The scourge of emerging parasitic diseases (e.g., urinary schistosomiasis, ascariasis, malaria, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trachoma, trichiuriasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, sleeping sickness, filariasis) causes tremendous pain, suffering, and eventually death in tropical African communities. Patterns of transmission of these emerging…
Onwuliri, Celestine O. E.; Anosike, Jude C.; Oguoma, Chibuzor; Onwuliri, Viola A.; Nwoke, Betram E. B.; Dozie, Ikechukwu, N. S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.
Important drivers for emergence of infectious disease in wildlife include changes in the environment, shrinking habitats or concentration of wildlife, and movement of people, animals, pathogens, or vectors. In this paper we present three case-studies of emerging parasitic infections and diseases in ungulates in the Canadian north. First we discuss climate warming as an important driver for the emergence of disease associated with Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, a nematode lungworm of muskoxen. Then we examine how Protostrongylus stilesi, the sheep lungworm, emerged (or re-emerged) in muskoxen after re-introduction of this host into its historical range made it sympatric with Dall's sheep. Finally, we consider Teladorsagia boreoarcticus, a newly described and common abomasal nematode of muskoxen that is emerging as a disease-causing parasite and may be an important regulator for muskox populations on Banks Island, Northwest Territories. These and other arctic host-parasite systems are exquisitely tuned and constrained by a harsh and highly seasonal environment. The dynamics of these systems will be impacted by climate change and other ecological disruptions. Baseline knowledge of parasite biodiversity and parasite and host ecology, together with predictive models and long-term monitoring programs, are essential for anticipating and detecting altered patterns of host range, geographic distribution, and the emergence of parasitic infections and diseases. PMID:21680491
Kutz, Susan J; Hoberg, Eric P; Nagy, John; Polley, Lydden; Elkin, Brett
Cutaneous amebiasis is the least common clinical form of human amebiasis in Mexico, sexual amebiasis was only occasionally observed before the late 1980s. However, in the last few decades, most of the documented cases of cutaneous amebiasis from around the world are sexually transmitted. We present two cases of sexually transmitted genital amebiasis. The molecular characterization of the Entamoeba species in the affected tissues underlines the importance of an etiological diagnosis using specific and sensitive techniques that avoid the rapid destruction of tissues and the irreversible sequelae to the anatomy and function of the affected organs. In addition, for those interested in the study of the human-amoebic disease relationship and its epidemiology, the detection of a new, mixed infection in an invasive case of amebiasis reveals new perspectives in the study of the extraordinarily complex host-parasite relationship in amebiasis.
Moran, Patricia; Rojas, Liliana; Cerritos, Rene; Zermeno, Valeria; Valadez, Alicia; de Oca, Griselda Montes; Reyes, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez, Enrique; Partida, Oswaldo; Hernandez, Eric; Nieves, Miriam; Portillo, Tobias; Gudino, Marco; Ramiro, Manuel; Ximenez, Cecilia
Orchitophrya stellarum is a holotrich ciliate that facultatively parasitizes and castrates male asteriid sea stars. We discovered a morphologically similar ciliate in testes of an asterinid sea star, the northeastern Pacific bat star Patiria miniata (Brandt, 1835). This parasite may represent a threat to Canadian populations of this iconic sea star. Confirmation that the parasite is O. stellarum would indicate a considerable host range expansion, and suggest that O. stellarum is a generalist sea star pathogen. PMID:18924382
Sunday, J; Raeburn, L; Hart, M W
In this review on serodiagnosis of parasitic diseases, antibody detection, antigen detection, use of monoclonal antibodies in parasitic serodiagnosis, molecular biological technology, and skin tests are discussed. The focus at the Centers for Disease Control on developing improved antigens, a truly quantitative FAST-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the very specific immunoblot assays for antibody detection is highlighted. The last two assays are suitable for field studies. Identification of patient response in terms of immunoglobulin class or immunoglobulin G subclass isotypes or both is discussed. Immunoglobulin isotypes may asist in defining the stage of some diseases. In other instances, use of a particular anti-isotype conjugate may increase the specificity of the assay. Monoclonal antibodies have played important roles in antigen purification and identification, in competitive antibody assays with increased sensitivity and specificity, and in assays for antigen detection in serum, body fluids, or excreta. Molecular biological technology has allowed significant advances in the production of defined parasitic serodiagnostic antigens.
Maddison, S E
Fatalities caused by parasitic infections often occur as a result of tissue injury that results from a form of host-cell death known as apoptosis. However, instead of being pathogenic, parasite-induced apoptosis may facilitate host survival. Consequently, it is of utmost importance to decipher and understand the process and the role of apoptosis induced or controlled by parasites in humans. Despite this, few studies provide definitive knowledge of parasite-induced host-cell apoptosis. Here, the focus is on a consideration of host-cell apoptosis as either a pathogenic feature or as a factor enabling parasite survival and development. Cell death by apoptotic-like mechanisms could be described as a ride to death with a return ticket, as initiation of the pathway may be reversed, with the potential that it could be manipulated for therapeutic purposes. The management of host-cell apoptosis could thus be an adjunctive factor for parasitic disease treatment. Evidence that the apoptotic process could be reversed by anti-apoptotic drugs has recently been obtained, leading to the possibility of host-cell rescue after injury. An important issue will be to predict the beneficial or deleterious effects of controlling human cell death by apoptotic-like mechanisms during parasitic diseases.
We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a
Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare
Malaria is the most important parasitic disease with global concern. Plasmodium knowlesi recently has emerged from its natural simian host as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, it has been added as the fifth human Plasmodium specie which is widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Recent developments of new molecular tools enhanced our understanding about the key features of this malaria parasite. Here, we review some of the ways in which molecular approaches might be used for epidemiology of P. knowlesi and finally lead to an efficient control of malaria.
Hakimi, Hassan; Kawai, Satoru; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro
Malaria is the most important parasitic disease with global concern. Plasmodium knowlesi recently has emerged from its natural simian host as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, it has been added as the fifth human Plasmodium specie which is widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Recent developments of new molecular tools enhanced our understanding about the key features of this malaria parasite. Here, we review some of the ways in which molecular approaches might be used for epidemiology of P. knowlesi and finally lead to an efficient control of malaria. PMID:24754022
Hakimi, Hassan; Kawai, Satoru; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro
We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.
Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.
Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites.
Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubackova, Petra; Scholz, Tomas
Standard textbooks discuss parasitic disease according to specific organisms. In contrast, patients with parasitic infections present to physicians with a variety of clinical manifestations that may involve any of several organ systems and that often mimic nonparasitic diseases. A syndromic approach to the clinical situation may help the physician in considering the most important parasitic agents. Many parasitic infections can be acquired in temperate climates. While often considered tropical or exotic, other parasitic diseases are now seen more frequently in developed countries because of immigration and increased world travel. In this review the clinical syndromes associated with common parasitic diseases in North America are discussed, with an emphasis on risk factors and diagnosis of specific infections.
Shafran, Stephen D.; Chow, Anthony W.
This article reviews the characteristic imaging appearances of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system, including cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, cystic echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, amebiasis, malariasis, sparganosis, paragonimiasis, and American and African trypanosomiases. Routine precontrast and postcontrast MR imaging helps in localization, characterization, delineation of extension, and follow-up of the parasitic lesions. Moreover, recently developed tools, such as diffusion, perfusion, and MR spectroscopy, help to differentiate parasitic diseases of the central nervous system from simulating lesions. Combining imaging findings with geographic prevalence, clinical history, and serologic tests is required for diagnosis of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:22032501
Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Watcharakorn, Arvemas; Castillo, Mauricio
There is growing concern about the threats facing many pollinator populations. Emergent diseases are one of the major threats to biodiversity and a microsporidian parasite, Nosema ceranae, has recently jumped host from the Asian to the Western honeybee, spreading rapidly worldwide, and contributing to dramatic colony losses. Bumblebees are ecologically and economically important pollinators of conservation concern, which are likely exposed to N. ceranae by sharing flowers with honeybees. Whilst a further intergeneric jump by N. ceranae to infect bumblebees would be potentially serious, its capacity to do this is unknown. Here we investigate the prevalence of N. ceranae in wild bumblebees in the UK and determine the infectivity of the parasite under controlled conditions. We found N. ceranae in all seven wild bumblebee species sampled, and at multiple sites, with many of the bees having spores from this parasite in their guts. When we fed N. ceranae spores to bumblebees under controlled conditions, we confirmed that the parasite can infect bumblebees. Infections spread from the midgut to other tissues, reduced bumblebee survival by 48% and had sub-lethal effects on behaviour. Although spore production appeared lower in bumblebees than in honeybees, virulence was greater. The parasite N. ceranae therefore represents a real and emerging threat to bumblebees, with the potential to have devastating consequences for their already vulnerable populations. PMID:23816821
Graystock, Peter; Yates, Kathryn; Darvill, Ben; Goulson, Dave; Hughes, William O H
Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized.
Lv, Shan; Tian, Li-Guang; Liu, Qin; Qian, Men-Bao; Fu, Qing; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Jia-Xu; Yang, Guo-Jing; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
Summary Antiparasitic drugs have been used successfully to control parasitic diseases in animals for many years, as they are safe, cheap and effective against a broad spectrum of parasites. One drawback of this success appears to be the emergence of drug resistance in many target parasites. Moreover, issues of residues in the food chain and environment have arisen, which threaten
J. Vercruysse; T. P. M. Schetters; D. P. Knox; P. Willadsen; E. Claerebout
A review of the life history of Plasmodium malariae, the quartan malaria parasite of humans, is presented. Much of the information is based on data obtained from induced infections in humans who were given malaria therapy for the treatment of neurosyphilis between 1940 and 1963. Prepatent periods (i.e., the time until the first day of parasite detection) fever episodes, and maximum parasitemias as a result of infection with P. malariae were obtained and are presented. Experimental and known vectors of the parasite are also discussed. Splenectomized chimpanzees and New World monkeys are readily infected and serve as sources of parasites and antigens for diagnostic and molecular studies. South American monkeys are naturally infected with a parasite known as Plasmodium brasilianum. This parasite appears to be P. malariae that has adapted from humans to grow in monkeys, probably within the last 500 years. Infection with P. malariae is associated with the production of immune complexes in the kidneys and the associated nephrotic syndrome. The essential lesions are a thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and endocapillary cell proliferation. Studies of monkeys infected with P. malariae indicate the same pathology as that demonstrated in humans.
Collins, William E.; Jeffery, Geoffrey M.
\\u000a Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are characterized by a new or an increased occurrence within the last few decades. They\\u000a include the following categories Emerging diagnosis of infectious diseases: old diseases that are newly classified as infectious\\u000a diseases because of the discovery of a responsible infectious agent.
Thomas Löscher; Luise Prüfer-Krämer
Parasitic diseases have an enormous health, social and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 1.1 million combined deaths annually. The global burden of these diseases is exacerbated by the lack of licensed vaccines, making safe and effective drugs vital to their prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, where drugs are available, their usefulness is being increasingly threatened by parasite drug resistance. The need for new drugs drives antiparasitic drug discovery research globally and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. In this review we discuss one of these approaches, drug repurposing or repositioning, with a focus on major human parasitic protozoan diseases such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and leishmaniasis. PMID:25057459
Andrews, Katherine T; Fisher, Gillian; Skinner-Adams, Tina S
Parasitic diseases have an enormous health, social and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 1.1 million combined deaths annually. The global burden of these diseases is exacerbated by the lack of licensed vaccines, making safe and effective drugs vital to their prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, where drugs are available, their usefulness is being increasingly threatened by parasite drug resistance. The need for new drugs drives antiparasitic drug discovery research globally and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. In this review we discuss one of these approaches, drug repurposing or repositioning, with a focus on major human parasitic protozoan diseases such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and leishmaniasis.
Andrews, Katherine T.; Fisher, Gillian; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.
Human babesiosis is an important emerging tick-borne disease. Babesia divergens, a parasite of cattle, has been implicated as the most common agent of human babesiosis in Europe, causing severe disease in splenectomized individuals. In the US, Babesia microti, a babesial parasite of small mammals, has been the cause of over 300 cases of human babesiosis since 1969, resulting in mild
A. M. Kjemtrup; P. A. Conrad
Humans are infected by four recognized species of malaria parasites. The last of these to be recognized and described is Plasmodium ovale. Like the other malaria parasites of primates, this parasite is only transmitted via the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. The prepatent period in the human ranges from 12 to 20 days. Some forms in the liver have delayed development, and relapse may occur after periods of up to 4 years after infection. The developmental cycle in the blood lasts approximately 49 h. An examination of records from induced infections indicated that there were an average of 10.3 fever episodes of ?101°F and 4.5 fever episodes of ?104°F. Mean maximum parasite levels were 6,944/?l for sporozoite-induced infections and 7,310/?l for trophozoite-induced infections. Exoerythrocytic stages have been demonstrated in the liver of humans, chimpanzees, and Saimiri monkeys following injection of sporozoites. Many different Anopheles species have been shown to be susceptible to infection with P. ovale, including A. gambiae, A. atroparvus, A. dirus, A. freeborni, A. albimanus, A. quadrimaculatus, A. stephensi, A. maculatus, A. subpictus, and A. farauti. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed to detect mosquitoes infected with P. ovale using a monoclonal antibody directed against the circumsporozoite protein. Plasmodium ovale is primarily distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. It has also been reported from numerous islands in the western Pacific. In more recent years, there have been reports of its distribution on the Asian mainland. Whether or not it will become a major public health problem there remains to be seen. The diagnosis of P. ovale is based primarily on the characteristics of the blood stages and its differentiation from P. vivax. The sometimes elliptical shape of the infected erythrocyte is often diagnostic when combined with other, subtler differences in morphology. The advent of molecular techniques, primarily PCR, has made diagnostic confirmation possible. The development of techniques for the long-term frozen preservation of malaria parasites has allowed the development diagnostic reference standards for P. ovale. Infections in chimpanzees are used to provide reference and diagnostic material for serologic and molecular studies because this parasite has not been shown to develop in other nonhuman primates, nor has it adapted to in vitro culture. There is no evidence to suggest that P. ovale is closely related phylogenetically to any other of the primate malaria parasites that have been examined.
Collins, William E.; Jeffery, Geoffrey M.
The North is a frontier for exploration of emerging infectious diseases and the large-scale drivers influencing distribution, host associations, and evolution of pathogens among persons, domestic animals, and wildlife. Leading into the International Polar Year 2007–2008, we outline approaches, protocols, and empirical models derived from a decade of integrated research on northern host–parasite systems. Investigations of emerging infectious diseases associated with parasites in northern wildlife involved a network of multidisciplinary collaborators and incorporated geographic surveys, archival collections, historical foundations for diversity, and laboratory and field studies exploring the interface for hosts, parasites, and the environment. In this system, emergence of parasitic disease was linked to geographic expansion, host switching, resurgence due to climate change, and newly recognized parasite species. Such integrative approaches serve as cornerstones for detection, prediction, and potential mitigation of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and persons in the North and elsewhere under a changing global climate.
Polley, Lydden; Jenkins, Emily J.; Kutz, Susan J.; Veitch, Alasdair M.; Elkin, Brett T.
Microbial pathogens discovered as aetiological agents of human disease over the last 25 years are reviewed. Strengthening of laboratory and public health surveillance is of paramount importance for early detection and management of emerging infectious diseases.
The definition of "emerging" infectious diseases includes those diseases "whose incidences in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." The journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases continues to be an invaluable resource for public health professionals, scholars, and others. On the journal's homepage, users can read over the current issue and take a look at all of the articles and various commentaries contained within. Visitors can also peruse the archive, which dates back to the journal's first issue in 1995. As with many online journals, visitors can sign up to receive their RSS feed and they even have a podcast archive. The podcasts are a nice bonus, and they include programs like "Strategies For Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries" and "The Mystery of Increased Hospitalization of Elderly Patients".
In human history, numerous infectious diseases have emerged and re-emerged. Aside from many others, the so-called 'exotic' agents in particular are a threat to our public health systems due to limited experience in case management and lack of appropriate resources. Many of these agents are zoonotic in origin and transmitted from animals to man either directly or via vectors. The
Heinz Feldmann; Markus Czub; Steven Jones; Daryl Dick; Michael Garbutt; Allen Grolla; Harvey Artsob
Parasitic diseases remain as a major public health problem worldwide, not only based on their historically high morbidity and mortality rates, but also because risk factors associated with their transmission are increasing. Laboratory diagnosis and particularly immunodiagnosis is a basic tool for the demonstration, clinical management and control of these infections. Classically, the serological tests for the detection of antibodies or antigens are based on the use of crude and purified antigens. Synthetic peptides have opened a new field and perspectives, as the source of pure epitopes and molecules for diagnosis of malaria, Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, hidatidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis based on the detection of antibodies and circulating antigens. Herein, are critically reviewed the relevant advances and applications of the synthetic peptides on immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases. A variety of sequences, constructs (monomers, polymers, MAPs), immunological methods and samples have been used, demonstrating their diagnostic potential. However, in most parasitic infections it is necessary to use more than a single peptide in order to avoid the genetic restriction against certain epitopes, as well as to test them in well characteized groups of patients, in order to confirm their sensitivity and specificity. The concept of multidiagnosis with synthetic peptides, using a novel multi-dot blot assay is introduced. Finally, the chemical imitation of antigens, offers a tremendous posibilities in the diagnosis of parasitic infections in developing countries since this strategy is cheaper, simpler, reproducible, useful for large scale testing and in most cases, specific and sensitive. PMID:14529537
Noya, O; Patarroyo, M E; Guzmán, F; Alarcón de Noya, B
As the scope of international travel expands, an increasing number of travelers are coming into contact with helminthic parasites rarely seen outside the tropics. As a result, the occurrence of Gnathostoma spinigerum infection leading to the clinical syndrome gnathostomiasis is increasing. In areas where Gnathostoma is not endemic, few clinicians are familiar with this disease. To highlight this underdiagnosed parasitic infection, we describe a case series of patients with gnathostomiasis who were treated during a 12-month period at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London.
Moore, David A.J.; McCrodden, Janice; Dekumyoy, Paron
Ecologists have recently begun to acknowledge the importance of disease and parasites in the dynamics of populations. Diseases and parasites have probably been responsible for a number of extinctions on islands and on large land masses, but the problem has only been identified in retrospect. In contrast, endemic pathogens and parasites may operate as keystone species, playing a crucial role
Hamish McCallum; Andy Dobson
Changing eating habits, population growth and movements, global trade of foodstuff, changes in food production systems, climate change, increased awareness and better diagnostic tools are some of the main drivers affecting the emergence or re-emergence of many foodborne parasitic diseases in recent years. In particular, the increasing demand for exotic and raw food is one of the reasons why reports of foodborne infections, and especially waterborne parasitosis, have increased in the last years. Moreover increasing global demand for protein of animal origin has led to certain farming practices (e.g. aquaculture) increasing in emerging or developing countries, where health monitoring may not be sufficiently implemented. Therefore, high quality epidemiological data are needed which together with biological, economic, social and cultural variables should be taken into account when setting control programs for these increasingly popular production systems in emerging economies. This review focuses on the dietary, social, economic and environmental changes that may cause an increase in human exposure to foodborne parasites. Some examples illustrating these new epidemiological dynamics of transmission foodborne parasitic disease are presented. PMID:21835548
Broglia, A; Kapel, C
Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control.
Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.
Rabies is a reemerging disease in China. The high incidence of rabies leads to numerous concerns: a potential carrier-dog phenomenon, undocumented transmission of rabies virus from wildlife to dogs, counterfeit vaccines, vaccine mismatching, and seroconve...
Several trends in clinical medicine have converged recently and placed intestinal protozoan infections in a position of increasing importance to health professionals. These trends include the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections that cause the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and result in associated opportunistic infections. The increasing use of powerful chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive agents to prevent rejection of transplanted tissues in human allograft recipients has predisposed these patients to intestinal parasitic infections, which often become chronic and debilitating. Large numbers of people engage in business, philanthropic work, and vacation travel on a worldwide basis. The number of susceptible, potential human hosts for parasitic infections will continue to increase in the coming years. We reviewed 4 protozoan infections that have recently attracted the interest of clinicians, either because they are newly discovered or because they are increasingly prevalent. These infections include cryptosporidiosis and recently described infections due to Cyclospora species. The AIDS pandemic has also been associated with both the discovery and the rapid emergence of human microsporidiosis. Isospora belli has received renewed attention because of chronic infections now observed in HIV-infected hosts. PMID:8055239
Topazian, M; Bia, F J
Forecasts of emerging zoonoses neglect the threat alien species pose in disease transmission to humans. A review of alien parasites, hosts, and vectors introduced to Europe highlights the wide range of potential public health risks, the need for better surveillance and risk assessment, and major policy gaps in global preparedness. PMID:24862566
Hulme, Philip E
Parasitic diseases continue to have a devastating impact on human populations worldwide. Lack of effective treatments, the high cost of existing ones, and frequent emergence of resistance to these agents provide a strong argument for the development of novel therapies. Here we report the results of a hybrid approach designed to obtain a dual acting molecule that would demonstrate activity against a variety of parasitic targets. The antimalarial drug amodiaquine has been covalently joined with a nitric oxide-releasing furoxan to achieve multiple mechanisms of action. Using in vitro and ex vivo assays, the hybrid molecule shows activity against three parasites – Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.
Mott, Bryan T.; Cheng, Ken Chih-Chien; Guha, Rajarshi; Kommer, Valerie P.; Williams, David L.; Vermeire, Jon J.; Cappello, Michael; Maloney, David J.; Rai, Ganesha; Jadhav, Ajit; Simeonov, Anton; Inglese, James; Posner, Gary H.
Since their introduction as pets several decades ago, ferrets have become an increasingly popular household pet. Great strides have been made in improving their diet and understanding common diseases (eg, insulinoma, hyperadrenocorticism, lymphoma) that affect them. With the frequency with which these conditions are seen, it sometimes is easy to forget that ferrets can be affected by other diseases. Some of these diseases, such as cryptococcosis, are known, but may be increasing in incidence and range, whereas others, such as hypothyroidism and pure red cell aplasia, may be underrecognized or underreported. This review highlights new and emerging diseases not already well reviewed in the literature. PMID:23642872
Wyre, Nicole R; Michels, Dennis; Chen, Sue
Human and animal parasites are known since the most remote antiquity. Chinese and Egyptian documents from thousands of years ago refers to ticks, mosquitoes, louses, round and flat worms etc.. However, it is curious to observe that the relation between parasites and disease is relatively recent, dating from the turning of the 19th to the 20th century. This came with
Luiz Hildebrando; Pereira da Silva
Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests and that hyperparasites often castrate Ophiocordyceps. However, once fruiting bodies become sexually mature they appear robust. Such parasite life-history traits are consistent with iteroparity– a reproductive strategy rarely considered in fungi. We discuss how tropical habitats with high biodiversity of hyperparasites and high spore mortality has likely been crucial for the evolution and maintenance of iteroparity in parasites with low dispersal potential.
Andersen, Sandra B.; Ferrari, Matthew; Evans, Harry C.; Elliot, Simon L.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Hughes, David P.
Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests and that hyperparasites often castrate Ophiocordyceps. However, once fruiting bodies become sexually mature they appear robust. Such parasite life-history traits are consistent with iteroparity--a reproductive strategy rarely considered in fungi. We discuss how tropical habitats with high biodiversity of hyperparasites and high spore mortality has likely been crucial for the evolution and maintenance of iteroparity in parasites with low dispersal potential. PMID:22567151
Andersen, Sandra B; Ferrari, Matthew; Evans, Harry C; Elliot, Simon L; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Hughes, David P
Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935). Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115) prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935). The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5%) at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29) of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112) frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be considered one of the luckiest parasites, because it has found an empty niche in Australia. It now flourishes in > 20 endemic and exotic frog species, but its consequences are yet to be fully understood.
Since the first case of strongyloidiasis reported in China in 1973, there have been 330 confirmed cases as of 2011. The present study conducted a meta-analysis on 106 cases for which detailed information on clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and outcome was available. Most (63%) cases were from the past decade. Immunocompromised patients and those given cortical hormones accounted for 68% of the cases, and case-fatality rate was 38%. General clinical symptoms included abdominal pain (53%), diarrhea (46%), fever (40%), and vomiting (39%). The parasite positivity rate in feces, sputum, and urine by microscopic diagnosis was 75%, 24%, and 8%, respectively, and gastrointestinal endoscopy or other biopsy detection rates were 17%. A lack of specific clinical manifestations makes early diagnosis and correct treatment difficult. Strongyloidiasis is an emerging disease in China, and public and clinical awareness needs to be raised to improve prevention and control.
Wang, Chunmei; Xu, Jiabao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Li, Juan; Yan, Guiyun; James, Anthony A.; Chen, Xiaoguang
Much is being said, often dramatically, about the potential hazards of parasitic diseases in Canada, but little or no attempt has been made to determine the true extent of the problem. Indigenous parasite pathogens are recognized in resident Canadians, and pathogens are acquired by travellers abroad or reported from immigrants. The role of each of these categories is important in the characterization of the problem of parasitic diseases in Canada. From data provided by provincial laboratories and hospitals it is estimated that 1 person in 1000 will spend 1 day per year in hospital because of intestinal parasites, and 1 in 100 each year will have a diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infection made from examination of a stool sample.
Croll, N. A.; Gyorkos, T. W.
Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Accurate information on the burden of FBDs is needed to inform policy makers and allocate appropriate resources for food safety control and intervention. Consequently, in 2006 the WHO launched an initiative to estimate the global burden of FBDs in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). This review gives an update of the progress on evaluating the burden of foodborne parasitic diseases that has been generated by this study. Results to date indicate that parasitic diseases that can be transmitted through food make a substantial contribution to the global burden of disease. PMID:24314578
Torgerson, Paul R; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Fčvre, Eric M; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Willingham, Arve Lee; Stein, Claudia
The point of view presented in this work is not that of the epidemiologist interested in the etiology of diseases and their specific effect on mortality rates; but rather the view of the demographer who attempts to establish the influence that diseases have on evolution and population dynamics. It is not until the 19th century that the 'unification microbienne' of the world is reached and one has clinical and statistical data on the major diseases. Consequently, it is not possible to have an exact demographic picture of infectious diseases in their emerging phase. To understand globally this effect one may create a conceptual framework capable of integrating all the aspects of mortality rates: genetic, socio-biological and human. The scheme proposed here allows for a description and at the same time an evaluation of a given historical situation, how a population achieves protection from lethal diseases and what are the factors determining receptivity or resistance to a disease. This approach serves to study the interdependent relations that link all elements involved in a given morbid process. PMID:7824687
Heterogeneity in parasite virulence is one of several factors that have been proposed to contribute to the wide spectrum of disease severity in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We use observed age-structured patterns of disease to define a population structure of P. falciparum, where the latter contains several independently transmitted antigenic types or \\
Sunetra Gupta; Adrian V. S. Hill; Dominic Kwiatkowski; Alice M. Greenwood; Brian M. Greenwood; Karen P. Day
Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387
Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F
The environmental route of transmission is important for many protozoan and helminth parasites, with water, soil and food being particularly significant. Both the potential for producing large numbers of transmissive stages and their environmental robustness, being able to survive in moist microclimates for prolonged periods of time, pose a persistent threat to public and veterinary health. The increased demands on
Theresa R. Slifko; Huw V. Smith; Joan B. Rose
In recent years, vector-borne parasitic and bacterial diseases have emerged or re-emerged in many geographical regions causing global health and economic problems that involve humans, livestock, companion animals and wild life. The ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases are affected by the interrelations between three major factors comprising the pathogen, the host (human, animal or vector) and the environment. Important drivers for the emergence and spread of vector-borne parasites include habitat changes, alterations in water storage and irrigation habits, atmospheric and climate changes, immunosuppression by HIV, pollution, development of insecticide and drug resistance, globalization and the significant increase in international trade, tourism and travel. War and civil unrest, and governmental or global management failure are also major contributors to the spread of infectious diseases. The improvement of epidemic understanding and planning together with the development of new diagnostic molecular techniques in the last few decades have allowed researchers to better diagnose and trace pathogens, their origin and routes of infection, and to develop preventive public health and intervention programs. Health care workers, physicians, veterinarians and biosecurity officers should play a key role in future prevention of vector-borne diseases. A coordinated global approach for the prevention of vector-borne diseases should be implemented by international organizations and governmental agencies in collaboration with research institutions. PMID:16126213
Harrus, S; Baneth, G
The most recent advancement in control of external organisms causing fish disease is the pond-treatment method. It is an improvement over the hand-dipping method because fish are not killed by handling, fewer men are needed to carry it out, and the pond itself is treated along with the fish. All external parasites are controlled by a treatment with formalin (diluted
Leonard N. Allison
Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis
Jonathan D. Mayera
Infectious diseases present a formidable threat to the world today. Not only are new infectious diseases emerging, but those presumed to be contained or eradicated are re-emerging. Developing nations, with the least resources to respond, bear the greatest burden of this threat. However, with the potential to spread rapidly and ubiquitously, infectious diseases present a significant risk to the health
Gilbert C. Kombe; Danielle M. Darrow
Emerging infectious diseases are the focus of increased attention and even alarm in the scholarly and popular literature. The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of older and previously recognized infectious diseases both in developing and developed country poses challenges for understanding the ecological web of causation, including social, economic, environmental and biological components. This paper is a synthesis
Jonathan D. Mayer
Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in confl ict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well
Michelle Gayer; Dominique Legros; Pierre Formenty; Maire A. Connolly
Infectious diseases are responsible for nearly half of all deaths in developing countries. The re-emergence of old diseases and drug-resistant pathogens is creating enormous public health challenges. New diseases have been and are being detected. This article suggests that if we act quickly widespread outbreak can be averted.
Michael M. O. Seipel
Intestinal parasitic diseases such as enterobiasis, giardiasis, and ascariasis are detected most frequently in Romania, but their importance is definitely surpassed by trichinellosis, cystic echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis. Malaria was common until its eradication in 1963, and only imported cases are reported nowadays. The aim of this review was to bring together essential data on the epidemiology and history of human parasitoses in Romania. Information on 43 parasitic diseases was collected from numerous sources, most of them unavailable abroad or inaccessible to the international scientific community. Over time, Romanian people of all ages have paid a significant tribute to the pathogenic influences exerted by the parasites. Sanitary and socio-economical consequences of the parasites diseases have great negative impact on the quality of life of affected individuals and the overall well-being of the population. Implementation of efficient public health measures and informative campaigns for the masses as well as changing the inadequate habits that are deeply rooted in the population are mandatory for cutting successfully this Gordian knot. PMID:21301873
Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana M; Marincu, Iosif; Iacobiciu, Ioan
This online article reports that researchers have sequenced the complete genome of one strain of Wolbachia pipientis and are gaining new insight into the biology and evolution of Wolbachia-host interactions. It discusses practical applications such as disease and pest control.
Bram, Lon; Scientist, Australian L.
Infectious diseases caused by parasites are a major threat for the entire mankind, especially in the tropics. More than 1 billion people world-wide are directly exposed to tropical parasites such as the causative agents of trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which represent a major health problem, particularly in impecunious areas. Unlike most antibiotics, there is no “general” antiparasitic drug available. Here, the selection of antiparasitic drugs varies between different organisms. Some of the currently available drugs are chemically de novo synthesized, however, the majority of drugs are derived from natural sources such as plants which have subsequently been chemically modified to warrant higher potency against these human pathogens. In this review article we will provide an overview of the current status of plant derived pharmaceuticals and their chemical modifications to target parasite-specific peculiarities in order to interfere with their proliferation in the human host.
Ndjonka, Dieudonne; Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Silber, Ariel M.; Liebau, Eva; Wrenger, Carsten
...Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section 168.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA Â§ 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites....
Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the late-third stage larvae of Gnathostoma spp. It is being seen with increasing frequency in countries where it is not endemic and should be regarded as another emerging imported disease. Previously, its foci of endemicity have been confined to Southeast Asia and Central and South America, but its geographical boundaries appear to be increasing, with recent reports of infection in tourists returning from southern Africa. It has a complex life cycle involving at least two intermediate hosts, with humans being accidental hosts in which the larvae cannot reach sexual maturity. The main risks for acquisition are consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish and geographical exposure. Infection results in initial nonspecific symptoms followed by cutaneous and/or visceral larva migrans, with the latter carrying high morbidity and mortality rates if there is central nervous system involvement. We review the literature and describe the epidemiology, life cycle, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gnathostomiasis.
Herman, Joanna S.; Chiodini, Peter L.
Currently, the infection with the hepatitis E virus represents the most frequent cause for acute hepatitis and jaundice in the world. According to WHO estimations, around two billion people, representing one third of the world's population, live in endemic areas for HEV and, therefore, are at risk of infection. In developed countries, the circulation of the virus in both human and animal (swine, boar, deer) sewage has been confirmed; however, the incidence rate is low compared to that of developing countries where outbreaks of acute hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route are originated, more frequently in the flooding season or after natural disasters, combined with deficient sanitary conditions. There are currently 4 known genotypes of HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 are isolated in all human epidemic outbreaks in developing countries, while genotypes 3 and 4 are isolated not only in humans but also in animals, in both developing and industrialized countries. These data support genotypes 3 and 4 having zoonotic nature. The diagnosis of this disease is based in the detection of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in blood serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent methods. However, the method that best confirms the diagnosis is the RT-PCR, which detects HEV RNA in blood serum and also provides the genotype. The clinical course is generally that of an acute hepatitis which in some cases may require hospitalization and that, in transplant patients or HIV infected individuals can become a chronic hepatitis. Furthermore, the virus constitutes an important risk for pregnant women. The hepatitis E can present a wide range of symptoms, from a subclinical case to chronic liver disease with extrahepatic manifestations. For this reason, the diagnostic is challenging if no differential diagnosis is included. There is no specific antiviral drug for hepatitis E, but satisfactory results have been observed in some patients treated with pegylated interferon alfa2a and/or ribavirin. This revision is an update of all the molecular, epidemiological, clinic and preventive knowledge on this emergent disease up to date. PMID:24434240
Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa
Indigenous Australians suffer significant disadvantage in health outcomes and have a life expectancy well below that of non-Indigenous Australians. Mortality rates of Indigenous Australians are higher than that of Indigenous populations in developed countries elsewhere in the world. A number of parasitic diseases which are uncommon in the rest of the Australian population contribute to the high burden of disease in many remote Indigenous communities. High rates of infection with enteric parasites such as Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris have been recorded and infection of the skin with the ecto-parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei is also a substantial problem. Secondary infection of scabies lesions, including with Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus, can produce serious sequelae such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Transmission of many parasites in many remote communities is facilitated by overcrowded living conditions and infrastructure problems which result in poor sanitation and hygiene. Improvements in environmental health conditions must accompany medical initiatives to achieve sustainable improvement in the health of Indigenous Australians. PMID:20412810
Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James S; Carapetis, Jonathan R
New and emerging infectious diseases affect humans, domestic animals, livestock and wildlife and can have a significant impact on health, trade and biodiversity. Of the emerging infectious diseases of humans, 75% are zoonotic, with wildlife being an increasingly important source of inter-species transmission. Recent animal health emergencies have highlighted the vulnerability of the livestock sector to the impact of infectious diseases and the associated risks to human health. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have resulted in enormous economic losses globally. On a global level, the human health sector lags behind the animal health sector in the assessment of potential threats, although substantive differences exist among countries in the state of national preparedness planning for emerging diseases. The lack of surveillance data on emerging zoonoses from many developing countries means that the burden of human, livestock and wildlife disease is underestimated and opportunities for control interventions thereby limited. In the context of emerging zoonoses, comprehensive risk assessments are needed to identify the animal-human and animal-animal interfaces where transmission of infectious agents occurs and the feasibility of risk reduction interventions. The impact of emerging diseases can be minimised through a well-prepared and strong public health system and similar systems developed by the livestock, wildlife and food safety sectors. National animal disease emergencies, especially those that spill over to affect human health, require a whole-of-government approach for effective disease containment. As it is highly likely that zoonoses and animal diseases with the potential to affect human health will continue to emerge, surveillance and response systems for emerging zoonotic diseases will need to be strengthened and maintained at national and international levels. Applied research, linked across the human, livestock and wildlife sectors, is needed to inform preparedness planning and the development of evidence-based approaches to zoonotic disease prevention and control. PMID:17848076
Human behaviour has been largely neglected in research on the parasitic diseases, in part because of the long-standing separation of the behavioural disciplines from the physical and biomedical sciences. Some of the reasons for the persistence of this ”intellectual discontinuity” are discussed. The paper is principally concerned with the prospects for greater use of the methods and orientations of the behavioural sciences in parasitic disease research and control programmes. Behavioural research tends to fall into two categories employing, on the one hand, survey research and epidemiological methods and, on the other, participant observation and interviewing in depth. These approaches are shown to be complementary—equally useful and necessary. Various categories of health-related behaviour and kinds of research objective are reviewed in the following sections. Special attention is given to psychosocial cost—benefit studies, to analyses of control sectors, and to the formulation of a control philosophy. Finally, some specific behavioural research needs are discussed for some of the parasitic diseases of priority in the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases—schistosomiasis, filariasis, American and African trypanosomiases, and malaria.
Dunn, Frederick L.
