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Sample records for emerging parasitic diseases

  1. INVASION NOTE Invasive avian malaria as an emerging parasitic disease

    E-print Network

    Sehgal, Ravinder

    Biological invasion Á Blood parasites Á Malaria Á Haemoproteus Á Plasmodium Á South America Introduction Many by biological invasions of parasites that have ``jumped ship'' to novel host species (Hatcher et al. 2012INVASION NOTE Invasive avian malaria as an emerging parasitic disease in native birds of Peru

  2. The Impact of Cultural Behaviours, Local Beliefs, and Practices on Emerging Parasitic Diseases in Tropical Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuliri, Celestine O. E.; Anosike, Jude C.; Oguoma, Chibuzor; Onwuliri, Viola A.; Nwoke, Betram E. B.; Dozie, Ikechukwu, N. S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.

    2005-01-01

    The scourge of emerging parasitic diseases (e.g., urinary schistosomiasis, ascariasis, malaria, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trachoma, trichiuriasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, sleeping sickness, filariasis) causes tremendous pain, suffering, and eventually death in tropical African communities. Patterns of transmission of these emerging

  3. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  4. The butterfly effect: parasite diversity, environment, and emerging disease in aquatic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Adlard, Robert D; Miller, Terrence L; Smit, Nico J

    2015-04-01

    Aquatic wildlife is increasingly subjected to emerging diseases often due to perturbations of the existing dynamic balance between hosts and their parasites. Accelerating changes in environmental factors, together with anthropogenic translocation of hosts and parasites, act synergistically to produce hard-to-predict disease outcomes in freshwater and marine systems. These outcomes are further complicated by the intimate links between diseases in wildlife and diseases in humans and domestic animals. Here, we explore the interactions of parasites in aquatic wildlife in terms of their biodiversity, their response to environmental change, their emerging diseases, and the contribution of humans and domestic animals to parasitic disease outcomes. This work highlights the clear need for interdisciplinary approaches to ameliorate disease impacts in aquatic wildlife systems. PMID:25488771

  5. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

  6. Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites Parasites Home Share Compartir Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases ... EST/ Monday-Friday Closed Holidays Contact CDC-INFO Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education ...

  7. "Emerging" parasitic infections in arctic ungulates.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Susan J; Hoberg, Eric P; Nagy, John; Polley, Lydden; Elkin, Brett

    2004-04-01

    Important drivers for emergence of infectious disease in wildlife include changes in the environment, shrinking habitats or concentration of wildlife, and movement of people, animals, pathogens, or vectors. In this paper we present three case-studies of emerging parasitic infections and diseases in ungulates in the Canadian north. First we discuss climate warming as an important driver for the emergence of disease associated with Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, a nematode lungworm of muskoxen. Then we examine how Protostrongylus stilesi, the sheep lungworm, emerged (or re-emerged) in muskoxen after re-introduction of this host into its historical range made it sympatric with Dall's sheep. Finally, we consider Teladorsagia boreoarcticus, a newly described and common abomasal nematode of muskoxen that is emerging as a disease-causing parasite and may be an important regulator for muskox populations on Banks Island, Northwest Territories. These and other arctic host-parasite systems are exquisitely tuned and constrained by a harsh and highly seasonal environment. The dynamics of these systems will be impacted by climate change and other ecological disruptions. Baseline knowledge of parasite biodiversity and parasite and host ecology, together with predictive models and long-term monitoring programs, are essential for anticipating and detecting altered patterns of host range, geographic distribution, and the emergence of parasitic infections and diseases. PMID:21680491

  8. Evidence for emerging parasites and pathogens influencing outbreaks of stress-related diseases like chalkbrood.

    PubMed

    Hedtke, Kati; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Genersch, Elke

    2011-11-01

    In agriculture, honey bees play a critical role as commercial pollinators of crop monocultures which depend on insect pollination. Hence, the demise of honey bee colonies in Europe, USA, and Asia caused much concern and initiated many studies and research programmes aiming at elucidating the factors negatively affecting honey bee health and survival. Most of these studies look at individual factors related to colony losses. In contrast, we here present our data on the interaction of pathogens and parasites in honey bee colonies. We performed a longitudinal cohort study over 6 years by closely monitoring 220 honey bee colonies kept in 22 apiaries (ten randomly selected colonies per apiary). Observed winter colony losses varied between 4.8% and 22.4%; lost colonies were replaced to ensure a constant number of monitored colonies over the study period. Data on mite infestation levels, infection with viruses, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and recorded outbreaks of chalkbrood were continuously collected. We now provide statistical evidence (i) that Varroa destructor infestation in summer is related to DWV infections in autumn, (ii) that V. destructor infestation in autumn is related to N. apis infection in the following spring, and most importantly (iii) that chalkbrood outbreaks in summer are related to N. ceranae infection in the preceding spring and to V. destructor infestation in the same season. These highly significant links between emerging parasites/pathogens and established pathogens need further experimental proof but they already illustrate the complexity of the host-pathogen-interactions in honey bee colonies. PMID:21906600

