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1

[Emerging parasitic diseases].  

PubMed

Travels, migration and circulation of goods facilitate the emergence of new infectious diseases often unrecognized outside endemic areas. Most of emerging infections are of viral origin. Muscular Sarcocystis infection, an acute illness acquired during short trips to Malaysia, and Chagas disease, a chronic illness with long incubation period found among Latin American migrants, are two very different examples of emerging parasitic diseases. The former requires a preventive approach for travelers going to Malaysia and must be brought forth when they return with fever, myalgia and eosinophilia, while the latter requires a proactive attitude to screen Latin American migrant populations that may face difficulties in accessing care. PMID:24908745

Weibel Galluzzo, C; Wagner, N; Michel, Y; Jackson, Y; Chappuis, F

2014-05-01

2

INVASION NOTE Invasive avian malaria as an emerging parasitic disease  

E-print Network

Biological invasion Á Blood parasites Á Malaria Á Haemoproteus Á Plasmodium Á South America Introduction Many by biological invasions of parasites that have ``jumped ship'' to novel host species (Hatcher et al. 2012INVASION NOTE Invasive avian malaria as an emerging parasitic disease in native birds of Peru

Sehgal, Ravinder

3

The Impact of Cultural Behaviours, Local Beliefs, and Practices on Emerging Parasitic Diseases in Tropical Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scourge of emerging parasitic diseases (e.g., urinary schistosomiasis, ascariasis, malaria, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trachoma, trichiuriasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, sleeping sickness, filariasis) causes tremendous pain, suffering, and eventually death in tropical African communities. Patterns of transmission of these emerging

Onwuliri, Celestine O. E.; Anosike, Jude C.; Oguoma, Chibuzor; Onwuliri, Viola A.; Nwoke, Betram E. B.; Dozie, Ikechukwu, N. S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.

2005-01-01

4

Parasitic Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

5

The butterfly effect: parasite diversity, environment, and emerging disease in aquatic wildlife.  

PubMed

Aquatic wildlife is increasingly subjected to emerging diseases often due to perturbations of the existing dynamic balance between hosts and their parasites. Accelerating changes in environmental factors, together with anthropogenic translocation of hosts and parasites, act synergistically to produce hard-to-predict disease outcomes in freshwater and marine systems. These outcomes are further complicated by the intimate links between diseases in wildlife and diseases in humans and domestic animals. Here, we explore the interactions of parasites in aquatic wildlife in terms of their biodiversity, their response to environmental change, their emerging diseases, and the contribution of humans and domestic animals to parasitic disease outcomes. This work highlights the clear need for interdisciplinary approaches to ameliorate disease impacts in aquatic wildlife systems. PMID:25488771

Adlard, Robert D; Miller, Terrence L; Smit, Nico J

2014-12-01

6

Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

2014-01-01

7

Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

2014-01-01

8

Centrality in primateparasite networks reveals the potential for the transmission of emerging infectious diseases to humans  

PubMed Central

Most emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans have arisen from animals. Identifying high-risk hosts is therefore vital for the control and surveillance of these diseases. Viewing hosts as connected through the parasites they share, we use network tools to investigate predictors of parasitism and sources of future EIDs. We generated hostparasite networks that link hosts when they share a parasite, using nonhuman primates as a model system becauseowing to their phylogenetic proximity and ecological overlap with humansthey are an important source of EIDs to humans. We then tested whether centrality in the network of host speciesa measurement of the importance of a given node (i.e., host species) in the networkis associated with that host serving as a potential EID source. We found that centrality covaries with key predictors of parasitism, such as population density and geographic range size. Importantly, we also found that primate species having higher values of centrality in the primateparasite network harbored more parasites identified as EIDs in humans and had parasite communities more similar to those found in humans. These relationships were robust to the use of different centrality metrics and to multiple ways of controlling for variation in how well each species has been studied (i.e., sampling effort). Centrality may therefore estimate the role of a host as a source of EIDs to humans in other multispecific hostparasite networks. PMID:23610389

Gmez, Jos Mara; Nunn, Charles L.; Verd, Miguel

2013-01-01

9

Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... under a microscope, parasitic diseases such as filariasis, malaria, or babesiosis, can be diagnosed. This test is ... source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria Notice: Linking to a non-federal site does ...

10

"Emerging" parasitic infections in arctic ungulates.  

PubMed

Important drivers for emergence of infectious disease in wildlife include changes in the environment, shrinking habitats or concentration of wildlife, and movement of people, animals, pathogens, or vectors. In this paper we present three case-studies of emerging parasitic infections and diseases in ungulates in the Canadian north. First we discuss climate warming as an important driver for the emergence of disease associated with Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, a nematode lungworm of muskoxen. Then we examine how Protostrongylus stilesi, the sheep lungworm, emerged (or re-emerged) in muskoxen after re-introduction of this host into its historical range made it sympatric with Dall's sheep. Finally, we consider Teladorsagia boreoarcticus, a newly described and common abomasal nematode of muskoxen that is emerging as a disease-causing parasite and may be an important regulator for muskox populations on Banks Island, Northwest Territories. These and other arctic host-parasite systems are exquisitely tuned and constrained by a harsh and highly seasonal environment. The dynamics of these systems will be impacted by climate change and other ecological disruptions. Baseline knowledge of parasite biodiversity and parasite and host ecology, together with predictive models and long-term monitoring programs, are essential for anticipating and detecting altered patterns of host range, geographic distribution, and the emergence of parasitic infections and diseases. PMID:21680491

Kutz, Susan J; Hoberg, Eric P; Nagy, John; Polley, Lydden; Elkin, Brett

2004-04-01

11

Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites Parasites Home Share Compartir Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases ... EST/ Monday-Friday Closed Holidays Contact CDC-INFO Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education ...

12

Navigating parasite webs and parasite flow: Emerging and re-emerging parasitic zoonoses of wildlife origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife are now recognised as an important source of emerging human pathogens, including parasites. This paper discusses the linkages between wildlife, people, zoonotic parasites and the ecosystems in which they co-exist, revisits definitions for emerging and re-emerging, and lists zoonotic parasites that can be acquired from wildlife including, for some, estimates of the associated global human health burdens. The paper

Lydden Polley

2005-01-01

13

Cutaneous Amebiasis: The Importance of Molecular Diagnosis of an Emerging Parasitic Disease  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous amebiasis is the least common clinical form of human amebiasis in Mexico, sexual amebiasis was only occasionally observed before the late 1980s. However, in the last few decades, most of the documented cases of cutaneous amebiasis from around the world are sexually transmitted. We present two cases of sexually transmitted genital amebiasis. The molecular characterization of the Entamoeba species in the affected tissues underlines the importance of an etiological diagnosis using specific and sensitive techniques that avoid the rapid destruction of tissues and the irreversible sequelae to the anatomy and function of the affected organs. In addition, for those interested in the study of the human-amoebic disease relationship and its epidemiology, the detection of a new, mixed infection in an invasive case of amebiasis reveals new perspectives in the study of the extraordinarily complex host-parasite relationship in amebiasis. PMID:23208883

Morn, Patricia; Rojas, Liliana; Cerritos, Ren; Zermeo, Valeria; Valadez, Alicia; de Oca, Griselda Montes; Reyes, Miguel ngel; Gonzlez, Enrique; Partida, Oswaldo; Hernndez, Eric; Nieves, Miriam; Portillo, Tobas; Gudio, Marco; Ramiro, Manuel; Ximnez, Cecilia

2013-01-01

14

Emerging infectious disease in sea stars: castrating ciliate parasites in Patiria miniata.  

PubMed

Orchitophrya stellarum is a holotrich ciliate that facultatively parasitizes and castrates male asteriid sea stars. We discovered a morphologically similar ciliate in testes of an asterinid sea star, the northeastern Pacific bat star Patiria miniata (Brandt, 1835). This parasite may represent a threat to Canadian populations of this iconic sea star. Confirmation that the parasite is O. stellarum would indicate a considerable host range expansion, and suggest that O. stellarum is a generalist sea star pathogen. PMID:18924382

Sunday, J; Raeburn, L; Hart, M W

2008-08-27

15

Interspecific competition in honeybee intracellular gut parasites is asymmetric and favours the spread of an emerging infectious disease.  

PubMed

There is increasing appreciation that hosts in natural populations are subject to infection by multiple parasite species. Yet the epidemiological and ecological processes determining the outcome of mixed infections are poorly understood. Here, we use two intracellular gut parasites (Microsporidia), one exotic and one co-evolved in the western honeybee (Apis mellifera), in an experiment in which either one or both parasites were administered either simultaneously or sequentially. We provide clear evidence of within-host competition; order of infection was an important determinant of the competitive outcome between parasites, with the first parasite significantly inhibiting the growth of the second, regardless of species. However, the strength of this 'priority effect' was highly asymmetric, with the exotic Nosema ceranae exhibiting stronger inhibition of Nosema apis than vice versa. Our results reveal an unusual asymmetry in parasite competition that is dependent on order of infection. When incorporated into a mathematical model of disease prevalence, we find asymmetric competition to be an important predictor of the patterns of parasite prevalence found in nature. Our findings demonstrate the wider significance of complex multi-host-multi-parasite interactions as drivers of host-pathogen community structure. PMID:25429014

Natsopoulou, Myrsini E; McMahon, Dino P; Doublet, Vincent; Bryden, John; Paxton, Robert J

2015-01-01

16

The study of parasite sharing for surveillance of zoonotic diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the factors that influence the transmission of parasites among hosts is important for directing surveillance of animal parasites before they successfully emerge in humans, and increasing the efficacy of programs for the control and management of zoonotic diseases. Here we present a review of recent advances in the study of parasite sharing, wildlife ecology, and epidemiology that could be extended and incorporated into proactive surveillance frameworks for multi-host infectious diseases. These methods reflect emerging interdisciplinary techniques with significant promise for the identification of future zoonotic parasites and unknown reservoirs of current zoonoses, strategies for the reduction of parasite prevalence and transmission among hosts, and decreasing the burden of infectious diseases.

Farrell, Maxwell J.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Davies, T. Jonathan

2013-03-01

17

Together in the fight against neglected public health problems: worldwide network cooperation on waterborne diseases and emerging parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

A symposium held in Guangzhou, China, aimed to become starting point of an international cooperation in the fight against waterborne diseases, which obtain more and more importance in times of global warming and globalization. PMID:25782677

Wu, Xiaoying; Song, Langui; Liang, Jinyi; Luo, Shiqi; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Wu, Zhongdao

2015-05-01

18

Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasiteparasite inter-communication as well as in parasitehost interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens. PMID:25536932

Marcilla, Antonio; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Trelis, Maria; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Osuna, Antonio; Bernal, Dolores; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Almeida, Igor C.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

2014-01-01

19

Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasite-parasite inter-communication as well as in parasite-host interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens. PMID:25536932

Marcilla, Antonio; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Trelis, Maria; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Osuna, Antonio; Bernal, Dolores; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Almeida, Igor C; Del Portillo, Hernando A

2014-01-01

20

Parasite Zoonoses and Wildlife: Emerging Issues  

PubMed Central

The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact. PMID:19440409

Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Kutz, Susan J.; Smith, Andrew

2009-01-01

21

Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

1999-01-01

22

Parasitic diseases of the pleura.  

PubMed

Parasitic infections are prevalent in certain parts of the world and may cause pleural involvement, which often goes unrecognized. Common parasites involving the pleura include Entamoeba histolytica, Echinococcus granulosus and Paragonimus westermani. Amebiasis can cause empyema with "anchovy sauce" pus, reactive pleural effusions and bronchopleural fistula with hydropneumothorax. Echinococcosis may result in pleural thickening, pneumothorax, secondary pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusions. Paragonimiasis may cause chylous and cholesterol pleural effusions, pleural thickening and pneumothorax. Less commonly, pulmonary eosinophilia, or Loeffler's syndrome, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may involve the pleura. This article provides a comprehensive review of parasitic infections involving the pleura. A high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting is required to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. PMID:22990049

Lal, Chitra; Huggins, John Terrill; Sahn, Steven A

2013-05-01

23

Selected emerging diseases of amphibia.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the most recent updates on emerging infectious diseases of amphibia. A brief summary of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, life cycle, diagnosis, treatment, and biosecurity is provided. Ambystoma tigrinum virus, common midwife toad virus, frog virus 3, Rana grylio virus, Rana catesbeiana ranavirus, Mahaffey Road virus, Rana esculenta virus, Bohle iridovirus, and tiger frog virus ranaviruses are extensively reviewed. Emerging bacterial pathogens are discussed, including Flavobacter sp, Aeromonas sp, Citrobacter freundii, Chlamydophila sp, Mycobacterium liflandii, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and Ochrobactrum anthropi. Rhabdias sp, Ribeiroia sp, and Spirometra erinacei are among several of the parasitic infections overviewed in this article. PMID:23642863

Latney, La'Toya V; Klaphake, Eric

2013-05-01

24

A syndromic approach to common parasitic diseases  

PubMed Central

Standard textbooks discuss parasitic disease according to specific organisms. In contrast, patients with parasitic infections present to physicians with a variety of clinical manifestations that may involve any of several organ systems and that often mimic nonparasitic diseases. A syndromic approach to the clinical situation may help the physician in considering the most important parasitic agents. Many parasitic infections can be acquired in temperate climates. While often considered tropical or exotic, other parasitic diseases are now seen more frequently in developed countries because of immigration and increased world travel. In this review the clinical syndromes associated with common parasitic diseases in North America are discussed, with an emphasis on risk factors and diagnosis of specific infections. PMID:4042057

Shafran, Stephen D.; Chow, Anthony W.

1985-01-01

25

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging diseases include outbreaks of previously unknown diseases or known diseases whose incidence in humans has significantly\\u000a increased in the past two decades. Re-emerging diseases are known diseases that have reappeared after a significant decline\\u000a in incidence (http:\\/\\/www3.niaid.nih.gov\\/research\\/topics\\/emerging).

Vassil St. Georgiev

26

Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Taenia infection fascioliasis Vector-borne Transmission More Common malaria leishmaniasis Less Common Chagas disease lymphatic filariasis African ... source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria Notice: Linking to a non-federal site does ...

27

Water-Related Parasitic Diseases in China  

PubMed Central

Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized. PMID:23685826

Lv, Shan; Tian, Li-Guang; Liu, Qin; Qian, Men-Bao; Fu, Qing; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Jia-Xu; Yang, Guo-Jing; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2013-01-01

28

Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?  

PubMed Central

Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites. PMID:24386497

Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kub?kov, Petra; Scholz, Tom

2013-01-01

29

Drug repurposing and human parasitic protozoan diseases  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases have an enormous health, social and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 1.1million combined deaths annually. The global burden of these diseases is exacerbated by the lack of licensed vaccines, making safe and effective drugs vital to their prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, where drugs are available, their usefulness is being increasingly threatened by parasite drug resistance. The need for new drugs drives antiparasitic drug discovery research globally and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. In this review we discuss one of these approaches, drug repurposing or repositioning, with a focus on major human parasitic protozoan diseases such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and leishmaniasis. PMID:25057459

Andrews, Katherine T.; Fisher, Gillian; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.

2014-01-01

30

Emerging foodborne diseases.  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing. Recently described pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the epidemic strain of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium Definitive Type 104 (which is resistant to at least five antimicrobial drugs), have become important public health problems. Well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, have increased in prevalence or become associated with new vehicles. Emergence in foodborne diseases is driven by the same forces as emergence in other infectious diseases: changes in demographic characteristics, human behavior, industry, and technology; the shift toward a global economy; microbial adaptation; and the breakdown in the public health infrastructure. Addressing emerging foodborne diseases will require more sensitive and rapid surveillance, enhanced methods of laboratory identification and subtyping, and effective prevention and control. PMID:9284372

Altekruse, S. F.; Cohen, M. L.; Swerdlow, D. L.

1997-01-01

31

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by a new or an increased occurrence within the last few decades. They\\u000a include the following categories Emerging diagnosis of infectious diseases: old diseases that are newly classified as infectious\\u000a diseases because of the discovery of a responsible infectious agent.

Thomas Lscher; Luise Prfer-Krmer

32

Integrated Approaches and Empirical Models for Investigation of Parasitic Diseases in Northern Wildlife  

PubMed Central

The North is a frontier for exploration of emerging infectious diseases and the large-scale drivers influencing distribution, host associations, and evolution of pathogens among persons, domestic animals, and wildlife. Leading into the International Polar Year 20072008, we outline approaches, protocols, and empirical models derived from a decade of integrated research on northern hostparasite systems. Investigations of emerging infectious diseases associated with parasites in northern wildlife involved a network of multidisciplinary collaborators and incorporated geographic surveys, archival collections, historical foundations for diversity, and laboratory and field studies exploring the interface for hosts, parasites, and the environment. In this system, emergence of parasitic disease was linked to geographic expansion, host switching, resurgence due to climate change, and newly recognized parasite species. Such integrative approaches serve as cornerstones for detection, prediction, and potential mitigation of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and persons in the North and elsewhere under a changing global climate. PMID:18258071

Polley, Lydden; Jenkins, Emily J.; Kutz, Susan J.; Veitch, Alasdair M.; Elkin, Brett T.

2008-01-01

33

Integrated approaches and empirical models for investigation of parasitic diseases in northern wildlife.  

PubMed

The North is a frontier for exploration of emerging infectious diseases and the large-scale drivers influencing distribution, host associations, and evolution of pathogens among persons, domestic animals, and wildlife. Leading into the International Polar Year 2007-2008, we outline approaches, protocols, and empirical models derived from a decade of integrated research on northern host-parasite systems. Investigations of emerging infectious diseases associated with parasites in northern wildlife involved a network of multidisciplinary collaborators and incorporated geographic surveys, archival collections, historical foundations for diversity, and laboratory and field studies exploring the interface for hosts, parasites, and the environment. In this system, emergence of parasitic disease was linked to geographic expansion, host switching, resurgence due to climate change, and newly recognized parasite species. Such integrative approaches serve as cornerstones for detection, prediction, and potential mitigation of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and persons in the North and elsewhere under a changing global climate. PMID:18258071

Hoberg, Eric P; Polley, Lydden; Jenkins, Emily J; Kutz, Susan J; Veitch, Alasdair M; Elkin, Brett T

2008-01-01

34

Parasites  

MedlinePLUS

... U V W X Y Z Parasites Topics Malaria An ancient disease that affects millions of people ... source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria Notice: Linking to a non-federal site does ...

35

Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The definition of "emerging" infectious diseases includes those diseases "whose incidences in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." The journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases continues to be an invaluable resource for public health professionals, scholars, and others. On the journal's homepage, users can read over the current issue and take a look at all of the articles and various commentaries contained within. Visitors can also peruse the archive, which dates back to the journal's first issue in 1995. As with many online journals, visitors can sign up to receive their RSS feed and they even have a podcast archive. The podcasts are a nice bonus, and they include programs like "Strategies For Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries" and "The Mystery of Increased Hospitalization of Elderly Patients".

36

Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... more information on enabling JavaScript. Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... Divisions supporting such research. NIAID Biodefense Research Priority Pathogens List of NIAID Category A-C pathogens Additional ...

37

Detecting disease and parasite threats to endangered species and ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecologists have recently begun to acknowledge the importance of disease and parasites in the dynamics of populations. Diseases and parasites have probably been responsible for a number of extinctions on islands and on large land masses, but the problem has only been identified in retrospect. In contrast, endemic pathogens and parasites may operate as keystone species, playing a crucial role

Hamish McCallum; Andy Dobson

1995-01-01

38

Emerging Foodborne Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For a scholarly (but accessible) article,taken from Emerging Infectious Diseases (discussed in the January 10, 1997 Scout Report), dealing with a variety of food-borne illnesses including E. coli, users can go to this site. It contains a bibliography and a more detailed discussion of the epidemiology and biology of E. coli and its associated diseases. Knowledgeable visitors will appreciate the abundance of detail offered on a number of food-borne culprits. Escherichia coli refers to a diverse family of hundreds of bacteria, many of which are permanent residents of human intestines, serving a beneficial purpose in digestion. The potentially deadly strain that has received recent publicity was first described in 1982, and is known as E. coli O157:H7. This strain of the bacteria produces a substance known as Vero-cytotoxin, which can cause severe illness, characterized by bloody diarrhea and occasional kidney failure in children and the elderly. Symptoms normally appear between three to six days after ingestion of the bacteria. Most illness associated with E. coli has been traced to eating undercooked, contaminated ground beef, although it can also be transmitted via person-to-person contact, by eating raw milk, contaminated vegetables or apple cider, and by swimming in or drinking sewage-contaminated water. The organism lives in the intestine of healthy cattle, and meat can become contaminated during slaughter. Because grinding mixes the bacteria into the product, ground meats represent a greater threat than do whole cuts. Contaminated meat looks and smells normal. Raw milk can be contaminated from bacteria present on a cow's udder. It appears that even small amounts of this organism can cause severe illness.

Altekruse, S. F.

1997-01-01

39

Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

2007-01-01

40

Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The processes which give rise to emerging infectious diseases of wildlife can be categorised as follows: ecosystem alterations of anthropogenic or natural origin; movement of pathogens or vectors, via human or natural agency; and changes in microbes or in the recognition of emerging pathogens due to advances in the techniques of epidemiology. These are simplistic divisions because factors influencing

E. S. Williams; T. Yuill; M. Artois; J. Fischer; S. A. Haigh

2002-01-01

41

Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... espaol) Ukrainian (??????????) Arabic (???????) Stool Test for Ova and Parasite (O&P) (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF ... Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) Stool Test for Ova and Parasite (O&P) ??????????(O&P) - ???? ( ...

42

Emerging infectious plant diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Healthy plants are essential to the survival of humans and animals on earth. Despite the value of plants, however, threats to plant health are generally considered secondary in importance to those of humans and animals. Although the most extensively studied pathogens are those causing disease on s...

43

Selected emerging diseases in ferrets.  

PubMed

Since their introduction as pets several decades ago, ferrets have become an increasingly popular household pet. Great strides have been made in improving their diet and understanding common diseases (eg, insulinoma, hyperadrenocorticism, lymphoma) that affect them. With the frequency with which these conditions are seen, it sometimes is easy to forget that ferrets can be affected by other diseases. Some of these diseases, such as cryptococcosis, are known, but may be increasing in incidence and range, whereas others, such as hypothyroidism and pure red cell aplasia, may be underrecognized or underreported. This review highlights new and emerging diseases not already well reviewed in the literature. PMID:23642872

Wyre, Nicole R; Michels, Dennis; Chen, Sue

2013-05-01

44

MFR PAPER 1343 The Principal Parasitic Diseases  

E-print Network

, such as the ciliated protozoan Ichthy- ophthirius, cause great losses. Many helminths such as the digenean grubs appear the protozoans to be the most important group of parasites affecting fish. Fish culturists through- out the world report great losses caused by protozoans. The most devastating fish parasite is the ciliated protozoan

45

Disease Dynamics in a Specialized Parasite of Ant Societies  

PubMed Central

Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests and that hyperparasites often castrate Ophiocordyceps. However, once fruiting bodies become sexually mature they appear robust. Such parasite life-history traits are consistent with iteroparity a reproductive strategy rarely considered in fungi. We discuss how tropical habitats with high biodiversity of hyperparasites and high spore mortality has likely been crucial for the evolution and maintenance of iteroparity in parasites with low dispersal potential. PMID:22567151

Andersen, Sandra B.; Ferrari, Matthew; Evans, Harry C.; Elliot, Simon L.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Hughes, David P.

2012-01-01

46

2. Wildlife population structure and parasite transmission: implications for disease  

E-print Network

2. Wildlife population structure and parasite transmission: implications for disease management (Wobeser 2006). Control methods directed at the host population, however, remain limited in approach (e, USA 3 Wildlife Health and Conservation Medicine Group, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University

Mladenoff, David

47

The impact of genomics on population genetics of parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

Parasites, defined as eukaryotic microbes and parasitic worms that cause global diseases of human and veterinary importance, span many lineages in the eukaryotic Tree of Life. Historically challenging to study due to their complicated life-cycles and association with impoverished settings, their inherent complexities are now being elucidated by genome sequencing. Over the course of the last decade, projects in large sequencing centers, and increasingly frequently in individual research labs, have sequenced dozens of parasite reference genomes and field isolates from patient populations. This 'tsunami' of genomic data is answering questions about parasite genetic diversity, signatures of evolution orchestrated through anti-parasitic drug and host immune pressure, and the characteristics of populations. This brief review focuses on the state of the art of parasitic protist genomics, how the peculiar genomes of parasites are driving creative methods for their sequencing, and the impact that next-generation sequencing is having on our understanding of parasite population genomics and control of the diseases they cause. PMID:25461572

Hupalo, Daniel N; Bradic, Martina; Carlton, Jane M

2015-02-01

48

Bibliography of Oyster Parasites and Diseases  

E-print Network

parasites of bi- valve mollusks in Chesapeake Bay. Proc. Nat. Shellfish. Ass. 45: 157-163. 1956. What killed seed beds. Proc. Nat. Shellfish. Ass. 53: 65-84. 1965. Infection experiments in nature of oysters, in Virginia. Conv. Add. Nat. Shellfish. Ass. 1953: 79. [Abstract.] 1957. Oyster mortality studies

49

Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife: role in amphibian population declines and global implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.

Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A.A.; Hyatt, A.D.; Green, D.E.; Speare, R.

1999-01-01

50

Plastic behaviors in hosts promote the emergence of retaliatory parasites  

PubMed Central

Mafia like behavior, where individuals cooperate under the threat of punishment, occurs not only in humans, but is also observed in several animal species. Observations suggest that avian hosts tend to accept a certain degree of parasitism in order to avoid retaliating punishment from the brood parasite. To understand under which conditions it will be beneficial for a host to cooperate, we model the interaction between hosts and parasites as an evolutionary game. In our model, the host's behavior is plastic, and thus, its response depends on the previous interactions with the parasite. We find that such learned behavior in turn is crucial for the evolution of retaliating parasites. The abundance of this kind of mafia behavior oscillates in time and does not settle to an equilibrium. Our results suggest that retaliation is a mechanism for the parasite to evade specialization and to induce acceptance by the host. PMID:24589512

Chakra, Maria Abou; Hilbe, Christian; Traulsen, Arne

2014-01-01

51

Huntington's disease: underlying molecular mechanisms and emerging  

E-print Network

Huntington's disease: underlying molecular mechanisms and emerging concepts John Labbadia, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegen- erative disorder for which no disease modifying treat- ments exist. Many molecular changes and cellular

Morimoto, Richard

52

The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread  

PubMed Central

The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional landscapes such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

2011-01-01

53

Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.  

PubMed

Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387

Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

2006-06-01

54

The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary

David M. Morens; Gregory K. Folkers; Anthony S. Fauci

2004-01-01

55

Chagas Disease Etiology: Autoimmunity or Parasite Persistence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the cause and the mechanisms of disease in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection continues to attract debate. Chagas disease, characterized by cardiomyopathy and\\/or megasyndrome involving the esophagus or colon, occurs in ?30% of individuals with chronic T. cruzi infections. Although the pathogenesis of Chagas disease is often attributed to autoimmune mechanisms, definitive proof of anti-self responses as the

R. L. Tarleton; L. Zhang

1999-01-01

56

Drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne protozoal and bacterial diseases.  

PubMed

In recent years, vector-borne parasitic and bacterial diseases have emerged or re-emerged in many geographical regions causing global health and economic problems that involve humans, livestock, companion animals and wild life. The ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases are affected by the interrelations between three major factors comprising the pathogen, the host (human, animal or vector) and the environment. Important drivers for the emergence and spread of vector-borne parasites include habitat changes, alterations in water storage and irrigation habits, atmospheric and climate changes, immunosuppression by HIV, pollution, development of insecticide and drug resistance, globalization and the significant increase in international trade, tourism and travel. War and civil unrest, and governmental or global management failure are also major contributors to the spread of infectious diseases. The improvement of epidemic understanding and planning together with the development of new diagnostic molecular techniques in the last few decades have allowed researchers to better diagnose and trace pathogens, their origin and routes of infection, and to develop preventive public health and intervention programs. Health care workers, physicians, veterinarians and biosecurity officers should play a key role in future prevention of vector-borne diseases. A coordinated global approach for the prevention of vector-borne diseases should be implemented by international organizations and governmental agencies in collaboration with research institutions. PMID:16126213

Harrus, S; Baneth, G

2005-10-01

57

[Intestinal parasitic diseases as a global health problem].  

PubMed

In today's world, parasitic disease agents are not restricted by geography or economy, and have become a significant global threat. The increasing globalization of the fresh produce market and greater international trade and travels, have contributed to the spread of these organisms in the industrialized world. Parasitic protozoa cause waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrhea. The unprecedented flow of people introduces cultural and behavior patterns around the world; the increasing tendency to eat raw or undercooked meat and seafood, favors the dissemination of several parasitic pathogens. Climate changes are predicted to cause a global increase in soil-transmitted helminthiases. The multidisciplinary study of these agents, and the interaction among scientists, global health organizations and governments are imperative to reduce the burden of these diseases and improve the life of a large segment of the world population. PMID:23781708

Chacn-Bonilla, Leonor

2013-03-01

58

Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis

Jonathan D. Mayer

2000-01-01

59

Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis

Jonathan D. Mayera

60

Parasite persistence in the aetiology of Chagas disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two primary hypotheses are proposed to account for pathogenesis in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infections: that the persistence of T. cruzi at specific sites in the infected host results in chronic inflammatory reactivity and that T. cruzi infection induces immune responses which are targetted at self tissues. The data supporting parasite persistence as the primary cause of disease in T. cruzi

Rick L. Tarleton

2001-01-01

61

DARWIN'S NECESSARY MISFIT AND THE SLOSHING BUCKET: THE EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY OF EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Evolutionary studies suggest that the potential for rapid emergence of novel host-parasite associations appears to be a built-in feature of the complex phenomenon that is Darwinian evolution. The current Emerging Infectious Disease (EID) crisis is thus a new manifestation of an old and repeating p...

62

Non-native aquatic animals introductions have driven disease emergence in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper it is argued, using examples of disease emergence in aquatic animals in Europe, that the introduction of non-native\\u000a species drives disease emergence by both extending the geographic range of parasites and pathogens and facilitating host-switching.\\u000a Enteric red mouth disease and infectious haematopoietic necrosis of salmonids have extended their geographic range from North\\u000a America to Europe with the

Edmund J. PeelerBirgit; Birgit C. Oidtmann; Paul J. Midtlyng; Laurence Miossec; Rodolphe E. Gozlan

2011-01-01

63

Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated  

PubMed Central

Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed. PMID:20653938

2010-01-01

64

Natural Products as a Source for Treating Neglected Parasitic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases caused by parasites are a major threat for the entire mankind, especially in the tropics. More than 1 billion people world-wide are directly exposed to tropical parasites such as the causative agents of trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which represent a major health problem, particularly in impecunious areas. Unlike most antibiotics, there is no general antiparasitic drug available. Here, the selection of antiparasitic drugs varies between different organisms. Some of the currently available drugs are chemically de novo synthesized, however, the majority of drugs are derived from natural sources such as plants which have subsequently been chemically modified to warrant higher potency against these human pathogens. In this review article we will provide an overview of the current status of plant derived pharmaceuticals and their chemical modifications to target parasite-specific peculiarities in order to interfere with their proliferation in the human host. PMID:23389040

Ndjonka, Dieudonn; Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Silber, Ariel M.; Liebau, Eva; Wrenger, Carsten

2013-01-01

65

25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section 168.15 Indians...15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi...with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...

2011-04-01

66

25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section 700.723 Indians...723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New...with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...

2012-04-01

67

25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section 168.15 Indians...15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi...with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...

2014-04-01

68

25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section 168.15 Indians...15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi...with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...

2010-04-01

69

25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section 700.723 Indians...723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New...with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...

2014-04-01

70

25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section 700.723 Indians...723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New...with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...

2013-04-01

71

25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...true Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section 168.15 Indians...15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi...with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...

2012-04-01

72

25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section 168.15 Indians...15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi...with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...

2013-04-01

73

25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section 700.723 Indians...723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New...with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...

2011-04-01

74

25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section 700.723 Indians...723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New...with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed thereto, such...

2010-04-01

75

Criticality of Parasitic Disease Transmission in a Diffusive Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through using the methods of finite-size effect and short time dynamic scaling, we study the critical behavior of parasitic disease spreading process in a diffusive population mediated by a static vector environment. Through comprehensive analysis of parasitic disease spreading we find that this model presents a dynamical phase transition from disease-free state to endemic state with a finite population density. We determine the critical population density, above which the system reaches an epidemic spreading stationary state. We also perform a scaling analysis to determine the order parameter and critical relaxation exponents. The results show that the model does not belong to the usual directed percolation universality class and is compatible with the class of directed percolation with diffusive and conserved fields.

He, Min-Hua; Zhang, Duan-Ming; Pan, Gui-Jun; Yin, Yan-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Yuan

2008-12-01

76

Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Global warming can affect the world's biota and the functioning of ecosystems in many indirect ways. Recent evidence indicates that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of parasitic diseases, with potentially drastic conse- quences for their hosts. It is also possible that warmer conditions could promote the transmission of parasites and raise their local abundance. Here I have

R. POULIN

2005-01-01

77

Gnathostomiasis, Another Emerging Imported Disease  

PubMed Central

Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the late-third stage larvae of Gnathostoma spp. It is being seen with increasing frequency in countries where it is not endemic and should be regarded as another emerging imported disease. Previously, its foci of endemicity have been confined to Southeast Asia and Central and South America, but its geographical boundaries appear to be increasing, with recent reports of infection in tourists returning from southern Africa. It has a complex life cycle involving at least two intermediate hosts, with humans being accidental hosts in which the larvae cannot reach sexual maturity. The main risks for acquisition are consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish and geographical exposure. Infection results in initial nonspecific symptoms followed by cutaneous and/or visceral larva migrans, with the latter carrying high morbidity and mortality rates if there is central nervous system involvement. We review the literature and describe the epidemiology, life cycle, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gnathostomiasis. PMID:19597010

Herman, Joanna S.; Chiodini, Peter L.

2009-01-01

78

Bacterial parasite shows potential in disease control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article reports that researchers have sequenced the complete genome of one strain of Wolbachia pipientis and are gaining new insight into the biology and evolution of Wolbachia-host interactions. It discusses practical applications such as disease and pest control.

Lon Bram

79

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities  

E-print Network

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities Pieter T. J, Berkeley, CA, and approved September 10, 2013 (received for review June 3, 2013) Host­parasite interactions parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite

Johnson, Pieter

80

Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases: Old and New Approaches  

PubMed Central

Methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases have stagnated in the last 2030 years. Few major advances in clinical diagnostic testing have been made since the introduction of PCR, although new technologies are being investigated. Many tests that form the backbone of the modern microbiology laboratory are based on very old and labour-intensive technologies such as microscopy for malaria. Pressing needs include more rapid tests without sacrificing sensitivity, value-added tests, and point-of-care tests for both high- and low-resource settings. In recent years, research has been focused on alternative methods to improve the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. These include immunoassays, molecular-based approaches, and proteomics using mass spectrometry platforms technology. This review summarizes the progress in new approaches in parasite diagnosis and discusses some of the merits and disadvantages of these tests. PMID:20069111

Ndao, Momar

2009-01-01

81

Emerging infectious diseases and animal social systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases threaten a wide diversity of animals, and important questions remain concerning disease emergence\\u000a in socially structured populations. We developed a spatially explicit simulation model to investigate whetherand under what\\u000a conditionsdisease-related mortality can impact rates of pathogen spread in populations of polygynous groups. Specifically,\\u000a we investigated whether pathogen-mediated dispersal (PMD) can occur when females disperse after the resident

Charles L. Nunn; Peter H. Thrall; Kelly Stewart; Alexander H. Harcourt

2008-01-01

82

Epidemiology and history of human parasitic diseases in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal parasitic diseases such as enterobiasis, giardiasis, and ascariasis are detected most frequently in Romania, but\\u000a their importance is definitely surpassed by trichinellosis, cystic echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis. Malaria was common until\\u000a its eradication in 1963, and only imported cases are reported nowadays. The aim of this review was to bring together essential\\u000a data on the epidemiology and history of human

Raul Neghina; Adriana M. Neghina; Iosif Marincu; Ioan Iacobiciu

2011-01-01

83

Pathogenesis of Chagas' Disease: Parasite Persistence and Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Summary: Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infections can be asymptomatic, but chronically infected individuals can die of Chagas' disease. The transfer of the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle to the genome of chagasic patients can explain the pathogenesis of the disease; in cases of Chagas' disease with evident cardiomyopathy, the kDNA minicircles integrate mainly into retrotransposons at several chromosomes, but the minicircles are also detected in coding regions of genes that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and immune responses. An accurate evaluation of the role played by the genotype alterations in the autoimmune rejection of self-tissues in Chagas' disease is achieved with the cross-kingdom chicken model system, which is refractory to T. cruzi infections. The inoculation of T. cruzi into embryonated eggs prior to incubation generates parasite-free chicks, which retain the kDNA minicircle sequence mainly in the macrochromosome coding genes. Crossbreeding transfers the kDNA mutations to the chicken progeny. The kDNA-mutated chickens develop severe cardiomyopathy in adult life and die of heart failure. The phenotyping of the lesions revealed that cytotoxic CD45, CD8+ ??, and CD8?+ T lymphocytes carry out the rejection of the chicken heart. These results suggest that the inflammatory cardiomyopathy of Chagas' disease is a genetically driven autoimmune disease. PMID:21734249

Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Hecht, Mariana M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Nitz, Nadjar

2011-01-01

84

Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24808250

Montgomery, Susan P; Starr, Michelle C; Cantey, Paul T; Edwards, Morven S; Meymandi, Sheba K

2014-05-01

85

Helminthic eosinophilic meningitis: emerging zoonotic diseases in the South.  

