbidity and mortality in human populations that it was "time to close the book on infectious diseases, declare the war against pestilence won, and shift

Muehlenbein, Michael

103

Experimental warming drives a seasonal shift in the timing of host-parasite dynamics with consequences for disease risk.  

PubMed

Multi-species experiments are critical for identifying the mechanisms through which climate change influences population dynamics and community interactions within ecological systems, including infectious diseases. Using a host-parasite system involving freshwater snails, amphibians and trematode parasites, we conducted a year-long, outdoor experiment to evaluate how warming affected net parasite production, the timing of infection and the resultant pathology. Warming of 3 °C caused snail intermediate hosts to release parasites 9 months earlier and increased infected snail mortality by fourfold, leading to decreased overlap between amphibians and parasites. As a result, warming halved amphibian infection loads and reduced pathology by 67%, despite comparable total parasite production across temperature treatments. These results demonstrate that climate-disease theory should be expanded to account for predicted changes in host and parasite phenology, which may often be more important than changes in total parasite output for predicting climate-driven changes in disease risk. PMID:24401007

Paull, Sara H; Johnson, Pieter T J

2014-04-01

104

Internal Parasites Internal Parasites can be classified into two basic groups, worms and protozoa. Parasitic disease dif-  

E-print Network

but the cecal worm can carry the organism that causes blackhead disease in turkeys. Earthworms ingest the infected cecal worm egg from poultry litter; turkeys that consume the earthworms become infected

New Hampshire, University of

105

Conservation Medicine and a New Agenda for Emerging Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last three decades have seen an alarming number of high- profile outbreaks of new viruses and other pathogens, many of them emerging from wildlife. Recent outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza, and others highlight emerging zoonotic diseases as one of the key threats to global health. Similar emerging diseases have been reported in wildlife populations, resulting in mass mortalities, population

PETER DASZAK; GARY M. TABOR; A. MARM KILPATRICK; JON EPSTEIN; RAINA PLOWRIGHTe

2004-01-01

106

Communicating about emerging infectious disease: The importance of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases have taken on renewed significance in the public health sector since the 1990s. Worldwide, governments are preparing emergency plans to guide them; their plans acknowledge that communication will be vital in the event of an outbreak. However, much of the emerging infectious disease communication literature deals with one-way transmission of facts to the public by experts. Little

Bev J. Holmes

2008-01-01

107

Ocular manifestations of some canine infectious and parasitic diseases commonly encountered in the Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many transmissible diseases, endemic in the Mediterranean area have been spread to countries where they have never been diagnosed before, because of the increasing international trade and travel activities. The purpose of this review is to describe the ocular manifestations of these infectious and parasitic diseases, which are also common in Greece, along with some insights into their etiopathogenesis, differential

A. Komnenou; A. F. Koutinas

108

The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records  

E-print Network

of intestinal nematodes, protozoa and bacteria, sexually transmitted viruses such as simian immunodeficiency viNEWS The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild diseases, many of which are endemic in natural populations. These include a tremendous variety

Nunn, Charles

109

Journal of Wildlife Diseases Vol. 14, October. 1978 435 THE PARASITE FAUNA OF THE AMERICAN ALLIGATOR  

E-print Network

Journal of Wildlife Diseases Vol. 14, October. 1978 435 THE PARASITE FAUNA OF THE AMERICAN, USA. #12;436 Journal of Wildlife Diseases Vol. 14, October. 1978 removed in toto and separated into es- ophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon. The lungs, kidneys, liver, urogenital tract and heart also

Hazen, Terry

110

Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals  

PubMed Central

Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.

2013-01-01

111

Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection  

PubMed Central

The increasing number of emerging infectious disease events that have spread internationally, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1, highlight the need for improvements in global outbreak surveillance. It is expected that the proliferation of Internet-based reports has resulted in greater communication and improved surveillance and reporting frameworks, especially with the revision of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), which went into force in 2007. However, there has been no global quantitative assessment of whether and how outbreak detection and communication processes have actually changed over time. In this study, we analyzed the entire WHO public record of Disease Outbreak News reports from 1996 to 2009 to characterize spatial-temporal trends in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and public communication about the outbreak relative to the estimated outbreak start date. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses show that overall, the timeliness of outbreak discovery improved by 7.3% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.073, 95% CI (1.038; 1.110)] per year, and public communication improved by 6.2% [HR = 1.062, 95% CI (1.028; 1.096)] per year. However, the degree of improvement varied by geographic region; the only WHO region with statistically significant (? = 0.05) improvement in outbreak discovery was the Western Pacific region [HR = 1.102 per year, 95% CI (1.008; 1.205)], whereas the Eastern Mediterranean [HR = 1.201 per year, 95% CI (1.066; 1.353)] and Western Pacific regions [HR = 1.119 per year, 95% CI (1.025; 1.221)] showed improvement in public communication. These findings provide quantitative historical assessment of timeliness in infectious disease detection and public reporting of outbreaks. PMID:21115835

Chan, Emily H.; Brewer, Timothy F.; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Pollack, Marjorie P.; Sonricker, Amy L.; Keller, Mikaela; Freifeld, Clark C.; Blench, Michael; Mawudeku, Abla; Brownstein, John S.

2010-01-01

112

Polycystic kidney disease: an unrecognized emerging infectious disease?  

PubMed Central

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans. We contend that it may be an emerging infectious disease and/or microbial toxicosis in a vulnerable human subpopulation. Use of a differential activation protocol for the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay showed bacterial endotoxin and fungal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in cyst fluids from human kidneys with PKD. Fatty acid analysis of cyst fluid confirmed the presence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids characteristic of endotoxin. Tissue and cyst fluid from three PKD patients were examined for fungal components. Serologic tests showed Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Candida antigens. IgE, but not IgG, reactive with Fusarium and Candida were also detected in cyst fluid. Fungal DNA was detected in kidney tissue and cyst fluid from these three PKD patients, but not in healthy human kidney tissue. We examine the intertwined nature of the actions of endotoxin and fungal components, sphingolipid biology in PKD, the structure of PKD gene products, infections, and integrity of gut function to establish a mechanistic hypothesis for microbial provocation of human cystic disease. Proof of this hypothesis will require identification of the microbes and microbial components involved and multifaceted studies of PKD cell biology. PMID:9204292

Miller-Hjelle, M. A.; Hjelle, J. T.; Jones, M.; Mayberry, W. R.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Nowak, D. M.; Darras, F. S.

1997-01-01

113

Tungiasis: a neglected epidermal parasitic skin disease of marginalized populations--a call for global science and policy.  

PubMed

Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is an ectoparasitic skin disease caused by the female sand flea/jigger flea (Tunga penetrans). As poverty is the major driving force of the disease, it can be called as a poverty-associated plague. It is one of the emerging neglected diseases in Latin America, Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, and India. The aim of the present scrutiny was to assess the public health impact of tungiasis, associated risk factors, and emerging opportunities to prevent and control tungiasis. Searches of PubMed, Google Scholar, and online search engines (Google, AOL, and Yahoo) using keywords "parasitic skin disease," "tungiasis," "sand flea," " tungiasis-associated risk factors," "tungiasis prevention and control," and their synonyms were used as a source of references. Searches were made without time limitations. Of 167 potential articles identified by these criteria, 51 appropriate were selected for review. Tungiasis is widespread in the resource-constrained settings of low-income economies. In the tropics, it is highly prevalent among the impoverished populations, but the associated risk factors are often poorly identified and remain uncontrolled. Though it is a self-limiting disease with considerable morbidity, the parasite may cause subsequent secondary morbidity through life-threatening complications and infections like cellulitis, tetanus, and death. However, the direct and indirect sociocultural, economic, and health impact of tungiasis is often undervalued and misunderstood. A systematic assessment on disease burden is still dearth and deficient. Over the decades, tungiasis has been largely neglected by the scientific community, policy makers, and healthcare stakeholders. In the endemic regions, even tungiasis is not listed for the disease control priorities in the regional, national, and international agenda. The majority of the epidermal parasitic skin diseases particularly tungiasis needs a sustainable global scientific research and control policy. This urges intensive efforts to develop a road map that delivers a clear vision towards zero new infection by designing low-cost prevention and control strategies. Besides, there is an urgency to develop culturally appropriate communication techniques and workable collaboration on a global scale by bringing all the stakeholders of endemic countries. PMID:23949241

Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal

2013-10-01

114

Network transmission inference: host behavior and parasite life cycle make social networks meaningful in disease ecology.  

PubMed

The process of disease transmission is determined by the interaction of host susceptibility and exposure to parasite infectious stages. Host behavior is an important determinant of the likelihood of exposure to infectious stages but is difficult to measure and often assumed to be homogenous in models of disease spread. We evaluated the importance of precisely defining host contact when using networks that estimate exposure and predict infection prevalence in a replicated, empirical system. In particular, we hypothesized that infection patterns would be predicted only by a contact network that is defined according to host behavior and parasite life cycle. Two competing host contact criteria were used to construct networks defined by parasite life cycle and social contacts. First, parasite-defined contacts were based on shared space with a time delay corresponding to the environmental development time of nematode parasites with a direct fecal-oral life cycle. Second, social contacts were defined by shared space in the same time period. To quantify the competing networks of exposure and infection, we sampled natural populations of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and infection of their gastrointestinal helminth community using replicated longitudinal capture-mark-recapture techniques. We predicted that (1) infection with parasites with direct fecal-oral life cycles would be explained by the time delay contact network, but not the social contact network; (2) infection with parasites with trophic life cycles (via a mobile intermediate host; thus, spatially decoupling transmission from host contact) would not be explained by either contact network. The prevalence of fecal-oral life cycle nematode parasites was strongly correlated to the number and strength of network connections from the parasite-defined network (including the time delay), while the prevalence of trophic life cycle parasites was not correlated with any network metrics. We concluded that incorporating the parasite life cycle, relative to the way that exposure is measured, is key to inferring transmission and can be empirically quantified using network techniques. In addition, appropriately defining and measuring contacts according the life history of the parasite and relevant behaviors of the host is a crucial step in applying network analyses to empirical systems. PMID:24555316

Grear, Daniel A; Luong, Lien T; Hudson, Peter J

2013-12-01

115

Emerging roles of pathogens in Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Chronic spirochetal infection can cause slowly progressive dementia, cortical atrophy and amyloid deposition in the atrophic form of general paresis. There is a significant association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and various types of spirochete (including the periodontal pathogen Treponemas and Borrelia burgdorferi), and other pathogens such as Chlamydophyla pneumoniae and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Exposure of mammalian neuronal and glial cells and organotypic cultures to spirochetes reproduces the biological and pathological hallmarks of AD. Senile-plaque-like beta amyloid (A?) deposits are also observed in mice following inhalation of C. pneumoniae in vivo, and A? accumulation and phosphorylation of tau is induced in neurons by HSV-1 in vitro and in vivo. Specific bacterial ligands, and bacterial and viral DNA and RNA all increase the expression of proinflammatory molecules, which activates the innate and adaptive immune systems. Evasion of pathogens from destruction by the host immune reactions leads to persistent infection, chronic inflammation, neuronal destruction and A? deposition. A? has been shown to be a pore-forming antimicrobial peptide, indicating that A? accumulation might be a response to infection. Global attention and action is needed to support this emerging field of research because dementia might be prevented by combined antibiotic, antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:21933454

Miklossy, Judith

2011-01-01

116

The influence of different water temperatures on Neobenedenia girellae (Monogenea) infection, parasite growth, egg production and emerging second generation on amberjack Seriola dumerili (Carangidae) and the histopathological effect of this parasite on fish skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated: 1) the influence of water temperature on Neobenedenia girellae (capsalid) infection, parasite growth, egg production and emerging second generation on the host amberjack Seriola dumerili (Carangidae) in Experiment I, and 2) changes in the infection level of N. girellae on S. dumerili, and the parasite growth and histopathological changes of S. dumerili skin infected with N. girellae

Noritaka Hirazawa; Ryoko Takano; Hiroko Hagiwara; Mitsuyo Noguchi; Minoru Narita

2010-01-01

117

Emerging Infectious Disease Leads to Rapid Population Declines of Common British Birds  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period. PMID:20805869

Toms, Mike P.; Peck, Kirsi M.; Kirkwood, James K.; Chantrey, Julian; Clatworthy, Innes R.; Evans, Andy D.; Hughes, Laura A.; Hutchinson, Oliver C.; John, Shinto K.; Pennycott, Tom W.; Perkins, Matthew W.; Rowley, Peter S.; Simpson, Vic R.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

2010-01-01

118

The emerging adult population with congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successes in managing infants and children with congenital heart disease have led to an emerging population of adult patients. As we enter this new century, the majority of patients with congenital heart disease will be adults, not children. It is important to maintain our commitment for continuing care to the emerging adult population. Psycho-social issues, including employment and pregnancy

William G. Williams; Gary D. Webb

2000-01-01

119

Cellular Inflammatory Response of Rainbow Trout to the Protozoan Parasite that Causes Proliferative Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular inflammatory response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) to the myxozoan parasite PKX that causes proliferative kidney disease was investigated. The response was studied from 3 to 20 weeks after the fish were injected with infected kidney homogenate. Kidney samples were examined by light and electron microscopy. In contrast to most myxosporeans, PKX provoked a severe

Elizabeth Macconnell; Charlie E. Smith; Ronald P. Hedrick; C. A. Speer

1989-01-01

120

Disease and the Extended Phenotype: Parasites Control Host Performance and Survival through Induced  

E-print Network

Changes in Body Plan Brett A. Goodman1,2 , Pieter T. J. Johnson1 * 1 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology fitness. Citation: Goodman BA, Johnson PTJ (2011) Disease and the Extended Phenotype: Parasites Control; Accepted April 20, 2011; Published May 25, 2011 Copyright: Ã? 2011 Goodman, Johnson. This is an open

Johnson, Pieter

121

Herd Health Management What are the diseases and parasites that South Florida  

E-print Network

and productivity. Many animal health problems can be controlled with good management, proper nutrition you to Merial Animal Health for sponsoring our 2013 Herd Health Management Program. #12;Registration to control parasites and vaccinate for disease prevention? Many ranchers are asking these questions during

Watson, Craig A.

122

[SWOT analysis of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases].  

PubMed

This study analyzes the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases by SWOT analysis comprehensively, and it puts forward some development strategies specifically, in order to provide some indicative references for the further development. PMID:25051844

Xiong, Yan-hong; Zheng, Bin

2014-04-01

123

Linking emergence of fungal plant diseases and ecological speciation  

PubMed Central

Emerging diseases represent a growing worldwide problem accompanying global environmental changes, and there is tremendous interest in identifying the factors controlling the appearance and spread of these diseases. Here, we discuss emerging fungal plant diseases, and argue that they often result from host shift speciation, a particular case of ecological speciation. We consider the factors controlling local adaptation and ecological speciation and show that certain life-history traits of many fungal plant pathogens are conducive for rapid ecological speciation, thus favoring the emergence of novel pathogen species adapted to new hosts. We argue that placing the problem of emerging fungal diseases of plants within the context of ecological speciation can significantly improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms governing emergence of such diseases. PMID:20434790

Giraud, Tatiana; Gladieux, Pierre; Gavrilets, Sergey

2010-01-01

124

Evolution of parasite virulence when host responses cause disease  

E-print Network

an important determinant of whether public and animal health programmes will drive evolution in a clinically: immunopathology; immune over-responsiveness; anti-disease vaccines; anti-sepsis therapy; ecological immunology

Read, Andrew

125

Disease emergence in birds: challenges for the twenty-first century  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The paper by Hartup et al. (2001) on House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in na??ve populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999, Gratz 1999). Current examples involving domestic animals include the problems in Europe with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or a??mad cow diseasea??) (Brown 2001) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) (Kitching 1999). Human health has been affected by diseases caused by an array of viruses (Morse 1993, Nichol et al. 1993, Murphy and Nathanson 1994), bacteria (Dennis 1998, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999), rickettsia (Walker and Dumier 1996, Azad et al. 1997), protozoans (Tuerrant 1997, Saini et al. 2000), and metazoan parasites (Hildreth et al. 1991, Gubler 1998), as well as other causes. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has received the most notoriety of those diseases (Hahn et al. 2000, Schwartlander et al. 2000). A similar pattern exists on a global scale for free-ranging wildlife populations (Table 1) (Friend 1994, 1995; Epstein et al. 1998, Daszak et al. 2000). However, in comparison to disease emergence affecting humans and domestic animals, response to emerging diseases of wildlife is generally superficial. We present concepts and data to support our contention that failure to adequately address disease emergence in free-ranging wildlife is resulting in a diminished capability to achieve and sustain desired geographic distributions and population abundance for species of wild birds, including some threatened and endangered avifauna. For clarity, we define disease and disease emergence in the context of our use of those terms because they are the focus of our comments. Disease is any departure from health (Guralnik 1982); that is, dysfunction contributing to physiological, physical, reproductive, behavioral, or other impairment that reduces the probability of survival of individuals. If enough individuals are affected, the collective effects can reduce the sustainability of the population. Although disease can result from exposure to a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological agents and other conditions, we focus this paper on microbes and parasites and to overt mortality caused by them. Thus, disease effects presented only represent the proverbial a??tip of the iceberga?? relative to the challenges wild avifauna face from disease. Our perspective of disease emergence expands the earlier definitions of emerging diseases by others (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1994, Morse 1995) to include all species. Our comments are defined by the context of disease occurrences that have increased within the past three decades, or threaten to increase in the near future relative to populations affected, geographic distribution, or magnitude of effects.

Friend, M.; Mclean, R. G.; Dein, F. J.

2001-01-01

126

Trypanosoma cruzi in the Chicken Model: Chagas-Like Heart Disease in the Absence of Parasitism  

PubMed Central

Background The administration of anti-trypanosome nitroderivatives curtails Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Chagas disease patients, but does not prevent destructive lesions in the heart. This observation suggests that an effective treatment for the disease requires understanding its pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the origin of clinical manifestations of the heart disease we used a chicken model system in which infection can be initiated in the egg, but parasite persistence is precluded. T. cruzi inoculation into the air chamber of embryonated chicken eggs generated chicks that retained only the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA minicircle in their genome after eight days of gestation. Crossbreeding showed that minicircles were transferred vertically via the germ line to chicken progeny. Minicircle integration in coding regions was shown by targeted-primer thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and detected by direct genomic analysis. The kDNA-mutated chickens died with arrhythmias, shortness of breath, cyanosis and heart failure. These chickens with cardiomyopathy had rupture of the dystrophin and other genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Tissue pathology revealed inflammatory dilated cardiomegaly whereby immune system mononuclear cells lyse parasite-free target heart fibers. The heart cell destruction implicated a thymus-dependent, autoimmune; self-tissue rejection carried out by CD45+, CD8??+, and CD8? lymphocytes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that genetic alterations resulting from kDNA integration in the host genome lead to autoimmune-mediated destruction of heart tissue in the absence of T. cruzi parasites. PMID:21468314

Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Gomes, Clever; Nitz, Nadjar; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Alves, Rozeneide M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Cordeiro, Ciro; Bernal, Francisco M.; Rosa, Ana C.; Hejnar, Jiri; Leonardecz, Eduardo; Hecht, Mariana M.

2011-01-01

127

The parasite that causes whirling disease, Myxobolus cerebralis, is genetically variable within and across spatial scales.  

PubMed

Understanding the genetic structure of parasite populations on the natural landscape can reveal important aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology and can indicate parasite dispersal across the landscape. Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), the causative agent of whirling disease in the definitive host Tubifex tubifex, is native to Eurasia and has spread to more than 25 states in the USA. The small amounts of data available to date suggest that M. cerebralis has little genetic variability. We examined the genetic variability of parasites infecting the definitive host T. tubifex in the Madison River, MT, and also from other parts of North America and Europe. We cloned and sequenced 18S ribosomal DNA and the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) gene. Five oligochaetes were examined for 18S and five for ITS-1, only one individual was examined for both genes. We found two different 18S rRNA haplotypes of M. cerebralis from five worms and both intra- and interworm genetic variation for ITS-1, which showed 16 different haplotypes from among 20 clones. Comparison of our sequences with those from other studies revealed M. cerebralis from MT was similar to the parasite collected from Alaska, Oregon, California, and Virginia in the USA and from Munich, Germany, based on 18S, whereas parasite sequences from West Virginia were very different. Combined with the high haplotype diversity of ITS-1 and uniqueness of ITS-1 haplotypes, our results show that M. cerebralis is more variable than previously thought and raises the possibility of multiple introductions of the parasite into North America. PMID:22151695

Lodh, Nilanjan; Kerans, Billie L; Stevens, Lori

2012-01-01

128

Insulin and Alzheimer's disease-An emerging nexus Vidur Sarma  

E-print Network

Insulin and Alzheimer's disease-An emerging nexus Vidur Sarma May 2, 2013 Department of Pharmaceutics Seminar Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting more than 35 million disruption and Alzheimer's disease. It is now being recognized that this nexus is mediated by the regulatory

Thomas, David D.

129

Teaching Emerging Diseases: A Strategy for Succeeding with Nonmajors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases have caught the public's attention. Preston terrified us with his presentation of Ebola in The Hot Zone (20), and themes of vulnerability to disease pepper the writings of popular authors from Robin Cook (8) to Tony Hillerman (16). The threat of infectious disease epidemics has replaced fear of a nuclear holocaust for many Ameri- cans. The emergence of

Marion Field Fass

2000-01-01

130

A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence. PMID:21541340

Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirk?, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N; Šlapeta, Jan

2011-01-01

131

A Suspected Parasite Spill-Back of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence. PMID:21541340

Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dykova, Iva; Jirku, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N.; Slapeta, Jan

2011-01-01

132

New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.  

PubMed

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. PMID:23578479

Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

2013-09-01

133

SURVEYING THE RISKS FROM EMERGING DISEASES  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite advances in sanitation and public health, new waterborne diseases have continued to cause outbreaks in humans. The reason why these organisms can cause disease outbreaks, is that their biology allows them to circumvent the safeguards put in place to prevent transmission ...

134

Climate change and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ranges of infectious diseases and vectors are changing in altitude, along with shifts in plant communities and the retreat of alpine glaciers. Additionally, extreme weather events create conditions conducive to ?clusters? of insect-, rodent- and water-borne diseases. Accelerating climate change carries profound threats for public health and society.

Paul R. Epstein

2001-01-01

135

Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disease emergence: The past, present, and future drivers of Nipah virus emergence  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a significant threat to human health, economic stability, and biodiversity. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying disease emergence are still not fully understood, and control measures rely heavily on mitigating the impact of EIDs after they have emerged. Here, we highlight the emergence of a zoonotic Henipavirus, Nipah virus, to demonstrate the interdisciplinary and macroecological approaches necessary to understand EID emergence. Previous work suggests that Nipah virus emerged due to the interaction of the wildlife reservoir (Pteropus spp. fruit bats) with intensively managed livestock. The emergence of this and other henipaviruses involves interactions among a suite of anthropogenic environmental changes, socioeconomic factors, and changes in demography that overlay and interact with the distribution of these pathogens in their wildlife reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate how ecological niche modeling may be used to investigate the potential role of a changing climate on the future risk for Henipavirus emergence. We show that the distribution of Henipavirus reservoirs, and therefore henipaviruses, will likely change under climate change scenarios, a fundamental precondition for disease emergence in humans. We assess the variation among climate models to estimate where Henipavirus host distribution is most likely to expand, contract, or remain stable, presenting new risks for human health. We conclude that there is substantial potential to use this modeling framework to explore the distribution of wildlife hosts under a changing climate. These approaches may directly inform current and future management and surveillance strategies aiming to improve pathogen detection and, ultimately, reduce emergence risk. PMID:22936052

Daszak, Peter; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Fernandez, Miguel; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Murray, Kris A.; Hamilton, Healy

2013-01-01

136

Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disease emergence: the past, present, and future drivers of Nipah virus emergence.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a significant threat to human health, economic stability, and biodiversity. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying disease emergence are still not fully understood, and control measures rely heavily on mitigating the impact of EIDs after they have emerged. Here, we highlight the emergence of a zoonotic Henipavirus, Nipah virus, to demonstrate the interdisciplinary and macroecological approaches necessary to understand EID emergence. Previous work suggests that Nipah virus emerged due to the interaction of the wildlife reservoir (Pteropus spp. fruit bats) with intensively managed livestock. The emergence of this and other henipaviruses involves interactions among a suite of anthropogenic environmental changes, socioeconomic factors, and changes in demography that overlay and interact with the distribution of these pathogens in their wildlife reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate how ecological niche modeling may be used to investigate the potential role of a changing climate on the future risk for Henipavirus emergence. We show that the distribution of Henipavirus reservoirs, and therefore henipaviruses, will likely change under climate change scenarios, a fundamental precondition for disease emergence in humans. We assess the variation among climate models to estimate where Henipavirus host distribution is most likely to expand, contract, or remain stable, presenting new risks for human health. We conclude that there is substantial potential to use this modeling framework to explore the distribution of wildlife hosts under a changing climate. These approaches may directly inform current and future management and surveillance strategies aiming to improve pathogen detection and, ultimately, reduce emergence risk. PMID:22936052

Daszak, Peter; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Bogich, Tiffany L; Fernandez, Miguel; Epstein, Jonathan H; Murray, Kris A; Hamilton, Healy

2013-02-26

137

Disease Outbreaks Caused by Emerging Paramyxoviruses of Bat Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly emerging and re-emerging infections are recognized as a global problem and 75% of these are potentially zoonotic (Woolhouse\\u000a & Gowtage-Sequeria, 2005). Emergence of a new “killer” disease in any part of the world is likely to be a threat world wide\\u000a in today’s society with very rapid means of transportation of both human and animal\\/animal products. Recent examples include

Lin-Fa Wang; John S. Mackenzie; Bryan T. Eaton

138

Disease emergence and resurgence: the wildlife-human connection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2000, the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) was organized as a global disease watchdog group to coordinate disease outbreak information and health crisis response. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the headquarters for this network.2 Understandably, the primary focus for WHO is human health. However, diseases such as the H5N1 avian influenza epizootic in Asian bird populations demonstrate the need for integrating knowledge about disease emergence in animals and in humans.

Friend, Milton

2006-01-01

139

Host Penetration and Emergence Patterns of the Mosquito-Parasitic Mermithids Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae)  

PubMed Central

Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus are mermithid nematodes that parasitize mosquito larvae. We describe host penetration and emergence patterns of Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus in laboratory exposures against Culex pipiens pipiens larvae. The mermithid species differed in host penetration behavior, with R. iyengari juveniles attaching to the host integument before assuming a rigid penetration posture at the lateral thorax (66.7%) or abdominal segments V to VIII (33.3%). Strelkovimermis spiculatus attached first to a host hair in a coiled posture that provided a stable base for penetration, usually through the lateral thorax (83.3%). Superparasitism was reduced by discriminating against previously infected hosts, but R. iyengari’s ability to avoid superparasitism declined at a higher inoculum rate. Host emergence was signaled by robust nematode movements that induced aberrant host swimming. Postparasites of R. iyengari usually emerged from the lateral prothorax (93.2%), whereas S. spiculatus emergence was peri-anal. In superparasitized hosts, emergence was initiated by males in R. iyengari and females in S. spiculatus; emergence was otherwise nearly synchronous. Protandry was observed in R. iyengari. The ability of S. spiculatus to sustain an optimal sex ratio suggested superior self-regulation. Mermithid penetration and emergence behaviors and sites may be supplementary clues for identification. Species differences could be useful in developing production and release strategies. PMID:23589657

Sanad, Manar M.; Shamseldean, Muhammad S. M.; Elgindi, Abd-Elmoneim Y.; Gaugler, Randy

2013-01-01

140

Host Penetration and Emergence Patterns of the Mosquito-Parasitic Mermithids Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae).  

PubMed

Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus are mermithid nematodes that parasitize mosquito larvae. We describe host penetration and emergence patterns of Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus in laboratory exposures against Culex pipiens pipiens larvae. The mermithid species differed in host penetration behavior, with R. iyengari juveniles attaching to the host integument before assuming a rigid penetration posture at the lateral thorax (66.7%) or abdominal segments V to VIII (33.3%). Strelkovimermis spiculatus attached first to a host hair in a coiled posture that provided a stable base for penetration, usually through the lateral thorax (83.3%). Superparasitism was reduced by discriminating against previously infected hosts, but R. iyengari's ability to avoid superparasitism declined at a higher inoculum rate. Host emergence was signaled by robust nematode movements that induced aberrant host swimming. Postparasites of R. iyengari usually emerged from the lateral prothorax (93.2%), whereas S. spiculatus emergence was peri-anal. In superparasitized hosts, emergence was initiated by males in R. iyengari and females in S. spiculatus; emergence was otherwise nearly synchronous. Protandry was observed in R. iyengari. The ability of S. spiculatus to sustain an optimal sex ratio suggested superior self-regulation. Mermithid penetration and emergence behaviors and sites may be supplementary clues for identification. Species differences could be useful in developing production and release strategies. PMID:23589657

Sanad, Manar M; Shamseldean, Muhammad S M; Elgindi, Abd-Elmoneim Y; Gaugler, Randy

2013-03-01

141

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases. Grades 9-12. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum supplement guide brings the latest medical discoveries to classrooms. This module focuses on the objectives of introducing students to major concepts related to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and developing an understanding of the relationship between biomedical research and personal and public health. This module…

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

142

Emerging Therapeutic Options for Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that is more common than was previously thought. This disease is caused by an inappropriate immune response to wheat gluten, barley, and rye. Three main pathways cause celiac disease: the environmental trigger (gluten), genetic susceptibility, and unusual gut permeability. The only treatment currently available is a strict gluten-free diet. Unfortunately, a majority of patients have difficulty complying with this diet, and the response to therapy is poor. Therefore, alternative treatments are being developed, and new insights into the pathophysiology of celiac disease have led to research into novel therapies. New treatments include engineering gluten-free grains, decreasing intestinal permeability by blockage of the epithelial zonulin receptor, inducing oral tolerance to gluten with a therapeutic vaccine, and degrading immunodominant gliadin peptides using probiotics with endopeptidases or transglutaminase inhibitors. These nondiet-based therapies provide hope for enhanced, lifelong celiac disease management with improved patient compliance and better quality of life. PMID:23483819

Bakshi, Anita; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.

2012-01-01

143

Immunopathogenesis of Thyroid Eye Disease: Emerging Paradigms  

PubMed Central

Graves disease represents a systemic autoimmune process targeting the thyroid, orbit, and pretibial skin. The thyroid dysfunction is treatable, but no consistently effective medical therapy has yet been described for the orbital manifestations of Graves disease, also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy or thyroid eye disease. Several autoantigens are potentially relevant to the pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease. Activating antibodies generated against the thyrotropin receptor can be detected in a majority of patients, and these drive hyperthyroidism. However, stimulating antibodies against the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) may also play a role in the extra-thyroid manifestations of GD. IGF-1R is over-expressed by orbital fibroblasts derived from patients with TED, while IGF-1R+ T and IGF-1R+ B cells are considerably more frequent in GD. Actions of several cytokines and the molecular interplay peculiar to the orbit appear to provoke the inflammation, fat expansion, and deposition of excessive extracellular matrix molecules in thyroid eye disease. Based upon these new insights, several therapeutic strategies can now be proposed that, for the first time, might specifically interrupt its pathogenesis. PMID:20385333

Naik, Vibhavari M; Naik, Milind N; Goldberg, Robert A; Smith, Terry J; Douglas, Raymond S

2009-01-01

144

Dengue: an emerging disease in Nepal.  

PubMed

Dengue is an acute infectious disease caused by dengue viruses and transmitted by the Aedes species of mosquito. The rapid global spread of the dengue virus into new areas has begun to attract more research attention. A series of dengue fever outbreaks in several districts of Nepal has been recently observed. The evidence of all four serotypes (DEN - 1 - 4) could be a consequence of a sudden resurgence of a more severe dengue disease in Nepal. Health care providers need to become familiar with the disease to prevent or control the possibility of future outbreaks. The clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, epidemiological patterns and challenges of dengue virus infection in Nepal will be discussed here. PMID:22922903

Pun, S B

2011-01-01

145

Occupational lifestyle diseases: An emerging issue.  