Parasitic and infectious diseases (PIDs) are a significant threat to human, livestock, and wildlife health and are changing\\u000a dramatically in the face of human-induced environmental changes such as those in climate and land use. In this article we\\u000a explore the little-studied but potentially important response of PIDs to another major environmental change, that in the global\\u000a nutrient cycles. Humans have
Valerie J. McKenzie; Alan R. Townsend
Emerging infectious diseases threaten a wide diversity of animals, and important questions remain concerning disease emergence\\u000a in socially structured populations. We developed a spatially explicit simulation model to investigate whether—and under what\\u000a conditions—disease-related mortality can impact rates of pathogen spread in populations of polygynous groups. Specifically,\\u000a we investigated whether pathogen-mediated dispersal (PMD) can occur when females disperse after the resident
Charles L. Nunn; Peter H. Thrall; Kelly Stewart; Alexander H. Harcourt
The study of how parasites adapt to new hosts is of great importance for understanding the emergence of new diseases. Here, we report a study of the anther smut disease on Gypsophila repens (Caryophyllaceae). In contrast to what is usually found on other host species, infected natural populations of G. repens are extremely rare. Moreover, symptoms of diseased plants are incomplete and highly variable over the time. These results suggest that the fungus infecting G. repens is a case of a parasite not capable of exploiting its host optimally. Molecular analyses of Microbotryum violaceum strains infecting this and other Caryophyllaceae revealed that this sub-optimal behaviour probably resulted from a recent host shift from the morphologically similar plant Petrorhagia saxifraga. With its exceptionally low virulence and prevalence, but apparent self-sustainability, the disease on G. repens may thus represent an interesting case study for investigating the conditions leading to adaptation of parasites on new hosts. PMID:16135124
López-Villavicencio, M; Enjalbert, J; Hood, M E; Shykoff, J A; Raquin, C; Giraud, T
Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24808250
Montgomery, Susan P; Starr, Michelle C; Cantey, Paul T; Edwards, Morven S; Meymandi, Sheba K
Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease.
Montgomery, Susan P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Cantey, Paul T.; Edwards, Morven S.; Meymandi, Sheba K.
Bacteria, viruses and parasites emerge or re-emerge in human populations as they cross the species barrier from animals to humans, or as they enter human populations through weakened public health systems. Viruses afford the most dramatic examples of emergence and re-emergence. Their potential to adapt to human hosts and the environment with relative ease, and to further evolve in virulence
Emergency endoscopy has to be regarded as a method of high diagnostic value. Based on the resulting therapeutic consequences and with allowance for the prerequisites and contraindications, emergency endoscopy in chronic liver diseases is to be considered a purposeful method. If endoscopic treatment possibilities in bleedings of the gastrointestinal tract continue to improve, the demonstration of an improvement in prognosis by emergency endoscopy seems to be merely a question of time. PMID:3878773
Truckenbrodt, J; Bosseckert, H; Jorke, D; Eitner, K; Fritze, C; Koppe, P; Gross, V
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the biology of this unusual parasite. PMID:21909270
Kikuchi, Taisei; Cotton, James A; Dalzell, Jonathan J; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; McVeigh, Paul; Takanashi, Takuma; Tsai, Isheng J; Assefa, Samuel A; Cock, Peter J A; Otto, Thomas Dan; Hunt, Martin; Reid, Adam J; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Yokoi, Toshiro; Larsson, Mattias C; Miwa, Johji; Maule, Aaron G; Sahashi, Norio; Jones, John T; Berriman, Matthew
In this article we discuss the steps taken by the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) to meet the health care needs of children with rare diseases and suggest possible directions for future endeavors for further improvement. We reviewed 23 reports and nine legislative documents related to pediatric rare diseases and public policy. We assessed the outcome measures of access and satisfaction with medical services by utilizing the surveys done by the European Organization for Rare Diseases -Eurordis (n = 5,963). Comparable surveys were not available in the US. Our analyses of the existing policies and surveys indicate multiple differences between the US and EU. While the US policies seem to be aimed at disease diagnosis and neonatal screening, EU legislators appear to be focusing on access to existing specialized care. However, both systems have struggled with effectively promoting new treatments. Also, while Eurordis surveys have evaluated areas such as the access to medical services, access to social services and satisfaction with the services received in Europe, there are no comparable surveys in the United States. We conclude that better tools are needed to measure the quality of care, needs-assessment and outcome of pediatric rare diseases in both the EU and US. We suggest a better assessment of areas such as access to primary and specialty care, legal advocacy, comfort-care, end-of-life care, social and financial services, psychological support and quality outcome-measures.
Bavisetty, Supriya; Grody, Wayne W.; Yazdani, Shahram
Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies.
Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan
In the Amazon Basin, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is enzootic, involving a variety of wild mammals and at least 10 of the 16 reported silvatic triatomine bug species. Human cases of Chagas disease are increasing, indicating that the disease may be emerging as a wider public health problem in the region: 38 cases from 1969 to 1992, and 167 in the
José Rodrigues Coura; Angela C. V. Junqueira; Octavio Fernandes; Sebastiao A. S. Valente; Michael A. Miles
The expanding genus Bartonella includes zoonotic and human-specific pathogens that can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations. A productive infection allowing bacterial transmission by blood-sucking arthropods is marked by an intraerythrocytic bacteremia that occurs exclu- sively in specific human or animal reservoir hosts. Incidental human infection by animal- adapted bartonellae can cause disease without evidence for erythrocyte parasitism. A
Ralf Schülein; Anja Seubert; Christian Gille; Christa Lanz; Yves Hansmann; Yves Piémont; Christoph Dehio
Dong-Eui-Bo-Kam is a medical book of Korean traditional medicine, which is of encyclopedic characteristics. Its contents imply almost every field of medicine. There are also descriptions of human parasites in this book under the title of 'Worms'. Worms described in the book are Sam-Shi-Choong, Ku-Choong (nine worms) and Oh-Jang-Choong (worms of five organs). Among these Sam-Shi-Choong are not real worms, but quite mythological ones which have been mentioned in the religious Taoism. It is well-known that Dong-Eui-Bo-Kam has Taoistic characteristics. We can verify this characteristics by the fact that it mentions Sam-Shi-Choong on the top of the title 'Worms'. Dominant pathologic theory in the traditional medicine is a kind of balance theory, which defines the healthy state as the harmonious equilibrium of body elements. On the contrary parasitic diseases suppose real agents as the causes of diseases. This point of view appeares to be quite different from traditional pathologic view. PMID:11618931
Yeo, I S
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of free-living wild animals can be classified into three major groups on the basis of key epizootiological criteria: (i) EIDs associated with ``spill-over'' from domestic animals to wildlife populations living in proximity; (ii) EIDs related directly to human intervention, via host or parasite translocations; and (iii) EIDs with no overt human or domestic animal involvement. These
Peter Daszak; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt
The most important viral disease of farmed deer and bison is malignant catarrhal fever. The other herpesviruses which have been isolated from these species are briefly described. Other viral agents that are recognised in these animals, including adenovirus, parapox, foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bovine virus diarrhoea, rotavirus and coronavirus, are also discussed. Ectoparasites of importance in this group in various parts of the world include a variety of ticks, as well as lice, keds, Oestridae, mange mites and fire ants. Helminth parasites include liver flukes (Fascioloides and Fasciola), gastrointestinal nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae, pulmonary lungworms of the genus Dictyocaulus and extra-pulmonary lungworms of the family Protostrongylidae. Chronic wasting disease is principally important in North America, where the disease occurs in wild cervids in a limited area and has been reported in farmed deer in a small number of states in the United States of America and one province in Canada. These diseases are summarised in terms of their classification, epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and control. PMID:11974612
Haigh, J C; Mackintosh, C; Griffin, F
One of the most fatal diseases encountered by mankind so far is Ebola fever. Ebola fever is caused by a highly pathogenic virus from the Filoviridae family which is found in nature in four different sub-types which differ among others also by their pathogenicity for man. The hitherto detected EBO sub-types are stable do not change in the course of an epidemic nor in the course of the patient's illness, nor during passage of the virus from one subject to another. The author presents a historical review of epidemics, nosocomial and laboratory infections, spread and epizoonosis caused by the Ebola virus. The author presents a detailed clinical picture describing the frequency and evolution of different clinical symptoms and signs based on the observation of 103 patients infected with the Ebola virus in Kikwit, Zaire (nowadays Democratic Republic of Congo) in 1995. In the laboratory diagnosis individual tests are mentioned assessing the presence of the virus, viral antigens and antibodies, incl. the most recent immunohistochemical test. The author mentions the problem of patient care and his therapy, incl. available antiviral drugs and passive immunotherapy. He also discusses the possibility and probability of spread of the Ebola virus into our environment. He mentions principles for transport of subjects with suspected disease, demands for their strict isolation and maximum protection of the attending staff incl. barrier nursing technique. The author discusses also principles of epidemiological work, detection and isolation of sources, identification and follow up of contacts and epidemiological supervision of affected areas. Past epidemics made it possible to assemble many scientific findings and practical experience. These make it possible to cope nowadays with any attack of the Ebola virus not only in areas of its epizootic occurrence. PMID:11329728
Aim To gain deeper insight into the seroprevalence of brucellosis, which remains a zoonotic disease of worldwide public health concern, by reviewing studies from countries including North Africa, the Middle East, and India. Methods Studies on brucellosis performed in countries that are neighbors or important trading partners of the European Union and on trade animals and their products were analyzed. We reviewed 37 seroprevalence studies on brucellosis published from 1948 to 2009 retrieved from PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect. Results The set of studies was heterogeneous in the number of samples and laboratory tests used. We included studies from Algeria (n?=?1), Egypt (n?=?7), India (n?=?3), Iran (n?=?3), Iraq (n?=?1), Jordan (n?=?5), Libya (n?=?3), Saudi Arabia (n?=?3), Syria (n?=?1), Turkey (n?=?5), and Yemen (n?=?2). The total number of animals in these studies was 116?317 (cattle 75?375; buffalo 9644; sheep 10?550; goats 14?447; camels 6301). The prevalence of brucellosis in different animal species varied widely. Representative surveillance data have not recently been published in any of the countries. Conclusions Wars in the Middle East, insufficient preventive measures, the lack of adequate control programs in some countries, as well as uncontrolled animal transportation through “open” borders increased the risk that brucellosis will spread in some regions. New seroprevalence data are needed urgently to evaluate the current situation and for continuous monitoring of necessary control programs.
Gwida, Mayada; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Melzer, Falk; Rosler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich; Tomaso, Herbert
Bovine besnoitiosis, which is caused by the cyst-forming apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti, is a chronic and debilitating vector-borne disease characterized by both cutaneous and systemic manifestations. In Europe, this parasitic disease appeared in a few restricted areas in France and Portugal since the first recorded cases in the beginning of the 20th century. However, at present, the disease is considered to be re-emerging by the European Food Safety Authority due to an increased number of cases and the geographic expansion of besnoitiosis into cattle herds in several European countries. In this review, we will provide an update of the epidemiology and impact of B. besnoiti infection. Strategies to control this parasitic disease will also be discussed. PMID:23830145
Alvarez-García, Gema; Frey, Caroline F; Mora, Luis Miguel Ortega; Schares, Gereon
The worldwide spread of diseases is considered a major threat to biodiversity and a possible driver of the decline of pollinator populations, particularly when novel species or strains of parasites emerge. Previous studies have suggested that populations of introduced European honeybee (Apis mellifera) and bumblebee species (Bombus terrestris and Bombus ruderatus) in Argentina share the neogregarine parasite Apicystis bombi with the native bumblebee (Bombus dahlbomii). In this study we investigated whether A. bombi is acting as an emergent parasite in the non-native populations. Specifically, we asked whether A. bombi, recently identified in Argentina, was introduced by European, non-native bees. Using ITS1 and ITS2 to assess the parasite’s intraspecific genetic variation in bees from Argentina and Europe, we found a largely unstructured parasite population, with only 15% of the genetic variation being explained by geographic location. The most abundant haplotype in Argentina (found in all 9 specimens of non-native species) was identical to the most abundant haplotype in Europe (found in 6 out of 8 specimens). Similarly, there was no evidence of structuring by host species, with this factor explaining only 17% of the genetic variation. Interestingly, parasites in native Bombus ephippiatus from Mexico were genetically distant from the Argentine and European samples, suggesting that sufficient variability does exist in the ITS region to identify continent-level genetic structure in the parasite. Thus, the data suggest that A. bombi from Argentina and Europe share a common, relatively recent origin. Although our data did not provide information on the direction of transfer, the absence of genetic structure across space and host species suggests that A. bombi may be acting as an emergent infectious disease across bee taxa and continents.
Maebe, Kevin; Arbetman, Marina; Morales, Carolina; Graystock, Peter; Hughes, William O. H.; Plischuk, Santiago; Lange, Carlos E.; de Graaf, Dirk C.; Zapata, Nelson; de la Rosa, Jose Javier Perez; Murray, Tomas E.; Brown, Mark J. F.; Smagghe, Guy
Filarioid parasites represent major health hazards with important medical, veterinary, and economic implications, and considerable potential to affect the everyday lives of tens of millions of people globally (World Health Organization, 2007). Scenarios for climate change vary latitudinally and regionally and involve direct and indirect linkages for increasing temperature and the dissemination, amplification, and invasiveness of vector-borne parasites. High latitude regions are especially influenced by global climate change and thus may be prone to altered associations and dynamics for complex host-pathogen assemblages and emergence of disease with cascading effects on ecosystem structure. Although the potential for substantial ecological perturbation has been identified, few empirical observations have emanated from systems across the Holarctic. Coincidental with decades of warming, and anomalies of high temperature and humidity in the sub-Arctic region of Fennoscandia, the mosquito-borne filarioid nematode Setaria tundra is now associated with emerging epidemic disease resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality for reindeer and moose. We describe a host-parasite system that involves reindeer, arthropods, and nematodes, which may contribute as a factor to ongoing declines documented for this ungulate species across northern ecosystems. We demonstrate that mean summer temperatures exceeding 14 degrees C drive the emergence of disease due to S. tundra. An association between climate and emergence of filarioid parasites is a challenge to ecosystem services with direct effects on public health, sustainability of free-ranging and domestic ungulates, and ultimately food security for subsistence cultures at high latitudes. PMID:20422252
Laaksonen, Sauli; Pusenius, Jyrki; Kumpula, Jouko; Venäläinen, Ari; Kortet, Raine; Oksanen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric
This page is the jumping-off point for an educational unit on emerging infectious diseases. There are links to a course outline and classroom activity worksheets, a 30-minute video, an online textbook chapter, a collection of relevant images and animations that supplement the chapter, transcripts of interviews with five experts featured in the video, and a glossary and bibliography. The video and textbook chapter cover two main phenomena of emerging diseases - evolution of antibiotic resistance, and mutation of disease organisms due to novel environmental pressures. There are detailed explanations of microbial evolution by mutation and acquisition of new genetic material, as well as case studies of infectious diseases spread by animals. The course outline provides a structure for incorporating the video, the textbook chapter, and five classroom activities into a 2.5hr session appropriate for high school or undergraduate students.
Learner.org, Annenberg M.
Mitochondrial diseases are very heterogeneous and can affect different tissues and organs. Moreover, they can be caused by genetic defects in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA as well as by environmental factors. All of these factors have made the development of therapies difficult. In this review article, we will discuss emerging approaches to…
Wenz, Tina; Williams, Sion L.; Bacman, Sandra R.; Moraes, Carlos T.
The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.
Pagan, Israel; Gonzalez-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Pinero, Daniel; Garcia-Arenal, Fernando
The concept of emergence offers a new way of thinking about multimorbidity and chronic disease. Multimorbidity and chronic disease are the end result of ongoing perturbations and interconnected activities of simpler substructures that collectively constitute the complex adaptive superstructure known as us, the person or patient. Medical interventions cause perturbations of many different sub-systems within the patient, hence they are not limited to the person's bodily function, but also affect his general health perception and his interactions with his external environments. Changes in these domains inevitably have consequences on body function, and close the feedback loop of illness/disease, recovery and regained health. PMID:24702685
Sturmberg, Joachim P
In the Amazon Basin, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is enzootic, involving a variety of wild mammals and at least 10 of the 16 reported silvatic triatomine bug species. Human cases of Chagas disease are increasing, indicating that the disease may be emerging as a wider public health problem in the region: 38 cases from 1969 to 1992, and 167 in the past eight years. This article reviews the status of Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil, including known reservoirs and vectors, and the genetic diversity of T. cruzi. At least three subspecific groups of T. cruzi-T. cruzilZ1, T. cruziZ3 and T. cruziZ3/Z1 ASAT--are present. It appears that T. cruzil has an extant capacity for genetic exchange. Attention is also drawn to the risk of domestic endemicity, in addition to the tasks facing the disease control authorities. PMID:11998705
Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V; Fernandes, Octavio; Valente, Sebastiao A S; Miles, Michael A
The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.
The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.
Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.
The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating directly or indirectly from human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. What is often overlooked in the discussion of the health consequences to humans is that critically endangered wildlife species are at grave risk of extinction by disease outbreaks. As habitat becomes more compressed and with migration routes cut off, gene pools of small species are stranded in isolated habitat fragments. Species now are vulnerable to encroachment, malnutrition, environmental pollutants, and epidemics from domestic animals and humans. Furthermore, the continuous degradation of ecosystems is leading to increased stress, immunosuppression, and greater susceptibility to disease. Disease can be catastrophic to a diminished stressed population, becoming in some instances the leading factor of local, regional, and global extinctions. The strategies of the new field of conservation medicine include long-term monitoring, health assessment, and interventions to protect species at risk. We particularly must minimize the threat of any potentially catastrophic disease outbreaks resulting from anthropogenic changes to the environment. Current and future diagnostic molecular techniques offer new opportunities to identify tools for the management and possible treatment of diseases in imperiled species. PMID:19120161
Aguirre, A Alonso; Tabor, Gary M
Summary There are a whole series of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases present in the Northern Hemisphere and the author describes four of them, namely, bartonellosis, leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis and plague. Reasons for the emergence or re-emergence of such diseases are not clear, but factors such as human demographics, economic development and land use, international travel and commerce, and microbial
Hantaviruses are parasites of small mammals, predominantly peridomestic and commensal rodents. They have a worldwide distribution. Hantavirus-related illness occurs in rural areas where humans come into contact with rodents. In most cases human infection is manifested by one of a variety of acute illnesses involving hemorrhagic fever and renal disease. In May 1993, a cluster of patients with an acute pulmonary disease with high mortality was noted in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. Serologic and genetic studies indicated that the etiologic agent was a novel hantavirus. The uncertainty engendered by the emergence of a new disease with high mortality forced a rapid response by state and federal agencies and by the University of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque, where most patients from this region were referred. Considerable progress has been made in identifying infected cases on clinical and laboratory grounds and in ensuring that appropriate supportive care is made available to patients as soon as they are suspected of having hantaviral infection. Cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--both new and retrospectively diagnosed--are still being recognized throughout the western United States. Many important questions remain unanswered. Images
Hjelle, B; Jenison, S; Mertz, G; Koster, F; Foucar, K
Neurologic disease is a major cause of disability in resource-poor countries and a substantial portion of this disease is due to infections of the CNS. A wide variety of emerging and re-emerging viruses contribute to this disease burden. New emerging infections are commonly due to RNA viruses that have expanded their geographic range, spread from animal reservoirs or acquired new
Diane E. Griffin
The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453
Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R
Recent advances in immunology have provided a foundation of knowledge to understand many of the intricacies involved in manipulating the human response to fight parasitic infections, and a great deal has been learned from malaria vaccine efforts regarding strategies for developing parasite vaccines. There has been some encouraging progress in the development of a Chagas vaccine in animal models. A prize fund for Chagas could be instrumental in ensuring that these efforts are translated into products that benefit patients. PMID:19493074
Crager, Sara E; Price, Matt
Freiberg's disease is an avascular necrosis affecting the second, third, or, rarely, the fourth metatarsal head. It is typically a chronic, progressive process, eventually causing pain and loss of normal function of the metatarsophalangeal joint. Normally, patients present to the Emergency Department with atraumatic foot pain, however, as we illustrate with this case, an acute fracture may occur, requiring recognition and appropriate treatment. Our patient presented with acute pain, swelling, and point tenderness of the forefoot after a minor fall. Radiographs revealed a fracture through the head of the second metatarsal and underlying avascular necrosis consistent with Freiberg's disease. Identifying the underlying chronic process was important in understanding how minor trauma resulted in a fracture in this patient. PMID:18375088
Love, Jeffrey N; O'Mara, Susan
Objective: To examine the frequency distribution of co-existing conditions for deaths where the underlying cause was infectious and parasitic diseases.Materials and methods: Besides the underlying cause of death, the distributions of co-existing conditions for deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases were examined in total and by various age and sex groups, at individual and chapter levels, using 1998 Australian mortality
Peng Bi; Kevin A Parton; Michael Whitby
Over the past decade, there has been a world-wide increase in the number of farm-raised ratites. The focus of ostrich production remains in South Africa, but other countries are initiating production of this bird in addition to the emu and rhea. Ostriches, emus and rheas are being produced commercially outside their native habitat, resulting in new and unique disease presentations. The authors describe bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases which are emerging in production settings. Biosecurity, together with adequate management and nutrition, will reduce the likelihood of flock exposure and limit mortality in the event of infection. The problem currently facing the industry is that most ratite facilities do not incorporate separate quarantine areas. Newly-introduced birds may contaminate soil and facilities with pathogens such as Mycobacterium spp. and Salmonella spp. Ratites have excellent production potential if producers can profitably multiply and rear healthy stock. The authors discuss the currently-known diseases which may affect the viability of an intensive production facility. PMID:8924717
Tully, T N; Shane, S M
Disease dynamics hinge on parasite transmission among hosts. However, canonical models for transmission often fit data poorly, limiting predictive ability. One solution involves building mechanistic yet general links between host behaviour and disease spread. To illustrate, we focus on the exposure component of transmission for hosts that consume their parasites, combining experiments, models and field data. Models of transmission that incorporate parasite consumption and foraging interference among hosts vastly outperformed alternatives when fit to experimental data using a zooplankton host (Daphnia dentifera) that consumes spores of a fungus (Metschnikowia bicuspidata). Once plugged into a fully dynamic model, both mechanisms inhibited epidemics overall. Foraging interference further depressed parasite invasion and prevalence at high host density, creating unimodal (hump-shaped) relationships between host density and these indices. These novel results qualitatively matched a unimodal density-prevalence relationship in natural epidemics. Ultimately, a mechanistic approach to transmission can reveal new insights into disease outbreaks. PMID:23452184
Civitello, David J; Pearsall, Susan; Duffy, Meghan A; Hall, Spencer R
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem. Despite remarkable headway in slowing the progression of kidney diseases, the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing in all countries with a severe impact on patients and society. The high incidence of diabetes and hypertension, along with the aging population, may partially explain this growth. Currently, the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for CKD, aiming to slow progression to ESRD are ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for their hemodynamic/antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory/antifibrotic action. However, novel drugs would be highly desirable to effectively slow the progressive renal function loss. Areas covered: Through the search engines, PubMed and ClinicalTrial.gov, the scientific literature was reviewed in search of emerging drugs in Phase II or III trials, which appear to be the most promising for CKD treatment. Expert opinion: The great expectations for new drugs for the management of CKD over the last decade have unfortunately not been met. Encouraging results from preliminary studies with specific agents need to be tempered with caution, given the absence of consistent and adequate data. To date, several agents that showed great promise in animal studies have been less effective in humans. PMID:24836744
Stefoni, Sergio; Cianciolo, Giuseppe; Baraldi, Olga; Iorio, Mario; Angelini, Maria Laura
There are a whole series of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases present in the Northern Hemisphere and the author describes four of them, namely, bartonellosis, leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis and plague. Reasons for the emergence or re-emergence of such diseases are not clear, but factors such as human demographics, economic development and land use, international travel and commerce, and microbial adaptation, are thought to be involved. Control of emerging and re-emerging diseases has become a major challenge for the international community and it is important to disseminate information about diagnosis and control capabilities, particularly to people working in public health. PMID:15702720
The concept of scale politics offers historians a useful framework for analyzing the connections between environment and health. This essay examines the public health campaign around emerging diseases during the 1990s, particularly the ways in which different actors employed scale in geographic and political representations; how they configured cause, consequence, and intervention at different scales; and the moments at which they shifted between different scales in the presentation of their arguments. Biomedical scientists, the mass media, and public health and national security experts contributed to this campaign, exploiting Americans' ambivalence about globalization and the role of modernity in the production of new risks, framing them in terms that made particular interventions appear necessary, logical, or practical. PMID:15449391
King, Nicholas B
Application of growing degree day-water budget analysis concepts to snail-borne diseases are reviewed to demonstrate use of the unique thermal-hydrological preferences and limits of tolerance of individual parasite-vector systems to define the environmental niche of disease agents in the landscape by modern geospatial analysis tools. PMID:15305687
Malone, J B; McNally, K L; McCarroll, J C; Corbett, J D; Mkoji, G
The laboratory certification and accreditation is the development trend of domestic and international laboratories. The National Institute for Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention passed through the site assessment in September 2012 successfully, 26 items in 8 fields declared were all adopted. This article summarizes some work experiences during carrying out the laboratory certification and accreditation. PMID:24490411
Xiong, Yan-Hong; Guan, Ya-Yi; Cao, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Yan-Juan; Zhang, Min-Qi; Zhou, Xiao-Jun
e Cyberinfrastructure Group (CIG) develops and uses methods, infrastructure, and resources to enable scientifi c discoveries in infectious disease research by applying the principles of cyberinfrastructure to integrate data, computational infrastructure, and people (Atkins, 2003). CIG has developed many public resources for curated, diverse molecular and literature data from various infectious disease systems, and implemented the processes, systems, and databases
Chris Bowns; Cory Byrd; Stephen Cammer; Sarah Cousins; Oswald Crasta; Mike Czar; Chitti Dharmanolla; Nataraj Dongre; William Donnell; Matt Dyer; Joe Gabbard; James Gardner; Joe Gillespie; Debby Hix; Ranjan Jha; Ron Kenyon; Christine Lee; Jian Li; Zhiyi Li; Dan Liu; Jian Lu; Shrinivasrao Mane; Bharat Mehrotra; Eric Nordberg; Anjan Purkayastha; Daphne Rainey; Harsha Rajasimha; Vincent Samaco; Mark Scott; Joăo Setubal; Joshua Shallom; Shamira Shallom; Maulik Shukla; Eric Snyder; Bruno Sobral; Jeetendra Soneja; Wei Sun; Yuying Tian; Nirali Vaghela; Rebecca Wattam; Kelly Williams; Tian Xue; Boyu Yang; Hyunseung Yoo; Qiang Yu; Chengdong Zhang; Dan Sullivan; Satish Tadepalli; Sally Waldon; Gongxin Yu; Fengkai Zhang; Yan Zhang; Jing Zhao
Chronic spirochetal infection can cause slowly progressive dementia, cortical atrophy and amyloid deposition in the atrophic form of general paresis. There is a significant association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and various types of spirochete (including the periodontal pathogen Treponemas and Borrelia burgdorferi), and other pathogens such as Chlamydophyla pneumoniae and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Exposure of mammalian neuronal and glial cells and organotypic cultures to spirochetes reproduces the biological and pathological hallmarks of AD. Senile-plaque-like beta amyloid (A?) deposits are also observed in mice following inhalation of C. pneumoniae in vivo, and A? accumulation and phosphorylation of tau is induced in neurons by HSV-1 in vitro and in vivo. Specific bacterial ligands, and bacterial and viral DNA and RNA all increase the expression of proinflammatory molecules, which activates the innate and adaptive immune systems. Evasion of pathogens from destruction by the host immune reactions leads to persistent infection, chronic inflammation, neuronal destruction and A? deposition. A? has been shown to be a pore-forming antimicrobial peptide, indicating that A? accumulation might be a response to infection. Global attention and action is needed to support this emerging field of research because dementia might be prevented by combined antibiotic, antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:21933454
Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is an ectoparasitic skin disease caused by the female sand flea/jigger flea (Tunga penetrans). As poverty is the major driving force of the disease, it can be called as a poverty-associated plague. It is one of the emerging neglected diseases in Latin America, Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, and India. The aim of the present scrutiny was to assess the public health impact of tungiasis, associated risk factors, and emerging opportunities to prevent and control tungiasis. Searches of PubMed, Google Scholar, and online search engines (Google, AOL, and Yahoo) using keywords "parasitic skin disease," "tungiasis," "sand flea," " tungiasis-associated risk factors," "tungiasis prevention and control," and their synonyms were used as a source of references. Searches were made without time limitations. Of 167 potential articles identified by these criteria, 51 appropriate were selected for review. Tungiasis is widespread in the resource-constrained settings of low-income economies. In the tropics, it is highly prevalent among the impoverished populations, but the associated risk factors are often poorly identified and remain uncontrolled. Though it is a self-limiting disease with considerable morbidity, the parasite may cause subsequent secondary morbidity through life-threatening complications and infections like cellulitis, tetanus, and death. However, the direct and indirect sociocultural, economic, and health impact of tungiasis is often undervalued and misunderstood. A systematic assessment on disease burden is still dearth and deficient. Over the decades, tungiasis has been largely neglected by the scientific community, policy makers, and healthcare stakeholders. In the endemic regions, even tungiasis is not listed for the disease control priorities in the regional, national, and international agenda. The majority of the epidermal parasitic skin diseases particularly tungiasis needs a sustainable global scientific research and control policy. This urges intensive efforts to develop a road map that delivers a clear vision towards zero new infection by designing low-cost prevention and control strategies. Besides, there is an urgency to develop culturally appropriate communication techniques and workable collaboration on a global scale by bringing all the stakeholders of endemic countries. PMID:23949241
The process of disease transmission is determined by the interaction of host susceptibility and exposure to parasite infectious stages. Host behavior is an important determinant of the likelihood of exposure to infectious stages but is difficult to measure and often assumed to be homogenous in models of disease spread. We evaluated the importance of precisely defining host contact when using networks that estimate exposure and predict infection prevalence in a replicated, empirical system. In particular, we hypothesized that infection patterns would be predicted only by a contact network that is defined according to host behavior and parasite life cycle. Two competing host contact criteria were used to construct networks defined by parasite life cycle and social contacts. First, parasite-defined contacts were based on shared space with a time delay corresponding to the environmental development time of nematode parasites with a direct fecal-oral life cycle. Second, social contacts were defined by shared space in the same time period. To quantify the competing networks of exposure and infection, we sampled natural populations of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and infection of their gastrointestinal helminth community using replicated longitudinal capture-mark-recapture techniques. We predicted that (1) infection with parasites with direct fecal-oral life cycles would be explained by the time delay contact network, but not the social contact network; (2) infection with parasites with trophic life cycles (via a mobile intermediate host; thus, spatially decoupling transmission from host contact) would not be explained by either contact network. The prevalence of fecal-oral life cycle nematode parasites was strongly correlated to the number and strength of network connections from the parasite-defined network (including the time delay), while the prevalence of trophic life cycle parasites was not correlated with any network metrics. We concluded that incorporating the parasite life cycle, relative to the way that exposure is measured, is key to inferring transmission and can be empirically quantified using network techniques. In addition, appropriately defining and measuring contacts according the life history of the parasite and relevant behaviors of the host is a crucial step in applying network analyses to empirical systems. PMID:24555316
Grear, Daniel A; Luong, Lien T; Hudson, Peter J
Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period.
Toms, Mike P.; Peck, Kirsi M.; Kirkwood, James K.; Chantrey, Julian; Clatworthy, Innes R.; Evans, Andy D.; Hughes, Laura A.; Hutchinson, Oliver C.; John, Shinto K.; Pennycott, Tom W.; Perkins, Matthew W.; Rowley, Peter S.; Simpson, Vic R.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.
Immunocompromised patients are at risk of contracting serious fungal infections. The emergence of acquired resistance to azole treatment by opportunistic fungal organisms is increasing and poses a major therapeutic challenge. Treatment of some deep cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses remains unresolved, relapses are frequent, lack of tolerability of the antifungal drugs becomes an obstacle, and, unfortunately, surgery is, in some cases, the last option. The development of allylamine antifungals, of which terbinafine is the most effective to date, may help to resolve this situation. In vitro, terbinafine is highly active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic fungi. Clinical studies have shown that terbinafine is effective in the treatment of both cutaneous and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis, and in several patterns of disseminated and refractory aspergillosis. Patients with chromoblastomycosis, and other mycoses (phaeohyphomycosis, maduromycosis, and mucormycosis) have also been successfully treated with terbinafine. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, has also been treated with terbinafine. These results suggest that the therapeutic potential of terbinafine extends well beyond its currently licensed applications to include a range of serious and life-threatening subcutaneous and systemic mycoses. PMID:10865916
In the past two decades, humans have faced many new viral infectious agents in emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Many factors contribute to the appearance of EIDs. These factors are complex but can be classified into three different categories: virus factors, human factors, and ecological factors. The factors contributing to the cause of such viral infectious diseases will be
Eric Ka-Wai Hui
Emerging diseases represent a growing worldwide problem accompanying global environmental changes, and there is tremendous interest in identifying the factors controlling the appearance and spread of these diseases. Here, we discuss emerging fungal plant diseases, and argue that they often result from host shift speciation, a particular case of ecological speciation. We consider the factors controlling local adaptation and ecological speciation and show that certain life-history traits of many fungal plant pathogens are conducive for rapid ecological speciation, thus favoring the emergence of novel pathogen species adapted to new hosts. We argue that placing the problem of emerging fungal diseases of plants within the context of ecological speciation can significantly improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms governing emergence of such diseases.
Giraud, Tatiana; Gladieux, Pierre; Gavrilets, Sergey
Gaining insight in likely disease emergence scenarios is critical to preventing such events from happening. Recent focus has been on emerging zoonoses and on identifying common patterns and drivers of emerging diseases. However, no overarching framework exists to integrate knowledge on all emerging infectious disease events. Here, we propose such a conceptual framework based on changes in the interplay of pathogens, hosts and environment that lead to the formation of novel disease patterns and pathogen genetic adjustment. We categorize infectious disease emergence events into three groups: (i) pathogens showing up in a novel host, ranging from spill-over, including zoonoses, to complete species jumps; (ii) mutant pathogens displaying novel traits in the same host, including an increase in virulence, antimicrobial resistance and host immune escape; and (iii) disease complexes emerging in a new geographic area, either through range expansion or through long distance jumps. Each of these categories is characterized by a typical set of drivers of emergence, matching pathogen trait profiles, disease ecology and transmission dynamics. Our framework may assist in disentangling and structuring the rapidly growing amount of available information on infectious diseases. Moreover, it may contribute to a better understanding of how human action changes disease landscapes globally.
Engering, Anneke; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan
Advances in diagnosis and treatment of disease include understanding the behavior and susceptibilities of the vector, the parasite virus, or bacteria, and the host. Genetic studies have shown differences at the molecular level in parasites which may aid r...
Streptococcus iniae is an emerging zoonotic pathogen; such infections generally occur through injuries associated with preparing whole fresh fish for cooking. Those infected to date have been of Asian descent, are usually elderly (average age 68 years), a...
D. P. Drotman
The paper by Hartup et al. (2001) on House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in na??ve populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999, Gratz 1999). Current examples involving domestic animals include the problems in Europe with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or a??mad cow diseasea??) (Brown 2001) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) (Kitching 1999). Human health has been affected by diseases caused by an array of viruses (Morse 1993, Nichol et al. 1993, Murphy and Nathanson 1994), bacteria (Dennis 1998, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999), rickettsia (Walker and Dumier 1996, Azad et al. 1997), protozoans (Tuerrant 1997, Saini et al. 2000), and metazoan parasites (Hildreth et al. 1991, Gubler 1998), as well as other causes. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has received the most notoriety of those diseases (Hahn et al. 2000, Schwartlander et al. 2000). A similar pattern exists on a global scale for free-ranging wildlife populations (Table 1) (Friend 1994, 1995; Epstein et al. 1998, Daszak et al. 2000). However, in comparison to disease emergence affecting humans and domestic animals, response to emerging diseases of wildlife is generally superficial. We present concepts and data to support our contention that failure to adequately address disease emergence in free-ranging wildlife is resulting in a diminished capability to achieve and sustain desired geographic distributions and population abundance for species of wild birds, including some threatened and endangered avifauna. For clarity, we define disease and disease emergence in the context of our use of those terms because they are the focus of our comments. Disease is any departure from health (Guralnik 1982); that is, dysfunction contributing to physiological, physical, reproductive, behavioral, or other impairment that reduces the probability of survival of individuals. If enough individuals are affected, the collective effects can reduce the sustainability of the population. Although disease can result from exposure to a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological agents and other conditions, we focus this paper on microbes and parasites and to overt mortality caused by them. Thus, disease effects presented only represent the proverbial a??tip of the iceberga?? relative to the challenges wild avifauna face from disease. Our perspective of disease emergence expands the earlier definitions of emerging diseases by others (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1994, Morse 1995) to include all species. Our comments are defined by the context of disease occurrences that have increased within the past three decades, or threaten to increase in the near future relative to populations affected, geographic distribution, or magnitude of effects.
Friend, M.; Mclean, R. G.; Dein, F. J.