PubMed

Today most emerging infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), arise in the natural environment as zoonoses and are often imported into the United States (US). The most common helminthic infections that can cause eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) in the US, neuroangiostrongyliasis and baylisascariasis, share many of the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases. Neuroangiostrongyliasis, a rodent zoonosis caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is now endemic in the US following the importation of infected rats on container ships and African land snails, the parasite's intermediate hosts, as biological controls and exotic pets. Baylisascariasis, a raccoon zoonosis, caused by the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, has extended its US distribution range from suburban neighborhoods in the northern US to the Southeast and West Coast since the 1980s. Both A. cantonensis and B. procyonis are now enzootic in Louisiana and have caused EoM in humans. This review analyzes scientific articles selected by MEDLINE search, 1966-2008, in order to assess the evolving epidemiology of EoM in the US, and specifically in Louisiana; and to alert Louisiana clinicians to populations at increased risk of helminthic EoM as a result of age, ethnicity, lifestyle, food choices, location of permanent residence, or recent travel in the Americas or Caribbean. Most parasitic diseases causing EoM are no longer confined to tropical countries; they are now endemic in the US and in Louisiana and more cases may be anticipated. PMID:19283982

Diaz, James H

2008-01-01

86

Emerging Plant Diseases: What Are Our Best  

E-print Network

152 11 Emerging Plant Diseases: What Are Our Best Strategies for Management? Karen A. Garrett, Ari Jumpponen, and Lorena Gomez Montano The impact of plant disease can be stark. Famine can result if no sys- tems are in place to replace lost crops. Notorious famines precipitated by plant disease include

Garrett, Karen A.

87

Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... emerge naturally or are deliberately introduced as an act of bioterrorism. Research NIAID Role Strategic ... What's New Sequential Immunization with VSV-Based Lassa and Ebola Vaccines Does Not Diminish Protection in Monkeys, NIAID ...

88

The emergence of Lyme disease  

PubMed Central

Since its identification nearly 30 years ago, Lyme disease has continued to spread, and there have been increasing numbers of cases in the northeastern and north central US. The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes infection by migration through tissues, adhesion to host cells, and evasion of immune clearance. Both innate and adaptive immune responses, especially macrophage- and antibody-mediated killing, are required for optimal control of the infection and spirochetal eradication. Ecological conditions favorable to the disease, and the challenge of prevention, predict that Lyme disease will be a continuing public health concern. PMID:15085185

Steere, Allen C.; Coburn, Jenifer; Glickstein, Lisa

2004-01-01

89

Tungiasis - A Janus-faced parasitic skin disease.  

PubMed

Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease caused by the penetration of female sand fleas (Tunga penetrans). It is acquired when people walk barefoot or rest on soil, where sand fleas have completed the off-host cycle. Tungiasis is a classic poverty-associated disease which belongs to the family of neglected tropical diseases (NTD). It has a Janus-face: while in travellers tungiasis usually is a benign self-limiting skin disease, inhabitants of endemic areas suffer from heavy infestations and severe, frequently debilitating and incapacitating morbidity. We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of travel-associated tungiasis and compare these features to the situation in resource-poor communities in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24211240

Feldmeier, Hermann; Keysers, Anne

2013-01-01

90

Global trends in emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Their emergence is thought to be driven largely by socio-economic, environmental and ecological factors, but no comparative study has explicitly analysed these linkages to understand global temporal and spatial patterns of EIDs. Here we analyse a database of 335 EID `events' (origins of EIDs) between 1940

Kate E. Jones; Nikkita G. Patel; Marc A. Levy; Adam Storeygard; Deborah Balk; John L. Gittleman; Peter Daszak

2008-01-01

91

Globalization, international law, and emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic problems that the global campaign against emerging infectious diseases might face in applying international law to facilitate international cooperation. The international legal component of the global control strategy for these diseases needs careful attention because of problems inherent in international law, especially as it applies to emerging infections issues. PMID:8903206

Fidler, D. P.

1996-01-01

92

Sialoglycans in protozoal diseases: their detection, modes of acquisition and emerging biological roles.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites including Plasmodia, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Entamoeba, Trichomonas and others cause diseases in humans and domestic livestock having far-reaching socio-economic implications. They show remarkable propensity to survive within hostile environments encountered during their life cycle, and the identification of molecules that enable them to survive in such milieu is a subject of intense research. Currently available knowledge of the parasite cell surface architecture and biochemistry indicates that sialic acid and its principle derivatives are major components of the glycocalyx and assist the parasite to interact with its external environment through functions ranging from parasite survival, infectivity and host-cell recognition. This review highlights the present state of knowledge with regard to parasite sialobiology with an emphasis on its mode(s) of acquisition and their emerging biological roles, notably as an anti-recognition molecule thereby aiding the pathogen to evade host defense mechanisms. PMID:15090733

Chava, Anil K; Bandyopadhyay, Sumi; Chatterjee, Mitali; Mandal, Chitra

2004-01-01

93

Emerging Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Amazon Basin, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is enzootic, involving a variety of wild mammals and at least 10 of the 16 reported silvatic triatomine bug species. Human cases of Chagas disease are increasing, indicating that the disease may be emerging as a wider public health problem in the region: 38 cases from 1969 to 1992, and 167 in the

Jos Rodrigues Coura; Angela C. V. Junqueira; Octavio Fernandes; Sebastiao A. S. Valente; Michael A. Miles

2002-01-01

94

Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of free-living wild animals can be classified into three major groups on the basis of key epizootiological criteria: (i) EIDs associated with ``spill-over'' from domestic animals to wildlife populations living in proximity; (ii) EIDs related directly to human intervention, via host or parasite translocations; and (iii) EIDs with no overt human or domestic animal involvement. These

Peter Daszak; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt

2000-01-01

95

Emerging infectious diseases in Mongolia.  

PubMed

Since 1990, Mongolia's health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcosis, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

Ebright, John R; Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

2003-12-01

96

Parasitic diseases of the nervous system in Thailand.  

PubMed

In Thailand there are 3 parasites that commonly cause neurological diseases in man. 1) In gnathostomiasis man becomes an accidental host by eating infected under-cooked fresh water fish. The tissue nematode involved, Gnathostoma spinigerum, because of its high motility, may cause widespread damage in the spinal cord and brain stem. The common presenting neurological symptoms are severe nerve root pain, paralysis of limbs and urinary retention. Less frequently seen are cranial nerve palsies and symptoms of subarachnoid haemorrhage. The disease has significant morbidity and mortality. 2) Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the lungworm of rats, has a more benign, self limiting course. It occurs in Thai people of lower socio-economic groups who acquire the parasite by eating infected raw Pila snails. 3) Cysticercus cellulosae, caused by Taenia solium, commonly results in epilepsy, and sometimes increased intracranial pressure from intraventricular obstruction or from basal arachnoiditis. Spinal cord and cauda equina involvement occurs much less frequently. Cysticercus complement fixation tests on the CSF and computerised axial tomography have been found to be of great diagnostic value. PMID:756025

Vejjajiva, A

1978-01-01

97

Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unproductive enterprises that feed on productive businesses, are rampant in developing countries. These parasitic enterprises take divergent forms, some headed by violent bandits and brutal mafia bosses, others by organized middlemen or smart political insiders. All of them seem to have the profit motive in common. A consequence of parasitic enterprises is that societies may be locked into a self

Halvor Mehlum; Karl O. Moene; Ragnar Torvik

2003-01-01

98

Genomic insights into the origin of parasitism in the emerging plant pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the biology of this unusual parasite. PMID:21909270

Kikuchi, Taisei; Cotton, James A; Dalzell, Jonathan J; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; McVeigh, Paul; Takanashi, Takuma; Tsai, Isheng J; Assefa, Samuel A; Cock, Peter J A; Otto, Thomas Dan; Hunt, Martin; Reid, Adam J; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Yokoi, Toshiro; Larsson, Mattias C; Miwa, Johji; Maule, Aaron G; Sahashi, Norio; Jones, John T; Berriman, Matthew

2011-09-01

99

Fossil psychodoid flies and their relation to parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

Psychodid sand flies are blood-sucking fly vectors of several parasitic diseases. The oldest definitive record of this group is from the Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon (circa-135 to -125 My), but the high diversity within this group supports the idea that the psychodoids originated much earlier in history. The palaeontology demonstrates that the Lower Creataceous representatives of the different subfamilies of Psychodidae had similar morphology and were blood-feeders, which supports Hennig's hypothesis on the ground plan structure of this family. Historical relationship between sand flies and diseases is unclear up to the present time, but this relationship could be as old as the origin of psychodoids because of the blood-feeding life mode. PMID:12687760

Azar, Dany; Nel, Andr

2003-01-01

100

Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

Wilson, M. E.

1995-01-01

101

Genetic Variability of the Neogregarine Apicystis bombi, an Etiological Agent of an Emergent Bumblebee Disease  

PubMed Central

The worldwide spread of diseases is considered a major threat to biodiversity and a possible driver of the decline of pollinator populations, particularly when novel species or strains of parasites emerge. Previous studies have suggested that populations of introduced European honeybee (Apis mellifera) and bumblebee species (Bombus terrestris and Bombus ruderatus) in Argentina share the neogregarine parasite Apicystis bombi with the native bumblebee (Bombus dahlbomii). In this study we investigated whether A. bombi is acting as an emergent parasite in the non-native populations. Specifically, we asked whether A. bombi, recently identified in Argentina, was introduced by European, non-native bees. Using ITS1 and ITS2 to assess the parasites intraspecific genetic variation in bees from Argentina and Europe, we found a largely unstructured parasite population, with only 15% of the genetic variation being explained by geographic location. The most abundant haplotype in Argentina (found in all 9 specimens of non-native species) was identical to the most abundant haplotype in Europe (found in 6 out of 8 specimens). Similarly, there was no evidence of structuring by host species, with this factor explaining only 17% of the genetic variation. Interestingly, parasites in native Bombus ephippiatus from Mexico were genetically distant from the Argentine and European samples, suggesting that sufficient variability does exist in the ITS region to identify continent-level genetic structure in the parasite. Thus, the data suggest that A. bombi from Argentina and Europe share a common, relatively recent origin. Although our data did not provide information on the direction of transfer, the absence of genetic structure across space and host species suggests that A. bombi may be acting as an emergent infectious disease across bee taxa and continents. PMID:24324696

Maebe, Kevin; Arbetman, Marina; Morales, Carolina; Graystock, Peter; Hughes, William O. H.; Plischuk, Santiago; Lange, Carlos E.; de Graaf, Dirk C.; Zapata, Nelson; de la Rosa, Jose Javier Perez; Murray, Toms E.; Brown, Mark J. F.; Smagghe, Guy

2013-01-01

102

Effect of Biodiversity Changes in Disease Risk: Exploring Disease Emergence in a Plant-Virus System  

PubMed Central

The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species. PMID:22792068

Pagn, Israel; Gonzlez-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piero, Daniel; Garca-Arenal, Fernando

2012-01-01

103

Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.

Pello, Susan J.; Olsen, Glenn H.

2013-01-01

104

Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife.  

PubMed

Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive. PMID:23642867

Pello, Susan J; Olsen, Glenn H

2013-05-01

105

Rediscovering Biology - Unit 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.

Annenberg Media Learner.org

106

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities  

PubMed Central

Hostparasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversitydisease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 1165%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 1520%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversitydisease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Preston, Daniel L.; Hoverman, Jason T.; LaFonte, Bryan E.

2013-01-01

107

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities.  

PubMed

Host-parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity-disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11-65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15-20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity-disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T J; Preston, Daniel L; Hoverman, Jason T; LaFonte, Bryan E

2013-10-15

108

Emerging viral diseases of tomato crops.  

PubMed

Viral diseases are an important limiting factor in many crop production systems. Because antiviral products are not available, control strategies rely on genetic resistance or hygienic measures to prevent viral diseases, or on eradication of diseased crops to control such diseases. Increasing international travel and trade of plant materials enhances the risk of introducing new viruses and their vectors into production systems. In addition, changing climate conditions can contribute to a successful spread of newly introduced viruses or their vectors and establishment of these organisms in areas that were previously unfavorable. Tomato is economically the most important vegetable crop worldwide and many viruses infecting tomato have been described, while new viral diseases keep emerging. Pepino mosaic virus is a rapidly emerging virus which has established itself as one of the most important viral diseases in tomato production worldwide over recent years. Begomovirus species and other whitefly-transmitted viruses are invading into new areas, and several recently described new viruses such as Tomato torrado virus and new Tospovirus species are rapidly spreading over large geographic areas. In this article, emerging viruses of tomato crops are discussed. PMID:20367462

Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe; Thomma, Bart P H J

2010-05-01

109

Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

"Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli). Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination. These factors are increasing in prevalence; this increase, together with the ongoing evolution of viral and microbial variants and selection for drug resistance, suggests that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase and emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance and control. Dr. David Satcher's article and this overview inaugurate Perspectives, a regular section in this journal intended to present and develop unifying concepts and strategies for considering emerging infections and their underlying factors. The editors welcome, as contributions to the Perspectives section, overviews, syntheses, and case studies that shed light on how and why infections emerge, and how they may be anticipated and prevented. PMID:8903148

Morse, S. S.

1995-01-01

110

Emerging Therapeutic Approaches to Mitochondrial Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mitochondrial diseases are very heterogeneous and can affect different tissues and organs. Moreover, they can be caused by genetic defects in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA as well as by environmental factors. All of these factors have made the development of therapies difficult. In this review article, we will discuss emerging approaches to

Wenz, Tina; Williams, Sion L.; Bacman, Sandra R.; Moraes, Carlos T.

2010-01-01

111

Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to

Marjorie Greene

2010-01-01

112

The impact of climate change on the parasites and infectious diseases of aquatic animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Climate change is predicted to have important effects on parasitism and disease in freshwater and marine ecosystems, with consequences for human health and socio-economics. The distribution of parasites and pathogens will be directly affected by global warming, but also indirectly, through effects on host range and abundance. To date, numerous disease outbreaks, especially in marine organisms, have been associated

D. J. Marcogliese

2008-01-01

113

Emerging infectious disease: global response, global alert.  

PubMed

Despite spectacular progress in the eradication of infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are making a comeback in many parts of the world. After years of decline, plague, diphtheria, dengue, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, and cholera have reappeared as public health threats. In the last 20 years [before 1997] more than 30 new and highly infectious diseases have been identified, including Ebola-type hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, and hepatitis C. Antibiotic resistance has also emerged during this period, and fewer new antibiotics are being produced because of high development costs and licensing. Drugs no longer offer protection or cure for many infectious diseases, and consequently more people need hospitalization with higher treatment costs. The causes of the appearance of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones include the rapid increase in international travel, the growth of mega-cities with high population densities, inadequate safe water and sanitation, food-borne diseases by the globalization of trade, and human penetration into remote animal and insect habitats. Meanwhile, resources for public health are being reduced, with the result that either the appearance of new diseases or resistance to drugs go unnoticed. A recent example is the human immunodeficiency virus, which went unrecognized until a large number of people got infected. For this very reason the 1997 World Health Day featured the theme of emerging infectious diseases and global response. Such forums are held to help countries rebuild the foundations of disease surveillance and control, while the public and private sectors may be encouraged to develop better techniques for surveillance to confront a common global threat. PMID:12348002

Nakajima, H

1997-01-01

114

Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

Greene, Marjorie

2010-04-01

115

Gene-deleted live-attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as vaccines to protect against Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This illness is now becoming global, mainly due to congenital transmission, and so far, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines available to either prevent or treat Chagas disease. Therefore, different approaches aimed at identifying new protective immunogens are urgently needed. Live vaccines are likely to be more efficient in inducing protection, but safety issues linked with their use have been raised. The development of improved protozoan genetic manipulation tools and genomic and biological information has helped to increase the safety of live vaccines. These advances have generated a renewed interest in the use of genetically attenuated parasites as vaccines against Chagas disease. This review discusses the protective capacity of genetically attenuated parasite vaccines and the challenges and perspectives for the development of an effective whole-parasite Chagas disease vaccine. PMID:25496192

Snchez-Valdz, Fernando J; Prez Brandn, Cecilia; Ferreira, Arturo; Basombro, Miguel ngel

2015-05-01

116

Emergence of hantaviral disease in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed Central

Hantaviruses are parasites of small mammals, predominantly peridomestic and commensal rodents. They have a worldwide distribution. Hantavirus-related illness occurs in rural areas where humans come into contact with rodents. In most cases human infection is manifested by one of a variety of acute illnesses involving hemorrhagic fever and renal disease. In May 1993, a cluster of patients with an acute pulmonary disease with high mortality was noted in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. Serologic and genetic studies indicated that the etiologic agent was a novel hantavirus. The uncertainty engendered by the emergence of a new disease with high mortality forced a rapid response by state and federal agencies and by the University of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque, where most patients from this region were referred. Considerable progress has been made in identifying infected cases on clinical and laboratory grounds and in ensuring that appropriate supportive care is made available to patients as soon as they are suspected of having hantaviral infection. Cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--both new and retrospectively diagnosed--are still being recognized throughout the western United States. Many important questions remain unanswered. Images PMID:7810123

Hjelle, B; Jenison, S; Mertz, G; Koster, F; Foucar, K

1994-01-01

117

Intensive Farming: Evolutionary Implications for Parasites and Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of scientists have recently raised concerns about the threat posed by human intervention on the evolution\\u000a of parasites and disease agents. New parasites (including pathogens) keep emerging and parasites which previously were considered\\u000a to be under control are re-emerging, sometimes in highly virulent forms. This re-emergence may be parasite evolution, driven\\u000a by human activity, including ecological changes

Adle Mennerat; Frank Nilsen; Dieter Ebert; Arne Skorping

2010-01-01

118

7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section 205...Sale 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance...to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...

2012-01-01

119

7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section 205...Sale 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance...to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...

2014-01-01

120

7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section 205...Sale 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance...to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...

2011-01-01

121

7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section 205...Sale 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance...to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...

2013-01-01

122

Emerging or re-emerging bacterial zoonotic diseases: bartonellosis, leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis, plague  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There are a whole series of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases present in the Northern Hemisphere and the author describes four of them, namely, bartonellosis, leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis and plague. Reasons for the emergence or re-emergence of such diseases are not clear, but factors such as human demographics, economic development and land use, international travel and commerce, and microbial

R. Higgins

2004-01-01

123

Successful aquatic animal disease emergency programmes.  

PubMed

The authors provide examples of emergency programmes which have been successful in eradicating or controlling certain diseases of aquatic animals. The paper is divided into four parts. The first part describes the initial isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus in North America in the autumn of 1988 from feral adult chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) returning for spawning. The fish disease control policies at both State and Federal levels in the United States of America required quarantine and emergency eradication measures upon the finding of certain exotic fish pathogens, including VHS virus. The procedures for emergency plans, destruction of stocks and disinfection of facilities are described, as well as challenge experiments with the North American strains of VHS virus and the detection of the virus in marine fish species (cod [Gadus macrocephalus] and herring [Clupea harengus pallasi]) in the Pacific Ocean. The second part of the paper outlines the aquatic animal legislation in Great Britain and within the European Union, in regard to contingency plans, initial investigations, action on the suspicion of notifiable disease and action on confirmation of infection. The legal description is followed by an account of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Great Britain, including the stamping-out process at the affected farm and investigations conducted to screen other farms in the vicinity for possible infection. The third part provides a historical review of the build-up of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Norway and the attempts to control the disease using legal measures in the absence of detailed knowledge of the aetiology, epizootiology, pathogenesis, etc. of the disease. The measures taken show that the spread of ISA can be controlled using restrictions on the movement of fish, disinfection procedures, etc. However, acceptance and understanding of the chosen strategy by the fish farmers is a pre-requisite to reach that goal. Finally, the paper summarises future needs for national and international legislation, including the development of standard approaches for control, the creation of appropriate infrastructures and a better understanding of the epidemiology of aquatic animal diseases. PMID:10190216

Hstein, T; Hill, B J; Winton, J R

1999-04-01

124

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.  

PubMed

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

2010-01-01

125

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

PubMed Central

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

2010-01-01

126

Emerging Infectious Determinants of Chronic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Evidence now confirms that noncommunicable chronic diseases can stem from infectious agents. Furthermore, at least 13 of 39 recently described infectious agents induce chronic syndromes. Identifying the relationships can affect health across populations, creating opportunities to reduce the impact of chronic disease by preventing or treating infection. As the concept is progressively accepted, advances in laboratory technology and epidemiology facilitate the detection of noncultivable, novel, and even recognized microbial origins. A spectrum of diverse pathogens and chronic syndromes emerges, with a range of pathways from exposure to chronic illness or disability. Complex systems of changing human behavioral traits superimposed on human, microbial, and environmental factors often determine risk for exposure and chronic outcome. Yet the strength of causal evidence varies widely, and detecting a microbe does not prove causality. Nevertheless, infectious agents likely determine more cancers, immune-mediated syndromes, neurodevelopmental disorders, and other chronic conditions than currently appreciated. PMID:16836820

O'Connor, Siobhn M.; Taylor, Christopher E.; Hughes, James M.

2006-01-01

127

Diagnosis of Bioagents and Emerging Diseases William Longa  

E-print Network

Diagnosis of Bioagents and Emerging Diseases William Longa , Sarita Chungb , Kenneth D. Mandlb of suffering from exposure to a biological agent or an emerging disease. Since physicians may need the program with unusual symptom complexes that represent a rare disease or a new disease. This may occur as the result

Szolovits, Peter

128

Evolution of parasite virulence when host responses cause disease  

E-print Network

The trade-off hypothesis of virulence evolution rests on the assumption that infection-induced mortality is a consequence of host exploitation by parasites. This hypothesis lies at the heart of many empirical and theoretical ...

Day, Troy; Graham, Andrea; Read, Andrew F

129

Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.  

PubMed

Editor's note In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions. PMID:25514524

Ear, Sophal

2014-01-01

130

Diversity and disease: community structure drives parasite transmission and host fitness  

E-print Network

of Borrelia burgdorferi, potentially decreasing the risk of Lyme disease in humans (e.g. Ostfeld & KeesingLETTER Diversity and disease: community structure drives parasite transmission and host fitness been linked to disease, but the mechanisms underlying such relationships and their applicability to non

Johnson, Pieter

131

Emergence of resistance to atovaquone-proguanil in malaria parasites: insights from computational modeling and clinical case reports.  

PubMed

The usefulness of atovaquone-proguanil (AP) as an antimalarial treatment is compromised by the emergence of atovaquone resistance during therapy. However, the origin of the parasite mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation conferring atovaquone resistance remains elusive. Here, we report a patient-based stochastic model that tracks the intrahost emergence of mutations in the multicopy mtDNA during the first erythrocytic parasite cycles leading to the malaria febrile episode. The effect of mtDNA copy number, mutation rate, mutation cost, and total parasite load on the mutant parasite load per patient was evaluated. Computer simulations showed that almost any infected patient carried, after four to seven erythrocytic cycles, de novo mutant parasites at low frequency, with varied frequencies of parasites carrying varied numbers of mutant mtDNA copies. A large interpatient variability in the size of this mutant reservoir was found; this variability was due to the different parameters tested but also to the relaxed replication and partitioning of mtDNA copies during mitosis. We also report seven clinical cases in which AP-resistant infections were treated by AP. These provided evidence that parasiticidal drug concentrations against AP-resistant parasites were transiently obtained within days after treatment initiation. Altogether, these results suggest that each patient carries new mtDNA mutant parasites that emerge before treatment but are killed by high starting drug concentrations. However, because the size of this mutant reservoir is highly variable from patient to patient, we propose that some patients fail to eliminate all of the mutant parasites, repeatedly producing de novo AP treatment failures. PMID:24867967

Cottrell, Gilles; Musset, Lise; Hubert, Vronique; Le Bras, Jacques; Clain, Jrme

2014-08-01

132

Communicating about emerging infectious disease: The importance of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases have taken on renewed significance in the public health sector since the 1990s. Worldwide, governments are preparing emergency plans to guide them; their plans acknowledge that communication will be vital in the event of an outbreak. However, much of the emerging infectious disease communication literature deals with one-way transmission of facts to the public by experts. Little

Bev J. Holmes

2008-01-01

133

First Report of Aprostocetus asthenogmus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in South America and Parasitizing Eggs of Triatominae Vectors of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

We report for the first time the parasitism of eggs of two triatomine Chagas disease vectors, Triatoma infestans and T. vitticeps, by the microhymenopterous parasitoid Aprostocetus asthenogmus. We also describe the first identification of this parasitoid in South America. A. asthenogmus were captured near unparasitized triatomine colonies in the municipality of Vitria, state of Esprito Santo, Brazil, and placed into pots with recently laid triatomine eggs. After 24 days, we observed wasps emerging from T. infestans and T. vitticeps eggs. Several characteristics of this parasitoid species suggest that it could be a potential biological control agent of triatomine species. PMID:24575298

dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Rocha, Leonardo de Souza; Falqueto, Alosio

2014-01-01

134

A preface on advances in diagnostics for infectious and parasitic diseases: detecting parasites of medical and veterinary importance.  

PubMed

There are many reasons why detection of parasites of medical and veterinary importance is vital and where novel diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. From a medical perspective alone, these originate from a desire for better clinical management and rational use of medications. Diagnosis can be at the individual-level, at close to patient settings in testing a clinical suspicion or at the community-level, perhaps in front of a computer screen, in classification of endemic areas and devising appropriate control interventions. Thus diagnostics for parasitic diseases has a broad remit as parasites are not only tied with their definitive hosts but also in some cases with their vectors/intermediate hosts. Application of current diagnostic tools and decision algorithms in sustaining control programmes, or in elimination settings, can be problematic and even ill-fitting. For example in resource-limited settings, are current diagnostic tools sufficiently robust for operational use at scale or are they confounded by on-the-ground realities; are the diagnostic algorithms underlying public health interventions always understood and well-received within communities which are targeted for control? Within this Special Issue (SI) covering a variety of diseases and diagnostic settings some answers are forthcoming. An important theme, however, throughout the SI is to acknowledge that cross-talk and continuous feedback between development and application of diagnostic tests is crucial if they are to be used effectively and appropriately. PMID:25415359

Stothard, J Russell; Adams, Emily

2014-12-01

135

Current perspectives in transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases: emerging and re-emerging infections  

PubMed Central

Background In August 2009, a group from the AABB (Stramer et al., Transfusion 2009;99:1S29S, Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and their Potential Threat to Transfusion Safety; http://www.aabb.org/resources/bct/eid/Pages/default.aspx) published a Supplement to Transfusion that reviewed emerging infectious disease (EID) agents that pose a real or theoretical threat to transfusion safety, but for which an existing effective intervention is lacking. The necessary attributes for transfusion transmission were outlined including: presence of the agent in blood during the donor's asymptomatic phase, the agent's survival/persistence in blood during processing/storage, and lastly that the agent must be recognized as responsible for a clinically apparent outcome in at least a proportion of recipients who become infected. Without these attributes, agents are not considered as a transfusion-transmission threat and were excluded. Sixty-eight such agents were identified with enough evidence/likelihood of transfusion transmission (e.g., blood phase) and potential for clinical disease to warrant further consideration. In the Supplement, Fact Sheets (FS) were published providing information on: agent classification; disease agent's importance; clinical syndromes/diseases caused; transmission modes (including vectors/reservoirs); likelihood of transfusion transmission, and if proven to be transfusion-transmitted, information on known cases; the feasibility/predicted success of interventions for donor screening (questioning) and tests available for diagnostics/ adapted for donor screening; and finally, the efficacy, if known, of inactivation methods for plasma-derived products. The Supplement included a separate section on pathogen reduction using published data. Agents were prioritized relative to their scientific/epidemiologic threat and their perceived threat to the community including concerns expressed by the regulators of blood. Agents given the highest priority due to a known transfusion-transmission threat and severe/fatal disease in recipients were the vCJD prion, dengue viruses and the obligate red-cell parasite that causes babesiosis (B. microti and related Babesia). Although the focus of the Supplement was towards the United States and Canada, many of the agents (and the process) are applicable worldwide. Next steps Since the publication of the Supplement, six new FSs (yellow fever viruses-including vaccine breakthrough infections, miscellaneous arboviruses, XMRV, human parvoviruses/bocaviruses other than B19, and most recently the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, MERS-CoV) were added and 14 existing FSs updated (Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Erhlichia, chronic wasting disease-CWD, human prions other than vCJD, vCJD, Coxiella burnetii-the agent of Q fever, dengue viruses, HAV, HEV, Japanese encephalitis-JE complex, tick-borne encephalitis viruses-TBEV, and human parvovirus B19). Also, tables were released outlining pathogen reduction clinical trials/results (published) and availability/commercial routine use of such technologies by country. Of necessity, the list of EID agents is not, and can never be, complete due to the nature of emergence. We recognized that a system of assessing the risk/threat of EIDs for their potential impact on blood safety and availability must include processes for monitoring, identifying, evaluating, estimating severity, assessing risk and developing interventions. Thus, a toolkit containing the necessary tools from EID monitoring (horizon scanning) to validation/effectiveness evaluations of interventions is being developed. The goal is, to develop a systematic approach to risk assessment and intervention development for the impact of emerging infectious upon blood safety intended to educate and provide advise about risks/interventions in a timely/accurate fashion. Conclusions The process and final product (toolkit) including methods to monitor EID agent emergence, identification/recognition of a transfusion-transmission threat, methods for quan

Stramer, S L

2014-01-01

136

Non-Communicable Diseases in Emergencies: A Call to Action  

PubMed Central

Recent years have demonstrated the devastating health consequences of complex emergencies and natural disasters and thereby highlighted the importance of comprehensive and collaborative approaches to humanitarian responses and risk reduction. Simultaneously, noncommunicable diseases are now recognised as a real and growing threat to population health and development; a threat that is magnified by and during emergencies. Noncommunicable diseases, however, continue to receive little attention from humanitarian organisations in the acute phase of disaster and emergency response. This paper calls on all sectors to recognise and address the specific health challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases in emergencies and disaster situations. This publication aims to highlight the need for: Increased research on morbidity and mortality patterns due to noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; Development of technical guidelines on the clinical management of noncommunicable diseases in emergencies; Greater integration and coordination in health service provision during and following emergencies; Integrating noncommunicable diseases into practical and academic training of emergency workers and emergency-response coordinators. PMID:24056956

Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca; de Courten, Maximilian; Tellier, Siri

2013-01-01

137

Reviews in NeuroVirology: Emerging Infectious Diseases The ecology of emerging neurotropic viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review common themes in the ecology of emerging viruses that cause neurological disease. Three issues emerge. First, 49% of emerging viruses are characterized by encephalitis or serious neurological clinical symptoms. Second, all of these viruses are driven to emerge by ecological, environmen- tal, or human demographic changes, some of which are poorly understood. Finally, the control of these

Kevin J Olival; Peter Daszak

138

[Advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against parasitic diseases].  

PubMed

Dihydroartemisinin, the main metabolite of artemisinin and two artemisinin derivatives, artemether and artesunate, is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug. The present paper systematically reviews the advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against Plasmodium, Schistosoma, Pneumocystis, Toxoplasma, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania, Giardia lamblia. PMID:22164870

Li, Hong-Jun; Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng

2011-08-01

139

Phaeohyphomycoses, emerging opportunistic diseases in animals.  

PubMed

Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

Seyedmousavi, S; Guillot, J; de Hoog, G S

2013-01-01

140

Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals  

PubMed Central

Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.

2013-01-01

141

Polycystic kidney disease: an unrecognized emerging infectious disease?  

PubMed Central

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans. We contend that it may be an emerging infectious disease and/or microbial toxicosis in a vulnerable human subpopulation. Use of a differential activation protocol for the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay showed bacterial endotoxin and fungal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in cyst fluids from human kidneys with PKD. Fatty acid analysis of cyst fluid confirmed the presence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids characteristic of endotoxin. Tissue and cyst fluid from three PKD patients were examined for fungal components. Serologic tests showed Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Candida antigens. IgE, but not IgG, reactive with Fusarium and Candida were also detected in cyst fluid. Fungal DNA was detected in kidney tissue and cyst fluid from these three PKD patients, but not in healthy human kidney tissue. We examine the intertwined nature of the actions of endotoxin and fungal components, sphingolipid biology in PKD, the structure of PKD gene products, infections, and integrity of gut function to establish a mechanistic hypothesis for microbial provocation of human cystic disease. Proof of this hypothesis will require identification of the microbes and microbial components involved and multifaceted studies of PKD cell biology. PMID:9204292

Miller-Hjelle, M. A.; Hjelle, J. T.; Jones, M.; Mayberry, W. R.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Nowak, D. M.; Darras, F. S.

1997-01-01

142

Interacting parasites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

Lafferty, Kevin D.

2010-01-01

143

Emerging Food- and Waterborne Protozoan Diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Toxoplasma are related apicomplexan parasites transmitted to humans worldwide through ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water. Of 15 species of Cryptosporidium- C parvum, C. hominis, C and C. meleagridis are the most prevalent infections in humans and the la...

144

Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.  

PubMed

Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. PMID:23106703

Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

2012-11-01

145

Network transmission inference: host behavior and parasite life cycle make social networks meaningful in disease ecology.  

PubMed

The process of disease transmission is determined by the interaction of host susceptibility and exposure to parasite infectious stages. Host behavior is an important determinant of the likelihood of exposure to infectious stages but is difficult to measure and often assumed to be homogenous in models of disease spread. We evaluated the importance of precisely defining host contact when using networks that estimate exposure and predict infection prevalence in a replicated, empirical system. In particular, we hypothesized that infection patterns would be predicted only by a contact network that is defined according to host behavior and parasite life cycle. Two competing host contact criteria were used to construct networks defined by parasite life cycle and social contacts. First, parasite-defined contacts were based on shared space with a time delay corresponding to the environmental development time of nematode parasites with a direct fecal-oral life cycle. Second, social contacts were defined by shared space in the same time period. To quantify the competing networks of exposure and infection, we sampled natural populations of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and infection of their gastrointestinal helminth community using replicated longitudinal capture-mark-recapture techniques. We predicted that (1) infection with parasites with direct fecal-oral life cycles would be explained by the time delay contact network, but not the social contact network; (2) infection with parasites with trophic life cycles (via a mobile intermediate host; thus, spatially decoupling transmission from host contact) would not be explained by either contact network. The prevalence of fecal-oral life cycle nematode parasites was strongly correlated to the number and strength of network connections from the parasite-defined network (including the time delay), while the prevalence of trophic life cycle parasites was not correlated with any network metrics. We concluded that incorporating the parasite life cycle, relative to the way that exposure is measured, is key to inferring transmission and can be empirically quantified using network techniques. In addition, appropriately defining and measuring contacts according the life history of the parasite and relevant behaviors of the host is a crucial step in applying network analyses to empirical systems. PMID:24555316

Grear, Daniel A; Luong, Lien T; Hudson, Peter J

2013-12-01

146

Factors Contributing to the Occurrence of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have been receiving increasing attention for more than two decades. Such attention has resulted from observations of increasing resistance of microorganisms to the usual antibiotics, the identification of formerly unknown disease agents and the diseases they cause, and the realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease agents formerly confined to small, endemic,

Felissa R. Lashley

2003-01-01

147

Mad cow and other maladies: update on emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

ately, several emerging infectious diseases have had a great deal of play in the media, resulting in anxiety among health care workers and their patients. This article ex- plores the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of some of these emerging infections. BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY AND VARIANT CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as \\

CRISTIE COLUMBUS

148

Pathogenhostenvironment interplay and disease emergence  

PubMed Central

Gaining insight in likely disease emergence scenarios is critical to preventing such events from happening. Recent focus has been on emerging zoonoses and on identifying common patterns and drivers of emerging diseases. However, no overarching framework exists to integrate knowledge on all emerging infectious disease events. Here, we propose such a conceptual framework based on changes in the interplay of pathogens, hosts and environment that lead to the formation of novel disease patterns and pathogen genetic adjustment. We categorize infectious disease emergence events into three groups: (i) pathogens showing up in a novel host, ranging from spill-over, including zoonoses, to complete species jumps; (ii) mutant pathogens displaying novel traits in the same host, including an increase in virulence, antimicrobial resistance and host immune escape; and (iii) disease complexes emerging in a new geographic area, either through range expansion or through long distance jumps. Each of these categories is characterized by a typical set of drivers of emergence, matching pathogen trait profiles, disease ecology and transmission dynamics. Our framework may assist in disentangling and structuring the rapidly growing amount of available information on infectious diseases. Moreover, it may contribute to a better understanding of how human action changes disease landscapes globally.