PubMed

Lifestyle diseases characterize those diseases whose occurrence is primarily based on the daily habits of people and are a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment. The main factors contributing to lifestyle diseases include bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body posture, and disturbed biological clock. A report, jointly prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Economic Forum, says India will incur an accumulated loss of $236.6 billion by 2015 on account of unhealthy lifestyles and faulty diet. According to the report, 60% of all deaths worldwide in 2005 (35 million) resulted from noncommunicable diseases and accounted for 44% of premature deaths. What's worse, around 80% of these deaths will occur in low and middle-income countries like India which are also crippled by an ever increasing burden of infectious diseases, poor maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies. According to a survey conducted by the Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ASSOC-HAM), 68% of working women in the age bracket of 21-52 years were found to be afflicted with lifestyle ailments such as obesity, depression, chronic backache, diabetes and hypertension. The study 'Preventive Healthcare and Corporate Female Workforce' also said that long hours and working under strict deadlines cause up to 75% of working women to suffer from depression or general anxiety disorder, compared to women with lesser levels of psychological demand at work. The study cited scientific evidence that healthy diet and adequate physical activity - at least 30 minutes of moderate activity at least five days a week - helped prevent NCDs. In India, 10% of adults suffer from hypertension while the country is home to 25-30 million diabetics. Three out of every 1,000 people suffer a stroke. The number of deaths due to heart attack is projected to increase from 1.2 million to 2 million in 2010. The diet [or lifestyle] of different populations might partly determine their rates of cancer, and the basis for this hypothesis was strengthened by results of studies showing that people who migrate from one country to another generally acquire the cancer rates of the new host country, suggesting that environmental [or lifestyle factors] rather than genetic factors are the key determinants of the international variation in cancer rates. Some of the common diseases encountered because of occupational lifestyle are Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, cancer, chronic liver disease/cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nephritis/CRF, and stroke. Occupational lifestyle diseases include those caused by the factors present in the vicinity like heat, sound, dust, fumes, smoke, cold, and other pollutants. These factors are responsible for allergy, respiratory and hearing problems, and heat or cold shock. So, A healthy lifestyle must be adopted to combat these diseases with a proper balanced diet, physical activity and by giving due respect to biological clock. Kids spending too much time slouched in front of the TV or PCs, should be encourage to find a physical sport or activity they enjoy. Fun exercises should be encouraged into family outings. A pizza-and-video evening should be replaced for a hike and picnic. Kids who do participate in sport, especially at a high competitive level, can find the pressure to succeed very stressful. To decrease the ailments caused by occupational postures, one should avoid long sitting hours and should take frequent breaks for stretching or for other works involving physical movements. PMID:20442827

Sharma, Mukesh; Majumdar, P K

2009-12-01

146

Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited  

PubMed Central

The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

2011-01-01

147

Emerging Biological Treatments in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the advent of infliximab has changed the treatment paradigm and goals in inflammatory bowel disease, it does not provide a cure for it and recent evidence has demonstrated that the immunogenicity of this chimeric anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody is associated with secondary loss of response and intolerance. In ulcerative colitis the efficacy of infliximab was demonstrated in two large

Gert Van Assche; Séverine Vermeire; Paul Rutgeerts

2006-01-01

148

Diagnosis of Bioagents and Emerging Diseases William Longa  

E-print Network

of an attack with a biological weapon or the outbreak of an emerging disease such as SARS not previously of the Internet, medical information has been more widely accessible. A search of the Web reveals a variety diseases, unusual patterns in patient demographics or numbers may be the strongest clue that an outbreak

Szolovits, Peter

149

[Socioeconomic impacts of an emerging disease].  

PubMed

In 1955 a population explosion of the slug Sarasinula linguaeformis (Semper, 1885) damaged crop plantations in the municipalities of Nova Itaberaba and Planalto Alegre, western of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In this article we analyze the socioeconomic impacts caused by the emergence of this plague, which raised the suspicion, eventually confirmed, of the occurrence of human cases of abdominal angyostrongiliasis. The data were collected through the observation of a serological study during the period of August 2000 to August 2001 by a research team from the Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) together with field technicians from the Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina S.A. (Epagri-SC), and with the members of 50 local families. In order to analyze these impacts, we elaborated several analytical categories as economic losses; preventive measures, habit change and social prejudice, that emerged from the narratives of the residents interviewed. It became evident the need for sociological analyses of epidemiological problems, in addition to strictly medico-sanitary considerations. PMID:21340340

Grisotti, Márcia; de Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias

2011-02-01

150

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases: Select Presentations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Infectious Diseases has made available the audio (and in some cases, video) portion of more than 20 online presentations of selected sessions from the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, held July 16-19, 2000 in Atlanta, Georgia. Presentations are organized in chronological order of the conference but may also be searched by presenter. Some presentations may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint. For researchers interested in the field of Emerging Infectious Diseases, this resource represents an exceptionally helpful application of Internet technology.

151

Dealing with Global Infectious Disease Emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbes that cause human infectious diseases are complex, dynamic, and constantly evolving. They reproduce rapidly, mutate\\u000a frequently, adapt with relative ease to new environments and hosts, and frequently breach the species barrier between animals\\u000a and humans. Social, economic, and environmental factors linked to a host of human populations and activities can accelerate\\u000a and amplify these natural phenomena. The ability

David L. Heymann

152

Examinations regarding the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases in Polish soldiers contingents assigned to missions abroad.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to present the program of diagnostic examinations regarding the detection and following treatment of intestinal parasitic diseases in the population of Polish soldiers serving in different climatic and sanitary conditions. Intestinal parasitoses remain one of the health problems of soldiers participating in contemporary military operations. This fact mainly results from unsatisfactory sanitary and hygienic standards in the regions where troops are deployed, contamination of water and soil, inappropriate processes of purifying drinking water, and the terrible condition of sewage systems, water purification plants, or sewage treatment facilities. The occurrence of such diseases is further facilitated by disregard of some basic principles of food and feeding hygiene. Mass examinations of Polish troops to find the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses will cause a decrease in the morbidity rate of parasitic diseases among Polish soldiers deployed in military operations. They can also lead to a decrease in expenditure on medical treatment of disease-related complications and on damages awarded to soldiers who have developed a serious disease while being engaged in a mission abroad. PMID:21534223

Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

2011-01-01

153

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES ON EMERGING AND RE-EMERGING ANIMAL DISEASE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Climate change and environmental change are a subset of the larger set of ecosystem changes that are promoting the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases. The complexity of the interconnectedness between a wide range of factors influencing the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases means that uncertainty will continue to be a feature of the future. Central Veterinary Authorities

Peter Black; Mike Nunn

154

Exploring the interface between diagnostics and maps of neglected parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Although not new, the 'One Health' concept is gaining progressively more importance in parasitology. Now more than ever, veterinary and human perspectives should be closely joined in diagnosis and surveillance of neglected parasitic diseases. We argue that concerted, standardized and harmonized diagnostic and surveillance strategies are needed for the control and/or elimination of animal and human neglected parasitic infections. A key challenge is to integrate parasitological data with available geospatial methods in an accessible and user-friendly framework. We discuss the capability of new diagnostic devices (e.g. Mini-FLOTAC) and geospatial technologies supported by mobile- and electronic-based approaches as one of the research priorities of the new millennium. PMID:24679439

Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe

2014-12-01

155

Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.  

PubMed

Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678

Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

2011-02-12

156

Threats from emerging and re-emerging neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)  

PubMed Central

Background Neglected tropical diseases impact over 1 billion of the world's poorest populations and require special attention. However, within the NTDs recognized by the World Health Organization, some are also dually categorized as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases requiring more detailed examination on potential global health risks. Methods We reviewed the 17 NTDs classified by the WHO to determine if those NTDs were also categorized by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (‘‘EReNTDs’’). We then identified common characteristics and risks associated with EReNTDs. Results Identified EReNTDs of dengue, rabies, Chagas Disease, and cysticercosis disproportionately impact resource-poor settings with poor social determinants of health, spread through globalization, are impacted by vector control, lack available treatments, and threaten global health security. This traditionally neglected subset of diseases requires urgent attention and unique incentive structures to encourage investment in innovation and coordination. Discussion Multi-sectorial efforts and targeted public–private partnerships would spur needed R&D for effective and accessible EReNTD treatments, improvement of social determinants of health, crucial low-income country development, and health system strengthening efforts. Utilization of One Health principles is essential for enhancing knowledge to efficaciously address public health aspects of these EReNTDs globally. PMID:22957134

Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.

2012-01-01

157

Deer, predators, and the emergence of Lyme disease  

PubMed Central

Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America, and both the annual incidence and geographic range are increasing. The emergence of Lyme disease has been attributed to a century-long recovery of deer, an important reproductive host for adult ticks. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease risk may now be more dynamically linked to fluctuations in the abundance of small-mammal hosts that are thought to infect the majority of ticks. The continuing and rapid increase in Lyme disease over the past two decades, long after the recolonization of deer, suggests that other factors, including changes in the ecology of small-mammal hosts may be responsible for the continuing emergence of Lyme disease. We present a theoretical model that illustrates how reductions in small-mammal predators can sharply increase Lyme disease risk. We then show that increases in Lyme disease in the northeastern and midwestern United States over the past three decades are frequently uncorrelated with deer abundance and instead coincide with a range-wide decline of a key small-mammal predator, the red fox, likely due to expansion of coyote populations. Further, across four states we find poor spatial correlation between deer abundance and Lyme disease incidence, but coyote abundance and fox rarity effectively predict the spatial distribution of Lyme disease in New York. These results suggest that changes in predator communities may have cascading impacts that facilitate the emergence of zoonotic diseases, the vast majority of which rely on hosts that occupy low trophic levels. PMID:22711825

Levi, Taal; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Mangel, Marc; Wilmers, Christopher C.

2012-01-01

158

Health and disease: Exploring the relation between parasitic infections, child nutrition status, and markets.  

PubMed

Research in bioarchaeology and among living people provides insight into the biological and biocultural consequences of subsistence, political, and economic transitions. Central to this effort is examining infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections because they are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in both past and current groups. Although infection may not always result in overt disease, frequent exposure results in biological stress with a negative effect on child growth and, by extension, health. The goal of this article is to examine the association between a common class of infectious disease, soil-transmitted helminth worms, and nutritional status among youth living in communities that vary with respect to their distance from a commercial center. In 2007, anthropometric measurements and parasitological surveys were collected for 338 2-14-year-old children and adolescents living in lowland Bolivia as part of the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study. Associations between the presence of helminth infections and markers of both short- and long-term nutritional status were overall weak. Youth living in communities distant from the commercial center were more likely to be positive for multiple parasite species than youth in near communities, but youth in mid-distance communities had lower infection rates. This article demonstrates the challenge of identifying associations between nutritional and disease stress when individual and household factors are nested in a larger context of socioeconomic and environmental change. Increased collaboration between bioarchaeology and human biology should continue to examine the connections between stress and disease across time. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:221-228, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25059318

Tanner, Susan

2014-10-01

159

Therapy for Common Parasitic Diseases in Pregnancy in the United States: A Review and a Survey of Obstetrician\\/Gynecologists??? Level of Knowledge About These Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of food- and waterborne parasitic diseases that are common in the United States can adversely impact women during pregnancy. Therapeutic considerations during pregnancy for these diseases are reviewed. Also, the level of knowledge of obstetrician-gynecologists about diagnosis and treatment of these diseases (toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, amebiasis, cyclosporiasis, trichinellosis, ascariasis, and taeniasis) was estimated by means of a questionnaire

Jeffrey L. Jones; Jay Schulkin; James H. Maguire

2005-01-01

160

The Global Threat of Emergent\\/Re-emergent Vector-Borne Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The past 30 years has witnessed a dramatic re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases throughout much of the world. Factors\\u000a contributing to this are many, but the principal drivers have been complacency and de-emphasis of infectious diseases in pubic\\u000a health policy, increased population growth, uncontrolled urbanization without concomitant attention to water and waste management,\\u000a increased globalization and the ease with which

Duane J. Gubler

161

Introduction The number of catalogued emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), and  

E-print Network

). Perhaps even more immediate than these other factors are the implications of large- scale deforestation on disease emergence. The global rate of tropical deforestation appears to be increasing readily; between of deforestation in parts of Africa are near 1% per year (FAO, 2009). Deforestation is also increasing in temperate

Sehgal, Ravinder

162

Teaching Emerging Diseases: A Strategy for Succeeding with Nonmajors  

PubMed Central

A nonmajors course on emerging diseases served to introduce students to basic concepts in microbiology and to improve scientific literacy. The course used a range of learner-centered approaches to encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning. Evaluations demonstrated both student satisfaction and an increased understanding of important issues in microbiology. PMID:23653535

FASS, MARION FIELD

2000-01-01

163

Review article Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

E-print Network

has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been the challenges presented by climate change. disease emergence / shrimp / fish / virus Table of contents 1 CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL), 5 Portarlington Road, Geelong

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Emerging viral diseases: confronting threats with new technologies.  

PubMed

Emerging viral diseases pose ongoing health threats, particularly in an era of globalization; however, new biomedical research technologies such as genome sequencing and structure-based vaccine and drug design have improved our ability to respond to viral threats. PMID:25210060

Marston, Hilary D; Folkers, Gregory K; Morens, David M; Fauci, Anthony S

2014-09-10

165

Emerging infectious diseases and risk to the traveler.  

PubMed

This article examines the relationship between travel and emerging infections. The authors begin with an overview of disease emergence and follow with a brief infection-by-infection examination of selected emerging pathogens of particular relevance to travelers and the medical care providers who counsel them. Emphasis is given to those agents that clearly have emerged as significant new or increased risk to travelers; or are of sufficiently new interest, even in the face of inadequate data in travelers, to be of potential immediate concern. The authors also discuss several novel pathogens, such as Ebola virus, that are clearly of insignificant or minimal risk to travelers, but are the subject of frequent questions from patients requesting pre-travel advice from medical providers. PMID:10453254

Freedman, D O; Woodall, J

1999-07-01

166

Patterns of host specificity and transmission among parasites of wild primates  

E-print Network

Multihost parasites have been implicated in the emergence of new diseases in humans and wildlife, yet little multiple host species, including animals from multiple families or orders. This pattern corresponds to previous studies of parasites found in humans and domesticated animals. Within three parasite groups

Pedersen, Amy B.

167

Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Peer-Reviewed Journal Tracking and Analyzing Disease Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US National Center for Infectious Diseases, Center for Disease Control, offers the full text of its quarterly, peer reviewed journal Emerging Infectious Diseases at its web site. The issues are divided into three categories: Perspectives, dealing with the underlying causes of infectious disease emergence; Synopses, summaries of specific diseases; and Dispatches, "brief laboratory or epidemiologic reports with an international scope." The October-December 1996 issue contains articles on protecting against dangerous emerging pathogens, "Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Virulence," and Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease in the US, among others. Issues are available in HTML, ASCII, .pdf, and PostScript format. A limited number of issues are available in Spanish, French and Chinese.

1995-01-01

168

Influence of Acute-Phase Parasite Load on Pathology, Parasitism, and Activation of the Immune System at the Late Chronic Phase of Chagas' Disease  

PubMed Central

To obtain low and high parasite loads in the acute phase of Chagas’ disease, A/J mice were infected with 103 or 105 Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes of the Y strain and treated on day 6 with benznidazol. One year later, chronically infected mice were screened for subpatent parasitemias, tissue pathology, and immune response. Mice infected with the high parasite inoculum showed higher levels of chronic parasitemias, heart and striated muscle inflammation, and activation of the immune system than did mice infected with the low inoculum. Concerning the activation of the immune system, the main findings for high-dose-infected mice were (i) increased numbers of splenocytes, with preferential expansion of CD8+ and B220? CD5? cells, many of them bearing a macrophage phenotype; (ii) higher frequencies of B (B220+), CD4+, and CD8+ large lymphocytes; (iii) a shift of CD4+ cells towards a CD45RBLow phenotype; (iv) increased frequencies of both CD45RBLow and CD45RBHigh large CD4+ cells; (v) augmented numbers of total immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells, with predominance of IgG2a-producing cells; and (vi) increased production of gamma interferon and interleukin 4. In addition, these mice presented lower IgM and higher IgG2a and IgG1 parasite-specific serum antibody levels. Our results indicate that the parasite load at the acute phase of T. cruzi infection influences the activation of the immune system and development of Chagas’ disease pathology at the late chronic phase of the disease. PMID:9864231

Marinho, Claudio R. F.; D'Imperio Lima, Maria Regina; Grisotto, Marcos G.; Alvarez, Jose M.

1999-01-01

169

Influence of acute-phase parasite load on pathology, parasitism, and activation of the immune system at the late chronic phase of Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

To obtain low and high parasite loads in the acute phase of Chagas' disease, A/J mice were infected with 10(3) or 10(5) Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes of the Y strain and treated on day 6 with benznidazol. One year later, chronically infected mice were screened for subpatent parasitemias, tissue pathology, and immune response. Mice infected with the high parasite inoculum showed higher levels of chronic parasitemias, heart and striated muscle inflammation, and activation of the immune system than did mice infected with the low inoculum. Concerning the activation of the immune system, the main findings for high-dose-infected mice were (i) increased numbers of splenocytes, with preferential expansion of CD8(+) and B220(-) CD5(-) cells, many of them bearing a macrophage phenotype; (ii) higher frequencies of B (B220(+)), CD4(+), and CD8(+) large lymphocytes; (iii) a shift of CD4(+) cells towards a CD45RBLow phenotype; (iv) increased frequencies of both CD45RBLow and CD45RBHigh large CD4(+) cells; (v) augmented numbers of total immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells, with predominance of IgG2a-producing cells; and (vi) increased production of gamma interferon and interleukin 4. In addition, these mice presented lower IgM and higher IgG2a and IgG1 parasite-specific serum antibody levels. Our results indicate that the parasite load at the acute phase of T. cruzi infection influences the activation of the immune system and development of Chagas' disease pathology at the late chronic phase of the disease. PMID:9864231

Marinho, C R; D'Império Lima, M R; Grisotto, M G; Alvarez, J M

1999-01-01

170

When More Transmission Equals Less Disease: Reconciling the Disconnect between Disease Hotspots and Parasite Transmission  

PubMed Central

The assumed straightforward connection between transmission intensity and disease occurrence impacts surveillance and control efforts along with statistical methodology, including parameter inference and niche modeling. Many infectious disease systems have the potential for this connection to be more complicated–although demonstrating this in any given disease system has remained elusive. Hemorrhagic disease (HD) is one of the most important diseases of white-tailed deer and is caused by viruses in the Orbivirus genus. Like many infectious diseases, the probability or severity of disease increases with age (after loss of maternal antibodies) and the probability of disease is lower upon re-infection compared to first infection (based on cross-immunity between virus strains). These broad criteria generate a prediction that disease occurrence is maximized at intermediate levels of transmission intensity. Using published US field data, we first fit a statistical model to predict disease occurrence as a function of seroprevalence (a proxy for transmission intensity), demonstrating that states with intermediate seroprevalence have the highest level of case reporting. We subsequently introduce an independently parameterized mechanistic model supporting the theory that high case reporting should come from areas with intermediate levels of transmission. This is the first rigorous demonstration of this phenomenon and illustrates that variation in transmission rate (e.g. along an ecologically-controlled transmission gradient) can create cryptic refuges for infectious diseases. PMID:23579922

Park, Andrew W.; Magori, Krisztian; White, Brad A.; Stallknecht, David E.

2013-01-01

171

Emerging viral diseases in dromedary camels in the Southern Morocco.  

PubMed

During the last fifteen years, new viral diseases such Bluetongue (BT), West Nile (WN), African horse sickness (AHS), Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) have extended their geographic distribution and emerged in North Africa and in Europe. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is considered as a potential vector in the transmission of some of these diseases while it is host-specific for Camelpox (CP). A serological survey was conducted on 1392 sera to estimate changes of these diseases prevalence in camels over two different time spans (2003 and 2009) and across different sites of South Morocco. Results indicate clearly that BT was circulating in camels before the first notified outbreak in Morocco (2004) with 42% positive sera in Guelmim in 2003. BT and WN prevalence's increased over time from 11 to 25% and from 10 to 13% respectively. Higher prevalence of both diseases was found in camels living in oases indicating an increased intensity of viral circulation in these sites. Camels have been tested negative for AHS, EHD and PPR viruses while higher CP prevalence has been detected in camels living in Smara, the most closed site to eastern borders (i.e. Mauritania). The seroprevalence of CP in camels at interval of 7 years increases from 23% to 37%. This survey could provide information on the possible use of camel as a sentinel animal for surveillance of emerging diseases such BT and WN. PMID:22222004

Touil, N; Cherkaoui, Z; Lmrabih, Z; Loutfi, C; Harif, B; El Harrak, M

2012-04-01

172

Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife  

PubMed Central

Worldwide increases in the numbers of human and wildlife diseases present ecologists with the challenge of understanding how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earth’s ecosystems is the alteration of global nutrient cycles, including those of phosphorus (P) and especially nitrogen (N). Alongside the obvious direct benefits of nutrient application for food production, growing evidence suggests that anthropogenic inputs of N and P can indirectly affect the abundance of infectious and noninfectious pathogens, sometimes leading to epidemic conditions. However, the mechanisms underpinning observed correlations, and how such patterns vary with disease type, have long remained conjectural. Here, we discuss recent experimental advances in this area to critically evaluate the relationship between environmental nutrient enrichment and disease. Given the inter-related nature of human and wildlife disease emergence, we include a broad range of human and wildlife examples from terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems. We examine the consequences of nutrient pollution on directly transmitted, vector-borne, complex life cycle, and noninfectious pathogens, including West Nile virus, malaria, harmful algal blooms, coral reef diseases and amphibian malformations. Our synthetic examination suggests that the effects of environmental nutrient enrichment on disease are complex and multifaceted, varying with the type of pathogen, host species and condition, attributes of the ecosystem and the degree of enrichment; some pathogens increase in abundance whereas others decline or disappear. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that ecological changes associated with nutrient enrichment often exacerbate infection and disease caused by generalist parasites with direct or simple life cycles. Observed mechanisms include changes in host/vector density, host distribution, infection resistance, pathogen virulence or toxicity, or the direct supplementation of pathogens. Collectively, these pathogens may be particularly dangerous because they can continue to cause mortality even as their hosts decline, potentially leading to sustained epidemics or chronic pathology. We suggest that interactions between nutrient enrichment and disease will become increasingly important in tropical and subtropical regions, where forecasted increases in nutrient application will occur in an environment rich with infectious pathogens. We emphasize the importance of careful disease management in conjunction with continued intensification of global nutrient cycles. PMID:20349828

Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Townsend, Alan R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Howarth, Robert W.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Rejmankova, Eliska; Ward, Mary H.

2009-01-01

173

miR-191: an emerging player in disease biology  

PubMed Central

Specific microRNAs have emerged as key players in disease biology by playing crucial role in disease development and progression. This review draws attention to one such microRNA, miR-191 that has been recently reported to be abnormally expressed in several cancers (>20) and various other diseases like diabetes-type 2, Crohn’ s, pulmonary hypertension, and Alzheimer’ s. It regulates important cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration by targeting important transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, and cell cycle associated genes. Several studies have demonstrated it to be an excellent biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis leading to two patents already in its kitty. In this first review we summarize the current knowledge of the regulation, functions and targets of miR-191 and discuss its potential as a promising disease biomarker and therapeutic target. PMID:24795757

Nagpal, Neha; Kulshreshtha, Ritu

2014-01-01

174

Chagas disease in the 21st Century: a public health success or an emerging threat?  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health burden in Latin America and a potentially serious emerging threat to a number of countries throughout the world. Although public health programs have significantly reduced the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin America in recent decades, the number of infections in the United States and non-endemic countries in Europe and the Western Pacific Region continues to rise. Moreover, there is still no vaccine or highly effective cure available for the approximately 10 million people currently infected with T. cruzi, a third of which will develop potentially fatal cardiomyopathy and/or severe digestive tract disorders. As Chagas disease becomes an increasingly globalized public health issue in the twenty-first century, continued attentiveness from governmental and health organizations as well as improved diagnostic tools, expanded surveillance and increased research funding will be required to maintain existing public health successes and stymie the spread of the disease to new areas and populations. PMID:24626257

Bonney, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

175

Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging diseases.  

PubMed

Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases. PMID:24671087

Liu, Yiying; de Bruijn, Irene; Jack, Allison Lh; Drynan, Keith; van den Berg, Albert H; Thoen, Even; Sandoval-Sierra, Vladimir; Skaar, Ida; van West, Pieter; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; van der Voort, Menno; Mendes, Rodrigo; Mazzola, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jos M

2014-10-01

176

Induction of regulatory cells by helminth parasites: exploitation for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Helminth parasites are highly successful pathogens, chronically infecting a quarter of the world's population, causing significant morbidity but rarely causing death. Protective immunity and expulsion of helminths is mediated by T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, type 2 (M2) macrophages, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, and eosinophils. Failure to mount these type 2 immune responses can result in immunopathology mediated by Th1 or Th17 cells. Helminths have evolved a wide variety of approaches for immune suppression, especially the generation of regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-?. This is a very effective strategy for subverting protective immune responses to prolong their survival in the host but has the bystander effect of modulating immune responses to unrelated antigens. Epidemiological studies in humans have shown that infection with helminth parasites is associated with a low incidence of allergy/asthma and autoimmunity in developing countries. Experimental studies in mice have demonstrated that regulatory immune responses induced by helminth can suppress Th2 and Th1/Th17 responses that mediate allergy and autoimmunity, respectively. This has provided a rational explanation of the 'hygiene hypothesis' and has also led to the exploitation of helminths or their immunomodulatory products in the development of new immunosuppressive therapies for inflammatory diseases in humans. PMID:24712468

Finlay, Conor M; Walsh, Kevin P; Mills, Kingston H G

2014-05-01

177

Role of emerging campylobacter species in inflammatory bowel diseases.  

PubMed

: The gut microbiota is a central player in the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases. As such, there is intense scientific interest in elucidating the specific group/s of bacteria responsible for driving barrier damage and perpetuating the chronic inflammation that results in disease. Because of their ability to colonize close to the surface of the host intestinal epithelium, mucosa-associated bacteria are considered key players in the initiation and development of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The leading bacterial candidates include adherent and invasive Escherichia coli, Helicobacter, Fusobacteria, Mycobacteria, and Campylobacter species. Of these, a member of the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter concisus, has recently emerged as a putative player in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Current research indicates that this bacterium possesses extraordinarily diverse pathogenic capacities as well as unique genetic and functional signatures that are defined by their ability to adhere to and invade host cells, secrete toxins, and the presence of a virulence-associated restriction-modification system. These characteristics enable the potential classification of C. concisus into distinct pathotypes, which we have named adherent and invasive C. concisus and adherent and toxinogenic C. concisus. In this review, we evaluate evidence for the role of emerging Campylobacter species in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:24874462

Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M; Man, Si Ming

2014-11-01

178

Emerging therapies for Parkinson's disease: from bench to bedside.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) increases with age and is projected to increase in parallel to the rising average age of the population. The disease can have significant health-related, social, and financial implications not only for the patient and the caregiver, but for the health care system as well. While the neuropathology of this neurodegenerative disorder is fairly well understood, its etiology remains a mystery, making it difficult to target therapy. The currently available drugs for treatment provide only symptomatic relief and do not control or prevent disease progression, and as a result patient compliance and satisfaction are low. Several emerging pharmacotherapies for PD are in different stages of clinical development. These therapies include adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, glutamate receptor antagonists, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, anti-apoptotic agents, and antioxidants such as coenzyme Q10, N-acetyl cysteine, and edaravone. Other emerging non-pharmacotherapies include viral vector gene therapy, microRNAs, transglutaminases, RTP801, stem cells and glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In addition, surgical procedures including deep brain stimulation, pallidotomy, thalamotomy and gamma knife surgery have emerged as alternative interventions for advanced PD patients who have completely utilized standard treatments and still suffer from persistent motor fluctuations. While several of these therapies hold much promise in delaying the onset of the disease and slowing its progression, more pharmacotherapies and surgical interventions need to be investigated in different stages of PD. It is hoped that these emerging therapies and surgical procedures will strengthen our clinical armamentarium for improved treatment of PD. PMID:24854598

Tarazi, F I; Sahli, Z T; Wolny, M; Mousa, S A

2014-11-01

179

Dirofilaria immitis: an emerging parasite in dogs, red foxes and golden jackals in Hungary.  

PubMed

Hungary was not considered to be a heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) endemic country until 2007, when the first autochthonous canine infection was described. Herein we report additional autochthonous heartworm infections in two dogs (Canis familiaris), twenty red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (n=534; prevalence: 3.7%; 95% CI=2.4-5.7%) and two golden jackals (Canis aureus) (n=27; prevalence: 7.4%; 95% CI=2.1-23.4%) coming from eight counties. The identification of the parasite was based on morphology, morphometrics and amplification of 12S rDNA followed by sequencing in all cases. Our results indicate that Hungary became a D. immitis endemic country in the past decade. The prevalence and intensity of heartworm infection in wild canids is similar to or lower than that observed in the Mediterranean countries of Europe (3.7-7.4% vs. 0.4-12.7% and 1.5 vs. 2.9-4.4 worms/animal). These findings are in line with the results of the recently developed climate based forecast model to predict the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary. PMID:24810374

Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sproch, Á; Szeredi, L; Sréter, T

2014-07-14

180

Emerging role of autophagy in pediatric neurodegenerative and neurometabolic diseases.  

PubMed

Pediatric neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of diseases that result from specific genetic and biochemical defects. In recent years, studies have revealed a wide spectrum of abnormal cellular functions that include impaired proteolysis, abnormal lipid trafficking, accumulation of lysosomal content, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Within neurons, elaborated degradation pathways such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosomal pathway are critical for maintaining homeostasis and normal cell function. Recent evidence suggests a pivotal role for autophagy in major adult and pediatric neurodegenerative diseases. We herein review genetic, pathological, and molecular evidence for the emerging link between autophagy dysfunction and lysosomal storage disorders such as Niemann-Pick type C, progressive myoclonic epilepsies such as Lafora disease, and leukodystrophies such as Alexander disease. We also discuss the recent discovery of genetically deranged autophagy in Vici syndrome, a multisystem disorder, and the implications for the role of autophagy in development and disease. Deciphering the exact mechanism by which autophagy contributes to disease pathology may open novel therapeutic avenues to treat neurodegeneration. To this end, an outlook on novel therapeutic approaches targeting autophagy concludes this review. PMID:24165736

Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Wahlster, Lara; Hoffmann, Georg F; Kölker, Stefan

2014-01-01

181

Tourism and Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in the Americas: What Physicians Must Remember for Patient Diagnosis and Care.  

PubMed

Emerging diseases are those which have shown an increased in humans over the last 20 years. Re-emerging diseases are those which have reappeared after a period of significant decrease in incidence. The etiological agents of these diseases in the Western Hemisphere are viruses (HIV, dengue, oroupuche, sabia, guanarito, or hanta), bacteria (Vibrio cholera, Borrellia burgdorferi, Legionella pneumofila, Eseherichia coli 0157:H7, or other bacteria with a new pattern of antibiotic resistance), or parasites (Cryptosporidia, Cyclosporidia or drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum). Due to the widespread geographical distribution of these infectious diseases in the Americas, and an increasing number of travellers (more than 87 million persons within the region in 1997), there are many opportunities to contract an infection when travelling in developed or undeveloped countries. The infection may present with symptoms during the trip, or following the traveler s return to his or her place of origin. However, too often practicing physicians do not inquire about the travel history of their patients and, when they do, they often lack the information about diseases relevant to travelers. From the regional perspective, the emerging or reemerging agents that pose a higher risk to tourists or travelers are: 1) those that cause enteric infections; 2) sexually transmitted diseases; and 3) vector-borne diseases, including those present in ecotourism areas. Emerging and re-emerging diseases that physicians may encounter in their clinical practice while caring for travelers returning from different countries of the Western Hemisphere are briefly described (Lyme disease, legionellosis, dengue, yellow fever, P. falciparum malaria, cyclosporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis). This report attempts to draw attention to the fact that new clinical and etiological entities are present in several geographical areas of the Americas; to place each of these entities into an epidemiological context; and to end the misconception that only travel to poor countries carries a risk of acquiring an infection. By knowing which infectious agents occur in each area and the incubation period of each disease, the treating physician can often treat patients successfully. Health care professionals must be aware of the organisms circulating in the region so that they have them in mind during their clinical practice. PMID:11098191

Schmunis; Corber

1999-04-01

182

Emerging therapies for chronic kidney disease: what is their role?  