This study analyzes the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases by SWOT analysis comprehensively, and it puts forward some development strategies specifically, in order to provide some indicative references for the further development. PMID:25051844
Xiong, Yan-hong; Zheng, Bin
Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans is an important public problem in co-endemic areas in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of studies on co-infection and even fewer reviews. This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host’s immunity of co-infection. The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility such as renal transplant recipients, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HIV positive patients and migrants, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases were shown to be risk factors for each other. Co-infection may significantly inhibit the host’s immune system, increase antibacterial therapy intolerance and be detrimental to the prognosis of the disease; in addition, infection with parasitic diseases can alter the protective immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Abstract We use an expanded framework of multiple epidemiologic transitions to review the issues of re\\/emerging infection. The first epidemiologic transition was associated with a rise in infectious diseases that accompanied the Neolithic Revolution. The second epidemiologic transition involved the shift from infectious to chronic disease mortality associated with industrialization. The recent resurgence of infectious disease mortality marks a third
Ronald Barrett; Christopher W. Kuzawa; Thomas McDade; George J. Armelagos
Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus are mermithid nematodes that parasitize mosquito larvae. We describe host penetration and emergence patterns of Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus in laboratory exposures against Culex pipiens pipiens larvae. The mermithid species differed in host penetration behavior, with R. iyengari juveniles attaching to the host integument before assuming a rigid penetration posture at the lateral thorax (66.7%) or abdominal segments V to VIII (33.3%). Strelkovimermis spiculatus attached first to a host hair in a coiled posture that provided a stable base for penetration, usually through the lateral thorax (83.3%). Superparasitism was reduced by discriminating against previously infected hosts, but R. iyengari’s ability to avoid superparasitism declined at a higher inoculum rate. Host emergence was signaled by robust nematode movements that induced aberrant host swimming. Postparasites of R. iyengari usually emerged from the lateral prothorax (93.2%), whereas S. spiculatus emergence was peri-anal. In superparasitized hosts, emergence was initiated by males in R. iyengari and females in S. spiculatus; emergence was otherwise nearly synchronous. Protandry was observed in R. iyengari. The ability of S. spiculatus to sustain an optimal sex ratio suggested superior self-regulation. Mermithid penetration and emergence behaviors and sites may be supplementary clues for identification. Species differences could be useful in developing production and release strategies.
Sanad, Manar M.; Shamseldean, Muhammad S. M.; Elgindi, Abd-Elmoneim Y.; Gaugler, Randy
1 More than 20 000 cases are recorded annu- ally in the United States. 2 In about 80% of cases, early Lyme disease is characterized by a skin lesion, erythema migrans, which expands to a diameter of more than 5 cm from the site of the tick bite. 3 If left untreated, the disease can progress to early disseminated Lyme
Nicholas H. Ogden DPhil; L. Robbin Lindsay; Muhammad Morshed; Paul N. Sockett; Harvey Artsob
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that is more common than was previously thought. This disease is caused by an inappropriate immune response to wheat gluten, barley, and rye. Three main pathways cause celiac disease: the environmental trigger (gluten), genetic susceptibility, and unusual gut permeability. The only treatment currently available is a strict gluten-free diet. Unfortunately, a majority of patients have difficulty complying with this diet, and the response to therapy is poor. Therefore, alternative treatments are being developed, and new insights into the pathophysiology of celiac disease have led to research into novel therapies. New treatments include engineering gluten-free grains, decreasing intestinal permeability by blockage of the epithelial zonulin receptor, inducing oral tolerance to gluten with a therapeutic vaccine, and degrading immunodominant gliadin peptides using probiotics with endopeptidases or transglutaminase inhibitors. These nondiet-based therapies provide hope for enhanced, lifelong celiac disease management with improved patient compliance and better quality of life.
Bakshi, Anita; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.
Understanding the genetic structure of parasite populations on the natural landscape can reveal important aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology and can indicate parasite dispersal across the landscape. Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), the causative agent of whirling disease in the definitive host Tubifex tubifex, is native to Eurasia and has spread to more than 25 states in the USA. The small amounts of data available to date suggest that M. cerebralis has little genetic variability. We examined the genetic variability of parasites infecting the definitive host T. tubifex in the Madison River, MT, and also from other parts of North America and Europe. We cloned and sequenced 18S ribosomal DNA and the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) gene. Five oligochaetes were examined for 18S and five for ITS-1, only one individual was examined for both genes. We found two different 18S rRNA haplotypes of M. cerebralis from five worms and both intra- and interworm genetic variation for ITS-1, which showed 16 different haplotypes from among 20 clones. Comparison of our sequences with those from other studies revealed M. cerebralis from MT was similar to the parasite collected from Alaska, Oregon, California, and Virginia in the USA and from Munich, Germany, based on 18S, whereas parasite sequences from West Virginia were very different. Combined with the high haplotype diversity of ITS-1 and uniqueness of ITS-1 haplotypes, our results show that M. cerebralis is more variable than previously thought and raises the possibility of multiple introductions of the parasite into North America. PMID:22151695
Lodh, Nilanjan; Kerans, Billie L; Stevens, Lori
Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence.
Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dykova, Iva; Jirku, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N.; Slapeta, Jan
In 2000, the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) was organized as a global disease watchdog group to coordinate disease outbreak information and health crisis response. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the headquarters for this network.2 Understandably, the primary focus for WHO is human health. However, diseases such as the H5N1 avian influenza epizootic in Asian bird populations demonstrate the need for integrating knowledge about disease emergence in animals and in humans.
Penicilliosis marneffei and pythiosis insidiosi are emerging infections in subtropical, tropical, and temperate areas of the\\u000a world. Penicilliosis marneffei is endemic in several Southeast Asian countries and may be carried to other areas of the world\\u000a by residents of these countries or visitors. Pythiosis occurs in humans and animals who frequent the aquatic habitats that\\u000a harbor Pythium insidiosum. Although early
Since the inception of USAMRU-K in 1969, its activities have centered on the epidemiology, entomology and immunology of the diseases endemic to Kenya, in particular, trypanosomaisis, malaria, leishmaniasis, rift valley fever, and enteric pathogens. Clinic...
D. K. Koech
Huntington's disease (HD) is a relentless neurodegenerative disease that results in profound disability through a triad of motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. At present, there are very few therapeutic interventions available with the exception of a limited number of drugs that offer mild symptomatic relief. Although the genetic basis of the disease has been identified, the mechanisms behind the cellular pathogenesis are still not clear and as a result no candidate drugs with the potential for disease modification have been found clinically until now. One of the major limitations in assessing the usefulness of drug treatments in HD is the lack of well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Most studies have been open-label, using a small number of patients and tend to concentrate on the motor features of the disease, primarily the chorea. This review discusses the treatments now used for HD before evaluating the newer drugs at present being explored in both the clinic and in the laboratory in mouse models of the disease. PMID:19453283
Mason, Sarah L; Barker, Roger A
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. PMID:23578479
Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena
Graves disease represents a systemic autoimmune process targeting the thyroid, orbit, and pretibial skin. The thyroid dysfunction is treatable, but no consistently effective medical therapy has yet been described for the orbital manifestations of Graves disease, also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy or thyroid eye disease. Several autoantigens are potentially relevant to the pathogenesis of thyroid eye disease. Activating antibodies generated against the thyrotropin receptor can be detected in a majority of patients, and these drive hyperthyroidism. However, stimulating antibodies against the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) may also play a role in the extra-thyroid manifestations of GD. IGF-1R is over-expressed by orbital fibroblasts derived from patients with TED, while IGF-1R+ T and IGF-1R+ B cells are considerably more frequent in GD. Actions of several cytokines and the molecular interplay peculiar to the orbit appear to provoke the inflammation, fat expansion, and deposition of excessive extracellular matrix molecules in thyroid eye disease. Based upon these new insights, several therapeutic strategies can now be proposed that, for the first time, might specifically interrupt its pathogenesis.
Naik, Vibhavari M; Naik, Milind N; Goldberg, Robert A; Smith, Terry J; Douglas, Raymond S
The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.
Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E
Lifestyle diseases characterize those diseases whose occurrence is primarily based on the daily habits of people and are a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment. The main factors contributing to lifestyle diseases include bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body posture, and disturbed biological clock. A report, jointly prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Economic Forum, says India will incur an accumulated loss of $236.6 billion by 2015 on account of unhealthy lifestyles and faulty diet. According to the report, 60% of all deaths worldwide in 2005 (35 million) resulted from noncommunicable diseases and accounted for 44% of premature deaths. What's worse, around 80% of these deaths will occur in low and middle-income countries like India which are also crippled by an ever increasing burden of infectious diseases, poor maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies. According to a survey conducted by the Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ASSOC-HAM), 68% of working women in the age bracket of 21-52 years were found to be afflicted with lifestyle ailments such as obesity, depression, chronic backache, diabetes and hypertension. The study 'Preventive Healthcare and Corporate Female Workforce' also said that long hours and working under strict deadlines cause up to 75% of working women to suffer from depression or general anxiety disorder, compared to women with lesser levels of psychological demand at work. The study cited scientific evidence that healthy diet and adequate physical activity - at least 30 minutes of moderate activity at least five days a week - helped prevent NCDs. In India, 10% of adults suffer from hypertension while the country is home to 25-30 million diabetics. Three out of every 1,000 people suffer a stroke. The number of deaths due to heart attack is projected to increase from 1.2 million to 2 million in 2010. The diet [or lifestyle] of different populations might partly determine their rates of cancer, and the basis for this hypothesis was strengthened by results of studies showing that people who migrate from one country to another generally acquire the cancer rates of the new host country, suggesting that environmental [or lifestyle factors] rather than genetic factors are the key determinants of the international variation in cancer rates. Some of the common diseases encountered because of occupational lifestyle are Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, cancer, chronic liver disease/cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nephritis/CRF, and stroke. Occupational lifestyle diseases include those caused by the factors present in the vicinity like heat, sound, dust, fumes, smoke, cold, and other pollutants. These factors are responsible for allergy, respiratory and hearing problems, and heat or cold shock. So, A healthy lifestyle must be adopted to combat these diseases with a proper balanced diet, physical activity and by giving due respect to biological clock. Kids spending too much time slouched in front of the TV or PCs, should be encourage to find a physical sport or activity they enjoy. Fun exercises should be encouraged into family outings. A pizza-and-video evening should be replaced for a hike and picnic. Kids who do participate in sport, especially at a high competitive level, can find the pressure to succeed very stressful. To decrease the ailments caused by occupational postures, one should avoid long sitting hours and should take frequent breaks for stretching or for other works involving physical movements. PMID:20442827
Sharma, Mukesh; Majumdar, P K
Tularemia is an infection caused by Francisella tularensis. This zoonose is transmitted to human through contact with infected animals or by vectors such as ticks. It has been a rare disease in Switzerland until recently, but its incidence is increasing. The clinical manifestations of tularemia are diverse and the ulcero-glandular disease is the most common form. It presents with an ulcerative lesion at the site of inoculation and regional lymphadenopathy which can be massive. Diagnosis is based on culture, PCR or serology with antibody titer rise approximately 2 weeks after the onset of illness. Antibiotics with clinical efficacy include doxycycline, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. PMID:24191415
Lyko, C; Chuard, C
The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife populations, and the health of ecosystems. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic damage globally. Rather than attempting to eradicate pathogens or the wild species that may harbor them, a practical approach would include decreasing the contact rate among species, including humans, at the interface created by the wildlife trade. Since wildlife marketing functions as a system of scale-free networks with major hubs, these points provide control opportunities to maximize the effects of regulatory efforts.
Cook, Robert A.; Bennett, Elizabeth L.; Newcomb, James
The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife populations, and the health of ecosystems. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic damage globally. Rather than attempting to eradicate pathogens or the wild species that may harbor them, a practical approach would include decreasing the contact rate among species, including humans, at the interface created by the wildlife trade. Since wildlife marketing functions as a system of scale-free networks with major hubs, these points provide control opportunities to maximize the effects of regulatory efforts. PMID:16022772
Karesh, William B; Cook, Robert A; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Newcomb, James
The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories.
Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J
The agents causing viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) are a taxonomically diverse group of viruses that may share commonalities in the process whereby they produce systemic and frequently fatal disease. Significant progress has been made in understanding the biology of the Ebola virus, one of the best known examples. This knowledge has guided our thinking about other VHF agents, including Marburg,
Thomas W Geisbert; Peter B Jahrling
The complete genome sequence of a newly emerging Newcastle disease virus, isolated in China, was determined. A phylogenetic analysis based on the F gene revealed that the isolate is phylogenetically related to Newcastle disease virus genotype VIId. Sequence analysis indicated that amino acid residue substitutions occur at neutralizing epitopes on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein.
Wang, Jing-Yu; Liu, Wan-Hua; Ren, Juan-Juan; Tang, Pan; Wu, Ning
Summary: Climate change and environmental change are a subset of the larger set of ecosystem changes that are promoting the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases. The complexity of the interconnectedness between a wide range of factors influencing the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases means that uncertainty will continue to be a feature of the future. Central Veterinary Authorities
Peter Black; Mike Nunn
For millions of years, humans and their ancestors suffered from diseases -- both the kind caused by infectious pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses, parasites) and the kind caused by our own bodies as they age and degenerate. Over this long period, humans constantly created new ways of living and eating, and actual physical or genetic changes evolved to minimize the effects
George J. Armelagos; Kathleen C. Barnes; James Lin
The agents causing viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) are a taxonomically diverse group of viruses that may share commonalities in the process whereby they produce systemic and frequently fatal disease. Significant progress has been made in understanding the biology of the Ebola virus, one of the best known examples. This knowledge has guided our thinking about other VHF agents, including Marburg, Lassa, the South American arenaviruses, yellow fever, Crimean-Congo and Rift Valley fever viruses. Comparisons among VHFs show that a common pathogenic feature is their ability to disable the host immune response by attacking and manipulating the cells that initiate the antiviral response. Of equal importance, these comparisons highlight critical gaps in our knowledge of these pathogens. PMID:15577929
Geisbert, Thomas W; Jahrling, Peter B
Most recent emerging infectious diseases have been zoonotic in origin. It is our contention that one of the factors responsible\\u000a for such emergence is the trade in wildlife and bushmeat in particular. This article considers the effect of increasing diversity\\u000a in the species hunted on the probability of global epidemics such as SARS. In particular, we develop a mathematical model
Louise Swift; Paul R. Hunter; Alexander C. Lees; Diana J. Bell
Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of\\u000a sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently,\\u000a the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines,
Debajeet Choudhuri; Tanvir Huda; Evropi Theodoratou; Harish Nair; Lina Zgaga; Rachel Falconer; Ivana Luksic; Hope L Johnson; Jian Shayne F Zhang; Shams El Arifeen; Christopher B Nelson; Ray Borrow; Harry Campbell; Igor Rudan
Background Neglected tropical diseases impact over 1 billion of the world's poorest populations and require special attention. However, within the NTDs recognized by the World Health Organization, some are also dually categorized as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases requiring more detailed examination on potential global health risks. Methods We reviewed the 17 NTDs classified by the WHO to determine if those NTDs were also categorized by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (‘‘EReNTDs’’). We then identified common characteristics and risks associated with EReNTDs. Results Identified EReNTDs of dengue, rabies, Chagas Disease, and cysticercosis disproportionately impact resource-poor settings with poor social determinants of health, spread through globalization, are impacted by vector control, lack available treatments, and threaten global health security. This traditionally neglected subset of diseases requires urgent attention and unique incentive structures to encourage investment in innovation and coordination. Discussion Multi-sectorial efforts and targeted public–private partnerships would spur needed R&D for effective and accessible EReNTD treatments, improvement of social determinants of health, crucial low-income country development, and health system strengthening efforts. Utilization of One Health principles is essential for enhancing knowledge to efficaciously address public health aspects of these EReNTDs globally.
Mackey, Tim K.; Liang, Bryan A.
BACKGROUND: Many North American-based HIV patients originate from parasitic disease-endemic regions. Strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis are important due to their wide distribution and potential for severe morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, as determined by serological screening, of strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis among patients in an HIV-focused, primary care practice in Toronto, Ontario. A secondary objective was to determine factors associated with positive serological screens. METHODS: A retrospective review of electronic patient records was conducted. Results of serological screens for parasites and relevant laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were identified. The patients’ mean CD4+ count was 0.45×109/L, median viral load was undetectable and 68% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Most originated from Africa (37%) and South America (35%). Of the 97 patients, 10.4% and 8.3% had positive or equivocal screening results for strongyloidiasis, respectively, 7.4% and 4.2% had positive or equivocal screening results for schistosomiasis and 5.5% and 6.8% had positive or equivocal screens for filariasis. Persons with positive parasitic serologies were more often female (28% versus 9%, P=0.03), younger in age (36 versus 43 years of age, P<0.01), had been in Canada for a shorter duration (5 versus 12 years, P<0.0001) and had a higher viral load (10,990 copies/mL versus <50 copies/mL, P <0.001). All patients were asymptomatic. Eosinophilia was not associated with positive screening results. CONCLUSIONS: Using symptoms and eosinophilia to identify parasitic infection was not reliable. Screening for strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis among patients with HIV from parasite-endemic countries is simple and benign, and may prevent future complications. The clinical benefits of screening for filariasis require further elucidation, but this practice appears to be the least warranted.
Costiniuk, Cecilia T; Cooper, Curtis L; Doucette, Steve; Kovacs, Colin M
Two, simple, C5 compounds, dimethylally diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate, are the universal precursors of isoprenoids, a large family of natural products involved in numerous important biological processes. Two distinct biosynthetic pathways have evolved to supply these precursors. Humans use the mevalonate route whilst many species of bacteria including important pathogens, plant chloroplasts and apicomplexan parasites exploit the non-mevalonate pathway. The absence from humans, combined with genetic and chemical validation suggests that the non-mevalonate pathway holds the potential to support new drug discovery programmes targeting Gram-negative bacteria and the apicomplexan parasites responsible for causing serious human diseases, and also infections of veterinary importance. The non-mevalonate pathway relies on eight enzyme-catalyzed stages exploiting a range of cofactors and metal ions. A wealth of structural and mechanistic data, mainly derived from studies of bacterial enzymes, now exists for most components of the pathway and these will be described. Particular attention will be paid to how these data inform on the apicomplexan orthologues concentrating on the enzymes from Plasmodium spp.; these cause malaria, one the most important parasitic diseases in the world today.
Hunter, William N.
Human host encounters a wide array of parasites; however, the crucial aspect is the failure of the host immune system to clear these parasites despite antigen recognition. In the recent past, a new immunological concept has emerged, which provides a framework to better understand several aspects of host susceptibility to parasitic infection. It is widely believed that parasites are able to modulate the magnitude of effector responses by inducing regulatory T cell (Tregs) population and several studies have investigated whether this cell population plays a role in balancing protective immunity and pathogenesis during parasite infection. This review discusses the several mechanism of Treg-mediated immunosuppression in the human host and focuses on the functional role of Tregs and regulatory gene polymorphisms in infectious diseases.
Velavan, TP.; Ojurongbe, Olusola
Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases present critical issues of national security, public health, and economic welfare.\\u000a For example, in recent years, highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza have emerged in Asia, spread through Eastern Europe,\\u000a and threaten to become pandemic. As demonstrated by the coordinated response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and\\u000a influenza, agents of infectious disease are being
D. Janies; D. Pol
A nonmajors course on emerging diseases served to introduce students to basic concepts in microbiology and to improve scientific literacy. The course used a range of learner-centered approaches to encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning. Evaluations demonstrated both student satisfaction and an increased understanding of important issues in microbiology. PMID:23653535
Fass, M F
A systematic review of the literature yielded 10 articles that explored the interaction between race\\/ethnicity, citizenship, socioeconomic status, and health literacy domains with respect to preparedness agenda development. Current emerging infectious disease (EID) preparedness plans do not adequately address the needs of vulnerable populations for the events before, during, and after an epidemic. Central to the disadvantage of most vulnerable
Jose L Louro
From 1973 to 1995, 29 new and reemerging pathogenic microbes were recognized. However, in discussions about emerging infectious diseases, the focus is often on the clinical effects of the host-parasite relationship, rather than the examination of the biology of the pathogen. Many of what we refer to as emerging diseases are characterized better as 'diseases of human progress'. Thus, the aerosolization of water has played an important role in the emergence of Legionella pneumophila infections. New diseases are superimposed on endemic diseases such as diarrhoeal diseases, malaria and tuberculosis. In addition, many pathogens are becoming increasingly resistant to standard antimicrobial drugs, making treatment difficult and in some cases impossible. We summarize our experience on emerging parasitic diseases (primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, respiratory cryptosporidiosis, and diplogonoporiasis), and selected problems of bacterial resistance (MDR tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and macrolide-resistance mechanisms of Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes). PMID:11091058
Gomez-Lus, R; Clavel, A; Castillo, J; Seral, C; Rubio, C
As a rule, both the standard of hygiene and sanitation prevalent in hospitals in the United States and the rarity of parasitic diseases compared to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections, reduce the hazard of nosocomial acquisition of parasites to relatively trivial levels. However, abetted by the resultant low index of suspicion on the part of clinical staff, certain parasitic microorganisms may at times cause significant morbidity and even mortality in both normal and immunocompromised patients, as summarized in this review. Also, the nosocomial acquisition of parasites may be somewhat underappreciated because the incubation period for clinical illness may be days to weeks and thus a hospital-acquired infection may not be recognized as such, particularly if the parasite is endemic locally. Parasitic diseases have been a much more significant problem in certain special facilities, such as custodial institutions for the mentally ill or retarded, where crowding, poor environmental sanitation, and low levels of personal hygiene have in the past allowed the rapid dissemination and endemic occurrence of a large variety of parasitic infections. It is likely that nosocomial transmission of parasites may be an even greater problem in some hospitals in the tropics, where strict hygienic standards are costly or otherwise more difficult to maintain, and where often an increased proportion of the patient population harbors one or more parasites. However, the exact magnitude of the problem in tropical hospitals is also more difficult to determine because nosocomial acquisition of a parasitic infection may not be distinguished easily versus exogenous infection or reactivation of latent infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2022865
Lettau, L A
Parasitic diseases of the biliary tract occur frequently in tropical and subtropical areas and cause high morbidity and mortality. In general, neither the clinical presentation nor the general laboratory findings are sufficiently unique to raise the possibility of a parasitic biliary infestation in the mind of the surgeon. Once considered, however, the presence of a parasitic biliary infestation is easily confirmed. Most commonly this is accomplished by the identification of the parasite in stools or duodenal contents. Ultrasonography, CT and MRI are not only important in the diagnosis of parasitic biliary diseases but also in the follow-up and surveillance. ERCP is an excellent diagnostic tool for demonstrating the presence of parasites in the biliary tree. Furthermore, ERCP is also used in the therapy of biliary parasitic infestations and carries less morbidity and mortality than the surgical approach. Surgery is only indicated in complicated cases. Mechanisms that may be effective against parasites include: antibodies; cytotoxic T cells; T-cell-induced activated macrophages; natural killer cells, and a variety of cells that mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and modulators of the immune system such as cytokines. Future research has to focus on the importance of these mechanisms for the immune evasion by parasites. PMID:9845601
Osman, M; Lausten, S B; El-Sefi, T; Boghdadi, I; Rashed, M Y; Jensen, S L
Ectoparasitic diseases are endemic in many poor communities in north-east Brazil, and heavy infestation is frequent. We conducted two studies to assess disease perception and health care seeking behaviour in relation to parasitic skin diseases and to determine their public health importance. The first study comprised a representative cross-sectional survey of the population of a slum in north-east Brazil. Inhabitants were examined for the presence of scabies, tungiasis, pediculosis and cutaneous larva migrans (CLM). The second study assessed health care seeking behaviour related to these ectoparasitic diseases of patients attending a Primary Health Care Centre (PHCC) adjacent to the slum. Point prevalence rates in the community were: head lice 43.3% (95% CI: 40.5-46.3), tungiasis 33.6% (95% CI: 30.9-36.4), scabies 8.8% (95% CI: 7.3-10.6) and CLM 3.1% (95% CI: 2.2-4.3). Point prevalence rates of patients attending the PHCC were: head lice 38.2% (95% CI: 32.6-44.1), tungiasis 19.1% (95% CI: 14.7-24.1), scabies 18.8% (95% CI: 14.4-23.7) and CLM 2.1% (95% CI: 0.8-4.5). Only 28 of 54 patients with scabies, three of 55 patients with tungiasis, four of six patients with CLM and zero of 110 patients with head lice sought medical assistance. The physicians of the PHCC only diagnosed a parasitic skin disease when it was pointed out by the patient himself. In all cases patients were correctly informed about the ectoparasites they carried. The results show that tungiasis and pediculosis, and to a lesser extent scabies and CLM, are hyperendemic but neglected by both population and physicians, and that prevalence rates of tungiasis and scabies at the PHCC do not reflect the true prevalence of these diseases in the community. PMID:12667157
Heukelbach, Jörg; van Haeff, Evelien; Rump, Babette; Wilcke, Thomas; Moura, Rômulo César Sabóia; Feldmeier, Hermann
There is a worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular diseases causing not only a public health issue but also accounting for trillions of dollars of healthcare expenditure. Studies pertaining to epidemiology, pathophysiology, molecular biology, gene identification and genetic linkage maps have been able to lay a strong foundation for both the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular medicine. Although the concept of 'epigenetics' is not recent, the term in current usage is extended from the initial concept of 'controlling developmental gene expression and signaling pathways in undifferentiated zygotes' to include heritable changes to gene expression that are not from differences in the genetic code. The impact of epigenetics in cardiovascular disease is now emerging as an important regulatory key player at different levels from pathophysiology to therapeutics. This review focuses on the emerging role of epigenetics in major cardiovascular medicine specialties such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetes. PMID:24982752
Abi Khalil, Charbel
There is a worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular diseases causing not only a public health issue but also accounting for trillions of dollars of healthcare expenditure. Studies pertaining to epidemiology, pathophysiology, molecular biology, gene identification and genetic linkage maps have been able to lay a strong foundation for both the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular medicine. Although the concept of ‘epigenetics’ is not recent, the term in current usage is extended from the initial concept of ‘controlling developmental gene expression and signaling pathways in undifferentiated zygotes’ to include heritable changes to gene expression that are not from differences in the genetic code. The impact of epigenetics in cardiovascular disease is now emerging as an important regulatory key player at different levels from pathophysiology to therapeutics. This review focuses on the emerging role of epigenetics in major cardiovascular medicine specialties such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetes.
Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases.
Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong
Hungary was not considered to be a heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) endemic country until 2007, when the first autochthonous canine infection was described. Herein we report additional autochthonous heartworm infections in two dogs (Canis familiaris), twenty red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (n=534; prevalence: 3.7%; 95% CI=2.4-5.7%) and two golden jackals (Canis aureus) (n=27; prevalence: 7.4%; 95% CI=2.1-23.4%) coming from eight counties. The identification of the parasite was based on morphology, morphometrics and amplification of 12S rDNA followed by sequencing in all cases. Our results indicate that Hungary became a D. immitis endemic country in the past decade. The prevalence and intensity of heartworm infection in wild canids is similar to or lower than that observed in the Mediterranean countries of Europe (3.7-7.4% vs. 0.4-12.7% and 1.5 vs. 2.9-4.4 worms/animal). These findings are in line with the results of the recently developed climate based forecast model to predict the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary. PMID:24810374
Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sproch, A; Szeredi, L; Sréter, T
Even though description of the magnifying glass goes back to 1021 by an Arabic physicist in his book, Antony van Leeuwenhoek was the first man to improve the then simple microscope for viewing biological specimens in 1674. This suggests that every discovery has scope for improvement, be it physics or be it biology. In the field of biology, scientists have long studied gene expression as a hallmark of gene activities reflecting the current cell conditions and response to host immune defense systems. These studies have been cumbersome, technically demanding and time-consuming. Application of microarrays has revolutionized this field and help understand the simultaneous expression of thousands of genes in a single sample put onto a single solid support. It is also now possible to compare gene expression in two different cell types, different stages of life cycle or two tissue samples, such as in healthy and diseased ones. Thus microarrays are beginning to dominate other conventional and molecular diagnostic technologies. The microarrays consist of solid supports onto which the nucleic acid sequences from thousands of different genes are immobilized, or attached at fixed locations. These solid supports themselves are usually glass slides, silicon chips or nylon membranes. The nucleic acids are spotted or synthesized directly onto the support. Application of microarrays is new for parasites. Most of these applications are done for monitoring parasite gene expression, to predict the functions of uncharacterized genes, probe the physiologic adaptations made under various environmental conditions, identify virulence-associated genes and test the effects of drug targets. The best examples are vector-borne parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania, in which genes expressed, during mammalian and insect host stages, have been elucidated. Microarrays have also been successfully applied to understand the factors responsible to induce transformation from tachyzoite-to-bradyzoite and vice versa in Toxoplasma gondii. Thus microarrays provide a novel tool for diagnosis, prognosis and clinical management of infectious disease. PMID:21938240
Dey, Ayan; Singh, Sarman
During the last fifteen years, new viral diseases such Bluetongue (BT), West Nile (WN), African horse sickness (AHS), Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) have extended their geographic distribution and emerged in North Africa and in Europe. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is considered as a potential vector in the transmission of some of these diseases while it is host-specific for Camelpox (CP). A serological survey was conducted on 1392 sera to estimate changes of these diseases prevalence in camels over two different time spans (2003 and 2009) and across different sites of South Morocco. Results indicate clearly that BT was circulating in camels before the first notified outbreak in Morocco (2004) with 42% positive sera in Guelmim in 2003. BT and WN prevalence's increased over time from 11 to 25% and from 10 to 13% respectively. Higher prevalence of both diseases was found in camels living in oases indicating an increased intensity of viral circulation in these sites. Camels have been tested negative for AHS, EHD and PPR viruses while higher CP prevalence has been detected in camels living in Smara, the most closed site to eastern borders (i.e. Mauritania). The seroprevalence of CP in camels at interval of 7 years increases from 23% to 37%. This survey could provide information on the possible use of camel as a sentinel animal for surveillance of emerging diseases such BT and WN. PMID:22222004
Touil, N; Cherkaoui, Z; Lmrabih, Z; Loutfi, C; Harif, B; El Harrak, M
To obtain low and high parasite loads in the acute phase of Chagas' disease, A/J mice were infected with 10(3) or 10(5) Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes of the Y strain and treated on day 6 with benznidazol. One year later, chronically infected mice were screened for subpatent parasitemias, tissue pathology, and immune response. Mice infected with the high parasite inoculum showed higher levels of chronic parasitemias, heart and striated muscle inflammation, and activation of the immune system than did mice infected with the low inoculum. Concerning the activation of the immune system, the main findings for high-dose-infected mice were (i) increased numbers of splenocytes, with preferential expansion of CD8(+) and B220(-) CD5(-) cells, many of them bearing a macrophage phenotype; (ii) higher frequencies of B (B220(+)), CD4(+), and CD8(+) large lymphocytes; (iii) a shift of CD4(+) cells towards a CD45RBLow phenotype; (iv) increased frequencies of both CD45RBLow and CD45RBHigh large CD4(+) cells; (v) augmented numbers of total immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells, with predominance of IgG2a-producing cells; and (vi) increased production of gamma interferon and interleukin 4. In addition, these mice presented lower IgM and higher IgG2a and IgG1 parasite-specific serum antibody levels. Our results indicate that the parasite load at the acute phase of T. cruzi infection influences the activation of the immune system and development of Chagas' disease pathology at the late chronic phase of the disease. PMID:9864231
Marinho, C R; D'Império Lima, M R; Grisotto, M G; Alvarez, J M
To obtain low and high parasite loads in the acute phase of Chagas’ disease, A/J mice were infected with 103 or 105 Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes of the Y strain and treated on day 6 with benznidazol. One year later, chronically infected mice were screened for subpatent parasitemias, tissue pathology, and immune response. Mice infected with the high parasite inoculum showed higher levels of chronic parasitemias, heart and striated muscle inflammation, and activation of the immune system than did mice infected with the low inoculum. Concerning the activation of the immune system, the main findings for high-dose-infected mice were (i) increased numbers of splenocytes, with preferential expansion of CD8+ and B220? CD5? cells, many of them bearing a macrophage phenotype; (ii) higher frequencies of B (B220+), CD4+, and CD8+ large lymphocytes; (iii) a shift of CD4+ cells towards a CD45RBLow phenotype; (iv) increased frequencies of both CD45RBLow and CD45RBHigh large CD4+ cells; (v) augmented numbers of total immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells, with predominance of IgG2a-producing cells; and (vi) increased production of gamma interferon and interleukin 4. In addition, these mice presented lower IgM and higher IgG2a and IgG1 parasite-specific serum antibody levels. Our results indicate that the parasite load at the acute phase of T. cruzi infection influences the activation of the immune system and development of Chagas’ disease pathology at the late chronic phase of the disease.
Marinho, Claudio R. F.; D'Imperio Lima, Maria Regina; Grisotto, Marcos G.; Alvarez, Jose M.
Environmental effects on the transmission of many parasitic diseases are well recognized, but the role of specific factors like climate and agricultural practices in modulating transmission is seldom characterized quantitatively. Based on studies of Schistosoma japonicum transmission in irrigated agricultural environments in western China, a mathematical model was used to quantify environmental impacts on transmission intensity. The model was calibrated by using field data from intervention studies in three villages and simulated to predict the effects of alternative control options. Both the results of these interventions and earlier epidemiological findings confirm the central role of environmental factors, particularly those relating to snail habitat and agricultural and sanitation practices. Moreover, the findings indicate the inadequacy of current niclosamide-praziquantel strategies alone to achieve sustainable interruption of transmission in some endemic areas. More generally, the analysis suggests a village-specific index of transmission potential and how this potential is modulated by time-varying factors, including climatological variables, seasonal water-contact patterns, and irrigation practices. These time-variable factors, a village's internal potential, and its connectedness to its neighbors provide a framework for evaluating the likelihood of sustained schistosomiasis transmission and suggest an approach to quantifying the role of environmental factors for other parasitic diseases.
Liang, Song; Seto, Edmund Y. W.; Remais, Justin V.; Zhong, Bo; Yang, Changhong; Hubbard, Alan; Davis, George M.; Gu, Xueguang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Spear, Robert C.
In August 1983, a study on parasites, diseases, and health status was conducted on sympatric populations of fallow deer (Darna dama) and white-tailed deer (Odocolleus virgini- anus) from Land Between The Lakes, Lyon and Trigg counties, Kentucky. Five adult deer of each species were studied. White-tailed deer had antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus and Leptospira interogans serovariety icterohemorrhagiae,
William R. Davidson; James M. Crum; Jack L. Blue; Dennis W. Sharp; John H. Phillips
The mucosal immune system consists of molecules, cells, and organized lymphoid structures intended to provide immunity to pathogens that impinge upon mucosal surfaces. Mucosal infection by intracellular pathogens results in the induction of cell- mediated immunity, as manifested by CD4-positive (CD4 + ) T helper-type 1 cells, as well as CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. These responses are normally accompanied by the synthesis of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) antibodies, which provide an important first line of defense against invasion of deeper tissues by these pathogens. New-generation live, attenuated viral vaccines, such as the cold-adapted, recombinant nasal influenza and oral rotavirus vaccines, optimize this form of mucosal immune protection. Despite these advances, new and reemerging infectious diseases are tipping the balance in favor of the parasite; continued mucosal vaccine development will be needed to effectively combat these new threats.
van Ginkel, F. W.; Nguyen, H. H.; McGhee, J. R.
Parasitic infectious diseases acquired in tourist areas may pose a challenge to physicians and to travel medicine practitioners. Acute schistosomiasis may be seen in returning travelers and migrants after primary infection. This form of schistosomiasis is frequently misdiagnosed due to its temporal delay and its nonspecific presentation and might occur even in countries where the disease is endemic, such as in Brazil. The patient developed the acute phase of schistosomiasis with severe clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 240 eggs per gram of stool. The treatment was administered with oxamniquine, and the control of cure of the patient was monitored and was favorable. The present paper aims to emphasize the importance of a detailed clinical history including information regarding travel history.
Guiguet Leal, Diego Averaldo; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Neves, Maria Francisca; Simoes, Luciana Franceschi; Bastos, Leticia Aparecida Duart; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Zanotti-Magalhaes, Eliana Maria; Magalhaes, Luiz Augusto
Dientamoeba fragilis is a pathogenic trichomonad found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and is implicated as a cause of diarrhoea. Despite its discovery over a century ago, there has been no recent thorough description of this parasite by microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, confocal and light microscopy were therefore used to characterise D. fragilis populations growing in xenic culture. Two different populations - smooth and ruffled cells - were identifiable by scanning electron microscopy. No flagella, pelta structures, undulating membrane or pseudocyst-like forms were present. The organelles in D. fragilis were analysed by transmission electron microscopy; like Trichomonas and Histomonas, D. fragilis contains hydrogenosomes that presumably represent the site of anaerobic respiration. The nuclear morphology of D. fragilis trophozoites grown in vitro and trophozoites from clinical isolates were also compared by confocal microscopy and light microscopy. The majority of cells grown in culture were mononucleate while most cells in permanent stained faecal smears were binucleate. The two nuclei of D. fragilis are morphologically indistinguishable and contain equivalent amounts of DNA as determined by DAPI staining. The approximate cell and nuclear volume of four isolates of D. fragilis were measured and shown to be comparable to other trichomonads. In addition, the discovery of a virus-like particle is reported, to our knowledge for the first time in D. fragilis. This study therefore provides extensive and novel details of the ultrastructure of a neglected protozoan parasite that is an emerging cause of human disease. PMID:22154849
Banik, Gouri R; Birch, Debra; Stark, Damien; Ellis, John T
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder that affects about 1% of the population worldwide. Despite significant advances in the identification of genetic mutations and signaling pathways that are associated with the disease, the precise mechanisms implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease are not well understood. More importantly, treatments that are effective in reversing the progression of the disease is essentially lacking. Further investigation into the pathogenic mechanisms of PD thus presents a pressing concern for neuroscientists. Recently, deregulation of the autophagic pathway is observed in the brains of PD patients and in models of PD. In this review we summarize current literature on the emerging involvement of autophagy in PD, and the implication for future development of treatment against the disorder. PMID:19754977
Cheung, Zelda H; Ip, Nancy Y
Specific microRNAs have emerged as key players in disease biology by playing crucial role in disease development and progression. This review draws attention to one such microRNA, miR-191 that has been recently reported to be abnormally expressed in several cancers (>20) and various other diseases like diabetes-type 2, Crohn’ s, pulmonary hypertension, and Alzheimer’ s. It regulates important cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration by targeting important transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, and cell cycle associated genes. Several studies have demonstrated it to be an excellent biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis leading to two patents already in its kitty. In this first review we summarize the current knowledge of the regulation, functions and targets of miR-191 and discuss its potential as a promising disease biomarker and therapeutic target.