Engering, Anneke; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan

2013-01-01

149

Linking emergence of fungal plant diseases and ecological speciation  

PubMed Central

Emerging diseases represent a growing worldwide problem accompanying global environmental changes, and there is tremendous interest in identifying the factors controlling the appearance and spread of these diseases. Here, we discuss emerging fungal plant diseases, and argue that they often result from host shift speciation, a particular case of ecological speciation. We consider the factors controlling local adaptation and ecological speciation and show that certain life-history traits of many fungal plant pathogens are conducive for rapid ecological speciation, thus favoring the emergence of novel pathogen species adapted to new hosts. We argue that placing the problem of emerging fungal diseases of plants within the context of ecological speciation can significantly improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms governing emergence of such diseases. PMID:20434790

Giraud, Tatiana; Gladieux, Pierre; Gavrilets, Sergey

2010-01-01

150

Terbinafine: broad new spectrum of indications in several subcutaneous and systemic and parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

Immunocompromised patients are at risk of contracting serious fungal infections. The emergence of acquired resistance to azole treatment by opportunistic fungal organisms is increasing and poses a major therapeutic challenge. Treatment of some deep cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses remains unresolved, relapses are frequent, lack of tolerability of the antifungal drugs becomes an obstacle, and, unfortunately, surgery is, in some cases, the last option. The development of allylamine antifungals, of which terbinafine is the most effective to date, may help to resolve this situation. In vitro, terbinafine is highly active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic fungi. Clinical studies have shown that terbinafine is effective in the treatment of both cutaneous and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis, and in several patterns of disseminated and refractory aspergillosis. Patients with chromoblastomycosis, and other mycoses (phaeohyphomycosis, maduromycosis, and mucormycosis) have also been successfully treated with terbinafine. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, has also been treated with terbinafine. These results suggest that the therapeutic potential of terbinafine extends well beyond its currently licensed applications to include a range of serious and life-threatening subcutaneous and systemic mycoses. PMID:10865916

Prez, A

1999-01-01

151

Drug discovery and development for neglected parasitic diseases  

E-print Network

a revitalized drug development pipeline for tropical diseases.Excellent reviews of current therapy and more its Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDRs). More recently, numerous

Cai, Long

152

Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in

Ashlie Hartigan; David N Phalen; Jan lapeta

2010-01-01

153

The influence of different water temperatures on Neobenedenia girellae (Monogenea) infection, parasite growth, egg production and emerging second generation on amberjack Seriola dumerili (Carangidae) and the histopathological effect of this parasite on fish skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated: 1) the influence of water temperature on Neobenedenia girellae (capsalid) infection, parasite growth, egg production and emerging second generation on the host amberjack Seriola dumerili (Carangidae) in Experiment I, and 2) changes in the infection level of N. girellae on S. dumerili, and the parasite growth and histopathological changes of S. dumerili skin infected with N. girellae

Noritaka Hirazawa; Ryoko Takano; Hiroko Hagiwara; Mitsuyo Noguchi; Minoru Narita

2010-01-01

154

Edible vaccines against veterinary parasitic diseases--current status and future prospects.  

PubMed

Protection of domestic animals against parasitic infections remains a major challenge in most of the developing countries, especially in the surge of drug resistant strains. In this circumstance vaccination seems to be the sole practical strategy to combat parasites. Most of the presently available live or killed parasitic vaccines possess many disadvantages. Thus, expression of parasitic antigens has seen a continued interest over the past few decades. However, only a limited success was achieved using bacterial, yeast, insect and mammalian expression systems. This is witnessed by an increasing number of reports on transgenic plant expression of previously reported and new antigens. Oral delivery of plant-made vaccines is particularly attractive due to their exceptional advantages. Moreover, the regulatory burden for veterinary vaccines is less compared to human vaccines. This led to an incredible investment in the field of transgenic plant vaccines for veterinary purpose. Plant based vaccine trials have been conducted to combat various significant parasitic diseases such as fasciolosis, schistosomosis, poultry coccidiosis, porcine cycticercosis and ascariosis. Besides, passive immunization by oral delivery of antibodies expressed in transgenic plants against poultry coccidiosis is an innovative strategy. These trials may pave way to the development of promising edible veterinary vaccines in the near future. As the existing data regarding edible parasitic vaccines are scattered, an attempt has been made to assemble the available literature. PMID:23485715

Jacob, Siju S; Cherian, Susan; Sumithra, T G; Raina, O K; Sankar, M

2013-04-01

155

Cellular Inflammatory Response of Rainbow Trout to the Protozoan Parasite that Causes Proliferative Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular inflammatory response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) to the myxozoan parasite PKX that causes proliferative kidney disease was investigated. The response was studied from 3 to 20 weeks after the fish were injected with infected kidney homogenate. Kidney samples were examined by light and electron microscopy. In contrast to most myxosporeans, PKX provoked a severe

Elizabeth Macconnell; Charlie E. Smith; Ronald P. Hedrick; C. A. Speer

1989-01-01

156

Nongenetic Variation, GeneticEnvironmental Interactions and Altered Gene Expression. II. Disease, Parasite and Pollution Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of protein electrophoretic data for determining the relationships among species or populations is widespread and generally accepted. However, there are many confounding factors that may alter the results of an electrophoretic study and may possibly allow erroneous conclusions to be drawn in taxonomic, systematic or population studies. Measured enzyme activities can also be affected significantly. Parasites, disease and

William J. Poly

1997-01-01

157

[SWOT analysis of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases].  

PubMed

This study analyzes the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases by SWOT analysis comprehensively, and it puts forward some development strategies specifically, in order to provide some indicative references for the further development. PMID:25051844

Xiong, Yan-hong; Zheng, Bin

2014-04-01

158

Environmental change and the dynamics of parasitic diseases in the Amazon.  

PubMed

The Amazonian environment is changing rapidly, due to deforestation, in the short term, and, climatic change is projected to alter its forest cover, in the next few decades. These modifications to the, environment have been altering the dynamics of infectious diseases which have natural foci in the, Amazonian biome, especially in its forest. Current land use practices which are changing the, epidemiological profile of the parasitic diseases in the region are road building; logging; mining; expansion of agriculture and cattle ranching and the building of large dams. Malaria and the cutaneous, leishmaniasis are the diseases best known for their rapid changes in response to environmental, modifications. Others such as soil-transmitted helminthiases, filarial infections and toxoplasmosis, which have part of their developmental cycles in the biophysical environment, are also expected to, change rapidly. An interdisciplinary approach and an integrated, international surveillance are needed, to manage the environmentally-driven changes in the Amazonian parasitic diseases in the near future. PMID:24056199

Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Margonari, Carina; Quinto, Ana Flvia

2014-01-01

159

CURRENT GLOBAL SITUATION OF EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade has seen the rise of new diseases and the reemergence of many economically important livestock diseases worldwide. Expansion of global trade, rapid transport facilities, increase in population of both humans and animals, free movement of animals and animal products, environmental changes, and greater exposure to wildlife have all contributed to the emergence and reemergence of animal diseases.

Richard Paul Kitching

160

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: emerging therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the high prevalence of and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, extensive research on the underlying pathophysiology and specific therapeutics for this disease is, relatively, in its infancy. Several novel molecular targets are being investigated as potential treatments for the disease. The most exciting new class of compounds is the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors; Ariflo (SB 207499) a member

Douglas WP Hay

2000-01-01

161

Epizootiology of diseases of oysters (Crassostrea virginica), and parasites of associated organisms in eastern North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haplosporidan parasites of oysters have been reported from four continents. Those of the general Minchinia, Haplosporidium, and Marteilia, which cause serious diseases of oysters, have been intensively studied. Epizootiology of these highly pathogenic species is well known. Life cycles are obscure for all haplosporidans because artificial infections have not been achieved. The high pathogenicity of newly-discovered haplosporidan diseases to native oysters in eastern North America and western Europe may indicate that these are exotic pathogens parasitizing susceptible oysters not previously exposed to these disease agents. Epizootiology of two haplosporidan pathogens along the middle Atlantic Coast of North America during 25 years of disease activity is discussed. Haplosporidium nelsoni sporulates only rarely and its life cycle remains unconfirmed. Resistant oysters were developed in nature and from laboratory breeding. Haplosporidium costale which causes Seaside Disease in high-salinity waters appears to be a more acclimated disease with regular patterns of infection and mortality. Several minor parasites whose life cycles and host species need more study are mentioned.

Andrews, J. D.

1984-03-01

162

Parasite biomass-related inflammation, endothelial activation, microvascular dysfunction and disease severity in vivax malaria.  

PubMed

Plasmodium vivax can cause severe malaria, however its pathogenesis is poorly understood. In contrast to P. falciparum, circulating vivax parasitemia is low, with minimal apparent sequestration in endothelium-lined microvasculature, and pathogenesis thought unrelated to parasite biomass. However, the relationships between vivax disease-severity and total parasite biomass, endothelial autocrine activation and microvascular dysfunction are unknown. We measured circulating parasitemia and markers of total parasite biomass (plasma parasite lactate dehydrogenase [pLDH] and PvLDH) in adults with severe (n?=?9) and non-severe (n?=?53) vivax malaria, and examined relationships with disease-severity, endothelial activation, and microvascular function. Healthy controls and adults with non-severe and severe falciparum malaria were enrolled for comparison. Median peripheral parasitemia, PvLDH and pLDH were 2.4-fold, 3.7-fold and 6.9-fold higher in severe compared to non-severe vivax malaria (p?=?0.02, p?=?0.02 and p?=?0.015, respectively), suggesting that, as in falciparum malaria, peripheral P. vivax parasitemia underestimates total parasite biomass, particularly in severe disease. P. vivax schizonts were under-represented in peripheral blood. Severe vivax malaria was associated with increased angiopoietin-2 and impaired microvascular reactivity. Peripheral vivax parasitemia correlated with endothelial activation (angiopoietin-2, von-Willebrand-Factor [VWF], E-selectin), whereas markers of total vivax biomass correlated only with systemic inflammation (IL-6, IL-10). Activity of the VWF-cleaving-protease, ADAMTS13, was deficient in proportion to endothelial activation, IL-6, thrombocytopenia and vivax disease-severity, and associated with impaired microvascular reactivity in severe disease. Impaired microvascular reactivity correlated with lactate in severe vivax malaria. Findings suggest that tissue accumulation of P. vivax may occur, with the hidden biomass greatest in severe disease and capable of mediating systemic inflammatory pathology. The lack of association between total parasite biomass and endothelial activation is consistent with accumulation in parts of the circulation devoid of endothelium. Endothelial activation, associated with circulating parasites, and systemic inflammation may contribute to pathology in vivax malaria, with microvascular dysfunction likely contributing to impaired tissue perfusion. PMID:25569250

Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Parameswaran, Uma; Piera, Kim A; Price, Ric N; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

2015-01-01

163

Parasite Biomass-Related Inflammation, Endothelial Activation, Microvascular Dysfunction and Disease Severity in Vivax Malaria  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium vivax can cause severe malaria, however its pathogenesis is poorly understood. In contrast to P. falciparum, circulating vivax parasitemia is low, with minimal apparent sequestration in endothelium-lined microvasculature, and pathogenesis thought unrelated to parasite biomass. However, the relationships between vivax disease-severity and total parasite biomass, endothelial autocrine activation and microvascular dysfunction are unknown. We measured circulating parasitemia and markers of total parasite biomass (plasma parasite lactate dehydrogenase [pLDH] and PvLDH) in adults with severe (n?=?9) and non-severe (n?=?53) vivax malaria, and examined relationships with disease-severity, endothelial activation, and microvascular function. Healthy controls and adults with non-severe and severe falciparum malaria were enrolled for comparison. Median peripheral parasitemia, PvLDH and pLDH were 2.4-fold, 3.7-fold and 6.9-fold higher in severe compared to non-severe vivax malaria (p?=?0.02, p?=?0.02 and p?=?0.015, respectively), suggesting that, as in falciparum malaria, peripheral P. vivax parasitemia underestimates total parasite biomass, particularly in severe disease. P. vivax schizonts were under-represented in peripheral blood. Severe vivax malaria was associated with increased angiopoietin-2 and impaired microvascular reactivity. Peripheral vivax parasitemia correlated with endothelial activation (angiopoietin-2, von-Willebrand-Factor [VWF], E-selectin), whereas markers of total vivax biomass correlated only with systemic inflammation (IL-6, IL-10). Activity of the VWF-cleaving-protease, ADAMTS13, was deficient in proportion to endothelial activation, IL-6, thrombocytopenia and vivax disease-severity, and associated with impaired microvascular reactivity in severe disease. Impaired microvascular reactivity correlated with lactate in severe vivax malaria. Findings suggest that tissue accumulation of P. vivax may occur, with the hidden biomass greatest in severe disease and capable of mediating systemic inflammatory pathology. The lack of association between total parasite biomass and endothelial activation is consistent with accumulation in parts of the circulation devoid of endothelium. Endothelial activation, associated with circulating parasites, and systemic inflammation may contribute to pathology in vivax malaria, with microvascular dysfunction likely contributing to impaired tissue perfusion. PMID:25569250

Barber, Bridget E.; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J.; Parameswaran, Uma; Piera, Kim A.; Price, Ric N.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

2015-01-01

164

Trypanosoma cruzi in the Chicken Model: Chagas-Like Heart Disease in the Absence of Parasitism  

PubMed Central

Background The administration of anti-trypanosome nitroderivatives curtails Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Chagas disease patients, but does not prevent destructive lesions in the heart. This observation suggests that an effective treatment for the disease requires understanding its pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the origin of clinical manifestations of the heart disease we used a chicken model system in which infection can be initiated in the egg, but parasite persistence is precluded. T. cruzi inoculation into the air chamber of embryonated chicken eggs generated chicks that retained only the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA minicircle in their genome after eight days of gestation. Crossbreeding showed that minicircles were transferred vertically via the germ line to chicken progeny. Minicircle integration in coding regions was shown by targeted-primer thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and detected by direct genomic analysis. The kDNA-mutated chickens died with arrhythmias, shortness of breath, cyanosis and heart failure. These chickens with cardiomyopathy had rupture of the dystrophin and other genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Tissue pathology revealed inflammatory dilated cardiomegaly whereby immune system mononuclear cells lyse parasite-free target heart fibers. The heart cell destruction implicated a thymus-dependent, autoimmune; self-tissue rejection carried out by CD45+, CD8??+, and CD8? lymphocytes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that genetic alterations resulting from kDNA integration in the host genome lead to autoimmune-mediated destruction of heart tissue in the absence of T. cruzi parasites. PMID:21468314

Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Gomes, Clever; Nitz, Nadjar; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Alves, Rozeneide M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Cordeiro, Ciro; Bernal, Francisco M.; Rosa, Ana C.; Hejnar, Jiri; Leonardecz, Eduardo; Hecht, Mariana M.

2011-01-01

165

A Suspected Parasite Spill-Back of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence. PMID:21541340

Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dykov, Iva; Jirk?, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N.; lapeta, Jan

2011-01-01

166

Evaluation of predators as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases  

E-print Network

New and emerging diseases in human and animal populations appear to be predominately associated with generalist pathogens that are able to infect multiple hosts. Carnivores are susceptible to a wide range of these pathogens ...

Meredith, Anna Louise

2012-06-30

167

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: Biocomplexity as an Interdisciplinary Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding factors responsible for reemergence of diseases believed to have been controlled and outbreaks of previously\\u000a unknown infectious diseases is one of the most difficult scientific problems facing society today. Significant knowledge gaps\\u000a exist for even the most studied emerging infectious diseases. Coupled with failures in the response to the resurgence of infectious\\u000a diseases, this lack of information is embedded

Bruce A. Wilcox; Rita R. Colwell

2005-01-01

168

Disease emergence and resurgence: the wildlife-human connection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2000, the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) was organized as a global disease watchdog group to coordinate disease outbreak information and health crisis response. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the headquarters for this network.2 Understandably, the primary focus for WHO is human health. However, diseases such as the H5N1 avian influenza epizootic in Asian bird populations demonstrate the need for integrating knowledge about disease emergence in animals and in humans.

Friend, Milton

2006-01-01

169

Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disease emergence: the past, present, and future drivers of Nipah virus emergence.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a significant threat to human health, economic stability, and biodiversity. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying disease emergence are still not fully understood, and control measures rely heavily on mitigating the impact of EIDs after they have emerged. Here, we highlight the emergence of a zoonotic Henipavirus, Nipah virus, to demonstrate the interdisciplinary and macroecological approaches necessary to understand EID emergence. Previous work suggests that Nipah virus emerged due to the interaction of the wildlife reservoir (Pteropus spp. fruit bats) with intensively managed livestock. The emergence of this and other henipaviruses involves interactions among a suite of anthropogenic environmental changes, socioeconomic factors, and changes in demography that overlay and interact with the distribution of these pathogens in their wildlife reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate how ecological niche modeling may be used to investigate the potential role of a changing climate on the future risk for Henipavirus emergence. We show that the distribution of Henipavirus reservoirs, and therefore henipaviruses, will likely change under climate change scenarios, a fundamental precondition for disease emergence in humans. We assess the variation among climate models to estimate where Henipavirus host distribution is most likely to expand, contract, or remain stable, presenting new risks for human health. We conclude that there is substantial potential to use this modeling framework to explore the distribution of wildlife hosts under a changing climate. These approaches may directly inform current and future management and surveillance strategies aiming to improve pathogen detection and, ultimately, reduce emergence risk. PMID:22936052

Daszak, Peter; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Bogich, Tiffany L; Fernandez, Miguel; Epstein, Jonathan H; Murray, Kris A; Hamilton, Healy

2013-02-26

170

Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disease emergence: The past, present, and future drivers of Nipah virus emergence  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a significant threat to human health, economic stability, and biodiversity. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying disease emergence are still not fully understood, and control measures rely heavily on mitigating the impact of EIDs after they have emerged. Here, we highlight the emergence of a zoonotic Henipavirus, Nipah virus, to demonstrate the interdisciplinary and macroecological approaches necessary to understand EID emergence. Previous work suggests that Nipah virus emerged due to the interaction of the wildlife reservoir (Pteropus spp. fruit bats) with intensively managed livestock. The emergence of this and other henipaviruses involves interactions among a suite of anthropogenic environmental changes, socioeconomic factors, and changes in demography that overlay and interact with the distribution of these pathogens in their wildlife reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate how ecological niche modeling may be used to investigate the potential role of a changing climate on the future risk for Henipavirus emergence. We show that the distribution of Henipavirus reservoirs, and therefore henipaviruses, will likely change under climate change scenarios, a fundamental precondition for disease emergence in humans. We assess the variation among climate models to estimate where Henipavirus host distribution is most likely to expand, contract, or remain stable, presenting new risks for human health. We conclude that there is substantial potential to use this modeling framework to explore the distribution of wildlife hosts under a changing climate. These approaches may directly inform current and future management and surveillance strategies aiming to improve pathogen detection and, ultimately, reduce emergence risk. PMID:22936052

Daszak, Peter; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Fernandez, Miguel; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Murray, Kris A.; Hamilton, Healy

2013-01-01

171

Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.  

PubMed

Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture. PMID:25260074

Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

2014-12-01

172

Blood parasite identification using feature based recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis of diseases like malaria are very dependent on the identification of parasites in blood. Various methods have been applied for this process. The majority uses machine learning to identify the parasites. This method has shortcomings in long training time and the need to be retrained if a new data emerged. Of the various methods that have been applied, identification

Ferdian Thung; Iping Supriana Suwardi

2011-01-01

173

Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues  

PubMed Central

Abstract Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) are a heterogeneous category of infectious diseases in which parasitehost interactions are confined to the upper layer of the skin. The six major EPSD are scabies, pediculosis (capitis, corporis and pubis), tungiasis and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. We summarize the current knowledge on EPSD and show that these diseases are widespread, polyparasitism is common, and significant primary and secondary morbidity occurs. We show that poverty favours the presence of animal reservoirs, ensures ongoing transmission, facilitates atypical methods of spreading infectious agents and increases the chances of exposure. This results in an extraordinarily high prevalence and intensity of infestation of EPSD in resource-poor populations. Stigma, lack of access to health care and deficient behaviour in seeking health care are the reasons why EPSD frequently progress untreated and why in resource-poor populations severe morbidity is common. The ongoing uncontrolled urbanization in many developing countries makes it likely that EPSD will remain the overriding parasitic diseases for people living in extreme poverty. We advocate integrating control of EPSD into intervention measures directed against other neglected diseases such as filariasis and intestinal helminthiases. PMID:19274368

Heukelbach, Jorg

2009-01-01

174

SURVEYING THE RISKS FROM EMERGING DISEASES  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite advances in sanitation and public health, new waterborne diseases have continued to cause outbreaks in humans. The reason why these organisms can cause disease outbreaks, is that their biology allows them to circumvent the safeguards put in place to prevent transmission ...

175

Emergence of the concept of cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the concept of cardiovascular disease is a recent and evolving concept. Well into the eighteenth century, cardiac and vascular diseases were little known and considered a rarity. Description of the circulation by William Harvey (15781657) in 1628 marks the beginning of the changes that ensued. However, knowledge was slow to accrue and not until the nineteenth century was the

Garabed Eknoyan

2004-01-01

176

Meningococcal Meningitis: An Emerging Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meningococcal meningitis is a potentially fatal disease which can affect many 15- to 24-year-olds and those that are affected could have been protected from the disease if they had received the vaccination. The number of reported cases has increased during the past decade and account for many preventable deaths. Adolescents and young adults account for nearly 30 percent of all

Julie A. Strunk; Judith Townsend Rocchiccioli

2010-01-01

177

Climate change and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ranges of infectious diseases and vectors are changing in altitude, along with shifts in plant communities and the retreat of alpine glaciers. Additionally, extreme weather events create conditions conducive to ?clusters? of insect-, rodent- and water-borne diseases. Accelerating climate change carries profound threats for public health and society.

Paul R. Epstein

2001-01-01

178

Emerging Pests and Diseases A Global Crisis ?  

E-print Network

pathogens in Britain since 2000 Phytophthora lateralis as an example of emerging pathogen Plant trade in N. Spain but European pine spp. at risk Spread internationally via transport of contaminated seed in Australia since April 2010 - over 100 potential hosts to infect in Australia Trade in live plants implicated

179

Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world.  

PubMed

Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses as in the case of blue tongue virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus adds additional level of complexity. The increased incidence of emerging and reemerging viral diseases could be attributed to several factors including deforestation and surge in direct contact of livestock and humans with wild animals and birds. This special issue of "Indian Journal of Virology" is focused on diverse aspects of above diseases: isolation and characterization of viruses, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention measures and vaccine development. PMID:24426290

Bayry, Jagadeesh

2013-12-01

180

Contemporary global movement of emerging plant diseases.  

PubMed

Plant diseases are a significant constraint to agricultural productivity. Exotic plant diseases pose a continued threat to profitable agriculture in the United States. The extent of this threat has increased dramatically in the 1980s and 1990s due to the expansion of international trade in agricultural products and frequent movement of massive volume of people and goods across national boundaries. Introduction of new diseases has not only caused farm losses, but has also diminished export revenue since phytosanitary issues are linked to international commerce. Plant pathogens and their vectors have also moved across national boundaries, sometimes naturally and at other times influenced by the recent changes in trade practices. Sorghum ergot, Karnal bunt of wheat, potato late blight, and citrus tristeza are some of the most recent examples of enhanced importance of diseases due to the introduction of plant pathogens or vectors. PMID:10681966

Bandyopadhyay, R; Frederiksen, R A

1999-01-01

181

Emergence of the concept of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Historically, the concept of cardiovascular disease is a recent and evolving concept. Well into the eighteenth century, cardiac and vascular diseases were little known and considered a rarity. Description of the circulation by William Harvey (1578-1657) in 1628 marks the beginning of the changes that ensued. However, knowledge was slow to accrue and not until the nineteenth century was the heart taken as a specific object of study. The description of end-stage kidney disease by Richard Bright (1789-1858) in 1827 launched studies of the vasculature, which were to lead to the recognition of hypertension and subsequent identification of the lesions of arteriosclerosis (1833) and atherosclerosis (1904) as diseases of the vasculature. Only between the two world wars did the full impact of these lesions on mortality and morbidity come to be finally recognized. Their study and therapy has defined much of the profound changes that affected twentieth century medicine. PMID:15241744

Eknoyan, Garabed

2004-07-01

182

Helicobacter pylori: an emerging infectious disease.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world, colonizing the stomachs of more than 50% of the human population. The discovery of this bacterium has changed the concept of care and management for peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphomas, gastritis, and gastric carcinoma. Although the mode of transmission is not definitively known, person-to-person contact is suspected. This article discusses H. pylori, the associated clinical syndromes and diseases, risk factors, and current pharmacologic management. PMID:10971934

McManus, T J

2000-08-01

183

Is chytridiomycosis an emerging disease in Asia?  

E-print Network

Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America, 26Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain Abstract The disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has caused dramatic... as a primary threat to amphibians [3,4]. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) [5,6,7], has been implicated as the causal agent in the greatest loss of vertebrate biodiversity due to disease in recorded...

Brown, Rafe M.

2011-01-01

184

Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories.

Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

2013-01-01

185

Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited  

PubMed Central

The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be orphan but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

2011-01-01

186

Infectious Diseases Treated in Emergency Departments: United States, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency departments (EDs) are an important source of medical care in the United States. Information is limited concerning epidemiologic patterns of ED visits for infectious diseases. Data for 2001 from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) were analyzed for infectious disease visits. The NHAMCS is a national probability sample survey of visits to hospital EDs and outpatient departments

Nelson Adekoya

2005-01-01

187

Research update on exotic and emerging poultry diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exotic and emerging diseases of poultry continue to be a threat to US poultry. Studies over the past year have demonstrated: 1) cooking poultry meat at minimum of 70C kills avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in a few seconds, 2) low pathogenicity (LP) AI viruses isolated from fr...

188

Emerging Therapeutic Options for Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that is more common than was previously thought. This disease is caused by an inappropriate immune response to wheat gluten, barley, and rye. Three main pathways cause celiac disease: the environmental trigger (gluten), genetic susceptibility, and unusual gut permeability. The only treatment currently available is a strict gluten-free diet. Unfortunately, a majority of patients have difficulty complying with this diet, and the response to therapy is poor. Therefore, alternative treatments are being developed, and new insights into the pathophysiology of celiac disease have led to research into novel therapies. New treatments include engineering gluten-free grains, decreasing intestinal permeability by blockage of the epithelial zonulin receptor, inducing oral tolerance to gluten with a therapeutic vaccine, and degrading immunodominant gliadin peptides using probiotics with endopeptidases or transglutaminase inhibitors. These nondiet-based therapies provide hope for enhanced, lifelong celiac disease management with improved patient compliance and better quality of life. PMID:23483819

Bakshi, Anita; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.

2012-01-01

189

New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.  

PubMed

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. PMID:23578479

Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

2013-09-01

190

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases: Select Presentations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Infectious Diseases has made available the audio (and in some cases, video) portion of more than 20 online presentations of selected sessions from the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, held July 16-19, 2000 in Atlanta, Georgia. Presentations are organized in chronological order of the conference but may also be searched by presenter. Some presentations may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint. For researchers interested in the field of Emerging Infectious Diseases, this resource represents an exceptionally helpful application of Internet technology.

191

Wildlife Trade and Global Disease Emergence  

PubMed Central

The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife populations, and the health of ecosystems. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic damage globally. Rather than attempting to eradicate pathogens or the wild species that may harbor them, a practical approach would include decreasing the contact rate among species, including humans, at the interface created by the wildlife trade. Since wildlife marketing functions as a system of scale-free networks with major hubs, these points provide control opportunities to maximize the effects of regulatory efforts. PMID:16022772

Cook, Robert A.; Bennett, Elizabeth L.; Newcomb, James

2005-01-01

192

DISEASE IN HUMAN EVOLUTION: THE RE-EMERGENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE THIRD EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRANSITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

For millions of years, humans and their ancestors suffered from diseases -- both the kind caused by infectious pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses, parasites) and the kind caused by our own bodies as they age and degenerate. Over this long period, humans constantly created new ways of living and eating, and actual physical or genetic changes evolved to minimize the effects

George J. Armelagos; Kathleen C. Barnes; James Lin

193

Detecting Emerging Diseases in Farm Animals through Clinical Observations  

PubMed Central

Predicting emerging diseases is among the most difficult challenges facing researchers and health managers. We present available approaches and tools to detect emerging diseases in animals based on clinical observations of farm animals by veterinarians. Three information systems are described and discussed: Veterinary Practitioner Aided Disease Surveillance in New Zealand, the Rapid Syndrome Validation ProjectAnimal in the United States, and "mergences" in France. These systems are based on syndromic surveillance with the notification of every case or of specific clinical syndromes or on the notification of atypical clinical cases. Data are entered by field veterinarians into forms available through Internet-accessible devices. Beyond challenges of implementing new information systems, minimizing economic and health effects from emerging diseases in animals requires strong synergies across a group of field partners, in research, and in international animal and public health customs and practices. PMID:16494743

Vourc'h, Gwenal; Bridges, Victoria E.; Gibbens, Jane; De Groot, Brad D.; McIntyre, Lachlan; Poland, Roger; Barnouin, Jacques

2006-01-01

194

Exotic emerging viral diseases: progress and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agents causing viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) are a taxonomically diverse group of viruses that may share commonalities in the process whereby they produce systemic and frequently fatal disease. Significant progress has been made in understanding the biology of the Ebola virus, one of the best known examples. This knowledge has guided our thinking about other VHF agents, including Marburg,

Thomas W Geisbert; Peter B Jahrling

2004-01-01

195

All Hands on Deck: Transdisciplinary Approaches to Emerging Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing burden of emerging infectious diseases worldwide confronts us with numerous challenges, including the imperative\\u000a to design research and responses that are commensurate to understanding the complex social and ecological contexts in which\\u000a infectious diseases occur. A diverse group of scientists met in Hawaii in March 2005 to discuss the linked social and ecological\\u000a contexts in which infectious diseases

Margot W. Parkes; Leslie Bienen; Jaime Breilh; Lee-Nah Hsu; Marian McDonald; Jonathan A. Patz; Joshua P. Rosenthal; Mazrura Sahani; Adrian Sleigh; David Waltner-Toews; Annalee Yassi

2005-01-01

196

Accurate Real-Time PCR Strategy for Monitoring Bloodstream Parasitic Loads in Chagas Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Background This report describes a real-time PCR (Q-PCR) strategy to quantify Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) DNA in peripheral blood samples from Chagas disease patients targeted to conserved motifs within the repetitive satellite sequence. Methodology/Principal Findings The Q-PCR has a detection limit of 0.1 and 0.01 parasites/mL, with a dynamic range of 106 and 107 for Silvio X10 cl1 (T. cruzi I) and Cl Brener stocks (T. cruzi IIe), respectively, an efficiency of 99%, and a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998. In order to express accurately the parasitic loads: (1) we adapted a commercial kit based on silica-membrane technology to enable efficient processing of Guanidine Hydrochloride-EDTA treated blood samples and minimize PCR inhibition; (2) results were normalized incorporating a linearized plasmid as an internal standard of the whole procedure; and (3) a correction factor according to the representativity of satellite sequences in each parasite lineage group was determined using a modified real-time PCR protocol (Lg-PCR). The Q-PCR strategy was applied (1) to estimate basal parasite loads in 43 pediatric Chagas disease patients, (2) to follow-up 38 of them receiving treatment with benznidazole, and (3) to monitor three chronic Chagas heart disease patients who underwent heart-transplantation and displayed events of clinical reactivation due to immunosupression. Conclusion/Significance All together, the high analytical sensitivity of the Q-PCR strategy, the low levels of intra- and inter-assay variations, as well as the accuracy provided by the Lg-PCR based correction factor support this methodology as a key laboratory tool for monitoring clinical reactivation and etiological treatment outcome in Chagas disease patients. PMID:19381287

Duffy, Tomas; Bisio, Margarita; Altcheh, Jaime; Burgos, Juan Miguel; Diez, Mirta; Levin, Mariano Jorge; Favaloro, Roberto Rene; Freilij, Hector; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel

2009-01-01

197

Understanding complexity in neurodegenerative diseases: in silico reconstruction of emergence  

PubMed Central

Healthy functioning is an emergent property of the network of interacting biomolecules that comprise an organism. It follows that disease (a network shift that causes malfunction) is also an emergent property, emerging from a perturbation of the network. On the one hand, the biomolecular network of every individual is unique and this is evident when similar disease-producing agents cause different individual pathologies. Consequently, a personalized model and approach for every patient may be required for therapies to become effective across mankind. On the other hand, diverse combinations of internal and external perturbation factors may cause a similar shift in network functioning. We offer this as an explanation for the multi-factorial nature of most diseases: they are systems biology diseases, or network diseases. Here we use neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson's disease (PD), as an example to show that due to the inherent complexity of these networks, it is difficult to understand multi-factorial diseases with simply our naked brain. When describing interactions between biomolecules through mathematical equations and integrating those equations into a mathematical model, we try to reconstruct the emergent properties of the system in silico. The reconstruction of emergence from interactions between huge numbers of macromolecules is one of the aims of systems biology. Systems biology approaches enable us to break through the limitation of the human brain to perceive the extraordinarily large number of interactions, but this also means that we delegate the understanding of reality to the computer. We no longer recognize all those essences in the system's design crucial for important physiological behavior (the so-called design principles of the system). In this paper we review evidence that by using more abstract approaches and by experimenting in silico, one may still be able to discover and understand the design principles that govern behavioral emergence. PMID:22934043

Kolodkin, Alexey; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Balling, Rudi; Westerhoff, Hans V.

2012-01-01

198

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES ON EMERGING AND RE-EMERGING ANIMAL DISEASE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Climate change and environmental change are a subset of the larger set of ecosystem changes that are promoting the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases. The complexity of the interconnectedness between a wide range of factors influencing the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases means that uncertainty will continue to be a feature of the future. Central Veterinary Authorities

Peter Black; Mike Nunn

199

Emerging infectious diseases: vulnerabilities, contributing factors and approaches.  

PubMed

We live in an ever more connected global village linked through international travel, politics, economics, culture and human-human and human-animal interactions. The realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease-causing agents that were formerly confined to small, remote areas and that infectious disease outbreaks can have political, economic and social roots and effects is becoming more apparent. Novel infectious disease microbes continue to be discovered because they are new or newly recognized, have expanded their geographic range, have been shown to cause a new disease spectrum, have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans, have become resistant to antimicrobial agents, have increased in incidence or have become more virulent. These emerging infectious disease microbes may have the potential for use as agents of bioterrorism. Factors involved in the emergence of infectious diseases are complex and interrelated and involve all classifications of organisms transmitted in a variety of ways. In 2003, outbreaks of interest included severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox and avian influenza. Information from the human genome project applied to microbial organisms and their hosts will provide new opportunities for detection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control and prognosis. New technology related not only to genetics but also to satellite and monitoring systems will play a role in weather, climate and the approach to environmental manipulations that influence factors contributing to infectious disease emergence and control. Approaches to combating emerging infectious diseases include many disciplines, such as animal studies, epidemiology, immunology, ecology, environmental studies, microbiology, pharmacology, other sciences, health, medicine, public health, nursing, cultural, political and social studies, all of which must work together. Appropriate financial support of the public health infrastructure including surveillance, prevention, communication, adherence techniques and the like will be needed to support efforts to address emerging infectious disease threats. PMID:15482195

Lashley, Felissa R

2004-04-01

200

PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS  

EPA Science Inventory

The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994 - December 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia. The infecti...

201

Swine flu: a new emerging disease.  

PubMed

Swine flu is an important zoonotic disease that has been recognized as an important global health problem by any one of several types of swine influenza virus or swine-origin influenza virus. Due to its increasing incidence in many countries of the world and occurrence of several large outbreaks in present year, it is a burning issue nowadays. It is thought to be a mutation--more specifically, a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. Due to variability of clinical features and limited availability of laboratory facilities, the disease remains largely under-reported. Early and specific diagnosis is important to ensure a favourable outcome. In this paper we attempted to explore history, classification, transmission, sign symptoms, diagnosis and prevention of swine flu as a critical review to provide some new upgrade regarding this devastating pandemic disease. PMID:20046190

Haque, N; Bari, M S; Bilkis, L; Hossain, M A; Islam, M A; Hoque, M M; Haque, N; Haque, S; Ahmed, S; Mirza, R; Sumona, A A; Ahmed, M U; Ara, A

2010-01-01

202

Current and emerging therapies for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, with a rapidly increasing worldwide prevalence. Although no cure for AD has yet been found, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of AD pathogenesis. This progress has led to the development of numerous promising compounds in various stages of clinical testing. In this review, the current pharmacologic treatments for AD are discussed in detail, followed by an overview of the main experimental strategies that will shape AD therapeutics over the next decade. PMID:24139420

Nygaard, Haakon B

2013-10-01

203

Wildlife Trade and the Emergence of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most recent emerging infectious diseases have been zoonotic in origin. It is our contention that one of the factors responsible\\u000a for such emergence is the trade in wildlife and bushmeat in particular. This article considers the effect of increasing diversity\\u000a in the species hunted on the probability of global epidemics such as SARS. In particular, we develop a mathematical model

Louise Swift; Paul R. Hunter; Alexander C. Lees; Diana J. Bell

2007-01-01

204

Examinations regarding the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases in Polish soldiers contingents assigned to missions abroad.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to present the program of diagnostic examinations regarding the detection and following treatment of intestinal parasitic diseases in the population of Polish soldiers serving in different climatic and sanitary conditions. Intestinal parasitoses remain one of the health problems of soldiers participating in contemporary military operations. This fact mainly results from unsatisfactory sanitary and hygienic standards in the regions where troops are deployed, contamination of water and soil, inappropriate processes of purifying drinking water, and the terrible condition of sewage systems, water purification plants, or sewage treatment facilities. The occurrence of such diseases is further facilitated by disregard of some basic principles of food and feeding hygiene. Mass examinations of Polish troops to find the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses will cause a decrease in the morbidity rate of parasitic diseases among Polish soldiers deployed in military operations. They can also lead to a decrease in expenditure on medical treatment of disease-related complications and on damages awarded to soldiers who have developed a serious disease while being engaged in a mission abroad. PMID:21534223

Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

2011-01-01

205

Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases Incidence through Vectors  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector-borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and population of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector-borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, and leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fundamental role at primarily prevention and then treatment of vector-borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases. During a 4-year period, from 2009 to 2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analyzed for vector-borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis) in routine laboratory work. The analysis was done by serological tests ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis, and blood smear for babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on average more then half of the samples brought to the laboratory to analysis for different infectious diseases are analyzed for vector-borne diseases. In the region of Vojvodina (northern part of Serbia), the following vector-borne infectious diseases have been found in dogs so far borreliosis, babesiosis, dirofilariosis, leishmaniasis, and anaplasmosis. PMID:25520951

Savi?, Sara; Vidi?, Branka; Grgi?, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica

2014-01-01

206

Current and Emerging Therapy for Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

At present, strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Even small amounts of gluten (50?mg/day) can be immunogenic; therefore all food and food items and drugs that contain gluten and its derivatives must be eliminated completely from the diet. While prescribing gluten-free diet is easy; the key to the success is the dietary counseling by a nutrition specialist and maintenance of adherence to GFD by the patient. In recent times, a number of targets to halt the process of immunological injury have been explored to find out alternative treatment for celiac disease. These targets include exploration of ancient wheat if they are less immunogenic, intra-luminal digestion of gluten using prolylendopeptidases, pretreatment of whole gluten with bacterial-derived peptidase before ingestion; prevention of passage of immunogenic peptides through the tight junctions such as zonulin antagonists, Blocking of HLA-DQ2 to prevent binding of immunogenic peptides, inhibition of transglutaminase 2, immune-modulation, and induction of tolerance to gluten using gluten tolerizing vaccines, use of gluten-sequestering polymers, use of anti-inflammatory drugs (glucocorticoids, budesonides) and anti-cytokines such as anti TNF-?, and anti-interleukin-15. While many of these targets are still in the pre-clinical phase, some of them including zonulin antagonist and endopeptidases have already reached phase II and phase III clinical trials. Furthermore, while these targets appear very exciting; they at best are likely to be used as adjunctive therapy rather than a complete replacement for gluten-free diet. PMID:25705619

Makharia, Govind K.