PubMed

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. The best therapies currently available focus on the control of blood pressure and optimization of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. Currently available agents are only partially effective against hard end points such as the development of end-stage renal disease and are not discussed in this Review. Many other agents have been shown to reduce proteinuria and delay progression in animal models of CKD. Some of these agents, including tranilast, sulodexide, thiazolidinediones, pentoxifylline, and inhibitors of advanced glycation end-products and protein kinase C, have been tested to a limited extent in humans. A small number of randomized controlled human trials of these agents have used surrogate markers such as proteinuria as end points rather than hard end points such as end-stage renal disease or doubling of serum creatinine level. Emerging therapies that specifically target and reverse pathological hallmarks of CKD such as inflammation, fibrosis and atrophy are needed to reduce the burden of this chronic disease and its associated morbidity. This Review examines the evidence for emerging pharmacological strategies for slowing the progression of CKD. PMID:19455178

Vilayur, Eswari; Harris, David C H

2009-07-01

183

Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links.  

PubMed

Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists. PMID:18462196

Lafferty, Kevin D; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J; De Leo, Giulio; Dobson, Andrew P; Dunne, Jennifer A; Johnson, Pieter T J; Kuris, Armand M; Marcogliese, David J; Martinez, Neo D; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A; McLaughlin, John P; Mordecai, Erin A; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W

2008-06-01

184

Emerging diagnostic and therapeutic molecular imaging applications in vascular disease  

PubMed Central

Assessment of vascular disease has evolved from mere indirect and direct measurements of luminal stenosis to sophisticated imaging methods to depict millimeter structural changes of the vasculature. In the near future, the emergence of multimodal molecular imaging strategies may enable robust therapeutic and diagnostic (‘theragnostic’) approaches to vascular diseases that comprehensively consider structural, functional, biological and genomic characteristics of the disease in individualized risk assessment, early diagnosis and delivery of targeted interventions. This review presents a summary of recent preclinical and clinical developments in molecular imaging and theragnostic applications covering diverse atherosclerosis events such as endothelial activation, macrophage infammatory activity, plaque neovascularization and arterial thrombosis. The main focus is on molecular targets designed for imaging platforms commonly used in clinical medicine including magnetic resonance, computed tomography and positron emission tomography. A special emphasis is given to vascular ultrasound applications, considering the important role this imaging platform plays in the clinical and research practice of the vascular medicine specialty. PMID:21310769

Eraso, Luis H; Reilly, Muredach P; Sehgal, Chandra; Mohler, Emile R

2013-01-01

185

Investigations on the Influence of Helminth Parasites on Vaccination of Chickens against Newcastle Disease Virus under Village Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence studies have shown that almost 100% of free-range chickens are infected with a wide range of parasites. The infections are mostly subclinical in nature, resulting in production losses and occasionally mortality. Newcastle disease (ND), on the other hand, results in high mortality rates during epidemics. ND is a limiting factor for increasing poultry production in many tropical countries, where

G. Hørning; S. Rasmussen; A. Permin; M. Bisgaard

2003-01-01

186

DISEASES AND PARASITES OF RED FOXES, GRAY FOXES, AND COYOTES FROM COMMERCIAL SOURCES SELLING TO FOX-CHASING ENCLOSURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 18 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 13 coyotes (Canis latrans) obtained by the South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources De- partment during an investigation of suspected illegal wildlife translocation were examined for diseases and parasites. Red foxes and coyotes were confiscated from an animal dealer based in Ohio (USA), and gray foxes were purchased from

William R. Davidson; Max J. Appel; Gary L. Doster; Osborne E. Baker; John F. Brown

187

Disease ecology in the Gal?pagos Hawk (Buteo galapagoensis): host genetic diversity, parasite load and natural antibodies  

PubMed Central

An increased susceptibility to disease is one hypothesis explaining how inbreeding hastens extinction in island endemics and threatened species. Experimental studies show that disease resistance declines as inbreeding increases, but data from in situ wildlife systems are scarce. Genetic diversity increases with island size across the entire range of an extremely inbred Galápagos endemic bird, providing the context for a natural experiment examining the effects of inbreeding on disease susceptibility. Extremely inbred populations of Galápagos hawks had higher parasite abundances than relatively outbred populations. We found a significant island effect on constitutively produced natural antibody (NAb) levels and inbred populations generally harboured lower average and less variable NAb levels than relatively outbred populations. Furthermore, NAb levels explained abundance of amblyceran lice, which encounter the host immune system. This is the first study linking inbreeding, innate immunity and parasite load in an endemic, in situ wildlife population and provides a clear framework for assessment of disease risk in a Galápagos endemic. PMID:16618672

Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Matson, Kevin D; Bollmer, Jennifer L; Parker, Patricia G

2005-01-01

188

Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).  

PubMed

To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea. PMID:25031479

Huh, Sun

2014-06-01

189

Parasitic Diseases as the Cause of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)  

PubMed Central

To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea. PMID:25031479

2014-01-01

190

Emerging Infectious Disease Leads to Rapid Population Declines of Common British Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis

Robert A. Robinson; Becki Lawson; Mike P. Toms; Kirsi M. Peck; James K. Kirkwood; Julian Chantrey; Innes R. Clatworthy; Andy D. Evans; Laura A. Hughes; Oliver C. Hutchinson; Shinto K. John; Tom W. Pennycott; Matthew W. Perkins; Peter S. Rowley; Vic R. Simpson; Kevin M. Tyler; Andrew A. Cunningham; Sean Rands

2010-01-01

191

COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases 2014 Request for Pilot Grant Proposals  

E-print Network

COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases 2014 Request for Pilot Grant Proposals Overview The COBRE Center for Zoonotic and Emerging Infectious Diseases is soliciting proposals for Pilot/or translational research relevant to zoonotic and/or emerging infectious diseases, and there must be a clear

Maxwell, Bruce D.

192

616 SAGE-GROUSE AND WEST NILE VIRUS Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious  

E-print Network

616 SAGE-GROUSE AND WEST NILE VIRUS Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious threat to wildlife conservation (Daszak et al. 2000), yet often little is known about consequences of emerging infectious diseases for populations of sen- sitive or declining native species. Evaluating impacts of emerging infectious diseases

Naugle, Dave

193

Emergence of Zaire Ebola virus disease in Guinea.  

PubMed

In March 2014, the World Health Organization was notified of an outbreak of a communicable disease characterized by fever, severe diarrhea, vomiting, and a high fatality rate in Guinea. Virologic investigation identified Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) as the causative agent. Full-length genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that EBOV from Guinea forms a separate clade in relationship to the known EBOV strains from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Gabon. Epidemiologic investigation linked the laboratory-confirmed cases with the presumed first fatality of the outbreak in December 2013. This study demonstrates the emergence of a new EBOV strain in Guinea. PMID:24738640

Baize, Sylvain; Pannetier, Delphine; Oestereich, Lisa; Rieger, Toni; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Soropogui, Barrè; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Keïta, Sakoba; De Clerck, Hilde; Tiffany, Amanda; Dominguez, Gemma; Loua, Mathieu; Traoré, Alexis; Kolié, Moussa; Malano, Emmanuel Roland; Heleze, Emmanuel; Bocquin, Anne; Mély, Stephane; Raoul, Hervé; Caro, Valérie; Cadar, Dániel; Gabriel, Martin; Pahlmann, Meike; Tappe, Dennis; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Impouma, Benido; Diallo, Abdoul Karim; Formenty, Pierre; Van Herp, Michel; Günther, Stephan

2014-10-01

194

Xenopus: An Emerging Model for Studying Congenital Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Congenital heart defects affect nearly 1% of all newborns and are a significant cause of infant death. Clinical studies have identified a number of congenital heart syndromes associated with mutations in genes that are involved in the complex process of cardiogenesis. The African clawed frog, Xenopus, has been instrumental in studies of vertebrate heart development and provides a valuable tool to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying human congenital heart diseases. In this review, we discuss the methodologies that make Xenopus an ideal model system to investigate heart development and disease. We also outline congenital heart conditions linked to cardiac genes that have been well-studied in Xenopus and describe some emerging technologies that will further aid in the study of these complex syndromes. PMID:21538812

Kaltenbrun, Erin; Tandon, Panna; Amin, Nirav M.; Waldron, Lauren; Showell, Chris; Conlon, Frank L.

2011-01-01

195

Disease mechanisms and emerging therapies: protein kinases and their inhibitors in myocardial disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most clinically validated drugs for treating patients with cardiovascular disease target G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the cell membrane. GPCRs engage and activate multiple intracellular signaling cascades, which are regulated by serine\\/threonine protein kinases. These protein kinases are cytoplasmic, more abundant than GPCRs, and have rapidly emerged as drug targets in cardiovascular diseases. One exciting potential advantage to targeting serine\\/threonine protein

Linda S Higgins; Howard Schulman; Mark E Anderson

2006-01-01

196

[Monkey-pox, a model of emergent then reemergent disease].  

PubMed

The recent emergence of monkey pox in the United States of America highlights the problem (known for other infectious agents) of dissemination of pathogens outside their endemic area, and of subsequent global threats of variable gravity according to agents. It is a real emergency since monkey pox had been confined to Africa for several decades, where small epidemics occurred from time to time, monkey pox is a "miniature smallpox" which, in Africa, evolves on an endemic (zoonotic) mode with, as reservoirs, several species of wild rodents (mainly squirrels) and some monkey species. It can be accidentally transmitted to man then develops as epidemics, sometimes leading to death. The virus was imported in 2003 in the United States of America, via Gambia rats and wild squirrels (all African species), and infected prairie dogs (which are now in fashion as pets), then crossed the species barrier to man. In the United States of America, screening campaigns, epidemiological investigations, and subsequent treatments led to a rapid control of the epidemic, which is a model of emergent disease for this country. Therapeutic and preventive measures directly applicable to monkey pox are discussed. They can also be applied against other pox virus infections (including smallpox). The risk of criminal introduction of pox viruses is discussed since it is, more than ever, a real worldwide threat. PMID:15617321

Georges, A J; Matton, T; Courbot-Georges, M C

2004-01-01

197

Emerging role of selective autophagy in human diseases  

PubMed Central

Autophagy was originally described as a highly conserved system for the degradation of cytosol through a lysosome-dependent pathway. In response to starvation, autophagy degrades organelles and proteins to provide metabolites and energy for its pro-survival effects. Autophagy is recognized as playing a role in the pathogenesis of disease either directly or indirectly, through the regulation of vital processes such as programmed cell death, inflammation, and adaptive immune mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy is not only a simple metabolite recycling system, but also has the ability to degrade specific cellular targets, such as mitochondria, cilia, and invading bacteria. In addition, selective autophagy has also been implicated in vesicle trafficking pathways, with potential roles in secretion and other intracellular transport processes. Selective autophagy has drawn the attention of researchers because of its potential importance in clinical diseases. Therapeutic strategies to target selective autophagy rather than general autophagy may maximize clinical benefit by enhancing selectivity. In this review, we outline the principle components of selective autophagy processes and their emerging importance in human disease, with an emphasis on pulmonary diseases.

Mizumura, Kenji; Choi, Augustine M. K.; Ryter, Stefan W.

2014-01-01

198

Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

2014-01-01

199

Infectious and parasitic diseases of captive carnivores, with special emphasis on the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes).  

PubMed

Captive carnivores are susceptible to a wide array of infectious and parasitic diseases, which reflects the diversity of the seven families of Carnivora. Unfortunately, relatively few in-depth studies have been conducted on diseases of non-domestic carnivores, and much remains to be learned, especially regarding diseases of small carnivores (e.g. mustelids, viverrids and procyonids). The more important infectious diseases of carnivores include rabies, canine distemper, and diseases caused by parvoviruses, coronaviruses and herpesviruses. Few parasitic or bacterial pathogens are significant in captive populations, and appropriate husbandry, therapy, vaccines and quarantine minimize the risk of disease. Extrapolations from one species to another regarding disease susceptibility may be incorrect. The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) serves as an example of a carnivore significantly affected by infectious diseases, some of which were expected while others could not have been predicted from generalized knowledge of diseases of mustelids. This highlights the need to understand the natural history of each species maintained in captivity. PMID:8924718

Williams, E S; Thorne, E T

1996-03-01

200

Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using the criteria that define emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of humans, we can identify a similar group of EIDs in wildlife. In the current review we highlight an important series of wildlife EIDs: amphibian chytridiomycosis; diseases of marine invertebrates and vertebrates and two recently-emerged viral zoonoses, Nipah virus disease and West Nile virus disease. These exemplify the varied etiology,

P. Daszak; A. A. Cunningham; A. D. Hyatt

2001-01-01

201

Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control  

PubMed Central

Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-01-01

202

Ecomorphology and disease: cryptic effects of parasitism on host habitat use, thermoregulation, and predator avoidance.  

PubMed

Parasites can cause dramatic changes in the phenotypes of their hosts, sometimes leading to a higher probability of predation and parasite transmission. Because an organism's morphology directly affects its locomotion, even subtle changes in key morphological traits may affect survival and behavior. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in natural communities, few studies have incorporated parasites into ecomorphological research. Here, we evaluated the effects of parasite-induced changes in host phenotype on the habitat use, thermal biology, and simulated predator-escape ability of Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) in natural environments. Frogs with parasite-induced limb malformations were more likely to use ground microhabitats relative to vertical refugia and selected less-angled perches closer to the ground in comparison with normal frogs. Although both groups had similar levels of infection, malformed frogs used warmer microhabitats, which resulted in higher body temperatures. Likely as a result of their morphological abnormalities, malformed frogs allowed a simulated predator to approach closer before escaping and escaped shorter distances relative to normal frogs. These data indicate that parasite-induced morphological changes can significantly alter host behavior and habitat use, highlighting the importance of incorporating the ubiquitous, albeit cryptic, role of parasites into ecomorphological research. PMID:21608461

Goodman, Brett A; Johnson, Pieter T J

2011-03-01

203

Infectious and parasitic diseases and contaminant-related problems of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis): a review.  

PubMed

The aquatic North American river otter (Lontra canadensis), a charismatic nonendangered mustelid, presently occupies a greatly reduced range. The species is common in zoos and has economic value as a furbearer. At least 17 states and one Canadian province have undertaken recent reintroduction programs. Nevertheless, little has been published on nonparasitic diseases of river otters, and little is known of the clinical significance of most of their parasitic infections. Records of environmental contaminant-related diseases and traumatic injuries in free-ranging North American river otters are also rare. This paper reviews present knowledge of North American river otter diseases, especially those with the greatest potential for impacting reintroduction programs. PMID:11428392

Kimber, K R; Kollias, G V

2000-12-01

204

Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish: QPX, a Thraustochytrid-like Disease of Clams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Canadian Fisheries and Oceans fact sheet features Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX), a protistan parasite of the commercially exploited hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria. The fact sheet includes information about its common name, scientific name, geographic distribution, host species and impact, diagnostic techniques, and references.

Bower, S. M.; Region, Fisheries A.

205

Ills in the pipeline: emerging infectious diseases and wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the recent film Contagion, a medical thriller released in fall 2011, the fictitious MEV-1 virus—passed from bat to pig to humans—spreads across the globe as easily as the common cold, killing millions of humans and causing mass hysteria as medical researchers race to find a cure. Though it's Hollywood hyperbole, the film holds a kernel of truth: Researchers believe that the close proximity of Malaysian hog farms to forested areas—the natural habitat for fruit bats—allowed the previously unknown Nipah virus to spill from bats into pigs and subsequently into people, resulting in more than 100 human deaths (Epstein et al. 2006). There is no doubt that in recent times we have seen an unprecedented number of emerging infectious diseases, defined by the Institute for Medicine as new, reemerging, or drug-resistant infections whose incidence has increased or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future. Many of these have a wildlife origin (Taylor et al. 2001). While this jump may be due, in part, to increased vigilance and reporting, there is a general consensus that current global conditions are creating a situation that is very favorable to the transmission of microbes that cause diseases. (For reviews, see Daszak et al. 2001 and Keesing et al. 2010). Likewise, it's increasingly important that wildlife professionals become aware of how and why new infectious diseases spread and what, if anything, can be done to minimize impacts on wildlife.

Sleeman, Jonathan; Gillin, Colin

2012-01-01

206

Diagnosis of dry eye disease and emerging technologies.  

PubMed

Dry eye is one of the most commonly encountered problems in ophthalmology. Signs can include punctate epithelial erosions, hyperemia, low tear lakes, rapid tear break-up time, and meibomian gland disease. Current methods of diagnosis include a slit-lamp examination with and without different stains, including fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green. Other methods are the Schirmer test, tear function index, tear break-up time, and functional visual acuity. Emerging technologies include meniscometry, optical coherence tomography, tear film stability analysis, interferometry, tear osmolarity, the tear film normalization test, ocular surface thermography, and tear biomarkers. Patient-specific considerations involve relevant history of autoimmune disease, refractive surgery or use of oral medications, and allergies or rosacea. Other patient considerations include clinical examination for lid margin disease and presence of lagophthalmos or blink abnormalities. Given a complex presentation and a variety of signs and symptoms, it would be beneficial if there was an inexpensive, readily available, and reproducible diagnostic test for dry eye. PMID:24672224

Zeev, Maya Salomon-Ben; Miller, Darby Douglas; Latkany, Robert

2014-01-01

207

Emerging foodborne diseases: an evolving public health challenge.  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of foodborne disease is changing. New pathogens have emerged, and some have spread worldwide. Many, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica, have reservoirs in healthy food animals, from which they spread to an increasing variety of foods. These pathogens cause millions of cases of sporadic illness and chronic complications, as well as large and challenging outbreaks over many states and nations. Improved surveillance that combines rapid subtyping methods, cluster identification, and collaborative epidemiologic investigation can identify and halt large, dispersed outbreaks. Outbreak investigations and case-control studies of sporadic cases can identify sources of infection and guide the development of specific prevention strategies. Better understanding of how pathogens persist in animal reservoirs is also critical to successful long-term prevention. In the past, the central challenge of foodborne disease lay in preventing the contamination of human food with sewage or animal manure. In the future, prevention of foodborne disease will increasingly depend on controlling contamination of feed and water consumed by the animals themselves. PMID:9366593

Tauxe, R. V.

1997-01-01

208

An Emerging Infectious Disease Triggering Large-Scale Hyperpredation  

PubMed Central

Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:18523587

Moleon, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Sanchez-Zapata, Jose A.

2008-01-01

209

Emerging diseases and ecosystem instability: new threats to public health.  

PubMed Central

Ecologists have begun to describe an environmental distress syndrome, whereby widespread loss of top predators and harsh environmental conditions are encouraging the selection of opportunistic pests and pathogens across a wide taxonomic range of plants and animals. Environmental change and pollutants stress individuals and populations, and this may be reflected in the global resurgence of infectious disease as these stresses cascade through the community assemblages of species. In 1993, the sudden appearance of a virulent, rodent-borne hantavirus in the arid US Southwest accompanied anomalous weather patterns, and a novel Vibrio cholerae variant (O139 Bengal) emerged in Asia where marine ecosystems are experiencing a pandemic of coastal algal blooms, apparently harboring and amplifying the agent. This paper suggests a framework for integrating the surveillance of health outcomes and key reservoir and vector species, with ecological and climatic monitoring. PMID:7856775

Epstein, P R

1995-01-01

210

Long-term disease dynamics for a specialized parasite of ant societies: a field study.  

PubMed

Many studies have investigated how social insects behave when a parasite is introduced into their colonies. These studies have been conducted in the laboratory, and we still have a limited understanding of the dynamics of ant-parasite interactions under natural conditions. Here we consider a specialized parasite of ant societies (Ophiocordyceps camponoti-rufipedis infecting Camponotus rufipes) within a rainforest. We first established that the parasite is unable to develop to transmission stage when introduced within the host nest. Secondly, we surveyed all colonies in the studied area and recorded 100% prevalence at the colony level (all colonies were infected). Finally, we conducted a long-term detailed census of parasite pressure, by mapping the position of infected dead ants and foraging trails (future hosts) in the immediate vicinity of the colonies over 20 months. We report new dead infected ants for all the months we conducted the census--at an average of 14.5 cadavers/month/colony. Based on the low infection rate, the absence of colony collapse or complete recovery of the colonies, we suggest that this parasite represents a chronic infection in the ant societies. We also proposed a "terminal host model of transmission" that links the age-related polyethism to the persistence of a parasitic infection. PMID:25133749

Loreto, Raquel G; Elliot, Simon L; Freitas, Mayara L R; Pereira, Thairine M; Hughes, David P

2014-01-01

211

Diseases and parasites of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Lake Huron basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea lampreys from the Lake Huron basin carried no external parasites and showed a fairly low degree of infection by internal parasites. The material examined represented three life-history stages of the sea lamprey. Recently transformed downstream migrants (215 specimens) harbored only nematodes belonging to the genus Camallanus. The percentage of infection was 2.3. Active feeders from the lake (29 lampreys) revealed the highest degree of parasitism (31.0 percent) with the following parasites present: Echinorhynchus coregoni Linkins; Triaenophorus crasses Forel; and Camallanus sp. Among the 257 sexually mature upstream migrants (14.8 percent infected) Echinorhynchus coregoni and E. leidyi Van Cleave were the most common. Only occasional nematodes and cestodes were found, which fact indicates a failure of the lamprey to carry these parasites to the end of its natural life. Of the parasites observed, only the nematodes gave evidence of serious damage to the host. The study suggests that the role played by parasites in the natural control of the sea lamprey in its new habitat in the upper Great Lakes is of minor importance.

McLain, Alberton L.

1952-01-01

212

Infection by a Hematodinium-like parasitic dinoflagellate causes Pink Crab Disease (PCD) in the edible crab Cancer pagurus  

E-print Network

Infection by a Hematodinium-like parasitic dinoflagellate causes Pink Crab Disease (PCD) in the edible crab Cancer pagurus G.D. Stentiford,a,* M. Green,a K. Bateman,a H.J. Small,b D.M. Neil,b and S; accepted 2 May 2002 Abstract The edible crab (Cancer pagurus) supports a large and valuable fishery in UK

Graves, John E.

213

SPECIES AND STRAIN-SPECIFIC TYPING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES IN CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Cryptosporidiosis has recently attracted attention as an emerging water borne and food borne disease as well as an opportunistic infection in HIV infected indivduals. The lack of genetic information, however, has resulted in confusion in the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium parasites ...

214

Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 3. Australian bat lyssavirus.  

PubMed

Since its discovery in a juvenile black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) in 1996, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has become the cause of a potentially important emerging disease for health authorities in Australia, with two human deaths (one in 1996 and one in 1998) attributed to the virus in the north-eastern state of Queensland. In Australia, the virus has been isolated from all four species of flying fox found on the mainland (i.e. P. alecto, P. scapulatus, P. poliocephalus and P. conspicillatus) as well as a single species of insectivorous bat (Saccolaimus flaviventris). Australian bat lyssavirus belongs to the Lyssavirus genus and is closely related, genetically, to the type strain of Rabies virus (RABV). Clinically, patients infected with ABLV have displayed the 'classical' symptoms of rabies and a similar disease course. This similarity has led to the belief that the infection and dissemination of ABLV in the body follows the same pathways as those followed by RABV. Following the two ABLV-related deaths in Queensland, protocols based on the World Health Organization's guidelines for RABV prophylaxis were implemented and, presumably in consequence, no human infection with ABLV has been recorded since 1998. ABLV will, however, probably always have an important part to play in the health of Australians as the density of the human population in Australia and, consequently, the level of interaction between humans and flying foxes increase. PMID:21144181

Moore, P R; Jansen, C C; Graham, G C; Smith, I L; Craig, S B

2010-12-01

215

Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Infectious Disease Hospital Kano, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of morbidity in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites and its association with immunological status and risk factors among HIV infected patients in Kano, Nigeria. Methods 105 HIV+ subjects and 50 HIV- controls were recruited into the studies from June to December 2010. Clinical information was collected using a questionnaire. Single stool and venous blood samples were collected from each subject. Stool examination and CD4+ count were performed. Results Prevalence of intestinal parasites was 11.4% and 6% among the HIV+ and control subjects respectively with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.389). Specifically, the following intestinal parasites were isolated from HIV+ subjects: Entamoebahistolytica (5.7%), hookworm (3.8%), Entamoeba coli (1%), Blastocystishominis (1%). Only Entamoebahistolytica was isolated among the control subjects. The mean CD4+ count of HIV+ and control subjects was 287 cells/ul and 691 cells/µlrespectively while the median was 279(Q1-120, Q3-384) cell/µl and 691(Q1-466, Q3-852) cell/µlrespectively with statistically significant difference (P= 0.021). Diarrhea and the absence of anti-parasitic therapy seem to be important risk factors associated with the occurrence of intestinal parasites among HIV+ subjects. A higher prevalence (14.5%) of intestinal parasites was observed in subject with CD4+ count 350cell/µl. Conclusion Routine examination for intestinal parasites should be carried out for better management of HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:25328591

Jegede, Ebenezer Feyisayo; Oyeyi, Esther Tinuade Ibijoke; Bichi, ArmaYau Hamisu; Mbah, Henry Akwen; Torpey, Kwasi

2014-01-01

216

Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

1985-01-01

217

The origin and dispersion of human parasitic diseases in the old world (Africa, Europe and Madagascar).  

PubMed

The ancestors of present-day man (Homo sapiens sapiens) appeared in East Africa some three and a half million years ago (Australopithecs), and then migrated to Europe, Asia, and later to the Americas, thus beginning the differentiation process. The passage from nomadic to sedentary life took place in the Middle East in around 8000 BC. Wars, spontaneous migrations and forced migrations (slave trade) led to enormous mixtures of populations in Europe and Africa and favoured the spread of numerous parasitic diseases with specific strains according to geographic area. The three human plasmodia (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae) were imported from Africa into the Mediterranean region with the first human migrations, but it was the Neolithic revolution (sedentarisation, irrigation, population increase) which brought about actual foci for malaria. The reservoir for Leishmania infantum and L. donovani--the dog--has been domesticated for thousands of years. Wild rodents as reservoirs of L. major have also long been in contact with man and probably were imported from tropical Africa across the Sahara. L. tropica, by contrast, followed the migrations of man, its only reservoir. L. infantum and L. donovani spread with man and his dogs from West Africa. Likewise, for thousands of years, the dog has played an important role in the spread and the endemic character of hydatidosis through sheep (in Europe and North Africa) and dromadary (in the Sahara and North Africa). Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni have existed since prehistoric times in populations living in or passing through the Sahara. These populations then transported them to countries of Northern Africa where the specific, intermediary hosts were already present. Madagascar was inhabited by populations of Indonesian origin who imported lymphatic filariosis across the Indian Ocean (possibly of African origin since the Indonesian sailors had spent time on the African coast before reaching Madagascar). Migrants coming from Africa and Arabia brought with them the two African forms of bilharziosis: S. haematobium and S. mansoni. PMID:12687757

Nozais, Jean-Pierre

2003-01-01

218

Foodborne protozoan parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report addresses Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and more briefly, Toxoplasma as the main parasitic protozoa of concern to food production worldwide. Other parasitic protozoa may be spread in food or water but are not considered as great a risk to food manufacture. The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora have proven potential to cause waterborne and foodborne disease. Toxoplasma gondii

David Dawson

2005-01-01

219

Intensive Farming: Evolutionary Implications for Parasites and Pathogens  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of scientists have recently raised concerns about the threat posed by human intervention on the evolution of parasites and disease agents. New parasites (including pathogens) keep emerging and parasites which previously were considered to be ‘under control’ are re-emerging, sometimes in highly virulent forms. This re-emergence may be parasite evolution, driven by human activity, including ecological changes related to modern agricultural practices. Intensive farming creates conditions for parasite growth and transmission drastically different from what parasites experience in wild host populations and may therefore alter selection on various traits, such as life-history traits and virulence. Although recent epidemic outbreaks highlight the risks associated with intensive farming practices, most work has focused on reducing the short-term economic losses imposed by parasites, such as application of chemotherapy. Most of the research on parasite evolution has been conducted using laboratory model systems, often unrelated to economically important systems. Here, we review the possible evolutionary consequences of intensive farming by relating current knowledge of the evolution of parasite life-history and virulence with specific conditions experienced by parasites on farms. We show that intensive farming practices are likely to select for fast-growing, early-transmitted, and hence probably more virulent parasites. As an illustration, we consider the case of the fish farming industry, a branch of intensive farming which has dramatically expanded recently and present evidence that supports the idea that intensive farming conditions increase parasite virulence. We suggest that more studies should focus on the impact of intensive farming on parasite evolution in order to build currently lacking, but necessary bridges between academia and decision-makers. PMID:21151485

Nilsen, Frank; Ebert, Dieter; Skorping, Arne

2010-01-01

220

Emerging viral threats in Gabon: health capacities and response to the risk of emerging zoonotic diseases in Central Africa.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are currently the major threat to public health worldwide and most EID events have involved zoonotic infectious agents. Central Africa in general and Gabon in particular are privileged areas for the emergence of zoonotic EIDs. Indeed, human incursions in Gabonese forests for exploitation purposes lead to intensified contacts between humans and wildlife thus generating an increased risk of emergence of zoonotic diseases. In Gabon, 51 endemic or potential endemic viral infectious diseases have been reported. Among them, 22 are of zoonotic origin and involve 12 families of viruses. The most notorious are dengue, yellow fever, ebola, marburg, Rift Valley fever and chikungunya viruses. Potential EID due to wildlife in Gabon are thereby plentiful and need to be inventoried. The Gabonese Public Health system covers geographically most of the country allowing a good access to sanitary information and efficient monitoring of emerging diseases. However, access to treatment and prevention is better in urban areas where medical structures are more developed and financial means are concentrated even though the population is equally distributed between urban and rural areas. In spite of this, Gabon could be a good field for investigating the emergence or re-emergence of zoonotic EID. Indeed Gabonese health research structures such as CIRMF, advantageously located, offer high quality researchers and facilities that study pathogens and wildlife ecology, aiming toward a better understanding of the contact and transmission mechanisms of new pathogens from wildlife to human, the emergence of zoonotic EID and the breaking of species barriers by pathogens. PMID:22460397

Bourgarel, M; Wauquier, N; Gonzalez, J-P

2010-01-01

221

Collaborative Research Approaches to the Role of Wildlife in Zoonotic Disease Emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to public health and the majority are caused by zoonotic pathogens. Here we\\u000a discuss new collaborative approaches to understanding the process of zoonotic disease emergence that link veterinary medicine,\\u000a public health, and ecological approaches: conservation medicine and one health. We demonstrate how studies on the underlying\\u000a drivers of disease emergence (bushmeat hunting, wildlife

P. Daszak; J. H. Epstein; A. M. Kilpatrick; A. A. Aguirre; W. B. Karesh; A. A. Cunningham

222

Preventing parasites in cats.  

PubMed

The monthly administration of broad-spectrum heartworm medications can effectively prevent a variety of internal and external parasitic diseases in cats. Although not every parasite can be stopped, many of the common feline parasites are susceptible to these agents. This article discusses the epidemiology and prevention strategies for those parasites that can be controlled by the administration of ivermectin, milbemycin oxime, or selamectin, either alone or in conjunction with an external parasiticide. PMID:16299672

Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

2005-01-01

223

Treatment of Parasitic Skin Diseases with Dimeticones A New Family of Compounds with a Purely Physical Mode of Action  

PubMed Central

Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) are common in the tropics and sub-tropics. They are caused by mites, lice and other blood-sucking insects. In resource-poor countries they are associated with considerable morbidity. Hitherto, EPSD are treated with insecticides with a neurotoxic mode of action. The efficacy of this treatment is variable, and the development and spread of resistant mites and lice is alarming. A new concept for treating EPSD is presented which is based on the topical application of dimeticones, silicone oils of low viscosity which rapidly kill insects and mites by a physical mode of action. They creep into the respiratory system and block oxygen supply. The physical mode of action makes the development of resistant parasite strains very unlikely. Due to their safety and efficacy, dimeticones are promising candidates for population-based intervention programmes targeted against EPSD in resource-poor settings.