Nagpal, Neha; Kulshreshtha, Ritu
Nonpathogenic bacteria in a genetically susceptible individual play a suggestive role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics are living organisms that exert a protective effect on intestinal mucosa. Although evidence supporting their use for inducing or maintaining remission of IBD remains limited, it may be reasonable to use probiotics as an adjunct to standard therapy for mild-to-moderate disease. Genetically modified probiotics may provide novel delivery methods of therapeutic payloads to inflamed intestinal mucosa. This review focuses on the emerging use of probiotics in the treatment of IBD.
Chandler, Matthew; Wollins, Eric; Toles, Anastasia; Borum, Marie
BackgroundThe control of emergence and spread of infectious diseases depends critically on the details of the genetic makeup of pathogens and hosts, their immunological, behavioral and ecological traits, and the pattern of temporal and spatial contacts among the age\\/stage-classes of susceptible and infectious host individuals.Methods and FindingsWe show that failing to acknowledge the existence of heterogeneities in the transmission rate
Luca Bolzoni; Leslie Real; Giulio de Leo; Matthew Baylis
Background The control of emergence and spread of infectious diseases depends critically on the details of the genetic makeup of pathogens and hosts, their immunological, behavioral and ecological traits, and the pattern of temporal and spatial contacts among the age/stage-classes of susceptible and infectious host individuals. Methods and Findings We show that failing to acknowledge the existence of heterogeneities in the transmission rate among age/stage-classes can make traditional eradication and control strategies ineffective, and in some cases, policies aimed at controlling pathogen emergence can even increase disease incidence in the host. When control strategies target for reduction in numbers those subsets of the population that effectively limit the production of new susceptible individuals, then control can produce a flush of new susceptibles entering the population. The availability of a new cohort of susceptibles may actually increase disease incidence. We illustrate these general points using Classical Swine Fever as a reference disease. Conclusion Negative effects of culling are robust to alternative formulations of epidemiological processes and underline the importance of better assessing transmission structure in the design of wildlife disease control strategies.
Bolzoni, Luca; Real, Leslie; De Leo, Giulio
Etiologic investigations of hypereosinophilia, often accompanied by IgE elevation, depends on the patient's geographic origin and travel history. In France, helminth diseases are the only parasitoses associated with hypereosinophilia. Some, such as oxyurosis in children, are frequent but generally mild. More severe but less frequent infections include distomatoses, trichinellosis, taeniasis, echinococcosis and visceral larva migrans. Among subjects originating from or having travelled to tropical areas with poor hygiene, eosinophilia may be due to early intense polyparasitism and has little etiologic value. In Gabon, a warm, humid country in equatorial Africa, schoolchildren harbor an average of three different parasites capable of inducing hypereosinophilia or serum IgE elevation. These children's eosinophil counts start to rise at very young age, after weaning and contact with soil, and continue to increase rapidly until adulthood. Average values across all age groups are 1580 eosinophils/mm3 and 3300 kU IgE/L. Direct diagnosis of chronic parasitic infections is often possible in this setting, and specific treatments can be prescribed. In contrast, hypereosinophilia has less etiologic significance in patients originating from or having travelled to the tropics and who present to European parasitology units. Direct examination is rarely positive, and the etiologic diagnosis will thus be guided by epidemiologic, clinical and serologic findings. These findings are sometimes sufficient to initiate probabilistic treatment with albendazole, ivermectin and praziquentel. PMID:21171249
Richard-Lenoble, Dominique; Kombila, Maryvonne; Gendrel, Dominique
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is an IL-10 family cytokine member that was recently discovered to be mainly produced by Th17 cells. Previous studies have indicated the importance of IL-22 in host defense against Gram-negative bacterial organisms (in gut and lung). Recently, there is emerging evidence that IL-22 is involved in the development and pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) and psoriasis. Therapeutics targeting IL-22 therefore may have promise for treating various autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss the recent progression of the involvement of IL-22 in the development and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, as well as its clinical implications and therapeutic potential.
Pan, Hai-Feng; Li, Xiang-Pei; Zheng, Song Guo; Ye, Dong-Qing
Assessment of vascular disease has evolved from mere indirect and direct measurements of luminal stenosis to sophisticated imaging methods to depict millimeter structural changes of the vasculature. In the near future, the emergence of multimodal molecular imaging strategies may enable robust therapeutic and diagnostic (‘theragnostic’) approaches to vascular diseases that comprehensively consider structural, functional, biological and genomic characteristics of the disease in individualized risk assessment, early diagnosis and delivery of targeted interventions. This review presents a summary of recent preclinical and clinical developments in molecular imaging and theragnostic applications covering diverse atherosclerosis events such as endothelial activation, macrophage infammatory activity, plaque neovascularization and arterial thrombosis. The main focus is on molecular targets designed for imaging platforms commonly used in clinical medicine including magnetic resonance, computed tomography and positron emission tomography. A special emphasis is given to vascular ultrasound applications, considering the important role this imaging platform plays in the clinical and research practice of the vascular medicine specialty.
Eraso, Luis H; Reilly, Muredach P; Sehgal, Chandra; Mohler, Emile R
The disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has caused dramatic amphibian population declines and extinctions in Australia, Central and North America, and Europe. Bd is associated with >200 species extinctions of amphibians, but not all species that become infected are susceptible to the disease. Specifically, Bd has rapidly emerged in some areas of the world, such as in Australia, USA, and throughout Central and South America, causing population and species collapse. The mechanism behind the rapid global emergence of the disease is poorly understood, in part due to an incomplete picture of the global distribution of Bd. At present, there is a considerable amount of geographic bias in survey effort for Bd, with Asia being the most neglected continent. To date, Bd surveys have been published for few Asian countries, and infected amphibians have been reported only from Indonesia, South Korea, China and Japan. Thus far, there have been no substantiated reports of enigmatic or suspected disease-caused population declines of the kind that has been attributed to Bd in other areas. In order to gain a more detailed picture of the distribution of Bd in Asia, we undertook a widespread, opportunistic survey of over 3,000 amphibians for Bd throughout Asia and adjoining Papua New Guinea. Survey sites spanned 15 countries, approximately 36° latitude, 111° longitude, and over 2000 m in elevation. Bd prevalence was very low throughout our survey area (2.35% overall) and infected animals were not clumped as would be expected in epizootic events. This suggests that Bd is either newly emerging in Asia, endemic at low prevalence, or that some other ecological factor is preventing Bd from fully invading Asian amphibians. The current observed pattern in Asia differs from that in many other parts of the world.
Swei, Andrea; Rowley, Jodi J. L.; Rodder, Dennis; Diesmos, Mae L. L.; Diesmos, Arvin C.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brown, Rafe; Cao, Trung Tien; Cheng, Tina L.; Chong, Rebecca A.; Han, Ben; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hoang, Huy Duc; Kusrini, Mirza D.; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Min, Mi-Sook; Mulcahy, Daniel G.; Neang, Thy; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Rao, Ding-Qi; Reeder, Natalie M.; Schoville, Sean D.; Sivongxay, Niane; Srei, Narin; Stock, Matthias; Stuart, Bryan L.; Torres, Lilia S.; Tran, Dao Thi Anh; Tunstall, Tate S.; Vieites, David; Vredenburg, Vance T.
The disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has caused dramatic amphibian population declines and extinctions in Australia, Central and North America, and Europe. Bd is associated with >200 species extinctions of amphibians, but not all species that become infected are susceptible to the disease. Specifically, Bd has rapidly emerged in some areas of the world, such as in Australia, USA, and throughout Central and South America, causing population and species collapse. The mechanism behind the rapid global emergence of the disease is poorly understood, in part due to an incomplete picture of the global distribution of Bd. At present, there is a considerable amount of geographic bias in survey effort for Bd, with Asia being the most neglected continent. To date, Bd surveys have been published for few Asian countries, and infected amphibians have been reported only from Indonesia, South Korea, China and Japan. Thus far, there have been no substantiated reports of enigmatic or suspected disease-caused population declines of the kind that has been attributed to Bd in other areas. In order to gain a more detailed picture of the distribution of Bd in Asia, we undertook a widespread, opportunistic survey of over 3,000 amphibians for Bd throughout Asia and adjoining Papua New Guinea. Survey sites spanned 15 countries, approximately 36° latitude, 111° longitude, and over 2000 m in elevation. Bd prevalence was very low throughout our survey area (2.35% overall) and infected animals were not clumped as would be expected in epizootic events. This suggests that Bd is either newly emerging in Asia, endemic at low prevalence, or that some other ecological factor is preventing Bd from fully invading Asian amphibians. The current observed pattern in Asia differs from that in many other parts of the world. PMID:21887238
Swei, Andrea; Rowley, Jodi J L; Rödder, Dennis; Diesmos, Mae L L; Diesmos, Arvin C; Briggs, Cheryl J; Brown, Rafe; Cao, Trung Tien; Cheng, Tina L; Chong, Rebecca A; Han, Ben; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hoang, Huy Duc; Kusrini, Mirza D; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; McGuire, Jimmy A; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Min, Mi-Sook; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Neang, Thy; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Rao, Ding-Qi; Reeder, Natalie M; Schoville, Sean D; Sivongxay, Niane; Srei, Narin; Stöck, Matthias; Stuart, Bryan L; Torres, Lilia S; Tran, Dao Thi Anh; Tunstall, Tate S; Vieites, David; Vredenburg, Vance T
Rodent parvoviruses, Helicobacter spp., murine norovirus, and several other previously unknown infectious agents have “emerged” in laboratory rodents relatively recently. These agents have been discovered serendipitously or through active investigation of atypical serology results, cell culture contamination, unexpected histopathology, or previously unrecognized clinical disease syndromes. The potential research impact of these agents is not fully known. Infected rodents have demonstrated immunomodulation, tumor suppression, clinical disease (particularly in immunodeficient rodents), and histopathology. Perturbations of organismal and cellular physiology also likely occur. These agents posed unique challenges to laboratory animal resource programs once discovered; it was necessary to develop specific diagnostic assays and an understanding of their epidemiology and transmission routes before attempting eradication, and then evaluate eradication methods for efficacy. Even then management approaches varied significantly, from apathy to total exclusion, and such inconsistency has hindered the sharing and transfer of rodents among institutions, particularly for genetically modified rodent models that may not be readily available. As additional infectious agents are discovered in laboratory rodents in coming years, much of what researchers have learned from experiences with the recently identified pathogens will be applicable. This article provides an overview of the discovery, detection, and research impact of infectious agents recently identified in laboratory rodents. We also discuss emerging syndromes for which there is a suspected infectious etiology, and the unique challenges of managing newly emerging infectious agents.
Besselsen, David G.; Franklin, Craig L.; Livingston, Robert S.; Riley, Lela K.
An exhaustive review on the organic illnesses presenting with psychiatric manifestations, properly defined pseudopsychiatric emergencies, is presented. A systematic classification of the numerous organic causes of psychiatric disorders, based on authors' experience and literature revision, is carefully analysed, and their suitable diagnostic management in emergency setting is proposed. Moreover, the role of bedside ultrasonography in Emergency Department is emphasized. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are separately discussed. A particular significance is given to "neuropsychological studies", displaying the complex connection between the central nervous system and the endocrine system. The role of immune system in influencing the central nervous system, explaining the model of "sickness behaviour" in inflammatory disease, is also described, according to recent reports of "psychoneuroimmunology". Moreover, the immune-mediated mechanism explaining how neoplasm can influence brain function in the "paraneoplastic syndromes" is shown. In order to facilitate the teaching method, organic illnesses presenting with acute psychic manifestations or mimicking specific psychiatric disorders are subdivided into three groups: (1) Endocrine and metabolic disorders and deficiency states; (2) Internal diseases; (3) Neurologic disorders. PMID:23436670
Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Daini, S; Bernardini, L; Petrongolo, L; Gentiloni Silveri, N
Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists.
Lafferty, Kevin D; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J; De Leo, Giulio; Dobson, Andrew P; Dunne, Jennifer A; Johnson, Pieter T J; Kuris, Armand M; Marcogliese, David J; Martinez, Neo D; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A; McLaughlin, John P; Mordecai, Erin A; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W
Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to public health and the majority are caused by zoonotic pathogens. Here we discuss new collaborative approaches to understanding the process of zoonotic disease emergence that link veterinary medicine, public health, and ecological approaches: conservation medicine and one health. We demonstrate how studies on the underlying drivers of disease emergence (bushmeat hunting, wildlife trade, and deforestation) can provide ways to model, predict, and ultimately prevent zoonotic disease emergence and spread. PMID:17848075
Daszak, P; Epstein, J H; Kilpatrick, A M; Aguirre, A A; Karesh, W B; Cunningham, A A
Hepatic hydatid disease is very common in Libya. In Zliten hospital, we operated 400 patients with hepatic hydatid cysts over period of 20 years. All patients were symptomatic. Their ages varied from 3 to 85 years including 215 female and 185 male patients. Their symptoms varied from abdominal pain to abdominal mass 67 patients were admitted through Accident and Emergency Department with acute presentations including fever, skin rash, jaundice and shock with acute abdominal pain. Those 67 patients had necessary investigations, resuscitation and underwent emergency surgery. The hepatic cysts in all patients were excised, and the obstructive jaundice was cleared in those patients with obstructive jaundice. Unfortunately, one of the patients died two days after the surgery because of multiple organ failure (MOF) Morbidity was wound Infection, bile leak and recurrence rate were all reported in our series. PMID:24479989
Yahya, Ali I; Shwereif, Hussen E; Ekheil, Mustafa A; Thoboot, Ahmed S; Algader, Kalid A; Gyaed, Fatma O; Aldarat, Abdsalem S
Hepatic hydatid disease is very common in Libya. In Zliten hospital, we operated 400 patients with hepatic hydatid cysts over period of 20 years. All patients were symptomatic. Their ages varied from 3 to 85 years including 215 female and 185 male patients. Their symptoms varied from abdominal pain to abdominal mass 67 patients were admitted through Accident and Emergency Department with acute presentations including fever, skin rash, jaundice and shock with acute abdominal pain. Those 67 patients had necessary investigations, resuscitation and underwent emergency surgery. The hepatic cysts in all patients were excised, and the obstructive jaundice was cleared in those patients with obstructive jaundice. Unfortunately, one of the patients died two days after the surgery because of multiple organ failure (MOF) Morbidity was wound Infection, bile leak and recurrence rate were all reported in our series.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is globally considered as the leading cause of death with 80% of CVD related deaths being reported from low and middle income countries like India. The relatively early onset age of CVD in India in comparison to Western countries also implies that most productive ages of the patient's life are lost fighting the disease. Conventional cardiovascular risk is attributed to lifestyle changes and altered metabolic activity. This forms the basis of a 10-year risk prediction score inspired by the Framingham study. Since South Asians display considerable heterogeneity in risk factors as compared to developed countries, there is a need to identify risk factors which would not only help in primary prevention but also prevent their recurrence. We reviewed published data on novel risk factors and their potential to identify cardiovascular risk at an early stage, with special emphasis on the Indian population. Emerging risk factors were reviewed to identify their potential to prevent CVD progression independently as well as in association with other cardiovascular risk factors. The most commonly studied emerging cardiovascular risk factors included coronary artery calcium score, lipoprotein (a), apolipoproteins, homocysteine, thrombosis markers like fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, carotid intima-media thickness, genotypic variations, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, C-reactive protein, platelets, and birth weight levels. Nonetheless, more studies on large sample size can ascertain the utility of these risk factors in estimation and analysis of cardiovascular risk especially in the Indian context. PMID:24083161
Gupta, Sushil; Gudapati, Ramesh; Gaurav, Kumar; Bhise, Manoj
Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis
Robert A. Robinson; Becki Lawson; Mike P. Toms; Kirsi M. Peck; James K. Kirkwood; Julian Chantrey; Innes R. Clatworthy; Andy D. Evans; Laura A. Hughes; Oliver C. Hutchinson; Shinto K. John; Tom W. Pennycott; Matthew W. Perkins; Peter S. Rowley; Vic R. Simpson; Kevin M. Tyler; Andrew A. Cunningham; Sean Rands
The surgical management of urolithiasis has undergone a remarkable clinical evolution over the past three decades. The once common practice of open stone surgery has nearly been relegated to historical interest by modern technology. The introduction of minimally invasive techniques, laparoscopy and robot-assisted surgery, have emerged to complete the urologist's armamentarium. The benefits to patients when other endourologic procedures have failed include less pain, shorter hospitalization and convalescence, and improved cosmesis. This chapter explores the historical shift from open to minimally invasive management for stone disease and the unique risks and outcomes associated with these procedures in modern urology. PMID:23177639
Humphreys, Mitchell R
Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important factor in determining the clinical outcome of leishmaniasis.
Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fatima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Luis C. C.
Kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis, found mostly throughout the Indian Subcontinent, East Africa, and Brazil, kills 20,000-40,000 persons annually. The agents, Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum, are obligatory intracellular protozoa of mononuclear phagocytes found principally in the spleen and bone marrow. Protracted fever, anemia, wasting, hepatosplenomegaly, hemorrhages, and bacterial co-infections are typical features. One hundred and twenty-two (122) in-hospital patients were studied to verify if higher bone marrow parasite load estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction is associated with severe disease. The estimated median parasite load was 5.0 parasites/10(6) human nucleated cells. It is much higher in deceased than among survivors (median 75.0 versus 4.2). Patients who lost more weight had a higher parasite burden, as well as patients with epistaxis, abdominal pain, edema, and jaundice. This study suggests that higher parasite load is influenced by wasting, which may lead to more severe disease. PMID:24615127
Silva, Joyce M; Zacarias, Danielle A; de Figueirędo, Lívio C; Soares, Maria Regiane A; Ishikawa, Edna A Y; Costa, Dorcas L; Costa, Carlos H N
To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea.
Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are anaerobic protozoan parasites that cause amebiasis and giardiasis, two of the most common diarrheal diseases worldwide. Current therapy relies on metronidazole, but resistance has been reported and the drug has significant adverse effects. Therefore, it is critical to search for effective, better-tolerated antiamebic and antigiardial drugs. We synthesized several examples of a recently reported class of Hsp90 inhibitors and evaluated these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Several of these inhibitors showed strong in vitro activity against both E. histolytica and G. lamblia trophozoites. The inhibitors were rescreened to discriminate between amebicidal and giardicidal activity and general cytotoxicity toward a mammalian cell line. No mammalian cytotoxicity was found at >100 ?M for 48 h for any of the inhibitors. To understand the mechanism of action, a competitive binding assay was performed using the fluorescent ATP analogue bis-ANS (4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid dipotassium salt) and recombinant E. histolytica Hsp90 preincubated in both the presence and absence of Hsp90 inhibitors. There was significant reduction in fluorescence compared to the level in the control, suggesting that E. histolytica Hsp90 is a selective target. The in vivo efficacy and safety of one Hsp90 inhibitor in a mouse model of amebic colitis and giardiasis was demonstrated by significant inhibition of parasite growth at a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 days and 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Considering the results for in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy, Hsp90 inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option for amebiasis and giardiasis. PMID:24820073
Debnath, Anjan; Shahinas, Dea; Bryant, Clifford; Hirata, Ken; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Hwang, Grace; Gut, Jiri; Renslo, Adam R; Pillai, Dylan R; Eckmann, Lars; Reed, Sharon L; McKerrow, James H
Epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as important components of a variety of human diseases, including cancer and central nervous system disorders. Despite recent studies highlighting the role of epigenetic mechanisms in several neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, to date, there has been a paucity of studies exploring the role of epigenetic factors in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is a progressive neurological disorder with characteristic motor and non-motor symptoms, including a range of neuropsychiatric features, for which neither preventative nor effective long-term treatment strategies are available. It is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and the second most prevalent after Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we present several lines of evidence suggesting that epigenetic factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD and propose on this basis a framework to guide future investigations into epigenetic mechanisms and systems biology of PD. These notions, together with technical advances in the ability to perform genome-wide analysis of epigenomic states, and newly available small-molecule probes targeting chromatin-modifying enzymes, may help design new treatment strategies for PD and other human diseases involving epigenetic dysregulation. PMID:21892731
Habibi, Ehsan; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali; Abdolmaleky, Hamid Mostafavi; Haggarty, Stephen J
Introduction Inflammation has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. C-reactive protein is an established nonspecific prognostic inflammatory biomarker for patients with acute coronary syndrome in the medical literature. This has led to a concerted effort to identify circulating inflammatory biomarkers to facilitate predicting the risk for and diagnosing coronary artery disease in at-risk subjects. The objective of this study was to search after novel inflammatory biomarkers reported as useful for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Methods The PubMed database was searched for reports published from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2012 of novel circulating biomarkers for coronary artery disease in addition to the established biomarker, C-reactive protein. The search terms used were “infarction”, “biomarkers”, and “markers”, and only original articles describing clinical trials that were written in English were included. All published articles were separately examined carefully after novel inflammatory markers for acute coronary syndrome. All irrelevant publications without content pertaining to inflammatory biomarkers for acute coronary syndrome were excluded from this study. Our results reflect all articles concerning biomarkers in humans. Results The PubMed search yielded 4,415 research articles. After further analysis, all relevant published original articles examining 53 biomarkers were included in this review, which identified 46 inflammation biomarkers useful for detecting coronary artery disease. Conclusion The emergence of diverse novel biomarkers for coronary artery disease has provided insight into the varied pathophysiology of this disease. Inflammatory biomarkers have tremendous potential in aiding the prediction of acute coronary syndrome and recurrent ischemic episodes, and will eventually help improve patient care and management.
Abstract Among the neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most devastating, resulting in significant mortality and contributing to nearly 2 million disability-adjusted life years. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a debilitating disorder caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Leishmania major, which results in disfiguration and scars. L. major genome was the first to be sequenced within the genus Leishmania. Use of proteomic data for annotating genomes is a complementary approach to conventional genome annotation approaches and is referred to as proteogenomics. We have used a proteogenomics-based approach to map the proteome of L. major and also annotate its genome. In this study, we searched L. major promastigote proteomic data against the annotated L. major protein database. Additionally, we searched the proteomic data against six-frame translated L. major genome. In all, we identified 3613 proteins in L. major promastigotes, which covered 43% of its proteome. We also identified 26 genome search-specific peptides, which led to the identification of three novel genes previously not identified in L. major. We also corrected the annotation of N-termini of 15 genes, which resulted in extension of their protein products. We have validated our proteogenomics findings by RT-PCR and sequencing. In addition, our study resulted in identification of 266 N-terminally acetylated peptides in L. major, one of the largest acetylated peptide datasets thus far in Leishmania. This dataset should be a valuable resource to researchers focusing on neglected tropical diseases. PMID:24937402
Pawar, Harsh; Renuse, Santosh; Khobragade, Sweta N; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Kumar, Praveen; Mahale, Kiran N; Gore, Kalpita; Kulkarni, Aditi; Dixit, Tanwi; Raju, Rajesh; Prasad, T S Keshava; Harsha, H C; Patole, Milind S; Pandey, Akhilesh
The life history of the nematode parasites of domestic ruminants usually involves the development and survival of free-living stages on pasture. The pasture is, therefore, the site of deposition, development and transmission of nematode infection and meteorological factors affecting the pasture will affect the parasites. Recently Thomas and Starr (1978) discussed an empirical technique for forecasting the timing of the summer wave of gastro-intestinal parasitism in North-East England in the lamb crop using meteorological data and in particular estimates of the duration of “surface wetness”. This paper presents an attempt to model “surface wetness” and the temperature limitation to nematode development.
Starr, J. R.; Thomas, R. J.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain associated with memory impairment, progressive cognitive decline and changes in personality and behavior, with rising incidence among elderly people. Reflecting the world population ageing, the scenario is expected to worsen in the next decades if novel drugs or mechanisms that help to counteract neurodegeneration will not be identified. The complex neuropathology of AD is characterized by cholinergic loss, extracellular deposition of amyloid-? plaques, formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, chronic brain inflammation and oxidative damage. To date, there are no effective treatments that can slow or halt the disease, and currently approved drugs only seem to act as palliative by temporary ameliorating cognitive impairment. On the other hand, the role played by other biological systems in the pathogenetic process is now clearly growing and, as knowledge on how AD develops and triggers brain damage proceeds, drug discovery attempts to identify new potential therapeutic targets. This review will focus on these emerging strategies, some of which could open new therapeutic perspectives in Alzheimer's disease, adding new elements for the medicinal chemist to handle and combine for the design of novel multi-target-directed ligands able to simultaneously modulate 'old classic' and newly identified targets. PMID:23931436
Rampa, Angela; Gobbi, Silvia; Belluti, Federica; Bisi, Alessandra
Our understanding of genes that cause skeletal muscle disease has increased tremendously over the past three decades. Advances in approaches to genetics and genomics have aided in the identification of new pathogenic mechanisms in rare genetic disorders and have opened up new avenues for therapeutic interventions by identification of new molecular pathways in muscle disease. Recent studies have identified mutations of several Kelch proteins in skeletal muscle disorders. The Kelch superfamily is one of the largest evolutionary conserved gene families. The 66 known family members all possess a Kelch-repeat containing domain and are implicated in diverse biological functions. In skeletal muscle development, several Kelch family members regulate the processes of proliferation and/or differentiation resulting in normal functioning of mature muscles. Importantly, many Kelch proteins function as substrate-specific adaptors for Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase (Cul3), a core component of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to regulate the protein turnover. This review discusses the emerging roles of Kelch proteins in skeletal muscle function and disease.
In the recent film Contagion, a medical thriller released in fall 2011, the fictitious MEV-1 virus—passed from bat to pig to humans—spreads across the globe as easily as the common cold, killing millions of humans and causing mass hysteria as medical researchers race to find a cure. Though it's Hollywood hyperbole, the film holds a kernel of truth: Researchers believe that the close proximity of Malaysian hog farms to forested areas—the natural habitat for fruit bats—allowed the previously unknown Nipah virus to spill from bats into pigs and subsequently into people, resulting in more than 100 human deaths (Epstein et al. 2006). There is no doubt that in recent times we have seen an unprecedented number of emerging infectious diseases, defined by the Institute for Medicine as new, reemerging, or drug-resistant infections whose incidence has increased or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future. Many of these have a wildlife origin (Taylor et al. 2001). While this jump may be due, in part, to increased vigilance and reporting, there is a general consensus that current global conditions are creating a situation that is very favorable to the transmission of microbes that cause diseases. (For reviews, see Daszak et al. 2001 and Keesing et al. 2010). Likewise, it's increasingly important that wildlife professionals become aware of how and why new infectious diseases spread and what, if anything, can be done to minimize impacts on wildlife.
Sleeman, Jonathan; Gillin, Colin
Dry eye is one of the most commonly encountered problems in ophthalmology. Signs can include punctate epithelial erosions, hyperemia, low tear lakes, rapid tear break-up time, and meibomian gland disease. Current methods of diagnosis include a slit-lamp examination with and without different stains, including fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green. Other methods are the Schirmer test, tear function index, tear break-up time, and functional visual acuity. Emerging technologies include meniscometry, optical coherence tomography, tear film stability analysis, interferometry, tear osmolarity, the tear film normalization test, ocular surface thermography, and tear biomarkers. Patient-specific considerations involve relevant history of autoimmune disease, refractive surgery or use of oral medications, and allergies or rosacea. Other patient considerations include clinical examination for lid margin disease and presence of lagophthalmos or blink abnormalities. Given a complex presentation and a variety of signs and symptoms, it would be beneficial if there was an inexpensive, readily available, and reproducible diagnostic test for dry eye. PMID:24672224
Zeev, Maya Salomon-Ben; Miller, Darby Douglas; Latkany, Robert
Dry eye is one of the most commonly encountered problems in ophthalmology. Signs can include punctate epithelial erosions, hyperemia, low tear lakes, rapid tear break-up time, and meibomian gland disease. Current methods of diagnosis include a slit-lamp examination with and without different stains, including fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green. Other methods are the Schirmer test, tear function index, tear break-up time, and functional visual acuity. Emerging technologies include meniscometry, optical coherence tomography, tear film stability analysis, interferometry, tear osmolarity, the tear film normalization test, ocular surface thermography, and tear biomarkers. Patient-specific considerations involve relevant history of autoimmune disease, refractive surgery or use of oral medications, and allergies or rosacea. Other patient considerations include clinical examination for lid margin disease and presence of lagophthalmos or blink abnormalities. Given a complex presentation and a variety of signs and symptoms, it would be beneficial if there was an inexpensive, readily available, and reproducible diagnostic test for dry eye.
Zeev, Maya Salomon-Ben; Miller, Darby Douglas; Latkany, Robert
Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163
Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo
Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein.
Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo
Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more) for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%). Deliverability, acceptability to health workers, end users and the effect on equity were all seen as highly likely (~ 90%). In terms of the maximum potential impact on meningitis disease burden, the median potential effectiveness of the vaccines in reduction of overall meningitis mortality was estimated to be 20%; (interquartile range 20-40% and min. 8%, max 50 %). For the multivalent meningococcal vaccines the experts had similar optimism for most of the 12 CHNRI criteria with slightly lower optimism in answerability and low development cost criteria. The main concern was expressed over the cost of product, its affordability and cost of implementation. Conclusions With increasing recognition of the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially during epidemics in Africa, it is vitally important that strategies are taken to reduce the morbidity and mortality attributable to this disease. Improved MC vaccines are a promising investment that could substantially contribute to reduction of child meningitis mortality world-wide.
Antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs, which suppress the translation of specific mRNA target proteins, are emerging as important therapeutic modalities for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Over the last 25 years, the advances in all aspects of antisense technology, as well as a detailed understanding of the mechanism of action of antisense drugs, have enabled their use as therapeutic agents. These advancements culminated in the FDA approval of the first chronically administered cardiovascular antisense therapeutic, mipomersen, which targets hepatic apolipoprotein B mRNA. This review provides a brief history of antisense technology, highlights the progression of mipomersen from preclinical studies to multiple Phase III registration trials, and gives an update on the status of other cardiovascular antisense therapeutics currently in the clinic. PMID:23856914
Lee, Richard G; Crosby, Jeff; Baker, Brenda F; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M
Here, I briefly review past history and present patterns in the interactions between parasites (defined broadly to include viruses and bacteria along with protozoan, hel- minth and arthropod parasites) and human populations in developed and developing countries. Against this background, I offer thoughts on current public health initiatives at national and international levels, with particular reference to the Millennium Development
Robert M. May
Summary: The discovery of Wolbachia intracellular bacteria within filarial nematodes, including Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis or “river blindness,” has delivered a paradigm shift in our understanding of the parasite's biology, to where we now know that the bacterial endosymbionts are essential for normal development of larvae and embryos and may support the long-term survival of adult worms. The apparent mutualistic dependency has also offered a novel approach to the treatment of onchocerciasis through the use of antibiotics to eliminate Wolbachia, delivering for the first time a treatment which has significant macrofilaricidal efficacy. Studies with other filarial nematode species have also highlighted a role for Wolbachia in transmission and infection of the mammalian host through a fascinating manipulation of mast cell-mediated vasodilation to enhance infectivity of vector-borne larvae. Wolbachia has also been identified as the principal driver of innate and adaptive Th1 inflammatory immunity, which can either contribute to disease pathogenesis or, with the Wolbachia-mediated recruitment of mast cells, enhance infectivity. The Wolbachia activation of innate inflammation also drives inflammatory adverse events in response to chemotherapy with either diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin. In this review we summarize the experimental and field trial data which have uncovered the importance of Wolbachia symbiosis in onchocerciasis.
Tamarozzi, Francesca; Halliday, Alice; Gentil, Katrin; Hoerauf, Achim; Pearlman, Eric; Taylor, Mark J.
Invasive strains of non-typhoidal salmonellae have emerged as a prominent cause of bloodstream infection in African adults and children, with an associated case fatality of 20-25%. The clinical presentation of invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease in Africa is diverse: fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and respiratory symptoms are common, and features of enterocolitis are often absent. The most important risk factors are HIV infection in adults, and malaria, HIV, and malnutrition in children. A distinct genotype of Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium, ST313, has emerged as a new pathogenic clade in sub-Saharan Africa, and might have adapted to cause invasive disease in human beings. Multidrug-resistant ST313 has caused epidemics in several African countries, and has driven the use of expensive antimicrobial drugs in the poorest health services in the world. Studies of systemic cellular and humoral immune responses in adults infected with HIV have revealed key host immune defects contributing to invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease. This emerging pathogen might therefore have adapted to occupy an ecological and immunological niche provided by HIV, malaria, and malnutrition in Africa. A good understanding of the epidemiology of this neglected disease will open new avenues for development and implementation of vaccine and public health strategies to prevent infections and interrupt transmission. PMID:22587967
Feasey, Nicholas A; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A
Summary Invasive strains of non-typhoidal salmonellae have emerged as a prominent cause of bloodstream infection in African adults and children, with an associated case fatality of 20–25%. The clinical presentation of invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease in Africa is diverse: fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and respiratory symptoms are common, and features of enterocolitis are often absent. The most important risk factors are HIV infection in adults, and malaria, HIV, and malnutrition in children. A distinct genotype of Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium, ST313, has emerged as a new pathogenic clade in sub-Saharan Africa, and might have adapted to cause invasive disease in human beings. Multidrug-resistant ST313 has caused epidemics in several African countries, and has driven the use of expensive antimicrobial drugs in the poorest health services in the world. Studies of systemic cellular and humoral immune responses in adults infected with HIV have revealed key host immune defects contributing to invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease. This emerging pathogen might therefore have adapted to occupy an ecological and immunological niche provided by HIV, malaria, and malnutrition in Africa. A good understanding of the epidemiology of this neglected disease will open new avenues for development and implementation of vaccine and public health strategies to prevent infections and interrupt transmission.
Feasey, Nicholas A; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A
This Canadian Fisheries and Oceans fact sheet features Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX), a protistan parasite of the commercially exploited hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria. The fact sheet includes information about its common name, scientific name, geographic distribution, host species and impact, diagnostic techniques, and references.
Bower, S. M.; Region, Fisheries A.
Cryptosporidiosis has recently attracted attention as an emerging water borne and food borne disease as well as an opportunistic infection in HIV infected indivduals. The lack of genetic information, however, has resulted in confusion in the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium parasites ...
The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration.
Buono, Lorenza; Lopez-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana
Background Clinical malaria has proven an elusive burden to enumerate. Many cases go undetected by routine disease recording systems. Epidemiologists have, therefore, frequently defaulted to actively measuring malaria in population cohorts through time. Measuring the clinical incidence of malaria longitudinally is labour-intensive and impossible to undertake universally. There is a need, therefore, to define a relationship between clinical incidence and the easier and more commonly measured index of infection prevalence: the "parasite rate". This relationship can help provide an informed basis to define malaria burdens in areas where health statistics are inadequate. Methods Formal literature searches were conducted for Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence surveys undertaken prospectively through active case detection at least every 14 days. The data were abstracted, standardized and geo-referenced. Incidence surveys were time-space matched with modelled estimates of infection prevalence derived from a larger database of parasite prevalence surveys and modelling procedures developed for a global malaria endemicity map. Several potential relationships between clinical incidence and infection prevalence were then specified in a non-parametric Gaussian process model with minimal, biologically informed, prior constraints. Bayesian inference was then used to choose between the candidate models. Results The suggested relationships with credible intervals are shown for the Africa and a combined America and Central and South East Asia regions. In both regions clinical incidence increased slowly and smoothly as a function of infection prevalence. In Africa, when infection prevalence exceeded 40%, clinical incidence reached a plateau of 500 cases per thousand of the population per annum. In the combined America and Central and South East Asia regions, this plateau was reached at 250 cases per thousand of the population per annum. A temporal volatility model was also incorporated to facilitate a closer description of the variance in the observed data. Conclusion It was possible to model a relationship between clinical incidence and P. falciparum infection prevalence but the best-fit models were very noisy reflecting the large variance within the observed opportunistic data sample. This continuous quantification allows for estimates of the clinical burden of P. falciparum of known confidence from wherever an estimate of P. falciparum prevalence is available.
Patil, Anand P; Okiro, Emelda A; Gething, Peter W; Guerra, Carlos A; Sharma, Surya K; Snow, Robert W; Hay, Simon I
Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to public health and the majority are caused by zoonotic pathogens. Here we\\u000a discuss new collaborative approaches to understanding the process of zoonotic disease emergence that link veterinary medicine,\\u000a public health, and ecological approaches: conservation medicine and one health. We demonstrate how studies on the underlying\\u000a drivers of disease emergence (bushmeat hunting, wildlife
P. Daszak; J. H. Epstein; A. M. Kilpatrick; A. A. Aguirre; W. B. Karesh; A. A. Cunningham
One hundred randomly-collected buffaloes (Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779)) were autopsied, and tissues and parasites were collected for histopathological studies and unidentification. Blood smears were prepared from 92 animals, of which 97 per cent prove...
P. A. Basson R. M. McCully S. P. Kruger J. W. Niekerk E. Young
This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.
Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.
Safari parks, roadside menageries, exotic animal auctions and wildlife rehabilitation centres exist world-wide, and serve as sites of wild animal concentrations. When these animals are brought together, the potential is great for the spread and eventual outbreak of many different infectious and parasitic diseases. It is therefore necessary that procedures be developed in these facilities to minimize the risk of occurrence and spread of these diseases. This will require financial resources for professional personnel, diagnostic testing and appropriate facility design. PMID:8924707
Porter, S L
This Academic Highlights section of The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry presents a report from “Global Challenges in Alzheimer's Disease: Emerging Therapeutic Strategies,” a satellite symposium of the Eleventh Annual International Congress of the International Psychogeriatric Association held August 20, 2003, in Chicago, Ill. The symposium and this Academic Highlights were sponsored by an unrestricted educational grant from Forest Laboratories, Inc. The chair was George T. Grossberg, M.D., Department of Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Louis University Health Science Center and Wohl Clinic, St. Louis, Mo. The other faculty members were Jody Corey-Bloom, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego and Veteran's Affairs Medical Center, La Jolla, Calif.; Gary W. Small, M.D., Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles; and Pierre N. Tariot, M.D., Departments of Psychiatry, Medicine, and Neurology and the Center for Aging and Developmental Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center and Monroe Community Hospital, Rochester, N.Y.
The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management.
Ricklefs, Robert E; Fallon, Sylvia M
Echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis of increasing concern. In 1903, the first cases of human polycystic echinococcosis, a disease resembling alveolar echinococcosis, emerged in Argentina. One of the parasites responsible, Echinococcus oligarthrus, had been discovered in its adult strobilar stage before 1850. However, >100 years passed from the first description of the adult parasite to the recognition that this species is responsible for some cases of human neotropical polycystic echinococcosis and the elucidation of the parasite’s life cycle. A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972. Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species. To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries.
Stich, August; Frosch, Matthias
A survey on the diffusion of intestinal parasites of dogs in the town of Rome. The results of a survey on the diffusion of cestodes and nematodes in a hundred dogs in Rome are reported. The dogs were subjected to fecal examinations --- using both the flottation method and the McMaster method -- and to the post-mortem examination of the intestine. At post-mortem examination 25 dogs were found parasitized by one or more species of nematodes, 19 by one or more species of cestodes and 12 both by cestodes and nematodes for a total of 56 animals parasitized. The parasites were identifed with the following frequency: Dipylidium caninum 28 per cent, Toxocara canis 17 per cent, Uncinaria stenocephala 15 per cent, Trichuris vulpis 10 per cent, Toxascaris leonina 9 per cent, Taenia pisiformis 4 per cent, Echinococcus granulosus 2 per cent, Ancylostoma caninum, T. hydatigena and Mesocestoides lineatus 1 per cent each. The most frequent parasite found in stray dogs was U. stenocephala (33.3 per cent) while among the dogs with owners the most frequent one was D. caninum (31.8 per cent) which was also identified most frequently in dogs over a year of age (31.1 per cent). The dogs under one year of age were more often affected by T. canis (43.7 per cent). In the paper a review of similar Italian surveys is also given. PMID:754133
Tassi, P; Widenhorn, O
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health. Here, we apply the definition of EIDs used in the medical and veterinary fields to botany and highlight a series of emerging plant diseases. We include EIDs of cultivated and wild plants, some of which are of significant conservation concern. The underlying cause of most plant EIDs is the
Pamela K. Anderson; Andrew A. Cunningham; Nikkita G. Patel; Francisco J. Morales; Paul R. Epstein; Peter Daszak
The identification of the worm Angiostrongylus costaricensis parasitizing land snails and humans in Southern Brazil suggests under-diagnosis and under-notification of patients with abdominal angiostrongyliasis. This article analyzes how the concept of abdominal angiostrongyliasis was constructed in different ways in Costa Rica and Brazil and how these changes affected the understanding of its clinical and epidemiological diagnosis. The research shows that abdominal angiostrongyliasis is, de facto, a sociocultural construct, although the parasites and vectors are real. The analisys also shows the importance of an interdisciplinary approach for understanding disease. PMID:22012103
Grisotti, Márcia; Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias de
Clostridial dermatitis of turkeys (CDT) has emerged as a major issue across most geographic regions of the United States. The prevalence and severity of dermatitis has increased over the last several years, since the time it was first reported in 1993. Cellulitis in poultry can be associated with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, but the more recent field situation in turkeys is specifically associated with Clostridium spp. The prevalence of cellulitis is relatively low; however, the disease can be devastating in the individual flocks affected. Clostridium septicum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium sordelli, and S. aureus can cause cellulitis. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp., and other bacteria have occasionally been isolated from birds diagnosed with cellulitis. CDT appears as excessive mortality in older birds around 16-18 weeks of age. It has been reported from field experience as early as 7 wk of age. Clinical signs of CDT can range from sudden death to inappetence, depression, leg weakness, recumbency, and ataxia. The disease is characterized by reddish to dark or greenish discoloration of the skin around the thighs, abdomen, keel, tail region, back, and wings. The lesions can extend into the underlying muscles, and there can be gas bubbles under the skin which result in crepitation. Some cases present with dead birds having "bubbly tail," fluid-filled blisters associated with broken feather follicles around the base of the tail. Bubbly tail in breeder toms might not cause excessive mortality, but the lesions are so severe that the birds cannot be used for semen collection. Incidence of mortality from this condition can be severe and acute (i.e., rapid onset of high mortality). The dead birds decompose very quickly. Microscopically, there is necrosis, with or without inflammation of the skin, especially in the dermis and occasionally in the skeletal muscles, associated with large numbers of rod-shaped bacteria. Overcrowding, aggressive birds, poor-wet litter, decreased down time, a contaminated environment including feed and water, poor hygienic conditions, and contaminated vaccines and vaccine equipment, etc., can predispose birds for CDT. Preventative measures and treatment are discussed extensively in this review. PMID:20608520
Clark, Steven; Porter, Rob; McComb, Brian; Lipper, Ron; Olson, Steve; Nohner, Sheilina; Shivaprasad, H L
Disease management (DM) has become a widely accepted way to support care delivery in the chronically ill patient population. Patients enrolled in these programs have been shown to have better health, fewer complications and comorbidities, and lower health care costs. The development of advanced information management technologies is further enhancing the role DM plays in optimizing outcomes and cost-effectiveness in clinical care. These emerging information management technologies (EIMT) include advances in software, hardware, and networking, all of which share common impact attributes in their ability to improve cost-effectiveness of care, quality of care, and access to care. Specific examples include interactive websites with the ability to engage patients in the self-care management process, the embedding of biometric devices (digital scales, modem-enabled glucose meters in the home, blood pressure monitoring, etc.), workflow and care coordination programs that add intelligence via guideline-directed alerts and reminders to the delivery process, registries that include a summary of personal health data that can be used as a reference point for improved clinical decisions, and the systematic collection of aggregated, de-identified clinical, administrative, and cost data into comprehensive data sets to which predictive modeling analytic tools can be applied. By way of case example, we also present data from a controlled clinical trial utilizing EIMT in the form of home-based weight measurement using a digital scale and linkage to a care coordination center for the management of severe congestive heart failure. Outcome results on 85,515 patient-months of an aggregate commercial and Medicare continuously enrolled population demonstrated an average reduction of care utilization (hospitalization) of 57% and a reduction in related delivery cost (per member per year payments) of 55%. We conclude that EIMT have already begun to offer significant and quantifiable benefits to DM and are likely to become heavily embedded in care management strategies in the future. PMID:14736346
Nobel, Jeremy J; Norman, Gordon K
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a growing medical problem in Western societies and presents itself mainly in two different clinical forms. Intermittent claudication is an early moderate manifestation, while patients with critical limb ischemia suffer from severe muscle tissue loss or ulcers and are at high risk for limb amputation. Unfortunately, many patients cannot be helped with currently available surgical or endovascular revascularization procedures because of the complex anatomy of the vascular occlusion and/or the presence of other risk factors. Noninvasive stem cell therapy has been proposed as an alternative for such patients. Although pioneering clinical experience with stem cell-related therapy seems promising, it is too early for general clinical use of this technique, since many questions remain unanswered. Indeed, while questions about safety, dose, and administration route/timing/frequency are the first ones to be addressed when designing a stem cell-based clinical approach, there is accumulating evidence from recent (pre-)clinical studies that other issues may also be at stake. For instance, the choice of stem cells to be used and its precise mechanism of action, the need/possibility for concurrent tissue regeneration in case of irreversible tissue loss, the differentiation degree and specific vascular identity of the transplanted cells, and the long-term survival of engrafted cells in the absence of a normal supportive tissue environment should be well considered. Here, rather than presenting a comprehensive and extensive overview on the current literature on stem/progenitor cells and revascularization, we highlight some of the outstanding issues emerging from the recent (pre-)clinical literature that may codetermine the successful application of stem cells in a wide range of PVD patients in the future. PMID:18712330
Aranguren, Xabier L; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Luttun, Aernout
OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term and long-term impact of selective mass treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in an economically depressed community in north-east Brazil. METHODS: An intervention was carried out in a traditional fishing village in north-east Brazil where the population of 605 is heavily affected by ectoparasites and enteroparasites. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was determined by serial stool examination and the prevalence of parasitic skin diseases by clinical inspection. A total of 525 people out of a target population of 576 were treated at baseline. The majority of these were treated with ivermectin (200 microg/kg with a second dose given after 10 days). If ivermectin was contraindicated, participants were treated with albendazole or mebendazole for intestinal helminths or with topical deltamethrin for ectoparasites. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 month and 9 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prevalence rates of intestinal helminthiases before treatment and at 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: hookworm disease 28.5%, 16.4% and 7.7%; ascariasis 17.1%, 0.4% and 7.2%; trichuriasis 16.5%, 3.4% and 9.4%; strongyloidiasis 11.0%, 0.6% and 0.7%; and hymenolepiasis 0.6%; 0.4% and 0.5%, respectively. Prevalence rates of parasitic skin diseases before treatment and 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: active pediculosis 16.1%, 1.0% and 10.3%; scabies 3.8%, 1.0% and 1.5%; cutaneous larva migrans 0.7%, 0% and 0%; tungiasis 51.3%, 52.1% and 31.2%, respectively. Adverse events occurred in 9.4% of treatments. They were all of mild to moderate severity and were transient. CONCLUSION: Mass treatment with ivermectin was an effective and safe means of reducing the prevalence of most of the parasitic diseases prevalent in a poor community in north-east Brazil. The effects of treatment lasted for a prolonged period of time.
Heukelbach, Jorg; Winter, Benedikt; Wilcke, Thomas; Muehlen, Marion; Albrecht, Stephan; de Oliveira, Fabiola Araujo Sales; Kerr-Pontes, Ligia Regina Sansigolo; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Feldmeier, Hermann
Wild primate populations, an unexplored source of information regarding emerging infectious disease, may hold valuable clues to the origins and evolution of some important pathogens. Primates can act as reservoirs for human pathogens. As members of biologically diverse habitats, they serve as sentinels for surveillance of emerging pathogens and provide models for basic research on natural transmission dynamics. Since emerging infectious diseases also pose serious threats to endangered and threatened primate species, studies of these diseases in primate populations can benefit conservation efforts and may provide the missing link between laboratory studies and the well-recognized needs of early disease detection, identification, and surveillance.
Wolfe, N. D.; Escalante, A. A.; Karesh, W. B.; Kilbourn, A.; Spielman, A.; Lal, A. A.
INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigation of voluntary feed intake (VFI) and nitrogen retention (NRET) during parasitic infections in small ruminants is the central theme of this thesis. An attempt was made to examine the effects of trypanosomiasis on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen retention and animal products. In addition, a similar investigation was conducted during a low to medium level fascioliasis infection in Menz
O. O. Akinbamijo
The proper allocation of public health resources for research and control requires quantification of both a disease's current burden and the trend in its impact. Infectious diseases that have been labeled as “emerging infectious diseases” (EIDs) have received heightened scientific and public attention and resources. However, the label ‘emerging’ is rarely backed by quantitative analysis and is often used subjectively. This can lead to over-allocation of resources to diseases that are incorrectly labelled “emerging,” and insufficient allocation of resources to diseases for which evidence of an increasing or high sustained impact is strong. We suggest a simple quantitative approach, segmented regression, to characterize the trends and emergence of diseases. Segmented regression identifies one or more trends in a time series and determines the most statistically parsimonious split(s) (or joinpoints) in the time series. These joinpoints in the time series indicate time points when a change in trend occurred and may identify periods in which drivers of disease impact change. We illustrate the method by analyzing temporal patterns in incidence data for twelve diseases. This approach provides a way to classify a disease as currently emerging, re-emerging, receding, or stable based on temporal trends, as well as to pinpoint the time when the change in these trends happened. We argue that quantitative approaches to defining emergence based on the trend in impact of a disease can, with appropriate context, be used to prioritize resources for research and control. Implementing this more rigorous definition of an EID will require buy-in and enforcement from scientists, policy makers, peer reviewers and journal editors, but has the potential to improve resource allocation for global health.
Funk, Sebastian; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Jones, Kate E.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Daszak, Peter
Variation in the incidence of vector-borne diseases is associated with extreme weather events and annual changes in weather conditions. Moreover, it is assumed that global warming might lead to an increase of infectious disease outbreaks. While a number of reports link disease outbreaks to single weather events, the El Nińo\\/Southern Oscillation and other largescale climate fluctuations, no report unequivocally associates
After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leismaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection.
Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao
Chagas disease, produced by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is one of the most frequent endemic diseases in Latin America. In spite the fact that in the past few years T. cruzi congenital transmission has become of epidemiological importance, studies about this mechanism of infection are scarce. In order to explore some morphological aspects of this infection in the placenta, we analyzed placentas from T. cruzi-infected mothers by immunohistochemical and histochemical methods. Infection in mothers, newborns, and placentas was confirmed by PCR and by immunofluorescence in the placenta. T. cruzi-infected placentas present destruction of the syncytiotrophoblast and villous stroma, selective disorganization of the basal lamina, and disorganization of collagen I in villous stroma. Our results suggest that the parasite induces reorganization of this tissue component and in this way may regulate both inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Changes in the ECM of placental tissues, together with the immunological status of mother and fetus, and parasite load may determine the probability of congenital transmission of T. cruzi.
Duaso, Juan; Yanez, Erika; Castillo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Corral, Gabriela; Maya, Juan Diego; Zulantay, Ines; Apt, Werner; Kemmerling, Ulrike
Benthic invertebrate samples were collected from six sites in the upper Colorado River basin in north-central Colorado to determine the distribution, abundance, and infection rates of Tubifex tubifex, the aquatic oligochaete host for the salmonid whirling disease parasite Myxobolus cerebralis. The disease has been implicated as a factor in severe recruitment declines in wild rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in this
Joseph S. Zendt; Eric P. Bergersen
The issue-focused interview reflects on how infectious diseases, such as SARS and AIDS, are a more serious global problem than in the past because: urban populations are growing, thereby increasing opportunities for person-to-person transmittal of these diseases, people are more prone to be in contact with animals that may pass on zoonotic diseases, and public health services may not be equipped to deal with some infectious outbreaks.
Stephen Morse (Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University;)
The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainly due to contaminated food and water, as a cause of death will decline worldwide. Evidence for such a downward trend is limited. This prediction presumes that improvements in the production and retail of microbiologically safe food will be sustained in the developed world and, moreover, will be rolled out to those countries of the developing world increasingly producing food for a global market. In this review evidence is presented to indicate that the microbiological safety of food remains a dynamic situation heavily influenced by multiple factors along the food chain from farm to fork. Sustaining food safety standards will depend on constant vigilance maintained by monitoring and surveillance but, with the rising importance of other food-related issues, such as food security, obesity and climate change, competition for resources in the future to enable this may be fierce. In addition the pathogen populations relevant to food safety are not static. Food is an excellent vehicle by which many pathogens (bacteria, viruses/prions and parasites) can reach an appropriate colonisation site in a new host. Although food production practices change, the well-recognised food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, seem able to evolve to exploit novel opportunities, for example fresh produce, and even generate new public health challenges, for example antimicrobial resistance. In addition, previously unknown food-borne pathogens, many of which are zoonotic, are constantly emerging. Current understanding of the trends in food-borne diseases for bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens has been reviewed. The bacterial pathogens are exemplified by those well-recognized by policy makers; i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Antimicrobial resistance in several bacterial food-borne pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella and Vibrio spp., methicillin resistant Staphylcoccus aureas, E. coli and Enterococci) has been discussed as a separate topic because of its relative importance to policy issues. Awareness and surveillance of viral food-borne pathogens is generally poor but emphasis is placed on Norovirus, Hepatitis A, rotaviruses and newly emerging viruses such as SARS. Many food-borne parasitic pathogens are known (for example Ascaris, Cryptosporidia and Trichinella) but few of these are effectively monitored in foods, livestock and wildlife and their epidemiology through the food-chain is poorly understood. The lessons learned and future challenges in each topic are debated. It is clear that one overall challenge is the generation and maintenance of constructive dialogue and collaboration between public health, veterinary and food safety experts, bringing together multidisciplinary skills and multi-pathogen expertise. Such collaboration is essential to monitor changing trends in the well-recognised diseases and detect emerging pathogens. It will also be necessary understand the multiple interactions these pathogens have with their environments during transmission along the food chain in order to develop effective prevention and control strategies. PMID:20153070
Newell, Diane G; Koopmans, Marion; Verhoef, Linda; Duizer, Erwin; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Sprong, Hein; Opsteegh, Marieke; Langelaar, Merel; Threfall, John; Scheutz, Flemming; van der Giessen, Joke; Kruse, Hilde
Several large outbreaks of Chikungunya infections in the past decade have stimulated renewed interest in the Chikungunya virus. This special issue describes recent outbreaks of Chikungunya and discusses possible reasons for the re-emergence of this arbovirus; reviews the ecology and geographic expansion of its vector, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus; summarizes our current knowledge of the immune response to
Lisa F. P. Ng; David M. Ojcius
Mycobacterium abscessus is emerging as an important cause of cutaneous infections in sporadic cases and outbreak settings. Although immunosuppressed or elderly patients are most commonly affected, in 2006 an outbreak of clinically distinct cutaneous lesions on the hands and feet caused by M. abscessus in a population of healthy children using a public swimming pool was reported. This article describes an outbreak of skin infection in a population of healthy Italian children attending the same school and using the same swimming pool. In January 2010 we identified three children with multiple, painful nodules on the palms and soles. M. abscessus was isolated from one child's lesions. A public health investigation was conducted and a team of dermatologists and public health officers visited all of the children; 514 children were screened and 29 cases were identified overall. All of the affected children had used the school's swimming pool. These children were treated with oral clarithromycin for 4 to 8 weeks. Because of the long period of time between the presentation and diagnosis of the first cases, the possibility that the number of cases may have been underestimated cannot be excluded. To our knowledge, this is the second largest reported cluster of M. abscessus skin infection suspected to be related to swimming pool exposure in a population of otherwise healthy children. It is unclear whether this disease is rare or should be considered as an emerging clinical entity. PMID:24758202
Sinagra, Jo Linda M; Kanitz, Elisabeth E; Cerocchi, Carlo; Cota, Carlo; Fantetti, Ottavia; Prignano, Grazia; Donati, Pietro; Tortoli, Enrico M; D'Ancona, Francesco P; Capitanio, Bruno
Among the approaches towards disease modifying treatment of Alzheimer’s disease blocking the initial step of the amyloid cascade, A?42 generation, has received most attention. A?42 generation requires two proteases, ?- and ?-secretase, and inhibition of these enzymes is a key focus of AD drug development. Progress in this area has been slow, because these enzymes were not identified. Using an
As a route to providing a framework for elucidating the content of public thinking concerning emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID), this article examines public engagement with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It explores how British lay publics represent MRSA utilising a social representations framework. For this group, MRSA is associated primarily with dirty National Health Service (NHS) hospitals that have
Hélčne Joffe; Peter Washer; Christian Solberg
The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases and their rapid dissemination worldwide are challenging national health systems, particularly in developing countries affected by extreme poverty and environmental degradation. The expectations that new vaccines and drugs and global surveillance would help reverse these trends have been frustrated thus far by the complexity of the epidemiological transition, despite promising prospects for the
Cristina de Albuquerque Possas
In today's world, emerging and re-emerging diseases have a significant impact on global economies and public health, and with bioterrorism a constant threat this has become a very topical subject in recent years. Bernard Vallat, director general of the OIE, made the statement, “As a result of globalisation and climate change we are currently facing an unprecedented worldwide impact of
BackgroundFast changes in human demographics worldwide, coupled with increased mobility, and modified land uses make the threat of emerging infectious diseases increasingly important. Currently there is worldwide alert for H5N1 avian influenza becoming as transmissible in humans as seasonal influenza, and potentially causing a pandemic of unprecedented proportions. Here we show how epidemiological surveillance data for emerging infectious diseases can
Luís M. A. Bettencourt; Ruy M. Ribeiro; David Lusseau
Autophagy is a highly conserved process that degrades cellular long-lived proteins and organelles. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy plays a critical role in kidney maintenance, diseases and aging. Ischemic, toxic, immunological, and oxidative insults can cause an induction of autophagy in renal epithelial cells modifying the course of various kidney diseases. This review summarizes recent insights on the role of autophagy in kidney physiology and diseases alluding to possible novel intervention strategies for treating specific kidney disorders by modifying autophagy. PMID:22692002
Huber, Tobias B; Edelstein, Charles L; Hartleben, Björn; Inoki, Ken; Jiang, Man; Koya, Daisuke; Kume, Shinji; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Pallet, Nicolas; Quiroga, Alejandro; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Susztak, Katalin; Yoshida, Sei; Dong, Zheng
Emerging respiratory disease agents, increased antibiotic resistance, and the loss of effective vaccines threaten to increase the incidence of respiratory disease in military personnel. We examine six respiratory pathogens (adenoviruses, influenza viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis) and review the impact of the diseases they cause, past efforts to control these diseases in U.S. military personnel, as well as current treatment and surveillance strategies, limitations in diagnostic testing, and vaccine needs. PMID:10341174
Gray, G C; Callahan, J D; Hawksworth, A W; Fisher, C A; Gaydos, J C
Emerging respiratory disease agents, increased antibiotic resistance, and the loss of effective vaccines threaten to increase the incidence of respiratory disease in military personnel. We examine six respiratory pathogens (adenoviruses, influenza viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis) and review the impact of the diseases they cause, past efforts to control these diseases in U.S. military personnel, as well as current treatment and surveillance strategies, limitations in diagnostic testing, and vaccine needs.
Gray, G. C.; Callahan, J. D.; Hawksworth, A. W.; Fisher, C. A.; Gaydos, J. C.
We designed a special surveillance system to detect health complaints of visitors to the 1982 World's Fair. Heat-related illness occurred during the first month of the Fair but was substantially reduced by public education, environmental modification, and provision of additional water fountains. There was no disruption of emergency health services in the communities surrounding the Fair. Advance planning and the provision of on-site medical services can minimize the public health impact of large gatherings.
Gustafson, T L; Booth, A L; Fricker, R S; Cureton, E; Fowinkle, E W; Hutcheson, R H; Schaffner, W
Several large outbreaks of Chikungunya infections in the past decade have stimulated renewed interest in the Chikungunya virus. This special issue describes recent outbreaks of Chikungunya and discusses possible reasons for the re-emergence of this arbovirus; reviews the ecology and geographic expansion of its vector, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus; summarizes our current knowledge of the immune response to infection; and presents our understanding of pathogenesis based on research in animal models. PMID:19737627
Ng, Lisa F P; Ojcius, David M
The emergence and re-emergence of bacterial strains that are resistant to current antibiotics reveals the clinical need for new agents that possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Furthermore, bacteriophobic coatings that repel bacteria are important for medical devices, as the lifetime, reliability, and performance of implant devices are hindered by bacterial adhesion and infection. Dendrimers, a specific class of monodisperse macromolecules, have recently shown potential to function as both antibacterial agents as well as antimicrobial surface coatings. This review discusses the limitations with currently used antibacterial agents and describes how various classes of dendrimers, including glycodendrimers, cationic dendrimers, anionic dendrimers, and peptide dendrimers, have the potential to improve upon or replace certain antibiotics. Furthermore, the unexplored areas in this field of research will be mentioned to present opportunities for additional studies regarding the use of dendrimers as antimicrobial agents.
Mintzer, Meredith A.; Dane, Eric L.; O'Toole, George A.; Grinstaff, Mark W.
The discovery that submicron-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs) are generated by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells might have a profound effect on experimental and clinical sciences, and could pave the way for new strategies to combat various diseases. EVs are carriers of pathogen-associated and damage-associated molecular patterns, cytokines, autoantigens and tissue-degrading enzymes. In addition to a possible role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory conditions, such as infections and autoimmune diseases, EVs, including microvesicles (also known as microparticles), exosomes and apoptotic vesicles, have therapeutic potential and might be used as biomarkers for inflammatory diseases. Therefore, molecular diagnostics and targeted therapy could benefit from expanding knowledge in the field. In this Review, we summarize important developments and propose that extracellular vesicles could be used as therapeutic vehicles and as targets for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24535546
Buzas, Edit I; György, Bence; Nagy, György; Falus, András; Gay, Steffen
Abnormal autoimmune activity has been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, the authors discuss a newly recognized class of synaptic autoimmune encephalitides as well as behavioral and cognitive manifestations of systemic autoimmune diseases.
Kayser, Matthew S.; Dalmau, Josep
The gut flora is composed of a huge number of diverse, well-adapted symbionts that interact with epithelial lining throughout the host's entire life. Not all commensals have the same ability to maintain quiescent, protective inflammation. Importantly, instability in the composition of gut microbial communities (referred to as dysbiosis) has been linked to loss of gut barrier in the context of common human illnesses with increasing socio-economic impacts, such as Crohn disease and colorectal cancer. Our recent findings suggest that disease-predisposing dysbiosis can now be intentionally manipulated by targeting the major Crohn disease-predisposing NOD2 gene. That knowledge will not only add a new dimension to the often overlooked microbiology of Crohn disease and colorectal cancer, but will also have a broad impact on biomedical sciences worldwide.
Secher, Thomas; Normand, Sylvain; Chamaillard, Mathias
The gut flora is composed of a huge number of diverse, well-adapted symbionts that interact with epithelial lining throughout the host's entire life. Not all commensals have the same ability to maintain quiescent, protective inflammation. Importantly, instability in the composition of gut microbial communities (referred to as dysbiosis) has been linked to loss of gut barrier in the context of common human illnesses with increasing socio-economic impacts, such as Crohn disease and colorectal cancer. Our recent findings suggest that disease-predisposing dysbiosis can now be intentionally manipulated by targeting the major Crohn disease-predisposing NOD2 gene. That knowledge will not only add a new dimension to the often overlooked microbiology of Crohn disease and colorectal cancer, but will also have a broad impact on biomedical sciences worldwide. PMID:23778641
Secher, Thomas; Normand, Sylvain; Chamaillard, Mathias
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in ageing individuals. It is now clear that genetic susceptibility and environmental factors play a role in disease etiology and progression. Because environmental factors are involved with the majority of the cases of PD, it is important to understand the role nutrition plays in both neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. Recent epidemiological studies have revealed the promise of some nutrients in reducing the risk of PD. In contrast, other nutrients may be involved with the etiology of neurodegeneration or exacerbate disease progression. This review summarizes the studies that have addressed these issues and describes in detail the nutrients and their putative mechanisms of action in PD. PMID:24639650
Seidl, Stacey E; Santiago, Jose A; Bilyk, Hope; Potashkin, Judith A
Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), Monagas and Anzoátegui States (endemics). The isolates, genetically typed by PCR-RFLP as belonging to the TcIII DTU, have demonstrated in murine model heterogenic parasitemia, mortality and histotropism with marked parasitism in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth myocytes that showed correlation with lymphobasophilic inflammatory infiltrates. Our finding of T. cruzi infected armadillos in Isla Margarita (Nueva Esparta State), together with reports of triatomine vectors in this region, the accentuated synanthropy of armadillos, intense economic activity, migration due to tourism and the lack of environmental education programs all of them represent risks that could cause the emergence of Chagas' disease in this area. This is the first report of the TcIII DTU in Northeastern Venezuela, thus widening the geographic distribution of this DTU. PMID:22902748
Morocoima, Antonio; Carrasco, Hernán J; Boadas, Johanna; Chique, José David; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. The best therapies currently available focus on the control of blood pressure and optimization of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockade. Currently available agents are only partially effective against hard end points such as the development of end-stage renal disease and are not discussed in this Review. Many other agents have been shown
David C. H. Harris; Eswari Vilayur
The changing epidemiology of vector-borne diseases represents a growing threat to human health. Contemporary surveillance\\u000a systems have to adapt to these changes. We describe temporal trends and geographic origins of vector-borne diseases in Germany\\u000a with regard to strengths of existing disease surveillance and to areas marked for improvement. We focused on hantavirus infection\\u000a (endemic in Germany), chikungunya fever (recently emerging
Andreas Jansen; Christina Frank; Judith Koch; Klaus Stark
Understanding how environmental variation influences the distribution of parasite diversity is critical if we are to anticipate disease emergence risks associated with global change. However, choosing the relevant variables for modelling current and future parasite distributions may be difficult: candidate predictors are many, and they seldom are statistically independent. This problem often leads to simplistic models of current and projected future parasite distributions, with climatic variables prioritized over potentially important landscape features or host population attributes. We studied avian blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon (which are viewed as potential emergent pathogens) in 37 Iberian blackcap Sylvia atricapilla populations. We used Partial Least Squares regression to assess the relative importance of a wide array of putative determinants of variation in the diversity of these parasites, including climate, landscape features and host population migration. Both prevalence and richness of parasites were predominantly related to climate (an effect which was primarily, but not exclusively driven by variation in temperature), but landscape features and host migration also explained variation in parasite diversity. Remarkably, different models emerged for each parasite genus, although all parasites were studied in the same host species. Our results show that parasite distribution models, which are usually based on climatic variables alone, improve by including other types of predictors. Moreover, closely related parasites may show different relationships to the same environmental influences (both in magnitude and direction). Thus, a model used to develop one parasite distribution can probably not be applied identically even to the most similar host-parasite systems. PMID:23606561
Pérez-Rodríguez, Antón; Fernández-González, Sofía; de la Hera, Iván; Pérez-Tris, Javier
A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence.
McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.
A predicted increase in the number of patients with end-stage renal disease in coming years, coupled with significant numbers of qualified nephrologists reaching retirement age, will place great demands on the renal physician workforce. Action is required on several fronts to combat the predicted shortfall in full-time nephrologists. Of particular importance is the need to recruit and train greater numbers of physicians from ethnic minority groups. Changes in the demographics of kidney disease make it increasingly a disease of ethnic minorities and the poor. These demographic changes, together with the existing racial disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease, highlight the specific need for nephrologists who are cognizant of the issues and barriers that prevent optimal care of high-risk minority populations. The current lack of academic role models and the drive by medical schools and residency programs to encourage minority group physicians to become primary care providers, rather than specialists, are issues that must be urgently addressed. Equally, changes in the training of renal fellows are required to merge the critical need for cutting edge research activity in renal science and with the insights and sensitivity to equip clinicians with the necessary skills for the team-based approach to patient care that increasingly characterizes the management and care of the patient with chronic kidney disease.
Pogue, Velvie A.; Norris, Keith C.; Dillard, Martin G.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the IgE serum levels in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients and to evaluate possible associations with clinical and laboratory features, disease activity and tissue damage. METHODS: The IgE serum concentrations in 69 consecutive juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients were determined by nephelometry. IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations were measured by immunoturbidimetry. All patients were negative for intestinal parasites. Statistical analysis methods included the Mann-Whitney, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, as well as the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Increased IgE concentrations above 100 IU/mL were observed in 31/69 (45%) juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients. The mean IgE concentration was 442.0±163.4 IU/ml (range 3.5-9936.0 IU/ml). Fifteen of the 69 patients had atopic disease, nine patients had severe sepsis and 56 patients presented with nephritis. The mean IgE level in 54 juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients without atopic manifestations was 271.6±699.5 IU/ml, and only nine of the 31 (29%) patients with high IgE levels had atopic disease. The IgE levels did not statistically differ with respect to the presence of atopic disease, severe sepsis, nephritis, disease activity, or tissue damage. Interestingly, IgE concentrations were inversely correlated with C4 levels (r?=?-0.25, p?=?0.03) and with the SLICC/ACR-DI score (r?=?-0.34, p?=?0.005). The IgE concentration was also found to be directly correlated with IgA levels (r?=?0.52, p?=?0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated for the first time that juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients have increased IgE serum levels. This increase in IgE levels was not related to allergic or parasitic diseases. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that high IgE levels can be considered a marker of immune dysregulation.
Liphaus, Bernadete L.; Jesus, Adriana A.; Silva, Clovis A.; Coutinho, Antonio; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family. It predominantly induces type 2 immune responses and thus is protective against atherosclerosis and nematode infections but contributes to allergic airway inflammation. Interleukin-33 also plays a pivotal role in the development of many autoimmune diseases through mechanisms that are still not fully understood. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in understanding of the expression and function of IL-33 in some autoimmune disorders, aiming to provide insight into its potential role in disease development. PMID:24116703
Pei, Cheng; Barbour, Mark; Fairlie-Clarke, Karen J; Allan, Debbie; Mu, Rong; Jiang, Hui-Rong
Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular catabolic pathway that degrades cellular long-lived proteins and organelles. Autophagy is normally activated in response to nutrient deprivation and other stresses as a cell survival mechanism. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy plays a critical role in liver pathophysiology, in addition to maintain hepatic energy and nutrient balance. Alcohol consumption causes hepatic metabolic changes, oxidative stress, accumulation of lipid droplets and damaged mitochondria, all of these can be regulated by autophagy. This review summarizes the recent findings about the role and mechanisms of autophagy in alcoholic liver disease, and the possible intervention for treating alcoholic liver disease by modulating autophagy.
Ding, Wen-Xing; Manley, Sharon; Ni, Hong-Min
Many examples of the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases involve the adaptation of zoonotic viruses to new amplification hosts or to humans themselves. These include several instances of simple mutational adaptations, often to hosts closely related to the natural reservoirs. However, based on theoretical grounds, arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, may face several challenges for adaptation to new hosts. Here, we review recent findings regarding adaptive evolution of arboviruses and its impact on disease emergence. We focus on the zoonotic alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis and chikungunya viruses, which have undergone adaptive evolution that mediated recent outbreaks of disease, as well as the flaviviruses dengue and West Nile viruses, which have emerged via less dramatic adaptive mechanisms.
Coffey, Lark L; Forrester, Naomi; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott C
ABSTRACT Twenty years ago (1992), a landmark Institute of Medicine report entitled “Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States” underscored the important but often underappreciated concept of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). A review of the progress made and setbacks experienced over the past 2 decades suggests that even though many new diseases have emerged, such as SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and the 2009 pandemic influenza, significant advances have occurred in EID control, prevention, and treatment. Among many elements of the increase in the capacity to control EIDs are genomics-associated advances in microbial detection and treatment, improved disease surveillance, and greater awareness of EIDs and the complicated variables that underlie emergence. In looking back over the past 20 years, it is apparent that we are in a time of great change in which both the challenge of EIDs and our responses to them are being transformed. Recent advances support guarded optimism that further breakthroughs lie ahead.
Morens, David M.; Fauci, Anthony S.
Parkinson’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive motor impairment affecting more than 1% of the over-65 population. In spite of considerable progress in identifying the genetic and biochemical basis of PD, to date the diagnosis remains clinical and disease-modifying therapies continue to be elusive. A cornerstone in recent PD research is the investigation of biological markers that could help in identifying at-risk population or to track disease progression and response to therapies. Although none of these parameters has been validated for routine clinical practice yet, however some biochemical candidates hold great promise for application in PD patients, especially in the early stages of disease, and it is likely that in the future the diagnosis of PD will require a combination of genetic, imaging and laboratory data. In this review we discuss the most interesting biochemical markers for PD (including the “-omics” techniques), focusing on the methodological challenges in using ex vivo blood/CSF/tissue-based biomarkers and suggesting alternative strategies to overcome the difficulties that still prevent their actual use.
Saracchi, Enrico; Fermi, Silvia; Brighina, Laura
Increasing evidence indicates that hypertension in pregnancy is an under-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Compared with women who have had normotensive pregnancies, those who are hypertensive during pregnancy are at greater risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and have a less favorable overall risk profile for CVD years after the affected pregnancies. One factor that might underlie this
Suzanne R Hayman; Vesna D Garovic
Singapore is a modern urban city and endemic typhus is thought to be a disease of the past. This may be due to lack of specific serological testing as indirect immunoperoxidase testing using specific rickettsial antigens (U.S. Army Medical Research Unit, Institute of Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) has only recently become available. In the last fourteen months, twenty-one cases
A K Y Ong; P A Tambyah; S Ooi; G Kumarasinghe; C Chow
Background Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system that causes defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life-threatening infections, mostly by catalase-producing organisms. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, chronic infections with Actinomyces species in 10 patients with CGD. Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous condition that commonly manifests as cervicofacial, pulmonary, or abdominal disease, caused by slowly progressive infection with oral and gastrointestinal commensal Actinomyces species. Treatment of actinomycosis is usually simple in immunocompetent individuals, requiring long-term, high-dose intravenous penicillin, but is more complicated in those with CGD because of delayed diagnosis and an increased risk of chronic invasive or debilitating disease. Methods Actinomyces was identified by culture, staining, 16S ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction, and/ or a complement fixation test in 10 patients with CGD. Results All 10 patients presented with a history of fever and elevated inflammatory signs without evident focus. Diagnosis was delayed and clinical course severe and protracted despite high-dose intravenous antibiotic therapy and/or surgery. These results suggest an unrecognized and unanticipated susceptibility to weakly pathogenic Actinomyces species in patients with CGD because these are catalase-negative organisms previously thought to be nonpathogenic in CGD. Conclusions Actinomycosis should be vigorously sought and promptly treated in patients with CGD presenting with uncommon and prolonged clinical signs of infection. Actinomycosis is a catalase-negative infection important to consider in CGD.