2014-01-01

207

Emerging and re-emerging Infectious diseases: a global health threat.  

PubMed

The HIV/AIDS pandemic can truly be described as an infectious disease that has recently emerged and judging from its rapid global spread, it leaves no doubt that it is one of the greatest health threats mankind has to contend with. This pandemic has alerted and stimulated the international scientific community to seriously reflect oa other recent episodes of emerging and re-emerging infections. The examples that have recently been observed and addressed include new emerging infectious diseases, unusual manifestations of previously known diseases and unusual eruption of known diseases in unusual geographic foci or unusual altitudes. The scientific community has considered the following as plausible explanations for the epidemics: 1. It is known that micro-organisms mutate and selection pressures for appearance of resistant strains are encouraged by the widespread misuse of drugs; 2. Human population pressures, particularly ih the developing world, is leading migration to urban slums. Other populations are venturing into virgin jungles to open up new agricultural land. In the same category are economic pursuits in the forest or alteration of the environment by economic activities such as new dams and roads. All these activities put new susceptible populations at risk of interacting with new disease ecological systems. It is also tempting to include in this category civil disruptions which have led to acute displacement of large populations within a country or across international borders as refugees; 3. The re-emergence of some of the old familiar diseases, hitherto considered well controlled, can be attributed directly to the deterioration of health services as a result of global economic depression which has affected some countries more severely than others; 4. There is sound and growing scientific evidence implicating global warming as contributing to some of the new disease manifestations. The threat to health by emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases is a reality and the scientific basis for this occurrence, though complex, is slowly being understood. The response of the international scientific community to this situation has been acknowledged as appropriate. It is gratifying to recognise the leading role that CDC/US A in collaboration with WHO are playing in globalising the responses to these threats. WHO has rightly assumed its leadership role in matters of this nature in coordinating global efforts to address this subject. A new division of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EMC) became operational in WHO headquarters in October 1995. The scientific world looks to it for timely, accurate global information, coordination and resource mobilisation. Some of the activities that are deemed central in globalising the surveillance for emerging and re-emerging diseases are: 1. Setting up of a global network for laboratories capable of rapidly identifying emerging and re-emerging organisms; 2. Setting up of a global network for surveillance and monitoring the development of antibiotic resistant organisms. The WHONET computer programme is already operational in some countries and extension of its use to other countries will lead to a very powerful and comprehensive global monitoring system for antibiotic resistant organisms. The participation of Kenya Medical Research Institute in this programme has been elicited as one of the pilots for Africa; 3. Setting up rapid reaction forces to respond to specific outbreak situations in order to control the spread of an emerging infectious disease. In this area of rapid trans not continental travel, the world is viewed as a "global village" and the relevance of the current International Sanitary Regulations requires a re-appraisal. Global sensitisation of the international community to the importance of this programme will ease and facilitate efforts at mobilisation resources needed and the training of the manpower required to make the above activities operational on a global scale. PMID:17451292

Tukei, P M

1996-05-01

208

Deer, predators, and the emergence of Lyme disease.  

PubMed

Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America, and both the annual incidence and geographic range are increasing. The emergence of Lyme disease has been attributed to a century-long recovery of deer, an important reproductive host for adult ticks. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease risk may now be more dynamically linked to fluctuations in the abundance of small-mammal hosts that are thought to infect the majority of ticks. The continuing and rapid increase in Lyme disease over the past two decades, long after the recolonization of deer, suggests that other factors, including changes in the ecology of small-mammal hosts may be responsible for the continuing emergence of Lyme disease. We present a theoretical model that illustrates how reductions in small-mammal predators can sharply increase Lyme disease risk. We then show that increases in Lyme disease in the northeastern and midwestern United States over the past three decades are frequently uncorrelated with deer abundance and instead coincide with a range-wide decline of a key small-mammal predator, the red fox, likely due to expansion of coyote populations. Further, across four states we find poor spatial correlation between deer abundance and Lyme disease incidence, but coyote abundance and fox rarity effectively predict the spatial distribution of Lyme disease in New York. These results suggest that changes in predator communities may have cascading impacts that facilitate the emergence of zoonotic diseases, the vast majority of which rely on hosts that occupy low trophic levels. PMID:22711825

Levi, Taal; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Mangel, Marc; Wilmers, Christopher C

2012-07-01

209

Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24290841

Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

2014-02-01

210

Exploring the interface between diagnostics and maps of neglected parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

Although not new, the 'One Health' concept is gaining progressively more importance in parasitology. Now more than ever, veterinary and human perspectives should be closely joined in diagnosis and surveillance of neglected parasitic diseases. We argue that concerted, standardized and harmonized diagnostic and surveillance strategies are needed for the control and/or elimination of animal and human neglected parasitic infections. A key challenge is to integrate parasitological data with available geospatial methods in an accessible and user-friendly framework. We discuss the capability of new diagnostic devices (e.g. Mini-FLOTAC) and geospatial technologies supported by mobile- and electronic-based approaches as one of the research priorities of the new millennium. PMID:24679439

Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe

2014-12-01

211

Environmental Temperature Affects Prevalence of Blood Parasites of Birds on an Elevation Gradient: Implications for Disease in a Warming Climate  

PubMed Central

Background The rising global temperature is predicted to expand the distribution of vector-borne diseases both in latitude and altitude. Many host communities could be affected by increased prevalence of disease, heightening the risk of extinction for many already threatened species. To understand how host communities could be affected by changing parasite distributions, we need information on the distribution of parasites in relation to variables like temperature and rainfall that are predicted to be affected by climate change. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined relations between prevalence of blood parasites, temperature, and seasonal rainfall in a bird community of the Australian Wet Tropics along an elevation gradient. We used PCR screening to investigate the prevalence and lineage diversity of four genera of blood parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma) in 403 birds. The overall prevalence of the four genera of blood parasites was 32.3%, with Haemoproteus the predominant genus. A total of 48 unique lineages were detected. Independent of elevation, parasite prevalence was positively and strongly associated with annual temperature. Parasite prevalence was elevated during the dry season. Conclusions/Significance Low temperatures of the higher elevations can help to reduce both the development of avian haematozoa and the abundance of parasite vectors, and hence parasite prevalence. In contrast, high temperatures of the lowland areas provide an excellent environment for the development and transmission of haematozoa. We showed that rising temperatures are likely to lead to increased prevalence of parasites in birds, and may force shifts of bird distribution to higher elevations. We found that upland tropical areas are currently a low-disease habitat and their conservation should be given high priority in management plans under climate change. PMID:22723966

Zamora-Vilchis, Itzel; Williams, Stephen E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

2012-01-01

212

Diversity of tick species biting humans in an emerging area for Lyme disease.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. Although most tick bites in humans in areas of the northeastern United States in which Lyme disease is highly endemic are due to Ixodes dammini, no study documents the frequency of I. dammini bites in low-prevalence or emerging areas for Lyme disease. Data on the proportion of tick bites in humans that are due to I. dammini in a region may have implications for public health policy and clinical management. METHODS. A statewide survey of the tick species that parasitized humans in Maine was conducted during 1989 and 1990. Tick submissions from throughout the state were elicited through media announcements. All ticks that had been removed from humans were identified, and data were collected that included bite seasonality and geography and demographics of tick bite victims. RESULTS. Of 709 ticks submitted, only 17% were I. dammini. Ixodes cookei, a vector for Powassan encephalitis, accounted for 34% of bites, and Dermacentor variabilis accounted for 45%. Other tick species were occasionally implicated. CONCLUSIONS. The likelihood that a tick bite was due to I. dammini was lower in Maine than in areas in the northeastern United States in which Lyme disease is highly endemic. Other tick vectors, associated with diseases other than Lyme disease, were more frequently implicated. Regional tick bite surveys may prove useful in assessing the risk of Lyme disease following a tick bite. PMID:1536337

Smith, R P; Lacombe, E H; Rand, P W; Dearborn, R

1992-01-01

213

Emergence of a unique group of necrotizing mycobacterial diseases.  

PubMed Central

Although most diseases due to pathogenic mycobacteria are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, several other mycobacterial diseases-caused by M. ulcerans (Buruli ulcer), M. marinum, and M. haemophilum-have begun to emerge. We review the emergence of diseases caused by these three pathogens in the United States and around the world in the last decade. We examine the pathophysiologic similarities of the diseases (all three cause necrotizing skin lesions) and common reservoirs of infection (stagnant or slow-flowing water). Examination of the histologic and pathogenic characteristics of these mycobacteria suggests differences in the modes of transmission and pathogenesis, though no singular mechanism for either characteristic has been definitively described for any of these mycobacteria. PMID:10341173

Dobos, K. M.; Quinn, F. D.; Ashford, D. A.; Horsburgh, C. R.; King, C. H.

1999-01-01

214

Large-Scale Phylogenetic Analysis of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases present critical issues of national security, public health, and economic welfare.\\u000a For example, in recent years, highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza have emerged in Asia, spread through Eastern Europe,\\u000a and threaten to become pandemic. As demonstrated by the coordinated response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and\\u000a influenza, agents of infectious disease are being

D. Janies; D. Pol

215

The Role of Ecotones in Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of the significance of the boundary between ecological systems, often referred to as the ecotone, has a long history\\u000a in the ecological sciences and in zoonotic disease research. More recent research in landscape ecology has produced an expanded\\u000a view of ecotones and elaboration of their characteristics and functions in ecosystems. Parallel research on emerging infectious\\u000a diseases (EIDs) and the

Dickson Despommier; Brett R. Ellis; Bruce A. Wilcox

2006-01-01

216

Alfalfa diseases 101: diagnosing common and emerging disease problems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 50 pathogens have been identified that cause significant damage to alfalfa and prevent it from reaching its full potential for producing high yields of quality forage. There has been excellent progress by plant breeders and plant pathologists in developing cultivars with multiple disease a...

217

Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases: the perpetual challenge.  

PubMed

Public health officials once suggested that it might someday be possible to "close the book" on the study and treatment of infectious diseases. However, it is now clear that endemic diseases as well as newly emerging ones (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), reemerging ones (e.g., West Nile virus), and even deliberately disseminated infectious diseases (e.g., anthrax from bioterrorism) continue to pose a substantial threat throughout the world. Over the past several decades, the global effort to identify and characterize infectious agents, decipher the underlying pathways by which they cause disease, and develop preventive measures and treatments for many of the world's most dangerous pathogens has helped control many endemic diseases. But despite considerable progress, infectious diseases continue to present significant challenges as new microbial threats emerge and reemerge. HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, Marburg virus, and bioterrorism are examples of some of the emerging and reemerging threats. In responding to these ongoing challenges, a new paradigm in countermeasure development is needed. In the past, U.S. government-sponsored biomedical researchers have focused on basic research and concept development, leaving product development to the pharmaceutical industry. Increasingly, however, the government has become involved in more targeted countermeasure development efforts. In this regard, partnerships between government, industry, and academia are necessary as we struggle to maintain and update our armamentarium in the struggle to outwit the microbes that pose a never-ending threat to mankind. PMID:16306276

Fauci, Anthony S

2005-12-01

218

Pooled sequencing and rare variant association tests for identifying the determinants of emerging drug resistance in malaria parasites.  

PubMed

We explored the potential of pooled sequencing to swiftly and economically identify selective sweeps due to emerging artemisinin (ART) resistance in a South-East Asian malaria parasite population. ART resistance is defined by slow parasite clearance from the blood of ART-treated patients and mutations in the kelch gene (chr. 13) have been strongly implicated to play a role. We constructed triplicate pools of 70 slow-clearing (resistant) and 70 fast-clearing (sensitive) infections collected from the Thai-Myanmar border and sequenced these to high (?150-fold) read depth. Allele frequency estimates from pools showed almost perfect correlation (Lin's concordance = 0.98) with allele frequencies at 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms measured directly from individual infections, giving us confidence in the accuracy of this approach. By mapping genome-wide divergence (FST) between pools of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive parasites, we identified two large (>150 kb) regions (on chrs. 13 and 14) and 17 smaller candidate genome regions. To identify individual genes within these genome regions, we resequenced an additional 38 parasite genomes (16 slow and 22 fast-clearing) and performed rare variant association tests. These confirmed kelch as a major molecular marker for ART resistance (P = 6.03 10(-6)). This two-tier approach is powerful because pooled sequencing rapidly narrows down genome regions of interest, while targeted rare variant association testing within these regions can pinpoint the genetic basis of resistance. We show that our approach is robust to recurrent mutation and the generation of soft selective sweeps, which are predicted to be common in pathogen populations with large effective population sizes, and may confound more traditional gene mapping approaches. PMID:25534029

Cheeseman, Ian H; McDew-White, Marina; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Nosten, Franois; Anderson, Timothy J C

2015-04-01

219

Rapid response research to emerging infectious diseases: lessons from SARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

New and emerging infectious diseases continue to plague the world, and there is significant concern that recombinant infectious agents can be used as bioterrorism threats. Microbiologists are increasingly being asked to apply their scientific knowledge to respond to these threats. The recent pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus illustrated not only how a newly evolved pathogen

Raymond H. See; Robert C. Brunham; B. Brett Finlay

2004-01-01

220

The role of evolution in the emergence of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unclear when, where and how novel pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), monkeypox and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) will cross the barriers that separate their natural reservoirs from human populations and ignite the epidemic spread of novel infectious diseases. New pathogens are believed to emerge from animal reservoirs when ecological changes increase the pathogen's opportunities to

Rustom Antia; Roland R. Regoes; Jacob C. Koella; Carl T. Bergstrom

2003-01-01

221

Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognised as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs ...

222

Public apprehension of emerging infectious diseases: are changes afoot?  

PubMed

Using social representations theory this paper casts light on the pattern of content that characterises the public response to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID). The pattern is: distancing the disease from the self/ one's in-groups; blame of particular entities for the disease's origin and/or spread; and stigmatisation of those who have contracted it and/or who are represented as having intensified its spread. This pattern is not unique to EID but extends to many risks, making EID fruitful events for understanding public apprehension of potential dangers. This process may be driven by worry, fear and anxiety since when levels of these are low, as has arguably been the case with the 2009/10 "Swine Flu" pandemic, the pattern transforms. The distancing-blame-stigma pattern may also be transformed by growing reflexivity, a feature of late modern societies, as well as material features of the epidemic and "EID fatigue". PMID:21936260

Joffe, Helene

2011-07-01

223

Health and disease: exploring the relation between parasitic infections, child nutrition status, and markets.  

PubMed

Research in bioarchaeology and among living people provides insight into the biological and biocultural consequences of subsistence, political, and economic transitions. Central to this effort is examining infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections because they are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in both past and current groups. Although infection may not always result in overt disease, frequent exposure results in biological stress with a negative effect on child growth and, by extension, health. The goal of this article is to examine the association between a common class of infectious disease, soil-transmitted helminth worms, and nutritional status among youth living in communities that vary with respect to their distance from a commercial center. In 2007, anthropometric measurements and parasitological surveys were collected for 338 2-14-year-old children and adolescents living in lowland Bolivia as part of the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study. Associations between the presence of helminth infections and markers of both short- and long-term nutritional status were overall weak. Youth living in communities distant from the commercial center were more likely to be positive for multiple parasite species than youth in near communities, but youth in mid-distance communities had lower infection rates. This article demonstrates the challenge of identifying associations between nutritional and disease stress when individual and household factors are nested in a larger context of socioeconomic and environmental change. Increased collaboration between bioarchaeology and human biology should continue to examine the connections between stress and disease across time. PMID:25059318

Tanner, Susan

2014-10-01

224

[Development and application of information system for epidemiological investigation on parasitic diseases].  

PubMed

An information system for epidemiological investigation on parasitic diseases was developed. The foreground of this system was realized by using C# programming language, and the ACCESS database was used to implement the data management. The system was improved by continuous field application, and has been updated from version 1.0 to 3.0. The average treatment time, logic error rate, rate of sample loss, and post-processing error rate have now been reduced by 88.0%, 100%, 98.1%, and 100%, respectively (P<0.01). This system can reduce the human error and change the field investigation into effective and high-quality pattern. PMID:25726609

Hu, Fei; Li, Yi-feng; Yuan, Min; Li, Jian-ying; Liu, Yue-min; Li, Zhao-jun; Lin, Dan-dan

2014-10-01

225

Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease  

PubMed Central

Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases. PMID:24949464

Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong

2014-01-01

226

Emerging viral diseases in dromedary camels in the Southern Morocco.  

PubMed

During the last fifteen years, new viral diseases such Bluetongue (BT), West Nile (WN), African horse sickness (AHS), Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) have extended their geographic distribution and emerged in North Africa and in Europe. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is considered as a potential vector in the transmission of some of these diseases while it is host-specific for Camelpox (CP). A serological survey was conducted on 1392 sera to estimate changes of these diseases prevalence in camels over two different time spans (2003 and 2009) and across different sites of South Morocco. Results indicate clearly that BT was circulating in camels before the first notified outbreak in Morocco (2004) with 42% positive sera in Guelmim in 2003. BT and WN prevalence's increased over time from 11 to 25% and from 10 to 13% respectively. Higher prevalence of both diseases was found in camels living in oases indicating an increased intensity of viral circulation in these sites. Camels have been tested negative for AHS, EHD and PPR viruses while higher CP prevalence has been detected in camels living in Smara, the most closed site to eastern borders (i.e. Mauritania). The seroprevalence of CP in camels at interval of 7 years increases from 23% to 37%. This survey could provide information on the possible use of camel as a sentinel animal for surveillance of emerging diseases such BT and WN. PMID:22222004

Touil, N; Cherkaoui, Z; Lmrabih, Z; Loutfi, C; Harif, B; El Harrak, M

2012-04-01

227

H7N9 Influenza: The Emerging Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus infection is a common respiratory pathogen. Emerging of new atypical influenza is usually a big public health threat. H7N9 bird flu is the newest atypical influenza virus infection that has just been reported since early 2013. The emerging of this new disease occurred in China and becomes the present focus for possible worldwide pandemic. In this specific article, the author will discus and describe on epidemiology, symptomatology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this new bird flu. The literature researching by PubMed and Google is used for data gathering in this collective review. PMID:24020046

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2013-01-01

228

Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife  

PubMed Central

Worldwide increases in the numbers of human and wildlife diseases present ecologists with the challenge of understanding how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earths ecosystems is the alteration of global nutrient cycles, including those of phosphorus (P) and especially nitrogen (N). Alongside the obvious direct benefits of nutrient application for food production, growing evidence suggests that anthropogenic inputs of N and P can indirectly affect the abundance of infectious and noninfectious pathogens, sometimes leading to epidemic conditions. However, the mechanisms underpinning observed correlations, and how such patterns vary with disease type, have long remained conjectural. Here, we discuss recent experimental advances in this area to critically evaluate the relationship between environmental nutrient enrichment and disease. Given the inter-related nature of human and wildlife disease emergence, we include a broad range of human and wildlife examples from terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems. We examine the consequences of nutrient pollution on directly transmitted, vector-borne, complex life cycle, and noninfectious pathogens, including West Nile virus, malaria, harmful algal blooms, coral reef diseases and amphibian malformations. Our synthetic examination suggests that the effects of environmental nutrient enrichment on disease are complex and multifaceted, varying with the type of pathogen, host species and condition, attributes of the ecosystem and the degree of enrichment; some pathogens increase in abundance whereas others decline or disappear. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that ecological changes associated with nutrient enrichment often exacerbate infection and disease caused by generalist parasites with direct or simple life cycles. Observed mechanisms include changes in host/vector density, host distribution, infection resistance, pathogen virulence or toxicity, or the direct supplementation of pathogens. Collectively, these pathogens may be particularly dangerous because they can continue to cause mortality even as their hosts decline, potentially leading to sustained epidemics or chronic pathology. We suggest that interactions between nutrient enrichment and disease will become increasingly important in tropical and subtropical regions, where forecasted increases in nutrient application will occur in an environment rich with infectious pathogens. We emphasize the importance of careful disease management in conjunction with continued intensification of global nutrient cycles. PMID:20349828

Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Townsend, Alan R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Howarth, Robert W.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Rejmankova, Eliska; Ward, Mary H.

2009-01-01

229

Emerging infectious disease: what are the relative roles of ecology and evolution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing threat of infectious diseases in humans has renewed interest in factors leading to the emergence of new diseases and the re-emergence of familiar diseases. Examples of seemingly novel diseases currently spreading in human populations include HIV, dengue hemorrhagic fever and Lyme disease; drug-resistant forms of well-known diseases such as tuberculosis are also increasing. The problem of disease emergence

Stephanie J. Schrag; Pamela Wiener

1995-01-01

230

Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 2C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P < 0.01) and field (P < 0.01) conditions. However, M. ornatum rate of reproduction increased significantly in pots receiving the lowest Pi level of 10 nematodes/plant compared with the pots receiving Pi levels of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nematodes 75 DAI. Plant-parasitic nematode populations were determined in commercial blueberry replant sites in Georgia and North Carolina during the 2010 growing season. Mesocriconema ornatum and Dolichodorus spp. were the predominant plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia and North Carolina, respectively, with M. ornatum occurring in nearly half the blueberry fields sampled in Georgia. Other nematode genera detected in both states included Tylenchorhynchus spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Hemicycliophora spp., and Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum and its relationship to BRD warrants further investigation. PMID:23833323

Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

2013-01-01

231

Chagas disease in the 21st Century: a public health success or an emerging threat?  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health burden in Latin America and a potentially serious emerging threat to a number of countries throughout the world. Although public health programs have significantly reduced the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin America in recent decades, the number of infections in the United States and non-endemic countries in Europe and the Western Pacific Region continues to rise. Moreover, there is still no vaccine or highly effective cure available for the approximately 10 million people currently infected with T. cruzi, a third of which will develop potentially fatal cardiomyopathy and/or severe digestive tract disorders. As Chagas disease becomes an increasingly globalized public health issue in the twenty-first century, continued attentiveness from governmental and health organizations as well as improved diagnostic tools, expanded surveillance and increased research funding will be required to maintain existing public health successes and stymie the spread of the disease to new areas and populations. PMID:24626257

Bonney, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

232

Systematic review of current and emerging strategies for reducing morbidity from malaria in sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic debilitating disorder affecting erythrocytes, which is especially prevalent throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and among individuals of African descent. Because malaria is thought to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SCD, malaria chemoprophylaxis is often recommended for these patients. In SCD, malaria chemoprophylaxis reduces malaria parasite count, anaemia and the need for blood transfusion, and improves clinical outcomes. However, the effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis in the setting of SCD is based on a few studies conducted prior to the emergence of widespread antimalarial drug resistance. Consequently, it is uncertain what the optimal strategy for managing patients with SCD in malarious areas should be. Despite the widespread use of hydroxyurea in non-malarious regions, little is known about its effect in malaria-endemic areas or on malaria-related outcomes. On the one hand, hydroxyurea upregulates intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), the cell surface receptor for adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, and theoretically, it could enhance parasite replication. On the other hand, hydroxyurea increases levels of foetal haemoglobin, which is protective against malaria. We explore what is currently known about the interactions between SCD and malaria and review the published literature on the efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis in SCD. We also consider alternative strategies, including hydroxyurea, in the reduction of malaria-associated morbidity and mortality in patients with SCD. PMID:23320577

Aneni, Ehimen C; Hamer, Davidson H; Gill, Christopher J

2013-03-01

233

miR-191: an emerging player in disease biology  

PubMed Central

Specific microRNAs have emerged as key players in disease biology by playing crucial role in disease development and progression. This review draws attention to one such microRNA, miR-191 that has been recently reported to be abnormally expressed in several cancers (>20) and various other diseases like diabetes-type 2, Crohn s, pulmonary hypertension, and Alzheimer s. It regulates important cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration by targeting important transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, and cell cycle associated genes. Several studies have demonstrated it to be an excellent biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis leading to two patents already in its kitty. In this first review we summarize the current knowledge of the regulation, functions and targets of miR-191 and discuss its potential as a promising disease biomarker and therapeutic target. PMID:24795757

Nagpal, Neha; Kulshreshtha, Ritu

2014-01-01

234

Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging diseases.  

PubMed

Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases. PMID:24671087

Liu, Yiying; de Bruijn, Irene; Jack, Allison L H; Drynan, Keith; van den Berg, Albert H; Thoen, Even; Sandoval-Sierra, Vladimir; Skaar, Ida; van West, Pieter; Diguez-Uribeondo, Javier; van der Voort, Menno; Mendes, Rodrigo; Mazzola, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jos M

2014-10-01

235

When More Transmission Equals Less Disease: Reconciling the Disconnect between Disease Hotspots and Parasite Transmission  

PubMed Central

The assumed straightforward connection between transmission intensity and disease occurrence impacts surveillance and control efforts along with statistical methodology, including parameter inference and niche modeling. Many infectious disease systems have the potential for this connection to be more complicatedalthough demonstrating this in any given disease system has remained elusive. Hemorrhagic disease (HD) is one of the most important diseases of white-tailed deer and is caused by viruses in the Orbivirus genus. Like many infectious diseases, the probability or severity of disease increases with age (after loss of maternal antibodies) and the probability of disease is lower upon re-infection compared to first infection (based on cross-immunity between virus strains). These broad criteria generate a prediction that disease occurrence is maximized at intermediate levels of transmission intensity. Using published US field data, we first fit a statistical model to predict disease occurrence as a function of seroprevalence (a proxy for transmission intensity), demonstrating that states with intermediate seroprevalence have the highest level of case reporting. We subsequently introduce an independently parameterized mechanistic model supporting the theory that high case reporting should come from areas with intermediate levels of transmission. This is the first rigorous demonstration of this phenomenon and illustrates that variation in transmission rate (e.g. along an ecologically-controlled transmission gradient) can create cryptic refuges for infectious diseases. PMID:23579922

Park, Andrew W.; Magori, Krisztian; White, Brad A.; Stallknecht, David E.

2013-01-01

236

Emerging therapies for Parkinson's disease: from bench to bedside.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) increases with age and is projected to increase in parallel to the rising average age of the population. The disease can have significant health-related, social, and financial implications not only for the patient and the caregiver, but for the health care system as well. While the neuropathology of this neurodegenerative disorder is fairly well understood, its etiology remains a mystery, making it difficult to target therapy. The currently available drugs for treatment provide only symptomatic relief and do not control or prevent disease progression, and as a result patient compliance and satisfaction are low. Several emerging pharmacotherapies for PD are in different stages of clinical development. These therapies include adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, glutamate receptor antagonists, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, anti-apoptotic agents, and antioxidants such as coenzyme Q10, N-acetyl cysteine, and edaravone. Other emerging non-pharmacotherapies include viral vector gene therapy, microRNAs, transglutaminases, RTP801, stem cells and glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In addition, surgical procedures including deep brain stimulation, pallidotomy, thalamotomy and gamma knife surgery have emerged as alternative interventions for advanced PD patients who have completely utilized standard treatments and still suffer from persistent motor fluctuations. While several of these therapies hold much promise in delaying the onset of the disease and slowing its progression, more pharmacotherapies and surgical interventions need to be investigated in different stages of PD. It is hoped that these emerging therapies and surgical procedures will strengthen our clinical armamentarium for improved treatment of PD. PMID:24854598

Tarazi, F I; Sahli, Z T; Wolny, M; Mousa, S A

2014-11-01

237

Drivers of disease emergence and spread: is wildlife to blame?  

PubMed

The global focus on wildlife as a major contributor to emerging pathogens and infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans and domestic animals is not based on field, experimental or dedicated research, but mostly on limited surveys of literature, opinion and the assumption that biodiversity harbours pathogens. The perceived and direct impacts of wildlife, from being a reservoir of certain human and livestock pathogens and as a risk to health, are frequently overstated when compared to the Global burden of disease statistics available from WHO, OIE and FAO. However organisms that evolve in wildlife species can and do spill-over into human landscapes and humans and domestic animal population and, where these organisms adapt to surviving and spreading amongst livestock and humans, these emerging infections can have significant consequences. Drivers for the spill-over of pathogens or evolution of organisms from wildlife reservoirs to become pathogens of humans and domestic animals are varied but almost without exception poorly researched. The changing demographics, spatial distribution and movements, associated landscape modifications (especially agricultural) and behavioural changes involving human and domestic animal populations are probably the core drivers of the apparent increasing trend in emergence of new pathogens and infectious diseases over recent decades. PMID:25005349

Kock, Richard

2014-01-01

238

Emerging virus diseases: can we ever expect the unexpected?  

PubMed Central

Emerging virus diseases are a major threat to human and veterinary public health. With new examples occurring approximately one each year, the majority are viruses originating from an animal host. Of the many factors responsible, changes to local ecosystems that perturb the balance between pathogen and principal host species is one of the major drivers, together with increasing urbanization of mankind and changes in human behavior. Many emerging viruses have RNA genomes and as such are capable of rapid mutation and selection of new variants in the face of environmental changes in host numbers and available target species. This review summarizes recent work on aspects of virus emergence and the current understanding of the molecular and immunological basis whereby viruses may cross between species and become established in new ecological niches. Emergence is hard to predict, although mathematical modeling and spatial epidemiology have done much to improve the prediction of where emergence may occur. However, much needs to be done to ensure adequate surveillance is maintained of animal species known to present the greatest risk thus increasing general alertness among physicians, veterinarians and those responsible for formulating public health policy.

Howard, Colin R; Fletcher, Nicola F

2012-01-01

239

Uncovering zoonoses awareness in an emerging disease 'hotspot'.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases from animals pose significant and increasing threats to human health; places of risk are simultaneously viewed as conservation and emerging disease 'hotspots'. The One World/One Health paradigm is an 'assemblage' discipline. Extensive research from the natural and social sciences, as well as public health have contributed to designing surveillance and response policy within the One World/One Health framework. However, little research has been undertaken that considers the lives of those who experience risk in hotspots on a daily basis. As a result, policymakers and practitioners are unable to fully comprehend the social and ecological processes that catalyze cross-species pathogen exchange. This study examined local populations' comprehension of zoonotic disease. From October 2008-May 2009 we collected data from people living on the periphery of Kibale National Park, in western Uganda. We administered a survey to 72 individuals and conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 14 individuals. Results from the survey showed respondents had statistically significant awareness that transmission of diseases from animals was possible compared to those who did not think such transmission was possible (x(2)=30.68, df=1, p<0.05). However, individual characteristics such as gender, occupation, location, and age were not significantly predictive of awareness. Both quantitative and qualitative data show local people are aware of zoonoses and provided biomedically accurate examples of possible infections and corresponding animal sources (e.g., worm infection from pigs and Ebola from primates). Qualitative data also revealed expectations about the role of the State in managing the prevention of zoonoses from wildlife. As a result of this research, we recommend meaningful discourse with people living at the frontlines of animal contact in emerging disease and conservation hotspots in order to develop informed and relevant zoonoses prevention practices that take into account local knowledge and perceptions. PMID:25128439

Paige, Sarah B; Malav, Carly; Mbabazi, Edith; Mayer, Jonathan; Goldberg, Tony L

2015-03-01

240

Consolidated and emerging inflammatory markers in coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease is an event of atherosclerosis characterized by a chronic vascular inflammation. Risk factors like obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and positive family history sometimes are not sufficiently adequate to the enhancement of cardiovascular risk assessment. In the past years numerous biomarkers, like C reactive protein, cytokines and adhesion molecules, have been observed to be related to adverse cardiovascular prognosis. Recently, several studies found an association among inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular diseases suggesting their utility to identify the risk of an acute ischemic event and the detection of vulnerable plaques. The emerging inflammatory markers are well divided for diagnosis and prognosis and plaque instability of coronary artery disease. Some of them, the lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 can be important both in diagnosis and in the evaluation of plaque instability, other are inserted in the above reported classification. The emerging inflammatory markers in acute-phase include amyloid A, fibrinogen and pentraxin 3 while myeloperoxidase, myeloid-related protein 8/14 and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A are recognize markers of plaque instability. Lastly, some studies demonstrated that circulating miRNAs are involved in coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction and heart failure. PMID:25699231

Lubrano, Valter; Balzan, Silvana

2015-02-20

241

Emerging leadership lecture: Inflammatory bowel disease in Asia: Emergence of a "Western" disease.  

PubMed

More than a decade ago, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rare in Asia. Today, the importance of IBD in Asia is exemplified by its rapidly increasing incidence, complicated disease behavior, and substantial morbidity. In the first large-scale population-based epidemiologic study in Asia, the incidence of IBD varied from 0.60 to 3.44 per 100?000. There has been a twofold to threefold increase in the incidence of IBD in several countries in Asia. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is more prevalent than Crohn's disease (CD), although CD incidence is rapidly increasing. A positive family history is much less common than in the West, as are extra-intestinal disease manifestations. Complicated and penetrating CD are common in Asia. These epidemiologic changes may relate to increased contact with the West, westernization of diet, improved hygiene, increasing antibiotics use, or changes in the gut microbiota. Asian patients with CD have altered gut microbiota compared with their healthy counterparts and Caucasian CD subjects. Mucosa-associated microbiota in IBD may differ geographically. In a population-based case-control study, breast-feeding, having pets, and better sanitary conditions were protective of IBD, suggesting that childhood environment plays an important role in modulating disease development. Genetic factors also differ between Asians and Caucasians. Nucleotide oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) and autophagy variants were not associated with CD, but tumor necrosis factor superfamily gene-15 polymorphisms were strongly associated with CD in East Asians. Research in Asia, an area of rapidly changing IBD epidemiology, may lead to the discovery of critical etiologic factors that lead to the development of IBD. PMID:25469874

Ng, Siew C

2015-03-01

242

Global Eradication of Lymphatic Filariasis: The Value of Chronic Disease Control in Parasite Elimination Programmes  

PubMed Central

The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis - lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles - becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially. PMID:18698350

Michael, Edwin; Malecela, Mwele N.; Zervos, Mihail; Kazura, James W.

2008-01-01

243

Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links  

PubMed Central

Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists. PMID:18462196

Lafferty, Kevin D; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J; De Leo, Giulio; Dobson, Andrew P; Dunne, Jennifer A; Johnson, Pieter T J; Kuris, Armand M; Marcogliese, David J; Martinez, Neo D; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A; McLaughlin, John P; Mordecai, Erin A; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W

2008-01-01

244

Is Chytridiomycosis an Emerging Infectious Disease in Asia?  

PubMed Central

The disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has caused dramatic amphibian population declines and extinctions in Australia, Central and North America, and Europe. Bd is associated with >200 species extinctions of amphibians, but not all species that become infected are susceptible to the disease. Specifically, Bd has rapidly emerged in some areas of the world, such as in Australia, USA, and throughout Central and South America, causing population and species collapse. The mechanism behind the rapid global emergence of the disease is poorly understood, in part due to an incomplete picture of the global distribution of Bd. At present, there is a considerable amount of geographic bias in survey effort for Bd, with Asia being the most neglected continent. To date, Bd surveys have been published for few Asian countries, and infected amphibians have been reported only from Indonesia, South Korea, China and Japan. Thus far, there have been no substantiated reports of enigmatic or suspected disease-caused population declines of the kind that has been attributed to Bd in other areas. In order to gain a more detailed picture of the distribution of Bd in Asia, we undertook a widespread, opportunistic survey of over 3,000 amphibians for Bd throughout Asia and adjoining Papua New Guinea. Survey sites spanned 15 countries, approximately 36 latitude, 111 longitude, and over 2000 m in elevation. Bd prevalence was very low throughout our survey area (2.35% overall) and infected animals were not clumped as would be expected in epizootic events. This suggests that Bd is either newly emerging in Asia, endemic at low prevalence, or that some other ecological factor is preventing Bd from fully invading Asian amphibians. The current observed pattern in Asia differs from that in many other parts of the world. PMID:21887238

Swei, Andrea; Rowley, Jodi J. L.; Rdder, Dennis; Diesmos, Mae L. L.; Diesmos, Arvin C.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brown, Rafe; Cao, Trung Tien; Cheng, Tina L.; Chong, Rebecca A.; Han, Ben; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hoang, Huy Duc; Kusrini, Mirza D.; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Min, Mi-Sook; Mulcahy, Daniel G.; Neang, Thy; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Rao, Ding-Qi; Reeder, Natalie M.; Schoville, Sean D.; Sivongxay, Niane; Srei, Narin; Stck, Matthias; Stuart, Bryan L.; Torres, Lilia S.; Tran, Dao Thi Anh; Tunstall, Tate S.; Vieites, David; Vredenburg, Vance T.

2011-01-01

245

Is chytridiomycosis an emerging infectious disease in Asia?  