2014-01-01

224

Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut Indiana Emergency Rule Indiana's Emergency Rule for Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut (TCD) will be effective  

E-print Network

Thousand Canker Disease of Black Walnut ­ Indiana Emergency Rule Indiana's Emergency Rule, and recently added Tennessee may not come into Indiana without an inspection at the point of origin by a state before they are to come into Indiana. The primary concern is Tennessee as it is the most likely source

225

Diversification and host switching in avian malaria parasites.  

PubMed Central

The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management. PMID:12028770

Ricklefs, Robert E; Fallon, Sylvia M

2002-01-01

226

Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide increases in human and wildlife diseases have challenged ecologists to understand how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earth's ecosystems is the alteration of global nutrient cycles, including those of phosphorus (P) and especially nitrogen (N). Along with the obvious direct benefits of nutrient application for food production, anthropogenic inputs of N

Pieter T. J. Johnson; Alan R. Townsend; Cory C. Cleveland; Patricia M. Glibert; Robert W. Howarth; Valerie J. McKenzie; Eliska Rejmankova; Mary H. Ward

2010-01-01

227

Global climate change and implications for disease emergence.  

PubMed

The early consequences of global climate change (GCC) are well documented. However, future impacts on ecosystem health, and on the health of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, are much less well understood. Evidence of increasing frequency of extreme weather events (the 2003 trans-European heat wave, extended droughts in Australia and South America), of geographic changes in vector-borne disease (bluetongue and hanta viruses emerging in northern Europe, dengue virus expanding in central and northern America), and of altered animal behavioral responses (changes in bird migration patterns and fishery numbers) warrants action. To make valid choices, however, practitioners and decision makers must understand what is known about GCC and what is only theory. There will be a multitude of microbial, vector, and host responses to climate change, for example, and not all organisms will respond similarly or across equal time scales. Unfortunately, for many organisms and ecosystems the scientific community has a relatively poor understanding of current effectors and balances, making it problematic to describe the current situation, let alone to validate future predictions. The need for enhanced basic research and systematic surveillance programs is obvious, but putting such programs into place is daunting. However, the threats are real and fast approaching. What is done in the next few years may be decisive, whether for the good or the ill of all. PMID:20080481

Slenning, B D

2010-01-01

228

Selective mass treatment with ivermectin to control intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in a severely affected population.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term and long-term impact of selective mass treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in an economically depressed community in north-east Brazil. METHODS: An intervention was carried out in a traditional fishing village in north-east Brazil where the population of 605 is heavily affected by ectoparasites and enteroparasites. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was determined by serial stool examination and the prevalence of parasitic skin diseases by clinical inspection. A total of 525 people out of a target population of 576 were treated at baseline. The majority of these were treated with ivermectin (200 microg/kg with a second dose given after 10 days). If ivermectin was contraindicated, participants were treated with albendazole or mebendazole for intestinal helminths or with topical deltamethrin for ectoparasites. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 month and 9 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prevalence rates of intestinal helminthiases before treatment and at 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: hookworm disease 28.5%, 16.4% and 7.7%; ascariasis 17.1%, 0.4% and 7.2%; trichuriasis 16.5%, 3.4% and 9.4%; strongyloidiasis 11.0%, 0.6% and 0.7%; and hymenolepiasis 0.6%; 0.4% and 0.5%, respectively. Prevalence rates of parasitic skin diseases before treatment and 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: active pediculosis 16.1%, 1.0% and 10.3%; scabies 3.8%, 1.0% and 1.5%; cutaneous larva migrans 0.7%, 0% and 0%; tungiasis 51.3%, 52.1% and 31.2%, respectively. Adverse events occurred in 9.4% of treatments. They were all of mild to moderate severity and were transient. CONCLUSION: Mass treatment with ivermectin was an effective and safe means of reducing the prevalence of most of the parasitic diseases prevalent in a poor community in north-east Brazil. The effects of treatment lasted for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375445

Heukelbach, Jörg; Winter, Benedikt; Wilcke, Thomas; Muehlen, Marion; Albrecht, Stephan; de Oliveira, Fabíola Araújo Sales; Kerr-Pontes, Lígia Regina Sansigolo; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Feldmeier, Hermann

2004-01-01

229

Worms, slugs and humans: the medical and popular construction of an emerging infectious disease.  

PubMed

The identification of the worm Angiostrongylus costaricensis parasitizing land snails and humans in Southern Brazil suggests under-diagnosis and under-notification of patients with abdominal angiostrongyliasis. This article analyzes how the concept of abdominal angiostrongyliasis was constructed in different ways in Costa Rica and Brazil and how these changes affected the understanding of its clinical and epidemiological diagnosis. The research shows that abdominal angiostrongyliasis is, de facto, a sociocultural construct, although the parasites and vectors are real. The analisys also shows the importance of an interdisciplinary approach for understanding disease. PMID:22012103

Grisotti, Márcia; Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias de

2011-01-01

230

The effect of parasitic diseases on nutrient metabolism and productivity in small ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigation of voluntary feed intake (VFI) and nitrogen retention (NRET) during parasitic infections in small ruminants is the central theme of this thesis. An attempt was made to examine the effects of trypanosomiasis on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen retention and animal products. In addition, a similar investigation was conducted during a low to medium level fascioliasis infection in Menz

O. O. Akinbamijo

1994-01-01

231

Emergence of Polycystic Neotropical Echinococcosis  

PubMed Central

Echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis of increasing concern. In 1903, the first cases of human polycystic echinococcosis, a disease resembling alveolar echinococcosis, emerged in Argentina. One of the parasites responsible, Echinococcus oligarthrus, had been discovered in its adult strobilar stage before 1850. However, >100 years passed from the first description of the adult parasite to the recognition that this species is responsible for some cases of human neotropical polycystic echinococcosis and the elucidation of the parasite’s life cycle. A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972. Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species. To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries. PMID:18258123

Stich, August; Frosch, Matthias

2008-01-01

232

Practice of Epidemiology When Is Quarantine a Useful Control Strategy for Emerging Infectious Diseases?  

E-print Network

long nor very short. communicable diseases, emerging; disease outbreaks; epidemiologic methods; patientPractice of Epidemiology When Is Quarantine a Useful Control Strategy for Emerging Infectious;163:479­485 American Journal of Epidemiology Copyright ª 2006 by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Day, Troy

233

Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Cause of Sexually Transmitted Disease in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen.

Chris L. McGowin; Colin Anderson-Smits

2011-01-01

234

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health. Here, we apply the definition of EIDs used in the medical and veterinary fields to botany and highlight a series of emerging plant diseases. We include EIDs of cultivated and wild plants, some of which are of significant conservation concern. The underlying cause of most plant EIDs is the

Pamela K. Anderson; Andrew A. Cunningham; Nikkita G. Patel; Francisco J. Morales; Paul R. Epstein; Peter Daszak

2004-01-01

235

Bioluminescence imaging of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infections reveals tissue-specific parasite dynamics and heart disease in the absence of locally persistent infection  

PubMed Central

Summary Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infections lead to cardiomyopathy in 20–30% of cases. A causal link between cardiac infection and pathology has been difficult to establish because of a lack of robust methods to detect scarce, focally distributed parasites within tissues. We developed a highly sensitive bioluminescence imaging system based on T.?cruzi expressing a novel luciferase that emits tissue-penetrating orange-red light. This enabled long-term serial evaluation of parasite burdens in individual mice with an in vivo limit of detection of significantly less than 1000 parasites. Parasite distributions during chronic infections were highly focal and spatiotemporally dynamic, but did not localize to the heart. End-point ex vivo bioluminescence imaging allowed tissue-specific quantification of parasite loads with minimal sampling bias. During chronic infections, the gastro-intestinal tract, specifically the colon and stomach, was the only site where T.?cruzi infection was consistently observed. Quantitative PCR-inferred parasite loads correlated with ex vivo bioluminescence and confirmed the gut as the parasite reservoir. Chronically infected mice developed myocarditis and cardiac fibrosis, despite the absence of locally persistent parasites. These data identify the gut as a permissive niche for long-term T.?cruzi infection and show that canonical features of Chagas disease can occur without continual myocardium-specific infection. PMID:24712539

Lewis, Michael D; Fortes Francisco, Amanda; Taylor, Martin C; Burrell-Saward, Hollie; McLatchie, Alex P; Miles, Michael A; Kelly, John M

2014-01-01

236

The Emergency Response Network of the Great Lakes Regional Center of Excellence exists to provide aid during a bio-defense emergency related to emerging infectious diseases or an act of bioterrorism.  

E-print Network

aid during a bio- defense emergency related to emerging infectious diseases or an act of bioterrorism. The Emergency Response Plan (ERP) incorporates and supplements each entity's existing bioterror or pathogen

Sherman, S. Murray

237

Emerging, evolving, and established infectious diseases and interventions.  

PubMed

Planning, implementing, and evaluating interventions against infectious diseases depend on the nature of the infectious disease; the availability of intervention measures; and logistical, economic, and political constraints. Infectious diseases and vaccine- or drug-based interventions can be loosely categorized by the degree to which the infectious disease and the intervention are well established. Pertussis, polio, and measles are three examples of long-known infectious diseases for which global vaccination has dramatically reduced the public health burden. Pertussis vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, polio vaccination in the 1950s, and measles vaccination in the 1960s, nearly eliminating these diseases in many places. PMID:25214617

Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

2014-09-12

238

Emerging horizons of salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease.  

PubMed

The field of salivary diagnostics to allow risk determination for periodontal diseases is advancing. New technologies in proteomics, genomics and nanotechnologies have continued the discovery of discriminatory periodontal disease biomarkers. This review briefly overviews biomarker studies that have been completed in saliva for the detection of periodontal disease since 2010. Disease specific biomarkers could be used in risk determination, treatment planning and disease progression. Currently, diagnostic tests are commercially available, and the development of point-of-care tests is expanding. Even though challenges remain, salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease is promising and could facilitate the diagnostics and treatment in a clinical practice by dental practitioners. PMID:25415010

Fuentes, L; Yakob, M; Wong, D T W

2014-11-21

239

Air pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Valencia, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo estimate the short-term association between air pollution levels and emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Valencia, within 1994–1996 period.DESIGNDaily levels of air pollution and emergency admissions for cardiovascular diseases were related to using an ecological time series design. The number of admissions was obtained from the hospital records database. Selected groups of causes were all cardiovascular diseases,

F Ballester; J M Tenías; S Pérez-Hoyos

2001-01-01

240

Distribution and Abundance of the Aquatic Oligochaete Host Tubifex tubifex for the Salmonid Whirling Disease Parasite Myxobolus cerebralis in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic invertebrate samples were collected from six sites in the upper Colorado River basin in north-central Colorado to determine the distribution, abundance, and infection rates of Tubifex tubifex, the aquatic oligochaete host for the salmonid whirling disease parasite Myxobolus cerebralis. The disease has been implicated as a factor in severe recruitment declines in wild rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in this

Joseph S. Zendt; Eric P. Bergersen

2000-01-01

241

Preparing for Emergencies: A Checklist for People with Neuromuscular Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Learn your community’s evacuation routes. q Obtain a battery-operated radio for emergency information. q Pick one ... a backpack or duffel bag. Include: q A battery-powered radio, flashlight and plenty of extra batteries ...

242

Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges  

PubMed Central

After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leismaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection. PMID:22310820

Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao

2011-01-01

243

Disease and parasite implications of the coexistence of wild and cultured Atlantic salmon populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practical difficulties in measuring the prevalence, incidence, and pathogenicity of diseases in wild Atlantic salmon populations cause serious problems in determining the possible implications of disease. Limited research has been undertaken on wild salmon disease associated with environmental effects of fish farming, or with the disease implications of possible changes to the genetic make-up of wild salmonid stocks as

A. H. McVicar

1997-01-01

244

Managing emerging infectious diseases: Is a federal system an impediment to effective laws?  

PubMed

In the 1980's and 1990's HIV/AIDS was the emerging infectious disease. In 2003-2004 we saw the emergence of SARS, Avian influenza and Anthrax in a man made form used for bioterrorism. Emergency powers legislation in Australia is a patchwork of Commonwealth quarantine laws and State and Territory based emergency powers in public health legislation. It is time for a review of such legislation and time for consideration of the efficacy of such legislation from a country wide perspective in an age when we have to consider the possibility of mass outbreaks of communicable diseases which ignore jurisdictional boundaries. PMID:15679928

Howse, Genevieve

2004-11-19

245

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF EMERGENT AND RE-EMERGENT INFECTIOUS DISEASES: ASSESSING  

E-print Network

for Ebola spread is developed. Ebola outbreaks have been observed in African regions since 1976. Our model OF PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTIONS ON DISEASE SPREAD A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate INTERVENTIONS ON DISEASE SPREAD Gerardo Chowell-Puente, Ph.D. Cornell University 2005 Communicable diseases have

Chowell, Gerardo

246

Prevalence of certain disease antibodies and blood parasites in wild turkeys in Texas  

E-print Network

in identification of blood parasites& also for perfornung sev- eral postmortem examinations. I would like to thank Dr. N. F. 'rQ. ueger ~ d Dr. S. L, Bcasom for their valuable suggestions during i, he pre- paration of this manuscript. I would like to extend my...' pulloruri is present even at a low level, it !ray prevent a population from increasr~g or actually cause a population decline. Without blood te ting it is alan . t impossl. ble to determiu. !e which adult birds acre cewiers of pullorum, since mony times...

Hensley, Terry Stewart

2012-06-07

247

Emerging novel concept of chaperone therapies for protein misfolding diseases  

PubMed Central

Chaperone therapy is a newly developed molecular therapeutic approach to protein misfolding diseases. Among them we found unstable mutant enzyme proteins in a few lysosomal diseases, resulting in rapid intracellular degradation and loss of function. Active-site binding low molecular competitive inhibitors (chemical chaperones) paradoxically stabilized and enhanced the enzyme activity in somatic cells by correction of the misfolding of enzyme protein. They reached the brain through the blood-brain barrier after oral administration, and corrected pathophysiology of the disease. In addition to these inhibitory chaperones, non-competitive chaperones without inhibitory bioactivity are being developed. Furthermore molecular chaperone therapy utilizing the heat shock protein and other chaperone proteins induced by small molecules has been experimentally tried to handle abnormally accumulated proteins as a new approach particularly to neurodegenerative diseases. These three types of chaperones are promising candidates for various types of diseases, genetic or non-genetic, and neurological or non-neurological, in addition to lysosomal diseases. PMID:24814990

SUZUKI, Yoshiyuki

2014-01-01

248

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: A Global Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused interview reflects on how infectious diseases, such as SARS and AIDS, are a more serious global problem than in the past because: urban populations are growing, thereby increasing opportunities for person-to-person transmittal of these diseases, people are more prone to be in contact with animals that may pass on zoonotic diseases, and public health services may not be equipped to deal with some infectious outbreaks.

Stephen Morse (Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University;)

2004-05-01

249

Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 1. Leptospirosis.  

PubMed

Human leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance that causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing nations. In this review, the history, epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation and treatment of this disease, and its impact in Australia, are discussed. Central to this review is the delineation of diagnostic methods for the disease and the challenges that this disease presents for both the clinician and diagnostic laboratory. This information should furnish clinicians with an updated tool to help overcome a number of problems associated with the diagnosis of leptospirosis. PMID:21092392

Tulsiani, S M; Lau, C L; Graham, G C; Van Den Hurk, A F; Jansen, C C; Smythe, L D; McKay, D B; Craig, S B

2010-10-01

250

76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products.'' The purpose of the public...

2011-10-12

251

Emerging Biophotonic Technologies in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases  

E-print Network

brain disorder resulting in loss of muscle control and cancers) Gaucher disease (GD; enlarged liver sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig's Disease; progressive motor function loss leading to paralysis and death other organs) Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT; loss of feeling in ends of limbs) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Van Stryland, Eric

252

Emerging Marine Diseases: Climate Links and Anthropogenic Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass mortalities due to disease outbreaks have recently affected major taxa in the oceans. For closely monitored groups like corals and marine mammals, reports of the frequency of epidemics and the number of new diseases have increased recently. A dramatic global increase in the severity of coral bleaching in 1997-98 is coincident with high El Niño temperatures. Such climate-mediated, physiological

C. D. Harvell; K. Kim; J. M. Burkholder; R. R. Colwell; P. R. Epstein; D. J. Grimes; E. E. Hoffmann; E. K. Lipp; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; Robin M. Overstreet; J. W. Porter; G. W. Smith; G. R. Vasta

1999-01-01

253

Women and HIV Disease: An Emerging Social Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses major social issues faced by women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and explores gender differences in HIV transmission, disease progression, and diagnosis. Discusses how women's sexuality and reproductive rights are affected. Examines specific issues regarding HIV-infected women who use intravenous drugs, women of color,…

Stuntzner-Gibson, Denise

1991-01-01

254

Preparing for Emergencies: A Checklist for People with Neuromuscular Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... how to turn off the water, gas and electricity at main valves or switches. q Plan and practice how to escape from your home in an emergency. q Consider getting a medical alert system that will allow you to call for help ...

255

Increased IgE serum levels are unrelated to allergic and parasitic diseases in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the IgE serum levels in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients and to evaluate possible associations with clinical and laboratory features, disease activity and tissue damage. METHODS: The IgE serum concentrations in 69 consecutive juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients were determined by nephelometry. IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations were measured by immunoturbidimetry. All patients were negative for intestinal parasites. Statistical analysis methods included the Mann-Whitney, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, as well as the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Increased IgE concentrations above 100 IU/mL were observed in 31/69 (45%) juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients. The mean IgE concentration was 442.0±163.4 IU/ml (range 3.5-9936.0 IU/ml). Fifteen of the 69 patients had atopic disease, nine patients had severe sepsis and 56 patients presented with nephritis. The mean IgE level in 54 juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients without atopic manifestations was 271.6±699.5 IU/ml, and only nine of the 31 (29%) patients with high IgE levels had atopic disease. The IgE levels did not statistically differ with respect to the presence of atopic disease, severe sepsis, nephritis, disease activity, or tissue damage. Interestingly, IgE concentrations were inversely correlated with C4 levels (r?=?-0.25, p?=?0.03) and with the SLICC/ACR-DI score (r?=?-0.34, p?=?0.005). The IgE concentration was also found to be directly correlated with IgA levels (r?=?0.52, p?=?0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated for the first time that juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients have increased IgE serum levels. This increase in IgE levels was not related to allergic or parasitic diseases. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that high IgE levels can be considered a marker of immune dysregulation. PMID:23184203

Liphaus, Bernadete L.; Jesus, Adriana A.; Silva, Clovis A.; Coutinho, Antonio; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

2012-01-01

256

Available and emerging treatments for Parkinson's disease: a review  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease is a commonly encountered neurodegenerative disorder primarily found in aged populations. A number of medications are available to control symptoms, although these are less effective in advanced disease. Deep brain stimulation provides a practicable alternative at this stage, although a minority of patients meet the strict criteria for surgery. Novel medications that provide enhanced symptomatic control remain in developmental demand. Both gene and cell-based therapies have shown promise in early clinical studies. A major unmet need is a treatment that slows or stops disease progression. PMID:21607020

Hickey, Patrick; Stacy, Mark

2011-01-01

257

Emerging role of autophagy in kidney function, diseases and aging  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a highly conserved process that degrades cellular long-lived proteins and organelles. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy plays a critical role in kidney maintenance, diseases and aging. Ischemic, toxic, immunological, and oxidative insults can cause an induction of autophagy in renal epithelial cells modifying the course of various kidney diseases. This review summarizes recent insights on the role of autophagy in kidney physiology and diseases alluding to possible novel intervention strategies for treating specific kidney disorders by modifying autophagy. PMID:22692002

Huber, Tobias B.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Hartleben, Bjorn; Inoki, Ken; Jiang, Man; Koya, Daisuke; Kume, Shinji; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Pallet, Nicolas; Quiroga, Alejandro; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Susztak, Katalin; Yoshida, Sei; Dong, Zheng

2012-01-01

258

Challenges posed by new and re-emerging infectious diseases in livestock production, wildlife and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's world, emerging and re-emerging diseases have a significant impact on global economies and public health, and with bioterrorism a constant threat this has become a very topical subject in recent years. Bernard Vallat, director general of the OIE, made the statement, “As a result of globalisation and climate change we are currently facing an unprecedented worldwide impact of

B. Gummow

2010-01-01

259

Real Time Bayesian Estimation of the Epidemic Potential of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFast changes in human demographics worldwide, coupled with increased mobility, and modified land uses make the threat of emerging infectious diseases increasingly important. Currently there is worldwide alert for H5N1 avian influenza becoming as transmissible in humans as seasonal influenza, and potentially causing a pandemic of unprecedented proportions. Here we show how epidemiological surveillance data for emerging infectious diseases can

Luís M. A. Bettencourt; Ruy M. Ribeiro; David Lusseau

2008-01-01

260

Cross-Species Pathogen Transmission and Disease Emergence in Primates  

E-print Network

and Ebola, are zoonotic, having shifted from wildlife populations. Critical questions for predicting disease populations, EIDs also have resulted in recent and dramatic declines in mammals (e.g., Ebola in African apes

Pedersen, Amy B.

261

Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent  

PubMed Central

A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. PMID:23812027

McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

262

Alternative Medicines as Emerging Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be divided into two major categories, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). While the main cause(s) of IBD remain unknown, a number of interventional and preventive strategies have been proposed for use against CD and UC. Many reports have focused on the use of alternative natural medicines as potential therapeutic interventions in IBD patients with minimal side effects. While the use of alternative medicines may be effective in IBD patients that are refractory to corticosteroids or thiopurins, alternative treatment strategies are limited and require extensive clinical testing before being optimized for use in patients. PMID:22251008

Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Busbee, Brandon; Guan, H.; Singh, Balwan; Price, Robert L.; Taub, Dennis D.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

2014-01-01

263

Emerging diseases and implications for Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015 - an overview.  

PubMed

Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global 'One Health' movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015. PMID:20560123

Aluwong, Tagang; Bello, Mohammed

2010-01-01

264

Factors shaping the adaptive landscape for arboviruses: implications for the emergence of disease  

PubMed Central

Many examples of the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases involve the adaptation of zoonotic viruses to new amplification hosts or to humans themselves. These include several instances of simple mutational adaptations, often to hosts closely related to the natural reservoirs. However, based on theoretical grounds, arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, may face several challenges for adaptation to new hosts. Here, we review recent findings regarding adaptive evolution of arboviruses and its impact on disease emergence. We focus on the zoonotic alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis and chikungunya viruses, which have undergone adaptive evolution that mediated recent outbreaks of disease, as well as the flaviviruses dengue and West Nile viruses, which have emerged via less dramatic adaptive mechanisms. PMID:23374123

Coffey, Lark L; Forrester, Naomi; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott C

2013-01-01

265

Necroptosis: An emerging type of cell death in liver diseases  

PubMed Central

Cell death has been extensively evaluated for decades and it is well recognized that pharmacological interventions directed to inhibit cell death can prevent significant cell loss and can thus improve an organ’s physiological function. For long, only apoptosis was considered as a sole form of programmed cell death. Recently necroptosis, a RIP1/RIP3-dependent programmed cell death, has been identified as an apoptotic backup cell death mechanism with necrotic morphology. The evidences of necroptosis and protective effects achieved by blocking necroptosis have been extensively reported in recent past. However, only a few studies reported the evidence of necroptosis and protective effects achieved by inhibiting necroptosis in liver related disease conditions. Although the number of necroptosis initiators is increasing; however, interestingly, it is still unclear that what actually triggers necroptosis in different liver diseases or if there is always a different necroptosis initiator in each specific disease condition followed by specific downstream signaling molecules. Understanding the precise mechanism of necroptosis as well as counteracting other cell death pathways in liver diseases could provide a useful insight towards achieving extensive therapeutic significance. By targeting necroptosis and/or other parallel death pathways, a significant cell loss and thus a decrement in an organ’s physiological function can be prevented. PMID:25253954

Saeed, Waqar Khalid; Jun, Dae Won

2014-01-01

266

Emerging concepts and therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although considerable advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of COPD, much remains to be done both to alleviate symptoms and reduce mortality associated with this condition. Previously, diagnosis, management, and research all centred on staging based on the forced expiratory flow in 1 second. It is now becoming apparent that this is inadequate to truly capture current disease burden and future deterioration. Fortunately, new approaches to care are constantly being identified. It is now known that symptoms and, in particular, exacerbations represent pivotal events in the patient's life that should trigger optimization of care. Much work is currently underway to identify various phenotypes in COPD because it has become obvious that this is a heterogeneous disease and applying the same management algorithms for all patients is insufficient. Several new medications are at various stages of development, some being approved and on the market, while others are undergoing clinical trials. These allow for more options for individualized care of patients. In addition, new applications of old medications, such as long?term antibiotics, also provide new options for patients struggling with recurrent symptoms. Finally, the growing awareness that this is a heterogeneous disease composed not only of differing phenotypes but also having significant extrapulmonary comorbidities have opened new avenues of research and interdisciplinary collaboration that will further enable us to offer personalized care to patients. PMID:23711637

Raghavan, Natya; McIvor, R Andrew

2013-01-01

267

Machine Learning for Zoonotic Emerging Disease Detection Xiaojin Zhu  

E-print Network

a wildlife monitoring system for far upstream detection of zoonotic disease outbreaks. Our system integrates monitoring in the US has tra- ditionally been carried out by experts at the Na- tional Wildlife Health Center organizations, cit- izen scientists, and incidental observers in creating a wildlife monitoring and outbreak

Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

268

The emerging role of microRNAs in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease remains the most prevalent cause of human morbidity and mortality in ageing Western societies. Basic and translational scientific efforts have focused on the development and improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit the burden of associated diseases, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, and diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension. Progress in molecular medicine and biology has unravelled a complex epigenetic and post-transcriptional gene-regulating machinery in humans which may limit disease development. An increasing number of attractive molecular strategies, which use the potential of modulating noncoding RNAs, have surfaced over the last decade. Currently, the most extensively studied gene-regulating RNA subspecies are microRNAs, which have been shown to adjust the translational output of coding transcripts by enforcing their degradation and inhibiting their translation into protein. Key findings indicate that microRNAs act as crucial regulators in the majority of human pathologies. Thus, recent research has focused on detecting and modulating microRNAs for therapeutic and biomarker purposes. This review focuses on main and repeated discoveries regarding the role and the therapeutic and biomarker feasibility of microRNAs during cardiovascular disease development and exacerbation. PMID:25160930

Maegdefessel, L

2014-12-01

269

The emerging use of zebrafish to model metabolic disease  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish research community is celebrating! The zebrafish genome has recently been sequenced, the Zebrafish Mutation Project (launched by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) has published the results of its first large-scale ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen, and a host of new techniques, such as the genome editing technologies TALEN and CRISPR-Cas, are enabling specific mutations to be created in model organisms and investigated in vivo. The zebrafish truly seems to be coming of age. These powerful resources invoke the question of whether zebrafish can be increasingly used to model human disease, particularly common, chronic diseases of metabolism such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In recent years, there has been considerable success, mainly from genomic approaches, in identifying genetic variants that are associated with these conditions in humans; however, mechanistic insights into the role of implicated disease loci are lacking. In this Review, we highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of zebrafish to address the organism’s utility as a model system for human metabolic diseases. PMID:24046387

Seth, Asha; Stemple, Derek L.; Barroso, Inês

2013-01-01

270

Emerging Candidate Biomarkers for Parkinson's Disease: a Review  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive motor impairment affecting more than 1% of the over-65 population. In spite of considerable progress in identifying the genetic and biochemical basis of PD, to date the diagnosis remains clinical and disease-modifying therapies continue to be elusive. A cornerstone in recent PD research is the investigation of biological markers that could help in identifying at-risk population or to track disease progression and response to therapies. Although none of these parameters has been validated for routine clinical practice yet, however some biochemical candidates hold great promise for application in PD patients, especially in the early stages of disease, and it is likely that in the future the diagnosis of PD will require a combination of genetic, imaging and laboratory data. In this review we discuss the most interesting biochemical markers for PD (including the “-omics” techniques), focusing on the methodological challenges in using ex vivo blood/CSF/tissue-based biomarkers and suggesting alternative strategies to overcome the difficulties that still prevent their actual use. PMID:24490114

Saracchi, Enrico; Fermi, Silvia; Brighina, Laura

2014-01-01

271

A Suspected Parasite SpillBack of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo

Ashlie Hartigan; Ivan Fiala; Iva Dyková; Miloslav Jirku; Ben Okimoto; Karrie Rose; David N. Phalen; Jan Slapeta; Anastasia P. Litvintseva

2011-01-01

272

Drugs against parasitic diseases: R&D methodologies and issues SECTION III A. H. FAIRLAMB 107 Target discovery and validation with  

E-print Network

Drugs against parasitic diseases: R&D methodologies and issues · SECTION III · A. H. FAIRLAMB 107 target for drug discovery and drug development. This article considers the various approaches to target of target validation by chemical and genetic methods. Particular reference is made to the prospects of drug

Schnaufer, Achim

273

HIV\\/AIDS as a Chronic DiseaseEmergence From the Plague Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reframing of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)from an acute to a chronic disease brought about a different focus for public policy. Now viewed as the end stage of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), AIDS has emerged from the plague model. Many biological and social forces affected this change, including an increased understanding of HIV and its associated disease processes,

Christy L. Beaudin; Susan M. Chambré

1996-01-01

274

GIS-Based Epidemiological Modeling of an Emerging Forest Disease: Spread of  

E-print Network

247 GIS-Based Epidemiological Modeling of an Emerging Forest Disease: Spread of Sudden Oak Death applied in a GIS to real-world wildland landscapes. In this paper, we present and evaluate a GIS model was implemented (1990-2005) in a GIS to simulate disease spread across California at a spatial

Standiford, Richard B.