  9. Interspecific competition in honeybee intracellular gut parasites is asymmetric and favours the spread of an emerging infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Natsopoulou, Myrsini E.; McMahon, Dino P.; Doublet, Vincent; Bryden, John; Paxton, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing appreciation that hosts in natural populations are subject to infection by multiple parasite species. Yet the epidemiological and ecological processes determining the outcome of mixed infections are poorly understood. Here, we use two intracellular gut parasites (Microsporidia), one exotic and one co-evolved in the western honeybee (Apis mellifera), in an experiment in which either one or both parasites were administered either simultaneously or sequentially. We provide clear evidence of within-host competition; order of infection was an important determinant of the competitive outcome between parasites, with the first parasite significantly inhibiting the growth of the second, regardless of species. However, the strength of this ‘priority effect’ was highly asymmetric, with the exotic Nosema ceranae exhibiting stronger inhibition of Nosema apis than vice versa. Our results reveal an unusual asymmetry in parasite competition that is dependent on order of infection. When incorporated into a mathematical model of disease prevalence, we find asymmetric competition to be an important predictor of the patterns of parasite prevalence found in nature. Our findings demonstrate the wider significance of complex multi-host–multi-parasite interactions as drivers of host–pathogen community structure. PMID:25429014

  10. The study of parasite sharing for surveillance of zoonotic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Maxwell J.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    Determining the factors that influence the transmission of parasites among hosts is important for directing surveillance of animal parasites before they successfully emerge in humans, and increasing the efficacy of programs for the control and management of zoonotic diseases. Here we present a review of recent advances in the study of parasite sharing, wildlife ecology, and epidemiology that could be extended and incorporated into proactive surveillance frameworks for multi-host infectious diseases. These methods reflect emerging interdisciplinary techniques with significant promise for the identification of future zoonotic parasites and unknown reservoirs of current zoonoses, strategies for the reduction of parasite prevalence and transmission among hosts, and decreasing the burden of infectious diseases.

  11. Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Trelis, Maria; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Osuna, Antonio; Bernal, Dolores; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Almeida, Igor C.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasite–parasite inter-communication as well as in parasite–host interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens. PMID:25536932

  12. Parasitic Diseases: Glossary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... produced by the immune system in response to invasion by foreign substances, such as parasites and other ... Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): A technique in molecular biology, in which a single or few copies of ...

  13. Apoptosis induced by parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Fatalities caused by parasitic infections often occur as a result of tissue injury that results from a form of host-cell death known as apoptosis. However, instead of being pathogenic, parasite-induced apoptosis may facilitate host survival. Consequently, it is of utmost importance to decipher and understand the process and the role of apoptosis induced or controlled by parasites in humans. Despite this, few studies provide definitive knowledge of parasite-induced host-cell apoptosis. Here, the focus is on a consideration of host-cell apoptosis as either a pathogenic feature or as a factor enabling parasite survival and development. Cell death by apoptotic-like mechanisms could be described as a ride to death with a return ticket, as initiation of the pathway may be reversed, with the potential that it could be manipulated for therapeutic purposes. The management of host-cell apoptosis could thus be an adjunctive factor for parasitic disease treatment. Evidence that the apoptotic process could be reversed by anti-apoptotic drugs has recently been obtained, leading to the possibility of host-cell rescue after injury. An important issue will be to predict the beneficial or deleterious effects of controlling human cell death by apoptotic-like mechanisms during parasitic diseases. PMID:21083888

  14. Parasite Zoonoses and Wildlife: Emerging Issues

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Kutz, Susan J.; Smith, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact. PMID:19440409

  15. Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Parasitic Diseases URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Parasitic Roundworm Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and allergic diseases NIAID Home Health & Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events Volunteer ... or larvae (immature form) are found in the soil and enter the human body when a person ...

  17. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

  18. A syndromic approach to common parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Stephen D.; Chow, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Standard textbooks discuss parasitic disease according to specific organisms. In contrast, patients with parasitic infections present to physicians with a variety of clinical manifestations that may involve any of several organ systems and that often mimic nonparasitic diseases. A syndromic approach to the clinical situation may help the physician in considering the most important parasitic agents. Many parasitic infections can be acquired in temperate climates. While often considered tropical or exotic, other parasitic diseases are now seen more frequently in developed countries because of immigration and increased world travel. In this review the clinical syndromes associated with common parasitic diseases in North America are discussed, with an emphasis on risk factors and diagnosis of specific infections. PMID:4042057

  19. Bibliography of Oyster Parasites and Diseases

    E-print Network

    563: Bibliography of Oyster Parasites and Diseases SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT-FISHERIES Na 563. Pautzke, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, H. E. Crowther, Director Bibliography of Oyster Report--Fisheries 563 Washington, D.C. April 1968 #12;#12;Bibliography of Oyster Parasites and Diseases