PubMed

The disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has caused dramatic amphibian population declines and extinctions in Australia, Central and North America, and Europe. Bd is associated with >200 species extinctions of amphibians, but not all species that become infected are susceptible to the disease. Specifically, Bd has rapidly emerged in some areas of the world, such as in Australia, USA, and throughout Central and South America, causing population and species collapse. The mechanism behind the rapid global emergence of the disease is poorly understood, in part due to an incomplete picture of the global distribution of Bd. At present, there is a considerable amount of geographic bias in survey effort for Bd, with Asia being the most neglected continent. To date, Bd surveys have been published for few Asian countries, and infected amphibians have been reported only from Indonesia, South Korea, China and Japan. Thus far, there have been no substantiated reports of enigmatic or suspected disease-caused population declines of the kind that has been attributed to Bd in other areas. In order to gain a more detailed picture of the distribution of Bd in Asia, we undertook a widespread, opportunistic survey of over 3,000 amphibians for Bd throughout Asia and adjoining Papua New Guinea. Survey sites spanned 15 countries, approximately 36 latitude, 111 longitude, and over 2000 m in elevation. Bd prevalence was very low throughout our survey area (2.35% overall) and infected animals were not clumped as would be expected in epizootic events. This suggests that Bd is either newly emerging in Asia, endemic at low prevalence, or that some other ecological factor is preventing Bd from fully invading Asian amphibians. The current observed pattern in Asia differs from that in many other parts of the world. PMID:21887238

Swei, Andrea; Rowley, Jodi J L; Rdder, Dennis; Diesmos, Mae L L; Diesmos, Arvin C; Briggs, Cheryl J; Brown, Rafe; Cao, Trung Tien; Cheng, Tina L; Chong, Rebecca A; Han, Ben; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hoang, Huy Duc; Kusrini, Mirza D; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; McGuire, Jimmy A; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Min, Mi-Sook; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Neang, Thy; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Rao, Ding-Qi; Reeder, Natalie M; Schoville, Sean D; Sivongxay, Niane; Srei, Narin; Stck, Matthias; Stuart, Bryan L; Torres, Lilia S; Tran, Dao Thi Anh; Tunstall, Tate S; Vieites, David; Vredenburg, Vance T

2011-01-01

246

Emerging Infectious Disease Leads to Rapid Population Declines of Common British Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis

Robert A. Robinson; Becki Lawson; Mike P. Toms; Kirsi M. Peck; James K. Kirkwood; Julian Chantrey; Innes R. Clatworthy; Andy D. Evans; Laura A. Hughes; Oliver C. Hutchinson; Shinto K. John; Tom W. Pennycott; Matthew W. Perkins; Peter S. Rowley; Vic R. Simpson; Kevin M. Tyler; Andrew A. Cunningham; Sean Rands

2010-01-01

247

Emerging risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: Indian context  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is globally considered as the leading cause of death with 80% of CVD related deaths being reported from low and middle income countries like India. The relatively early onset age of CVD in India in comparison to Western countries also implies that most productive ages of the patient's life are lost fighting the disease. Conventional cardiovascular risk is attributed to lifestyle changes and altered metabolic activity. This forms the basis of a 10-year risk prediction score inspired by the Framingham study. Since South Asians display considerable heterogeneity in risk factors as compared to developed countries, there is a need to identify risk factors which would not only help in primary prevention but also prevent their recurrence. We reviewed published data on novel risk factors and their potential to identify cardiovascular risk at an early stage, with special emphasis on the Indian population. Emerging risk factors were reviewed to identify their potential to prevent CVD progression independently as well as in association with other cardiovascular risk factors. The most commonly studied emerging cardiovascular risk factors included coronary artery calcium score, lipoprotein (a), apolipoproteins, homocysteine, thrombosis markers like fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, carotid intima-media thickness, genotypic variations, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, C-reactive protein, platelets, and birth weight levels. Nonetheless, more studies on large sample size can ascertain the utility of these risk factors in estimation and analysis of cardiovascular risk especially in the Indian context. PMID:24083161

Gupta, Sushil; Gudapati, Ramesh; Gaurav, Kumar; Bhise, Manoj

2013-01-01

248

[Emergent diseases: old and new diseases. Etiological and climatic aspects. Socioeconomic and cultural influences].  

PubMed

During recent years the world has experienced the reemergence of old communicable diseases and the emergence of new ones caused by novel pathogens such as the HIV virus and Borrelia burgdorferi. The problem consists mostly in the reemergence of old diseases but specially in industrialized countries new pathogens have also been described. Although the emergence of these infections in rare instances is due to genetic changes of pathogens to more virulent forms, most commonly they are due to changes in the environment and the host. Rapidly deteriorating living standards, disintegration of sanitation and public health infrastructure, cultural changes, migration and variations in behavior are some of the factors involved in the worldwide increase of infectious diseases. The degradation of natural habitats including forests and marine niches accompanied by climatic changes, are also playing an increasing role in the detrimental evolution of these diseases. The global emergence of these diseases calls into question the doctrine of epidemiological transition and directs us to scrutinize the paradigm that bases the prevention of these diseases solely on vaccination. The current situation also highlights the limitations of classical epidemiology in dealing with unexpected problems, and strongly suggests that this discipline should incorporate into its analysis findings from other fields, including ecological, climatological, and economical information. As most of the negative social and economical developments that impinge on the detrimental evolution of these diseases are increasing world-wide, it can be predicted that the problems posed by these infections will continue and perhaps worsen in the near future. PMID:9336074

Cabello, F; Springer, A D

1997-01-01

249

PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI, IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS  

EPA Science Inventory

The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994-Dec. 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, that set on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia, in Augus...

250

Onchodermatitis--correlation between skin disease and parasitic load in an endemic focus in Ecuador.  

PubMed

Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection in which infiltration of the skin by microfilariae has been associated with a number of different pathological changes. This survey compared the prevalence of different forms of skin disease in two villages, one of which was located within the endemic zone for onchocerciasis (Zapallo Grande), in a lowland rain forest area of western Ecuador. The commonest skin diseases in both villages were scabies, pyoderma and pityriasis versicolor. In addition changes closely correlated with the presence of microfilariae in skin snips were found in Zapallo Grande--such as atrophic gluteal changes, and acute and chronic papular dermatitis. The only other skin disease associated with onchocerciasis was widespread tinea corporis due to T. rubrum. The Amerindians in the endemic onchocerciasis area were more likely than Negroes to have generalized atrophic changes of the skin, whereas in the latter group significant numbers of individuals had no obvious skin lesions but large numbers of microfilariae were detected in skin snips. Acute papular dermatitis was common in both groups and in biopsied lesions microfilariae could usually be identified within the epidermis or close to the dermo-epidermal junction. One patient had developed severe reactive onchodermatitis (Sowda). Swabs taken from onchocercal skin lesions showed no evidence of skin surface carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Changes classically associated with onchocerciasis such as pretibial hypopigmentation (leopard skin) and hanging groin were notably absent in this population. PMID:2775644

Hay, R J; Mackenzie, C D; Guderian, R; Noble, W C; Proano, J R; Williams, J F

1989-08-01

251

Dirofilaria immitis: an emerging parasite in dogs, red foxes and golden jackals in Hungary.  

PubMed

Hungary was not considered to be a heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) endemic country until 2007, when the first autochthonous canine infection was described. Herein we report additional autochthonous heartworm infections in two dogs (Canis familiaris), twenty red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (n=534; prevalence: 3.7%; 95% CI=2.4-5.7%) and two golden jackals (Canis aureus) (n=27; prevalence: 7.4%; 95% CI=2.1-23.4%) coming from eight counties. The identification of the parasite was based on morphology, morphometrics and amplification of 12S rDNA followed by sequencing in all cases. Our results indicate that Hungary became a D. immitis endemic country in the past decade. The prevalence and intensity of heartworm infection in wild canids is similar to or lower than that observed in the Mediterranean countries of Europe (3.7-7.4% vs. 0.4-12.7% and 1.5 vs. 2.9-4.4 worms/animal). These findings are in line with the results of the recently developed climate based forecast model to predict the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary. PMID:24810374

Tolnai, Z; Szll, Z; Sproch, ; Szeredi, L; Srter, T

2014-07-14

252

Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter.  

PubMed

The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus indicate that these pathogens can cause or contribute to canine and feline disease. PMID:24265288

Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G

2014-03-01

253

Ecto-Nucleotidase Activities of Promastigotes from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Relates to Parasite Infectivity and Disease Clinical Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important factor in determining the clinical outcome of leishmaniasis. PMID:23071853

Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Ftima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Lus C. C.

2012-01-01

254

Bone Marrow Parasite Burden among Patients with New World Kala-Azar Is Associated with Disease Severity  

PubMed Central

Kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis, found mostly throughout the Indian Subcontinent, East Africa, and Brazil, kills 20,00040,000 persons annually. The agents, Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum, are obligatory intracellular protozoa of mononuclear phagocytes found principally in the spleen and bone marrow. Protracted fever, anemia, wasting, hepatosplenomegaly, hemorrhages, and bacterial co-infections are typical features. One hundred and twenty-two (122) in-hospital patients were studied to verify if higher bone marrow parasite load estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction is associated with severe disease. The estimated median parasite load was 5.0 parasites/106 human nucleated cells. It is much higher in deceased than among survivors (median 75.0 versus 4.2). Patients who lost more weight had a higher parasite burden, as well as patients with epistaxis, abdominal pain, edema, and jaundice. This study suggests that higher parasite load is influenced by wasting, which may lead to more severe disease. PMID:24615127

Silva, Joyce M.; Zacarias, Danielle A.; de Figueirdo, Lvio C.; Soares, Maria Regiane A.; Ishikawa, Edna A. Y.; Costa, Dorcas L.; Costa, Carlos H. N.

2014-01-01

255

VIROLOGY: What Links Bats to Emerging Infectious Diseases?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: The discovery that bats are the reservoir hosts of the coronavirus that causes SARS in humans raises important questions about how we monitor and control emergent disease outbreaks. In his Perspective, Dobson focuses on the need to know more about the distribution of pathogens in their natural reservoir hosts and asks whether the absence of pathology that characterizes these relationships may reflect subtle differences in the immune responses of bats.

Andrew P. Dobson (Princeton University; Ecology and Evolutionary Biology)

2005-10-28

256

[Emerging disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis(MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with yet undetermined etiology. The incidence of MS is rapidly rising in Japan, and in addition to four already-approved disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), namely interferon ?1b, interferon?1a, fingolimod and natalizumab, several new DMTs are currently under clinical trials. In this article, emerging DMTs such as alemtuzumab, dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide as well as fampridine, a novel symptomatic treatment for gait disturbance, and anti-LINGO-1 monoclonal antibody, a possible candidate for future remyelination therapy, will be reviewed. Future treatment strategies such as induction therapy and combined therapy for MS will also be discussed. PMID:25518389

Nakahara, Jin

2014-11-01

257

Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using the criteria that define emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of humans, we can identify a similar group of EIDs in wildlife. In the current review we highlight an important series of wildlife EIDs: amphibian chytridiomycosis; diseases of marine invertebrates and vertebrates and two recently-emerged viral zoonoses, Nipah virus disease and West Nile virus disease. These exemplify the varied etiology,

P. Daszak; A. A. Cunningham; A. D. Hyatt

2001-01-01

258

Correlation between coinfection with parasites, cytomegalovirus, and Clostridium difficile and disease severity in patients with ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine whether there was any association between intestinal infection (with parasites, cytomegalovirus, or Clostridium difficile) and clinical disease severity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Consecutive cases of UC were enrolled after history and clinical examination, evaluated for presence of stool parasites (routine/special stains) and C. difficile toxins A and B (CDT) in stools. Segmental biopsies at colonoscopy were assessed for cytopathic changes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Statistical analysis was done to look for associations between the presence of infection and disease severity as assessed by the Truelove-Witts criteria. Eighty-seven patients (males = 51) of mean (SD) age 40.2 (12) years were enrolled. Thirty-nine patients (44.8 %) had severe disease, 11 (12.6 %) had moderate, and 37 (42.6 %) had mild disease. Ten (11.5 %) patients had parasites detected in stool, two (2.3%) had histological evidence of CMV, and three (3.4 %) were positive for CDT. The presence of pathogens was very significantly associated with moderate/severe UC. Thirteen of 15 cases (86 %) with detectable pathogens had moderate or severe UC compared to 37 of 72 cases (51 %) without detectable pathogens (p?=?0.0194). The relative risk of a UC patient with stool pathogens having severe disease was 1.686 (95 % CI 1.250 to 2.276) compared to one without stool pathogens. The presence of stool pathogens was associated with disease severity in UC. PMID:23408260

Iyer, Venkatakrishnan H; Augustine, Joby; Pulimood, Anna B; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S

2013-03-01

259

Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

2014-01-01

260

Emerging families of biomarkers for coronary artery disease: inflammatory mediators  

PubMed Central

Introduction Inflammation has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. C-reactive protein is an established nonspecific prognostic inflammatory biomarker for patients with acute coronary syndrome in the medical literature. This has led to a concerted effort to identify circulating inflammatory biomarkers to facilitate predicting the risk for and diagnosing coronary artery disease in at-risk subjects. The objective of this study was to search after novel inflammatory biomarkers reported as useful for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Methods The PubMed database was searched for reports published from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2012 of novel circulating biomarkers for coronary artery disease in addition to the established biomarker, C-reactive protein. The search terms used were infarction, biomarkers, and markers, and only original articles describing clinical trials that were written in English were included. All published articles were separately examined carefully after novel inflammatory markers for acute coronary syndrome. All irrelevant publications without content pertaining to inflammatory biomarkers for acute coronary syndrome were excluded from this study. Our results reflect all articles concerning biomarkers in humans. Results The PubMed search yielded 4,415 research articles. After further analysis, all relevant published original articles examining 53 biomarkers were included in this review, which identified 46 inflammation biomarkers useful for detecting coronary artery disease. Conclusion The emergence of diverse novel biomarkers for coronary artery disease has provided insight into the varied pathophysiology of this disease. Inflammatory biomarkers have tremendous potential in aiding the prediction of acute coronary syndrome and recurrent ischemic episodes, and will eventually help improve patient care and management. PMID:23983474

Yayan, Josef

2013-01-01

261

Viruses and disease: emerging concepts for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Viruses cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from acute self-resolving conditions to acute fatal diseases. Effects that arise long after the primary infection can also increase the propensity for chronic conditions or lead to the development of cancer. Recent advances in the fields of virology and pathology have been fundamental in improving our understanding of viral pathogenesis, in providing improved vaccination strategies and in developing newer, more effective treatments for patients worldwide. The reviews assembled here focus on the interface between virology and pathology and encompass aspects of both the clinical pathology of viral disease and the underlying disease mechanisms. Articles on emerging diseases caused by Ebola virus, Marburg virus, coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS, Nipah virus and noroviruses are followed by reviews of enteroviruses, HIV infection, measles, mumps, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The issue concludes with a series of articles reviewing the relationship between viruses and cancer, including the role played by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of lymphoma and carcinoma; how human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the development of skin cancer; the involvement of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma; and the mechanisms by which Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) leads to Kaposi's sarcoma. We hope that this collection of articles will be of interest to a wide range of scientists and clinicians at a time when there is a renaissance in the appreciation of the power of pathology as virologists dissect the processes of disease. PMID:25366544

Herrington, C S; Coates, P J; Duprex, W P

2015-01-01

262

The Emergence of ActualThe Emergence of Actual Human Disease as a Model forHuman Disease as a Model for  

E-print Network

+ Chromosomome +e + ""icsics"" == GenomicsGenomics 1990 Human Genome Project launched1990 Human Genome Project launched 1998 Human Genome Project1998 Human Genome Project acceleratedaccelerated 20002000 ""DraftThe Emergence of ActualThe Emergence of Actual Human Disease as a Model forHuman Disease as a Model

Boguski, Mark S.

263

Hsp90 inhibitors as new leads to target parasitic diarrheal diseases.  

PubMed

Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are anaerobic protozoan parasites that cause amebiasis and giardiasis, two of the most common diarrheal diseases worldwide. Current therapy relies on metronidazole, but resistance has been reported and the drug has significant adverse effects. Therefore, it is critical to search for effective, better-tolerated antiamebic and antigiardial drugs. We synthesized several examples of a recently reported class of Hsp90 inhibitors and evaluated these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Several of these inhibitors showed strong in vitro activity against both E. histolytica and G. lamblia trophozoites. The inhibitors were rescreened to discriminate between amebicidal and giardicidal activity and general cytotoxicity toward a mammalian cell line. No mammalian cytotoxicity was found at >100 ?M for 48 h for any of the inhibitors. To understand the mechanism of action, a competitive binding assay was performed using the fluorescent ATP analogue bis-ANS (4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid dipotassium salt) and recombinant E. histolytica Hsp90 preincubated in both the presence and absence of Hsp90 inhibitors. There was significant reduction in fluorescence compared to the level in the control, suggesting that E. histolytica Hsp90 is a selective target. The in vivo efficacy and safety of one Hsp90 inhibitor in a mouse model of amebic colitis and giardiasis was demonstrated by significant inhibition of parasite growth at a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 days and 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Considering the results for in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy, Hsp90 inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option for amebiasis and giardiasis. PMID:24820073

Debnath, Anjan; Shahinas, Dea; Bryant, Clifford; Hirata, Ken; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Hwang, Grace; Gut, Jiri; Renslo, Adam R; Pillai, Dylan R; Eckmann, Lars; Reed, Sharon L; McKerrow, James H

2014-07-01

264

Hsp90 Inhibitors as New Leads To Target Parasitic Diarrheal Diseases  

PubMed Central

Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are anaerobic protozoan parasites that cause amebiasis and giardiasis, two of the most common diarrheal diseases worldwide. Current therapy relies on metronidazole, but resistance has been reported and the drug has significant adverse effects. Therefore, it is critical to search for effective, better-tolerated antiamebic and antigiardial drugs. We synthesized several examples of a recently reported class of Hsp90 inhibitors and evaluated these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Several of these inhibitors showed strong in vitro activity against both E. histolytica and G. lamblia trophozoites. The inhibitors were rescreened to discriminate between amebicidal and giardicidal activity and general cytotoxicity toward a mammalian cell line. No mammalian cytotoxicity was found at >100 ?M for 48 h for any of the inhibitors. To understand the mechanism of action, a competitive binding assay was performed using the fluorescent ATP analogue bis-ANS (4,4?-dianilino-1,1?-binaphthyl-5,5?-disulfonic acid dipotassium salt) and recombinant E. histolytica Hsp90 preincubated in both the presence and absence of Hsp90 inhibitors. There was significant reduction in fluorescence compared to the level in the control, suggesting that E. histolytica Hsp90 is a selective target. The in vivo efficacy and safety of one Hsp90 inhibitor in a mouse model of amebic colitis and giardiasis was demonstrated by significant inhibition of parasite growth at a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 days and 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Considering the results for in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy, Hsp90 inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option for amebiasis and giardiasis. PMID:24820073

Shahinas, Dea; Bryant, Clifford; Hirata, Ken; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Hwang, Grace; Gut, Jiri; Renslo, Adam R.; Pillai, Dylan R.; Eckmann, Lars; Reed, Sharon L.; McKerrow, James H.

2014-01-01

265

Parasitic Bacteria  

E-print Network

species and 2 varieties of bacteria parasitic on plants in Ohio. Bacterial plant diseases in Ohio, such as alfalfa wilt, cucurbit wilt, corn leaf blight and wilt (Stewart's disease), fire blight of apple and pear, FIGURE 1. Bacterial wilt of carnation. crown gall, soft rot of many vegetables, and

Ellett C. Wayne; C. W. Ellett; C. W. Ellett; Plate I

266

Neglected tropical diseases and omics science: proteogenomics analysis of the promastigote stage of Leishmania major parasite.  

PubMed

Among the neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most devastating, resulting in significant mortality and contributing to nearly 2 million disability-adjusted life years. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a debilitating disorder caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Leishmania major, which results in disfiguration and scars. L. major genome was the first to be sequenced within the genus Leishmania. Use of proteomic data for annotating genomes is a complementary approach to conventional genome annotation approaches and is referred to as proteogenomics. We have used a proteogenomics-based approach to map the proteome of L. major and also annotate its genome. In this study, we searched L. major promastigote proteomic data against the annotated L. major protein database. Additionally, we searched the proteomic data against six-frame translated L. major genome. In all, we identified 3613 proteins in L. major promastigotes, which covered 43% of its proteome. We also identified 26 genome search-specific peptides, which led to the identification of three novel genes previously not identified in L. major. We also corrected the annotation of N-termini of 15 genes, which resulted in extension of their protein products. We have validated our proteogenomics findings by RT-PCR and sequencing. In addition, our study resulted in identification of 266 N-terminally acetylated peptides in L. major, one of the largest acetylated peptide datasets thus far in Leishmania. This dataset should be a valuable resource to researchers focusing on neglected tropical diseases. PMID:24937402

Pawar, Harsh; Renuse, Santosh; Khobragade, Sweta N; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Kumar, Praveen; Mahale, Kiran N; Gore, Kalpita; Kulkarni, Aditi; Dixit, Tanwi; Raju, Rajesh; Prasad, T S Keshava; Harsha, H C; Patole, Milind S; Pandey, Akhilesh

2014-08-01

267

Effects of temperature on hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) immunity and QPX (Quahog Parasite Unknown) disease development: I. Dynamics of QPX disease  

E-print Network

Effects of temperature on hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) immunity and QPX (Quahog Parasite Article history: Available online 26 November 2010 Keywords: Hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria QPX Unknown (QPX) causes disease and mortality in hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria. Sea- sonality of QPX

Allam, Bassem

268

Infectious and parasitic diseases of captive carnivores, with special emphasis on the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes).  

PubMed

Captive carnivores are susceptible to a wide array of infectious and parasitic diseases, which reflects the diversity of the seven families of Carnivora. Unfortunately, relatively few in-depth studies have been conducted on diseases of non-domestic carnivores, and much remains to be learned, especially regarding diseases of small carnivores (e.g. mustelids, viverrids and procyonids). The more important infectious diseases of carnivores include rabies, canine distemper, and diseases caused by parvoviruses, coronaviruses and herpesviruses. Few parasitic or bacterial pathogens are significant in captive populations, and appropriate husbandry, therapy, vaccines and quarantine minimize the risk of disease. Extrapolations from one species to another regarding disease susceptibility may be incorrect. The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) serves as an example of a carnivore significantly affected by infectious diseases, some of which were expected while others could not have been predicted from generalized knowledge of diseases of mustelids. This highlights the need to understand the natural history of each species maintained in captivity. PMID:8924718

Williams, E S; Thorne, E T

1996-03-01

269

Do Antenatal Parasite Infections Devalue Childhood Vaccination?  

PubMed Central

On a global basis, both potent vaccine efficacy and high vaccine coverage are necessary to control and eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases. Emerging evidence from animal and human studies suggest that neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) significantly impair response to standard childhood immunizations. A review of efficacy and effectiveness studies of vaccination among individuals with chronic parasitic infections was conducted, using PUBMED database searches and analysis of data from the authors' published and unpublished studies. Both animal models and human studies suggest that chronic trematode, nematode, and protozoan infections can result in decreased vaccine efficacy. Among pregnant women, who in developing countries are often infected with multiple parasites, soluble parasite antigens have been shown to cross the placenta and prime or tolerize fetal immune responses. As a result, antenatal infections can have a significant impact on later vaccine responses. Acquired childhood parasitic infections, most commonly malaria, can also affect subsequent immune response to vaccination. Additional data suggest that antiparasite therapy can improve the effectiveness of several human vaccines. Emerging evidence demonstrates that both antenatal and childhood parasitic infections alter levels of protective immune response to routine vaccinations. Successful antiparasite treatment may prevent immunomodulation caused by parasitic antigens during pregnancy and early childhood and may improve vaccine efficacy. Future research should highlight the varied effects that different parasites (alone and in combination) can have on human vaccine-related immunity. To optimize vaccine effectiveness in developing countries, better control of chronic NTDs may prove imperative. PMID:19478847

King, Maria J.; King, Christopher L.; King, Charles H.

2009-01-01

270

Kelch proteins: emerging roles in skeletal muscle development and diseases  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of genes that cause skeletal muscle disease has increased tremendously over the past three decades. Advances in approaches to genetics and genomics have aided in the identification of new pathogenic mechanisms in rare genetic disorders and have opened up new avenues for therapeutic interventions by identification of new molecular pathways in muscle disease. Recent studies have identified mutations of several Kelch proteins in skeletal muscle disorders. The Kelch superfamily is one of the largest evolutionary conserved gene families. The 66 known family members all possess a Kelch-repeat containing domain and are implicated in diverse biological functions. In skeletal muscle development, several Kelch family members regulate the processes of proliferation and/or differentiation resulting in normal functioning of mature muscles. Importantly, many Kelch proteins function as substrate-specific adaptors for Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase (Cul3), a core component of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to regulate the protein turnover. This review discusses the emerging roles of Kelch proteins in skeletal muscle function and disease. PMID:24959344

2014-01-01

271

An Emerging Infectious Disease Triggering Large-Scale Hyperpredation  

PubMed Central

Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:18523587

Molen, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Snchez-Zapata, Jos A.

2008-01-01

272

Parasites hinder monarch butterfly flight: implications for disease spread in migratory hosts  

E-print Network

plexippus) are parasitized by the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha throughout their geographical range, migratory culling, neogregarine protozoan, Ophryocystis, seasonal migration, vertical transmission. Ecology

273

Infectious and parasitic diseases and contaminant-related problems of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis): a review.  

PubMed

The aquatic North American river otter (Lontra canadensis), a charismatic nonendangered mustelid, presently occupies a greatly reduced range. The species is common in zoos and has economic value as a furbearer. At least 17 states and one Canadian province have undertaken recent reintroduction programs. Nevertheless, little has been published on nonparasitic diseases of river otters, and little is known of the clinical significance of most of their parasitic infections. Records of environmental contaminant-related diseases and traumatic injuries in free-ranging North American river otters are also rare. This paper reviews present knowledge of North American river otter diseases, especially those with the greatest potential for impacting reintroduction programs. PMID:11428392

Kimber, K R; Kollias, G V

2000-12-01

274

Emerging diseases and ecosystem instability: new threats to public health.  

PubMed Central

Ecologists have begun to describe an environmental distress syndrome, whereby widespread loss of top predators and harsh environmental conditions are encouraging the selection of opportunistic pests and pathogens across a wide taxonomic range of plants and animals. Environmental change and pollutants stress individuals and populations, and this may be reflected in the global resurgence of infectious disease as these stresses cascade through the community assemblages of species. In 1993, the sudden appearance of a virulent, rodent-borne hantavirus in the arid US Southwest accompanied anomalous weather patterns, and a novel Vibrio cholerae variant (O139 Bengal) emerged in Asia where marine ecosystems are experiencing a pandemic of coastal algal blooms, apparently harboring and amplifying the agent. This paper suggests a framework for integrating the surveillance of health outcomes and key reservoir and vector species, with ecological and climatic monitoring. PMID:7856775

Epstein, P R

1995-01-01

275

An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease  

PubMed Central

Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the meningitis belt. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their collective optimism towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more) for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%). Deliverability, acceptability to health workers, end users and the effect on equity were all seen as highly likely (~ 90%). In terms of the maximum potential impact on meningitis disease burden, the median potential effectiveness of the vaccines in reduction of overall meningitis mortality was estimated to be 20%; (interquartile range 20-40% and min. 8%, max 50 %). For the multivalent meningococcal vaccines the experts had similar optimism for most of the 12 CHNRI criteria with slightly lower optimism in answerability and low development cost criteria. The main concern was expressed over the cost of product, its affordability and cost of implementation. Conclusions With increasing recognition of the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially during epidemics in Africa, it is vitally important that strategies are taken to reduce the morbidity and mortality attributable to this disease. Improved MC vaccines are a promising investment that could substantially contribute to reduction of child meningitis mortality world-wide. PMID:21501447

2011-01-01

276

Emerging diseases and ecosystem instability: new threats to public health.  

PubMed

Ecologists have begun to describe an environmental distress syndrome, whereby widespread loss of top predators and harsh environmental conditions are encouraging the selection of opportunistic pests and pathogens across a wide taxonomic range of plants and animals. Environmental change and pollutants stress individuals and populations, and this may be reflected in the global resurgence of infectious disease as these stresses cascade through the community assemblages of species. In 1993, the sudden appearance of a virulent, rodent-borne hantavirus in the arid US Southwest accompanied anomalous weather patterns, and a novel Vibrio cholerae variant (O139 Bengal) emerged in Asia where marine ecosystems are experiencing a pandemic of coastal algal blooms, apparently harboring and amplifying the agent. This paper suggests a framework for integrating the surveillance of health outcomes and key reservoir and vector species, with ecological and climatic monitoring. PMID:7856775

Epstein, P R

1995-02-01

277

The emerging role of microRNAs in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA which have been shown to regulate gene expression. The alteration ofmiRNAs expression has been associated with several pathological processes, including neurodegeneration. In the search for easily accessible and non-invasive biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis and prognosis, circulating miRNAs are among the most promising candidates. Some of them have been consistently identified as AD-specific miRNAs and their targets also seem implicated in pathophysiological processes underlying AD. Here, we review the emerging role for miRNA in AD, giving an overview on general miRNAs biology, their implications in AD pathophysiology and their potential role as future biomarkers. PMID:25729367

Femminella, Grazia D.; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Giuseppe

2015-01-01

278

SPECIES AND STRAIN-SPECIFIC TYPING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES IN CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Cryptosporidiosis has recently attracted attention as an emerging water borne and food borne disease as well as an opportunistic infection in HIV infected indivduals. The lack of genetic information, however, has resulted in confusion in the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium parasites ...

279

DISEASE EMERGENCE IN BIRDS: CHALLENGES FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in naive populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino

Milton Friend; Robert G. McLean; F. Joshua Dein

2001-01-01

280

Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control  

PubMed Central

Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-01-01

281

Inferring host-parasite relationships using stable isotopes: implications for disease transmission and host specificity.  

PubMed

Identifying the roles of different hosts and vectors is a major challenge in the study of the ecology of diseases caused by multi-host pathogens. Intensive field studies suggested that grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster) help spread the bacterium that causes plague (Yersinia pestis) in prairie dog colonies by sharing fleas with prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus); yet conclusive evidence that prairie dog fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta) feed on grasshopper mice is lacking. Using stable nitrogen isotope analysis, we determined that many blood-engorged O. hirsuta collected from wild grasshopper mice apparently contained blood meals of prairie dogs. These results suggest that grasshopper mice may be infected with Y. pestis via mechanisms other than flea feeding, e.g., early phase or mechanical transmission or scavenging carcasses, and raise questions about the ability of grasshopper mice to maintain Y. pestis in prairie dog colonies during years between plague outbreaks. They also indicate that caution may be warranted when inferring feeding relationships based purely on the occurrence of fleas or other haematophagous ectoparasites on hosts. Stable-isotope analysis may complement or provide a useful alternative to immunological or molecular techniques for identifying hosts of cryptically feeding ectoparasites, and for clarifying feeding relationships in studies of host-parasite interactions. PMID:19967881

Stapp, Paul; Salkeld, Daniel J

2009-11-01

282

Ecomorphology and disease: cryptic effects of parasitism on host habitat use, thermoregulation, and predator avoidance.  

PubMed

Parasites can cause dramatic changes in the phenotypes of their hosts, sometimes leading to a higher probability of predation and parasite transmission. Because an organism's morphology directly affects its locomotion, even subtle changes in key morphological traits may affect survival and behavior. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in natural communities, few studies have incorporated parasites into ecomorphological research. Here, we evaluated the effects of parasite-induced changes in host phenotype on the habitat use, thermal biology, and simulated predator-escape ability of Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) in natural environments. Frogs with parasite-induced limb malformations were more likely to use ground microhabitats relative to vertical refugia and selected less-angled perches closer to the ground in comparison with normal frogs. Although both groups had similar levels of infection, malformed frogs used warmer microhabitats, which resulted in higher body temperatures. Likely as a result of their morphological abnormalities, malformed frogs allowed a simulated predator to approach closer before escaping and escaped shorter distances relative to normal frogs. These data indicate that parasite-induced morphological changes can significantly alter host behavior and habitat use, highlighting the importance of incorporating the ubiquitous, albeit cryptic, role of parasites into ecomorphological research. PMID:21608461

Goodman, Brett A; Johnson, Pieter T J

2011-03-01

283

Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish: QPX, a Thraustochytrid-like Disease of Clams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Canadian Fisheries and Oceans fact sheet features Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX), a protistan parasite of the commercially exploited hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria. The fact sheet includes information about its common name, scientific name, geographic distribution, host species and impact, diagnostic techniques, and references.

S.M. Bower

284

Emerging role of HMGB1 in fibrotic diseases  

PubMed Central

High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that functions as a structural co-factor critical for proper transcriptional regulation in somatic cells. Recent studies indicate that HMGB1 can be passively released from necrotic cells or actively secreted into the extracellular milieu under appropriate signal stimulation. Extracellular HMGB1 is a multifunctional cytokine that contributes to the process of infection, injury, inflammation, apoptosis, and immune responses by binding to specific cell-surface receptors. Recently, emerging studies indicate that HMGB1 is closely involved in fibrotic disorders including cystic fibrosis, liver fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis, while HMGB1 signal inhibitions protect against the experimental models of fibrotic diseases. From a clinical perspective, HMGB1 represents a current challenge that can be exploited orchestrate reparative responses. This review focuses on the crucial role of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases and inhibition of which may represent a promising clinical approach for treating tissue fibrosis. PMID:25284457

Li, Liu-Cheng; Gao, Jian; Li, Jun

2014-01-01

285

Heteromeric Dopamine Receptor Signaling Complexes: Emerging Neurobiology and Disease Relevance  

PubMed Central

The pharmacological modification of dopamine transmission has long been employed as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of many mental health disorders. However, as many of the pharmacotherapies today are not without significant side effects, or they alleviate only a particular subset of symptoms, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is imperative. In light of these challenges, the recognition that dopamine receptors can form heteromers has significantly expanded the range of physiologically relevant signaling complexes as well as potential drug targets. Furthermore, as the physiology and disease relevance of these receptor heteromers is further understood, their ability to exhibit pharmacological and functional properties distinct from their constituent receptors, or modulate the function of endogenous homomeric receptor complexes, may allow for the development of alternate therapeutic strategies and provide new avenues for drug design. In this review, we describe the emerging neurobiology of the known dopamine receptor heteromers, their physiological relevance in brain, and discuss the potential role of these receptor complexes in neuropsychiatric disease. We highlight their value as targets for future drug development and discuss innovative research strategies designed to selectively target these dopamine receptor heteromers in the search for novel and clinically efficacious pharmacotherapies. PMID:23774533

Perreault, Melissa L; Hasbi, Ahmed; O'Dowd, Brian F; George, Susan R

2014-01-01

286

Collaborative Research Approaches to the Role of Wildlife in Zoonotic Disease Emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to public health and the majority are caused by zoonotic pathogens. Here we\\u000a discuss new collaborative approaches to understanding the process of zoonotic disease emergence that link veterinary medicine,\\u000a public health, and ecological approaches: conservation medicine and one health. We demonstrate how studies on the underlying\\u000a drivers of disease emergence (bushmeat hunting, wildlife

P. Daszak; J. H. Epstein; A. M. Kilpatrick; A. A. Aguirre; W. B. Karesh; A. A. Cunningham

287

Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite  

PubMed Central

The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

Buono, Lorenza; Lpez-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

2014-01-01

288

Benznidazole therapy during acute phase of Chagas disease reduces parasite load but does not prevent chronic cardiac lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of benznidazole (Bz) treatment in decreasing of the parasitic load during\\u000a the acute phase of experimental Chagas disease and to analyze its influence in the development of cardiac chronic alterations\\u000a in mice inoculated with drug-resistant Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Our results showed that the early Bz treatment (started at 4th day

Ivo Santana Caldas; Andr Talvani; Srgio Caldas; Cludia Martins Carneiro; Marta de Lana; Paulo Marcos da Matta Guedes; Maria Terezinha Bahia

2008-01-01

289

The Transcriptome of Trichuris suis First Molecular Insights into a Parasite with Curative Properties for Key Immune Diseases of Humans  

PubMed Central

Background Iatrogenic infection of humans with Trichuris suis (a parasitic nematode of swine) is being evaluated or promoted as a biological, curative treatment of immune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and ulcerative colitis, in humans. Although it is understood that short-term T. suis infection in people with such diseases usually induces a modified Th2-immune response, nothing is known about the molecules in the parasite that induce this response. Methodology/Principal Findings As a first step toward filling the gaps in our knowledge of the molecular biology of T. suis, we characterised the transcriptome of the adult stage of this nematode employing next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic techniques. A total of ?65,000,000 reads were generated and assembled into ?20,000 contiguous sequences (?=?contigs); ?17,000 peptides were predicted and classified based on homology searches, protein motifs and gene ontology and biological pathway mapping. Conclusions These analyses provided interesting insights into a number of molecular groups, particularly predicted excreted/secreted molecules (n?=?1,288), likely to be involved in the parasite-host interactions, and also various molecules (n?=?120) linked to chemokine, T-cell receptor and TGF-? signalling as well as leukocyte transendothelial migration and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which are likely to be immuno-regulatory or -modulatory in the infected host. This information provides a conceptual framework within which to test the immunobiological basis for the curative effect of T. suis infection in humans against some immune diseases. Importantly, the T. suis transcriptome characterised herein provides a curated resource for detailed studies of the immuno-molecular biology of this parasite, and will underpin future genomic and proteomic explorations. PMID:21887281

Cantacessi, Cinzia; Young, Neil D.; Nejsum, Peter; Jex, Aaron R.; Campbell, Bronwyn E.; Hall, Ross S.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Gasser, Robin B.