275

Is Type D personality here to stay? Emerging evidence across cardiovascular disease patient groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distressed personality (Type D) is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) that incurs a risk on par with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ischemic heart disease. Type D is defined as the co-occurring tendencies to experience increased negative emotions and to inhibit self-expression in social interactions. Evidence is ac- cumulating that Type D may also be

Susanne S. Pedersen; Johan Denollet

2006-01-01

276

Return of chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum parasites and emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Increased resistance by Plasmodium falciparum parasites led to the withdrawal of the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Ethiopia. Since 2004 artemether-lumefantrine has served to treat uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. However, increasing reports on delayed parasite clearance to artemisinin opens up a new challenge in anti-malarial therapy. With the complete withdrawal of CQ for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, this study assessed the evolution of CQ resistance by investigating the prevalence of mutant alleles in the pfmdr1 and pfcrt genes in P. falciparum and pvmdr1 gene in Plasmodium vivax in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia. Methods Of the 1,416 febrile patients attending primary health facilities in Southern Ethiopia, 329 febrile patients positive for P. falciparum or P. vivax were recruited. Similarly of the 1,304 febrile patients from Eastern Ethiopia, 81 febrile patients positive for P. falciparum or P. vivax were included in the study. Of the 410 finger prick blood samples collected from malaria patients, we used direct sequencing to investigate the prevalence of mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr1. This included determining the gene copy number in pfmdr1 in 195 P. falciparum clinical isolates, and mutations in the pvmdr1 locus in 215 P. vivax clinical isolates. Results The pfcrt K76 CQ-sensitive allele was observed in 84.1% of the investigated P.falciparum clinical isolates. The pfcrt double mutations (K76T and C72S) were observed less than 3%. The pfcrt SVMNT haplotype was also found to be present in clinical isolates from Ethiopia. The pfcrt CVMNK-sensitive haplotypes were frequently observed (95.9%). The pfmdr1 mutation N86Y was observed only in 14.9% compared to 85.1% of the clinical isolates that carried sensitive alleles. Also, the sensitive pfmdr1 Y184 allele was more common, in 94.9% of clinical isolates. None of the investigated P. falciparum clinical isolates carried S1034C, N1042D and D1246Y pfmdr1 polymorphisms. All investigated P. falciparum clinical isolates from Southern and Eastern Ethiopia carried only a single copy of the mutant pfmdr1 gene. Conclusion The study reports for the first time the return of chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum in Ethiopia. These findings support the rationale for the use of CQ-based combination drugs as a possible future alternative. PMID:24964730

2014-01-01

277

Emergences of viral diseases targeting animal and/or human populations have become more frequent during the last decades. Both concern previously unknown viruses that have suddenly emerged  

E-print Network

Foreword Emergences of viral diseases targeting animal and/or human populations have become more, increase of exchanges between humans, animals and goods; and (iii) ecological factors such as climate of emerging and/or re- emerging animal viruses targeting various species (arthropods, fish, domestic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Critical role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma in parasite invasion and disease progression of cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Obligate intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania specifically target host phagocytes for survival and replication. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase ? (PI3K?), a member of the class I PI3Ks that is highly expressed by leukocytes, controls cell migration by initiating actin polymerization and cytoskeletal reorganization, which are processes also critical for phagocytosis. In this study, we demonstrate that class IB PI3K, PI3K?, plays a critical role in pathogenesis of chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. mexicana. Using the isoform-selective PI3K? inhibitor, AS-605240 and PI3K? gene-deficient mice, we show that selective blockade or deficiency of PI3K? significantly enhances resistance against L. mexicana that is associated with a significant suppression of parasite entry into phagocytes and reduction in recruitment of host phagocytes as well as regulatory T cells to the site of infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AS-605240 is as effective as the standard antileishmanial drug sodium stibogluconate in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. mexicana. These findings reveal a unique role for PI3K? in Leishmania invasion and establishment of chronic infection, and demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of host pathways involved in establishment of infection may be a viable strategy for treating infections caused by obligate intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania. PMID:22232690

Cummings, Hannah E; Barbi, Joseph; Reville, Patrick; Oghumu, Steve; Zorko, Nicholas; Sarkar, Anasuya; Keiser, Tracy L; Lu, Bao; Rückle, Thomas; Varikuti, Sanjay; Lezama-Davila, Claudio; Wewers, Mark D; Whitacre, Caroline; Radzioch, Danuta; Rommel, Christian; Seveau, Stéphanie; Satoskar, Abhay R

2012-01-24

279

APOE and neuroenergetics: an emerging paradigm in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

APOE is the major known genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Though relationships between APOE-encoded apolipoprotein E and ?-amyloid are increasingly well described, mounting evidence supports wide-ranging effects of APOE on the brain. Specifically, APOE appears to affect brain network activity and closely related neuroenergetic functions that might be involved in vulnerability to neurodegenerative pathophysiology. These effects highlight the salience of further investigation into the diverse influences of APOE. Therefore, this article reviews the interplay between APOE and neuroenergetics and proposes areas for further investigation. This research might lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment and/or prevention of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23159550

Wolf, Andrew B; Caselli, Richard J; Reiman, Eric M; Valla, Jon

2013-04-01

280

Status of mastitis as an emerging disease in improved and periurban dairy farms in India.  

PubMed

While reviewing present status of mastitis in India, results of investigations from periurban dairy farms on epidemiological, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, bacterial isolation, in vitro drug sensitivity, and treatment of subclinical mastitis have been presented. Mastitis, on account of its causing serious wastage and undesirable milk quality, is emerging as a major challenge among the others (like breeding improvement, nutrition management, control of infectious, tick-borne, blood, and internal parasitic diseases) in dairy development of tropics. Subclinical mastitis was found more important in India (varying from 10-50% in cows and 5-20% in buffaloes) than clinical mastitis (1-10%). The incidence was highest in Purebred Holsteins and Jerseys and lowest in local cattle and buffaloes. An investigation on 250 animals from periurban farms indicated that the monsoon season was more prone to subclinical mastitis than summer or winter, prevalence increased with higher lactation number and animals in 4th-5th month of lactation were found more susceptible (59.49%), hind quarters were found more affected (56.52%) than fore quarters (43.47%). The factors like herd size, agro climatic conditions of the region, variations in sociocultural practices, milk marketing, literacy level of the animal owner, system of feeding, and management were found important affecting the incidence of subclinical mastitis. Comparison of efficacy of different diagnostic techniques for subclinical mastitis, such as modified California mastitis test (MCMT), bromo thymol blue (BTB), modified whiteside test, trypsin inhibition test, milk pH, and electric conductivity indicated MCMT to be most sensitive (95.16%) and specific (98.02%) test. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that most of the bacterial strains (gram positive, gram negative, and mixed) isolated from subclinical mastitis milk samples, were highly sensitive to enrofloxacin 53.91%, least sensitive to oxytetracycline 17.39% and ampicillin 7.83%, and resistant to streptomycin. The therapy with enrofloxacin and nimesulide was found more efficacious (92.30%) in treating subclinical mastitis cows. It was concluded that consideration of socioecological factors for mastitis control in periurban area would help to reduce the cost of mastitis control in clean milk production. PMID:17135496

Joshi, Sachin; Gokhale, Suresh

2006-10-01

281

Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases

Xiao-Nong Zhou; Shan Lv; Guo-Jing Yang; Thomas K Kristensen; N Robert Bergquist; Jürg Utzinger; John B Malone

2009-01-01

282

Emerging infectious diseases at the beginning of the 21st century.  

PubMed

The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases involves many interrelated factors. Global interconnectedness continues to increase with international travel and trade; economic, political, and cultural interactions; and human-to-human and animal-to-human interactions. These interactions include the accidental and deliberate sharing of microbial agents and antimicrobial resistance and allow the emergence of new and unrecognized microbial disease agents. As the 21st century begins, already new agents have been identified, and new outbreaks have occurred. Solutions to limiting the spread of emerging infectious diseases will require cooperative efforts among many disciplines and entities worldwide. This article defines emerging infectious diseases, summarizes historical background, and discusses factors that contribute to emergence. Seven agents that have made a significant appearance, particularly in the 21st century, are reviewed, including: Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, human monkeypox, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West Nile virus, and avian influenza. The article provides for each agent a brief historical background, case descriptions, and health care implications. PMID:16629503

Lashley, Felissa R

2006-01-01

283

Epidemiological and clinical description of the top three reportable parasitic diseases in a Canadian community.  

PubMed

This study provides a comprehensive epidemio-clinical picture of sporadic, domestically acquired cases of amoebiasis, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in one Canadian community based on patient symptom, outcome and exposure data from an enhanced surveillance system. It yields valuable data for estimating the burden of those diseases including the proportion of bloody diarrhoea, hospitalization, and disease duration. Age differences were observed by incidence rate and for some clinical information and exposures to risk factors. For each of the three diseases, the animal/environment-to-person route was the most common possible main transmission route according to the exposure reported, whereas the person-to-person route was the least common. Exposure was higher for the 10-24 years age group of giardiasis cases for swimming in recreational waters (79%) and attending a barbeque (50%). Therefore, comparisons between groups of cases or extrapolation of results when estimating the burden of illness should be adjusted for age. PMID:22631610

Ravel, A; Nesbitt, A; Pintar, K; Macarthur, A; Wang, H-L; Marshall, B; Pollari, F

2013-02-01

284

[Emergencies in colorectal diseases: role of the endoscopist].  

PubMed

In some emergency situations of colo-rectal pathology, especially those characterized by hemorrhaging, the endoscopy has acquired, with the passing of years, a fundamental role both from the diagnostic and the therapeutic point of view. In no more than 25% of the lower intestinal tract hemorrhages, the clinical picture does have the signs of an emergency. The diverticula, IBD and angiodysplasias are primarily responsible for rendering these characteristics. Even when possible problems concerning an accurate intestinal cleaning can arise, a correct diagnosis is possible at least in seven cases out ten. When the colonoscopy isn't conclusive and the bleeding persists may be recommended the selective arteriography (helpful also in hemorrhages lower than 0.5 ml/min). Also in cases of acute obstructive syndrome the colonoscopy, taking advantage of the direct view of the lesion, can give a correct diagnosis, sometimes supported by the histologic examination. Regarding the operating capacity of the method, the endoscopy can resolve minute and localized bleeding lesions. The Argon or Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation is widely used. Recently BICAP and heater probe methods have been developed, which aveld the problem connected to the HF electrocoagulation. A very efficacious and simple method is that of injecting 1:10.000 adrenalin, 1% polidocanol, absolute ethanol or hypertonic solution around the lesion. The scarred strictures are those more easily and safely treated by pneumatic dilatation or (limited to the rectum-sigmoid) by Savary sounds. In the volvulus or bowel invagination, just by having the endoscope goes up in the lumen, often normal condition settles again. In the Ogilvie's syndrome you can deflate the cecum with an aspirator or more simply by positioning a tube above the hepatic flexure, with 85% success. In the malignant strictures the debulking of tumor mass by laser treatment, sometimes followed by dilatation, may be preparatory to the surgery or purely palliative. Finally the extraction of foreign bodies must be performed, in order to obtain a relaxed anal sphincter, in general anaesthesia or by a previous rigid rectoscope dilatation. PMID:8929030

Frezza, M; Buri, L; Peri, A; Widmayer, C; Vram, A

1996-01-01

285

Current and emerging treatment options for Peyronie's disease  

PubMed Central

Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a condition of the penis, characterized by the presence of localized fibrotic plaque in the tunica albuginea. PD is not an uncommon disorder, with recent epidemiologic studies documenting a prevalence of 3–9% of adult men affected. The actual prevalence of PD may be even higher. It is often associated with penile pain, anatomical deformities in the erect penis, and difficulty with intromission. As the definitive pathophysiology of PD has not been completely elucidated, further basic research is required to make progress in the understanding of this enigmatic condition. Similarly, research on effective therapies is limited. Currently, nonsurgical treatments are used for those men who are in the acute stage of PD, whereas surgical options are reserved for men with established PD who cannot successfully penetrate. Intralesional treatments are growing in clinical popularity as a minimally invasive approach in the initial treatment of PD. A surgical approach should be considered when men with PD do not respond to conservative, medical, or minimally invasive therapies for approximately 1 year and cannot have satisfactory sexual intercourse. As scientific breakthroughs in the understanding of the mechanisms of this disease process evolve, novel treatments for the many men suffering with PD are anticipated. PMID:24400231

Gokce, Ahmet; Wang, Julie C; Powers, Mary K; Hellstrom, Wayne JG

2013-01-01

286

Emerging infectious diseases in free-ranging wildlife-Australian zoo based wildlife hospitals contribute to national surveillance.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife. Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases. PMID:24787430

Cox-Witton, Keren; Reiss, Andrea; Woods, Rupert; Grillo, Victoria; Baker, Rupert T; Blyde, David J; Boardman, Wayne; Cutter, Stephen; Lacasse, Claude; McCracken, Helen; Pyne, Michael; Smith, Ian; Vitali, Simone; Vogelnest, Larry; Wedd, Dion; Phillips, Martin; Bunn, Chris; Post, Lyndel

2014-01-01

287

Emerging Infectious Diseases in Free-Ranging Wildlife-Australian Zoo Based Wildlife Hospitals Contribute to National Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife. Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases. PMID:24787430

Cox-Witton, Keren; Reiss, Andrea; Woods, Rupert; Grillo, Victoria; Baker, Rupert T.; Blyde, David J.; Boardman, Wayne; Cutter, Stephen; Lacasse, Claude; McCracken, Helen; Pyne, Michael; Smith, Ian; Vitali, Simone; Vogelnest, Larry; Wedd, Dion; Phillips, Martin; Bunn, Chris; Post, Lyndel

2014-01-01

288

Mitochondrial quality control and neurological disease: an emerging connection  

PubMed Central

The human brain is a highly complex organ with remarkable energy demands. Although it represents only 2% of the total body weight, it accounts for 20% of all oxygen consumption, reflecting its high rate of metabolic activity. Mitochondria have a crucial role in the supply of energy to the brain. Consequently, their deterioration can have important detrimental consequences on the function and plasticity of neurons, and is thought to have a pivotal role in ageing and in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Owing to their inherent physiological functions, mitochondria are subjected to particularly high levels of stress and have evolved specific molecular quality-control mechanisms to maintain the mitochondrial components. Here, we review some of the most recent advances in the understanding of mitochondrial stress-control pathways, with a particular focus on how defects in such pathways might contribute to neurodegenerative disease. PMID:20398440

de Castro, Ines Pimenta; Martins, L. Miguel; Tufi, Roberta

2010-01-01

289

APOE & Neuroenergetics: an Emerging Paradigm in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

APOE is the major known genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). While relationships between APOE-encoded apoE and ?-amyloid are increasingly well described, mounting evidence supports wide-ranging effects of APOE on the brain. Specifically, APOE appears to impact brain network activity and closely related neuroenergetic functions that may be involved in vulnerability to neurodegenerative pathophysiology. These effects highlight the salience of further investigation into the diverse influences of APOE. Therefore, this article reviews the interplay between APOE and neuroenergetics and proposes areas for further investigation. This research may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment and/or prevention of AD. PMID:23159550

Wolf, Andrew B.; Caselli, Richard J.; Reiman, Eric M.; Valla, Jon

2012-01-01

290

Emerging effects of sevelamer in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Sevelamer, a non-absorbable anion exchange resin, is used to control hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) by binding to dietary phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract. Lipid-lowering effect is a widely recognized pleiotropic effect of sevelamer. In addition, many studies have reported that sevelamer leads to reduced vascular calcification compared with calcium-containing phosphate binders, which is attributed to the improved lipid profiles and decreased calcium load. In addition, recent studies have suggested novel pleiotropic effects on bone structure, inflammation, oxidative stress, anemia, fetuin-A, and trace element metabolism in CKD patients. All of these effects have the potential to suppress the development/progression of cardiovascular lesions and reduce mortality. This review summarizes novel findings from recent studies and discusses the potential pleiotropic effects of sevelamer on non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in CKD patients. PMID:23486088

Ikee, Ryota; Tsunoda, Masataka; Sasaki, Naomi; Sato, Naritsugu; Hashimoto, Nobuo

2013-01-01

291

Modeling emergency department visit patterns for infectious disease complaints: results and application to disease surveillance  

PubMed Central

Background Concern over bio-terrorism has led to recognition that traditional public health surveillance for specific conditions is unlikely to provide timely indication of some disease outbreaks, either naturally occurring or induced by a bioweapon. In non-traditional surveillance, the use of health care resources are monitored in "near real" time for the first signs of an outbreak, such as increases in emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory, gastrointestinal or neurological chief complaints (CC). Methods We collected ED CCs from 2/1/94 – 5/31/02 as a training set. A first-order model was developed for each of seven CC categories by accounting for long-term, day-of-week, and seasonal effects. We assessed predictive performance on subsequent data from 6/1/02 – 5/31/03, compared CC counts to predictions and confidence limits, and identified anomalies (simulated and real). Results Each CC category exhibited significant day-of-week differences. For most categories, counts peaked on Monday. There were seasonal cycles in both respiratory and undifferentiated infection complaints and the season-to-season variability in peak date was summarized using a hierarchical model. For example, the average peak date for respiratory complaints was January 22, with a season-to-season standard deviation of 12 days. This season-to-season variation makes it challenging to predict respiratory CCs so we focused our effort and discussion on prediction performance for this difficult category. Total ED visits increased over the study period by 4%, but respiratory complaints decreased by roughly 20%, illustrating that long-term averages in the data set need not reflect future behavior in data subsets. Conclusion We found that ED CCs provided timely indicators for outbreaks. Our approach led to successful identification of a respiratory outbreak one-to-two weeks in advance of reports from the state-wide sentinel flu surveillance and of a reported increase in positive laboratory test results. PMID:15743535

Brillman, Judith C; Burr, Tom; Forslund, David; Joyce, Edward; Picard, Rick; Umland, Edith

2005-01-01

292

Symbolic diseases and "mindbody" co-emergence. A challenge for psychoneuroimmunology.  

PubMed

Physical diseases that appear to be symbolic somatic representations of patients' personal meanings or individual 'stories' continue to be reported in the medical literature. The identification of a symbolic disease requires a clinical focus upon a patient's highly individual and nuanced meanings largely rendered invisible by the usual methodologies of clinical and research medicine, which has no coherent model for understanding symbolic disease. Therefore, a model is proposed of co-emergence of physicality and subjectivity, body and mind, disease and meaning, disease and symbol, which does provide a coherent basis for understanding symbolic disease. The 'mindbody' co-emergence model avoids mind and body dualism, assumes unbroken continuity between internal body processes and external interpersonal meanings and influences, and asserts that disease-related 'internal' bodily changes and collateral external interpersonal and environmental fluxes are mutually contingent and crucial to the development of the disease. The co-emergence model is discussed specifically in relation to psychoneuroimmunology, but it has exciting clinical and research implications for the whole of medicine. PMID:22225930

Broom, Brian C; Booth, Roger J; Schubert, Christian

2012-01-01

293

Granulocytic anaplasmosis — emerging tick-borne disease of humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulocytic anaplasmoses represent a group of emerging tick-borne infectious diseases caused by the obligate intracellular\\u000a gram-negative bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales) that infects granulocytes. It has been known as a ruminant pathogen in Europe since 1932, however, recently\\u000a it has emerged as a pathogen of humans and domestic animals such as dogs and horses in the Northern Hemisphere, including\\u000a United States

Mária Nováková; Bronislava Víchová

2010-01-01

294

An Emerging Mycoplasma Associated with Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Infection and Disease  

PubMed Central

Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as “Mnola.” In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name “Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii” for this potential new pathogen. PMID:25337710

Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J. Paul; Glascock, Abigail L.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Buck, Gregory A.

2014-01-01

295

Emerging Significance of NLRs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.  

PubMed

: Pattern recognition receptors are essential mediators of host defense and inflammation in the gastrointestinal system. Recent data have revealed that toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) function to maintain homeostasis between the host microbiome and mucosal immunity. The NLR proteins are a diverse class of cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors. In humans, only about half of the identified NLRs have been adequately characterized. The majority of well-characterized NLRs participate in the formation of a multiprotein complex, termed the inflammasome, which is responsible for the maturation of interleukin-1? and interleukin-18. However, recent observations have also uncovered the presence of a novel subgroup of NLRs that function as positive or negative regulators of inflammation through modulating critical signaling pathways, including NF-?B. Dysregulation of specific NLRs from both proinflammatory and inhibitory subgroups have been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in genetically susceptible human populations. Our own preliminary retrospective data mining efforts have identified a diverse range of NLRs that are significantly altered at the messenger RNA level in colons from patients with IBD. Likewise, studies using genetically modified mouse strains have revealed that multiple NLR family members have the potential to dramatically modulate the immune response during IBD. Targeting NLR signaling represents a promising and novel therapeutic strategy. However, significant effort is necessary to translate the current understanding of NLR biology into effective therapies. PMID:25153506

Davis, Beckley K; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Eden, Kristin; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Allen, Irving C

2014-12-01

296

Emerging and reemerging infections. Progress and challenges in the subspecialty of infectious disease pathology.  

PubMed

Emerging and reemerging infections are attracting greater attention from the public health and medical communities. Pathologists and other physicians are increasingly aware of the importance of the subspecialty of infectious disease pathology as a tool for diagnosis, surveillance, and research of emerging infections. In this communication, we describe the role that infectious disease pathologists have played during the last 2 years in broadening our understanding of selected emerging infections, including such examples as new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, leptospirosis, microsporidiosis, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and cyclosporiasis. The significance of providing pathology services, especially the autopsy, to patients with potentially hazardous communicable diseases is discussed with the supposition that it is unethical to exclude or withhold health care from a patient based on his or her underlying disease or on risk factors for acquiring a disease. The increasing occurrence of infectious diseases imported into the United States and other nations, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 group O, dengue fever, tuberculosis, malaria, diphtheria and cholera in immigrants and travelers, and Ebola virus in nonhuman primates, emphasizes the necessity for pathologists of having competence with infectious disease pathology. It is critical that new generations of pathologists not only be trained in the subspecialty of infectious disease pathology, but that they also be willing participants in the diagnosis and investigation of infectious diseases. The lack of training programs for infectious disease pathologists, as well as the deficiency in infectious disease pathology support for ongoing and future epidemiologic investigations and research, has led to the broadening of pathology services and initiation of a dedicated section of Infectious Disease Pathology at one of the nation's premier public health institutions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Ga. Together with preexisting groups of medical and veterinary infectious disease pathologists at universities, the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, and the National Institutes of Health, this new program will significantly strengthen the capability of the United States to respond to future challenges of emerging and reemerging infections, both in this country and abroad. PMID:9278604

Schwartz, D A

1997-08-01

297

Global health: chronic diseases and other emergent issues in global health.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases have had a decisive and rapid impact on shaping and changing health policy. Noncommunicable diseases, while not garnering as much interest or importance over the past 20 years, have been affecting public health around the world in a steady and critical way, becoming the leading cause of death in developed and developing countries. This article discusses emergent issues in global health related to noncommunicable diseases and conditions, with focus on defining the unique epidemiologic features and relevant programmatic, health systems, and policy responses concerning noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, accidents and injuries, urbanization, climate change, and disaster preparedness. PMID:21896363

Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Anwar, Shahela; Cravioto, Alejandro

2011-09-01

298

Risk of parasite transmission influences perceived vulnerability to disease and perceived danger of disease-relevant animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptationist view proposes that emotions were shaped by natural selection and their primary function is to protect humans against predators and\\/or disease threat. This study examined cross-cultural and inter-personal differences in behavioural immune system measured by disgust, fear and perceived danger in participants from high (Turkey) and low (Slovakia) pathogen prevalence areas. We found that behavioural immune system in Turkish

Pavol Prokop; Muhammet Usak; Jana Fan?ovi?ová

2010-01-01

299

[The concept of emerging viral diseases: what risk for Reunion Island?].  

PubMed

In Reunion Island, the risk of emerging infectious diseases lies mainly in several viral zoonoses: West Nile fever, Sindbis virus, Nipah virus, Wesselsbron virus, Rift Valley fever and Japanese encephalitis. There morbidity and consequences are more or less important but they all have a non-negligible epidemic potential, so they have to be monitored. Indeed, the struggle against these emerging infectious diseases requires an early detection of the cases, thus a surveillance system capable of detecting them as early as possible, thanks to a real international network of information, warning and prevention. PMID:23765703

Peton, M; Vilain, P; Reilhes, O; Cardinale, E; Gaüzère, B A; Filleul, L

2013-08-01

300

Infectious disease emergence and global change: thinking systemically in a shrinking world  

PubMed Central

Background Concern intensifying that emerging infectious diseases and global environmental changes that could generate major future human pandemics. Method A focused literature review was undertaken, partly informed by a forthcoming report on environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty, facilitated by the Special Programme for Tropical Diseases. Results More than ten categories of infectious disease emergence exist, but none formally analyse past, current or future burden of disease. Other evidence suggests that the dominant public health concern focuses on two informal groupings. Most important is the perceived threat of newly recognised infections, especially viruses that arise or are newly discovered in developing countries that originate in species exotic to developed countries, such as non-human primates, bats and rodents. These pathogens may be transmitted by insects or bats, or via direct human contact with bushmeat. The second group is new strains of influenza arising from intensively farmed chickens or pigs, or emerging from Asian “wet markets” where several bird species have close contact. Both forms appear justified because of two great pandemics: HIV/AIDS (which appears to have originated from bushmeat hunting in Africa before emerging globally) and Spanish influenza, which killed up to 2.5% of the human population around the end of World War I. Insufficiently appreciated is the contribution of the milieu which appeared to facilitate the high disease burden in these pandemics. Additionally, excess anxiety over emerging infectious diseases diverts attention from issues of greater public health importance, especially: (i) existing (including neglected) infectious diseases and (ii) the changing milieu that is eroding the determinants of immunity and public health, caused by adverse global environmental changes, including climate change and other components of stressed life and civilisation-supporting systems. Conclusions The focus on novel pathogens and minor forms of anti-microbial resistance in emerging disease literature is unjustified by their burden of disease, actual and potential, and diverts attention from far more important health problems and determinants. There is insufficient understanding of systemic factors that promote pandemics. Adverse global change could generate circumstances conducive to future pandemics with a high burden of disease, arising via anti-microbial and insecticidal resistance, under-nutrition, conflict, and public health breakdown. PMID:23849217

2012-01-01

301

Response to an emerging vector-borne disease: Surveillance and preparedness for Schmallenberg virus.  

PubMed

Surveillance for new emerging animal diseases from a European perspective is complicated by the non-harmonised approach across Member States for data capture, recording livestock populations and case definitions. In the summer of 2011, a new vector-borne Orthobunyavirus emerged in Northern Europe and for the first time, a coordinated approach to horizon scanning, risk communication, data and diagnostic test sharing allowed EU Member States to develop early predictions of the disease, its impact and risk management options. There are many different systems in place across the EU for syndromic and scanning surveillance and the differences in these systems have presented epidemiologists and risk assessors with concerns about their combined use in early identification of an emerging disease. The emergence of a new disease always will raise challenging issues around lack of capability and lack of knowledge; however, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) gave veterinary authorities an additional complex problem: the infection caused few clinical signs in adult animals, with no indication of the possible source and little evidence about its spread or means of transmission. This paper documents the different systems in place in some of the countries (Germany and the Netherlands) which detected disease initially and predicted its spread (to the UK) and how information sharing helped to inform early warning and risk assessment for Member States. Microarray technology was used to identify SBV as a new pathogen and data from the automated cattle milking systems coupled with farmer-derived data on reporting non-specific clinical signs gave the first indications of a widespread issue while the UK used meteorological modelling to map disease incursion. The coordinating role of both EFSA and the European Commission were vital as are the opportunities presented by web-based publishing for disseminating information to industry and the public. The future of detecting emerging disease looks more positive in the light of this combined approach in the EU. PMID:25236564

Roberts, H C; Elbers, A R W; Conraths, F J; Holsteg, M; Hoereth-Boentgen, D; Gethmann, J; van Schaik, G

2014-10-15

302

Preventive chemotherapy as a strategy for elimination of neglected tropical parasitic diseases: endgame challenges.  

PubMed

Global efforts to address neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) were stimulated in January 2012 by the London declaration at which 22 partners, including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and major pharmaceutical companies committed to sustaining and expanding NTD programmes to eliminate or eradicate 11 NTDs by 2020 to achieve the goals outlined in the recently published WHO road map. Here, we present the current context of preventive chemotherapy for some NTDs, and discuss the problems faced by programmes as they consider the 'endgame', such as difficulties of access to populations in post-conflict settings, limited human and financial resources, and the need to expand access to clean water and improved sanitation for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. In the case of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, ivermectin treatment carries a significant risk owing to serious adverse effects in some patients co-infected with the tropical eye worm Loa loa filariasis. We discuss the challenges of managing complex partnerships, and maintain advocacy messages for the continued support for elimination of these preventable diseases. PMID:23798692

Bockarie, Moses J; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Rebollo, Maria; Molyneux, David H

2013-08-01

303

[How to fight parasitic infectious diseases with bacteria. The case of Wolbachia pipientis].  

PubMed

In Nature, no individual can live in isolation; hence, living organisms are forced to interact with each other. This necessity has led many organisms to establish heterogeneous relations to enhance their ability to adapt to the environment, thus acquiring evolutionary advantages. These relationships are sometimes so intense, that on the long term the organisms may lose their individual identity. An example of these associations is the endosymbiotic ones, where eukaryote organisms generally harbor different prokaryote organisms. The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis is a species described by Hertig and Wolbach in 1924. This microorganism can be isolated in a large variety of eukaryote organisms, with which it maintains different links. Until now, this species has only been described with 11 serogroups numbered from A to K within the Wolbachia genus. This work is intended to illustrate the relationship of Wolbachia pipientis with human pathogenic filaria and with arthropods, as well as to describe the implications of this bacterium in the treatment of filariasis. Finally, this work tries to describe recent studies that have targeted the use of artificially-created Wolbachia pipientis virulent strains that, once inoculated in infectious diseases-transmitting vectors, develop negative effects within them in order to, in this way, erradicate mosquito-transmitted infectious diseases for which no treatment is available at the moment or the prevention of its transmissibility has not been achieved. PMID:25354059

March-Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Eiros-Bouza, José María

2014-01-01

304

Preventive chemotherapy as a strategy for elimination of neglected tropical parasitic diseases: endgame challenges  

PubMed Central

Global efforts to address neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) were stimulated in January 2012 by the London declaration at which 22 partners, including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and major pharmaceutical companies committed to sustaining and expanding NTD programmes to eliminate or eradicate 11 NTDs by 2020 to achieve the goals outlined in the recently published WHO road map. Here, we present the current context of preventive chemotherapy for some NTDs, and discuss the problems faced by programmes as they consider the ‘endgame’, such as difficulties of access to populations in post-conflict settings, limited human and financial resources, and the need to expand access to clean water and improved sanitation for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. In the case of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, ivermectin treatment carries a significant risk owing to serious adverse effects in some patients co-infected with the tropical eye worm Loa loa filariasis. We discuss the challenges of managing complex partnerships, and maintain advocacy messages for the continued support for elimination of these preventable diseases. PMID:23798692

Bockarie, Moses J.; Kelly-Hope, Louise A.; Rebollo, Maria; Molyneux, David H.

2013-01-01

305

Emergency Duties and Deaths from Heart Disease among Firefighters in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Deaths from coronary heart disease were associated with suppressing a fire (32.1% of all such deaths), responding to an alarm (13.4%), returning from an alarm (17.4%), engaging in physical training (12.5%), responding to nonfire emergencies (9.4%), and performing nonemergency duties (15.4%). As compared with the odds of death from coronary heart disease during nonemergency duties, the odds were 12.1

Stefanos N. Kales; Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Costas A. Christophi; David C. Christiani

2007-01-01

306

Dysfunctional adaptive immunity during parasitic infections  

PubMed Central

Parasite-driven dysfunctional adaptive immunity represents an emerging hypothesis to explain the chronic or persistent nature of parasitic infections, as well as the observation that repeated exposure to most parasitic organisms fails to engender sterilizing immunity. This review discusses recent examples from clinical studies and experimental models of parasitic infection that substantiate the role for immune dysfunction in the inefficient generation and maintenance of potent anti-parasitic immunity. Better understanding of the complex interplay between parasites, host adaptive immunity, and relevant negative regulatory circuits will inform efforts to enhance resistance to chronic parasitic infections through vaccination or immunotherapy. PMID:24839433

Zander, Ryan A.; Butler, Noah S.

2014-01-01

307

Unhealthy Landscapes: Policy Recommendations on Land Use Change and Infectious Disease Emergence  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic land use changes drive a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and modify the transmission of endemic infections. These drivers include agricultural encroachment, deforestation, road construction, dam building, irrigation, wetland modification, mining, the concentration or expansion of urban environments, coastal zone degradation, and other activities. These changes in turn cause a cascade of factors that exacerbate infectious disease emergence, such as forest fragmentation, disease introduction, pollution, poverty, and human migration. The Working Group on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence grew out of a special colloquium that convened international experts in infectious diseases, ecology, and environmental health to assess the current state of knowledge and to develop recommendations for addressing these environmental health challenges. The group established a systems model approach and priority lists of infectious diseases affected by ecologic degradation. Policy-relevant levels of the model include specific health risk factors, landscape or habitat change, and institutional (economic and behavioral) levels. The group recommended creating Centers of Excellence in Ecology and Health Research and Training, based at regional universities and/or research institutes with close links to the surrounding communities. The centers’ objectives would be 3-fold: a) to provide information to local communities about the links between environmental change and public health; b) to facilitate fully interdisciplinary research from a variety of natural, social, and health sciences and train professionals who can conduct interdisciplinary research; and c) to engage in science-based communication and assessment for policy making toward sustainable health and ecosystems. PMID:15238283

Patz, Jonathan A.; Daszak, Peter; Tabor, Gary M.; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Pearl, Mary; Epstein, Jon; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Molyneux, David; Bradley, David J.