Reichenbach, Janine; Lopatin, Uri; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Beovic, Bojana; Siler, Ulrich; Zbinden, Reinhard; Seger, Reinhard A.; Galmiche, Louise; Brousse, Nicole; Kayal, Samer; Gungor, Tayfun; Blanche, Stephane; Holland, Steven M.
Despite advances in our knowledge of celiac disease, the most current and authoritative recommendations conclude that diagnosis requires at least four biopsy specimens to be taken from the duodenal area. These recommendations are based on the perception that classic endoscopic markers are not adequate to target biopsy sampling to sites of villous damage in the duodenum. In the past few
Paolo Fedeli; Antonio Gasbarrini; Giovanni Cammarota
The discovery of an increasing number of histone demethylases has highlighted the dynamic nature of the regulation of histone methylation, a key chromatin modification that is involved in eukaryotic genome and gene regulation. A flurry of recent studies has offered glimpses into the specific biological roles of these enzymes and their potential connections to human diseases. These advances have also
Homeostatic signaling systems are ubiquitous forms of biological regulation, having been studied for hundreds of years in the context of diverse physiological processes including body temperature and osmotic balance. However, only recently has this concept been brought to the study of excitatory and inhibitory electrical activity that the nervous system uses to establish and maintain stable communication. Synapses are a primary target of neuronal regulation with a variety of studies over the past 15 years demonstrating that these cellular junctions are under bidirectional homeostatic control. Recent work from an array of diverse systems and approaches has revealed exciting new links between homeostatic synaptic plasticity and a variety of seemingly disparate neurological and psychiatric diseases. These include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, schizophrenia, and Fragile X Syndrome. Although the molecular mechanisms through which defective homeostatic signaling may lead to disease pathogenesis remain unclear, rapid progress is likely to be made in the coming years using a powerful combination of genetic, imaging, electrophysiological, and next generation sequencing approaches. Importantly, understanding homeostatic synaptic plasticity at a cellular and molecular level may lead to developments in new therapeutic innovations to treat these diseases. In this review we will examine recent studies that demonstrate homeostatic control of postsynaptic protein translation, retrograde signaling, and presynaptic function that may contribute to the etiology of complex neurological and psychiatric diseases.
Wondolowski, Joyce; Dickman, Dion
Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining ‘source’ populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where
Guilhem Rascalou; Dominique Pontier; Frédéric Menu; Sébastien Gourbičre
Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease that has recently been reported in amphibian populations throughout the world. It has been associated with many cases of population declines and extinctions. In some areas of the Sierra Nevada of Cali- fornia the disease appears to be the causal factor in the rapid extinction of local populations of the mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana
Cheryl J. Briggs; Vance T. Vredenburg; Roland A. Knapp; Lara J. Rachowicz
A series of high profile outbreaks of newly described diseases in humans, domestic animals and wildlife has attracted widespread interest in the topic of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs). Marine mammals are no exception: since 1987 several mass mortalities have been observed following infection with viruses previously undescribed in the populations or species in question. As with terrestrial examples, some of
Peter S. Ross
We reviewed prominent emerging infectious diseases of cetaceans, examined their potential to impact populations, re-assessed zoonotic risk and evaluated the role of environmental stressors. Cetacean morbilliviruses and papillomaviruses as well as Brucella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are thought to interfere with population abundance by inducing high mortalities, lowering reproductive success or by synergistically increasing the virulence of other diseases. Severe
Marie-Françoise Van Bressem; AJ Raga; Giovanni Di Guardo; Paul D. Jepson; Padraig J. Duignan; U Siebert; T Barrett; MCdO Santos; IB Moreno; S Siciliano; A Aguilar; K Van Waerebeek
Babesia microti-like parasites were detected for the first time in Ixodes ovatus in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, where two reported types of B. microti-like parasites were recognized in many rodents. Of 80 adult I. ovatus ticks collected, 5 possessed the reported type and 1 possessed a new type of B. microti-like parasite. PMID:15131209
Saito-Ito, Atsuko; Yano, Yasuhiro; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Takada, Nobuhiro
Babesia microti-like parasites were detected for the first time in Ixodes ovatus in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, where two reported types of B. microti-like parasites were recognized in many rodents. Of 80 adult I. ovatus ticks collected, 5 possessed the reported type and 1 possessed a new type of B. microti-like parasite.
Saito-Ito, Atsuko; Yano, Yasuhiro; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Takada, Nobuhiro
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which no disease modifying treatments exist. Many molecular changes and cellular consequences that underlie HD are observed in other neurological disorders, suggesting that common pathological mechanisms and pathways may exist. Recent findings have enhanced our understanding of the way cells regulate and respond to expanded polyglutamine proteins such as mutant huntingtin. These studies demonstrate that in addition to effects on folding, aggregation, and clearance pathways, a general transcriptional mechanism also dictates the expression of polyglutamine proteins. Here, we summarize the key pathways and networks that are important in HD in the context of recent therapeutic advances and highlight how their interplay may be of relevance to other protein folding disorders. PMID:23768628
Labbadia, John; Morimoto, Richard I
Relentless progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) poses a grave situation for the biomedical community to tackle. Agents starting as hot favorites in clinical trials have failed in later stages and it is time we reconsidered our approaches to intervene the disease. Quite some interesting work in the last decade has introduced a new school of thought which factors in neuronal glycemic imbalance as a major component for the development of AD. Insulin resistance in the brain has brought forward subsequent sequelae which might work towards amyloid accretion and/or tau hyperphosphorylation. It is also pointed out that insulin works by distributing iron to neuronal tissue and an insulin resistant state throws it off gear leading to iron overloading of neurons which is ultimately detrimental. A relatively recent investigation finds the role of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK3) in AD which also seems to bear a link with insulin resistance. PMID:23670236
Medhi, Bikash; Chakrabarty, Mrinmoy
Phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic degradation of cyclic GMP – an essential intracellular second messenger that modulates diverse biological processes in living cells. Three selective inhibitors of PDE-5 – sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil – have been successfully used by millions of men worldwide for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Also, sildenafil and tadalafil are currently approved for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Recent powerful basic science data and clinical studies suggest potential nonurological applications of PDE-5 inhibitors, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases and other circulatory disorders including Raynaud’s phenomenon. Future carefully controlled clinical trials would hopefully expedite their expanding therapeutic use in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Kukreja, Rakesh C; Salloum, Fadi N; Das, Anindita; Koka, Saisudha; Ockaili, Ramzi A; Xi, Lei
Conclusion There is considerable epidemiological evidence, which confirms the importance of plasma homocysteine as a powerful predictor\\u000a of future risk of coronary heart disease and other complications of atherosclerosis. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia varies\\u000a with the underlying cause. However, an inexpensive vitamin supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B 6 is\\u000a generally effective in reducing homocysteine concentrations. Several randomised, controlled
V. Govindaraju; C. N. Manjunath; H. Venkataramiah; T. R. Raghu
There is considerable epidemiological evidence, which confirms the importance of plasma homocysteine as a powerful predictor of future risk of coronary heart disease and other complications of atherosclerosis. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia varies with the underlying cause. However, an inexpensive vitamin supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B 6 is generally effective in reducing homocysteine concentrations. Several randomised, controlled trials evaluating the effects of folic acid based supplements on homocysteine concentrations have been conducted over the last decade. In most patients, folic acid alone, and in combination of vitamin B12 and B6, has been shown to reduce homocysteine concentrations within four to six weeks after the initiation of therapy (34).However, no study has yet demonstrated that lowering of homocysteine by vitamin supplementation decreases the cardiovascular morbidity or mortality. Avoidance of excessive meat intake and increased consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is a dietary measure, which has many health benefits, including a potential to reduce elevated homocysteine levels. The other reasonable approach is to determine levels of fasting homocysteine in high risk patients and it may be advisable to increase their intake of vitamin fortified foods and/or to suggest the daily use of supplemental vitamins. Several large scale randomised trials like Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE-2) Study, Mcmaster University, Canada, Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine (SERCH), Clinical Trial Service Unit, Oxford, U.K, Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS-2) University of Cambridge, U.K, Bergen Vitamin Study, University of Bergen Norway, Women's Antioxidant and Cardiovascular Disease Study (WACS) Harvard Medical School, U.S.A, Prevention with a combined inhibitor and folate in Coronary Heart Disease (PACIFIC) study, University of Sydney, Australia, and many others are ongoing to assess the effect of homocysteine-lowering by vitamin supplementation on risk of vascular disease. PMID:23105365
Govindaraju, V; Neelam; Manjunath, C N; Venkataramiah, H; Raghu, T R
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a growing medical problem in Western societies and presents itself mainly in two different\\u000a clinical forms. Intermittent claudication is an early moderate manifestation, while patients with critical limb ischemia suffer\\u000a from severe muscle tissue loss or ulcers and are at high risk for limb amputation. Unfortunately, many patients cannot be\\u000a helped with currently available surgical
Xabier L. Aranguren; Catherine M. Verfaillie; Aernout Luttun
Fungal diseases are increasing among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. Infections due to Candida and Cryptococcus are the most common. Although mucocutaneous candidiasis can be treated with oral antifungal agents, increasing evidence suggests that prolonged use of these drugs results in both clinical and microbiologic resistance. The optimal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis remains unresolved, although initial treatment with amphotericin B, followed by life-long maintenance therapy with fluconazole, appears promising. Most cases of histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis occur in regions where their causative organisms are endemic, and increasing data suggest that a significant proportion of disease is due to recent infection. Aspergillosis is increasing dramatically as an opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients, in part because of the increased incidence of neutropenia and corticosteroid use in these patients. Infection due to Penicillium marneffei is a rapidly growing problem among HIV-infected patients living in Southeast Asia. Although the advent of oral azole antifungal drugs has made primary prophylaxis against fungal diseases in HIV-infected patients feasible, many questions remain to be answered before the preventive use of antifungal drugs can be advocated.
Ampel, N. M.
A key function of human skin is the formation of a structural barrier against the external environment. In part, this is achieved through the formation of a cornified cell envelope derived from a stratified squamous epithelium attached to an epithelial basement membrane. Resilient in health, the structural integrity of skin can become impaired or break down in a collection of inherited skin diseases, referred to as the blistering genodermatoses. These disorders arise from inherited gene mutations in a variety of structural and signalling proteins and manifest clinically as blisters or erosions following minor skin trauma. In some patients, blistering can be severe resulting in significant morbidity. Furthermore, a number of these conditions are associated with debilitating extra-cutaneous manifestations including gastro-intestinal, cardiac, and ocular complications. In recent years, an improved understanding of the molecular basis of the blistering genodermatoses has led to better disease classification and genetic counselling. For patients, this has also advanced translational research with the advent of new clinical trials of gene, protein, cell, drug, and small molecule therapies. Although curing inherited blistering skin diseases still remains elusive, significant improvements in patients' quality of life are already being achieved. PMID:24447048
Salam, Amr; Proudfoot, Laura E; McGrath, John A
Health literacy represents the communication among patients, their social networks, providers, and health systems to promote patients’ understanding and engagement in their care. This is particularly relevant in kidney disease, in which the complexity of the medical condition and the extent of the health-care team require strategies to overcome health-literacy-related barriers. Limited literacy is common in patients with all stages of kidney disease and is associated with important outcomes, including reduced knowledge, less adherence, hospitalization, and death. A growing understanding and characterization of the health system, or organizational health literacy, may further our understanding of this dynamic relationship. Although various valid methods exist, assessment of health literacy within individuals or systematically within care settings has not been routinely performed. This may be in part due to the limited research in kidney-specific strategies to address limited health literacy. Future research to understand the mechanisms of health literacy will permit targeted, efficient interventions to bridge gaps and improve outcomes even in patients with complex kidney disease.
Dageforde, Leigh Anne; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an established reproductive option for couples at risk of conceiving a pregnancy affected with a known genetic disease, who wish to avoid an (additional) affected child, termination of pregnancy or recurrent miscarriages. Early technologies concentrated on different approaches to direct mutation testing for monogenic diseases using single cell PCR protocols, or sex selection by fluorescent in situ hybridization for X-linked monogenic disease. Development of multiplex fluorescent PCR allowed simultaneously testing of linked markers alongside the mutation test, increasing the accuracy by controlling for contamination and identifying allele drop-out. The advent of highly effective whole genome amplification methods has opened the way for new technologies such as preimplantation genetic haplotyping and microarrays, thus increasing the number of genetic defects that can be detected in preimplantation embryos; the number of cases carried out and the new indications tested increases each year. Different countries have taken very different approaches to legislating and regulating PGD, giving rise to the phenomenon of reproductive tourism. PGD is now being performed for scenarios previously not undertaken using prenatal diagnosis, some of which raise significant ethical concerns. While PGD has benefited many couples aiming to have healthy children, ethical concerns remain over inappropriate use of this technology. PMID:17187482
Renwick, Pamela; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie
Dyslipidemia, the condition of elevated serum triglycerides, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and/or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is a public health problem of growing concern. Dyslipidemia clusters with other disorders of the metabolic syndrome that together influence, and may derive from, chronic inflammation. While best recognized as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, lipid dysregulation has recently been shown to influence a variety of disease processes in several organ systems. This review highlights our current understanding of the role of cholesterol and its homeostatic trafficking in pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology. Gene-targeted mice deficient in regulatory proteins that govern reverse cholesterol transport (e.g., ATP Binding Cassette transporter G1, apolipoprotein E) have recently been shown to have abnormal lung physiology, including dysregulated pulmonary innate and adaptive immune responses to the environment. It has also recently been shown that diet-induced dyslipidemia alters trafficking of immune cells to the lung in a manner that may have important implications for the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, asthma, pneumonia, and other lung disorders. Conversely, cholesterol-targeting pharmacologic agents, such as statins, apolipoprotein mimetic peptides, and Liver X Receptor agonists, have shown early promise in the treatment of several lung disorders. An improved understanding of the precise molecular mechanisms by which cholesterol and its trafficking modify pulmonary immunity will be required before the full implications of dyslipidemia as a lung disease modifier, and the full potential of lipid-targeting agents as pulmonary therapeutics, can be realized. PMID:22706330
Gowdy, Kymberly M; Fessler, Michael B
Purpose The symptom most frequently associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) is pain, but recent research is beginning to indicate that fatigue as an increasingly important symptom of this disease upon which to focus research efforts. This article explores biological and behavioral factors that can potentially contribute to fatigue in SCD. Organizing Framework A biobehavioral framework guides this discussion of factors that may contribute to SCD fatigue. Findings The pathophysiology of the disease process, such as the profound hemolytic anemia and unpredictable vasoocclusive crises, suggests that individuals with SCD are at risk for both acute and chronic fatigue. For example, hypoxemia can cause muscle weakness and produce oxidative stress, which, in turn, increases fatigue. Sickled erythrocytes disrupt the vascular endothelium and stimulate proinflammatory cytokines, which are linked to sleep disruptions. Pain, the most notorious symptom of SCD, has a complex and mechanistically poorly understood relationship with fatigue. Conclusions Little is known about the symptom of fatigue in SCD. Considering the biological and behavioral factors of SCD that could potentially contribute to fatigue, there is a great need for research on the nature and potential mechanisms of fatigue in SCD. Clinical Relevance Fatigue in SCD may negatively affect quality of life. Understanding factors that may contribute to fatigue aids the clinician in identifying causes and determining treatment.
Ameringer, Suzanne; Smith, Wally R.
The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor post-treatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future.
Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T.
During the last 20 years, molecular biology techniques have propelled the diagnosis of parasitic diseases into a new era, as regards assay speed, sensitivity, and parasite characterization. However, DNA extraction remains a critical step and should be adapted for diagnostic and epidemiological studies. The aim of this report was to document the constraints associated with DNA extraction for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases and illustrate the adaptation of an automated extraction system, NucliSENS easyMAG, to these constraints, with a critical analysis of system performance. Proteinase K digestion of samples is unnecessary with the exception of solid tissue preparation. Mechanically grinding samples prior to cell lysis enhances the DNA extraction rate of fungal cells. The effect of host-derived nucleic acids on the extraction efficiency of parasite DNA varies with sample host cell density. The optimal cell number for precise parasite quantification ranges from 10 to 100,000 cells. Using the NucliSENS easyMAG technique, the co-extraction of inhibitors is reduced, with an exception for whole blood, which requires supplementary extraction steps to eliminate inhibitors.
Jeddi, Fakhri; Piarroux, Renaud; Mary, Charles
Outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg virus diseases have recently increased in frequency in Uganda. This increase is probably caused by a combination of improved surveillance and laboratory capacity, increased contact between humans and the natural reservoir of the viruses, and fluctuations in viral load and prevalence within this reservoir. The roles of these proposed explanations must be investigated in order to guide appropriate responses to the changing epidemiological profile. Other African settings in which multiple filoviral outbreaks have occurred could also benefit from such information.
Polonsky, Jonathan A.; Wamala, Joseph F.; de Clerck, Hilde; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Porten, Klaudia; Shoemaker, Trevor
Outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg virus diseases have recently increased in frequency in Uganda. This increase is probably caused by a combination of improved surveillance and laboratory capacity, increased contact between humans and the natural reservoir of the viruses, and fluctuations in viral load and prevalence within this reservoir. The roles of these proposed explanations must be investigated in order to guide appropriate responses to the changing epidemiological profile. Other African settings in which multiple filoviral outbreaks have occurred could also benefit from such information. PMID:24515940
Polonsky, Jonathan A; Wamala, Joseph F; de Clerck, Hilde; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Porten, Klaudia; Shoemaker, Trevor
The study area included Mansoura city as an urban area and Gogar village as a rural area. One thousand individuals were randomly selected from each area. Different methods of stool examination, perianal swab and urine examination of all participants revealed that the incidence in Mansoura city was in a descending order Heterophyes heterophyes 6.4%; Enterobius vermicularis 3.9%; Hymenienolepis nana 2.2%; Schistosoma mansoni 0.5%; Trichostrongylus colubriftormis; Strongyloides stercoralis and Fasciola sp. were recorded as 0.2% of each. Taenia saginata, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichocephalus trichiuris were recorded as 0.1% of each. Neither Ancylostoma duodenale nor Hymenolepis dimninuta was recorded. In Gogar, the parasitic infection was H. hetephyes 4.5%; E. vermicularis 4.1%: H. nana 3.3%; S. mansoni 1.6%; T. colubriformis 0.9%; S. stercoralis 0.5%. Fasciola sp. 0.4%; T. saginata, A. lumbricoides, H. diminuta, A. duodenale and T. trichiuris were recorded as 0.1% of each. None S. haematobiumn was detected in both areas. So, the infection rates of H. heterophyes, E. vermicularis, H. nana S. mansoni, Fasciola sp., T. colubriformis and S. stercoralis were relatively high the rural than in urban area. This was not surprising since the socioeconomic, hygienic conditions and medical services were relative high in the city than in the village. No doubt, the identifications of parasitosis pave the way for feasible treatment and control measures. PMID:16927862
el-Shazly, Atef M; el-Nahas, Hala A; Soliman, Mohammad; Sultan, Doaa M; Abedl Tawab, Ahmad H; Morsy, Tosson A
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Currently available therapies are symptomatic but do not alter underlying disease progression. Immunotherapeutic approaches such as anti A? peptide active vaccination trials have had limited success to date. Intravenous immunoblobulin (IVIg) is widely used in immune-mediated neurological disorders such myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These preparations have been obtained from the pooled plasma of healthy human donors and contain natural anti-amyloid antibodies and are well tolerated. A small pilot study of passive immunotherapy using IVIg has suggested cognitive improvement. A multicenter phase III trial is ongoing and will determine whether or not this treatment can ameliorate cognitive deficits in mild-to-moderate AD. Here, we briefly review the pathogenic role of amyloid and tau in AD, as well as immunotherapeutic efforts to date. We also summarize what is known about naturally occurring anti-A? and tau antibodies in IVIg with a view toward explaining potential mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects. PMID:23861639
Kayed, Rakez; Jackson, George R; Estes, D Mark; Barrett, Alan D T
Hydroxyurea is the sole approved pharmacologic therapy for sickle cell disease (SCD). Higher fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels diminish de-oxygenated sickle globin polymerization in vitro and clinically reduce the incidence of disease morbidities. Clinical and laboratory effects of hydroxyurea largely result from induction of HbF expression, though to a highly variable extent. Baseline and hydroxyurea-induced HbF expression are both inherited complex traits. In children with SCD, baseline HbF remains the best predictor of drug-induced levels, but accounts for only portion of the induction. A limited number of validated genetic loci are strongly associated with higher baseline HbF levels in SCD. For induced HbF levels, genetic approaches using candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have identified some of these same loci as also associated with induction. However, SNP associations to induced HbF are only partially independent of baseline levels. Additional approaches to understanding the impact of hydroxyurea on HbF and its other therapeutic effects on SCD include pharmaco-kinetic, gene expression and epigenetic analyses in patients and through existing murine models for SCD. Understanding the genetic and other factors underlying the variability in therapeutic effects of hydroxyurea for pediatric SCD is critical for prospectively predicting good responders and for designing other effective therapies.
Green, Nancy S.; Barral, Sandra
microRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-23-nucleotide non-protein-coding RNA molecules that act as negative regulators of gene expression, modulating the stability and/or the translational efficiency of target messenger RNAs. This review describes miRNA regulation and function in tissue response to acute ischemia. We focused our attention on a subset of miRNAs that have been found de-regulated in different studies, suggesting that they may represent "master ischemic" miRNAs, playing a pathogenetic role in different components of tissue response to ischemia. First, we analyzed the role of miRNAs in cell response to hypoxia, a crucial component of ischemia, and in angiogenesis. Then, we describe miRNAs role in acute myocardial infarction as much as in hindlimb, cerebral, hepatic and retinal ischemia. The role played by specific miRNAs in the regulation of apoptosis, fibrosis, regeneration and myocardial arrhythmias is illustrated. The identification of specific miRNAs as key regulators of the response to ischemia has opened new clinical avenues. miRNAs may constitute excellent non-invasive disease biomarkers. Furthermore, innovative strategies targeting miRNAs, aimed to reduce the levels of pathogenic or aberrantly expressed miRNAs or to elevate the levels of miRNAs with beneficial functions, have been developed and could be applied in the treatment of ischemic diseases. PMID:19896977
Fasanaro, Pasquale; Greco, Simona; Ivan, Mircea; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Martelli, Fabio
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Currently available therapies are symptomatic but do not alter underlying disease progression. Immunotherapeutic approaches such as anti A? peptide active vaccination trials have had limited success to date. Intravenous immunoblobulin (IVIg) is widely used in immune-mediated neurological disorders such myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These preparations have been obtained from the pooled plasma of healthy human donors and contain natural anti-amyloid antibodies and are well tolerated. A small pilot study of passive immunotherapy using IVIg has suggested cognitive improvement. A multicenter phase III trial is ongoing and will determine whether or not this treatment can ameliorate cognitive deficits in mild-to-moderate AD. Here, we briefly review the pathogenic role of amyloid and tau in AD, as well as immunotherapeutic efforts to date. We also summarize what is known about naturally occurring anti-A? and tau antibodies in IVIg with a view toward explaining potential mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects.
Kayed, Rakez; Jackson, George R.; Estes, D. Mark; Barrett, Alan D.T.
A study was initiated to determine whether simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid influences disease development in plants, and, if so, to suggest possible mechanisms that might account for the interaction. Experimental materials and methods used are described.
D. S. Shriner
The involvement of veterinarians in the health management of North American bison will continue to increase, particularly in regard to the development of the bison ranching industry. More intensive management of bison will lead to greater recognition of diseases, and will raise concerns about the transmission of diseases between bison and other livestock species. This review of the infectious and noninfectious diseases of free-ranging and captive bison populations indicates that bison are susceptible to a wide range of indigenous and foreign diseases that occur in cattle and other livestock species. Most of the available information is based on necropsy results or serological surveys, and there is much less information on clinical, diagnostic and preventive medicine, or on the evaluation of conventional diagnostic tests, therapeutic regimens, or vaccines in bison.
Tessaro, Stacy V.
Sevelamer, a non-absorbable anion exchange resin, is used to control hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) by binding to dietary phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract. Lipid-lowering effect is a widely recognized pleiotropic effect of sevelamer. In addition, many studies have reported that sevelamer leads to reduced vascular calcification compared with calcium-containing phosphate binders, which is attributed to the improved lipid profiles and decreased calcium load. In addition, recent studies have suggested novel pleiotropic effects on bone structure, inflammation, oxidative stress, anemia, fetuin-A, and trace element metabolism in CKD patients. All of these effects have the potential to suppress the development/progression of cardiovascular lesions and reduce mortality. This review summarizes novel findings from recent studies and discusses the potential pleiotropic effects of sevelamer on non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in CKD patients. PMID:23486088
Ikee, Ryota; Tsunoda, Masataka; Sasaki, Naomi; Sato, Naritsugu; Hashimoto, Nobuo
The occurrence of the infection by the lungworm Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) in dogs and cats from Italy has been evaluated with conventional diagnostic procedures. Individual faecal samples from 569 dogs and 200 cats were undertaken to faecal flotation with sugar and zinc sulphate solution. Sixteen dogs (2.8%) and 11 cats (5.5%) scored positive for eggs of E. aerophilus when samples were processed with either of the two flotation solutions. Overall 14 of 16 dogs and eight of 11 cats infected by E. aerophilus showed respiratory symptoms and the most common were general respiratory distress, dry cough, wheezing and sneezing. These results indicate that E. aerophilus is not uncommon and that canine and feline capillariosis is of clinical importance. Given the impact that E. aerophilus infections may have upon animal health and its zoonotic potential, it is strongly advisable to routinely include this disease in the differential diagnosis of (cardio)-respiratory diseases of dogs and cats. PMID:19298989
Traversa, Donato; Di Cesare, Angela; Milillo, Piermarino; Iorio, Raffaella; Otranto, Domenico
Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife. Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases.
Cox-Witton, Keren; Reiss, Andrea; Woods, Rupert; Grillo, Victoria; Baker, Rupert T.; Blyde, David J.; Boardman, Wayne; Cutter, Stephen; Lacasse, Claude; McCracken, Helen; Pyne, Michael; Smith, Ian; Vitali, Simone; Vogelnest, Larry; Wedd, Dion; Phillips, Martin; Bunn, Chris; Post, Lyndel
Physical diseases that appear to be symbolic somatic representations of patients' personal meanings or individual 'stories' continue to be reported in the medical literature. The identification of a symbolic disease requires a clinical focus upon a patient's highly individual and nuanced meanings largely rendered invisible by the usual methodologies of clinical and research medicine, which has no coherent model for understanding symbolic disease. Therefore, a model is proposed of co-emergence of physicality and subjectivity, body and mind, disease and meaning, disease and symbol, which does provide a coherent basis for understanding symbolic disease. The 'mindbody' co-emergence model avoids mind and body dualism, assumes unbroken continuity between internal body processes and external interpersonal meanings and influences, and asserts that disease-related 'internal' bodily changes and collateral external interpersonal and environmental fluxes are mutually contingent and crucial to the development of the disease. The co-emergence model is discussed specifically in relation to psychoneuroimmunology, but it has exciting clinical and research implications for the whole of medicine. PMID:22225930
Broom, Brian C; Booth, Roger J; Schubert, Christian
The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases
Xiao-Nong Zhou; Shan Lv; Guo-Jing Yang; Thomas K Kristensen; N Robert Bergquist; Jürg Utzinger; John B Malone
Opportunistic parasitosis and mycosis are becoming ever more widespread, mainly under the influence of major immunodeficiencies, either acquired (AIDS) or therapeutic. In this general overview, their main aspects, both clinical and epidemiological, are underlined. In terms of epidemiology, three types of phenomena have been observed: 1) emergence of human parasitosis unknown before (microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoom hellem or Septata intestinalis); 2) among the human parasites already known, identification of very pathogenic strains (Toxoplasma gondii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans); 3) origin probably or certainly nosocomial of certain infections (pneumocystosis; toxoplasmosis and visceral leishmaniasis transmitted during bone-marrow or organ transplantations). The development of deep mycosis (invasive aspergillosis) is particularly promoted by granulopenia and alterations in the phagocytosis. On the other hand, opportunistic protozoosis (toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis) and helminthiasis (strongyloidosis due to Strongyloides stercolaris) are related, above all, to disorders in cellular immunity (deficit of CD4+, mainly). Finally, several of these infections may be characterised by a variety of clinical pictures and outcome, depending on the contributory factors (immunodeficit or not) which led to the development of the infection. PMID:7648314
Ambroise-Thomas, P; Grillot, R
Background Concern over bio-terrorism has led to recognition that traditional public health surveillance for specific conditions is unlikely to provide timely indication of some disease outbreaks, either naturally occurring or induced by a bioweapon. In non-traditional surveillance, the use of health care resources are monitored in "near real" time for the first signs of an outbreak, such as increases in emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory, gastrointestinal or neurological chief complaints (CC). Methods We collected ED CCs from 2/1/94 – 5/31/02 as a training set. A first-order model was developed for each of seven CC categories by accounting for long-term, day-of-week, and seasonal effects. We assessed predictive performance on subsequent data from 6/1/02 – 5/31/03, compared CC counts to predictions and confidence limits, and identified anomalies (simulated and real). Results Each CC category exhibited significant day-of-week differences. For most categories, counts peaked on Monday. There were seasonal cycles in both respiratory and undifferentiated infection complaints and the season-to-season variability in peak date was summarized using a hierarchical model. For example, the average peak date for respiratory complaints was January 22, with a season-to-season standard deviation of 12 days. This season-to-season variation makes it challenging to predict respiratory CCs so we focused our effort and discussion on prediction performance for this difficult category. Total ED visits increased over the study period by 4%, but respiratory complaints decreased by roughly 20%, illustrating that long-term averages in the data set need not reflect future behavior in data subsets. Conclusion We found that ED CCs provided timely indicators for outbreaks. Our approach led to successful identification of a respiratory outbreak one-to-two weeks in advance of reports from the state-wide sentinel flu surveillance and of a reported increase in positive laboratory test results.
Brillman, Judith C; Burr, Tom; Forslund, David; Joyce, Edward; Picard, Rick; Umland, Edith
Background Rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in West Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings Overall seroprevalence evaluated by immunofluorescence using six rickettsial antigens (spotted fever and typhus group) in rural populations of two villages of the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal was found to be 21.4% and 51% for spotted fever group rickettsiae for Dielmo and Ndiop villages, respectively. We investigated the role of tick-borne rickettsiae as the cause of acute non-malarial febrile diseases in the same villages. The incidence of rickettsial DNA in 204 blood samples from 134 (62M and 72F) febrile patients negative for malaria was studied. DNA extracted from whole blood was tested by two qPCR systems. Rickettsial DNA was found in nine patients, eight with Rickettsia felis (separately reported). For the first time in West Africa, Rickettsia conorii was diagnosed in one patient. We also tested 2,767 Ixodid ticks collected in two regions of Senegal (Niakhar and Sine-Saloum) from domestic animals (cows, sheep, goats, donkeys and horses) by qPCR and identified five different pathogenic rickettsiae. We found the following: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (51.3% and 44.8% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively), in Hyalomma truncatum (6% and 6.8%) and in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.5%, only in Niakhar); R. c. conorii in Rh. e. evertsi (0.4%, only in Sine-Saloum); Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus guilhoni (22.4%, only in Niakhar); Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in Hyalomma truncatum (13.5%, only in Sine-Saloum); and Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.7% and 0.4% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively) as well as in Rhipicephalus annulatus (20%, only in Sine-Saloum). We isolated two rickettsial strains from H. truncatum: R. s. mongolitimonae and R. aeschlimannii. Conclusions/Significance We believe that together with our previous data on the high prevalence of R. africae in Amblyomma ticks and R. felis infection in patients, the presented results on the distribution of pathogenic rickettsiae in ticks and the first R. conorii case in West Africa show that the rural population of Senegal is at risk for other tick-borne rickettsioses, which are significant causes of febrile disease in this area.
Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Fenollar, Florence; Sokhna, Cheikh; Trape, Jean-Francois; Raoult, Didier
The edible crab (Cancer pagurus) supports a large and valuable fishery in UK waters. Much of the catch is transported live to continental Europe in specially designed live-well ('vivier') vehicles. During the winter of 2000/2001, many trap-caught crabs from Guernsey, Channel Islands, UK, were reportedly moribund and pink in colour. These crabs generally died before and during vivier transportation. We provide histological, immunological, and molecular evidence that this condition is associated with infection by a Hematodinium-like dinoflagellate parasite similar to that previously reported in C. pagurus and to an infection causing seasonal mass mortalities of the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). Pathologically, every altered host bore the infection, which was characterised by very large numbers of plasmodial and vegetative stages in the haemolymph and depletion of reserve cells in the hepatopancreas. Due to the hyperpigmentation of the carapace and appendages, we have called this infection 'Pink Crab Disease' (PCD). Similar Hematodinium infections cause 'Bitter Crab Disease' in tanner and snow crabs, which has had a negative effect on their marketability. At present, little is known about the seasonality, transmission, and market impact of this infection in C. pagurus. PMID:12133707
Stentiford, G D; Green, M; Bateman, K; Small, H J; Neil, D M; Feist, S W
Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted pathogen that is increasingly identified among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Although Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae frequently cause PID, up to 70% of cases have an unidentified etiology. This paper summarizes evidence linking M. genitalium to PID and its long-term reproductive sequelae. Several PCR studies have demonstrated that M. genitalium is associated with PID, independent of gonococcal and chlamydial infection. Most have been cross-sectional, although one prospective investigation suggested that M. genitalium was associated with over a thirteenfold risk of endometritis. Further, a nested case-control posttermination study demonstrated a sixfold increased risk of PID among M. genitalium positive patients. Whether or not M. genitalium upper genital tract infection results in long-term reproductive morbidity is unclear, although tubal factor infertility patients have been found to have elevated M. genitalium antibodies. Several lines of evidence suggest that M. genitalium is likely resistant to many frequently used PID treatment regimens. Correspondingly, M. genitalium has been associated with treatment failure following cefoxitin and doxycycline treatment for clinically suspected PID. Collectively, strong evidence suggests that M. genitalium is associated with PID. Further study of M. genitalium upper genital tract infection diagnosis, treatment and long-term sequelae is warranted.
Haggerty, Catherine L.; Taylor, Brandie D.
Endocannabinoids are endogenous bioactive lipid mediators present both in the brain and various peripheral tissues, which exert their biological effects via interaction with specific G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, the CB1 and CB2. Pathological overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in various forms of shock and heart failure may contribute to the underlying pathology and cardiodepressive state by the activation of the cardiovascular CB1 receptors. Furthermore, tonic activation of CB1 receptors by endocannabinoids has also been implicated in the development of various cardiovascular risk factors in obesity/metabolic syndrome and diabetes, such as plasma lipid alterations, abdominal obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and insulin and leptin resistance. In contrast, activation of CB2 receptors in immune cells exerts various immunomodulatory effects, and the CB2 receptors in endothelial and inflammatory cells appear to limit the endothelial inflammatory response, chemotaxis, and inflammatory cell adhesion and activation in atherosclerosis and reperfusion injury. Here, we will overview the cardiovascular actions of endocannabinoids and the growing body of evidence implicating the dysregulation of the ECS in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the therapeutic potential of the modulation of the ECS by selective agonists/antagonists in various cardiovascular disorders associated with inflammation and tissue injury, ranging from myocardial infarction and heart failure to atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic disorders.
Emerging vector-borne diseases represent an important issue for global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, and many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and local emergence are frequently considered distinct processes, many emerging endemic pathogens are in fact invading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. We highlight key differences in the dynamics and disease burden that result from increased pathogen transmission following habitat change compared with the introduction of pathogens to new regions. Truly in situ emergence is commonly driven by changes in human factors as much as by enhanced enzootic cycles whereas pathogen invasion results from anthropogenic trade and travel and suitable conditions for a pathogen, including hosts, vectors, and climate. Once established, ecological factors related to vector characteristics shape the evolutionary selective pressure on pathogens that may result in increased use of humans as transmission hosts. We describe challenges inherent in the control of vector-borne zoonotic diseases and some emerging non-traditional strategies that may be more effective in the long term.
Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Randolph, Sarah E.
This article reviews emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and provides insights regarding the evolution of our understanding of natural diseases and how that knowledge impacts the development of plans and methods for defending against the deliberate use of biological agents. Also discussed are forensic and legal issues for the pathologist concerning agents of biological terrorism and biological warfare, the concept of chain of custody, transport, storage, and biosafety levels. It defines the importance of the pathologist in managing the threat posed by biological weapons. PMID:11572135
Marty, A M; Conran, R M; Kortepeter, M G
Infectious diseases have had a decisive and rapid impact on shaping and changing health policy. Noncommunicable diseases, while not garnering as much interest or importance over the past 20 years, have been affecting public health around the world in a steady and critical way, becoming the leading cause of death in developed and developing countries. This article discusses emergent issues in global health related to noncommunicable diseases and conditions, with focus on defining the unique epidemiologic features and relevant programmatic, health systems, and policy responses concerning noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, accidents and injuries, urbanization, climate change, and disaster preparedness. PMID:21896363
Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Anwar, Shahela; Cravioto, Alejandro
Microsatellite loci-based distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes from Chilean chronic Chagas disease patients and Triatoma infestans is concordant with a specific host-parasite association hypothesis.