2011-01-01

290

Influence of multiple infection and relatedness on virulence: disease dynamics in an experimental plant population and its castrating parasite.  

PubMed

The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

Buono, Lorenza; Lpez-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

2014-01-01

291

Emerging viral threats in Gabon: health capacities and response to the risk of emerging zoonotic diseases in Central Africa  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are currently the major threat to public health worldwide and most EID events have involved zoonotic infectious agents. Central Africa in general and Gabon in particular are privileged areas for the emergence of zoonotic EIDs. Indeed, human incursions in Gabonese forests for exploitation purposes lead to intensified contacts between humans and wildlife thus generating an increased risk of emergence of zoonotic diseases. In Gabon, 51 endemic or potential endemic viral infectious diseases have been reported. Among them, 22 are of zoonotic origin and involve 12 families of viruses. The most notorious are dengue, yellow fever, ebola, marburg, Rift Valley fever and chikungunya viruses. Potential EID due to wildlife in Gabon are thereby plentiful and need to be inventoried. The Gabonese Public Health system covers geographically most of the country allowing a good access to sanitary information and efficient monitoring of emerging diseases. However, access to treatment and prevention is better in urban areas where medical structures are more developed and financial means are concentrated even though the population is equally distributed between urban and rural areas. In spite of this, Gabon could be a good field for investigating the emergence or re-emergence of zoonotic EID. Indeed Gabonese health research structures such as CIRMF, advantageously located, offer high quality researchers and facilities that study pathogens and wildlife ecology, aiming toward a better understanding of the contact and transmission mechanisms of new pathogens from wildlife to human, the emergence of zoonotic EID and the breaking of species barriers by pathogens. PMID:22460397

Bourgarel, M; Wauquier, N; Gonzalez, J-P

2010-01-01

292

The Emergence of Resistance to the Benzimidazole Anthlemintics in Parasitic Nematodes of Livestock Is Characterised by Multiple Independent Hard and Soft Selective Sweeps  

PubMed Central

Anthelmintic resistance is a major problem for the control of parasitic nematodes of livestock and of growing concern for human parasite control. However, there is little understanding of how resistance arises and spreads or of the genetic signature of selection for this group of important pathogens. We have investigated these questions in the system for which anthelmintic resistance is most advanced; benzimidazole resistance in the sheep parasites Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta. Population genetic analysis with neutral microsatellite markers reveals that T. circumcincta has higher genetic diversity but lower genetic differentiation between farms than H. contortus in the UK. We propose that this is due to epidemiological differences between the two parasites resulting in greater seasonal bottlenecking of H. contortus. There is a remarkably high level of resistance haplotype diversity in both parasites compared with drug resistance studies in other eukaryotic systems. Our analysis suggests a minimum of four independent origins of resistance mutations on just seven farms for H. contortus, and even more for T. circumincta. Both hard and soft selective sweeps have occurred with striking differences between individual farms. The sweeps are generally softer for T. circumcincta than H. contortus, consistent with its higher level of genetic diversity and consequent greater availability of new mutations. We propose a model in which multiple independent resistance mutations recurrently arise and spread by migration to explain the widespread occurrence of resistance in these parasites. Finally, in spite of the complex haplotypic diversity, we show that selection can be detected at the target locus using simple measures of genetic diversity and departures from neutrality. This work has important implications for the application of genome-wide approaches to identify new anthelmintic resistance loci and the likelihood of anthelmintic resistance emerging as selection pressure is increased in human soil-transmitted nematodes by community wide treatment programs. PMID:25658086

Redman, Elizabeth; Whitelaw, Fiona; Tait, Andrew; Burgess, Charlotte; Bartley, Yvonne; Skuce, Philip John; Jackson, Frank; Gilleard, John Stuart

2015-01-01

293

The emergence of resistance to the benzimidazole anthlemintics in parasitic nematodes of livestock is characterised by multiple independent hard and soft selective sweeps.  

PubMed

Anthelmintic resistance is a major problem for the control of parasitic nematodes of livestock and of growing concern for human parasite control. However, there is little understanding of how resistance arises and spreads or of the "genetic signature" of selection for this group of important pathogens. We have investigated these questions in the system for which anthelmintic resistance is most advanced; benzimidazole resistance in the sheep parasites Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta. Population genetic analysis with neutral microsatellite markers reveals that T. circumcincta has higher genetic diversity but lower genetic differentiation between farms than H. contortus in the UK. We propose that this is due to epidemiological differences between the two parasites resulting in greater seasonal bottlenecking of H. contortus. There is a remarkably high level of resistance haplotype diversity in both parasites compared with drug resistance studies in other eukaryotic systems. Our analysis suggests a minimum of four independent origins of resistance mutations on just seven farms for H. contortus, and even more for T. circumincta. Both hard and soft selective sweeps have occurred with striking differences between individual farms. The sweeps are generally softer for T. circumcincta than H. contortus, consistent with its higher level of genetic diversity and consequent greater availability of new mutations. We propose a model in which multiple independent resistance mutations recurrently arise and spread by migration to explain the widespread occurrence of resistance in these parasites. Finally, in spite of the complex haplotypic diversity, we show that selection can be detected at the target locus using simple measures of genetic diversity and departures from neutrality. This work has important implications for the application of genome-wide approaches to identify new anthelmintic resistance loci and the likelihood of anthelmintic resistance emerging as selection pressure is increased in human soil-transmitted nematodes by community wide treatment programs. PMID:25658086

Redman, Elizabeth; Whitelaw, Fiona; Tait, Andrew; Burgess, Charlotte; Bartley, Yvonne; Skuce, Philip John; Jackson, Frank; Gilleard, John Stuart

2015-02-01

294

Diseases and parasites of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Lake Huron basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea lampreys from the Lake Huron basin carried no external parasites and showed a fairly low degree of infection by internal parasites. The material examined represented three life-history stages of the sea lamprey. Recently transformed downstream migrants (215 specimens) harbored only nematodes belonging to the genus Camallanus. The percentage of infection was 2.3. Active feeders from the lake (29 lampreys) revealed the highest degree of parasitism (31.0 percent) with the following parasites present: Echinorhynchus coregoni Linkins; Triaenophorus crasses Forel; and Camallanus sp. Among the 257 sexually mature upstream migrants (14.8 percent infected) Echinorhynchus coregoni and E. leidyi Van Cleave were the most common. Only occasional nematodes and cestodes were found, which fact indicates a failure of the lamprey to carry these parasites to the end of its natural life. Of the parasites observed, only the nematodes gave evidence of serious damage to the host. The study suggests that the role played by parasites in the natural control of the sea lamprey in its new habitat in the upper Great Lakes is of minor importance.

McLain, Alberton L.

1952-01-01

295

Long-Term Disease Dynamics for a Specialized Parasite of Ant Societies: A Field Study  

PubMed Central

Many studies have investigated how social insects behave when a parasite is introduced into their colonies. These studies have been conducted in the laboratory, and we still have a limited understanding of the dynamics of ant-parasite interactions under natural conditions. Here we consider a specialized parasite of ant societies (Ophiocordyceps camponoti-rufipedis infecting Camponotus rufipes) within a rainforest. We first established that the parasite is unable to develop to transmission stage when introduced within the host nest. Secondly, we surveyed all colonies in the studied area and recorded 100% prevalence at the colony level (all colonies were infected). Finally, we conducted a long-term detailed census of parasite pressure, by mapping the position of infected dead ants and foraging trails (future hosts) in the immediate vicinity of the colonies over 20 months. We report new dead infected ants for all the months we conducted the census at an average of 14.5 cadavers/month/colony. Based on the low infection rate, the absence of colony collapse or complete recovery of the colonies, we suggest that this parasite represents a chronic infection in the ant societies. We also proposed a terminal host model of transmission that links the age-related polyethism to the persistence of a parasitic infection. PMID:25133749

Loreto, Raquel G.; Elliot, Simon L.; Freitas, Mayara L. R.; Pereira, Thairine M.; Hughes, David P.

2014-01-01

296

Intensive Farming: Evolutionary Implications for Parasites and Pathogens  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of scientists have recently raised concerns about the threat posed by human intervention on the evolution of parasites and disease agents. New parasites (including pathogens) keep emerging and parasites which previously were considered to be under control are re-emerging, sometimes in highly virulent forms. This re-emergence may be parasite evolution, driven by human activity, including ecological changes related to modern agricultural practices. Intensive farming creates conditions for parasite growth and transmission drastically different from what parasites experience in wild host populations and may therefore alter selection on various traits, such as life-history traits and virulence. Although recent epidemic outbreaks highlight the risks associated with intensive farming practices, most work has focused on reducing the short-term economic losses imposed by parasites, such as application of chemotherapy. Most of the research on parasite evolution has been conducted using laboratory model systems, often unrelated to economically important systems. Here, we review the possible evolutionary consequences of intensive farming by relating current knowledge of the evolution of parasite life-history and virulence with specific conditions experienced by parasites on farms. We show that intensive farming practices are likely to select for fast-growing, early-transmitted, and hence probably more virulent parasites. As an illustration, we consider the case of the fish farming industry, a branch of intensive farming which has dramatically expanded recently and present evidence that supports the idea that intensive farming conditions increase parasite virulence. We suggest that more studies should focus on the impact of intensive farming on parasite evolution in order to build currently lacking, but necessary bridges between academia and decision-makers. PMID:21151485

Nilsen, Frank; Ebert, Dieter; Skorping, Arne

2010-01-01

297

Parasitic gastro-enteritis in lambs A model for estimating the timing of the larval emergence peak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life history of the nematode parasites of domestic ruminants usually involves the development and survival of free-living stages on pasture. The pasture is, therefore, the site of deposition, development and transmission of nematode infection and meteorological factors affecting the pasture will affect the parasites. Recently Thomas and Starr (1978) discussed an empirical technique for forecasting the timing of the summer wave of gastro-intestinal parasitism in North-East England in the lamb crop using meteorological data and in particular estimates of the duration of surface wetness. This paper presents an attempt to model surface wetness and the temperature limitation to nematode development.

Starr, J. R.; Thomas, R. J.

1980-09-01

298

Carp edema virus/Koi sleepy disease: an emerging disease in Central-East Europe.  

PubMed

Koi sleepy disease (KSD), also known as carp edema virus (CEV), was first reported from juvenile colour carp in Japan in the 1970s. Recently, this pox virus was detected in several European countries, including Germany, France and the Netherlands. In England, in addition to colour carp, outbreaks in common carp are reported. KSD/CEV is an emerging infectious disease characterized by a typical sleepy behaviour, enophthalmia, generalized oedematous condition and gill necrosis, leading to hypoxia. High mortality, of up to 80-100%, is seen in juvenile koi collected from infected ponds. In Austria, this disease had not been detected until now. In spring 2014, diagnostic work revealed the disease in two unrelated cases. In one instance, a pond with adult koi was affected; in the other, the disease was diagnosed in adult common carp recently imported from the Czech Republic. A survey was carried out on recent cases (2013/2014), chosen from those with similar anamnestic and physical examination findings, revealing a total of 5/22 cases positive for KSD/CEV. In this study, two paradigmatic cases are presented in detail. Results together with molecular evidence shaped the pattern of the first diagnosis of KSD/CEV in fish from Austrian ponds. In the light of the positive cases detected from archived material, and the spread of the disease through live stock, imported from a neighbouring country, the need for epidemiological investigations in Austria and surrounding countries is emphasized. PMID:25382453

Lewisch, E; Gorgoglione, B; Way, K; El-Matbouli, M

2015-02-01

299

Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

1985-01-01

300

Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Infectious Disease Hospital Kano, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of morbidity in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites and its association with immunological status and risk factors among HIV infected patients in Kano, Nigeria. Methods 105 HIV+ subjects and 50 HIV- controls were recruited into the studies from June to December 2010. Clinical information was collected using a questionnaire. Single stool and venous blood samples were collected from each subject. Stool examination and CD4+ count were performed. Results Prevalence of intestinal parasites was 11.4% and 6% among the HIV+ and control subjects respectively with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.389). Specifically, the following intestinal parasites were isolated from HIV+ subjects: Entamoebahistolytica (5.7%), hookworm (3.8%), Entamoeba coli (1%), Blastocystishominis (1%). Only Entamoebahistolytica was isolated among the control subjects. The mean CD4+ count of HIV+ and control subjects was 287 cells/ul and 691 cells/lrespectively while the median was 279(Q1-120, Q3-384) cell/l and 691(Q1-466, Q3-852) cell/lrespectively with statistically significant difference (P= 0.021). Diarrhea and the absence of anti-parasitic therapy seem to be important risk factors associated with the occurrence of intestinal parasites among HIV+ subjects. A higher prevalence (14.5%) of intestinal parasites was observed in subject with CD4+ count 350cell/l. Conclusion Routine examination for intestinal parasites should be carried out for better management of HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:25328591

Jegede, Ebenezer Feyisayo; Oyeyi, Esther Tinuade Ibijoke; Bichi, ArmaYau Hamisu; Mbah, Henry Akwen; Torpey, Kwasi

2014-01-01

301

Lymphogranuloma venereum: an old, forgotten re-emerging systemic disease.  

PubMed

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection endemic in parts of Africa, Asia, South America, and the Caribbean, but once was rarely observed in Western countries, where most cases were considered to be imported. However, recent outbreaks have been reported in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Canada, mainly among HIV positive men who have sex with men, signaling LGV re-emergence. The etiological agent of LGV is Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2 and L3, and current outbreaks are mostly sustained by L2b type. The clinical course can be classically divided into three stages: an initial papule, which may ulcerate at the site of inoculation, followed by regional lymphoadenopathy (second stage, generally unilateral). In the tertiary stage, lymphatic obstruction, with elephantiasis of genitalia, and rectal involvement can lead to the formation of strictures and fistulae that may require surgical treatment. Recent cases are observed mainly among HIV positive people, often co-infected with HCV and others STIs, engaging in high-risk sexual practices. The main clinical picture is a relative new entity characterized by progressive ulcerative proctitis, the so called anorectal syndrome. Diagnosis is often delayed, requires a high index of clinical suspicion and must rely on the use of nucleic acid amplification tests. The differential diagnosis of proctitis should include LGV infection. Gastroenterologists, coloproctologists, dermatologists and other specialists need to be aware of LGV proctitis to avoid diagnostic delay and progression of disease to the tertiary stage. PMID:24518282

Dal Conte, I; Mistrangelo, M; Cariti, C; Chiriotto, M; Lucchini, A; Vigna, M; Morino, M; Di Perri, G

2014-03-01

302

Evolution in action: climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease.  

PubMed

Climatological variation and ecological perturbation have been pervasive drivers of faunal assembly, structure and diversification for parasites and pathogens through recurrent events of geographical and host colonization at varying spatial and temporal scales of Earth history. Episodic shifts in climate and environmental settings, in conjunction with ecological mechanisms and host switching, are often critical determinants of parasite diversification, a view counter to more than a century of coevolutionary thinking about the nature of complex host-parasite assemblages. Parasites are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common during phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in real time. The emerging Stockholm Paradigm resolves this paradox: Ecological Fitting (EF)--phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, most notably host preference--provides many opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, without the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. Host shifts via EF fuel the expansion phase of the Oscillation Hypothesis of host range and speciation and, more generally, the generation of novel combinations of interacting species within the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution. In synergy, an environmental dynamic of Taxon Pulses establishes an episodic context for host and geographical colonization. PMID:25688014

Hoberg, Eric P; Brooks, Daniel R

2015-04-01

303

Diversification and host switching in avian malaria parasites.  

PubMed Central

The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management. PMID:12028770

Ricklefs, Robert E; Fallon, Sylvia M

2002-01-01

304

An Update on Redox Biology of Parasites  

PubMed Central

Abstract Parasite redox biology is vital for understanding parasite-host interactions and adaptations. Studies in this area are leading to discoveries regarding drug targets and drug leads to treat infections caused by protozoan and worm parasites for which there are few effective drugs. Parasite unique and nonredundant core redox enzymes are choke points of metabolism and pharmacological targets. This Forum revises this concept and proposes new drug targets. It also highlights recent studies using genetically manipulated and natural strains that reveal emerging regulatory functions of antioxidant enzymes in parasite differentiation, apoptosis, virulence, acute infection, and disease progression and outcome. The challenge ahead is to understand the redox changes linked to differentiation and drastic transitions between environments that take place during parasitic complex life cycles. The combined use of new tools and techniques, such as genetically-manipulated parasites, live imaging, redox sensors, and proteomics, allow the challenge to be undertaken. Some of these methodologies, for example, transgenic parasites encoding redox biosensors, can also be applied to drug high throughput screening and to assess the effect of currently known drugs that affect redox homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 661664. PMID:23582043

2013-01-01

305

Emergency Department Care for Patients with Hemophilia and Von Willebrand Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with bleeding disorders such as hemophilia A, hemophilia B, and von Willebrand disease (VWD) are routinely treated at home, with their care managed in specialized centers. In emergency situations, these patients often present to their local emergency department (ED), where their management can represent a challenge to the emergency physicians and staff who rarely encounter them. Delays in diagnosis

Tammuella Singleton; Rebecca Kruse-Jarres; Cindy Leissinger

2010-01-01

306

Emergence of Polycystic Neotropical Echinococcosis  

PubMed Central

Echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis of increasing concern. In 1903, the first cases of human polycystic echinococcosis, a disease resembling alveolar echinococcosis, emerged in Argentina. One of the parasites responsible, Echinococcus oligarthrus, had been discovered in its adult strobilar stage before 1850. However, >100 years passed from the first description of the adult parasite to the recognition that this species is responsible for some cases of human neotropical polycystic echinococcosis and the elucidation of the parasites life cycle. A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972. Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species. To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries. PMID:18258123

Stich, August; Frosch, Matthias

2008-01-01

307

Tadpole Mouthpart Depigmentation as an Accurate Indicator of Chytridiomycosis, an Emerging Disease of Amphibians  

E-print Network

of Amphibians ROLAND A. KNAPP AND JESS A. T. MORGAN Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and its role in causing population. CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS is an emerging infec- tious disease of amphibians caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Knapp, Roland

308

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health. Here, we apply the definition of EIDs used in the medical and veterinary fields to botany and highlight a series of emerging plant diseases. We include EIDs of cultivated and wild plants, some of which are of significant conservation concern. The underlying cause of most plant EIDs is the

Pamela K. Anderson; Andrew A. Cunningham; Nikkita G. Patel; Francisco J. Morales; Paul R. Epstein; Peter Daszak

2004-01-01

309

Social and environmental risk factors in the emergence of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty years ago, the age-old scourge of infectious disease was receding in the developed world in response to improved public health measures, while the advent of antibiotics, better vaccines, insecticides and improved surveillance held the promise of eradicating residual problems. By the late twentieth century, however, an increase in the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases was evident in many

Robin A Weiss; Anthony J McMichael

2004-01-01

310

THE HISTORICAL BIOGEOGRAPHICAL ARENA OF EMERGING DISEASES: EVOLUTIONARY ACCIDENTS WAITING TO HAPPEN.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The biodiversity crisis is commonly seen strictly as one of habitat destruction and extinction. However, it is also a crisis of introduced species, altered ecologies, and emerging diseases. To date, human, livestock, and wildlife health managers have dealt with Emerging Infectious Diseases (hereaft...

311

Practice of Epidemiology When Is Quarantine a Useful Control Strategy for Emerging Infectious Diseases?  

E-print Network

long nor very short. communicable diseases, emerging; disease outbreaks; epidemiologic methods; patientPractice of Epidemiology When Is Quarantine a Useful Control Strategy for Emerging Infectious;163:479­485 American Journal of Epidemiology Copyright ª 2006 by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Day, Troy

312

A parasitic helminth-derived peptide that targets the macrophage lysosome is a novel therapeutic option for autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

Parasitic worms (helminths) reside in their mammalian hosts for many years. This is attributable, in part, to their ability to skew the host's immune system away from pro-inflammatory responses and towards anti-inflammatory or regulatory responses. This immune modulatory ability ensures helminth longevity within the host, while simultaneously minimises tissue destruction for the host. The molecules that the parasite releases clearly exert potent immune-modulatory actions, which could be exploited clinically, for example in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of pro-inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We have identified a novel family of immune-modulatory proteins, termed helminth defence molecules (HDMs), which are secreted by several medically important helminth parasites. These HDMs share biochemical and structural characteristics with mammalian cathelicidin-like host defence peptides (HDPs), which are significant components of the innate immune system. Like their mammalian counterparts, parasite HDMs block the activation of macrophages via toll like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling, however HDMs are significantly less cytotoxic than HDPs. HDMs can traverse the cell membrane of macrophages and enter the endolysosomal system where they reduce the acidification of lysosomal compartments by inhibiting vacuolar (v)-ATPase activity. In doing this, HDMs can modulate critical cellular functions, such as cytokine secretion and antigen processing/presentation. Here, we review the role of macrophages, specifically their lysosomal mediated activities, in the initiation and perpetuation of pro-inflammatory immune responses. We also discuss the potential of helminth defence molecules (HDMs) as therapeutics to counteract the pro-inflammatory responses underlying autoimmune disease. Given the current lack of effective, non-cytotoxic treatment options to limit the progression of autoimmune pathologies, HDMs open novel treatment avenues. PMID:25466586

Alvarado, Raquel; O'Brien, Bronwyn; Tanaka, Akane; Dalton, John P; Donnelly, Sheila

2015-02-01

313

The Role of HLA-G Molecule and HLA-G Gene Polymorphisms in Tumors, Viral Hepatitis, and Parasitic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Considering that the non-classical HLA-G molecule has well-recognized tolerogenic properties, HLA-G expression is expected to be deleterious when present in tumor cells and in cells chronically infected by viruses, whereas HLA-G expression is expected to be advantageous in autoimmune disorders. The expression of HLA-G on tissue or peripheral blood cells, the levels of soluble HLA-G and polymorphic sites along the gene have been studied in several disorders. In this study, we revised the role of the molecule and polymorphic sites along the HLA-G gene in tumors, viral hepatitis, and parasitic disorders. Overall, several lines of evidence clearly show that the induction of HLA-G expression in tumors has been associated with worse disease outcome and disease spread. In addition, the few studies conducted on hepatitis and parasitic disorders indicate that HLA-G may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Few isolated polymorphic sites, primarily located at the coding or 3? untranslated HLA-G region, have been evaluated in these disorders, and a complete HLA-G typing together with the study of gene regulatory elements may further help on the understanding of the influence of the genetic background on disease susceptibility. PMID:25699038

Dias, Fabrcio C.; Castelli, Erick C.; Collares, Cristhianna V. A.; Moreau, Philippe; Donadi, Eduardo A.

2015-01-01

314

Wild primate populations in emerging infectious disease research: the missing link?  

PubMed Central

Wild primate populations, an unexplored source of information regarding emerging infectious disease, may hold valuable clues to the origins and evolution of some important pathogens. Primates can act as reservoirs for human pathogens. As members of biologically diverse habitats, they serve as sentinels for surveillance of emerging pathogens and provide models for basic research on natural transmission dynamics. Since emerging infectious diseases also pose serious threats to endangered and threatened primate species, studies of these diseases in primate populations can benefit conservation efforts and may provide the missing link between laboratory studies and the well-recognized needs of early disease detection, identification, and surveillance. PMID:9621185

Wolfe, N. D.; Escalante, A. A.; Karesh, W. B.; Kilbourn, A.; Spielman, A.; Lal, A. A.

1998-01-01

315

Clostridial dermatitis and cellulitis: an emerging disease of turkeys.  

PubMed

Clostridial dermatitis of turkeys (CDT) has emerged as a major issue across most geographic regions of the United States. The prevalence and severity of dermatitis has increased over the last several years, since the time it was first reported in 1993. Cellulitis in poultry can be associated with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, but the more recent field situation in turkeys is specifically associated with Clostridium spp. The prevalence of cellulitis is relatively low; however, the disease can be devastating in the individual flocks affected. Clostridium septicum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium sordelli, and S. aureus can cause cellulitis. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp., and other bacteria have occasionally been isolated from birds diagnosed with cellulitis. CDT appears as excessive mortality in older birds around 16-18 weeks of age. It has been reported from field experience as early as 7 wk of age. Clinical signs of CDT can range from sudden death to inappetence, depression, leg weakness, recumbency, and ataxia. The disease is characterized by reddish to dark or greenish discoloration of the skin around the thighs, abdomen, keel, tail region, back, and wings. The lesions can extend into the underlying muscles, and there can be gas bubbles under the skin which result in crepitation. Some cases present with dead birds having "bubbly tail," fluid-filled blisters associated with broken feather follicles around the base of the tail. Bubbly tail in breeder toms might not cause excessive mortality, but the lesions are so severe that the birds cannot be used for semen collection. Incidence of mortality from this condition can be severe and acute (i.e., rapid onset of high mortality). The dead birds decompose very quickly. Microscopically, there is necrosis, with or without inflammation of the skin, especially in the dermis and occasionally in the skeletal muscles, associated with large numbers of rod-shaped bacteria. Overcrowding, aggressive birds, poor-wet litter, decreased down time, a contaminated environment including feed and water, poor hygienic conditions, and contaminated vaccines and vaccine equipment, etc., can predispose birds for CDT. Preventative measures and treatment are discussed extensively in this review. PMID:20608520

Clark, Steven; Porter, Rob; McComb, Brian; Lipper, Ron; Olson, Steve; Nohner, Sheilina; Shivaprasad, H L

2010-06-01

316

Sickle cell disease patients' perceptions of emergency department pain management.  

PubMed

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience painful crises that often require admission to the emergency department (ED) for pain management. Factors such as ED overcrowding and negative perception and stigmatization of SCD may impact patients' perceptions of the quality of pain management in the ED. Data from a multisite prospective cohort study was assessed to determine whether demographic (age and sex), clinical (time to administration of initial analgesia, number of analgesic doses, discharge disposition, and clinical site), or interpersonal factors (separately measured perceptions of being treated with trust and respect by ED triage nurses, nurses, and physicians) were associated with patient ratings of their pain management in the ED. Patients were adults with SCD seen at 3 EDs (2 urban and 1 rural). Demographic and clinical information was derived from medical record review; interpersonal and ED pain management ratings were derived from interviews conducted 1 week post ED visit. A total of 209 interviews by 98 patients were analyzed. Results indicated significant differences among the ED sites on the demographic, clinical, and interpersonal factors. Overall, patients reported being treated with trust and respect by ED clinicians. Adjusted logistic regression analyses indicated that ED clinical site 1 (odds ratio [OR], 10.42; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.44-7.36) and being treated with trust and respect by the ED physician (OR, 25.53; 95% CI, 2.07-314.96) predicted good ED pain management ratings. Interpersonal health care experiences may be an important indicator of patient satisfaction and quality of care received by patients with SCD in the ED. PMID:23342819

Porter, Jerlym; Feinglass, Joe; Artz, Nicole; Hafner, John; Tanabe, Paula

2012-01-01

317

Emerging information management technologies and the future of disease management.  

PubMed

Disease management (DM) has become a widely accepted way to support care delivery in the chronically ill patient population. Patients enrolled in these programs have been shown to have better health, fewer complications and comorbidities, and lower health care costs. The development of advanced information management technologies is further enhancing the role DM plays in optimizing outcomes and cost-effectiveness in clinical care. These emerging information management technologies (EIMT) include advances in software, hardware, and networking, all of which share common impact attributes in their ability to improve cost-effectiveness of care, quality of care, and access to care. Specific examples include interactive websites with the ability to engage patients in the self-care management process, the embedding of biometric devices (digital scales, modem-enabled glucose meters in the home, blood pressure monitoring, etc.), workflow and care coordination programs that add intelligence via guideline-directed alerts and reminders to the delivery process, registries that include a summary of personal health data that can be used as a reference point for improved clinical decisions, and the systematic collection of aggregated, de-identified clinical, administrative, and cost data into comprehensive data sets to which predictive modeling analytic tools can be applied. By way of case example, we also present data from a controlled clinical trial utilizing EIMT in the form of home-based weight measurement using a digital scale and linkage to a care coordination center for the management of severe congestive heart failure. Outcome results on 85,515 patient-months of an aggregate commercial and Medicare continuously enrolled population demonstrated an average reduction of care utilization (hospitalization) of 57% and a reduction in related delivery cost (per member per year payments) of 55%. We conclude that EIMT have already begun to offer significant and quantifiable benefits to DM and are likely to become heavily embedded in care management strategies in the future. PMID:14736346

Nobel, Jeremy J; Norman, Gordon K

2003-01-01

318

The Emergency Response Network of the Great Lakes Regional Center of Excellence exists to provide aid during a bio-defense emergency related to emerging infectious diseases or an act of bioterrorism.  

E-print Network

aid during a bio- defense emergency related to emerging infectious diseases or an act of bioterrorism. The Emergency Response Plan (ERP) incorporates and supplements each entity's existing bioterror or pathogen

Sherman, S. Murray

319

Selective mass treatment with ivermectin to control intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in a severely affected population.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term and long-term impact of selective mass treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in an economically depressed community in north-east Brazil. METHODS: An intervention was carried out in a traditional fishing village in north-east Brazil where the population of 605 is heavily affected by ectoparasites and enteroparasites. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was determined by serial stool examination and the prevalence of parasitic skin diseases by clinical inspection. A total of 525 people out of a target population of 576 were treated at baseline. The majority of these were treated with ivermectin (200 microg/kg with a second dose given after 10 days). If ivermectin was contraindicated, participants were treated with albendazole or mebendazole for intestinal helminths or with topical deltamethrin for ectoparasites. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 month and 9 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prevalence rates of intestinal helminthiases before treatment and at 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: hookworm disease 28.5%, 16.4% and 7.7%; ascariasis 17.1%, 0.4% and 7.2%; trichuriasis 16.5%, 3.4% and 9.4%; strongyloidiasis 11.0%, 0.6% and 0.7%; and hymenolepiasis 0.6%; 0.4% and 0.5%, respectively. Prevalence rates of parasitic skin diseases before treatment and 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: active pediculosis 16.1%, 1.0% and 10.3%; scabies 3.8%, 1.0% and 1.5%; cutaneous larva migrans 0.7%, 0% and 0%; tungiasis 51.3%, 52.1% and 31.2%, respectively. Adverse events occurred in 9.4% of treatments. They were all of mild to moderate severity and were transient. CONCLUSION: Mass treatment with ivermectin was an effective and safe means of reducing the prevalence of most of the parasitic diseases prevalent in a poor community in north-east Brazil. The effects of treatment lasted for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375445

Heukelbach, Jrg; Winter, Benedikt; Wilcke, Thomas; Muehlen, Marion; Albrecht, Stephan; de Oliveira, Fabola Arajo Sales; Kerr-Pontes, Lgia Regina Sansigolo; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Feldmeier, Hermann

2004-01-01

320

Host selection and parasite infection in Aedes taeniorhynchus, endemic disease vector in the Galpagos Islands.  

PubMed

Host selection in blood-sucking arthropods has important evolutionary and ecological implications for the transmission dynamics, distribution and host-specificity of the parasites they transmit. The black salt-marsh mosquito (Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann) is distributed throughout tropical to temperate coastal zones in the Americas, and continental populations are primarily mammalphilic. It is the only indigenous mosquito in the Galpagos Islands, having colonised the archipelago around 200,000 years ago, potentially adapting its host selection, and in the process, altering the dynamics of vector mediated pathogen interactions in the archipelago. Here, we use blood-meal analysis and PCR-based parasite screening approach to determine the blood-feeding patterns of A. taeniorhynchus in the Galpagos Islands and identify potential parasite transmission with which this mosquito could be involved. Our results show that A. taeniorhynchus feeds equally on mammals and reptiles, and only one avian sample was observed in 190 successful PCR amplifications from blood meals. However, we detected endemic filarial worms and Haemoproteus parasites known to infect various Galpagos bird species in mosquito thoraces, suggesting that feeding on birds must occur at low frequency, and that A. taeniorhynchus may play a role in maintaining some avian vector-borne pathogens, although more work is needed to explore this possibility. We also isolated three different DNA sequences corresponding to hemogregarine parasites of the genus Hepatozoon from mosquito and iguana blood samples, suggesting that more than one species of Hepatozoon parasites are present in Galpagos. Phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon 18sRNA sequences indicates that A. taeniorhynchus may have facilitated a recent breakdown in host-species association of formerly isolated Hepatozoon spp. infecting the reptile populations in the Galpagos Islands. PMID:22921730

Bataille, Arnaud; Fourni, Guillaume; Cruz, Marilyn; Cedeo, Virna; Parker, Patricia G; Cunningham, Andrew A; Goodman, Simon J

2012-12-01

321

Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California.  

PubMed

Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California. PMID:25445322

LaDouceur, E E B; Anderson, M; Ritchie, B W; Ciembor, P; Rimoldi, G; Piazza, M; Pesti, D; Clifford, D L; Giannitti, F

2014-12-01

322

Evolution of virulence, environmental change, and the threat posed by emerging and chronic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of future threats posed by infection have focused largely on zoonotic, acute disease, under the rubric emerging\\u000a diseases. Evolutionary and epidemiological studies indicate, however, that particular aspects of infrastructure, such as\\u000a protected water supplies, vector-proof housing, and health care facilities, protect against the emergence of zoonotic, acute\\u000a infectious diseases. While attention in the global health community has focused on

Paul W. Ewald

323

Quantifying Trends in Disease Impact to Produce a Consistent and Reproducible Definition of an Emerging Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The proper allocation of public health resources for research and control requires quantification of both a disease's current burden and the trend in its impact. Infectious diseases that have been labeled as emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have received heightened scientific and public attention and resources. However, the label emerging is rarely backed by quantitative analysis and is often used subjectively. This can lead to over-allocation of resources to diseases that are incorrectly labelled emerging, and insufficient allocation of resources to diseases for which evidence of an increasing or high sustained impact is strong. We suggest a simple quantitative approach, segmented regression, to characterize the trends and emergence of diseases. Segmented regression identifies one or more trends in a time series and determines the most statistically parsimonious split(s) (or joinpoints) in the time series. These joinpoints in the time series indicate time points when a change in trend occurred and may identify periods in which drivers of disease impact change. We illustrate the method by analyzing temporal patterns in incidence data for twelve diseases. This approach provides a way to classify a disease as currently emerging, re-emerging, receding, or stable based on temporal trends, as well as to pinpoint the time when the change in these trends happened. We argue that quantitative approaches to defining emergence based on the trend in impact of a disease can, with appropriate context, be used to prioritize resources for research and control. Implementing this more rigorous definition of an EID will require buy-in and enforcement from scientists, policy makers, peer reviewers and journal editors, but has the potential to improve resource allocation for global health. PMID:23967065

Funk, Sebastian; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Jones, Kate E.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Daszak, Peter

2013-01-01

324

Emerging, evolving, and established infectious diseases and interventions.  

PubMed

Planning, implementing, and evaluating interventions against infectious diseases depend on the nature of the infectious disease; the availability of intervention measures; and logistical, economic, and political constraints. Infectious diseases and vaccine- or drug-based interventions can be loosely categorized by the degree to which the infectious disease and the intervention are well established. Pertussis, polio, and measles are three examples of long-known infectious diseases for which global vaccination has dramatically reduced the public health burden. Pertussis vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, polio vaccination in the 1950s, and measles vaccination in the 1960s, nearly eliminating these diseases in many places. PMID:25214617

Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

2014-09-12

325

Investigating Emergent Symptomatology as an Outcome Measure in a Behavioral Study of Alzheimers Disease  

PubMed Central

These retrospective analyses represent a pilot study of a potential new outcome, expected emergence. The Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia (BRSD) was administered at the baseline and 12-month visits of a multicenter study. The authors computed the rates at which each BRSD symptom emerged over 12 months in normal elderly control subjects (n = 64). These normal rates were then applied as the expected emergent rate (EER) to a population of individuals with Alzheimers disease (n = 235). The comparison of expected emergence to observed emergence in Alzheimers disease showed interpretable differences. EER assesses whether treatments limit emergence in the target, relative to the standard, population. The ratio of expected to observed emergence provides an intuitively appealing quantification of treatment efficacy and can be used with any instrument that uses categorical or frequency ratings. PMID:12154155

Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Gamst, Anthony; Thomas, Ronald G.; Patterson, Marian; Schneider, Lon S.; Thal, Leon J.

2015-01-01

326

The effect of parasitic diseases on nutrient metabolism and productivity in small ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigation of voluntary feed intake (VFI) and nitrogen retention (NRET) during parasitic infections in small ruminants is the central theme of this thesis. An attempt was made to examine the effects of trypanosomiasis on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen retention and animal products. In addition, a similar investigation was conducted during a low to medium level fascioliasis infection in Menz

O. O. Akinbamijo

1994-01-01

327

Predicting Disease Spread among Greater Yellowstone Elk using DNA Markers for Elk and their Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive summary: There is a growing need to understand connectivity and movement patterns among elk herds and their parasites across the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). We developed microsatellite and mitochondrial (mt) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) makers to assess connectivity among elk from nine study areas. We sequenced 695 base pairs (bp) of mtDNA control region from 407 elk. Statistical analyses revealed

Gordon Luikart; Marty Kardos; Vanessa Ezenwa; P. J. White

2009-01-01

328

Transmission dynamics of an emerging infectious disease in wildlife through host reproductive cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to wildlife populations. To enhance our understanding of the dynamics of these diseases, we investigated how host reproductive behavior and seasonal temperature variation drive transmission of infections among wild hosts, using the model system of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) disease in common carp. Our main findings were as follows: (1) a seroprevalence survey showed

Kimiko Uchii; Arndt Telschow; Toshifumi Minamoto; Hiroki Yamanaka; Mie N Honjo; Kazuaki Matsui; Zen'ichiro Kawabata

2011-01-01

329

Distribution and Abundance of the Aquatic Oligochaete Host Tubifex tubifex for the Salmonid Whirling Disease Parasite Myxobolus cerebralis in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic invertebrate samples were collected from six sites in the upper Colorado River basin in north-central Colorado to determine the distribution, abundance, and infection rates of Tubifex tubifex, the aquatic oligochaete host for the salmonid whirling disease parasite Myxobolus cerebralis. The disease has been implicated as a factor in severe recruitment declines in wild rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in this

Joseph S. Zendt; Eric P. Bergersen

2000-01-01

330

76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products.'' The purpose of the public...