2004-01-01

308

Emerging Trends in International Law Concerning Global Infectious Disease Control1  

PubMed Central

International cooperation has become critical in controlling infectious diseases. In this article, I examine emerging trends in international law concerning global infectious disease control. The role of international law in horizontal and vertical governance responses to infectious disease control is conceptualized; the historical development of international law regarding infectious diseases is described; and important shifts in how states, international institutions, and nonstate organizations use international law in the context of infectious disease control today are analyzed. The growing importance of international trade law and the development of global governance mechanisms, most prominently in connection with increasing access to drugs and other medicines in unindustrialized countries, are emphasized. Traditional international legal approaches to infectious disease control—embodied in the International Health Regulations—may be moribund. PMID:12643821

2003-01-01

309

An Emerging Disease Causes Regional Population Collapse of a Common North American Bat Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease affecting hibernating bats in eastern North America that causes mass mortality and precipitous population declines in winter hibernacula. First discovered in 2006 in New York State, WNS is spreading rapidly across eastern North America and currently affects seven species. Mortality associated with WNS is causing a regional population collapse and is predicted to

Winifred F. Frick; Jacob F. Pollock; Alan C. Hicks; Kate E. Langwig; D. Scott Reynolds; Gregory G. Turner; Calvin M. Butchkoski; Thomas H. Kunz

2010-01-01

310

Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance: Cambodia, Indonesia, and NAMRU-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. The following questions stimulated the research described in this report: What infrastructure is necessary to enable EID surveillance in developing countries? What are the cultural, political, and economic challenges that are faced? Are there generalizations that may

Sophal Ear

2011-01-01

311

Emerging and opportunistic diseases are caused by a microorganism invading a new  

E-print Network

Emerging and opportunistic diseases are caused by a microorganism invading a new habitat, either is derived from population ecology, where the `sink' population is only maintained by immigration from­sink model Source­sink ecological models6 were developed, and are currently applied, in the population

Gomulkiewicz, Richard

312

Giardiasis as a re-emerging infectious disease and its zoonotic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons for considering giardiasis as a re-emerging infectious disease are presented, with emphasis on Giardia infections in child care centres, livestock and pets, and the role of zoonotic transmission. However, the aetiology and control of giardiasis is complicated by the genetic and phenotypic variability of Giardia species infective to mammals. Of particular significance has been the uncertainty about host

R. C. Andrew Thompson

2000-01-01

313

Trichomoniasis in finches from the Canadian Maritime provinces -- An emerging disease  

PubMed Central

Trichomoniasis was diagnosed in multiple incidents of mortality in wild purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus) and American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) in the Canadian Maritimes. Birds exhibited regurgitation, emaciation, and hyperplastic oropharyngitis, ingluvitis, and esophagitis. Trichomonas gallinae was identified by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Trichomoniasis (trichomonosis) is an emerging disease in wild finches of eastern Canada. PMID:20592828

Forzan, Maria J.; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Melekhovets, Yuri F.; McBurney, Scott

2010-01-01

314

Systems Approach to Complex Diseases and the Emergence of Proactive P4 Medicine  

E-print Network

of personalized (P4) medicine · Introduced to biologists the idea of big science vs. small science · Spent 5Systems Approach to Complex Diseases and the Emergence of Proactive P4 Medicine Lee Hood, President Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory #12;In 10

Botte, Gerardine G.

315

Social and environmental risk factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Fifty years ago, the age-old scourge of infectious disease was receding in the developed world in response to improved public health measures, while the advent of antibiotics, better vaccines, insecticides and improved surveillance held the promise of eradicating residual problems. By the late twentieth century, however, an increase in the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases was evident in many parts of the world. This upturn looms as the fourth major transition in human-microbe relationships since the advent of agriculture around 10,000 years ago. About 30 new diseases have been identified, including Legionnaires' disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)/variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), Nipah virus, several viral hemorrhagic fevers and, most recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and avian influenza. The emergence of these diseases, and resurgence of old ones like tuberculosis and cholera, reflects various changes in human ecology: rural-to-urban migration resulting in high-density peri-urban slums; increasing long-distance mobility and trade; the social disruption of war and conflict; changes in personal behavior; and, increasingly, human-induced global changes, including widespread forest clearance and climate change. Political ignorance, denial and obduracy (as with HIV/AIDS) further compound the risks. The use and misuse of medical technology also pose risks, such as drug-resistant microbes and contaminated equipment or biological medicines. A better understanding of the evolving social dynamics of emerging infectious diseases ought to help us to anticipate and hopefully ameliorate current and future risks. PMID:15577934

Weiss, Robin A; McMichael, Anthony J

2004-12-01

316

Disease and the Extended Phenotype: Parasites Control Host Performance and Survival through Induced Changes in Body Plan  

PubMed Central

Background By definition, parasites harm their hosts. However, some forms of parasite-induced alterations increase parasite transmission between hosts, such that manipulated hosts can be considered extensions of the parasite's phenotype. While well accepted in principle, surprisingly few studies have quantified how parasite manipulations alter host performance and survival under field and laboratory conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings By interfering with limb development, the trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae causes particularly severe morphological alterations within amphibian hosts that provide an ideal system to evaluate parasite-induced changes in phenotype. Here, we coupled laboratory performance trials with a capture-mark-recapture study of 1388 Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) to quantify the effects of parasite-induced malformations on host locomotion, foraging, and survival. Malformations, which affected ?50% of metamorphosing frogs in nature, caused dramatic reductions in all measures of organismal function. Malformed frogs exhibited significantly shorter jumping distances (41% reduction), slower swimming speeds (37% reduction), reduced endurance (66% reduction), and lower foraging success relative to infected hosts without malformations. Furthermore, while normal and malformed individuals had comparable survival within predator-free exclosures, deformed frogs in natural populations had 22% lower biweekly survival than normal frogs and rarely recruited to the adult population over a two-year period. Conclusions/Significance Our results highlight the ability of parasites to deeply alter multiple dimensions of host phenotype with important consequences for performance and survival. These patterns were best explained by malformation status, rather than infection per se, helping to decouple the direct and indirect effects of parasitism on host fitness. PMID:21633498

Goodman, Brett A.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

2011-01-01

317

Real Time Bayesian Estimation of the Epidemic Potential of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Fast changes in human demographics worldwide, coupled with increased mobility, and modified land uses make the threat of emerging infectious diseases increasingly important. Currently there is worldwide alert for H5N1 avian influenza becoming as transmissible in humans as seasonal influenza, and potentially causing a pandemic of unprecedented proportions. Here we show how epidemiological surveillance data for emerging infectious diseases can be interpreted in real time to assess changes in transmissibility with quantified uncertainty, and to perform running time predictions of new cases and guide logistics allocations. Methodology/Principal Findings We develop an extension of standard epidemiological models, appropriate for emerging infectious diseases, that describes the probabilistic progression of case numbers due to the concurrent effects of (incipient) human transmission and multiple introductions from a reservoir. The model is cast in terms of surveillance observables and immediately suggests a simple graphical estimation procedure for the effective reproductive number R (mean number of cases generated by an infectious individual) of standard epidemics. For emerging infectious diseases, which typically show large relative case number fluctuations over time, we develop a Bayesian scheme for real time estimation of the probability distribution of the effective reproduction number and show how to use such inferences to formulate significance tests on future epidemiological observations. Conclusions/Significance Violations of these significance tests define statistical anomalies that may signal changes in the epidemiology of emerging diseases and should trigger further field investigation. We apply the methodology to case data from World Health Organization reports to place bounds on the current transmissibility of H5N1 influenza in humans and establish a statistical basis for monitoring its evolution in real time. PMID:18478118

2008-01-01

318

Systems biology of ovine intestinal parasite resistance: disease gene modules and biomarkers.  

PubMed

This study reports on the molecular systems biology of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection and potential biomarkers for GIN resistance in sheep. Microarray gene expression data were obtained for 3 different tissues at 4 time points from sheep artificially challenged with two types of nematodes, Haemonchus contortus (HC) and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (TC). We employed an integrated systems biology approach, integrating 3 main methods: standard differential gene expression analyses, weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) and quantitative genetic analyses of gene expression traits of key biomarkers. Using standard differential gene expression analyses we identified differentially expressed genes (DE) which responded differently in sheep challenged with HC compared to those challenged with TC. These interaction genes (e.g. MRPL51, SMEK2, CAT, MAPK1IP1 and SLC25A20A) were enriched in Wnt receptor signalling pathway (p = 0.0132) and positive regulation of NF?? transcription factor activity (p = 0.00208). We report FCER1A, a gene encoding a high-affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin E, which is linked to innate immunity to GIN in sheep. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) methods, we identified gene modules that were correlated with the length of infection (disease modules). Hub genes (with high intramodular connectivity) were filtered further to identify biomarkers that are related to the length of infection (e.g. CAT, FBX033, COL15A1, IGFBP7, FBLN1 and IgCgamma). The biomarkers we found in HC networks were significantly associated with functions such as T-cell and B-cell regulations, TNF-alpha, interleukin and cytokine production. In TC networks, biomarkers were significantly associated with functions such as protein catabolic process, heat shock protein binding, protein targeting and localization, cytokine receptor binding, TNF receptor binding, apoptosis and IGF binding. These results provide specific gene targets for therapeutic interventions and provide insights into GIN infections in sheep which may be used to infer the same in related host species. This is also the first study to apply the concept of estimating breeding values of animals to expression traits and reveals 11 heritable candidate biomarkers (0.05 to 0.92) that could be used in selection of animals for GIN resistance. PMID:21072409

Kadarmideen, Haja N; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Andronicos, Nicholas M

2011-01-01

319

Using Biotic Interaction Networks for Prediction in Biodiversity and Emerging Diseases  

PubMed Central

Networks offer a powerful tool for understanding and visualizing inter-species ecological and evolutionary interactions. Previously considered examples, such as trophic networks, are just representations of experimentally observed direct interactions. However, species interactions are so rich and complex it is not feasible to directly observe more than a small fraction. In this paper, using data mining techniques, we show how potential interactions can be inferred from geographic data, rather than by direct observation. An important application area for this methodology is that of emerging diseases, where, often, little is known about inter-species interactions, such as between vectors and reservoirs. Here, we show how using geographic data, biotic interaction networks that model statistical dependencies between species distributions can be used to infer and understand inter-species interactions. Furthermore, we show how such networks can be used to build prediction models. For example, for predicting the most important reservoirs of a disease, or the degree of disease risk associated with a geographical area. We illustrate the general methodology by considering an important emerging disease - Leishmaniasis. This data mining methodology allows for the use of geographic data to construct inferential biotic interaction networks which can then be used to build prediction models with a wide range of applications in ecology, biodiversity and emerging diseases. PMID:19478956

Stephens, Christopher R.; Heau, Joaquin Gimenez; Gonzalez, Camila; Ibarra-Cerdena, Carlos N.; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor; Gonzalez-Salazar, Constantino

2009-01-01

320

TRP Channels in Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A wide range of single- and multi-cellular parasites infect humans and other animals, causing some of the most prevalent and\\u000a debilitating diseases on the planet. There have been virtually no published studies on the TRP channels of this diverse group\\u000a of organisms. However, since many parasite genomes have been sequenced, it is simple to demonstrate that they are present\\u000a in

Adrian J. Wolstenholme; Sally M. Williamson; Barbara J. Reaves

321

Designing an international policy and legal framework for the control of emerging infectious diseases: first steps.  

PubMed Central

As the pace of emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases quickens, the International Health Regulations, which have served as the legal and policy framework of epidemic control for 45 years, are being revised by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this article, we review the recent history, legal construction, and application of these regulations and related international treaty-based sanitary measures, especially the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, and the history of applying the regulations in the maritime and aviation industries. This review indicates that revision efforts should address 1) the limited scope of disease syndromes (and reporters of these syndromes) now in the regulations and 2) the mismatch between multisectoral factors causing disease emergence and the single agency (WHO) administering the regulations. The revised regulations should expand the scope of reporting and simultaneously broaden international agency coordination. PMID:9126439

Plotkin, B. J.; Kimball, A. M.

1997-01-01

322

K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture and linked natural systems using 1 ecological principles. Pages 368-386 in Infectious disease ecology: The effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease  

E-print Network

K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in Agriculture and Linked Natural Systems Using Ecological Principles K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox Summary;K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture

Garrett, Karen A.

323

"Sickle Cell Disease in the Emergency Department: Atypical Complications and Management"  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell disease is the most common inherited blood disorder in the United States. This disorder of hemoglobin structure leads to a chronic hemolytic anemia and complex chronic disease manifested by sudden, severe, and life-threatening complications. These acute complications can occur in any organ system beginning in early childhood and lasting throughout life. The intermittent nature and acuity of these complications lend the emergency department to be an important site of care. The hallmark of sickle cell disease is the vasoocclusive painful event. Other more “typical” complications include fever, acute chest syndrome, priapism, and ischemic stroke. Children with sickle cell disease can also present with other “atypical” complications that can have devastating consequences if they are unrecognized. Detailed discussion of these “atypical” sickle cell disease complications, organized by organ system involved, will be the focus of this article. PMID:21927581

Brandow, Amanda M.; Liem, Robert

2011-01-01

324

New advances in molecular mechanisms and emerging therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver diseases  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease is a major health problem in the United States and worldwide. Chronic alcohol consumption can cause steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and even liver cancer. Significant progress has been made to understand key events and molecular players for the onset and progression of alcoholic liver disease from both experimental and clinical alcohol studies. No successful treatments are currently available for treating alcoholic liver disease; therefore, development of novel pathophysiological-targeted therapies is urgently needed. This review summarizes the recent progress on animal models used to study alcoholic liver disease and the detrimental factors that contribute to alcoholic liver disease pathogenesis including miRNAs, S-adenosylmethionine, Zinc deficiency, cytosolic lipin-1?, IRF3-mediated apoptosis, RIP3-mediated necrosis and hepcidin. In addition, we summarize emerging adaptive protective effects induced by alcohol to attenuate alcohol-induced liver pathogenesis including FoxO3, IL-22, autophagy and nuclear lipin-1?.

Williams, Jessica A; Manley, Sharon; Ding, Wen-Xing

2014-01-01

325

Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary While some sceptics remain unconvinced that global climate change is a reality, there is no doubt that during the past 50 years or so, patterns of emerging arbovirus diseases have changed significantly. Can this be attributed to climate change? Climate is a major factor in determining: (1) the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods; (2) characteristics of arthropod life cycles; (3) dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses; (4) the evolution of arboviruses; and (5) the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. Thus, under the influence of increasing temperatures and rainfall through warming of the oceans, and alteration of the natural cycles that stabilise climate, one is inevitably drawn to the conclusion that arboviruses will continue to emerge in new regions. For example, we cannot ignore the unexpected but successful establishment of chikungunya fever in northern Italy, the sudden appearance of West Nile virus in North America, the increasing frequency of Rift Valley fever epidemics in the Arabian Peninsula, and very recently, the emergence of Bluetongue virus in northern Europe. In this brief review we ask the question, are these diseases emerging because of climate change or do other factors play an equal or even more important role in their emergence? PMID:18799177

Gould, E.A.; Higgs, S.

2010-01-01

326

Emerging Infectious Diseases in 2012: 20 Years after the Institute of Medicine Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Twenty years ago (1992), a landmark Institute of Medicine report entitled “Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States” underscored the important but often underappreciated concept of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). A review of the progress made and setbacks experienced over the past 2 decades suggests that even though many new diseases have emerged, such as SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and the 2009 pandemic influenza, significant advances have occurred in EID control, prevention, and treatment. Among many elements of the increase in the capacity to control EIDs are genomics-associated advances in microbial detection and treatment, improved disease surveillance, and greater awareness of EIDs and the complicated variables that underlie emergence. In looking back over the past 20 years, it is apparent that we are in a time of great change in which both the challenge of EIDs and our responses to them are being transformed. Recent advances support guarded optimism that further breakthroughs lie ahead. PMID:23232716

Morens, David M.; Fauci, Anthony S.

2012-01-01

327

A review of mortality from parasitic and vector-borne diseases in the U.S. Air Force from 1970 to 2012.  

PubMed

We review a unique set of documents, death certificates, cataloged in the U.S. Air Force Mortality Registry database, which tracks deaths for all current and retired service members. We screened the records for all deaths caused by parasitic, vector-borne, or zoonotic diseases between 1970 and 2013. There were 78 deaths caused by a variety of diseases such as amebiasis, malaria, strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, and pneumocystosis. We compare these deaths to U.S. national deaths. U.S. Air Force service members are more likely to die from malaria, strongyloidiasis, and Q fever than the average American but are less likely to die from pneumocystosis. PMID:24224859

Reeves, Will K; Bettano, Amy L

2014-04-01

328

microRNAs in parasites and parasite infection  

PubMed Central

miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases. PMID:23392243

Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E.

2013-01-01

329

The infectious diseases impact statement: a mechanism for addressing emerging diseases.  

PubMed

The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:8903209

McSweegan, E

1996-01-01

330

Genome Comparison of Human and Non-Human Malaria Parasites Reveals Species Subset-Specific Genes Potentially Linked to Human Disease  

PubMed Central

Genes underlying important phenotypic differences between Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria, are frequently found in only a subset of species and cluster at dynamically evolving subtelomeric regions of chromosomes. We hypothesized that chromosome-internal regions of Plasmodium genomes harbour additional species subset-specific genes that underlie differences in human pathogenicity, human-to-human transmissibility, and human virulence. We combined sequence similarity searches with synteny block analyses to identify species subset-specific genes in chromosome-internal regions of six published Plasmodium genomes, including Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium berghei, and Plasmodium chabaudi. To improve comparative analysis, we first revised incorrectly annotated gene models using homology-based gene finders and examined putative subset-specific genes within syntenic contexts. Confirmed subset-specific genes were then analyzed for their role in biological pathways and examined for molecular functions using publicly available databases. We identified 16 genes that are well conserved in the three primate parasites but not found in rodent parasites, including three key enzymes of the thiamine (vitamin B1) biosynthesis pathway. Thirteen genes were found to be present in both human parasites but absent in the monkey parasite P. knowlesi, including genes specifically upregulated in sporozoites or gametocytes that could be linked to parasite transmission success between humans. Furthermore, we propose 15 chromosome-internal P. falciparum-specific genes as new candidate genes underlying increased human virulence and detected a currently uncharacterized cluster of P. vivax-specific genes on chromosome 6 likely involved in erythrocyte invasion. In conclusion, Plasmodium species harbour many chromosome-internal differences in the form of protein-coding genes, some of which are potentially linked to human disease and thus promising leads for future laboratory research. PMID:22215999

Frech, Christian; Chen, Nansheng

2011-01-01

331

Children and Parasitic Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... contaminated recreational water (e.g. pools, fountains, lakes, rivers and streams, etc.). Pets and other animals can ... where the snails live. The helminth causing onchocerciasis ("river blindness") is transmitted by the bite of a ...

332

[Climate changes and emerging diseases. What new infectious diseases and health problem can be expected?].  

PubMed

Increasing temperatures, but also other climatic factors, will have an impact on human health. Apart from the direct consequences of extreme weather conditions (e.g., heat-related fatalities), indirect health consequences in the long-term are also of great importance. In addition to a likely increase in allergic diseases and additional complications in the course of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, infectious diseases are of particular interest. In Germany, endemic pathogens, such as hantavirus (with its reservoir in small rodents), tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi, tick-borne encephalitis virus), and certain food- and water-borne pathogens, are of concern. Mild winters favor rodent populations and may result in hantavirus epidemics in the subsequent summer period. Statistical analyses show a significant association between temperature and campylobacter incidence in Germany. An outbreak of rodent-borne leptospirosis among strawberry harvesters enhanced by heavy rainfalls illustrates how weather conditions may influence disease occurrence. Pathogens that are non-endemic in Germany but are imported by humans, vectors, and reservoir animals pose an additional risk to the population. Increasing temperatures improve the conditions for establishment of new vectors and for autochthonous transmission of some pathogens (e.g., chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, malaria, or leishmaniasis). Climatic and ecologic conditions in Germany currently do not favor autochthonous outbreaks for most of these pathogens. However, if temperatures increase, as expected, such outbreaks will become more likely. Germany should enhance its research in public health activities in the field of climate change and infectious diseases. PMID:19536444

Stark, K; Niedrig, M; Biederbick, W; Merkert, H; Hacker, J

2009-07-01

333

Modeling climate impact on an emerging disease, the Phytophthora alni-induced alder decline.  

PubMed

Alder decline caused by Phytophthora alni is one of the most important emerging diseases in natural ecosystems in Europe, where it has threatened riparian ecosystems for the past 20 years. Environmental factors, such as mean site temperature and soil characteristics, play an important role in the occurrence of the disease. The objective of the present work was to model and forecast the effect of environment on the severity of alder Phytophthora outbreaks, and to determine whether recent climate change might explain the disease emergence. Two alder sites networks in NE and SW France were surveyed to assess the crown health of trees; the oomycete soil inoculum was also monitored in the NE network. The main factors explaining the temporal annual variation in alder crown decline or crown recovery were the mean previous winter and previous summer temperatures. Both low winter temperatures and high summer temperatures were unfavorable to the disease. Cold winters promoted tree recovery because of poor survival of the pathogen, while hot summer temperature limited the incidence of tree decline. An SIS model explaining the dynamics of the P. alni-induced alder decline was developed using the data of the NE site network and validated using the SW site network. This model was then used to simulate the frequency of declining alder over time with historical climate data. The last 40 years' weather conditions have been generally favorable to the establishment of the disease, indicating that others factors may be implicated in its emergence. The model, however, showed that the climate of SW France was much more favorable for the disease than that of the Northeast, because it seldom limited the overwintering of the pathogen. Depending on the European area, climate change could either enhance or decrease the severity of the alder decline. PMID:24729529

Aguayo, Jaime; Elegbede, Fabrice; Husson, Claude; Saintonge, François-Xavier; Marçais, Benoît

2014-10-01

334

Differential modulation of eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) disease parasites by the El-Niño-Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) is affected by two protozoan parasites, Perkinsus marinus which causes Dermo disease and Haplosporidium nelsoni which causes MSX (Multinucleated Sphere Unknown) disease. Both diseases are largely controlled by water temperature and salinity and thus are potentially sensitive to climate variations resulting from the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which influences climate along the Gulf of Mexico coast, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which influences climate along the Atlantic coast of the United States. In this study, a 10-year time series of temperature and salinity and P. marinus infection intensity for a site in Louisiana on the Gulf of Mexico coast and a 52-year time series of air temperature and freshwater inflow and oyster mortality from Delaware Bay on the Atlantic coast of the United States were analyzed to determine patterns in disease and disease-induced mortality in C. virginica populations that resulted from ENSO and NAO climate variations. Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the environmental, disease infection intensity and oyster mortality time series into a time-frequency space to determine the dominant modes of variability and the time variability of the modes. For the Louisiana site, salinity and Dermo disease infection intensity are correlated at a periodicity of 4 years, which corresponds to ENSO. The influence of ENSO on Dermo disease along the Gulf of Mexico is through its effect on salinity, with high salinity, which occurs during the La Niña phase of ENSO at this location, favoring parasite proliferation. For the Delaware Bay site, the primary correlation was between temperature and oyster mortality, with a periodicity of 8 years, which corresponds to the NAO. Warmer temperatures, which occur during the positive phase of the NAO, favor the parasites causing increased oyster mortality. Thus, disease prevalence and intensity in C. virginica populations along the Gulf of Mexico coast is primarily regulated by salinity, whereas temperature regulates the disease process along the United States east coast. These results show that the response of an organism to climate variability in a region is not indicative of the response that will occur over the entire range of a particular species. This has important implications for management of marine resources, especially those that are commercially harvested.

Soniat, Thomas M.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.; Powell, Eric N.

2009-02-01

335

The interactive effect of an emerging infectious disease and an emerging contaminant on Woodhouse's toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii) tadpoles.  

PubMed

Two factors that influence amphibian population declines are infectious diseases and exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. The authors examined an emerging fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and its interaction with an emerging contaminant, the antimicrobial triclosan. They first conducted a 2?×?2?×?4 factorial study to examine the interactive impacts of dragonfly predator cues, Bd, and triclosan (0?µg/L, 10?µg/L, 100?µg/L, and 1000?µg/L) on Woodhouse's toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii) tadpoles. The authors measured the lethal and sublethal impacts of these stressors on tadpoles over 4 wk. All tadpoles in the 100-µg/L and 1000-µg/L concentrations of triclosan died within 24?h of exposure, but tadpoles in the low concentration (10?µg/L) survived. Tadpoles exposed to only Bd (no triclosan) exhibited a low survival rate (67.5%), whereas those exposed to both 10?µg/L triclosan and Bd exhibited a high survival rate (91.1%), implying that triclosan inhibits effects of Bd on tadpoles. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and predator cue exposure individually increased the developmental rate of the surviving tadpoles, but this effect was absent when these factors were combined with triclosan. In a follow-up study, the authors found Bd growth in culture was significantly inhibited at the 10-µg/L concentration of triclosan and completely inhibited at 100?µg/L. These findings suggest that interactions among multiple stressors can be complex and require examination in conjunction with one another to evaluate actual impacts to aquatic fauna. PMID:23637083

Brown, Jennifer R; Miiller, Tyler; Kerby, Jacob L

2013-09-01

336

An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species.  

PubMed

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease affecting hibernating bats in eastern North America that causes mass mortality and precipitous population declines in winter hibernacula. First discovered in 2006 in New York State, WNS is spreading rapidly across eastern North America and currently affects seven species. Mortality associated with WNS is causing a regional population collapse and is predicted to lead to regional extinction of the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), previously one of the most common bat species in North America. Novel diseases can have serious impacts on naïve wildlife populations, which in turn can have substantial impacts on ecosystem integrity. PMID:20689016

Frick, Winifred F; Pollock, Jacob F; Hicks, Alan C; Langwig, Kate E; Reynolds, D Scott; Turner, Gregory G; Butchkoski, Calvin M; Kunz, Thomas H

2010-08-01

337

Emerging hematological targets and therapy for cardiovascular disease: From bench to bedside  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and a major part of its pathophysiology remains obscure. Some hematological targets have been related to the development and clinical outcome of this disease, especially soluble cytokines, leukocytes, red blood cells, hemostatic factors and platelets, and bone-marrow vascular progenitors. These emerging factors may be modulated by current antiatherosclerotic pharmacotherapy, target-designed novel drugs or progenitor cell therapy. The aim of current review article is to comprehensively review the role of these antiatherosclerotic targets and therapy. PMID:19707371

Villegas, Ana; Gonzalez, Fernando A; Llorente, Leopoldo; Redondo, Santiago

2008-01-01

338

Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 7, Number 4 (July-August 2001)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The July-August 2001 issue of the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) Emerging Infectious Diseases (see the January 10, 1997 Scout Report) is devoted to the West Nile Virus. The journal offers a large number of articles, many focused on the virus' presence in New York and the use of birds as early warning systems for the virus. The articles also cover outbreaks in Israel, detection of the virus in other mammals, and more. Users can read articles online in HTML, download them as .pdf files, or download the whole issue as a .pdf file via the link in the upper left-hand corner of the page.

2001-01-01

339

Appropriateness of Emergency Department Use in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Quality Improvement Opportunity  

PubMed Central

Objectives We sought to characterize emergency department (ED) encounters for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to identify areas for prevention. Methods Retrospective chart review of 5 consecutive ED encounters at 7 centers was performed. Results Of 35 unique encounters by 32 patients, 3 main factors contributed to ED utilization: disease severity or course, day or time of care, and physician instruction. Of the ED encounters, approximately one-fifth were judged medically unnecessary, and one-half avoidable in a more optimal health care system. Conclusions ED visits by pediatric patients with IBD may be reduced in a more optimal health care system. PMID:24918980

Hoffenberg, Edward J.; Park, K.T.; Dykes, Dana M.; Fridge, Jacqueline; Kappelman, Michael D.; Leibowitz, Ian H.; Tsou, V. Marc; Colletti, Richard B.

2014-01-01

340

Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other Orbivirus diseases  

PubMed Central

Arthropod-transmitted viruses (Arboviruses) are important causes of disease in humans and animals, and it is proposed that climate change will increase the distribution and severity of arboviral diseases. Orbiviruses are the cause of important and apparently emerging arboviral diseases of livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), equine encephalosis virus (EEV), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) that are all transmitted by haematophagous Culicoides insects. Recent changes in the global distribution and nature of BTV infection have been especially dramatic, with spread of multiple serotypes of the virus throughout extensive portions of Europe and invasion of the south-eastern USA with previously exotic virus serotypes. Although climate change has been incriminated in the emergence of BTV infection of ungulates, the precise role of anthropogenic factors and the like is less certain. Similarly, although there have been somewhat less dramatic recent alterations in the distribution of EHDV, AHSV, and EEV, it is not yet clear what the future holds in terms of these diseases, nor of other potentially important but poorly characterized Orbiviruses such as Peruvian horse sickness virus. PMID:20167199

MacLachlan, N. James; Guthrie, Alan J.

2010-01-01

341

[Emerging diseases and species barrier: the risk of equine herpesvirus 9].  

PubMed

Jumping the species barrier is responsible for a large part of emerging and re-emerging diseases around the world; however, the mechanisms involved in restricting an agent to a given host are currently not fully understood, nor what is necessary to leap the species barrier to invade a new host. These leaps to new species are usually manifest by high rates of morbidity and mortality in the new species, leading to severe economic losses and sometimes causing loss of human life. On the other hand, exotic species both in homes and zoos have become one of the major risk factors for the emergence and re-emergence of disease in human and animal populations and it has thus become necessary to assess infections which may be able to make the so-called 'jump' and have serious consequences for human and animal populations. This article seeks to raise awareness regarding the risk of a leap over the species barrier using the equine herpesvirus-9 as an example and its possible implications. PMID:19360232

Ruiz-Saenz, Julián; Villamil-Jimenez, Luis C

2008-01-01

342

Canine thoracolumbar invertebral disk disease: pathophysiology, neurologic examination, and emergency medical therapy.  

PubMed

Thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) is a common, important cause of paraspinal hyperesthesia, pelvic limb ataxia, paraparesis, paraplegia, and urinary and fecal incontinence in dogs. Research offers insights into the pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disorder. The comparative efficacy of many familiar therapies remains unknown and controversial. This article reviews the pathophysiology and epidemiology of this condition and the examination and emergency medical therapy of dogs with suspected thoracolumbar IVDD. PMID:19412899

Griffin, John F; Levine, Jonathan; Kerwin, Sharon

2009-03-01

343

Modeling emergency department visit patterns for infectious disease complaints: results and application to disease surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Concern over bio-terrorism has led to recognition that traditional public health surveillance for specific conditions is unlikely to provide timely indication of some disease outbreaks, either naturally occurring or induced by a bioweapon. In non-traditional surveillance, the use of health care resources are monitored in \\

Judith C Brillman; Tom Burr; David Forslund; Edward Joyce; Rick Picard; Edith Umland

2005-01-01

344

The Emerging Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Epidemic: Clinical Impact, Economic Burden, and Opportunities for Disease Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and economic impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is escalating worldwide and is projected to remain on a positive trajectory for many years to come. At some point in this escalation, COPD may be regarded as a true epidemic. Unfortunately, the incidence among women is escalating more rapidly than in men, reflecting the social anthropology of changing

Rick Carter; Brian L. Tiep; Rebecca E. Tiep

2008-01-01

345

Emergence and Prevalence of Human Vector-Borne Diseases in Sink Vector Populations  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining ‘source’ populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector populations, but where immigration allows them to persist. We built an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of six major human vector borne-diseases in such non self-sustaining ‘sink’ vector populations. The model was parameterized through a review of the literature, and we performed extensive sensitivity analysis to look at the emergence and prevalence of the pathogen that could be encountered in these populations. Despite the low vector abundance in typical sink populations, all six human diseases were able to spread in 15–55% of cases after accidental introduction. The rate of spread was much more strongly influenced by vector longevity, immigration and feeding rates, than by transmission and virulence of the pathogen. Prevalence in humans remained lower than 5% for dengue, leishmaniasis and Japanese encephalitis, but substantially higher for diseases with longer duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were again the key factors, although their influence was lower than on pathogen emergence. Our results emphasize the need for ecology and evolution to be thought in the context of metapopulations made of a mosaic of sink and source habitats, and to design vector control program not only targeting areas of high vector density, but working at a larger spatial scale. PMID:22629337

Rascalou, Guilhem; Pontier, Dominique; Menu, Frederic; Gourbiere, Sebastien

2012-01-01

346

Quality assurance for the diagnostics of viral diseases to enhance the emergency preparedness in Europe.  