The objective of this study was to investigate if there is specific host-parasite association in Chilean populations of Trypanosoma cruzi. For this purpose, two groups of parasites were analyzed, one from chronic chagasic patients, and the other from Triatoma infestans triatomines in three regions of the country. The first group consisted of four types of samples: parasites from peripheral blood of non-cardiopathic T. cruzi infected patients (NB); parasites from their corresponding xenodiagnosis (NX); parasites from peripheral blood of T. cruzi infected cardiopathic patients (CB) and parasites from their xenodiagnostics (CX). The T. infestans sample in turn was from three regions: III, V and M (Metropolitan). The genetic differentiation by the Fisher exact method, the lineage distribution of the samples, the molecular phylogeny and the frequency of multiclonality were analysed. The results show that not only are the groups of T. cruzi clones from Chagas disease patients and vectors genetically differentiated, but also all the sub-groups (NB, NX, CB and CX) from the III, V and M regions. The analysis of lineage distribution was concordant with the above results, because significant differences among the percentages of TcI, TcIII and hybrids (TcV or TcVI) were observed. The phylogenetic reconstruction with these Chilean T. cruzi samples was coherent with the above results because the four chagasic samples clustered together in a node with high bootstrap support, whereas the three triatomine samples (III, V and M) were located apart from that node. The topology of the tree including published T. cruzi clones and isolates was concordant with the known topology, which confirmed that the results presented here are correct and are not biased by experimental error. Taken together the results presented here are concordant with a specific host-parasite association between some Chilean T. cruzi populations. PMID:23666648
Venegas, Juan; Díaz, Felipe; Rojas, Tamara; Miranda, Sandra; Jercic, M I; González, Christian; Cońoepán, William; Vargas, Alex; Pichuantes, Sergio; Gajardo, Marta; Rodríguez, Jorge; Sánchez, Gittith
The trypanosomatids Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis, respectively. It is estimated that over 10 million people worldwide suffer from these neglected diseases, posing enormous social and economic problems in endemic areas. There are no vaccines to prevent these infections and chemotherapies are not adequate. This picture indicates that new chemotherapeutic agents must be developed to treat these illnesses. For this purpose, understanding the biology of the pathogenic trypanosomatid- host cell interface is fundamental for molecular and functional characterization of virulence factors that may be used as targets for the development of inhibitors to be used for effective chemotherapy. In this context, it is well known that proteases have crucial functions for both metabolism and infectivity of pathogens and are thus potential drug targets. In this regard, prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, both members of the S9 serine protease family, have been shown to play important roles in the interactions of pathogenic protozoa with their mammalian hosts and may thus be considered targets for drug design. This review aims to discuss structural and functional properties of these intriguing enzymes and their potential as targets for the development of drugs against Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis. PMID:23514419
Bastos, I M D; Motta, F N; Grellier, P; Santana, J M
We outline a descriptive framework of how candidate alleles of the immune system associate with infectious diseases in natural populations of animals. Three kinds of alleles can be separated when both prevalence of infection and infection intensity are measured—qualitative disease resistance, quantitative disease resistance and susceptibility alleles. Our descriptive framework demonstrates why alleles for quantitative resistance and susceptibility cannot be separated based on prevalence data alone, but are distinguishable on infection intensity. We then present a case study to evaluate a previous finding of a positive association between prevalence of a severe avian malaria infection (GRW2, Plasmodium ashfordi) and a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele (B4b) in great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus. Using the same dataset, we find that individuals with allele B4b have lower GRW2 infection intensities than individuals without this allele. Therefore, allele B4b provides quantitative resistance rather than increasing susceptibility to infection. This implies that birds carrying B4b can mount an immune response that suppresses the acute-phase GRW2 infection, while birds without this allele cannot and may die. We argue that it is important to determine whether MHC alleles related to infections are advantageous (quantitative and qualitative resistance) or disadvantageous (susceptibility) to obtain a more complete picture of pathogen-mediated balancing selection.
Westerdahl, Helena; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan
BACKGROUND: Clinical malaria has proven an elusive burden to enumerate. Many cases go undetected by routine disease recording systems. Epidemiologists have, therefore, frequently defaulted to actively measuring malaria in population cohorts through time. Measuring the clinical incidence of malaria longitudinally is labour-intensive and impossible to undertake universally. There is a need, therefore, to define a relationship between clinical incidence and
Anand P Patil; Emelda A Okiro; Peter W Gething; Carlos A Guerra; Surya K Sharma; Robert W Snow; Simon I Hay
Parasite-driven dysfunctional adaptive immunity represents an emerging hypothesis to explain the chronic or persistent nature of parasitic infections, as well as the observation that repeated exposure to most parasitic organisms fails to engender sterilizing immunity. This review discusses recent examples from clinical studies and experimental models of parasitic infection that substantiate the role for immune dysfunction in the inefficient generation and maintenance of potent anti-parasitic immunity. Better understanding of the complex interplay between parasites, host adaptive immunity, and relevant negative regulatory circuits will inform efforts to enhance resistance to chronic parasitic infections through vaccination or immunotherapy.
Zander, Ryan A.; Butler, Noah S.
Results Deaths from coronary heart disease were associated with suppressing a fire (32.1% of all such deaths), responding to an alarm (13.4%), returning from an alarm (17.4%), engaging in physical training (12.5%), responding to nonfire emergencies (9.4%), and performing nonemergency duties (15.4%). As compared with the odds of death from coronary heart disease during nonemergency duties, the odds were 12.1
Stefanos N. Kales; Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Costas A. Christophi; David C. Christiani
Anthropogenic land use changes drive a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and modify the transmission of endemic infections. These drivers include agricultural encroachment, deforestation, road construction, dam building, irrigation, wetland modification, mining, the concentration or expansion of urban environments, coastal zone degradation, and other activities. These changes in turn cause a cascade of factors that exacerbate infectious disease emergence, such as forest fragmentation, disease introduction, pollution, poverty, and human migration. The Working Group on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence grew out of a special colloquium that convened international experts in infectious diseases, ecology, and environmental health to assess the current state of knowledge and to develop recommendations for addressing these environmental health challenges. The group established a systems model approach and priority lists of infectious diseases affected by ecologic degradation. Policy-relevant levels of the model include specific health risk factors, landscape or habitat change, and institutional (economic and behavioral) levels. The group recommended creating Centers of Excellence in Ecology and Health Research and Training, based at regional universities and/or research institutes with close links to the surrounding communities. The centers' objectives would be 3-fold: a) to provide information to local communities about the links between environmental change and public health; b) to facilitate fully interdisciplinary research from a variety of natural, social, and health sciences and train professionals who can conduct interdisciplinary research; and c) to engage in science-based communication and assessment for policy making toward sustainable health and ecosystems. PMID:15238283
Patz, Jonathan A; Daszak, Peter; Tabor, Gary M; Aguirre, A Alonso; Pearl, Mary; Epstein, Jon; Wolfe, Nathan D; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Molyneux, David; Bradley, David J
Schistosomiasis is the second-most prevalent tropical disease after malaria affecting two-hundred million people annually world-wide; it shortens lifespan on average by ten years in endemic areas and no vaccine exists. The current control methods of human host chemotherapy and application of molluscicides to the environment do not break the disease transmission cycle. Schistosomiasis transmission in southern China involves an amphibious intermediate host snail for which hydrology is a key factor because the adults need moist vegetation while the juveniles are fully aquatic. Thus, hydrology is a key factor in schistosomiasis transmission and understanding its role can inform control measures. Our objective is to integrate hydrologic, ecologic, and other environmental factors to determine the changes in available snail habitat through space and time. We use radar altimetry measurements to determine water level every 35 days when the Envisat (Environmental Satellite) passes over the lake. The radar altimetry readings have been calibrated to levels from in-situ gauging stations and will support remote analysis of disease transmission potential without the need for gauging station data. A geographic information system was used to combine key factors including water level, topography, and air temperature data to identify areas of available snail habitat. In order to accomplish this, we conducted three steps including: delineating the watershed, specifying potential snail habitat areas through topography and air temperature classification, and calculating the intersection between potential snail habitat and non-flooded areas in the watershed. Statistical analyses of total available habitat area are also conducted. These maps and statistics analyses can be used by public health agencies to monitor snail habitat trends over time. Coupling remote sensing of water levels with a geographic information system model will continue to be important as the hydrology of the lake changes due to the completion of the upstream Three Gorges Dam project.
McCandless, M.; Ibaraki, M.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Liang, S.
Assessing parasite specificity to vector is crucial to understanding the emergence of vector-borne diseases and the evolution of parasite diversity. Avian malaria parasites have a cosmopolitan distribution and broad avian host range, which together predict they are vector generalists, but little is known about parasite-vector associations in the wild. We tested this prediction by asking if 5 different mosquito species, known to feed on birds and abundant in the northeastern United States, were naturally infected in the field with identical avian Plasmodium spp. lineages. Mosquitoes were not pooled but rather analyzed individually, and, possibly as a result, lineage diversity was higher than reported in previous avian malaria vector studies. Plasmodium spp. lineages were rare in Aedes canadensis and absent in Aedes aurifer and Culiseta melanura. We sequenced a standard Plasmodium cytochrome b marker from Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex restuans, and Ae. canadensis. Most Plasmodium clades were shared by Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. In addition, 4 individual lineages were shared by both mosquito species, including the most common lineage. One Plasmodium clade, however, was only found in Cx. restuans. We therefore found limited support for our prediction that avian Plasmodium spp. vector breadth accompanies host breadth. The association of both Culex species with most Plasmodium clades, and the presence of a single parasite lineage in 3 mosquito species representing 2 genera, suggests that avian Plasmodium species are not tightly coevolved with vector species. PMID:19697968
Kimura, M; Darbro, J M; Harrington, L C
15,000 years ago, the Sahara was moist, inhabited by tropical fauna and travelled over by nomadic populations. Later, the dryness incited human migrations to North or West Africa. African bilharziasis (S. mansoni and S. haematobium) could have been carried by nomadic populations infected in the Nile River. Sickle cell disease and alpha-thalassemia are derived from Saudi Arabia (unless in the case of alpha-thalassemia there was an identical mutation in several regions). Echinococcosis was brought with the dromedary in the ptolemaic era whereas ankylostomiasis was brought by the Romans or the Arabs. PMID:3301031
Nozais, J P
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in a world where information about infectious disease outbreaks travels at speeds and in ways not imagined just 30 years ago, and where scientists are increasingly working together on detecting and responding to public health events that threaten international public health and economic security. The SARS outbreak clearly demonstrated that it is no longer
David L Heymann
While not often considered, 'superbugs' may pose a greater threat to U.S. national security than terrorists or WMDs. Superbugs are those bacteria that have developed immunity to a wide number of antibiotics, and along with emergent and resurgent diseases,...
F. T. Pilch K. Grosselin
Lyme disease has recently begun to emerge as a significant threat to human health, both in Europe and the United States. Late sequellae, resembling those of neurosyphilis and multiple sclerosis, may occur many years after initial infection. Spontaneous abortion accompanies arthritis, carditis and neuritis as burdensome short-term sequellae. Thousands of new infections are recognized each year on each side of
Franz Rainer Matuschka; Andrew Spielman
Controlling an emerging communicable disease requires prompt adoption of measures such as quarantine. Assessment of the efficacy of these measures must be rapid as well. In this paper, the authors present a framework to monitor the efficacy of control measures in real time. Bayesian estimation of the reproduction number R (mean number of cases generated by a single infectious person)
Simon Cauchemez; Pierre-Yves Boelle; Guy Thomas; Alain-Jacques Valleron
Background Fast changes in human demographics worldwide, coupled with increased mobility, and modified land uses make the threat of emerging infectious diseases increasingly important. Currently there is worldwide alert for H5N1 avian influenza becoming as transmissible in humans as seasonal influenza, and potentially causing a pandemic of unprecedented proportions. Here we show how epidemiological surveillance data for emerging infectious diseases can be interpreted in real time to assess changes in transmissibility with quantified uncertainty, and to perform running time predictions of new cases and guide logistics allocations. Methodology/Principal Findings We develop an extension of standard epidemiological models, appropriate for emerging infectious diseases, that describes the probabilistic progression of case numbers due to the concurrent effects of (incipient) human transmission and multiple introductions from a reservoir. The model is cast in terms of surveillance observables and immediately suggests a simple graphical estimation procedure for the effective reproductive number R (mean number of cases generated by an infectious individual) of standard epidemics. For emerging infectious diseases, which typically show large relative case number fluctuations over time, we develop a Bayesian scheme for real time estimation of the probability distribution of the effective reproduction number and show how to use such inferences to formulate significance tests on future epidemiological observations. Conclusions/Significance Violations of these significance tests define statistical anomalies that may signal changes in the epidemiology of emerging diseases and should trigger further field investigation. We apply the methodology to case data from World Health Organization reports to place bounds on the current transmissibility of H5N1 influenza in humans and establish a statistical basis for monitoring its evolution in real time.
Many infectious diseases have emerged and circulated around the world with the development of human civilizations and global commerce. Anthrax, plague and tularemia are three such zoonotic diseases that have been intensely studied through genome characterization and phylogeographic analyses. A few highly fit genotypes within each of the causative species represent the vast majority of observed disease cases. Mutational and selective forces working together create highly adapted pathogens, but this has to be coupled with ecological opportunities for global expansion. This Review describes the distributions of the bacteria that cause anthrax, plague and tularemia and investigates the forces that created a clonal structure in both these species, and specific groups within these species.
Keim, Paul S.; Wagner, David M.
Pteriid oysters (Pinctada maxima, Pinctada margaritifera, Pinctada albina, Pteria penguin), rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata, Saccostrea cuccullata, Saccostrea echinata) and representatives of other taxa (Malleidae, Isognomonidae, Pinnidae, Mytilidae, Spondylidae, Arcidae) from the wild, and 4670 hatchery-reared P. maxima, from northern and Western Australia, were examined for parasites and diseases. Rickettsiales-like inclusions and metacestodes of Tylocephalum occurred in most species. Intranuclear virus-like inclusions occurred in 1/415 wild P. maxima, 1/1254 S. cuccullata, 3/58 Isognomon isognomum, 1/80 Pinna bicolor and 1/45 Pinna deltodes. Perkinsus was histologically observed in 1/4670 P. maxima spat, 2/469 P. albina, 1/933 S. glomerata, 16/20 Malleus meridianus, 12/58 I. isognomum, 1/45 P. deltodes, 5/12 Spondylus sp., 1/16 Septifer bilocularis and 3/6 Barbatia helblingii. One of 1254 S. cuccullata was heavily systematically infected with Perkinsus merozoites, meronts and schizonts, and was patently diseased. Other potentially serious pathogens included Haplosporidium sp. in 6/4670 P. maxima spat, Marteilia sydneyi from 1/933 S. glomerata, and Marteilia sp. (probably M. lengehi) (1/1254) and Haplosporidium sp. (125/1254) from S. cuccullata. The latter were associated with epizootics on offshore islands, with heaviest prevalence (45%) in oysters with empty gonad follicles. Marteilioides sp. infected the oocytes of 9/10 female S. echinata from Darwin Harbour. Details of geographical distribution and pathology are given, and the health of the bivalves examined is discussed. PMID:10785864
Hine, P M; Thorne, T
Networks offer a powerful tool for understanding and visualizing inter-species ecological and evolutionary interactions. Previously considered examples, such as trophic networks, are just representations of experimentally observed direct interactions. However, species interactions are so rich and complex it is not feasible to directly observe more than a small fraction. In this paper, using data mining techniques, we show how potential interactions can be inferred from geographic data, rather than by direct observation. An important application area for this methodology is that of emerging diseases, where, often, little is known about inter-species interactions, such as between vectors and reservoirs. Here, we show how using geographic data, biotic interaction networks that model statistical dependencies between species distributions can be used to infer and understand inter-species interactions. Furthermore, we show how such networks can be used to build prediction models. For example, for predicting the most important reservoirs of a disease, or the degree of disease risk associated with a geographical area. We illustrate the general methodology by considering an important emerging disease - Leishmaniasis. This data mining methodology allows for the use of geographic data to construct inferential biotic interaction networks which can then be used to build prediction models with a wide range of applications in ecology, biodiversity and emerging diseases.
Stephens, Christopher R.; Heau, Joaquin Gimenez; Gonzalez, Camila; Ibarra-Cerdena, Carlos N.; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor; Gonzalez-Salazar, Constantino
Despite many advances made in disease mechanisms knowledge and drug discovery and development processes, the election of promising lead compounds continues to be a challenge. Efficient techniques are required for lead selection of hit compounds selected through in vitro pharmacological studies, in order to generate precise low cost throughput data with minimal amount of compound to support the right decision making. In this context, the selection of lead compounds with physicochemical parameters that will benefit orally bioavailable drugs are crucial for patients compliance and cost effectiveness, as well as for successful pharmacology. A concept based in Lipinski's rules point out the importance of analyzing these informations in early stages. A hepatocyte screening system may provide data on many processes such as drug-drug interaction, metabolite formation, drug toxicity and ADME profile of a hit. Drug-induced liver injury is the most frequent reason for the withdrawal of an approved drug from the market and hepatocytes have a central role in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Cytotoxicity screening assays can also give some information about toxicity early drug discovery process. A set of goals in lead compound selection must be shared between all areas involved so the chances of success can be improved in translational research. PMID:19275565
Nogueira, Renata Campos; Oliveira-Costa, José Fernando; de Sá, Matheus Santos; dos Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira
Summary While some sceptics remain unconvinced that global climate change is a reality, there is no doubt that during the past 50 years or so, patterns of emerging arbovirus diseases have changed significantly. Can this be attributed to climate change? Climate is a major factor in determining: (1) the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods; (2) characteristics of arthropod life cycles; (3) dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses; (4) the evolution of arboviruses; and (5) the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. Thus, under the influence of increasing temperatures and rainfall through warming of the oceans, and alteration of the natural cycles that stabilise climate, one is inevitably drawn to the conclusion that arboviruses will continue to emerge in new regions. For example, we cannot ignore the unexpected but successful establishment of chikungunya fever in northern Italy, the sudden appearance of West Nile virus in North America, the increasing frequency of Rift Valley fever epidemics in the Arabian Peninsula, and very recently, the emergence of Bluetongue virus in northern Europe. In this brief review we ask the question, are these diseases emerging because of climate change or do other factors play an equal or even more important role in their emergence?
Gould, E.A.; Higgs, S.
Background By definition, parasites harm their hosts. However, some forms of parasite-induced alterations increase parasite transmission between hosts, such that manipulated hosts can be considered extensions of the parasite's phenotype. While well accepted in principle, surprisingly few studies have quantified how parasite manipulations alter host performance and survival under field and laboratory conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings By interfering with limb development, the trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae causes particularly severe morphological alterations within amphibian hosts that provide an ideal system to evaluate parasite-induced changes in phenotype. Here, we coupled laboratory performance trials with a capture-mark-recapture study of 1388 Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) to quantify the effects of parasite-induced malformations on host locomotion, foraging, and survival. Malformations, which affected ?50% of metamorphosing frogs in nature, caused dramatic reductions in all measures of organismal function. Malformed frogs exhibited significantly shorter jumping distances (41% reduction), slower swimming speeds (37% reduction), reduced endurance (66% reduction), and lower foraging success relative to infected hosts without malformations. Furthermore, while normal and malformed individuals had comparable survival within predator-free exclosures, deformed frogs in natural populations had 22% lower biweekly survival than normal frogs and rarely recruited to the adult population over a two-year period. Conclusions/Significance Our results highlight the ability of parasites to deeply alter multiple dimensions of host phenotype with important consequences for performance and survival. These patterns were best explained by malformation status, rather than infection per se, helping to decouple the direct and indirect effects of parasitism on host fitness.
Goodman, Brett A.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.
The balance between the products of L-arginine metabolism in macrophages regulates the outcome of Leishmania major infection. L-arginine can be oxidized by host inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) to produce nitric oxide (NO), which contributes to parasite killing. In contrast, L-arginine hydrolysis by host arginase blocks NO generation and provides polyamines, which can support parasite proliferation. Additionally, Leishmania encode their own arginase which has considereable potential to modulate infectivity and disease pathogenesis. Here, we compare the infectivity and impact on host cellular immune response in vitro and in vivo of wild-type (WT) L. major with that of a parasite arginase null mutant (arg-). We found that arg- L. major are impaired in their macrophage infectivity in vitro independent of host iNOS activities. As with in vitro results, the proliferation of arg- L. major in animal infections was also significantly impaired in vivo resulting in delayed onset of lesion development, attenuated pathology and low parasite burden. Despite this attenuated pathology, the production of cytokines by cells from the draining lymph node of mice infected with WT and arg- L. major was similar at all times tested. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo arginase levels were significantly lower in arg- than in WT infected cases and were directly correlated with parasite numbers inside infected cells. These results suggest that Leishmania-encoded arginase enhances disease pathogenesis by augmenting host cellular arginase activities leading and that contrary to previous in vitro studies, the host cytokine response does not influence host arginase activity.
Muleme, Helen M; Reguera, Rosa M; Berard, Alicia; Azinwi, Richard; Jia, Ping; Okwor, Ifeoma B; Beverley, Stephen; Uzonna, Jude E
Sickle cell disease is the most common inherited blood disorder in the United States. This disorder of hemoglobin structure leads to a chronic hemolytic anemia and complex chronic disease manifested by sudden, severe, and life-threatening complications. These acute complications can occur in any organ system beginning in early childhood and lasting throughout life. The intermittent nature and acuity of these complications lend the emergency department to be an important site of care. The hallmark of sickle cell disease is the vasoocclusive painful event. Other more “typical” complications include fever, acute chest syndrome, priapism, and ischemic stroke. Children with sickle cell disease can also present with other “atypical” complications that can have devastating consequences if they are unrecognized. Detailed discussion of these “atypical” sickle cell disease complications, organized by organ system involved, will be the focus of this article.
Brandow, Amanda M.; Liem, Robert
This study reports on the molecular systems biology of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection and potential biomarkers for GIN resistance in sheep. Microarray gene expression data were obtained for 3 different tissues at 4 time points from sheep artificially challenged with two types of nematodes, Haemonchus contortus (HC) and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (TC). We employed an integrated systems biology approach, integrating 3 main methods: standard differential gene expression analyses, weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) and quantitative genetic analyses of gene expression traits of key biomarkers. Using standard differential gene expression analyses we identified differentially expressed genes (DE) which responded differently in sheep challenged with HC compared to those challenged with TC. These interaction genes (e.g. MRPL51, SMEK2, CAT, MAPK1IP1 and SLC25A20A) were enriched in Wnt receptor signalling pathway (p = 0.0132) and positive regulation of NF?? transcription factor activity (p = 0.00208). We report FCER1A, a gene encoding a high-affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin E, which is linked to innate immunity to GIN in sheep. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) methods, we identified gene modules that were correlated with the length of infection (disease modules). Hub genes (with high intramodular connectivity) were filtered further to identify biomarkers that are related to the length of infection (e.g. CAT, FBX033, COL15A1, IGFBP7, FBLN1 and IgCgamma). The biomarkers we found in HC networks were significantly associated with functions such as T-cell and B-cell regulations, TNF-alpha, interleukin and cytokine production. In TC networks, biomarkers were significantly associated with functions such as protein catabolic process, heat shock protein binding, protein targeting and localization, cytokine receptor binding, TNF receptor binding, apoptosis and IGF binding. These results provide specific gene targets for therapeutic interventions and provide insights into GIN infections in sheep which may be used to infer the same in related host species. This is also the first study to apply the concept of estimating breeding values of animals to expression traits and reveals 11 heritable candidate biomarkers (0.05 to 0.92) that could be used in selection of animals for GIN resistance. PMID:21072409
Kadarmideen, Haja N; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Andronicos, Nicholas M
As our ability to recognise and diagnose human disease caused by helminth parasites has improved, so our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of these diseases has improved. Humans can develop patent infection with a wide range of helminth parasites, whose natural host is another vertebrate. Rather than focusing on a comprehensive review of zoonotic helminth infections, this review describes in detail examples of zoonotic helminth infections that have newly appeared in human populations, or have existed but are increasing in incidence or geographic range. Examples include intestinal capillariasis, anisakidosis, eosinophilic enteritis, oesophagostomiasis and gnathostomiasis. Potential reasons for the emergence of these infections, including changes in social, dietary or cultural mores, environmental changes, and the improved recognition of heretofore neglected infections often coupled with an improved ability to diagnose infection are discussed. PMID:11113260
McCarthy, J; Moore, T A
Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in infectious disease outbreaks. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required, and given limited resources, policy decision makers need rational methods with which to prioritise pathogen threats. Here expert opinion was collected to determine what criteria could be used to prioritise diseases according to the likelihood of emergence in response to climate change and according to their impact. We identified a total of 40 criteria that might be used for this purpose in the Canadian context. The opinion of 64 experts from academic, government and independent backgrounds was collected to determine the importance of the criteria. A weight was calculated for each criterion based on the expert opinion. The five that were considered most influential on disease emergence or impact were: potential economic impact, severity of disease in the general human population, human case fatality rate, the type of climate that the pathogen can tolerate and the current climatic conditions in Canada. There was effective consensus about the influence of some criteria among participants, while for others there was considerable variation. The specific climate criteria that were most likely to influence disease emergence were: an annual increase in temperature, an increase in summer temperature, an increase in summer precipitation and to a lesser extent an increase in winter temperature. These climate variables were considered to be most influential on vector-borne diseases and on food and water-borne diseases. Opinion about the influence of climate on air-borne diseases and diseases spread by direct/indirect contact were more variable. The impact of emerging diseases on the human population was deemed more important than the impact on animal populations.
Cox, Ruth; Revie, Crawford W.; Sanchez, Javier
Objective This study evaluated risks of the emergency room visits (ERV) for cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive diseases, chronic renal failure (CRF), diabetes mellitus (DM), asthma, chronic airway obstruction not elsewhere classified (CAO), and accidents associated with the ambient temperature from 2000 to 2009 in metropolitan Taipei. Methods The distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate the cumulative relative risk (RR) and confidence interval (CI) of cause-specific ERV associated with daily temperature from lag 0 to lag 3 after controlling for potential confounders. Results This study identified that temperatures related to the lowest risk of ERV was 26 °C for cerebrovascular diseases, 18 °C for CRF, DM, and accidents, and 30 °C for hypertensive diseases, asthma, and CAO. These temperatures were used as the reference temperatures to measure RR for the corresponding diseases. A low temperature (14°C) increased the ERV risk for cerebrovascular diseases, hypertensive diseases, and asthma, with respective cumulative 4-day RRs of 1.56 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.97), 1.78 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.34), and 2.93 (95% CI: 1.26, 6.79). The effects were greater on, or after, lag one. At 32°C, the cumulative 4-day RR for ERV was significant for CRF (RR?=?2.36; 95% CI: 1.33, 4.19) and accidents (RR?=?1.23; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.33) and the highest RR was seen on lag 0 for CRF (RR?=?1.69; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58), DM (RR?=?1.69; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.61), and accidents (RR?=?1.19; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.27). Conclusions Higher temperatures are associated with the increased ERV risks for CRF, DM, and accidents and lower temperatures with the increased ERV risks for cerebrovascular diseases, hypertensive diseases, and asthma in the subtropical metropolitan.
Wang, Yu-Chun; Lin, Yu-Kai
Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids) showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as ‘spring sickness’ were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s) of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight) which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of ‘spring sickness’ symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants.
Grant-Downton, Robert T.; Terhem, Razak B.; Kapralov, Maxim V.; Mehdi, Saher; Rodriguez-Enriquez, M. Josefina; Gurr, Sarah J.; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Dewey, Frances M.
miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases.
Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E.
Two factors that influence amphibian population declines are infectious diseases and exposure to anthropogenic contaminants. The authors examined an emerging fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and its interaction with an emerging contaminant, the antimicrobial triclosan. They first conducted a 2?×?2?×?4 factorial study to examine the interactive impacts of dragonfly predator cues, Bd, and triclosan (0?µg/L, 10?µg/L, 100?µg/L, and 1000?µg/L) on Woodhouse's toad (Anaxyrus woodhousii) tadpoles. The authors measured the lethal and sublethal impacts of these stressors on tadpoles over 4 wk. All tadpoles in the 100-µg/L and 1000-µg/L concentrations of triclosan died within 24?h of exposure, but tadpoles in the low concentration (10?µg/L) survived. Tadpoles exposed to only Bd (no triclosan) exhibited a low survival rate (67.5%), whereas those exposed to both 10?µg/L triclosan and Bd exhibited a high survival rate (91.1%), implying that triclosan inhibits effects of Bd on tadpoles. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and predator cue exposure individually increased the developmental rate of the surviving tadpoles, but this effect was absent when these factors were combined with triclosan. In a follow-up study, the authors found Bd growth in culture was significantly inhibited at the 10-µg/L concentration of triclosan and completely inhibited at 100?µg/L. These findings suggest that interactions among multiple stressors can be complex and require examination in conjunction with one another to evaluate actual impacts to aquatic fauna. PMID:23637083
Brown, Jennifer R; Miiller, Tyler; Kerby, Jacob L
Abstract :? We review a unique set of documents, death certificates, cataloged in the U.S. Air Force Mortality Registry database, which tracks deaths for all current and retired service members. We screened the records for all deaths caused by parasitic, vector-borne, or zoonotic diseases between 1970 and 2013. There were 78 deaths caused by a variety of diseases such as amebiasis, malaria, strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, and pneumocystosis. We compare these deaths to U.S. national deaths. U.S. Air Force service members are more likely to die from malaria, strongyloidiasis, and Q fever than the average American but are less likely to die from pneumocystosis. PMID:24224859
Reeves, Will K; Bettano, Amy L
Progesterone action normally mediates the balance between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory processes throughout the female reproductive tract. However, in women with endometriosis, endometrial progesterone resistance, characterized by alterations in progesterone responsive gene and protein expression, is now considered a central element in disease pathophysiology. Recent studies additionally suggest that the peritoneal microenvironment of endometriosis patients exhibits altered physiological characteristics that may further promote inflammation-driven disease development and progression. Within this review, we summarize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of endometriosis with an emphasis on the role that inflammation plays in generating not only the progesterone-resistant eutopic endometrium but also a peritoneal microenvironment that may contribute significantly to disease establishment. Viewing endometriosis from the emerging perspective that a progesterone resistant endometrium and an immunologically compromised peritoneal microenvironment are biologically linked risk factors for disease development provides a novel mechanistic framework to identify new therapeutic targets for appropriate medical management.
Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Herington, Jennifer L.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Osteen, Kevin G.
The evaluation and treatment of the heterogeneous group of kidney diseases poses a challenging field in pediatrics. Many of the pediatric disorders resulting in severe renal affection are exceedingly rare and therapeutic approaches have remained symptomatic for most of these disease entities. The insights obtained from cellular and molecular studies of rare disorders by recent genetic studies have now substantially changed our mechanistic understanding of various important pediatric renal diseases and positive examples of targeted treatment approaches are emerging. Three fields of recent breathtaking developments in pediatric nephrology are the pathophysiology of nephrotic syndrome and proteinuria, the molecular mechanisms underlying atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and the genetics and cellular biology of inherited cystic kidney diseases. In all three areas, the combined power of molecular basic science together with deeply characterizing clinical approaches has led to the establishment of novel pathophysiological principles and to the first clinical trials of targeted treatment approaches.
Liebau, Max Christoph
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and a major part of its pathophysiology remains obscure. Some hematological targets have been related to the development and clinical outcome of this disease, especially soluble cytokines, leukocytes, red blood cells, hemostatic factors and platelets, and bone-marrow vascular progenitors. These emerging factors may be modulated by current antiatherosclerotic pharmacotherapy, target-designed novel drugs or progenitor cell therapy. The aim of current review article is to comprehensively review the role of these antiatherosclerotic targets and therapy.
Villegas, Ana; Gonzalez, Fernando A; Llorente, Leopoldo; Redondo, Santiago
During the past decades Neural Stem Cells have been considered as an alternative source of cells to replace lost neurons and NSC transplantation has been indicated as a promising treatment for neurodegenerative disorders. Nevertheless, the current understanding of NSC biology suggests that, far from being mere spare parts for cell replacement therapies, NSCs could play a key role in the pharmacology of neuroprotection and become protagonists of innovative treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review this new emerging concept of NSC biology.
Carletti, Barbara; Piemonte, Fiorella; Rossi, Ferdinando
We report the draft genome sequence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain ST672, an emerging disease clone in India, from a septicemia patient. The genome size is about 2.82 Mb with 2,485 open reading frames (ORFs). The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element (type V) and immune evasion cluster appear to be different from those of strain ST772 on preliminary examination.
Khedkar, Supriya; Prabhakara, Sushma; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; S, Chandana; Gowda, Malali
Arthropod-transmitted viruses (Arboviruses) are important causes of disease in humans and animals, and it is proposed that climate change will increase the distribution and severity of arboviral diseases. Orbiviruses are the cause of important and apparently emerging arboviral diseases of livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), equine encephalosis virus (EEV), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) that are all transmitted by haematophagous Culicoides insects. Recent changes in the global distribution and nature of BTV infection have been especially dramatic, with spread of multiple serotypes of the virus throughout extensive portions of Europe and invasion of the south-eastern USA with previously exotic virus serotypes. Although climate change has been incriminated in the emergence of BTV infection of ungulates, the precise role of anthropogenic factors and the like is less certain. Similarly, although there have been somewhat less dramatic recent alterations in the distribution of EHDV, AHSV, and EEV, it is not yet clear what the future holds in terms of these diseases, nor of other potentially important but poorly characterized Orbiviruses such as Peruvian horse sickness virus.
MacLachlan, N. James; Guthrie, Alan J.
A new species of Henneguya parasitizing tissues affected by the ulcerative disease syndrome of a freshwater fish Anabas testudineus (Bloch) from Khiodum and Pumlen lakes of Manipur state is described. Of the fishes examined 75% were found to be infested with this myxozoan parasite. Mature spores of the new species are elongated, biconvex, and oval with bluntly rounded anterior end and gradually tapering posterior end with a caudal prolongation, measuring 12.6-15.4 (14.0+/- 1.1) microm in length. Length of the caudal prolongation is 11.2-12.6 (11.7+/- 0.6) microm. The width of the spores is 5.6-7.0 (6.3+/- 0.5) microm. The length of the polar capsules is 5.6-6.3 (5.5+/- 0.3) microm. PMID:18351559
Hemanand, Th; Meitei, N Mohilal; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Mitra, Amlan K
BACKGROUND: Concern over bio-terrorism has led to recognition that traditional public health surveillance for specific conditions is unlikely to provide timely indication of some disease outbreaks, either naturally occurring or induced by a bioweapon. In non-traditional surveillance, the use of health care resources are monitored in \\
Judith C Brillman; Tom Burr; David Forslund; Edward Joyce; Rick Picard; Edith Umland
Direct oral-anal sexual contact is a common practice among men who have sex with men (MSM) and is implicated in the transmission of various enteric pathogens including intestinal parasites. The present study reviewed data on the sexual transmission of intestinal parasites among MSM, and highlighted advances in the diagnosis of such infections. The emergence and spread of intestinal parasites is of public health concern particularly in the homosexual community. Intestinal parasitic infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease in this population. Combination of traditional diagnostic procedures with implementation of testing based on novel molecular methods in the accurate identification of intestinal parasites is important so that early intervention and control of infection is facilitated. PMID:19653954
Abdolrasouli, Alireza; McMillan, Alexander; Ackers, John P
The evolutionary origins of new lineages of pathogens are fundamental to understanding emerging diseases. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on DNA sequences has revealed the sister taxa of human pathogens, but the timing of host-switching events, including the human malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum, remains controversial. Here, we establish a rate for cytochrome b evolution in avian malaria parasites relative to its rate in birds. We found that the parasite cytochrome b gene evolves about 60% as rapidly as that of host cytochrome b, corresponding to approximately 1.2% sequence divergence per million years. This calibration puts the origin of P. falciparum at 2.5 million years ago (Ma), the initial radiation of mammalian Plasmodium at 12.8 Ma, and the contemporary global diversity of the Haemosporida across terrestrial vertebrates at 16.2 Ma. PMID:20616281
Ricklefs, Robert E; Outlaw, Diana C
Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (<1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations.
Lachish, Shelly; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Sheldon, Ben C.