2011-10-12

331

Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges  

PubMed Central

After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leismaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection. PMID:22310820

Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao

2011-01-01

332

Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.  

PubMed

The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainly due to contaminated food and water, as a cause of death will decline worldwide. Evidence for such a downward trend is limited. This prediction presumes that improvements in the production and retail of microbiologically safe food will be sustained in the developed world and, moreover, will be rolled out to those countries of the developing world increasingly producing food for a global market. In this review evidence is presented to indicate that the microbiological safety of food remains a dynamic situation heavily influenced by multiple factors along the food chain from farm to fork. Sustaining food safety standards will depend on constant vigilance maintained by monitoring and surveillance but, with the rising importance of other food-related issues, such as food security, obesity and climate change, competition for resources in the future to enable this may be fierce. In addition the pathogen populations relevant to food safety are not static. Food is an excellent vehicle by which many pathogens (bacteria, viruses/prions and parasites) can reach an appropriate colonisation site in a new host. Although food production practices change, the well-recognised food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, seem able to evolve to exploit novel opportunities, for example fresh produce, and even generate new public health challenges, for example antimicrobial resistance. In addition, previously unknown food-borne pathogens, many of which are zoonotic, are constantly emerging. Current understanding of the trends in food-borne diseases for bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens has been reviewed. The bacterial pathogens are exemplified by those well-recognized by policy makers; i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Antimicrobial resistance in several bacterial food-borne pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella and Vibrio spp., methicillin resistant Staphylcoccus aureas, E. coli and Enterococci) has been discussed as a separate topic because of its relative importance to policy issues. Awareness and surveillance of viral food-borne pathogens is generally poor but emphasis is placed on Norovirus, Hepatitis A, rotaviruses and newly emerging viruses such as SARS. Many food-borne parasitic pathogens are known (for example Ascaris, Cryptosporidia and Trichinella) but few of these are effectively monitored in foods, livestock and wildlife and their epidemiology through the food-chain is poorly understood. The lessons learned and future challenges in each topic are debated. It is clear that one overall challenge is the generation and maintenance of constructive dialogue and collaboration between public health, veterinary and food safety experts, bringing together multidisciplinary skills and multi-pathogen expertise. Such collaboration is essential to monitor changing trends in the well-recognised diseases and detect emerging pathogens. It will also be necessary understand the multiple interactions these pathogens have with their environments during transmission along the food chain in order to develop effective prevention and control strategies. PMID:20153070

Newell, Diane G; Koopmans, Marion; Verhoef, Linda; Duizer, Erwin; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Sprong, Hein; Opsteegh, Marieke; Langelaar, Merel; Threfall, John; Scheutz, Flemming; van der Giessen, Joke; Kruse, Hilde

2010-05-30

333

Global climate change and the emergence\\/re-emergence of infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the incidence of vector-borne diseases is associated with extreme weather events and annual changes in weather conditions. Moreover, it is assumed that global warming might lead to an increase of infectious disease outbreaks. While a number of reports link disease outbreaks to single weather events, the El Nio\\/Southern Oscillation and other largescale climate fluctuations, no report unequivocally associates

Roland Zell

2004-01-01

334

Research toward integrate management of the emerging viroid disease on tomato through seed health test, disinfectant application and disease resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the last few years, several devastating viroid disease outbreaks were identified on greenhouse tomatoes in North America. These emerging diseases have caused serious concerns to the tomato industry and seed suppliers. Several closely related viroid species, including Potato spindle tuber viroid...

335

Effects of temperature on hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) immunity and QPX (Quahog Parasite Unknown) disease development: II. Defense parameters  

E-print Network

Effects of temperature on hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) immunity and QPX (Quahog Parasite Keywords: Hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria QPX Thraustochytrid Parasite Immune response Temperature Environment a b s t r a c t Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) is a protistan parasite affecting hard clams

Allam, Bassem

336

Emerging novel concept of chaperone therapies for protein misfolding diseases  

PubMed Central

Chaperone therapy is a newly developed molecular therapeutic approach to protein misfolding diseases. Among them we found unstable mutant enzyme proteins in a few lysosomal diseases, resulting in rapid intracellular degradation and loss of function. Active-site binding low molecular competitive inhibitors (chemical chaperones) paradoxically stabilized and enhanced the enzyme activity in somatic cells by correction of the misfolding of enzyme protein. They reached the brain through the blood-brain barrier after oral administration, and corrected pathophysiology of the disease. In addition to these inhibitory chaperones, non-competitive chaperones without inhibitory bioactivity are being developed. Furthermore molecular chaperone therapy utilizing the heat shock protein and other chaperone proteins induced by small molecules has been experimentally tried to handle abnormally accumulated proteins as a new approach particularly to neurodegenerative diseases. These three types of chaperones are promising candidates for various types of diseases, genetic or non-genetic, and neurological or non-neurological, in addition to lysosomal diseases. PMID:24814990

SUZUKI, Yoshiyuki

2014-01-01

337

Evidence-based management of Kawasaki disease in the emergency department.  

PubMed

Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, was first described in Japan in 1967. It is currently the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in the United States. Untreated Kawasaki disease may lead to the formation of coronary artery aneurysms and sudden cardiac death in children. This vasculitis presents with fever for ? 5 days, plus a combination of key criteria. Because each of the symptoms commonly occurs in other childhood illnesses, the disease can be difficult to diagnose, especially in children who present with an incomplete form of the disease. At this time, the etiology of the disease remains unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test to confirm the diagnosis. This issue reviews the presentation, diagnostic criteria, and management of Kawasaki disease in the emergency department. Emergency clinicians should consider Kawasaki disease as a diagnosis in pediatric patients presenting with prolonged fever, as prompt evaluation and management can significantly decrease the risk of serious cardiac sequelae. PMID:25693305

Seaton, Kara K; Kharbanda, Anupam

2015-01-01

338

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: A Global Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused interview reflects on how infectious diseases, such as SARS and AIDS, are a more serious global problem than in the past because: urban populations are growing, thereby increasing opportunities for person-to-person transmittal of these diseases, people are more prone to be in contact with animals that may pass on zoonotic diseases, and public health services may not be equipped to deal with some infectious outbreaks.

Stephen Morse (Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University; )

2004-05-01

339

Is Chytridiomycosis an Emerging Infectious Disease in Andrea Swei1  

E-print Network

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has caused dramatic amphibian population declines and extinctions in Australia Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain Abstract The disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus

Alvarez, Nadir

340

[Blood hypereosinophilias. III. Symptomatic hypereosinophilias: allergic, cutaneous, parasitic, infective, pulmonary and gastro- intestinal diseases].  

PubMed

The most frequently observed of the symptomatic hypereosinophilias are those caused by allergic, cutaneous, parasitic, infectious, pulmonary and gastroenteric conditions. Among the allergic conditions, particular attention is paid to the hypereosinophilias caused by allergic asthma, gastroenteritis and reactions to drugs. The most common skin conditions linked to hypereosinophilias such as bullous dermatites and angio-oedema are considered. Turning to the parasitic conditions, the various types of parasite that may produce hypereosinophilias by infesting the organs are examined. The aetiology of tropical eosinophilias and the pathogenetic mechanism that may trigger hypereosinophilias are discussed. It has been thought advisable to group the lung pathologies associated with hypereosinophilias under a separate heading, despite the indubitable importance of the allergic element in these events. Among gastroenteric conditions, the one considered is eosinophilic gastroenteritis whose clinical, anatomopathological and aetiopathogenic features are still not quite clear. Examples of certain forms of secondary hypereosinophilias are given in the form of four unusual personal cases of bronchial asthma, filariasis, an exceptional infestation by Hypoderma bovis and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. PMID:4011009

Lovisetto, P; Manachino, D; Biarese, V; Marchi, L; Andrione, P

1985-06-01

341

How will global climate change affect parasite-host assemblages?  

PubMed

Parasites are integral components of the biosphere. Host switching correlated with events of episodic climate change is ubiquitous in evolutionary and ecological time. Global climate change produces ecological perturbations, which cause geographical and phenological shifts, and alteration in the dynamics of parasite transmission, increasing the potential for host switching. The intersection of climate change with evolutionary conservative aspects of host specificity and transmission dynamics, called ecological fitting, permits emergence of parasites and diseases without evolutionary changes in their capacity for host utilization. PMID:17962073

Brooks, Daniel R; Hoberg, Eric P

2007-12-01

342

EPIDEMIOLOGIC APPLICATIONS OF EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE MODELING TO SUPPORT US MILITARY READINESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Advances in epidemiologic modeling offer new opportunities for emerging infectious disease (EID) prediction, detection, and control. Recent applications across diverse fields include simulations of pandemic influenza to evaluate containment strategies, ecological niche modeling to identify potential...

343

Diagnosis of Mondor's Disease in the Emergency Department with Bedside Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Mondor's disease is a rare condition characterized by a superficial thrombophlebitis that can occur in the thoracoabdominal and genital areas. Findings with ultrasound in penile Mondor's disease are readily measurable: a noncompressible penile vein without flow and absence of tears of the corpus cavernosum or tunica albuginea, hematoma, or evidence of fracture of the penis. We present a case of Mondor's disease, diagnosed with bedside ultrasound, in the emergency department. Ultrasonography is readily available within the emergency department, and we suggest its use in aiding diagnosis of genitourinary disorders such as Mondor's disease. PMID:25667776

O'Neal, J. Michael; Castleberg, Erik; Dinh, Vi Am

2015-01-01

344

Incidence and pathogenicity of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) replant disease in Georgia and North Carolina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode, Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ...

345

Emerging risk factors and markers of chronic kidney disease progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition with an increasing prevalence. A number of comorbidities are associated with CKD and prognosis is poor, with many patients experiencing disease progression. Recognizing the factors associated with CKD progression enables high-risk patients to be identified and given more intensive treatment if necessary. The identification of new predictive markers might improve our understanding

Florian Kronenberg

2009-01-01

346

Emerging Marine Diseases: Climate Links and Anthropogenic Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass mortalities due to disease outbreaks have recently affected major taxa in the oceans. For closely monitored groups like corals and marine mammals, reports of the frequency of epidemics and the number of new diseases have increased recently. A dramatic global increase in the severity of coral bleaching in 1997-98 is coincident with high El Nio temperatures. Such climate-mediated, physiological

C. D. Harvell; K. Kim; J. M. Burkholder; R. R. Colwell; P. R. Epstein; D. J. Grimes; E. E. Hoffmann; E. K. Lipp; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; Robin M. Overstreet; J. W. Porter; G. W. Smith; G. R. Vasta

1999-01-01

347

A viewpoint on the coming impact of emerging diseases.  

PubMed

Infectious disease is now the third leading cause of death in the United States, and the No. 1 cause in the Third World. These diseases are the most important public health crisis facing the health care community. As part of that community, dentists must be armed with the knowledge necessary to take their part in the war against these infectious agents. PMID:10528554

Beierle, J W

1999-05-01

348

Real Time Bayesian Estimation of the Epidemic Potential of Emerging Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFast changes in human demographics worldwide, coupled with increased mobility, and modified land uses make the threat of emerging infectious diseases increasingly important. Currently there is worldwide alert for H5N1 avian influenza becoming as transmissible in humans as seasonal influenza, and potentially causing a pandemic of unprecedented proportions. Here we show how epidemiological surveillance data for emerging infectious diseases can

Lus M. A. Bettencourt; Ruy M. Ribeiro; David Lusseau

2008-01-01

349

Is This an Outbreak? A retrospective evaluation of syndromic surveillance for emerging infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, worldwide several major infectious disease events occurred like the anthrax attacks in the\\u000aUSA in 2001, the SARS epidemic in 2003 and the 2009 influenza pandemic. As a result, public-health authorities\\u000aworldwide have acknowledged the need for improved surveillance for emerging infectious diseases, as early\\u000adetection and control may well mitigate the impact of emerging

Wijngaard van den C. C

2010-01-01

350

Biological and cultural coevolution and emerging infectious disease: Ross River virus in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced virulence of pathogens infecting host populations, with no previous exposure thereto, is characteristic of many diseases labelled emerging or resurging. One cause of emergence characteristics can be interpreted as absence of co-evolutionary optimization of interactions between hosts and pathogens. We explore the historical and evolutionary development between Ross River virus (RRV) and its human host in Australia; a mosquito

Philip Weinstein; Debra Judge; Scott Carver

2011-01-01

351

Challenges posed by new and re-emerging infectious diseases in livestock production, wildlife and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's world, emerging and re-emerging diseases have a significant impact on global economies and public health, and with bioterrorism a constant threat this has become a very topical subject in recent years. Bernard Vallat, director general of the OIE, made the statement, As a result of globalisation and climate change we are currently facing an unprecedented worldwide impact of

B. Gummow

2010-01-01

352

Public engagement with emerging infectious disease: The case of MRSA in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a route to providing a framework for elucidating the content of public thinking concerning emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID), this article examines public engagement with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It explores how British lay publics represent MRSA utilising a social representations framework. For this group, MRSA is associated primarily with dirty National Health Service (NHS) hospitals that have

Hlne Joffe; Peter Washer; Christian Solberg

2011-01-01

353

Antimicrobial peptide defenses against chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibian populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease (EID) of the skin caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been linked with continuing amphibian population declines in the western USA, Central America, Europe, Africa, and Australia. Genetic analysis suggests that B. dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen. This article reviews the biology of this pathogenic chytrid and the evidence for chytridiomycosis as

Louise A. Rollins-Smith; J. Michael Conlon

2005-01-01

354

Emerging role of autophagy in kidney function, diseases and aging  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a highly conserved process that degrades cellular long-lived proteins and organelles. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy plays a critical role in kidney maintenance, diseases and aging. Ischemic, toxic, immunological, and oxidative insults can cause an induction of autophagy in renal epithelial cells modifying the course of various kidney diseases. This review summarizes recent insights on the role of autophagy in kidney physiology and diseases alluding to possible novel intervention strategies for treating specific kidney disorders by modifying autophagy. PMID:22692002

Huber, Tobias B.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Hartleben, Bjrn; Inoki, Ken; Jiang, Man; Koya, Daisuke; Kume, Shinji; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Pallet, Nicolas; Quiroga, Alejandro; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Susztak, Katalin; Yoshida, Sei; Dong, Zheng

2012-01-01

355

Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent  

PubMed Central

A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented historycontinental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (19732010) and historical (17881973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. PMID:23812027

McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

356

Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: pathogen characteristics, host range and the risk of emergence.  

PubMed

Pathogens that can be transmitted between different host species are of fundamental interest and importance from public health, conservation and economic perspectives, yet systematic quantification of these pathogens is lacking. Here, pathogen characteristics, host range and risk factors determining disease emergence were analysed by constructing a database of disease-causing pathogens of humans and domestic mammals. The database consisted of 1415 pathogens causing disease in humans, 616 in livestock and 374 in domestic carnivores. Multihost pathogens were very prevalent among human pathogens (61.6%) and even more so among domestic mammal pathogens (livestock 77.3%, carnivores 90.0%). Pathogens able to infect human, domestic and wildlife hosts contained a similar proportion of disease-causing pathogens for all three host groups. One hundred and ninety-six pathogens were associated with emerging diseases, 175 in humans, 29 in livestock and 12 in domestic carnivores. Across all these groups, helminths and fungi were relatively unlikely to emerge whereas viruses, particularly RNA viruses, were highly likely to emerge. The ability of a pathogen to infect multiple hosts, particularly hosts in other taxonomic orders or wildlife, were also risk factors for emergence in human and livestock pathogens. There is clearly a need to understand the dynamics of infectious diseases in complex multihost communities in order to mitigate disease threats to public health, livestock economies and wildlife. PMID:11516377

Cleaveland, S; Laurenson, M K; Taylor, L H

2001-07-29

357

Microevolution and emergence of pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases are the direct result of ecological and evolutionary changes in hosts and parasites. Precisely what the causal processes are is rarely known in any particular case, and this hinders the design of appropriate control strategies. This is particularly so for emerging infections, as opportunity is rapidly lost to study the ecological parameters which

David J. Conway; Cally Roper

2000-01-01

358

Chikungunya: an emerging and spreading arthropod-borne viral disease.  

PubMed

The virus causing Chikungunya disease was identified over 50 years ago; however, because the disease appeared only in developing countries, little research on it has been done. Research interest in the disease increased after an important epidemiological outbreak occurred in 2005 on the French metropolitan island of La Reunion located in the south-eastern part of the Indian Ocean. In 2007, a smaller outbreak of Chikungunya developed in the north-eastern part of Italy made possible by immigration of a viremic patient from the Indian Ocean area and the enormous population of Aedes albopictus in Italy. Currently, Chikungunya is spreading in Southeast Asian aspects, clinical pictures, diagnosis and treatment of the disease caused by Chikungunya virus. PMID:20009275

Cavrini, Francesca; Gaibani, Paolo; Pierro, Anna Maria; Rossini, Giada; Landini, Maria Paola; Sambri, Vittorio

2009-01-01

359

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Current and Emerging Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common hereditary disorders. Over the last decade,\\u000a knowledge of the pathology underlying this disease has increased rapidly. Attributing important roles to tubular cell ciliary\\u000a functioning, cell proliferation and fluid secretion, subsequent alterations in levels of intracellular calcium, adenosine\\u000a 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of a variety of cellular kinases,

Ronald Villareal; Michael Fischer

2009-01-01

360

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an emerging pathological spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum of pathological lesions observed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is wide and strongly resembles that of alcohol-induced liver disease. It ranges from fatty liver to steatohepatitis, progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a possible complication of NAFLD, but whether it is related to frequently associated metabolic disorders (e.g., overweight, diabetes) or to underlying cirrhosis is unclear.

ElieSerge Zafrani

2004-01-01

361

Grazing management strategies for the control of parasitic diseases in intensive sheep production systems.  

PubMed

The effect of forward (F) and lateral (L) creep grazing, as two possible management alternatives of intensive production systems, on the gastro-intestinal nematode epidemiology of ewes and lambs was studied. Two groups of Romanov x Rasa Aragonesa ewes rearing twins and maintained on an autumn-contaminated pasture at a mean stocking density of 35 ewes ha-1, were used. Measurements were made of the population of infective larvae on the pasture, level of serum pepsinogen, worm eggs in faeces of ewes and lambs, and lambs' growth rate. In addition, post-mortem worm counts from 'indicator' lambs were used to establish the level of infection at each rotational grazing cycle. Two different waves of nematode infection were identified. In both treatments, the over-wintering larvae were responsible for the first outbreak of parasitism which was particularly important for lambs on Treatment F. The second wave of infection apparently came up with several overlapped L3 generations and had different effects on the animals of each group. While early pasture contamination was suffered by the lambs of Treatment F, lambs on Treatment L were not seriously affected until the end of the third grazing cycle (end of May). The different grazing behaviour of lambs in both treatments appeared to be related to the outbreak of parasitism in lambs. The general pattern of liveweight gains was similar for both groups of animals. However, during the first 90 days on pasture lamb growth rate under Treatment L (193 g day-1) was significantly higher than that under Treatment F (164 g day-1). The serum pepsinogen values, worm burdens and liveweight gains indicate that under intensive systems where lateral creep grazing is allowed for lambs, the level of parasite infection is maintained within acceptable limits for the first 90 days on pasture with lambs' growth rate close to their potential. However, the parasitic consequences of grazing under a forward creeping system indicate that anthelmintic drenchings should be used at lambing and at 3-week intervals thereafter during the first 42 days on pasture, after which the risk of contamination from the over-wintering population is over. PMID:2267726

Uriarte, J; Valderrbano, J

1990-11-01

362

The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records  

E-print Network

- rus, and vector-borne diseases such as malaria and yellow fever. More re- cently, infectious disease epidemics have become a major conservation concern, with outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever and anthrax

Nunn, Charles

363

Emerging prion disease drives host selection in a wildlife population.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases are increasingly recognized as an important force driving population dynamics, conservation biology, and natural selection in wildlife populations. Infectious agents have been implicated in the decline of small or endangered populations and may act to constrain population size, distribution, growth rates, or migration patterns. Further, diseases may provide selective pressures that shape the genetic diversity of populations or species. Thus, understanding disease dynamics and selective pressures from pathogens is crucial to understanding population processes, managing wildlife diseases, and conserving biological diversity. There is ample evidence that variation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) impacts host susceptibility to prion diseases. Still, little is known about how genetic differences might influence natural selection within wildlife populations. Here we link genetic variation with differential susceptibility of white-tailed deer to chronic wasting disease (CWD), with implications for fitness and disease-driven genetic selection. We developed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay to efficiently genotype deer at the locus of interest (in the 96th codon of the PRNP gene). Then, using a Bayesian modeling approach, we found that the more susceptible genotype had over four times greater risk of CWD infection; and, once infected, deer with the resistant genotype survived 49% longer (8.25 more months). We used these epidemiological parameters in a multi-stage population matrix model to evaluate relative fitness based on genotype-specific population growth rates. The differences in disease infection and mortality rates allowed genetically resistant deer to achieve higher population growth and obtain a long-term fitness advantage, which translated into a selection coefficient of over 1% favoring the CWD-resistant genotype. This selective pressure suggests that the resistant allele could become dominant in the population within an evolutionarily short time frame. Our work provides a rare example of a quantifiable disease-driven selection process in a wildlife population, demonstrating the potential for infectious diseases to alter host populations. This will have direct bearing on the epidemiology, dynamics, and future trends in CWD transmission and spread. Understanding genotype-specific epidemiology will improve predictive models and inform management strategies for CWD-affected cervid populations. PMID:22645831

Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Johnson, Chad J; Adams, Marie; McKenzie, Debbie I

2012-04-01

364

Ecosystem dynamics, biological diversity and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we summarize the major scientific developments of the last decade on the transmission of infectious agents in multi-host systems. Almost sixty percent of the pathogens that have emerged in humans during the last 3040years are of animal origin and about sixty percent of them show an important variety of host species besides humans (3 or more possible

Benjamin Roche; Jean-Franois Gugan

2011-01-01

365

Disease surveillance and emergency services at the 1982 World's Fair.  

PubMed Central

We designed a special surveillance system to detect health complaints of visitors to the 1982 World's Fair. Heat-related illness occurred during the first month of the Fair but was substantially reduced by public education, environmental modification, and provision of additional water fountains. There was no disruption of emergency health services in the communities surrounding the Fair. Advance planning and the provision of on-site medical services can minimize the public health impact of large gatherings. PMID:3592044

Gustafson, T L; Booth, A L; Fricker, R S; Cureton, E; Fowinkle, E W; Hutcheson, R H; Schaffner, W

1987-01-01

366

Factors shaping the adaptive landscape for arboviruses: implications for the emergence of disease  

PubMed Central

Many examples of the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases involve the adaptation of zoonotic viruses to new amplification hosts or to humans themselves. These include several instances of simple mutational adaptations, often to hosts closely related to the natural reservoirs. However, based on theoretical grounds, arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, may face several challenges for adaptation to new hosts. Here, we review recent findings regarding adaptive evolution of arboviruses and its impact on disease emergence. We focus on the zoonotic alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis and chikungunya viruses, which have undergone adaptive evolution that mediated recent outbreaks of disease, as well as the flaviviruses dengue and West Nile viruses, which have emerged via less dramatic adaptive mechanisms. PMID:23374123

Coffey, Lark L; Forrester, Naomi; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott C

2013-01-01

367

GIS-Based Epidemiological Modeling of an Emerging Forest Disease: Spread of  

E-print Network

247 GIS-Based Epidemiological Modeling of an Emerging Forest Disease: Spread of Sudden Oak Death applied in a GIS to real-world wildland landscapes. In this paper, we present and evaluate a GIS model was implemented (1990-2005) in a GIS to simulate disease spread across California at a spatial

Standiford, Richard B.

368

Emerging infectious diseases in cetaceans worldwide and the possible role of environmental stressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed prominent emerging infectious diseases of cetaceans, examined their potential to impact populations, re-assessed zoonotic risk and evaluated the role of environmental stressors. Cetacean morbilliviruses and papillomaviruses as well as Brucella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are thought to interfere with population abundance by inducing high mortalities, lowering reproductive success or by synergistically increasing the virulence of other diseases. Severe

Marie-Franoise Van Bressem; AJ Raga; Giovanni Di Guardo; Paul D. Jepson; Padraig J. Duignan; U Siebert; T Barrett; MCdO Santos; IB Moreno; S Siciliano; A Aguilar; K Van Waerebeek

2009-01-01

369

Biodiversity loss and emerging infectious disease: An example from the rodent-borne hemorrhagic fevers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between biodiversity loss and emerging infectious diseases is studied in this paper using as examples the rodent-borne hemorrhagic fevers (those caused by hantaviruses and arenaviruses). Both biodiversity loss and infectious disease have taken on importance in the last two decades and both are related to human disturbance of natural systems. Intuitively, one might expect the most diverse natural

James N. Mills

2006-01-01

370

Is Type D personality here to stay? Emerging evidence across cardiovascular disease patient groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distressed personality (Type D) is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) that incurs a risk on par with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ischemic heart disease. Type D is defined as the co-occurring tendencies to experience increased negative emotions and to inhibit self-expression in social interactions. Evidence is ac- cumulating that Type D may also be

Susanne S. Pedersen; Johan Denollet

2006-01-01

371

The ecology and impact of chytridiomycosis: an emerging disease of amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly recog- nized as key threats to wildlife. Batrachochytrium den- drobatidis (Bd), the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in widespread amphibian declines and is currently the largest infectious disease threat to biodiversity. Here, we review the causes of Bd emer- gence, its impact on amphibian populations and the ecology of Bd transmission. We describe

A. Marm Kilpatrick; Cheryl J. Briggs; Peter Daszak

2009-01-01

372

INVESTIGATING THE POPULATION-LEVEL EFFECTS OF CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS: AN EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE OF AMPHIBIANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease that has recently been reported in amphibian populations throughout the world. It has been associated with many cases of population declines and extinctions. In some areas of the Sierra Nevada of Cali- fornia the disease appears to be the causal factor in the rapid extinction of local populations of the mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana

Cheryl J. Briggs; Vance T. Vredenburg; Roland A. Knapp; Lara J. Rachowicz

2005-01-01

373

amphibian community From The Cover: Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical  

E-print Network

describe an outbreak of chytridiomycosis in Panama and argue that this infec- tious disease has played chytridiomycosis Panama Understanding the causes and consequences of diminishing biodiversity and understanding show- ing how chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease, is strongly correlated with decreased

Gray, Matthew

374

Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria.  

PubMed

In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed whether the plasma Plasmodium falciparum DNA concentration is a useful datum for distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 224 African children (111 with uncomplicated malaria and 113 with severe malaria) and 211 Asian adults (100 with uncomplicated malaria and 111 with severe malaria) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 for children and 0.788 for adults, similar to that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 levels and substantially superior to that of parasite densities (P < .0001). The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations plus plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations was significantly greater than that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations alone (0.904 for children [P = .004] and 0.847 for adults [P = .003]). Quantitative real-time PCR measurement of parasite DNA in plasma is a useful method for diagnosing severe falciparum malaria on fresh or archived plasma samples. PMID:25344520

Imwong, Mallika; Woodrow, Charles J; Hendriksen, Ilse C E; Veenemans, Jacobien; Verhoef, Hans; Faiz, M Abul; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj; Mtove, George; Gesase, Samwel; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J

2015-04-01

375

Sustainable Approaches to the Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes and Disease Complexes  

PubMed Central

Physical, chemical, and biological factors of soil may reduce damage caused by plant-parasitic nematodes. Suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes is particularly challenging in soils in which there are short crop sequences, sequential susceptible host crops, or infestations of multiple nematode species. In southern Indiana, a watermelon production system involving rotations with soybean and corn does not suppress Meloidogyne incognita, but several aspects of such systems can be modified to reduce nematode damage in an integrated management approach. Cash crops with resistance to M. incognita can be used to reduce population densities of M. incognita. Small grains as cover crops can be replaced by cover crops with resistance to M. incognita or by crops with biofumigation potential. Mycorrhizal fungal inoculations of potting mixes during transplanting production of watermelon seedlings may improve early crop establishment. Other approaches to nematode management utilize soil suppressiveness. One-year rotations of soybean with corn neither reduced the soil-borne complex of sudden death syndrome (SDS) nor improved soybean root health over that in soybean monoculture. Reduced tillage combined with crop rotation may reduce the activity of soil-borne pathogens in some soils. For example in a long-term trial, numbers of Heterodera glycines and severity of foliar SDS symptoms were reduced under minimum tillage. Thus, sustainable management strategies require holistic approaches that consider entire production systems rather than focus on a single crop in its year of production. PMID:22791923

2011-01-01

376

Plasma Concentration of Parasite DNA as a Measure of Disease Severity in Falciparum Malaria  

PubMed Central

In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed whether the plasma Plasmodium falciparum DNA concentration is a useful datum for distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 224 African children (111 with uncomplicated malaria and 113 with severe malaria) and 211 Asian adults (100 with uncomplicated malaria and 111 with severe malaria) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 for children and 0.788 for adults, similar to that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 levels and substantially superior to that of parasite densities (P < .0001). The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations plus plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations was significantly greater than that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations alone (0.904 for children [P = .004] and 0.847 for adults [P = .003]). Quantitative real-time PCR measurement of parasite DNA in plasma is a useful method for diagnosing severe falciparum malaria on fresh or archived plasma samples. PMID:25344520

Imwong, Mallika; Woodrow, Charles J.; Hendriksen, Ilse C. E.; Veenemans, Jacobien; Verhoef, Hans; Faiz, M. Abul; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj; Mtove, George; Gesase, Samwel; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; White, Nicholas J.

2015-01-01

377

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF EMERGENT AND RE-EMERGENT INFECTIOUS DISEASES: ASSESSING  

E-print Network

by which diseases spread and cause epidemics is key for their control. This dissertation is concerned for Ebola spread is developed. Ebola outbreaks have been observed in African regions since 1976. Our model

Chowell, Gerardo

378

The Schistosoma mansoni phylome: using evolutionary genomics to gain insight into a parasites biology  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosoma mansoni is one of the causative agents of schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects about 237 million people worldwide. Despite recent efforts, we still lack a general understanding of the relevant host-parasite interactions, and the possible treatments are limited by the emergence of resistant strains and the absence of a vaccine. The S. mansoni genome was completely sequenced and still under continuous annotation. Nevertheless, more than 45% of the encoded proteins remain without experimental characterization or even functional prediction. To improve our knowledge regarding the biology of this parasite, we conducted a proteome-wide evolutionary analysis to provide a broad view of the S. mansonis proteome evolution and to improve its functional annotation. Results Using a phylogenomic approach, we reconstructed the S. mansoni phylome, which comprises the evolutionary histories of all parasite proteins and their homologs across 12 other organisms. The analysis of a total of 7,964 phylogenies allowed a deeper understanding of genomic complexity and evolutionary adaptations to a parasitic lifestyle. In particular, the identification of lineage-specific gene duplications pointed to the diversification of several protein families that are relevant for host-parasite interaction, including proteases, tetraspanins, fucosyltransferases, venom allergen-like proteins, and tegumental-allergen-like proteins. In addition to the evolutionary knowledge, the phylome data enabled us to automatically re-annotate 3,451 proteins through a phylogenetic-based approach rather than solely sequence similarity searches. To allow further exploitation of this valuable data, all information has been made available at PhylomeDB (http://www.phylomedb.org). Conclusions In this study, we used an evolutionary approach to assess S. mansoni parasite biology, improve genome/proteome functional annotation, and provide insights into host-parasite interactions. Taking advantage of a proteome-wide perspective rather than focusing on individual proteins, we identified that this parasite has experienced specific gene duplication events, particularly affecting genes that are potentially related to the parasitic lifestyle. These innovations may be related to the mechanisms that protect S. mansoni against host immune responses being important adaptations for the parasite survival in a potentially hostile environment. Continuing this work, a comparative analysis involving genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data from other helminth parasites, other parasites, and vectors will supply more information regarding parasites biology as well as host-parasite interactions. PMID:23148687

2012-01-01

379

Ethical Issues in the Response to Ebola Virus Disease in US Emergency Departments: A Position Paper of the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.  

PubMed

The 2014 outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has presented a significant public health crisis to the international health community and challenged US emergency departments to prepare for patients with a disease of exceeding rarity in developed nations. With the presentation of patients with Ebola to US acute care facilities, ethical questions have been raised in both the press and medical literature as to how US emergency departments, emergency physicians, emergency nurses and other stakeholders in the healthcare system should approach the current epidemic and its potential for spread in the domestic environment. To address these concerns, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine developed this joint position paper to provide guidance to US emergency physicians, emergency nurses and other stakeholders in the healthcare system on how to approach the ethical dilemmas posed by the outbreak of EVD. This paper will address areas of immediate and potential ethical concern to US emergency departments in how they approach preparation for and management of potential patients with EVD. PMID:25770003

Venkat, Arvind; Wolf, Lisa; Geiderman, Joel M; Asher, Shellie L; Marco, Catherine A; McGreevy, Jolion; Derse, Arthur R; Otten, Edward J; Jesus, John E; Kreitzer, Natalie P; Escalante, Monica; Levine, Adam C

2015-03-01

380

The Cardiomyocyte Circadian Clock: Emerging Roles in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Circadian misalignment has been implicated in the development of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Time-of-day-dependent synchronization of organisms with their environment is mediated by circadian clocks. This cell autonomous mechanism has been identified within all cardiovascular-relevant cell types, including cardiomyocytes. Recent molecular- and genetic- based studies suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock influences multiple myocardial processes, including transcription, signaling, growth, metabolism, and contractile function. Following an appreciation of its physiological roles, the cardiomyocyte circadian clock has recently been linked to the pathogenesis of heart disease in response to adverse stresses, such as ischemia/reperfusion, in animal models. The purpose of this review is therefore to highlight recent advances regarding the roles of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock in both myocardial physiology and pathophysiology (i.e., health and disease). PMID:20203314

Durgan, David J.; Young, Martin E.

2011-01-01

381

[West nile virus infection: re-emergent disease in Croatia].  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is a small, enveloped, spherical virus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis serocomplex. Natural reservoirs of WNV are birds, and the main vectors are mosquitoes of the genus Culex. There are seven genetic lineages of WNV. Lineages 1 and 2 are the most widely distributed (Africa, North and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia). About 80% of infections are asymptomatic. In 20% of patients nonspecific febrile disease occurs (West Nile fever). Less than 1% of infected persons will develop neuroinvasive WNV disease (meningitis, encephalitis, and poliomyelitis). In Croatia, antibodies to WNV were demonstrated in humans,bears and horses. In August-September 2012 clinical cases of human WNV neuroinvasive disease and asymptomatic acute infection in horses were reported for the first time in three eastern Croatian counties. The diagnosis was confirmed by serologic tests (enzyme immunoassay, IgG avidity, plaque-reduction neutralization test). PMID:23898697

Vilibi?-Cavlek, Tatjana; Barbi?, Ljubo; Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Stevanovi?, Vladimir; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Mlinari?-Galinovi?, Gordana

2013-01-01

382

Autophagy: an emerging therapeutic target in vascular diseases.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process responsible for the destruction of long-lived proteins and organelles via lysosome-dependent pathway. This process is of great importance in maintaining cellular homeostasis, and deregulated autophagy has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide range of diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that autophagy can be activated in vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. Autophagy occurs under basal conditions and mediates homeostatic functions in cells but in the setting of pathological states up-regulated autophagy can exert both protective and detrimental functions. Therefore, the precise role of autophagy and its relationship with the progression of the disease need to be clarified. This review highlights recent findings regarding autophagy activity in vascular cells and its potential contribution to vascular disorders with a focus on atherogenesis. Finally, whether the manipulation of autophagy represents a new therapeutic approach to treat or prevent vascular diseases is also discussed. PMID:25537552

Vindis, Ccile

2015-05-01

383

LETTER Phylogenetic host specificity and understanding parasite sharing in primates  

E-print Network

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) present a major challenge to the health of humans and our domesticated animals and crops (Morens et al. 2004; Woolhouse et al. 2005). EIDs also affect wild animals and plants respiratory syndrome (SARS), and parasite introduction via introduced species is a major driver of plant EID

Nunn, Charles

384

Ecology of Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Institutes of Health program, Ecology of Infectious Diseases (EID), allows scientists to study how large-scale environmental eventssuch as habitat destruction, invasions of non-native species and pollutionalter the risks of emergence of viral, parasitic and bacterial diseases in humans and animals. Specific infectious diseases being studied include hantavirus, Lyme Disease, and Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD).