PubMed

The threat posed by emerging and re-emerging communicable diseases and, more recently, by the intentional release of infectious agents in a susceptible population, has been receiving considerable attention at the national and international levels. Public health efforts to strengthen disease detection, surveillance and control have been intensified. However, clinicians and clinical microbiology laboratories play an important role in the early detection of disease, the identification of the putative agent, and notification of the appropriate authorities. To be effective in this role, laboratories must be specially prepared to handle viral agents safely, and need, among other things, the appropriate rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests. In 1998 the European Network for Diagnostics of 'Imported' Viral Diseases (ENIVD) was established. ENIVD presently comprises, as permanent members, 44 expert laboratories in 21 European Union (EU) member states and 4 non-EU countries and is one of the networks on infectious diseases funded by the European Commission. ENIVD fulfils many of the important tasks required for the surveillance and control of imported, rare and emerging viral infections such as the exchange of expertise and the organisation of external quality assurance (EQA) programmes, both of which are needed to improve diagnostics. Here, we summarise the data generated by recent EQA activities focussed on the diagnostics of infections with hantavirus, dengue virus, filovirus, Lassa virus, orthopox virus and the SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). These were carried out between 1999 and 2004 and involved 93 laboratories from 41 countries, including laboratories from additional countries outside of Europe. Particularly the EU-candidate countries and Eastern neighbouring countries will be invited to join the network in the near future. A public website is available at http://www.enivd.de. PMID:16077216

Donoso Mantke, O; Schmitz, H; Zeller, Herve; Heyman, P; Papa, A; Niedrig, M

2005-06-01

347

Landscape epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases in natural and human-altered ecosystems.  

PubMed

A central challenge to studying emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) is a landscape dilemma: Our best empirical understanding of disease dynamics occurs at local scales, whereas pathogen invasions and management occur over broad spatial extents. The burgeoning field of landscape epidemiology integrates concepts and approaches from disease ecology with the macroscale lens of landscape ecology, enabling examination of disease across spatiotemporal scales in complex environmental settings. We review the state of the field and describe analytical frontiers that show promise for advancement, focusing on natural and human-altered ecosystems. Concepts fundamental to practicing landscape epidemiology are discussed, including spatial scale, static versus dynamic modeling, spatially implicit versus explicit approaches, selection of ecologically meaningful variables, and inference versus prediction. We highlight studies that have advanced the field by incorporating multiscale analyses, landscape connectivity, and dynamic modeling. Future research directions include understanding disease as a component of interacting ecological disturbances, scaling up the ecological impacts of disease, and examining disease dynamics as a coupled human-natural system. PMID:22681449

Meentemeyer, Ross K; Haas, Sarah E; Václavík, Tomáš

2012-01-01

348

Sponsored by: Infectious Diseases and Immunity Graduate Group (microbe.berkeley.edu/idgroup) Henry Wheeler Center for Emerging and Neglected Diseases (http://cend.globalhealth.berkeley.edu)  

E-print Network

Sponsored by: Infectious Diseases and Immunity Graduate Group (microbe.berkeley.edu/idgroup) Henry Wheeler Center for Emerging and Neglected Diseases (http://cend.globalhealth.berkeley.edu) Infectious Diseases & Immunity Seminar Series FALL 2014 MONDAYS 9-10 AM 103 GBP (NEW LOCATION) SEP 15 Vicki Auerbuch

Sjölander, Kimmen

349

Analysis of Newcastle disease virus quasispecies and factors affecting the emergence of virulent virus.  

PubMed

Genome sequence analysis of a number of avirulent field isolates of Newcastle disease virus revealed the presence of viruses (within their quasispecies) that contained virulent F0 sequences. Detection of these virulent sequences below the ~1% level, using standard cloning and sequence analysis, proved difficult, and thus a more sensitive reverse-transcription real-time PCR procedure was developed to detect both virulent and avirulent NDV F0 sequences. Reverse-transcription real-time PCR analysis of the quasispecies of a number of Newcastle disease virus field isolates, revealed variable ratios (approximately 1:4-1:4,000) of virulent to avirulent viral F0 sequences. Since the ratios of these sequences generally remained constant in the quasispecies population during replication, factors that could affect the balance of virulent to avirulent sequences during viral infection of birds were investigated. It was shown both in vitro and in vivo that virulent virus present in the quasispecies did not emerge from the "avirulent background" unless a direct selection pressure was placed on the quasispecies, either by growth conditions or by transient immunosuppression. The effect of a prior infection of the host by infectious bronchitis virus or infectious bursal disease virus on the subsequent emergence of virulent Newcastle disease virus was examined. PMID:20602243

Kattenbelt, Jacqueline A; Stevens, Matthew P; Selleck, Paul W; Gould, Allan R

2010-10-01

350

Epidemiology of the Emergent Disease Paridae pox in an Intensively Studied Wild Bird Population  

PubMed Central

Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (<1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations. PMID:23185230

Lachish, Shelly; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Sheldon, Ben C.

2012-01-01

351

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) DISEASE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH HIV AND AIDS Fungal and Parasitic Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T : Since the advent of highly active anti- re t roviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of specific fungal and parasitic opportunistic infections as observed in HIVdisease has been in decline. However, in many parts of the world, and in areas where access to HAART is limited, these specific opport u n i

Jeffrey MARTINEZ; Zelalem TEMESGEN

352

Periodontal diseases as an emerging potential risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes: A review of concepts.  

PubMed

Preterm birth is the leading perinatal problem with subsequent morbidity and mortality in developed as well as developing nations. Among the various possible environmental, genetic, demographic, psychosocial and obstetric risk factors responsible for premature labor, poor oral health with periodontal infection has also emerged as a potential and modifiable risk factor for preterm low birth weight babies. The infected periodontium is regarded as a reservoir for periodontopathic bacteria, mainly gram negative anaerobes that serve as a source of endotoxins and lipopolysaccharides, proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins that enhance uterine muscle contraction leading to preterm low birth weight. Also, the progression of periodontal disease during pregnancy appears to increase the fetal growth restriction, irrespective of baseline periodontal disease status. Thus, identification and treatment of periodontal disease should be considered an important intervention strategy as a part of prenatal care to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24591987

Bansal, Jyoti; Bansal, Abhishek; Kukreja, Navneet; Kukreja, Urvashi

2011-01-01

353

Humans, Evolutionary and Ecologic Forces Shaped the Phylogeography of Recently Emerged Diseases  

PubMed Central

Many infectious diseases have emerged and circulated around the world with the development of human civilizations and global commerce. Anthrax, plague and tularemia are three such zoonotic diseases that have been intensely studied through genome characterization and phylogeographic analyses. A few highly fit genotypes within each of the causative species represent the vast majority of observed disease cases. Mutational and selective forces working together create highly adapted pathogens, but this has to be coupled with ecological opportunities for global expansion. This Review describes the distributions of the bacteria that cause anthrax, plague and tularemia and investigates the forces that created a clonal structure in both these species, and specific groups within these species. PMID:19820723

Keim, Paul S.; Wagner, David M.

2009-01-01

354

Emerging Roles of p53 in Glial Cell Function in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence suggests that p53, a tumor suppressor protein primarily involved in cancer biology, coordinates a wide range of novel functions in the CNS including the mediation of pathways underlying neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis. Moreover, an evolving concept in cell and molecular neuroscience is that glial cells are far more fundamental to disease progression than previously thought, which may occur via a noncell-autonomous mechanism that is heavily dependent on p53 activities. As a crucial hub connecting many intracellular control pathways, including cell-cycle control and apoptosis, p53 is ideally placed to coordinate the cellular response to a range of stresses. Although neurodegenerative diseases each display a distinct and diverse molecular pathology, apoptosis is a widespread hallmark feature and the multimodal capacity of the p53 system to orchestrate apoptosis and glial cell behavior highlights p53 as a potential unifying target for therapeutic intervention in neurodegeneration. PMID:22105777

Jebelli, Joseph D.; Hooper, Claudie; Garden, Gwenn A.; Pocock, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

355

Tick-Borne Rickettsioses around the World: Emerging Diseases Challenging Old Concepts  

PubMed Central

During most of the 20th century, the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsioses could be summarized as the occurrence of a single pathogenic rickettsia on each continent. An element of this paradigm suggested that the many other characterized and noncharacterized rickettsiae isolated from ticks were not pathogenic to humans. In this context, it was considered that relatively few tick-borne rickettsiae caused human disease. This concept was modified extensively from 1984 through 2005 by the identification of at least 11 additional rickettsial species or subspecies that cause tick-borne rickettsioses around the world. Of these agents, seven were initially isolated from ticks, often years or decades before a definitive association with human disease was established. We present here the tick-borne rickettsioses described through 2005 and focus on the epidemiological circumstances that have played a role in the emergence of the newly recognized diseases. PMID:16223955

Parola, Philippe; Paddock, Christopher D.; Raoult, Didier

2005-01-01

356

Exposure of free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) to infectious and parasitic disease agents in the Noël Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivia.  

PubMed

Maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) are neotropic mammals, listed as a CITES Appendix II species, with a distribution south of the Amazon forest from Bolivia, through northern Argentina and Paraguay and into eastern Brazil and northern Uruguay. Primary threats to the survival of free-ranging maned wolves include habitat loss, road kills, and shooting by farmers. An additional threat to the conservation of maned wolves is the risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious and parasitic diseases. Captive maned wolves are susceptible to, and die from, common infectious diseases of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) including canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus, and canine adenovirus (CAV). Results from this study show that free-ranging maned wolves in a remote area of Bolivia have been exposed to multiple infectious and parasitic agents of domestic carnivores, including CAV, CDV, CPV, canine coronavirus, rabies virus, Leptospira interrogans spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Dirofilaria immitis, and may be at increased risk for disease due to these agents. PMID:17323558

Deem, Sharon L; Emmons, Louise H

2005-06-01

357

Molecular Systematics of malaria parasites  

E-print Network

of "malaria infecting a bird." So, the parasites should be referred to as "malaria parasites" just as we might refer to "the cold virus." But, malaria is a human disease, with characteristic symptoms. Infection in the blood to infect blood cells. Asexual replication continues, and eventually non-replicating gametocytes

Schall, Joseph J.

358

Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.  

PubMed

The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential. PMID:23912715

Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

2014-05-01

359

Emerging technologies for oral diagnostics: lessons from chronic graft-versus-host disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saliva is a protein-rich oral fluid that contains information about systemic and oral-specific disease pathogenesis and diagnosis. Technologies are emerging to improve detection of protein components of human saliva for use not only in biomarker discovery, but also for the illumination of pathways involved in oral disease. These include the optimization of liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of saliva in health and disease. Downstream of saliva component identification and validation comes the complex task of connecting salivary proteomic data to biological function, disease state, and other clinical patient information in a meaningful way. Augmentation of database information with biological expertise is crucial for effective analysis of potential biomarkers and disease pathways in order to improve diagnosis and identify putative therapeutic targets. This presentation will use LC-MS/MS analysis of saliva from chronic Graft-versus-Host disease (cGVHD) patients to illustrate these principles, and includes a discussion of the complex clinical and diagnostic issues related to proteomics and biomarker research in cGVHD.

Mays, Jacqueline W.; Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Bassim, Carol W.; Melvin, James E.

2013-05-01

360

Molecular evolutionary signatures reveal the role of host ecological dynamics in viral disease emergence and spread  

PubMed Central

RNA viruses account for numerous emerging and perennial infectious diseases, and are characterized by rapid rates of molecular evolution. The ecological dynamics of most emerging RNA viruses are still poorly understood and difficult to ascertain. The availability of genome sequence data for many RNA viruses, in principle, could be used to infer ecological dynamics if changes in population numbers produced a lasting signature within the pattern of genome evolution. As a result, the rapidly emerging phylogeographic structure of a pathogen, shaped by the rise and fall in the number of infections and their spatial distribution, could be used as a surrogate for direct ecological assessments. Based on rabies virus as our example, we use a model combining ecological and evolutionary processes to test whether variation in the rate of host movement results in predictive diagnostic patterns of pathogen genetic structure. We identify several linearizable relationships between host dispersal rate and measures of phylogenetic structure suggesting genetic information can be used to directly infer ecological process. We also find phylogenetic structure may be more revealing than demography for certain ecological processes. Our approach extends the reach of current analytic frameworks for infectious disease dynamics by linking phylogeography back to underlying ecological processes. PMID:23382419

Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.; Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

2013-01-01

361

Pathogens and Politics: Further Evidence That Parasite Prevalence Predicts Authoritarianism  

PubMed Central

According to a "parasite stress" hypothesis, authoritarian governments are more likely to emerge in regions characterized by a high prevalence of disease-causing pathogens. Recent cross-national evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but there are inferential limitations associated with that evidence. We report two studies that address some of these limitations, and provide further tests of the hypothesis. Study 1 revealed that parasite prevalence strongly predicted cross-national differences on measures assessing individuals' authoritarian personalities, and this effect statistically mediated the relationship between parasite prevalence and authoritarian governance. The mediation result is inconsistent with an alternative explanation for previous findings. To address further limitations associated with cross-national comparisons, Study 2 tested the parasite stress hypothesis on a sample of traditional small-scale societies (the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample). Results revealed that parasite prevalence predicted measures of authoritarian governance, and did so even when statistically controlling for other threats to human welfare. (One additional threat—famine—also uniquely predicted authoritarianism.) Together, these results further substantiate the parasite stress hypothesis of authoritarianism, and suggest that societal differences in authoritarian governance result, in part, from cultural differences in individuals' authoritarian personalities. PMID:23658718

Murray, Damian R.; Schaller, Mark; Suedfeld, Peter

2013-01-01

362

Identification of Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase Inhibitors That Kill Cestode and Trematode Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic flatworms are responsible for serious infectious diseases that affect humans as well as livestock animals in vast regions of the world. Yet, the drug armamentarium available for treatment of these infections is limited: praziquantel is the single drug currently available for 200 million people infected with Schistosoma spp. and there is justified concern about emergence of drug resistance. Thioredoxin

Fabiana Ross; Paola Hernández; Williams Porcal; Gloria V. López; Hugo Cerecetto; Mercedes González; Tatiana Basika; Carlos Carmona; Martín Fló; Gabriela Maggioli; Mariana Bonilla; Vadim N. Gladyshev; Mariana Boiani; Gustavo Salinas

2012-01-01

363

Parasite Prevalence and the Distribution of Intelligence among the States of the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we tested the parasite-stress hypothesis for the distribution of intelligence among the USA states: the hypothesis proposes that intelligence emerges from a developmental trade-off between maximizing brain vs. immune function. From this we predicted that among the USA states where infectious disease stress was high, average…

Eppig, Christopher; Fincher, Corey L.; Thornhill, Randy

2011-01-01

364

Air pollution and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A 5-year study  

SciTech Connect

An association between sulfur dioxide levels in urban air and the daily number of emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was previously reported in Barcelona, Spain, for the period 1985-1986. The present study assesses this association over a longer period of time, 1985-1989. This made it possible to carry out separate analyses for the winter and summer seasons and thus to control more adequately for weather and influenza epidemics. An increase of 25 micrograms/m3 in sulfur dioxide (24-hour average) produced adjusted changes of 6% and 9% in emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during winter and summer, respectively. For black smoke, a similar change was found during winter, although the change was smaller in summer. The association of each pollutant with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions remained significant after control for the other pollutant. The present findings support the conclusion that current levels of sulfur dioxide and black smoke may have an effect on the respiratory health of susceptible persons.

Sunyer, J.; Saez, M.; Murillo, C.; Castellsague, J.; Martinez, F.; Anto, J.M. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain))

1993-04-01

365

Risks of emerging infectious diseases: evolving threats in a changing area, the mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean basin is a biodiversity hotspot; it has historically had a large human presence that has shaped ecosystems for millennia. As the cradle of many civilizations, the area was one of the main theatres for transitions that punctuated both human and pathogen histories, which are intimately linked. Today we are living through another great historical transition summarized in the expression 'global changes'. In this context, we are witnessing a rise in the emergence of pathogens widely associated with aforementioned global changes. The Mediterranean basin might be especially vulnerable to this phenomenon due to the acute consequences global changes will have in this key intercontinental interface region. In addition, Arab revolutions and European economic crisis are creating both sanitary issues and presenting new opportunities to improve infectious disease control and prevention in the region. The aim of this review is to identify the impacts that ongoing changes might have on the risk of infectious disease emergence in the Mediterranean basin. We focussed on three key domains undergoing transformations: (i) resources, namely safe drinking water and animal products, (ii) socio-economic factors including health inequalities within countries and poor sanitary conditions linked to ongoing conflicts and (iii) movements of people and goods that are reshaped by current changes and are intimately linked to the risk of disease proliferation. Building on recent examples, we try to identify upcoming challenges and discuss ways to meet them in the light of existing international human and veterinary health guidelines and their possible improvements. PMID:22998374

Vittecoq, M; Thomas, F; Jourdain, E; Moutou, F; Renaud, F; Gauthier-Clerc, M

2014-02-01

366

On the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions: addressing the question with regard to bumblebees and their parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, there has been a major shift in the study of adaptive patterns and processes towards including the role of host-parasite interactions, informed by concepts from evolutionary ecology. As a consequence, a number of major questions have emerged. For example, how genetics affects host-parasite interactions, whether parasitism selects for offspring diversification, whether parasite virulence is an adaptive

Paul Schmid-Hempel

2001-01-01

367

Emerging and reemerging epidemic-prone diseases among settling nomadic pastoralists in Uganda.  

PubMed

Epidemic-prone diseases have traditionally been uncommon among nomadic pastoralists as mobility allows already dispersed populations to migrate away from epidemic threats. In the Karamoja region of Uganda, nomadic pastoralists are transitioning to an increasingly settled lifestyle due to cattle raiding and associated civil insecurity. In attempts to reduce conflict in the region, the Ugandan government has instituted disarmament campaigns and encouraged sedentism in place of mobility. In Karamoja, this transition to sedentism has contributed to the emergence and reemergence of epidemic-prone diseases such as cholera, hepatitis E, yellow fever, and meningococcal meningitis. The incidence of these diseases remains difficult to measure and several challenges exist to their control. Challenges to communicable disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists are related to nomadic mobility, remote geography, vaccination and immunity, and poor sanitation and safe water access. In addition to improving gaps in infrastructure, attracting well-trained government health workers to Karamoja and similar areas with longstanding human resource limitations is critical to address the challenges to epidemic-prone disease surveillance and control among settling nomadic pastoralists. In conjunction with government health workers, community health teams provide a sustainable method by which public health programs can be improved in the austere environments inhabited by mobile and settling pastoralists. PMID:24784434

Cummings, Matthew J; Wamala, Joseph F; Komakech, Innocent; Malimbo, Mugagga; Lukwago, Luswa

2014-09-01

368

Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.  

PubMed

Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and regional organizations at the service of their countries to better prevent and control the risks on animal and human health and the economic impact of TADs and emerging animal diseases. PMID:17135498

Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

2006-10-01

369

Emergency total thyroidectomy due to non traumatic disease. Experience of a surgical unit and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Acute respiratory failure due to thyroid compression or invasion of the tracheal lumen is a surgical emergency requiring urgent management. The aim of this paper is to describe a series of six patients treated successfully in the emergency setting with total thyroidectomy due to ingravescent dyspnoea and asphyxia, as well as review related data reported in literature. Methods During 2005-2010, of 919 patients treated by total thyroidectomy at our Academic Hospital, 6 (0.7%; 4 females and 2 men, mean age: 68.7 years, range 42-81 years) were treated in emergency. All the emergency operations were performed for life-threatening respiratory distress. The clinical picture at admission, clinical features, type of surgery, outcomes and complications are described. Mean duration of surgery was 146 minutes (range: 53-260). Results In 3/6 (50%) a manubriotomy was necessary due to the extension of the mass into the upper mediastinum. In all cases total thyroidectomy was performed. In one case (16.7%) a parathyroid gland transplantation and in another one (16.7%) a tracheotomy was necessary due to a condition of tracheomalacia. Mean post-operative hospital stay was 6.5 days (range: 2-10 days). Histology revealed malignancy in 4/6 cases (66.7%), showing 3 primitive, and 1 secondary tumors. Morbidity consisted of 1 transient recurrent laryngeal palsy, 3 transient postoperative hypoparathyroidism, and 4 pleural effusions, treated by medical therapy in 3 and by drains in one. There was no mortality. Conclusion On the basis of our experience and of literature review, we strongly advocate elective surgery for patients with thyroid disease at the first signs of tracheal compression. When an acute airway distress appears, an emergency life-threatening total thyroidectomy is recommended in a high-volume centre. PMID:22494456

2012-01-01

370

EMERGING APPLICATIONS OF NANOMEDICINE FOR THERAPY AND DIAGNOSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES  

PubMed Central

Nanomedicine is an emerging field of medicine which utilizes nanotechnology concepts for advanced therapy and diagnostics. This convergent discipline, which merges research areas such as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics and engineering thus bridging the gap between molecular and cellular interactions, has a potential to revolutionize current medical practice. This review presents recent developments in nanomedicine research, which are poised to have an important impact on cardiovascular disease and treatment by improving therapy and diagnosis of such cardiovascular disorders as atherosclerosis, restenosis and myocardial infarction. Specifically, we discuss the use of nanoparticles for molecular imaging and advanced therapeutics, specially designed drug eluting stents and in vivo/ex vivo early detection techniques. PMID:20172613

Godin, Biana; Sakamoto, Jason H.; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

2010-01-01

371

Emerging acute Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil: case reports with serious cardiac involvement.  

PubMed

Four cases of serious cardiac attacks by autochthonous Trypanosoma cruzi infection from the Brazilian Amazon are reported; three of them occurred in micro-epidemic episodes. The manifestations included sudden fever, myalgia, dyspnea and signs of heart failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by specific exams, especially QBC (Quantitative Buffy Coat) and natural xenodiagnosis. Despite treatment with benznidazol, three patients died with serious myocarditis, renal failure and cardiac tamponade. The authors call attention to the emergence of this disease and reveal a previously unknown pathogenicity of T. cruzi strains in this area, added to a non-usual transmission form. PMID:15880237

Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Valente, Sebastião Aldo da Silva; Valente, Vera da Costa

2004-12-01

372

Operational modelling to guide implementation and scale-up of diagnostic tests within the health system: exploring opportunities for parasitic disease diagnostics based on example application for tuberculosis.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Research and innovation in the diagnosis of infectious and parasitic diseases has led to the development of several promising diagnostic tools, for example in malaria there is extensive literature concerning the use of rapid diagnostic tests. This means policymakers in many low and middle income countries need to make difficult decisions about which of the recommended tools and approaches to implement and scale-up. The test characteristics (e.g. sensitivity and specificity) of the tools alone are not a sufficient basis on which to make these decisions as policymakers need to also consider the best combination of tools, whether the new tools should complement or replace existing diagnostics and who should be tested. Diagnostic strategies need dovetailing to different epidemiology and structural resource constraints (e.g. existing diagnostic pathways, human resources and laboratory capacity). We propose operational modelling to assist with these complex decisions. Projections of patient, health system and cost impacts are essential and operational modelling of the relevant elements of the health system could provide these projections and support rational decisions. We demonstrate how the technique of operational modelling applied in the developing world to support decisions on diagnostics for tuberculosis, could in a parallel way, provide useful insights to support implementation of appropriate diagnostic innovations for parasitic diseases. PMID:25035934

Langley, Ivor; Adams, Emily; Doulla, Basra; Squire, S Bertel

2014-12-01

373

Cryptococcus gattii: An Emerging Cause of Fungal Disease in North America  

PubMed Central

During the latter half of the twentieth century, fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans were increasingly recognized as a significant threat to the health of immune compromised populations throughout the world. Until recently, the closely related species C. gattii was considered to be a low-level endemic pathogen that was confined to tropical regions such as Australia. Since 1999, C. gattii has emerged in the Pacific Northwest region of North America and has been responsible for a large disease epidemic among generally healthy individuals. The changing epidemiology of C. gattii infection is likely to be a consequence of alterations in fungal ecology and biology and illustrates its potential to cause serious human disease. This review summarizes selected biological and clinical aspects of C. gattii that are particularly relevant to the recent North American outbreak and compares these to the Australian and South American experience. PMID:19503836

Dixit, Ashwin; Carroll, Scott F.; Qureshi, Salman T.

2009-01-01

374

Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007.  

PubMed

The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The work made public at this occasion is briefly summarized here to highlight the advances made and to put forth research priorities in this area. Approaches such as geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS) and remote sensing (RS), including spatial statistics, web-based GIS and map visualization of field investigations, figured prominently in the presentation. PMID:19193214

Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kristensen, Thomas K; Bergquist, N Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Malone, John B

2009-01-01

375

Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007  

PubMed Central

The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The work made public at this occasion is briefly summarized here to highlight the advances made and to put forth research priorities in this area. Approaches such as geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS) and remote sensing (RS), including spatial statistics, web-based GIS and map visualization of field investigations, figured prominently in the presentation. PMID:19193214

Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kristensen, Thomas K; Bergquist, N Robert; Utzinger, Jurg; Malone, John B

2009-01-01

376

Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections  

PubMed Central

This article surveys the most important gastrointestinal parasites that affect humans. The modes of acquisition, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment are all briefly examined. Gastrointestinal parasites have become increasingly important in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, as a result of a number of circumstances. These circumstances include: increasing travel to developing countries; increased numbers, for one reason or another, of immunocompromised individuals; increased consumption of raw or partially cooked ethnic delicacies; more crowding in day-care centres; increased immigration from developing countries; and an endemic pocket of individuals with certain unhygienic or unsanitary practices. PMID:21253148

Embil, Juan A.; Embil, John M.

1988-01-01

377

Transmission dynamics of an emerging infectious disease in wildlife through host reproductive cycles  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to wildlife populations. To enhance our understanding of the dynamics of these diseases, we investigated how host reproductive behavior and seasonal temperature variation drive transmission of infections among wild hosts, using the model system of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) disease in common carp. Our main findings were as follows: (1) a seroprevalence survey showed that CyHV-3 infection occurred mostly in adult hosts, (2) a quantitative assay for CyHV-3 in a host population demonstrated that CyHV-3 was most abundant in the spring when host reproduction occurred and water temperature increased simultaneously and (3) an analysis of the dynamics of CyHV-3 in water revealed that CyHV-3 concentration increased markedly in breeding habitats during host group mating. These results indicate that breeding habitats can become hot spots for transmission of infectious diseases if hosts aggregate for mating and the activation of pathogens occurs during the host breeding season. PMID:20740025

Uchii, Kimiko; Telschow, Arndt; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Honjo, Mie N; Matsui, Kazuaki; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2011-01-01

378

Chlamydial infections of fish: diverse pathogens and emerging causes of disease in aquaculture species.  

PubMed

Chlamydial infections of fish are emerging as an important cause of disease in new and established aquaculture industries. To date, epitheliocystis, a skin and gill disease associated with infection by these obligate intracellular pathogens, has been described in over 90 fish species, including hosts from marine and fresh water environments. Aided by advances in molecular detection and typing, recent years have seen an explosion in the description of these epitheliocystis-related chlamydial pathogens of fish, significantly broadening our knowledge of the genetic diversity of the order Chlamydiales. Remarkably, in most cases, it seems that each new piscine host studied has revealed the presence of a phylogenetically unique and novel chlamydial pathogen, providing researchers with a fascinating opportunity to understand the origin, evolution and adaptation of their traditional terrestrial chlamydial relatives. Despite the advances in this area, much still needs to be learnt about the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in fish if these pathogens are to be controlled in farmed environments. The lack of in vitro methods for culturing of chlamydial pathogens of fish is a major hindrance to this field. This review provides an update on our current knowledge of the taxonomy and diversity of chlamydial pathogens of fish, discusses the impact of these infections on the health, and highlights further areas of research required to understand the biology and epidemiology of this important emerging group of fish pathogens of aquaculture species. PMID:24932463

Stride, M C; Polkinghome, A; Nowak, B F

2014-06-25

379

Scenario analysis for identifying the development areas of future technologies to combat emerging infectious diseases: APEC efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the key findings from the collaborative study among APEC members to address the possibilities on the future development of emerging infectious diseases and the opportunities\\/challenges that technologies can be effectively exploited to deal with diseases. The scenario planning technique has been applied in the study and integrated with bibliometric analysis and technology roadmapping. As a result, experts

Ponpiboon Satangput; Nathasit Gerdsri; Nares Damrongchai

2010-01-01

380

The ecology and emergence of diseases in fresh waters PIETER T. J. JOHNSON AND SARA H. PAULL  

E-print Network

The ecology and emergence of diseases in fresh waters PIETER T. J. JOHNSON AND SARA H. PAULL Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, U.S.A. SUMMARY 1. Freshwater patterns of disease in fresh waters and how they are changing over time. 2. Freshwater environments can

Johnson, Pieter

381

Defining European preparedness and research needs regarding emerging infectious animal diseases: Results from a Delphi expert consultation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging and major infectious animal diseases can have significant international impact on social, economic and environmental level, and are being driven by various factors. Prevention and control measures should be prepared at both national and international level to mitigate these disease risks. Research to support such policy development is mostly carried out at national level and dedicated transnational research programmes

M. T. A. Wentholt; S. Cardoen; H. Imberechts; X. Van Huffel; B. W. Ooms; L. J. Frewer

2012-01-01

382

Invited Review Malaria parasite colonisation of the mosquito midgut Placing  

E-print Network

Invited Review Malaria parasite colonisation of the mosquito midgut ­ Placing the Plasmodium 3 March 2012 Keywords: Malaria Plasmodium Mosquito Anopheles Ookinete Oocyst Midgut traversal drugs is emerging. Malaria parasite migration through the mosquito host constitutes a major population

McFadden, Geoff

383

Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina  

PubMed Central

Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n?=?138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83.3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

Garbossa, Graciela; Pia Buyayisqui, Maria; Geffner, Laura; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; de la Fourniere, Sofia; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemi

2013-01-01

384

Emerging disease burdens and the poor in cities of the developing world.  

PubMed

Patterns of future urban growth, combined with advances in the treatment of traditional scourges of communicable diseases, will cause a shift in the burden of disease toward category 2 (noncommunicable) and 3 (injury) conditions over the next 30 years. Communicable diseases, particularly HIV/AIDs, will continue to be the most important killers among the poor. However, new risks will emerge for several reasons. First, the marked sprawl of cities in the developing world will make access to care more difficult. Second, increasing motor vehicles and the likelihood of inadequate infrastructure will make air pollution and accidents in road traffic more common than in the past. Third, impoverished urban populations have already shown a propensity toward undernourishment, and its obverse, obesity, is already emerging as a major risk. Also, the large projected increase in slums suggests that violence and homicide will become a more important burden of health, and very large hazards will be created by fire-prone, insubstantial dwellings that will house nearly two billion people by 2030. In addition, decentralized governance will exacerbate the tensions and discontinuities that have plagued the management of health issues on the urban fringe over the past decade. Accordingly, public health agencies will need to adjust to the regional and country-specific factors to address the changing profile of risk. This analysis suggests that four factors--levels of poverty, speed of city growth, sprawl in cities, and degree of decentralization--will have importance in shaping health strategies. These factors vary in pace and intensity by region, suggesting that health care strategies for Category II and III conditions will need to be differentiated by region of the world. Also, interventions will have to rely increasingly on actors outside the ranks of public health specialists. PMID:17453349

Campbell, Tim; Campbell, Alana

2007-05-01

385

The emerging use of in vivo optical imaging in the study of neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

The detection and subsequent quantification of photons emitted from living tissues, using highly sensitive charged-couple device (CCD) cameras, have enabled investigators to noninvasively examine the intricate dynamics of molecular reactions in wide assortment of experimental animals under basal and pathophysiological conditions. Nevertheless, extrapolation of this in vivo optical imaging technology to the study of the mammalian brain and related neurodegenerative conditions is still in its infancy. In this review, we introduce the reader to the emerging use of in vivo optical imaging in the study of neurodegenerative diseases. We highlight the current instrumentation that is available and reporter molecules (fluorescent and bioluminescent) that are commonly used. Moreover, we examine how in vivo optical imaging using transgenic reporter mice has provided new insights into Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Prion disease, and neuronal damage arising from excitotoxicity and inflammation. Furthermore, we also touch upon studies that have utilized these technologies for the development of therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative conditions that afflict humans. PMID:25147799

Patterson, Aileen P; Booth, Stephanie A; Saba, Reuben

2014-01-01

386

Development and Implementation of a Surveillance Network System for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Caribbean (ARICABA).  