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) constitute a family of key homeostatic regulators, with wide implications on physiology and disease. Recent findings have unveiled that the biological activity of PTPs goes beyond the dephosphorylation of phospho-proteins to shut down protein tyrosine kinase-driven signaling cascades. Substrates dephosphorylated by clinically relevant PTPs extend to phospholipids and phosphorylated carbohydrates as well. In addition, non-catalytic functions are also used by PTPs to regulate essential cellular functions. Consequently, PTPs have emerged as novel potential therapeutic targets for human diseases, including cancer predispositions, myopathies and neuropathies. In this review, we highlight recent advances on the multifaceted role of lipid-phosphatase PTPs in human pathology, with an emphasis on hereditary diseases. The involved PTP regulatory networks and PTP modulatory strategies with potential therapeutic application are discussed. PMID:23900072
Pulido, Rafael; Stoker, Andrew W; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J
Intersectins (ITSNs) represent a family of multi-domain adaptor proteins that regulate endocytosis and cell signaling. ITSN genes are highly conserved and present in all metazoan genomes examined thus far. Lower eukaryotes have only one ITSN gene, whereas higher eukaryotes have two ITSN genes. ITSN was first identified as an endocytic scaffold protein, and numerous studies reveal a conserved role for ITSN in endocytosis. Subsequently, ITSNs were found to regulate multiple signaling pathways including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), GTPases, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Class 2beta (PI3KC2?). ITSN has also been implicated in diseases such as Down Syndrome (DS), Alzheimer Disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative disorders. This review summarizes the evolutionary conservation of ITSN, the latest research on the role of ITSN in endocytosis, the emerging roles of ITSN in regulating cell signaling pathways, and the involvement of ITSN in human diseases such as DS, AD, and cancer.
Hunter, Michael P.; Russo, Angela; O'Bryan, John P.
During most of the 20th century, the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsioses could be summarized as the occurrence of a single pathogenic rickettsia on each continent. An element of this paradigm suggested that the many other characterized and noncharacterized rickettsiae isolated from ticks were not pathogenic to humans. In this context, it was considered that relatively few tick-borne rickettsiae caused human disease. This concept was modified extensively from 1984 through 2005 by the identification of at least 11 additional rickettsial species or subspecies that cause tick-borne rickettsioses around the world. Of these agents, seven were initially isolated from ticks, often years or decades before a definitive association with human disease was established. We present here the tick-borne rickettsioses described through 2005 and focus on the epidemiological circumstances that have played a role in the emergence of the newly recognized diseases.
Parola, Philippe; Paddock, Christopher D.; Raoult, Didier
Many populations of amphibians are declining on all six continents on which they occur. Some causes of amphibian declines, such as habitat destruction, direct application of xenobiotics, and introduction of predators or competitors, are clearly attributable to human activities. Infectious disease appears to be the direct cause of mass amphibian die-offs in relatively undisturbed areas of the world where anthropomorphic environmental disruption is minimal. In these cases, it is not yet clear whether these epizootics result from the natural evolution of new pathogens or from environmental changes that promote the emergence of pathogenic forms and/or that weaken the immune defenses of amphibians. Because some aspects of pathogen-related amphibian mass mortalities are similar to outbreaks of new diseases in humans and coral reef organisms, amphibian declines may be part of a much larger pattern than previously appreciated.
RNA viruses account for numerous emerging and perennial infectious diseases, and are characterized by rapid rates of molecular evolution. The ecological dynamics of most emerging RNA viruses are still poorly understood and difficult to ascertain. The availability of genome sequence data for many RNA viruses, in principle, could be used to infer ecological dynamics if changes in population numbers produced a lasting signature within the pattern of genome evolution. As a result, the rapidly emerging phylogeographic structure of a pathogen, shaped by the rise and fall in the number of infections and their spatial distribution, could be used as a surrogate for direct ecological assessments. Based on rabies virus as our example, we use a model combining ecological and evolutionary processes to test whether variation in the rate of host movement results in predictive diagnostic patterns of pathogen genetic structure. We identify several linearizable relationships between host dispersal rate and measures of phylogenetic structure suggesting genetic information can be used to directly infer ecological process. We also find phylogenetic structure may be more revealing than demography for certain ecological processes. Our approach extends the reach of current analytic frameworks for infectious disease dynamics by linking phylogeography back to underlying ecological processes.
Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.; Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.
Disease is one of the gravest threats to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A good understanding of biosecurity and disease causation is essential for developing and implementing farm-level plans and husbandry measures to respond to disease emergencies. Using epidemiological approaches, it is possible to identify pond- and farm-level risk factors for disease outbreaks and develop intervention strategies. Better management practices (BMPs) should be simple, science-based, cost-effective and appropriate to their context if farmers are to adopt and implement them. As part of a regional initiative by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) to control aquatic animal diseases, effective extension approaches to promote the widespread adoption of BMPs have been developed in India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, and have proved their worth. A highly successful programme, which addresses rising concerns about the effect of disease on the sustainability of shrimp farming in India, is now in its seventh year. In this paper, the authors present a brief insight into the details of the programme, its outcomes and impact, the lessons learned and the way forward. PMID:18666486
Mohan, C V; Phillips, M J; Bhat, B V; Umesh, N R; Padiyar, P A
Parasitic diseases at the wildlife/primate/human interface are of particular importance in zoological gardens. Better understanding of the types of wildlife parasites that do persist in zoological gardens, and drives that lead to increases in prevalence or impacts, can point to new strategies for limiting the risk of human and captive primates' exposure in zoo centres. Also, it improves our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that influence the emergence of parasitic diseases. As wild animals and humans come into greater contact with each other, the risk posed by multi-host parasites for humans, captive primates, and wildlife populations increases. Despite strong public awareness of the fact that wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir of most emerging infectious diseases, animal-human interaction has not been addressed. Herein, the potential for cross-species parasite transmission between the wild rodents, captive primates and humans is considered using the current literature and medical records. Additionally, some aspects of the interface among wildlife, captive primates and humans and its impacts on human health are discussed. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, including identifying those parasites for which multi-host interaction is likely to have the greatest impact. PMID:19795752
Elsheikha, Hany M; Clayton, Samantha J; Morsy, Tosson A; Yon, Lisa K
An association between sulfur dioxide levels in urban air and the daily number of emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was previously reported in Barcelona, Spain, for the period 1985-1986. The present study assesses this association over a longer period of time, 1985-1989. This made it possible to carry out separate analyses for the winter and summer seasons and thus to control more adequately for weather and influenza epidemics. An increase of 25 micrograms/m3 in sulfur dioxide (24-hour average) produced adjusted changes of 6% and 9% in emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during winter and summer, respectively. For black smoke, a similar change was found during winter, although the change was smaller in summer. The association of each pollutant with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions remained significant after control for the other pollutant. The present findings support the conclusion that current levels of sulfur dioxide and black smoke may have an effect on the respiratory health of susceptible persons.
Sunyer, J.; Saez, M.; Murillo, C.; Castellsague, J.; Martinez, F.; Anto, J.M. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain))
Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen implicated in urethritis in men and several inflammatory reproductive tract syndromes in women including cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and infertility. This comprehensive review critically examines epidemiologic studies of M. genitalium infections in women with the goal of assessing the associations with reproductive tract disease and enhancing awareness of this emerging pathogen. Over 27,000 women from 48 published reports have been screened for M. genitalium urogenital infection in high- or low-risk populations worldwide with an overall prevalence of 7.3% and 2.0%, respectively. M. genitalium was present in the general population at rates between those of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Considering more than 20 studies of lower tract inflammation, M. genitalium has been positively associated with urethritis, vaginal discharge, and microscopic signs of cervicitis and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge in seven of 14 studies. A consistent case definition of cervicitis is lacking and will be required for comprehensive understanding of these associations. Importantly, evidence for M. genitalium PID and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that a significant proportion of upper tract inflammation may be attributed to this elusive pathogen. Collectively, M. genitalium is highly prevalent in high- and low-risk populations, and should be considered an etiologic agent of select reproductive tract disease syndromes in women.
McGowin, Chris L.; Anderson-Smits, Colin
The Mediterranean basin is a biodiversity hotspot; it has historically had a large human presence that has shaped ecosystems for millennia. As the cradle of many civilizations, the area was one of the main theatres for transitions that punctuated both human and pathogen histories, which are intimately linked. Today we are living through another great historical transition summarized in the expression 'global changes'. In this context, we are witnessing a rise in the emergence of pathogens widely associated with aforementioned global changes. The Mediterranean basin might be especially vulnerable to this phenomenon due to the acute consequences global changes will have in this key intercontinental interface region. In addition, Arab revolutions and European economic crisis are creating both sanitary issues and presenting new opportunities to improve infectious disease control and prevention in the region. The aim of this review is to identify the impacts that ongoing changes might have on the risk of infectious disease emergence in the Mediterranean basin. We focussed on three key domains undergoing transformations: (i) resources, namely safe drinking water and animal products, (ii) socio-economic factors including health inequalities within countries and poor sanitary conditions linked to ongoing conflicts and (iii) movements of people and goods that are reshaped by current changes and are intimately linked to the risk of disease proliferation. Building on recent examples, we try to identify upcoming challenges and discuss ways to meet them in the light of existing international human and veterinary health guidelines and their possible improvements. PMID:22998374
Vittecoq, M; Thomas, F; Jourdain, E; Moutou, F; Renaud, F; Gauthier-Clerc, M
Introduction Acute appendicitis is the most frequently observed disease requiring emergency surgery. The role of parasites in its pathogenesis has long been discussed. The signs of the parasitic infestations can mimic the signs of acute appendicitis. Therefore, it can cause a negative laparotomy. Aim To evaluate the parasitic infestations of the appendix vermiformis whether increas the rate of negative laparotomy. Material and methods The histopathology results of a total of 3863 patients who underwent appendectomy with clinically acute appendicitis were evaluated retrospectively. All appendectomy materials in which parasites were observed were evaluated with respect to the nature of the parasites and the findings of inflammation. Cases in which parasite tissue fragments and/or eggs as well as findings of inflammation were histopathologically observed in the appendix lumen were diagnosed with parasitic appendicitis. Results Evidence of parasites was observed in 19 (0.49%) of the evaluated appendectomy materials. In 9 (47.3%) of these specimens that had evidence for parasites, findings for acute appendicitis and localized peritonitis were identified. Findings of acute appendicitis had not been identified in the other ten (52.7%) of the specimens. Enterobius vermicularis was the most frequently identified parasite. Conclusions In parasitic acute appendicitis, appendectomy in itself is not sufficient for treatment. Pharmacological treatment should also be administered after surgery. Patients should be evaluated prior to surgery for parasites, and diagnosis of acute appendicitis should be considered more cautiously in order to avoid negative laparotomies.
Senlikci, Abdullah; K?zanoglu, Hale; Ustuner, Mehmet Akif; Vardar, Enver; Aykas, Ahmet; Yeldan, Eyup; Y?ld?r?m, Mehmet
Rationale: The heat-related risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases among the elderly has not been quantified in the United States on a national scale. With climate change predictions of more frequent and more intense heat waves, it is of paramount importance to quantify the health risks related to heat, especially for the most vulnerable. Objectives: To estimate the risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases associated with outdoor heat in the U.S. elderly. Methods: An observational study of approximately 12.5 million Medicare beneficiaries in 213 United States counties, January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008. We estimate a national average relative risk of hospitalization for each 10°F (5.6°C) increase in daily outdoor temperature using Bayesian hierarchical models. Measurements and Main Results: We obtained daily county-level rates of Medicare emergency respiratory hospitalizations (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, 464–466, 480–487, 490–492) in 213 U.S. counties from 1999 through 2008. Overall, each 10°F increase in daily temperature was associated with a 4.3% increase in same-day emergency hospitalizations for respiratory diseases (95% posterior interval, 3.8, 4.8%). Counties’ relative risks were significantly higher in counties with cooler average summer temperatures. Conclusions: We found strong evidence of an association between outdoor heat and respiratory hospitalizations in the largest population of elderly studied to date. Given projections of increasing temperatures from climate change and the increasing global prevalence of chronic pulmonary disease, the relationship between heat and respiratory morbidity is a growing concern.
Anderson, G. Brooke; Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; McCormack, Meredith C.; Bell, Michelle L.
Contents: Emerging Chagas Disease: Trophic Network and Cycle of Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi from Palm Trees in the Amazon; Persistence and Variability of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, Madrid, 1991-1998; Hospital Control a...
The aim of this review was to assess the methodological quality of cluster randomised controlled trials (CRCT) for the management of tropical parasitic disease published between 1998 and 2007. A literature survey was conducted using Medline for CRCTs of interventions aimed at managing any one of the six major tropical parasitic diseases: malaria, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Information was extracted from the published articles in order that, for each trial, categorical responses could be made to a pre-specified list of 12 questions concerning issues relating to the methodological quality of the trial, including choice of design, generalisability, baseline assessment, blinding, use or non-use of a matched design, and accounting for the intraclass correlation in both design and analysis. The literature survey found 38 CRCTs. Of the 35 CRCTs that reported at least one human outcome, 27 were for interventions in the management of malaria whilst the rest were for managing leishmaniasis (4 trials), lymphatic filariasis (2 trials) and schistosomiasis (2 trials). For every one of the pre-specified questions that concerned an issue associated with methodological quality, the responses were consistent with the practice of trialists in relation to the given issue being generally poor. PMID:19232658
Bowater, Russell J; Abdelmalik, Sally M E; Lilford, Richard J
The symptomatic phase of neurocysticercosis (NCC), a parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans, is characterized by inflammatory responses leading to neuropathology and, in some cases, death. In an animal model of NCC in which mice were intracranially inoculated with the parasite Mesocestoides corti, the infection in mice lacking the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88?/?) resulted in decreased disease severity and improved survival compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice. The CNS of MyD88?/? mice was more quiescent, with decreased microgliosis and tissue damage. These mice exhibited substantially reduced primary and secondary microglial nodule formations and lacked severe astrogliotic reactions, which were seen in WT mice. Significantly reduced numbers of CD11b+ myeloid cells, ?? T cells, ?? T cells, and B cells were present in the brains of MyD88?/? mice in comparison with those of WT mice. This decrease in cellular infiltration correlated with a decrease in blood-brain barrier permeability, as measured by reduced fibrinogen extravasation. Comparisons of cytokine expression indicated a significant decrease in the CNS levels of several inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma interferon, CCL2, and interleukin-6, during the course of infection in MyD88?/? mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that MyD88 plays a prominent role in the development of the hyperinflammatory response, which in turn contributes to neuropathology and disease severity in NCC.
Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Wong, Kondi; Teale, Judy M.
Background Acute respiratory failure due to thyroid compression or invasion of the tracheal lumen is a surgical emergency requiring urgent management. The aim of this paper is to describe a series of six patients treated successfully in the emergency setting with total thyroidectomy due to ingravescent dyspnoea and asphyxia, as well as review related data reported in literature. Methods During 2005-2010, of 919 patients treated by total thyroidectomy at our Academic Hospital, 6 (0.7%; 4 females and 2 men, mean age: 68.7 years, range 42-81 years) were treated in emergency. All the emergency operations were performed for life-threatening respiratory distress. The clinical picture at admission, clinical features, type of surgery, outcomes and complications are described. Mean duration of surgery was 146 minutes (range: 53-260). Results In 3/6 (50%) a manubriotomy was necessary due to the extension of the mass into the upper mediastinum. In all cases total thyroidectomy was performed. In one case (16.7%) a parathyroid gland transplantation and in another one (16.7%) a tracheotomy was necessary due to a condition of tracheomalacia. Mean post-operative hospital stay was 6.5 days (range: 2-10 days). Histology revealed malignancy in 4/6 cases (66.7%), showing 3 primitive, and 1 secondary tumors. Morbidity consisted of 1 transient recurrent laryngeal palsy, 3 transient postoperative hypoparathyroidism, and 4 pleural effusions, treated by medical therapy in 3 and by drains in one. There was no mortality. Conclusion On the basis of our experience and of literature review, we strongly advocate elective surgery for patients with thyroid disease at the first signs of tracheal compression. When an acute airway distress appears, an emergency life-threatening total thyroidectomy is recommended in a high-volume centre.
Background Cooking and heating remain the most energy intensive activities among the world's poor, and thus improved access to clean energies for these tasks has been highlighted as a key requirement of attaining the major objectives of the UN Millennium Development Goals. A move towards clean energy technologies such as biogas systems (which produce methane from human and animal waste) has the potential to provide immediate benefits for the control of neglected tropical diseases. Here, an assessment of the parasitic disease and energy benefits of biogas systems in Sichuan Province, China, is presented, highlighting how the public health sector can leverage the proliferation of rural energy projects for infectious disease control. Methodology/Findings First, the effectiveness of biogas systems at inactivating and removing ova of the human parasite Schistosoma japonicum is experimentally evaluated. Second, the impact of biogas infrastructure on energy use and environmental quality as reported by surveyed village populations is assessed, as is the community acceptance of the technology. No viable eggs were recovered in the effluent collected weekly from biogas systems for two months following seeding with infected stool. Less than 1% of ova were recovered viable from a series of nylon bags seeded with ova, a 2-log removal attributable to biochemical inactivation. More than 90% of Ascaris lumbricoides ova (used as a proxy for S. japonicum ova) counted at the influent of two biogas systems were removed in the systems when adjusted for system residence time, an approximate 1-log removal attributable to sedimentation. Combined, these inactivation/removal processes underscore the promise of biogas infrastructure for reducing parasite contamination resulting from nightsoil use. When interviewed an average of 4 years after construction, villagers attributed large changes in fuel usage to the installation of biogas systems. Household coal usage decreased by 68%, wood by 74%, and crop waste by 6%. With reported energy savings valued at roughly 600 CNY per year, 2–3 years were required to recoup the capital costs of biogas systems. In villages without subsidies, no new biogas systems were implemented. Conclusions Sustainable strategies that integrate rural energy needs and sanitation offer tremendous promise for long-term control of parasitic diseases, while simultaneously reducing energy costs and improving quality of life. Government policies can enhance the financial viability of such strategies by introducing fiscal incentives for joint sanitation/sustainable energy projects, along with their associated public outreach and education programs.
Remais, Justin; Chen, Lin; Seto, Edmund
With the world increasingly becoming a global village, transnational and transcontinental migration has become the order of the day. It is expected that migrants will take with them some diseases (including parasites) which are normally endemic in their countries of origin, to their host countries. Similarly, environmental changes that result from development of water resources, global warming, growth and migration
Elijah O. Kehinde; Jehoram T. Anim; Parsotam R. Hira
The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential. PMID:23912715
Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K
Outdoor and indoor air pollution poses a significant cardiovascular risk, and has been associated with atherosclerosis, the main underlying pathology in many cardiovascular diseases. Although, it is well known that exposure to air pollution causes pulmonary disease, recent studies have shown that cardiovascular health consequences of air pollution generally equal or exceed those due to pulmonary diseases. The objective of this article is to evaluate the current evidence on the emerging role of environmental air pollutions in cardiovascular disease, with specific focus on the types of air pollutants and mechanisms of air pollution-induced cardiotoxicity. Published literature on pollution was systematically reviewed and cited in this article. It is hoped that this review will provide a better understanding of the harmful cardiovascular effects induced by air pollution exposure. This will help to bring a better understanding on the possible preventive health measures and will also serve regulatory agencies and researchers. In addition, elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying the link between air pollution and cardiovascular disease is an essential target in developing novel pharmacological strategies aimed at decreasing adverse effects of air pollution on cardiovascular system.
Uzoigwe, Jacinta C.; Prum, Thavaleak; Bresnahan, Eric; Garelnabi, Mahdi
A serological study was done to assess the role of Maedi-Visna (MV) infection in sheep from flocks with high respiratory tract disease morbidity in Ethiopia. Of 105 sheep examined from central Ethiopia 78 (74%) were positive for MV-infection. However, antibodies to the virus were not detected in 48 sheep and 70 goats from elsewhere in Ethiopia. The infection was detected in all breeds of sheep examined (Awassi, Hampshire, Corriedale, indigenous Menz breeds and their crosses) but with a significant breed difference (chi 2 = 20, p < 0.001) varying from 48% in imported Awassi sheep to 92% in the indigenous Menz sheep. This suggests that Menz sheep are more susceptible to infection, which may support the observation of a higher incidence of clinical disease in these sheep compared to exotic breeds and their crosses. It also supports recent studies indicating that MV is becoming one of the most important respiratory tract diseases in sheep in central Ethiopia. Our findings indicate that MV was introduced into Ethiopia via sheep imported into the central highlands and that it now constitutes an important emerging disease is discussed. Measures to control the disease are suggested. PMID:12494555
Woldemeskel, M; Tibbo, M; Potgieter, L N D
Background Stochastic fluctuations in the protein turnover underlie the random emergence of neural precursor cells from initially homogenous cell population. If stochastic alteration of the levels in signal transduction networks is sufficient to spontaneously alter a phenotype, can it cause a sporadic chronic disease as well – including cancer? Methods Expression in >80 disease-free tissue environments was measured using Affymetrix microarray platform comprising 54675 probe-sets. Steps were taken to suppress the technical noise inherent to microarray experiment. Next, the integrated expression and expression variability data were aligned with the mechanistic data covering major human chronic diseases. Results Measured as class average, variability of expression of disease associated genes measured in health was higher than variability of random genes for all chronic pathologies. Anti-cancer FDA approved targets were displaying much higher variability as a class compared to random genes. Same held for magnitude of gene expression. The genes known to participate in multiple chronic disorders demonstrated the highest variability. Disease-related gene categories displayed on average more intricate regulation of biological function vs random reference, were enriched in adaptive and transient functions as well as positive feedback relationships. Conclusions A possible causative link can be suggested between normal (healthy) state gene expression variation and inception of major human pathologies, including cancer. Study of variability profiles may lead to novel diagnostic methods, therapies and better drug target prioritization. The results of the study suggest the need to advance personalized therapy development.
Mayburd, Anatoly L.
Exercise testing has an established role in the evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease and can aid clinical decision making. Because symptoms may develop slowly and indolently in chronic valve diseases and are often not recognized by patients and their physicians, the symptomatic, blood pressure, and electrocardiographic responses to exercise can help identify patients who would benefit from early valve repair or replacement. In addition, stress echocardiography has emerged as an important component of stress testing in patients with valvular heart disease, with relevant established and potential applications. Stress echocardiography has the advantages of its wide availability, low cost, and versatility for the assessment of disease severity. The versatile applications of stress echocardiography can be tailored to the individual patient with aortic or mitral valve disease, both before and after valve replacement or repair. Hence, exercise-induced changes in valve hemodynamics, ventricular function, and pulmonary artery pressure, together with exercise capacity and symptomatic responses to exercise, provide the clinician with diagnostic and prognostic information that can contribute to subsequent clinical decisions. Nevertheless, there is a lack of convincing evidence that the results of stress echocardiography lead to clinical decisions that result in better outcomes, and therefore large-scale prospective randomized studies focusing on patient outcomes are needed in the future. PMID:19958961
Picano, Eugenio; Pibarot, Philippe; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Monin, Jean Luc; Bonow, Robert O
Four cases of serious cardiac attacks by autochthonous Trypanosoma cruzi infection from the Brazilian Amazon are reported; three of them occurred in micro-epidemic episodes. The manifestations included sudden fever, myalgia, dyspnea and signs of heart failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by specific exams, especially QBC (Quantitative Buffy Coat) and natural xenodiagnosis. Despite treatment with benznidazol, three patients died with serious myocarditis, renal failure and cardiac tamponade. The authors call attention to the emergence of this disease and reveal a previously unknown pathogenicity of T. cruzi strains in this area, added to a non-usual transmission form. PMID:15880237
Pinto, Ana Yecę das Neves; Valente, Sebastiăo Aldo da Silva; Valente, Vera da Costa
During the past decades Neural Stem Cells have been considered as an alternative source of cells to replace lost neurons and NSC transplantation has been indicated as a promising treatment for neurodegenerative disorders. Nevertheless, the current understanding of NSC biology suggests that, far from being mere spare parts for cell replacement therapies, NSCs could play a key role in the pharmacology of neuroprotection and become protagonists of innovative treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review this new emerging concept of NSC biology. PMID:22131940
Carletti, Barbara; Piemonte, Fiorella; Rossi, Ferdinando
The use of emergency vaccination is considered in different contingency national plans as part of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control strategy in countries whether vaccination is practised or not. The development of the inter-governmental and national FMD vaccine and antigen banks and some technical and operational problems that could affect their efficiency are analysed. The possibility of improving and implementing a more rational use of the antigen and vaccine banks through the creation of a Global Virtual Network of Vaccine and Antigen Banks is discussed. PMID:15742643
Palma, E L
Nanomedicine is an emerging field of medicine which utilizes nanotechnology concepts for advanced therapy and diagnostics. This convergent discipline, which merges research areas such as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics and engineering thus bridging the gap between molecular and cellular interactions, has a potential to revolutionize current medical practice. This review presents recent developments in nanomedicine research, which are poised to have an important impact on cardiovascular disease and treatment by improving therapy and diagnosis of such cardiovascular disorders as atherosclerosis, restenosis and myocardial infarction. Specifically, we discuss the use of nanoparticles for molecular imaging and advanced therapeutics, specially designed drug eluting stents and in vivo/ex vivo early detection techniques.
Godin, Biana; Sakamoto, Jason H.; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro
Wildlife can be an important source of transmission of infectious disease to humans. One potential transmission route involves hunting and fishing, both common activities in the United States and worldwide. For example, during 1996, approximately 11 million Americans, about 40 percent of the total population 16 years of age and older, took part in some recreational activity relating to wildlife and fish. Another potential route of infection focuses on urban and suburban environments. These locations are of special concern because of their increasing role as wildlife habitat, the greater interface between humans and wildlife that takes place within those environments, the paucity of knowledge about disease in those wildlife populations, and the general lack of orderly management for wildlife within those environments. In the wild, several trends are contributing to the growing importance of zoonotic diseases. First, the spectrum of infectious diseases affecting wildlife today is greater than at any time during the previous century. Second, the occurrence of infectious diseases has changed, from sporadic, self-limiting outbreaks that generally resulted in minor losses to frequently occurring events that generally result in major losses of wildlife. Third, disease emergence has occurred on a worldwide scale in a broad spectrum of wildlife species and habitats. Given the scope of the problem, current disease surveillance efforts are inadequate. Few state wildlife agencies allocate personnel and resources to address wildlife disease, despite their statutory responsibility for managing nonmigratory wildlife. Some state agencies provide minimal support for regional programs based at universities. At the federal level, the primary surveillance effort is conducted by the National Wildlife Health Center, operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. Outside of government, some veterinary schools, agriculture diagnostic laboratories, and other programs provide additional information on animal diseases, primarily by examining carcasses of dead wildlife submitted for analysis, and individual university-based researchers carry out a variety of studies. Typically, information about the occurrence of disease in free-ranging wildlife is derived from surveys and mortality events in areas where wildlife observations by agencies and the public are frequent enough to detect their occurrence before carcasses are removed by scavengers and predatory animals. The result is that disease occurrence is grossly underreported, heavily biased toward mortality events, and biased toward species of special concern and interest, such as game and endangered species. Therefore, the available information should be viewed as the “proverbial tip of the iceberg” relative to disease activity within wildlife populations.
Friend, Milton; Mclean, Robert G.
Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and regional organizations at the service of their countries to better prevent and control the risks on animal and human health and the economic impact of TADs and emerging animal diseases. PMID:17135498
Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F
Summary: Parasitic infections previously seen only in developing tropical settings can be currently diagnosed worldwide due to travel and population migration. Some parasites may directly or indirectly affect various anatomical structures of the heart, with infections manifested as myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, or pulmonary hypertension. Thus, it has become quite relevant for clinicians in developed settings to consider parasitic infections in the differential diagnosis of myocardial and pericardial disease anywhere around the globe. Chagas' disease is by far the most important parasitic infection of the heart and one that it is currently considered a global parasitic infection due to the growing migration of populations from areas where these infections are highly endemic to settings where they are not endemic. Current advances in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis offer hope to prevent not only the neurological complications but also the frequently identified cardiac manifestations of this life-threatening parasitic infection. The lack of effective vaccines, optimal chemoprophylaxis, or evidence-based pharmacological therapies to control many of the parasitic diseases of the heart, in particular Chagas' disease, makes this disease one of the most important public health challenges of our time.
Hidron, Alicia; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Santos-Preciado, Jose I.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rassi, Anis
Background Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed. Results Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis. Conclusions Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account.
Dakic, Z.; Nikolic, A.; Lavadinovic, L.; Pelemis, M.; Klun, I.; Dulovic, O.; Milosevic, B.; Stevanovic, G.; Ofori-Belic, I.; Poluga, J.; Pavlovic, M.
During the latter half of the twentieth century, fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans were increasingly recognized as a significant threat to the health of immune compromised populations throughout the world. Until recently, the closely related species C. gattii was considered to be a low-level endemic pathogen that was confined to tropical regions such as Australia. Since 1999, C. gattii has emerged in the Pacific Northwest region of North America and has been responsible for a large disease epidemic among generally healthy individuals. The changing epidemiology of C. gattii infection is likely to be a consequence of alterations in fungal ecology and biology and illustrates its potential to cause serious human disease. This review summarizes selected biological and clinical aspects of C. gattii that are particularly relevant to the recent North American outbreak and compares these to the Australian and South American experience.
Dixit, Ashwin; Carroll, Scott F.; Qureshi, Salman T.
ABSTRACT Fewer than 500 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) remain in the wild. Due to low numbers and their solitary and reclusive nature, tiger sightings across their range in the Russian Far East and China are rare; sightings of sick tigers are rarer still. Serious neurologic disease observed in several wild tigers since 2001 suggested disease emergence in this endangered species. To investigate this possibility, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were performed on tissues from 5 affected tigers that died or were destroyed in 2001, 2004, or 2010. Our results reveal canine distemper virus (CDV) infection as the cause of neurologic disease in two tigers and definitively establish infection in a third. Nonsuppurative encephalitis with demyelination, eosinophilic nuclear viral inclusions, and positive immunolabeling for CDV by IHC and ISH were present in the two tigers with available brain tissue. CDV phosphoprotein (P) and hemagglutinin (H) gene products were obtained from brains of these two tigers by RT-PCR, and a short fragment of CDV P gene sequence was detected in lymph node tissue of a third tiger. Phylogenetically, Amur tiger CDV groups with an Arctic-like strain in Baikal seals (Phoca siberica). Our results, which include mapping the location of positive tigers and recognition of a cluster of cases in 2010, coupled with a lack of reported CDV antibodies in Amur tigers prior to 2000 suggest wide geographic distribution of CDV across the tiger range and recent emergence of CDV as a significant infectious disease threat to endangered Amur tigers in the Russian Far East.
Seimon, Tracie A.; Miquelle, Dale G.; Chang, Tylis Y.; Newton, Alisa L.; Korotkova, Irina; Ivanchuk, Galina; Lyubchenko, Elena; Tupikov, Andre; Slabe, Evgeny; McAloose, Denise
In Lower Saxony approximately 3500 veterinarians were asked to fill in a questionnaire focused on the prevalence of parasitic infections in cattle, sheep, pigs, and horses, the preferred control measures and the antiparasitic drugs in use. Although the disappointing low number of only 48 veterinarians that participated in this survey prevented any representative conclusions the following trends were remarkable: gastrointestinal strongyles were the most prevalent parasites in cattle (34.8%), sheep (28.0%), and horses (42.3%). In pigs, ascarids were most often diagnosed (41.9%) followed by the strongyles (27.9%). Horse strongyles were stated as parasites causing problems by 40.0% of the veterinarians. Prophylactic measures are performed by most practitioners alone or in addition to therapy in the case of lungworms or gastrointestinal strongyles. Therapeutic application of anthelmintics is broadly in use against cestodes in horses (65.0%) and liver flukes (cattle: 41.7%, sheep: 33.3%, horse: 57.1%). Benzimidazoles represent the dominating group of anthelmintics in sheep (78.3%), horses (42.1%), and pigs (42.0%). In cattle, ivermectin (27.7%) and benzimidazoles (26.5%) are regularly used. The role of pyrantel is largely restricted to the control of helminths in horses (24.2%) whereas levamisole is stated as a frequently applied drug in cattle (20.5%), pigs (12.0%), and sheep (2.7%). The diagnosis of parasites relies generally on coproscopical examination (93.7%) which is mostly performed by the practitioners themselves (51.1%). In general, the traditional diagnostic tools are regarded as adequate. Approximately 50% of the practitioners declare their interest in a support of veterinary herd management by parasitological institutes. PMID:7600943
Daugschies, A; Epe, C
Chlamydial infections of fish are emerging as an important cause of disease in new and established aquaculture industries. To date, epitheliocystis, a skin and gill disease associated with infection by these obligate intracellular pathogens, has been described in over 90 fish species, including hosts from marine and fresh water environments. Aided by advances in molecular detection and typing, recent years have seen an explosion in the description of these epitheliocystis-related chlamydial pathogens of fish, significantly broadening our knowledge of the genetic diversity of the order Chlamydiales. Remarkably, in most cases, it seems that each new piscine host studied has revealed the presence of a phylogenetically unique and novel chlamydial pathogen, providing researchers with a fascinating opportunity to understand the origin, evolution and adaptation of their traditional terrestrial chlamydial relatives. Despite the advances in this area, much still needs to be learnt about the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in fish if these pathogens are to be controlled in farmed environments. The lack of in vitro methods for culturing of chlamydial pathogens of fish is a major hindrance to this field. This review provides an update on our current knowledge of the taxonomy and diversity of chlamydial pathogens of fish, discusses the impact of these infections on the health, and highlights further areas of research required to understand the biology and epidemiology of this important emerging group of fish pathogens of aquaculture species. PMID:24932463
Stride, M C; Polkinghome, A; Nowak, B F
Chlamydial infections of fish are emerging as an important cause of disease in new and established aquaculture industries. To date, epitheliocystis, a skin and gill disease associated with infection by these obligate intracellular pathogens, has been described in over 90 fish species, including hosts from marine and fresh water environments. Aided by advances in molecular detection and typing, recent years have seen an explosion in the description of these epitheliocystis-related chlamydial pathogens of fish, significantly broadening our knowledge of the genetic diversity of the order Chlamydiales. Remarkably, in most cases, it seems that each new piscine host studied has revealed the presence of a phylogenetically unique and novel chlamydial pathogen, providing researchers with a fascinating opportunity to understand the origin, evolution and adaptation of their traditional terrestrial chlamydial relatives. Despite the advances in this area, much still needs to be learnt about the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in fish if these pathogens are to be controlled in farmed environments. The lack of in vitro methods for culturing of chlamydial pathogens of fish is a major hindrance to this field. This review provides an update on our current knowledge of the taxonomy and diversity of chlamydial pathogens of fish, discusses the impact of these infections on the health, and highlights further areas of research required to understand the biology and epidemiology of this important emerging group of fish pathogens of aquaculture species. PMID:24560593
Stride, M C; Polkinghorne, A; Nowak, B F
Hepatic lymphocytes are enriched in NK and NKT cells that play important roles in antiviral and antitumor defenses and in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease. In this review, we discuss the differential distribution of NK and NKT cells in mouse, rat, and human livers, the ultrastructural similarities and differences between liver NK and NKT cells, and the regulation of liver NK and NKT cells in a variety of murine liver injury models. We also summarize recent findings about the role of NK and NKT cells in liver injury, fibrosis, and repair. In general, NK and NKT cells accelerate liver injury by producing proinflammatory cytokines and killing hepatocytes. NK cells inhibit liver fibrosis via killing early-activated and senescent-activated stellate cells and producing IFN-?. In regulating liver fibrosis, NKT cells appear to be less important than NK cells as a result of hepatic NKT cell tolerance. NK cells inhibit liver regeneration by producing IFN-? and killing hepatocytes; however, the role of NK cells on the proliferation of liver progenitor cells and the role of NKT cells in liver regeneration have been controversial. The emerging roles of NK/NKT cells in chronic human liver disease will also be discussed. Understanding the role of NK and NKT cells in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease may help us design better therapies to treat patients with this disease.
Gao, Bin; Radaeva, Svetlana; Park, Ogyi
Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to wildlife populations. To enhance our understanding of the dynamics of these diseases, we investigated how host reproductive behavior and seasonal temperature variation drive transmission of infections among wild hosts, using the model system of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) disease in common carp. Our main findings were as follows: (1) a seroprevalence survey showed that CyHV-3 infection occurred mostly in adult hosts, (2) a quantitative assay for CyHV-3 in a host population demonstrated that CyHV-3 was most abundant in the spring when host reproduction occurred and water temperature increased simultaneously and (3) an analysis of the dynamics of CyHV-3 in water revealed that CyHV-3 concentration increased markedly in breeding habitats during host group mating. These results indicate that breeding habitats can become hot spots for transmission of infectious diseases if hosts aggregate for mating and the activation of pathogens occurs during the host breeding season. PMID:20740025
Uchii, Kimiko; Telschow, Arndt; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Honjo, Mie N; Matsui, Kazuaki; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro
Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to wildlife populations. To enhance our understanding of the dynamics of these diseases, we investigated how host reproductive behavior and seasonal temperature variation drive transmission of infections among wild hosts, using the model system of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) disease in common carp. Our main findings were as follows: (1) a seroprevalence survey showed that CyHV-3 infection occurred mostly in adult hosts, (2) a quantitative assay for CyHV-3 in a host population demonstrated that CyHV-3 was most abundant in the spring when host reproduction occurred and water temperature increased simultaneously and (3) an analysis of the dynamics of CyHV-3 in water revealed that CyHV-3 concentration increased markedly in breeding habitats during host group mating. These results indicate that breeding habitats can become hot spots for transmission of infectious diseases if hosts aggregate for mating and the activation of pathogens occurs during the host breeding season.
Uchii, Kimiko; Telschow, Arndt; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Honjo, Mie N; Matsui, Kazuaki; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro
Although parasitic infections do not usually present with disturbance in renal function, glomerular lesions can be seen in most of these infections. The glomerular lesions observed in parasitic infections cover the whole range of glomerular lesions known, but most of them are proliferative. Little is known of the exact pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we try to explain the glomerular lesions associated with parasitic infections in terms of the specific immunologic events observed during these diseases against the background of recent developments in the general knowledge of the pathogenesis of glomerular disease.
van Velthuysen, M.-L. F.; Florquin, S.