385

Alternative Medicines as Emerging Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be divided into two major categories, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). While the main cause(s) of IBD remain unknown, a number of interventional and preventive strategies have been proposed for use against CD and UC. Many reports have focused on the use of alternative natural medicines as potential therapeutic interventions in IBD patients with minimal side effects. While the use of alternative medicines may be effective in IBD patients that are refractory to corticosteroids or thiopurins, alternative treatment strategies are limited and require extensive clinical testing before being optimized for use in patients. PMID:22251008

Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Busbee, Brandon; Guan, H.; Singh, Balwan; Price, Robert L.; Taub, Dennis D.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

2014-01-01

386

Emerging role of interleukin-33 in autoimmune diseases  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family. It predominantly induces type 2 immune responses and thus is protective against atherosclerosis and nematode infections but contributes to allergic airway inflammation. Interleukin-33 also plays a pivotal role in the development of many autoimmune diseases through mechanisms that are still not fully understood. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in understanding of the expression and function of IL-33 in some autoimmune disorders, aiming to provide insight into its potential role in disease development. PMID:24116703

Pei, Cheng; Barbour, Mark; Fairlie-Clarke, Karen J; Allan, Debbie; Mu, Rong; Jiang, Hui-Rong

2014-01-01

387

Targeting Inflammation in Emerging Therapies for Genetic Retinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Genetic retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and monogenic diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa account for some of the commonest causes of blindness in the developed world. Diverse genetic abnormalities and environmental causes have been implicated in triggering multiple pathological mechanisms such as oxidative stress, lipofuscin deposits, neovascularisation, and programmed cell death. In recent years, inflammation has also been highlighted although whether inflammatory mediators play a central role in pathogenesis or a more minor secondary role has yet to be established. Despite this, numerous interventional studies, particularly targeting the complement system, are underway with the promise of novel therapeutic strategies for these important blinding conditions. PMID:23509666

Viringipurampeer, Ishaq A.; Bashar, Abu E.; Gregory-Evans, Cheryl Y.; Moritz, Orson L.; Gregory-Evans, Kevin

2013-01-01

388

Necroptosis: An emerging type of cell death in liver diseases  

PubMed Central

Cell death has been extensively evaluated for decades and it is well recognized that pharmacological interventions directed to inhibit cell death can prevent significant cell loss and can thus improve an organs physiological function. For long, only apoptosis was considered as a sole form of programmed cell death. Recently necroptosis, a RIP1/RIP3-dependent programmed cell death, has been identified as an apoptotic backup cell death mechanism with necrotic morphology. The evidences of necroptosis and protective effects achieved by blocking necroptosis have been extensively reported in recent past. However, only a few studies reported the evidence of necroptosis and protective effects achieved by inhibiting necroptosis in liver related disease conditions. Although the number of necroptosis initiators is increasing; however, interestingly, it is still unclear that what actually triggers necroptosis in different liver diseases or if there is always a different necroptosis initiator in each specific disease condition followed by specific downstream signaling molecules. Understanding the precise mechanism of necroptosis as well as counteracting other cell death pathways in liver diseases could provide a useful insight towards achieving extensive therapeutic significance. By targeting necroptosis and/or other parallel death pathways, a significant cell loss and thus a decrement in an organs physiological function can be prevented. PMID:25253954

Saeed, Waqar Khalid; Jun, Dae Won

2014-01-01

389

The emerging role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation primarily occurs within human cells as a 5-methylcytosine (5mC) modification of the cytosine bases in CpG dinucleotides. 5mC has proven to be an important epigenetic mark that is involved in the control of gene transcription for processes such as development and differentiation. However, recent studies have identified an alternative modification, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is formed by oxidation of 5mC by ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. The overall levels of 5hmC in the mammalian genome are approximately 10% of 5mC levels, although higher levels have been detected in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). The functions of 5hmC are not yet fully known, but evidence suggests that 5hmC may be both an intermediate product during the removal of 5mC by passive or active demethylation processes and also an epigenetic modification in its own right, regulating chromatin or transcriptional factors involved in processes such as neurodevelopment or environmental stress response. This review highlights our current understanding of the role that 5hmC plays in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), Huntington's disease (HD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). PMID:25538551

Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; Virmouni, Sara Anjomani; Pook, Mark A.

2014-01-01

390

Weissellosis An important emerging disease in farmed rainbow trout  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 2007, disease outbreaks associated with Weissella sp. bacteria in cultured rainbow trout have been reported on farms in China and Brazil. In the summer and fall of 2011, we visited two trout farms in North Carolina to investigate reports of severe, prolonged mortalities in larger fish approach...

391

Emerging Biophotonic Technologies in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases  

E-print Network

(e.g., Factor V Leiden) #12;DNA based testing Prenatal diagnostic testing (e.g., Cystic Fibrosis (CAH; hormone deficiency; ambiguous genitalia and male pseudohermaphroditism) Cystic fibrosis (CFEmerging Biophotonic Technologies in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases Philip Chen, MD, Ph

Van Stryland, Eric

392

Letter Chagas disease: an emerging food-borne entity?  

E-print Network

of Carlos Chagas discovery of a disease that continues to endanger the lives of a significant number of people in the Americas, despite major successes in controlling its transmission and recent achievements in experimental specific chemotherapy against its etiological agent, Trypanosoma cruzi [1

Alfonso J. Rodriguez-morales

2008-01-01

393

Endemic Typhus in Singapore - A Re-Emerging Infectious Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Singapore is a modern urban city and endemic typhus is thought to be a disease of the past. This may be due to lack of specific serological testing as indirect immunoperoxidase testing using specific rickettsial antigens (U.S. Army Medical Research Unit, Institute of Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) has only recently become available. In the last fourteen months, twenty-one cases

A K Y Ong; P A Tambyah; S Ooi; G Kumarasinghe; C Chow

394

Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: emerging treatments.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease therapy is still focused on the use of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa or L-dopa) for the symptomatic treatment of the main clinical features of the disease, despite intensive pharmacological research in the last few decades. However, regardless of its effectiveness, the long-term use of levodopa causes, in combination with disease progression, the development of motor complications termed levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs). LIDs are the result of profound modifications in the functional organization of the basal ganglia circuitry, possibly related to the chronic and pulsatile stimulation of striatal dopaminergic receptors by levodopa. Hence, for decades the key feature of a potentially effective agent against LIDs has been its ability to ensure more continuous dopaminergic stimulation in the brain. The growing knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of LIDs and the increasing evidence on involvement of nondopaminergic systems raises the possibility of more promising therapeutic approaches in the future. In the current review, we focus on novel therapies for LIDs in Parkinson's disease, based mainly on agents that interfere with glutamatergic, serotonergic, adenosine, adrenergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission that are currently in testing or clinical development. PMID:24174877

Bargiotas, Panagiotis; Konitsiotis, Spyridon

2013-01-01

395

Psyllids as vectors of emerging bacterial diseases of annual crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Psyllids are important pests of agricultural crops worldwide. These insects may cause damage to plants by direct feeding and/or vectoring plant pathogens. Psyllid-transmitted bacterial diseases are increasingly becoming important in perennial and annual crops. Several reports have shown that the fas...

396

EMERGENCE AND STAND ESTABLISHMENT OF SMOOTH ROOT GERMPLASM IN DISEASED AND NON-DISEASED NURSERIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seedling emergence and stand establishment in sugarbeet continue to be a high priority for growers. Any useful test to be used for breeding and selection of emergence potential needs to reflect field performance. We conducted a test to compare emergence and stand establishment among smooth-root (SR)...

397

Status of mastitis as an emerging disease in improved and periurban dairy farms in India.  

PubMed

While reviewing present status of mastitis in India, results of investigations from periurban dairy farms on epidemiological, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, bacterial isolation, in vitro drug sensitivity, and treatment of subclinical mastitis have been presented. Mastitis, on account of its causing serious wastage and undesirable milk quality, is emerging as a major challenge among the others (like breeding improvement, nutrition management, control of infectious, tick-borne, blood, and internal parasitic diseases) in dairy development of tropics. Subclinical mastitis was found more important in India (varying from 10-50% in cows and 5-20% in buffaloes) than clinical mastitis (1-10%). The incidence was highest in Purebred Holsteins and Jerseys and lowest in local cattle and buffaloes. An investigation on 250 animals from periurban farms indicated that the monsoon season was more prone to subclinical mastitis than summer or winter, prevalence increased with higher lactation number and animals in 4th-5th month of lactation were found more susceptible (59.49%), hind quarters were found more affected (56.52%) than fore quarters (43.47%). The factors like herd size, agro climatic conditions of the region, variations in sociocultural practices, milk marketing, literacy level of the animal owner, system of feeding, and management were found important affecting the incidence of subclinical mastitis. Comparison of efficacy of different diagnostic techniques for subclinical mastitis, such as modified California mastitis test (MCMT), bromo thymol blue (BTB), modified whiteside test, trypsin inhibition test, milk pH, and electric conductivity indicated MCMT to be most sensitive (95.16%) and specific (98.02%) test. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that most of the bacterial strains (gram positive, gram negative, and mixed) isolated from subclinical mastitis milk samples, were highly sensitive to enrofloxacin 53.91%, least sensitive to oxytetracycline 17.39% and ampicillin 7.83%, and resistant to streptomycin. The therapy with enrofloxacin and nimesulide was found more efficacious (92.30%) in treating subclinical mastitis cows. It was concluded that consideration of socioecological factors for mastitis control in periurban area would help to reduce the cost of mastitis control in clean milk production. PMID:17135496

Joshi, Sachin; Gokhale, Suresh

2006-10-01

398

Disease prevention and preparedness: the Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention System.  

PubMed

In 1994, the Food and Agriculture Organization undertook to revitalise its activities in the control of transboundary animal disease by establishing a new special programme known as the Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) against transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases. The emphasis of the EMPRES livestock component is placed on pre-empting outbreaks and losses experienced by agriculture through the enhancement of local capacity to detect and react rapidly to plague events. EMPRES concentrates on the co-ordination of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme--a time-bound eradication programme--whilst addressing the progressive control of the most serious epidemic diseases within a broad framework of emergency preparedness. Programme activities are discussed in relation to early warning, early reaction, facilitating research and co-ordination. In addition to rinderpest, particular attention has been paid to contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, a re-emerging disease in Africa targeted for strategic attention, and foot and mouth disease, for which co-ordinated regional control in Latin America and South-East Asia has been initiated. Tactical responses to other disease emergencies such as African swine fever, classical swine fever (hog cholera), Rift Valley fever, peste des petits ruminants and lumpy skin disease are described. PMID:10190209

Cheneau, Y; Roeder, P L; Obi, T U; Rweyemamu, M M; Benkirane, A; Wojciechowski, K J

1999-04-01

399

Malaria is a complex disease, mediated by obligate eukaryot-ic parasites with a life cycle requiring adaption to both ver-  

E-print Network

Reports Malaria is a complex disease, mediated by obligate eukaryot- ic parasites with a life cycle- brates (1), and has also influenced mosquito evolution (2). Human malaria is transmitted only malaria vectors: The genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes DanielE. Neafsey,1 * RobertM. Waterhouse,2

Napp, Nils

400

Anoikis: an emerging hallmark in health and diseases.  

PubMed

Anoikis is a programmed cell death occurring upon cell detachment from the correct extracellular matrix, thus disrupting integrin ligation. It is a critical mechanism in preventing dysplastic cell growth or attachment to an inappropriate matrix. Anoikis prevents detached epithelial cells from colonizing elsewhere and is thus essential for tissue homeostasis and development. As anchorage-independent growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, two features associated with anoikis resistance, are crucial steps during tumour progression and metastatic spreading of cancer cells, anoikis deregulation has now evoked particular attention from the scientific community. The aim of this review is to analyse the molecular mechanisms governing both anoikis and anoikis resistance, focusing on their regulation in physiological processes, as well as in several diseases, including metastatic cancers, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. PMID:21953325

Taddei, M L; Giannoni, E; Fiaschi, T; Chiarugi, P

2012-01-01

401

Emerging Infectious Diseases in Free-Ranging WildlifeAustralian Zoo Based Wildlife Hospitals Contribute to National Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife. Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases. PMID:24787430

Cox-Witton, Keren; Reiss, Andrea; Woods, Rupert; Grillo, Victoria; Baker, Rupert T.; Blyde, David J.; Boardman, Wayne; Cutter, Stephen; Lacasse, Claude; McCracken, Helen; Pyne, Michael; Smith, Ian; Vitali, Simone; Vogelnest, Larry; Wedd, Dion; Phillips, Martin; Bunn, Chris; Post, Lyndel

2014-01-01

402

Emerging hurdles in stem cell therapy for peripheral vascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a growing medical problem in Western societies and presents itself mainly in two different\\u000a clinical forms. Intermittent claudication is an early moderate manifestation, while patients with critical limb ischemia suffer\\u000a from severe muscle tissue loss or ulcers and are at high risk for limb amputation. Unfortunately, many patients cannot be\\u000a helped with currently available surgical

Xabier L. Aranguren; Catherine M. Verfaillie; Aernout Luttun

2009-01-01

403

Bovine dermatophilosis, a re-emerging pandemic disease in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

To determine the current distribution of bovine dermatophilosis in Zimbabwe, participatory rural appraisals were held at 36 locations in six districts. Results showed that bovine dermatophilosis is no longer confined to Hwange-Lupane area, but is now endemic in Gokwe, Sanyati, Kwekwe, and Kadoma. Virgin outbreaks of the disease were preceded by the appearance of Amblyomma variegatum ticks within an area. Spreading to new geographical areas (cited above) occurred during the liberation struggle (1975/79), droughts (1992/93, 1995/96), and of late, the land re-distribution exercise (2000-2002). Immediately after the war (1980/82), both the ticks and the disease were first cited in Gokwe whereas prior to that (1922-1980), both were confined to Hwange-Lupane area in the northwestern parts of Zimbabwe. Transmission from Gokwe to Sanyati, and from Sanyati to Chenjiri, occurred during the droughts of 1992/93 and 1995/96 respectively. In all the cases, the spreading of dermatophilosis was secondary to reduced tick control on cattle. The presence of dermatophilosis in the highveld (Kwekwe, Kadoma), a prime cattle production zone for the country, is a major threat to livestock production. These results have policy implications for tick and tick-associated diseases (dermatophilosis) control strategies for Zimbabwe. PMID:19212820

Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Muzenda-Mutambara, J

2009-10-01

404

Emerging Biobehavioral Factors of Fatigue in Sickle Cell Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose The symptom most frequently associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) is pain, but recent research is beginning to indicate that fatigue as an increasingly important symptom of this disease upon which to focus research efforts. This article explores biological and behavioral factors that can potentially contribute to fatigue in SCD. Organizing Framework A biobehavioral framework guides this discussion of factors that may contribute to SCD fatigue. Findings The pathophysiology of the disease process, such as the profound hemolytic anemia and unpredictable vasoocclusive crises, suggests that individuals with SCD are at risk for both acute and chronic fatigue. For example, hypoxemia can cause muscle weakness and produce oxidative stress, which, in turn, increases fatigue. Sickled erythrocytes disrupt the vascular endothelium and stimulate proinflammatory cytokines, which are linked to sleep disruptions. Pain, the most notorious symptom of SCD, has a complex and mechanistically poorly understood relationship with fatigue. Conclusions Little is known about the symptom of fatigue in SCD. Considering the biological and behavioral factors of SCD that could potentially contribute to fatigue, there is a great need for research on the nature and potential mechanisms of fatigue in SCD. Clinical Relevance Fatigue in SCD may negatively affect quality of life. Understanding factors that may contribute to fatigue aids the clinician in identifying causes and determining treatment. PMID:21342421

Ameringer, Suzanne; Smith, Wally R.

2010-01-01

405

Does the failure to acquire helminthic parasites predispose to Crohn's disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two polarized patterns (Th1 and Th2) of cytokines regulate inflammatory responses. Each cytokine pattern inhibits production of the opposing pattern. Lymphocytes from inflamed intestine due to Crohn's disease secrete a Th1 pattern of cytokines. Crohn's disease is most prevalent in highly industri- alized countries with temperate climates. It occurs rarely in tropical third world countries with poor sanitation. We propose

DAVID E. ELLIOTT; JOE F. URBAN; CURTIS K. ARGO; JOEL V. WEINSTOCK

2000-01-01

406

Parasitism, emergence, and development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of different ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host-parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3-5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6-7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2-5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6-7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. PMID:25700538

Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

2015-01-01

407

Emergent properties define the subjective nature of health and dis-ease.  

PubMed

Health and dis-ease by their etymological origins refer to an evaluative, not objective, state. Health is an adaptive state, constantly reestablishing itself through interactions between the many biological, social, emotional, and cognitive factors in a person's life. Such adaptive processes define health as an emergent state. Outcomes of emergent phenomena are not precisely predictable and reside in a phase space that contains all possible states ranging from perfect to poor health states, the latter reflecting dis-ease. However, we have seen a migration of meaning from the subjective, dis-ease, to the objective, disease, referring to uniquely identifiable biomedical change. Clinical reality though teaches us that many experiences of dis-ease are not associated with any objective abnormality, an insight with important implications for clinical care and health policy. PMID:24943661

Sturmberg, Joachim P

2014-08-01

408

Emerging Filoviral Disease in Uganda: Proposed Explanations and Research Directions  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg virus diseases have recently increased in frequency in Uganda. This increase is probably caused by a combination of improved surveillance and laboratory capacity, increased contact between humans and the natural reservoir of the viruses, and fluctuations in viral load and prevalence within this reservoir. The roles of these proposed explanations must be investigated in order to guide appropriate responses to the changing epidemiological profile. Other African settings in which multiple filoviral outbreaks have occurred could also benefit from such information. PMID:24515940

Polonsky, Jonathan A.; Wamala, Joseph F.; de Clerck, Hilde; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Porten, Klaudia; Shoemaker, Trevor

2014-01-01

409

Current and emerging treatment options for Peyronie's disease.  

PubMed

Peyronie's disease (PD) is a condition of the penis, characterized by the presence of localized fibrotic plaque in the tunica albuginea. PD is not an uncommon disorder, with recent epidemiologic studies documenting a prevalence of 3-9% of adult men affected. The actual prevalence of PD may be even higher. It is often associated with penile pain, anatomical deformities in the erect penis, and difficulty with intromission. As the definitive pathophysiology of PD has not been completely elucidated, further basic research is required to make progress in the understanding of this enigmatic condition. Similarly, research on effective therapies is limited. Currently, nonsurgical treatments are used for those men who are in the acute stage of PD, whereas surgical options are reserved for men with established PD who cannot successfully penetrate. Intralesional treatments are growing in clinical popularity as a minimally invasive approach in the initial treatment of PD. A surgical approach should be considered when men with PD do not respond to conservative, medical, or minimally invasive therapies for approximately 1 year and cannot have satisfactory sexual intercourse. As scientific breakthroughs in the understanding of the mechanisms of this disease process evolve, novel treatments for the many men suffering with PD are anticipated. PMID:24400231

Gokce, Ahmet; Wang, Julie C; Powers, Mary K; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg

2013-01-01

410

Emerging roles of lymphatics in inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

The mobilization and recruitment of blood and lymphatic vasculatures are widely described in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Although angiogenesis contributes to intense gut inflammation, it remains unclear whether and when lymphangiogenesis amplifies or protects in IBD. The prolonged maintenance of lymphatic (over blood vessels) in inflammation indicates that lymphatic-blood vessel interactions may regulate IBD pathogenesis and restitution. Although lymphatic expansion helps to restore fluid balance and clear cytokines and immune cells, lymphatic failure results in accumulation of these factors and exacerbates IBD. Lymphatic obstruction and remodeling may impair lymphatic pumping, leading to repeated rounds of lymphangiogenesis. Early descriptions of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis describe colon lymphatic congestion, remodeling, expansion, and many other features that are recapitulated in experimental IBD and also by intestinal lymphatic obstruction, supporting lymphangitis as a cause and consequence of IBD. Growth factors, cytokines, gut flora, Toll receptors, and leukocytes all regulate inflammation and gut lymphatic remodeling in IBD. This review summarizes the importance of lymphatics and lymphangiogenesis in IBD etiology that may be useful in diagnosis and therapy of gut inflammation. PMID:20961310

Alexander, J Steven; Chaitanya, Ganta Vijay; Grisham, M B; Boktor, Moheb

2010-10-01

411

Current and emerging treatment options for Peyronies disease  

PubMed Central

Peyronies disease (PD) is a condition of the penis, characterized by the presence of localized fibrotic plaque in the tunica albuginea. PD is not an uncommon disorder, with recent epidemiologic studies documenting a prevalence of 39% of adult men affected. The actual prevalence of PD may be even higher. It is often associated with penile pain, anatomical deformities in the erect penis, and difficulty with intromission. As the definitive pathophysiology of PD has not been completely elucidated, further basic research is required to make progress in the understanding of this enigmatic condition. Similarly, research on effective therapies is limited. Currently, nonsurgical treatments are used for those men who are in the acute stage of PD, whereas surgical options are reserved for men with established PD who cannot successfully penetrate. Intralesional treatments are growing in clinical popularity as a minimally invasive approach in the initial treatment of PD. A surgical approach should be considered when men with PD do not respond to conservative, medical, or minimally invasive therapies for approximately 1 year and cannot have satisfactory sexual intercourse. As scientific breakthroughs in the understanding of the mechanisms of this disease process evolve, novel treatments for the many men suffering with PD are anticipated. PMID:24400231

Gokce, Ahmet; Wang, Julie C; Powers, Mary K; Hellstrom, Wayne JG

2013-01-01

412

The Novel and Endemic Pathogen Hypotheses: Competing Explanations for the Origin of Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ,i sa nemerging infectious disease implicated in declines of amphibian populations around the globe. An emerging infectious disease is one that has recently been discovered; has recently increased in incidence, geography, or host range; or is newly evolved. For any given outbreak of an emerging disease, it is therefore possible to state

LARA J. RACHOWICZ; JEAN-MARC HERO; ROSS A. ALFORD; JOHN W. TAYLOR; JESS A. T. MORGAN; VANCE T. VREDENBURG; JAMES P. COLLINS; CHERYL J. BRIGGS

2005-01-01

413

Review of the diseases, parasites and miscellaneous pathological conditions of North American bison  

PubMed Central

The involvement of veterinarians in the health management of North American bison will continue to increase, particularly in regard to the development of the bison ranching industry. More intensive management of bison will lead to greater recognition of diseases, and will raise concerns about the transmission of diseases between bison and other livestock species. This review of the infectious and noninfectious diseases of free-ranging and captive bison populations indicates that bison are susceptible to a wide range of indigenous and foreign diseases that occur in cattle and other livestock species. Most of the available information is based on necropsy results or serological surveys, and there is much less information on clinical, diagnostic and preventive medicine, or on the evaluation of conventional diagnostic tests, therapeutic regimens, or vaccines in bison. PMID:17423322

Tessaro, Stacy V.

1989-01-01

414

Application of Radar Altimetry Methods to Monitoring of Parasitic Disease Transmission: Schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosomiasis is the second-most prevalent tropical disease after malaria affecting two-hundred million people annually world-wide; it shortens lifespan on average by ten years in endemic areas and no vaccine exists. The current control methods of human host chemotherapy and application of molluscicides to the environment do not break the disease transmission cycle. Schistosomiasis transmission in southern China involves an amphibious

M. McCandless; M. Ibaraki; C. Shum; H. Lee; S. Liang

2008-01-01

415

Biology Today: Parasites and Human Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers various reasons why the study of parasites and the diseases they cause should be incorporated into classroom biology discussions. Examples of several parasitic diseases and their ecological significance are provided. (JN)

Flannery, Maura C.

1984-01-01

416

The emerging roles of GPRC5A in diseases  

PubMed Central

The Retinoic Acid-Inducible G-protein-coupled receptors or RAIG are a group comprising the four orphan receptors GPRC5A, GPRC5B, GPRC5C and GPRC5D. As the name implies, their expression is induced by retinoic acid but beyond that very little is known about their function. In recent years, one member, GPRC5A, has been receiving increasing attention as it was shown to play important roles in human cancers. As a matter of fact, dysregulation of GPRC5A has been associated with several cancers including lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Here we review the current state of knowledge about the heterogeneity and evolution of GPRC5A, its regulation, its molecular functions, and its involvement in human disease. PMID:25621293

Zhou, Honglei; Rigoutsos, Isidore

2014-01-01

417

Congenital Heart Disease: emerging themes linking genetics and development  

PubMed Central

Although congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common survivable birth defect, the etiology of most CHD remains unclear. Several lines of evidence from humans and vertebrate models have supported a genetic component for CHD, yet the extreme locus heterogeneity and lack of a distinct genotype-phenotype correlation has limited causative gene discovery. However, recent advances in genomic technologies are permitting detailed evaluation of the genetic abnormalities in large cohorts of CHD patients. This has lead to the identification of copy-number variation and de-novo mutations together accounting for up to 15% of CHD. Further, new strategies coupling human genetics with model organisms have provided mechanistic insights into the molecular and developmental pathways underlying CHD pathogenesis, notably chromatin remodeling and ciliary signaling. PMID:23790954

Yuan, Shiaulou; Zaidi, Samir; Brueckner, Martina

2013-01-01

418

Drivers, dynamics, and control of emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases  

PubMed Central

Emerging vector-borne diseases represent an important issue for global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, and many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and local emergence are frequently considered distinct processes, many emerging endemic pathogens are in fact invading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. We highlight key differences in the dynamics and disease burden that result from increased pathogen transmission following habitat change compared with the introduction of pathogens to new regions. Truly in situ emergence is commonly driven by changes in human factors as much as by enhanced enzootic cycles whereas pathogen invasion results from anthropogenic trade and travel and suitable conditions for a pathogen, including hosts, vectors, and climate. Once established, ecological factors related to vector characteristics shape the evolutionary selective pressure on pathogens that may result in increased use of humans as transmission hosts. We describe challenges inherent in the control of vector-borne zoonotic diseases and some emerging non-traditional strategies that may be more effective in the long term. PMID:23200503

Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Randolph, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

419

Pets and Parasites  

MedlinePLUS

... make me sick? Household pets such as dogs, cats, birds and reptiles can carry diseases or parasites ... might be used as litter boxes by neighborhood cats. Keep your children out of the dirt in ...

420

Infectious disease emergence and global change: thinking systemically in a shrinking world  

PubMed Central

Background Concern intensifying that emerging infectious diseases and global environmental changes that could generate major future human pandemics. Method A focused literature review was undertaken, partly informed by a forthcoming report on environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty, facilitated by the Special Programme for Tropical Diseases. Results More than ten categories of infectious disease emergence exist, but none formally analyse past, current or future burden of disease. Other evidence suggests that the dominant public health concern focuses on two informal groupings. Most important is the perceived threat of newly recognised infections, especially viruses that arise or are newly discovered in developing countries that originate in species exotic to developed countries, such as non-human primates, bats and rodents. These pathogens may be transmitted by insects or bats, or via direct human contact with bushmeat. The second group is new strains of influenza arising from intensively farmed chickens or pigs, or emerging from Asian wet markets where several bird species have close contact. Both forms appear justified because of two great pandemics: HIV/AIDS (which appears to have originated from bushmeat hunting in Africa before emerging globally) and Spanish influenza, which killed up to 2.5% of the human population around the end of World War I. Insufficiently appreciated is the contribution of the milieu which appeared to facilitate the high disease burden in these pandemics. Additionally, excess anxiety over emerging infectious diseases diverts attention from issues of greater public health importance, especially: (i) existing (including neglected) infectious diseases and (ii) the changing milieu that is eroding the determinants of immunity and public health, caused by adverse global environmental changes, including climate change and other components of stressed life and civilisation-supporting systems. Conclusions The focus on novel pathogens and minor forms of anti-microbial resistance in emerging disease literature is unjustified by their burden of disease, actual and potential, and diverts attention from far more important health problems and determinants. There is insufficient understanding of systemic factors that promote pandemics. Adverse global change could generate circumstances conducive to future pandemics with a high burden of disease, arising via anti-microbial and insecticidal resistance, under-nutrition, conflict, and public health breakdown. PMID:23849217

2012-01-01

421

The Use of Expert Opinion to Assess the Risk of Emergence or Re-Emergence of Infectious Diseases in Canada Associated with Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in infectious disease outbreaks. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required, and given limited resources, policy decision makers need rational methods with which to prioritise pathogen threats. Here expert opinion was collected to determine what criteria could be used to prioritise diseases according to the

Ruth Cox; Crawford W. Revie

2012-01-01

422

Response to an emerging vector-borne disease: surveillance and preparedness for Schmallenberg virus.  

PubMed

Surveillance for new emerging animal diseases from a European perspective is complicated by the non-harmonised approach across Member States for data capture, recording livestock populations and case definitions. In the summer of 2011, a new vector-borne Orthobunyavirus emerged in Northern Europe and for the first time, a coordinated approach to horizon scanning, risk communication, data and diagnostic test sharing allowed EU Member States to develop early predictions of the disease, its impact and risk management options. There are many different systems in place across the EU for syndromic and scanning surveillance and the differences in these systems have presented epidemiologists and risk assessors with concerns about their combined use in early identification of an emerging disease. The emergence of a new disease always will raise challenging issues around lack of capability and lack of knowledge; however, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) gave veterinary authorities an additional complex problem: the infection caused few clinical signs in adult animals, with no indication of the possible source and little evidence about its spread or means of transmission. This paper documents the different systems in place in some of the countries (Germany and the Netherlands) which detected disease initially and predicted its spread (to the UK) and how information sharing helped to inform early warning and risk assessment for Member States. Microarray technology was used to identify SBV as a new pathogen and data from the automated cattle milking systems coupled with farmer-derived data on reporting non-specific clinical signs gave the first indications of a widespread issue while the UK used meteorological modelling to map disease incursion. The coordinating role of both EFSA and the European Commission were vital as are the opportunities presented by web-based publishing for disseminating information to industry and the public. The future of detecting emerging disease looks more positive in the light of this combined approach in the EU. PMID:25236564

Roberts, H C; Elbers, A R W; Conraths, F J; Holsteg, M; Hoereth-Boentgen, D; Gethmann, J; van Schaik, G

2014-10-15

423

Parasitic Copepod (Lernaea cyprinacea) Outbreaks in Foothill Yellow-legged Frogs (Rana boylii) Linked to Unusually Warm Summers and Amphibian Malformations in Northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

How climate change may affect parasite-host assemblages and emerging infectious diseases is an important question in amphibian decline research. We present data supporting a link between periods of unusually warm summer water temperatures during 2006 and 2008 in a northern California river, outbreaks of the parasitic copepod Lernaea cyprinacea, and malformations in tadpoles and young of the year Foothill Yellow-legged

Sarah J. Kupferberg; Alessandro Catenazzi; Kevin Lunde; Amy J. Lind; Wendy J. Palen

2009-01-01

424

Effect of Medicaid Disease Management Programs on Emergency Admissions and Inpatient Costs  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the impact of state Medicaid diabetes disease management programs on emergency admissions and inpatient costs. Data National InPatient Sample sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Project for the years from 2000 to 2008 using 18 states. Study Design A difference-in-difference methodology compares costs and number of emergency admissions for Washington, Texas, and Georgia, which implemented disease management programs between 2000 and 2008, to states that did not undergo the transition to managed care (N = 103). Data Extraction Costs and emergency admissions were extracted for diabetic Medicaid enrollees diagnosed in the reform and non-reform states and collapsed into state and year cells. Principal Findings In the three treatment states, the implementation of disease management programs did not have statistically significant impacts on the outcome variables when compared to the control states. Conclusions States that implemented disease management programs did not achieve improvements in costs or the number of emergency of admissions; thus, these programs do not appear to be an effective way to reduce the burden of this chronic disease. PMID:23278435

Conti, Matthew S

2013-01-01

425

Microsatellite loci-based distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes from Chilean chronic Chagas disease patients and Triatoma infestans is concordant with a specific host-parasite association hypothesis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate if there is specific host-parasite association in Chilean populations of Trypanosoma cruzi. For this purpose, two groups of parasites were analyzed, one from chronic chagasic patients, and the other from Triatoma infestans triatomines in three regions of the country. The first group consisted of four types of samples: parasites from peripheral blood of non-cardiopathic T. cruzi infected patients (NB); parasites from their corresponding xenodiagnosis (NX); parasites from peripheral blood of T. cruzi infected cardiopathic patients (CB) and parasites from their xenodiagnostics (CX). The T. infestans sample in turn was from three regions: III, V and M (Metropolitan). The genetic differentiation by the Fisher exact method, the lineage distribution of the samples, the molecular phylogeny and the frequency of multiclonality were analysed. The results show that not only are the groups of T. cruzi clones from Chagas disease patients and vectors genetically differentiated, but also all the sub-groups (NB, NX, CB and CX) from the III, V and M regions. The analysis of lineage distribution was concordant with the above results, because significant differences among the percentages of TcI, TcIII and hybrids (TcV or TcVI) were observed. The phylogenetic reconstruction with these Chilean T. cruzi samples was coherent with the above results because the four chagasic samples clustered together in a node with high bootstrap support, whereas the three triatomine samples (III, V and M) were located apart from that node. The topology of the tree including published T. cruzi clones and isolates was concordant with the known topology, which confirmed that the results presented here are correct and are not biased by experimental error. Taken together the results presented here are concordant with a specific host-parasite association between some Chilean T. cruzi populations. PMID:23666648

Venegas, Juan; Daz, Felipe; Rojas, Tamara; Miranda, Sandra; Jercic, M I; Gonzlez, Christian; Cooepn, William; Vargas, Alex; Pichuantes, Sergio; Gajardo, Marta; Rodrguez, Jorge; Snchez, Gittith

2013-06-01

426

Heterogeneity in hotspots: spatio-temporal patterns in neglected parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recognized by the WHO as 'Neglected Diseases'. Minimal attention has been paid to the spatial and temporal distribution of disease incidence patterns. Using disease notification data, we detected spatio-temporal clusters of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis across three time periods: (i) 1997-2000, (ii) 2001-2004, (iii) 2005-2008. There was substantial variation in the geographical location and timing of recurrent cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis clusters. Statistically significant (P < 005) giardiasis clusters tended to occur in predominantly urban areas with little apparent seasonal influence, while statistically significant cryptosporidiosis clusters were detected in spring, in areas with high livestock land use. The location and timing of cryptosporidiosis clusters suggest an influence of livestock production practices, while urban exposures and host behaviour are likely to influence giardiasis clusters. This approach provides a resource-efficient method for public health authorities to prioritize future research needs and areas for intervention. PMID:24819745

Lal, A; Hales, S

2015-02-01

427

Emerging significance of NLRs in inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Pattern recognition receptors are essential mediators of host defense and inflammation in the gastrointestinal system. Recent data have revealed that toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) function to maintain homeostasis between the host microbiome and mucosal immunity. The NLR proteins are a diverse class of cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors. In humans, only about half of the identified NLRs have been adequately characterized. The majority of well-characterized NLRs participate in the formation of a multiprotein complex, termed the inflammasome, which is responsible for the maturation of interleukin-1? and interleukin-18. However, recent observations have also uncovered the presence of a novel subgroup of NLRs that function as positive or negative regulators of inflammation through modulating critical signaling pathways, including NF-?B. Dysregulation of specific NLRs from both proinflammatory and inhibitory subgroups have been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in genetically susceptible human populations. Our own preliminary retrospective data mining efforts have identified a diverse range of NLRs that are significantly altered at the messenger RNA level in colons from patients with IBD. Likewise, studies using genetically modified mouse strains have revealed that multiple NLR family members have the potential to dramatically modulate the immune response during IBD. Targeting NLR signaling represents a promising and novel therapeutic strategy. However, significant effort is necessary to translate the current understanding of NLR biology into effective therapies. PMID:25153506

Davis, Beckley K; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Eden, Kristin; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Allen, Irving C

2014-12-01

428

An Emerging Mycoplasma Associated with Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Infection and Disease  

PubMed Central

Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as Mnola. In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii for this potential new pathogen. PMID:25337710

Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J. Paul; Glascock, Abigail L.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Buck, Gregory A.

2014-01-01

429

Rickettsioses as paradigms of new or emerging infectious diseases.  

PubMed Central

Rickettsioses are caused by species of Rickettsia, a genus comprising organisms characterized by their strictly intracellular location and their association with arthropods. Rickettsia species are difficult to cultivate in vitro and exhibit strong serological cross-reactions with each other. These technical difficulties long prohibited a detailed study of the rickettsiae, and it is only following the recent introduction of novel laboratory methods that progress in this field has been possible. In this review, we discuss the impact that these practical innovations have had on the study of rickettsiae. Prior to 1986, only eight rickettsioses were clinically recognized; however, in the last 10 years, an additional six have been discovered. We describe the different steps that resulted in the description of each new rickettsiosis and discuss the influence of factors as diverse as physicians' curiosity and the adoption of molecular biology-based identification in helping to recognize these new infections. We also assess the pathogenic potential of rickettsial strains that to date have been associated only with arthropods, and we discuss diseases of unknown etiology that may be rickettsioses. PMID:9336669

Raoult, D; Roux, V

1997-01-01

430

The syntaxin 31-induced gene, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1), functions in Glycine max defense to the root parasite Heterodera glycines.  

PubMed

Experiments show the membrane fusion genes ? soluble NSF attachment protein (?-SNAP) and syntaxin 31 (Gm-SYP38) contribute to the ability of Glycine max to defend itself from infection by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Accompanying their expression is the transcriptional activation of the defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) that function in salicylic acid (SA) signaling. These results implicate the added involvement of the antiapoptotic, environmental response gene LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) in defense. Roots engineered to overexpress the G. max defense genes Gm-?-SNAP, SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BOTRYTIS INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced Gm-LSD1 (Gm-LSD1-2) transcriptional activity. In reciprocal experiments, roots engineered to overexpress Gm-LSD1-2 in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced levels of SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BIK1 and XTH, but not ?-SNAP prior to infection. In tests examining the role of Gm-LSD1-2 in defense, its overexpression results in ?52 to 68% reduction in nematode parasitism. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) of Gm-LSD1-2 in the resistant genotype G. max[Peking/PI 548402] results in an 3.24-10.42 fold increased ability of H. glycines to parasitize. The results identify that Gm-LSD1-2 functions in the defense response of G. max to H. glycines parasitism. It is proposed that LSD1, as an antiapoptotic protein, may establish an environment whereby the protected, living plant cell could secrete materials in the vicinity of the parasitizing nematode to disarm it. After the targeted incapacitation of the nematode the parasitized cell succumbs to its targeted demise as the infected root region is becoming fortified. PMID:25530246

Pant, Shankar R; Krishnavajhala, Aparna; McNeece, Brant T; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P

2015-01-01