PubMed

Dengue fever, including dengue hemorrhagic fever, has become a re-emerging public health threat in the Caribbean in the absence of a comprehensive regional surveillance system. In this deficiency, a project entitled ARICABA, strives to implement a pilot surveillance system across three islands: Martinique, St. Lucia, and Dominica. The aim of this project is to establish a network for epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases, utilizing information and communication technology. This paper describes the system design and development strategies of a "network of networks" surveillance system for infectious diseases in the Caribbean. Also described are benefits, challenges, and limitations of this approach across the three island nations identified through direct observation, open-ended interviews, and email communications with an on-site IT consultant, key informants, and the project director. Identified core systems design of the ARICABA data warehouse include a disease monitoring system and a syndromic surveillance system. Three components comprise the development strategy: the data warehouse server, the geographical information system, and forecasting algorithms; these are recognized technical priorities of the surveillance system. A main benefit of the ARICABA surveillance system is improving responsiveness and representativeness of existing health systems through automated data collection, process, and transmission of information from various sources. Challenges include overcoming technology gaps between countries; real-time data collection points; multiple language support; and "component-oriented" development approaches. PMID:23569607

Kim, Wongyu Lewis; Anneducharme, Chelsea; Bucher, Bernard Jean-Marie Philippe

2011-01-01

387

The Emerging Use of In Vivo Optical Imaging in the Study of Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

The detection and subsequent quantification of photons emitted from living tissues, using highly sensitive charged-couple device (CCD) cameras, have enabled investigators to noninvasively examine the intricate dynamics of molecular reactions in wide assortment of experimental animals under basal and pathophysiological conditions. Nevertheless, extrapolation of this in vivo optical imaging technology to the study of the mammalian brain and related neurodegenerative conditions is still in its infancy. In this review, we introduce the reader to the emerging use of in vivo optical imaging in the study of neurodegenerative diseases. We highlight the current instrumentation that is available and reporter molecules (fluorescent and bioluminescent) that are commonly used. Moreover, we examine how in vivo optical imaging using transgenic reporter mice has provided new insights into Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Prion disease, and neuronal damage arising from excitotoxicity and inflammation. Furthermore, we also touch upon studies that have utilized these technologies for the development of therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative conditions that afflict humans. PMID:25147799

Booth, Stephanie A.; Saba, Reuben

2014-01-01

388

Parasite Sleuth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 26-33), learners play parasitologists, solving several "mysteries" about people who got sick from various parasites. In teams of four, each member solves one mystery. They highlight clues in the reading, identify and glue down "Clue Cards" that summarize the clues, and choose and glue down the "Parasite I.D. Card" so that it can be folded to hide the answer. Learners then trade mysteries, and can solve and check their solution. Older learners or more advanced readers can do this activity on their own, while an educator can read it aloud to younger learners.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

389

Patterns of co-speciation and host switching in primate malaria parasites  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary history of many parasites is dependent on the evolution of their hosts, leading to an association between host and parasite phylogenies. However, frequent host switches across broad phylogenetic distances may weaken this close evolutionary link, especially when vectors are involved in parasites transmission, as is the case for malaria pathogens. Several studies suggested that the evolution of the primate-infective malaria lineages may be constrained by the phylogenetic relationships of their hosts, and that lateral switches between distantly related hosts may have been occurred. However, no systematic analysis has been quantified the degree of phylogenetic association between primates and their malaria parasites. Methods Here phylogenetic approaches have been used to discriminate statistically between events due to co-divergence, duplication, extinction and host switches that can potentially cause historical association between Plasmodium parasites and their primate hosts. A Bayesian reconstruction of parasite phylogeny based on genetic information for six genes served as basis for the analyses, which could account for uncertainties about the evolutionary hypotheses of malaria parasites. Results Related lineages of primate-infective Plasmodium tend to infect hosts within the same taxonomic family. Different analyses testing for congruence between host and parasite phylogenies unanimously revealed a significant association between the corresponding evolutionary trees. The most important factor that resulted in this association was host switching, but depending on the parasite phylogeny considered, co-speciation and duplication may have also played some additional role. Sorting seemed to be a relatively infrequent event, and can occur only under extreme co-evolutionary scenarios. The concordance between host and parasite phylogenies is heterogeneous: while the evolution of some malaria pathogens is strongly dependent on the phylogenetic history of their primate hosts, the congruent evolution is less emphasized for other parasite lineages (e.g. for human malaria parasites). Estimation of ancestral states of host use along the phylogenetic tree of parasites revealed that lateral transfers across distantly related hosts were likely to occur in several cases. Parasites cannot infect all available hosts, and they should preferentially infect hosts that provide a similar environment for reproduction. Marginally significant evidence suggested that there might be a consistent variation within host ranges in terms of physiology. Conclusion The evolution of primate malarias is constrained by the phylogenetic associations of their hosts. Some parasites can preserve a great flexibility to infect hosts across a large phylogenetic distance, thus host switching can be an important factor in mediating host ranges observed in nature. Due to this inherent flexibility and the potential exposure to various vectors, the emergence of new malaria disease in primates including humans cannot be predicted from the phylogeny of parasites. PMID:19463162

Garamszegi, Laszlo Zsolt

2009-01-01

390

Impact of protozoan cell death on parasite-host interactions and pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCD in protozoan parasites has emerged as a fascinating field of parasite biology. This not only relates to the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary implications but also to the impact on the parasite-host interactions within mammalian hosts and arthropod vectors. During recent years, common functions of apoptosis and autophagy in protozoa and during parasitic infections have emerged. Here, we review

Carsten GK Lüder; Jenny Campos-Salinas; Elena Gonzalez-Rey; Ger van Zandbergen

2010-01-01

391

Emerging Roles for FCRL Family Members in Lymphocyte Biology and Disease  

PubMed Central

Members of the extended Fc receptor-like (FCRL) family in humans and mice are preferentially expressed by B cells and possess tyrosine-based immunoregulatory function. Although the majority of these proteins repress B cell receptor-mediated activation, there is emerging evidence for their bifunctionality and capacity to counter-regulate adaptive and innate signaling pathways. In light of these findings, the recent discovery of ligands for several of these molecules has begun to reveal exciting potential for them in normal lymphocyte biology and is launching a new phase of FCRL investigation. Importantly, these fundamental developments are also setting the stage for defining their altered roles in the pathogenesis of a growing number of immune-mediated diseases. Here we review recent advances in the FCRL field and highlight the significance of these intriguing receptors in normal and perturbed immunobiology. PMID:25116094

Li, F.J.; Won, W.J.; Becker, E.J.; Easlick, J.L.; Tabengwa, E.; Li, R.; Shakhmatov, M.; Burrows, P.D.; Davis, R.S.

2014-01-01

392

Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Fungal Disease Emergence and Spread  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical evidence from multiple sources show the Earth has been warming since the late 19th century. More recently, evidence for this warming trend is strongly supported by satellite data since the late 1970s from the cryosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and land that confirms increasing temperature trends and their consequences (e.g., reduced Arctic sea ice, rising sea level, ice sheet mass loss, etc.). At the same time, satellite observations of the Sun show remarkably stable solar cycles since the late 1970s, when direct observations of the Sun's total solar irradiance began. Numerical simulation models, driven in part by assimilated satellite data, suggest that future-warming trends will lead to not only a warmer planet, but also a wetter and drier climate depending upon location in a fashion consistent with large-scale atmospheric processes. Continued global warming poses new opportunities for the emergence and spread of fungal disease, as climate systems change at regional and global scales, and as animal and plant species move into new niches. Our contribution to this proceedings is organized thus: First, we review empirical evidence for a warming Earth. Second, we show the Sun is not responsible for the observed warming. Third, we review numerical simulation modeling results that project these trends into the future, describing the projected abiotic environment of our planet in the next 40 to 50 years. Fourth, we illustrate how Rift Valley fever outbreaks have been linked to climate, enabling a better understanding of the dynamics of these diseases, and how this has led to the development of an operational predictive outbreak model for this disease in Africa. Fifth, We project how this experience may be applicable to predicting outbreaks of fungal pathogens in a warming world. Lastly, we describe an example of changing species ranges due to climate change, resulting from recent warming in the Andes and associated glacier melt that has enabled amphibians to colonize higher elevation lakes, only to be followed shortly by the emergence of fungal disease in the new habitats.

Tucker, Compton J.; Yager, Karina; Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

2011-01-01

393

Innate immunity and the evolution of resistance to an emerging infectious disease in a wild bird.  

PubMed

Innate immunity is expected to play a primary role in conferring resistance to novel infectious diseases, but few studies have attempted to examine its role in the evolution of resistance to emerging pathogens in wild vertebrate populations. Here, we used experimental infections and cDNA microarrays to examine whether changes in the innate and/or acquired immune responses likely accompanied the emergence of resistance in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in the eastern United States subject to a recent outbreak of conjunctivitis-causing bacterium (Mycoplasma gallisepticum-MG). Three days following experimental infection with MG, we observed differences in the splenic transcriptional responses between house finches from eastern U.S. populations, with a 12-year history of MG exposure, versus western U.S. populations, with no history of exposure to MG. In particular, western birds down-regulated gene expression, while eastern finches showed no expression change relative to controls. Studies involving poultry have shown that MG can manipulate host immunity, and our observations suggest that pathogen manipulation occurred only in finches from the western populations, outside the range of MG. Fourteen days after infection, eastern finches, but not western finches, up-regulated genes associated with acquired immunity (cell-mediated immunity) relative to controls. These observations suggest population differences in the temporal course of the response to infection with MG and imply that innate immune processes were targets of selection in response to MG in the eastern U.S. population. PMID:22512302

Bonneaud, Camille; Balenger, Susan L; Zhang, Jiangwen; Edwards, Scott V; Hill, Geoffrey E

2012-06-01

394

The Importance of Veterinary Policy in Preventing the Emergence and Re-Emergence of Zoonotic Disease: Examining the Case of Human African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Rapid changes in human behavior, resource utilization, and other extrinsic environmental factors continue to threaten the current distribution of several endemic and historically neglected zoonoses in many developing regions worldwide. There are numerous examples of zoonotic diseases which have circulated within relatively localized geographical areas for some time, before emerging into new regions as a result of changing human, environmental, or behavioral dynamics. While the world’s focus is currently on the Ebola virus gaining momentum in western Africa, another pertinent example of this phenomenon is zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), endemic to south and eastern Africa, and spread via infected cattle. In recent years, the ongoing northwards spread of this disease in the country has posed a serious public health threat to the human population of Uganda, increasing the pressure on both individual families and government services to control the disease. Moreover, the emergence of HAT into new areas of Uganda in recent years exemplifies the important role of veterinary policy in mitigating the severe human health and economic impacts of zoonotic disease. The systemic challenges surrounding the development and enforcement of veterinary policy described here are similar across sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the necessity to consider and support zoonotic disease control in broader human and animal health systems strengthening and associated development programs on the continent.

Okello, Anna L.; Welburn, Susan C.

2014-01-01

395

IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease, an Emerging Entity: A Review of a Multi-System Disease  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) is a recently defined emerging entity characterized by a diffuse or mass forming inflammatory reaction rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with fibrosclerosis and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4-RSD usually affects middle aged and elderly patients, with a male predominance. It is associated with an elevated serum titer of IgG4, which acts as a marker for this recently characterized entity. The prototype is IgG4-related sclerosing pancreatitis or autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Other common sites of involvement are the hepatobiliary tract, salivary gland, orbit, and lymph node, however practically any organ can be involved, including upper aerodigestive tract, lung, aorta, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, soft tissue, skin, central nervous system, breast, kidney, and prostate. Fever or constitutional symptoms usually do not comprise part of the clinical picture. Laboratory findings detected include raised serum globulin, IgG and IgG4. An association with autoantibody detection (such as antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor) is seen in some cases. Steroid therapy comprises the mainstay of treatment. Disease progression with involvement of multiple organ-sites may be encountered in a subset of cases and may follow a relapsing-remitting course. The principal histopathologic findings in several extranodal sites include lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, lymphoid follicle formation, sclerosis and obliterative phlebitis, along with atrophy and destruction of tissues. Immunohistochemical staining shows increased IgG4+ cells in the involved tissues (>50 per high-power field, with IgG4/IgG ratio >40%). IgG4-RSD may potentially be rarely associated with the development of lymphoma and carcinoma. However, the nature and pathogenesis of IgG4-RSD are yet to be fully elucidated and provide immense scope for further studies. PMID:22187229

Divatia, Mukul; Kim, Sun A

2012-01-01

396

Fire fighting truck-based emergency mosquito biolarviciding to prevent outbreaks of malaria and arboviral disease in Kabul, Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency control of disease vectors requires high efficacy, rapid reaction and safe use of biocides in order interrupt transmission\\u000a cycles without harming humans, non-target animals and the environment. In countries with complex emergencies, air-borne large-scale\\u000a vector control is often limited, or impossible, due to questionable security as well as military, safety, equipment, or logistical\\u000a constraints. While facing a potential outbreak

M. K. Faulde; J. J. Scharninghausen; M. Tisch

2008-01-01

397

Changing Emergence of Shigella Sero-Groups in Bangladesh: Observation from Four Different Diarrheal Disease Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Background Shigellosis continues to be a public health challenge for developing countries, including Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to demonstrate recent changes in Shigella sero-groups and their geographical diversity. Methods Data were extracted from data archive of four diarrheal disease surveillance systems. A 2% sub sample from urban Dhaka Hospital (2008–2011; n?=?10,650), and 10% from urban Mirpur Treatment Centre (2009–2011; n?=?3,585), were enrolled systematically; whereas, all patients coming from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System area in rural Matlab (2008–2011; n?=?6,399) and rural Mirzapur (2010–2011; n?=?2,812) were included irrespective of age, sex, and disease severity. A fresh stool specimen was collected for identification of Shigella spp. Of them, 315 (3%) were positive for Shigella in Dhaka, 490 (8%) from Matlab, 109 (3%) from Mirpur and 369 (13%) from Mirzapur and considered as analyzable sample size. Results Among all Shigella isolates regardless of age, significant decreases in percentage of S. flexneri over time was observed in Mirpur (55?29%; p value of ?2-for trend?=?0.019) and Mirzapur (59?47%; p?=?0.025). A non-significant decrease was also seen in Dhaka (58?48%), while in Matlab there was a non-significant increase (73?81%). Similar patterns were observed among under-5 children at all sites. Emergence of S. sonnei was found in Dhaka (8?25%; p<0.001) and Mirpur (10?33%; p?=?0.015), whereas it decreased in Mirzapur (32?23%; p?=?0.056). The emergence of S. boydii was seen in all ages in Mirzapur [(3?28%; p<0.001); (3?27%; p<0.001)]. On the other hand, we saw non-significant percent reductions in S. boydii in Dhaka [overall (25?16%); under-5 (16?9%)]. Decreasing rates of Shigella dysenteriae were observed in Matlab, Mirpur and Mirzapur; whereas, in Dhaka it remained unchanged. Conclusion and Significance Emergence of S. sonnei and S. boydii as important infectious diarrhea etiologies and variations in geographical diversity underscore the need for monitoring, with possible implications for vaccine development. PMID:23658619

Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Ferdous, Farzana; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Leung, Daniel T.; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Raqib, Rubhana

2013-01-01

398

Poxviral disease in red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris in the UK: spatial and temporal trends of an emerging threat.  

PubMed

The squirrel poxvirus (SQPV) is the probable mediator of apparent competition between the introduced invading gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in the UK, and modeling studies have shown that this viral disease has had a significant impact on the decline of the red squirrel in the UK. However, given our limited understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, and more generally the effects of invasive species on parasite ecology, there is a need to investigate the transmission dynamics and the relative pathogenicity of the virus between species. We aimed to increase our knowledge of these processes through an empirical study in which we: (i) used pathological signs and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to diagnose SQPV disease in red squirrels found dead during scanning surveillance between 1993 and 2005; (ii) detected antibody to SQPV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the same animals; and (iii) mapped cases of the disease, and the gray squirrel distribution, using a geographical information system. We analyzed the distribution of cases of SQPV disease according to woodland type, a measure of squirrel density. SQPV disease occurred only in areas of England also inhabited by seropositive gray squirrels, and as the geographical range of gray squirrels expanded, SQPV disease occurred in these new gray squirrel habitats, supporting a role for the gray squirrel as a reservoir host of the virus. There was a delay between the establishment of invading gray squirrels and cases of the disease in red squirrels which implies gray squirrels must reach a threshold number or density before the virus is transmitted to red squirrels. The spatial and temporal trend in SQPV disease outbreaks suggested that SQPV disease will have a significant effect on Scottish populations of red squirrels within 25 years. The even spread of cases of disease across months suggested a direct rather than vector-borne transmission route is more likely. Eight juvenile and sub-adult free-living red squirrels apparently survived exposure to SQPV by mounting an immune response, the first evidence of immunity to SQPV in free-living red squirrels, which possibly suggests a changing host-parasite relationship and that the use of a vaccine may be an effective management tool to protect remnant red squirrel populations. PMID:18923872

Sainsbury, Anthony W; Deaville, Robert; Lawson, Becki; Cooley, William A; Farelly, Stephan S J; Stack, Michael J; Duff, Paul; McInnes, Colin J; Gurnell, John; Russell, Peter H; Rushton, Stephen P; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Nettleton, Peter; Lurz, Peter W W

2008-09-01

399

Successful and currently ongoing parasite eradication programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eradication of parasitic diseases is not a new concept. The most successful programs of parasite eradication have occurred with species of veterinary importance. The first such program, the eradication of Texas Cattle Fever from the United States, is one of the great success stories of disease eradication. The American screwworm eradication program is ongoing and is serving as a

Dwight D. Bowman

2006-01-01

400

Hepcidin: an emerging biomarker for iron disorders, inflammatory diseases, and infections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peptide hormone hepcidin, has emerged as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of hepcidin is a principal or contributing factor in most genetic and acquired systemic iron disorders, including anemia of inflammation (anemia of chronic disease). Hepcidin maintains healthy blood iron levels by regulating dietary iron absorption and transport from body iron stores to plasma. High serum hepcidin levels observed in chronic and acute inflammatory conditions can cause anemia by limiting plasma iron available for erythropoiesis. Chronically low serum hepcidin levels cause iron-overload and ultimately, accumulation of iron in liver and heart. We recently validated the first immunoassay for serum hepcidin and established the normal ranges in adults. Hepcidin has excellent potential as a biomarker and has a known mechanism of action, good stability, and rapid response to iron stores, inflammatory stimuli, and bacterial infections. Hepcidin can be measured in blood, urine, and saliva, and is generally not measurable in iron deficient/anemic patients and highly elevated in inflammatory diseases and infections. Intrinsic LifeSciences (ILS) is developing second generation hepcidin immunoassays and lateral-flow POC devices for hepcidin, a well characterized multi-purpose biomarker with applications in global health security.

Westerman, Mark E.; Olbina, Gordana; Ostland, Vaughn E.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

2010-04-01

401

Sedentary behaviour as an emerging risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases in children and youth.  

PubMed

Sedentary behaviour (e.g. TV viewing, seated video game playing, prolonged sitting) has recently emerged as a distinct risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases in children and youth. This narrative review provides an overview of recent evidence in this area and highlights research gaps. Current evidence suggests that North American children and youth spend between 40% and 60% of their waking hours engaging in sedentary pursuits. Although data are lacking concerning temporal trends of objectively measured sedentary time, self-reported sedentary behaviours have increased over the past half century, with a rapid increase since the late 1990s. Excessive sedentary behaviour has been found to have independent and deleterious associations with markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk. These associations are especially consistent for screen-based sedentary behaviours (TV viewing, computer games, etc), with more conflicting findings observed for overall sedentary time. The above associations are possibly mediated by the influence of screen-based sedentary behaviours on energy intake. Although excessive sitting has been reported to have adverse acute and chronic metabolic impacts in adults, research on children is lacking. Research is particularly needed to investigate the impact of characteristics of sedentary behaviour (i.e. type/context, sedentary bout length, breaks in sedentary time, etc), as well as interventions that examine the health and behavioural impacts of sitting per se. PMID:24485214

Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Mark S

2014-02-01

402

Saliva proteomics as an emerging, non-invasive tool to study livestock physiology, nutrition and diseases.  

PubMed

Saliva is an extraordinary fluid in terms of research and diagnostic possibilities. Its composition in electrolytes, hormones and especially its proteome contains information about feeding status, nutritional requirements and adaptations to diet and environment, and also about health status of animals. It is easy to collect on a non-invasive and routine basis without any need for special training. Therefore, the analysis of salivary proteomes is going to emerge into a field of high interest with the future goal to maintain and improve livestock productivity and welfare. Moreover, the comprehensive analysis and identification of salivary proteins and peptides in whole and glandular saliva is a necessary pre-requisite to identify animal disease biomarkers and a powerful tool to better understand animal physiology. This review focuses on the different approaches used to study the salivary proteomes of farm animals, in respect to the physiology of nutrition and food perception in relation to food choices. The potential of animal saliva as a source of disease biomarkers will also be pointed out. Special emphasis is laid on the 'ruminating triad' - cattle, goat and sheep - as well as swine as major species of animal production in Western and Southern Europe. PMID:22583933

Lamy, Elsa; Mau, Marcus

2012-07-19

403

Long-Range Control of Gene Expression: Emerging Mechanisms and Disruption in Disease  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional control is a major mechanism for regulating gene expression. The complex machinery required to effect this control is still emerging from functional and evolutionary analysis of genomic architecture. In addition to the promoter, many other regulatory elements are required for spatiotemporally and quantitatively correct gene expression. Enhancer and repressor elements may reside in introns or up- and downstream of the transcription unit. For some genes with highly complex expression patterns—often those that function as key developmental control genes—the cis-regulatory domain can extend long distances outside the transcription unit. Some of the earliest hints of this came from disease-associated chromosomal breaks positioned well outside the relevant gene. With the availability of wide-ranging genome sequence comparisons, strong conservation of many noncoding regions became obvious. Functional studies have shown many of these conserved sites to be transcriptional regulatory elements that sometimes reside inside unrelated neighboring genes. Such sequence-conserved elements generally harbor sites for tissue-specific DNA-binding proteins. Developmentally variable chromatin conformation can control protein access to these sites and can regulate transcription. Disruption of these finely tuned mechanisms can cause disease. Some regulatory element mutations will be associated with phenotypes distinct from any identified for coding-region mutations. PMID:15549674

Kleinjan, Dirk A.; van Heyningen, Veronica

2005-01-01

404

Passive surveillance in Maine, an area emergent for tick-borne diseases.  

PubMed

In 1989, a free-of-charge, statewide tick identification program was initiated in Maine, 1 yr after the first Ixodes scapularis Say (=I. dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin) ticks were reported in the state. This article summarizes data from 18 continuous years of tick submissions during which >24,000 ticks of 14 species were identified. Data provided include tick stage, degree of engorgement, seasonal abundance, geographical location, host, and age of the person from whom the tick was removed. Maps depict the distributions of the three major species submitted. I. scapularis emerged first along the coast, and then it advanced inland up major river valleys, Dermacentor variabilis Say slowly expanded centrifugally from where it was initially reported in southwestern Maine, and the distribution of long-established Ixodes cookei Packard remained unchanged. Submissions of nymphal I. scapularis closely correlated with reported Lyme diseases cases at the county level. Annual fluctuations of nymphal submissions in Maine correlated with those of Lyme disease cases for New England, supporting the possibility of a regional influence on tick abundance. More ticks were removed from people < or =14 and > or =30 yr of age, and their degree of engorgement was greatest in people < or =20 yr of age and progressively increased in people > or =30 yr of age. This study demonstrates the usefulness and potential of tick identification programs. PMID:18047214

Rand, Peter W; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Dearborn, Richard; Cahill, Bruce; Elias, Susan; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Beckett, Geoff A; Smith, Robert P

2007-11-01

405

Attitudes toward patients with sickle cell disease in a multicenter sample of emergency department providers.  

PubMed

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) often seek care in the emergency department (ED) for pain associated with vaso-occlusive crises. Research has shown that negative provider attitudes serve as a barrier to care in this patient population. Our aim was to validate a survey that measures attitudes toward SCD patients among ED providers (nurses and physicians) and to compare differences in attitude scores between provider types. We administered the general perceptions about Sickle Cell Disease Patients Scale, previously validated among internal medicine providers, and the Medical Condition Regard Scale (MCRS) to ED nurses and physicians from two EDs. A total of 215 surveys were returned (63% response rate, 200 with attitude items completed). Three subscales were identified: Negative Attitudes, Uneasiness With Care, and Positive Attitudes. Cronbach's ?s exceeded 0.81 for each subscale. Mean (SD) scores for the Negative, Uneasiness, and Positive subscales and MCRS were 61.5 (20.3), 66.1 (17.1), 41.2 (17.8), and 42.2 (8.9), respectively. Compared with physicians, nurses had significantly higher mean Negative Attitude scores and lower Uneasiness scores. A slightly modified version of the general perceptions about Sickle Cell Disease Patients Scale appears to be a valid measure of ED provider attitudes toward SCD patients. Among ED providers, this scale identified a dimension not observed in research with the original instrument among internal medicine providers. Provider attitudes influence patient-provider interactions and quality of care. The scale we present here has major clinical implications, particularly for advanced practice nurses, who can use the scale not only to assess providers' attitudes toward SCD patients but also to determine the effectiveness of tailored interventions to improve those attitudes. PMID:25356894

Freiermuth, Caroline E; Haywood, Carlton; Silva, Susan; Cline, David M; Kayle, Mariam; Sullivan, Dori; Thornton, Victoria; Tanabe, Paula

2014-01-01

406

The emergence of Lyme disease in a changing environment in North America and central Europe.  

PubMed

Lyme disease has recently begun to emerge as a significant threat to human health, both in Europe and the United States. Late sequellae, resembling those of neurosyphilis and multiple sclerosis, may occur many years after initial infection. Spontaneous abortion accompanies arthritis, carditis and neuritis as burdensome short-term sequellae. Thousands of new infections are recognized each year on each side of the Atlantic, although reporting may be incomplete. The disease was described in Europe nearly a century ago and named erythema chronicum migrans, but its etiology has only recently been defined. The name "Lyme disease" was coined to describe a particularly intense American focus of disease, but the term has gained wide acceptance on both continents. The identity of the American and European etiological agents involved has yet to be determined. In America, a deer-associated, often bird-transported tick transmits this mouse-reservoired spirochete. The European situation seems more complex because the vector tick feeds on a greater variety of vertebrates. The reservoir hosts of the spirochete have yet to be determined. The role of Ixodes ricinus and possible other vectors in perpetuating transmission of the European infection remains to be defined. Whether I. ricinus as well as I. dammini merely serve as a bridge to the human population or are important for the maintenance of the feral cycle remains to be seen. The capacity of a tick to maintain transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes depends upon a complex set of properties, including competence as a host for the spirochete, a pattern of feeding that focuses on a particular reservoir favored by a pattern of tick activity, during each transmission season, in which nymphs feed before larvae. Transmission would be favored by an environment, such as that of islands, in which the variety of potential reservoir hosts is restricted. Hosts, for example reptiles, that might fail to support growth of the spirochete would serve to dilute effective transmission in nature. Similarly, the capacity of a vertebrate to maintain the infection requires long-term support of the spirochete in a tissue site accessible to vector ticks, tolerance of repeated feeding by vector ticks and a pattern of host activity that exposes the host to numerous bites. The intensity of infection depends upon a continuous pattern of transmission in which each generation is infected anew. The rare event in which the vector inherits infection would serve mainly to transport the spirochete to a new site, most effectively by migrating birds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3330512

Matuschka, F R; Spielman, A

1986-12-01

407

Drugs targeting parasite lysosomes.  

PubMed

Lysosomes were first described as vacuolar structures containing various hydrolytic enzymes at acidic pH. Subsequent studies revealed that the lysosome/vacuolar system is complex and composed of distinct membrane-enclosed vesicles including endosomes, primary and mature lysosomes, autophagic vesicles, residual bodies, multivesicular bodies, and digestive lysosomes. Lysosomes express a battery of hydrolytic enzymes including proteases, acid phosphatases, glycosidases, and lipases. Parasitic protozoa also possess complex intracellular lysosomes/endosomes/vesicles involved in digestion, transport and recycling of molecules similar to those of mammalian cells. Unique characteristics are ascribed to lysosomes of different parasites and may even differ between parasite stages. Transport of hydrolases and proteins to parasite lysosomes is directed either from the Golgi complex via endosomal vesicles or from endocytic vesicles originated in the cell surface. Inhibition of lysosomal proteases demonstrated that different proteolytic machineries catabolize distinct classes of proteins, and this selectivity may be exploited for the development of effective antiparasitic drugs. This review describes lysosomal molecules that are either validated or potential drug targets for Chagas' disease, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, malaria, amebiasis, and giardiasis. PMID:18473838

Doyle, Patricia S; Sajid, Mohamed; O'Brien, Theresa; Dubois, Kelly; Engel, Juan C; Mackey, Zachary B; Reed, Sharon

2008-01-01

408

A Class of Tricyclic Compounds Blocking Malaria Parasite Oocyst Development and Transmission  

PubMed Central

Malaria is a deadly infectious disease in many tropical and subtropical countries. Previous efforts to eradicate malaria have failed, largely due to the emergence of drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and, in particular, the lack of drugs or vaccines to block parasite transmission. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are known to play a role in drug transport, metabolism, and resistance in many organisms, including malaria parasites. To investigate whether a Plasmodium falciparum ABC transporter (Pf14_0244 or PfABCG2) modulates parasite susceptibility to chemical compounds or plays a role in drug resistance, we disrupted the gene encoding PfABCG2, screened the recombinant and the wild-type 3D7 parasites against a library containing 2,816 drugs approved for human or animal use, and identified an antihistamine (ketotifen) that became less active against the PfABCG2-disrupted parasite in culture. In addition to some activity against asexual stages and gametocytes, ketotifen was highly potent in blocking oocyst development of P. falciparum and the rodent parasite Plasmodium yoelii in mosquitoes. Tests of structurally related tricyclic compounds identified additional compounds with similar activities in inhibiting transmission. Additionally, ketotifen appeared to have some activity against relapse of Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in rhesus monkeys. Further clinical evaluation of ketotifen and related compounds, including synthetic new derivatives, in blocking malaria transmission may provide new weapons for the current effort of malaria eradication. PMID:23129054

Eastman, Richard T.; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Raj, Dipak K.; Dixit, Saurabh; Deng, Bingbing; Miura, Kazutoyo; Yuan, Jing; Tanaka, Takeshi Q.; Johnson, Ronald L.; Jiang, Hongying; Huang, Ruili; Williamson, Kim C.; Lambert, Lynn E.; Long, Carole; Austin, Christopher P.; Wu, Yimin

2013-01-01

409

Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Tools for Prioritising Emerging or Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases Associated with Climate Change in Canada  

PubMed Central

Global climate change is known to result in the emergence or re-emergence of some infectious diseases. Reliable methods to identify the infectious diseases of humans and animals and that are most likely to be influenced by climate are therefore required. Since different priorities will affect the decision to address a particular pathogen threat, decision makers need a standardised method of prioritisation. Ranking methods and Multi-Criteria Decision approaches provide such a standardised method and were employed here to design two different pathogen prioritisation tools. The opinion of 64 experts was elicited to assess the importance of 40 criteria that could be used to prioritise emerging infectious diseases of humans and animals in Canada. A weight was calculated for each criterion according to the expert opinion. Attributes were defined for each criterion as a transparent and repeatable method of measurement. Two different Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis tools were tested, both of which used an additive aggregation approach. These were an Excel spreadsheet tool and a tool developed in software ‘M-MACBETH’. The tools were trialed on nine ‘test’ pathogens. Two different methods of criteria weighting were compared, one using fixed weighting values, the other using probability distributions to account for uncertainty and variation in expert opinion. The ranking of the nine pathogens varied according to the weighting method that was used. In both tools, using both weighting methods, the diseases that tended to rank the highest were West Nile virus, Giardiasis and Chagas, while Coccidioidomycosis tended to rank the lowest. Both tools are a simple and user friendly approach to prioritising pathogens according to climate change by including explicit scoring of 40 criteria and incorporating weighting methods based on expert opinion. They provide a dynamic interactive method that can help to identify pathogens for which a full risk assessment should