  20. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  1. Water-Related Parasitic Diseases in China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shan; Tian, Li-Guang; Liu, Qin; Qian, Men-Bao; Fu, Qing; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Jia-Xu; Yang, Guo-Jing; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized. PMID:23685826

  2. Cysticercosis: an emerging parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Robert

    2007-07-01

    Cysticercosis (i.e., tapeworm infection) is an increasingly common medical problem in the United States, especially in the Southwest and other areas of heavy emigration from endemic areas or in populations with significant travel to these areas. The larval stage of the pork tape-worm, Taenia solium, causes the clinical syndrome of cysticercosis, with humans as dead-end hosts after ingestion of T solium eggs. Its clinical effects vary depending on site of larval lodging, larval burden, and host reaction. These effects include seizures, headaches, focal neurologic symptoms, visual disturbances, and localized skeletal muscle nodules and pain. Cysticercosis should be considered in any patient from an endemic area presenting with these symptoms. Treatment varies with the clinical presentation. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis generally is treated with albendazole in conjunction with steroids to limit edema and with antiepileptic medications for seizure control. Ocular and extraocular muscle cysticercosis generally requires surgical intervention. Skeletal muscle cysts are surgically removed only if painful. Because cysts can lodge in multiple locations, all patients with cysticercosis should have an ophthalmologic examination to rule out ocular involvement, and all patients with extraneurologic cysticercosis should have computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain to rule out neurocysticercosis. PMID:17668846

  3. Drug repurposing and human parasitic protozoan diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Katherine T.; Fisher, Gillian; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases have an enormous health, social and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 1.1 million combined deaths annually. The global burden of these diseases is exacerbated by the lack of licensed vaccines, making safe and effective drugs vital to their prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, where drugs are available, their usefulness is being increasingly threatened by parasite drug resistance. The need for new drugs drives antiparasitic drug discovery research globally and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. In this review we discuss one of these approaches, drug repurposing or repositioning, with a focus on major human parasitic protozoan diseases such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and leishmaniasis. PMID:25057459

  4. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)—Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubá?ková, Petra; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites. PMID:24386497

  5. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share this: Main Content Area Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Research Introduction and Goals Despite remarkable advances in ... supporting such research. NIAID Category A-C Priority Pathogens and Additional Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens List of ...

  6. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised. PMID:25317697

  7. Plasmodium ovale: Parasite and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Collins, William E.; Jeffery, Geoffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Humans are infected by four recognized species of malaria parasites. The last of these to be recognized and described is Plasmodium ovale. Like the other malaria parasites of primates, this parasite is only transmitted via the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. The prepatent period in the human ranges from 12 to 20 days. Some forms in the liver have delayed development, and relapse may occur after periods of up to 4 years after infection. The developmental cycle in the blood lasts approximately 49 h. An examination of records from induced infections indicated that there were an average of 10.3 fever episodes of ?101°F and 4.5 fever episodes of ?104°F. Mean maximum parasite levels were 6,944/?l for sporozoite-induced infections and 7,310/?l for trophozoite-induced infections. Exoerythrocytic stages have been demonstrated in the liver of humans, chimpanzees, and Saimiri monkeys following injection of sporozoites. Many different Anopheles species have been shown to be susceptible to infection with P. ovale, including A. gambiae, A. atroparvus, A. dirus, A. freeborni, A. albimanus, A. quadrimaculatus, A. stephensi, A. maculatus, A. subpictus, and A. farauti. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed to detect mosquitoes infected with P. ovale using a monoclonal antibody directed against the circumsporozoite protein. Plasmodium ovale is primarily distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. It has also been reported from numerous islands in the western Pacific. In more recent years, there have been reports of its distribution on the Asian mainland. Whether or not it will become a major public health problem there remains to be seen. The diagnosis of P. ovale is based primarily on the characteristics of the blood stages and its differentiation from P. vivax. The sometimes elliptical shape of the infected erythrocyte is often diagnostic when combined with other, subtler differences in morphology. The advent of molecular techniques, primarily PCR, has made diagnostic confirmation possible. The development of techniques for the long-term frozen preservation of malaria parasites has allowed the development diagnostic reference standards for P. ovale. Infections in chimpanzees are used to provide reference and diagnostic material for serologic and molecular studies because this parasite has not been shown to develop in other nonhuman primates, nor has it adapted to in vitro culture. There is no evidence to suggest that P. ovale is closely related phylogenetically to any other of the primate malaria parasites that have been examined. PMID:16020691

  8. Internal Parasites Internal Parasites can be classified into two basic groups, worms and protozoa. Parasitic disease dif-

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Internal Parasites Internal Parasites can be classified into two basic groups, worms and protozoa in controlling parasites. Modern commercial confinement systems have significantly reduced the incidence of worm para- sitic disease in these flocks. Intestinal parasites - worms - are common in backyard and free

  9. Parasitic diarrheal disease: drug development and targets

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Amir; Peerzada, Mudasir N.; Ahmad, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is the manifestation of gastrointestinal infection and is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity specifically among the children of less than 5 years age worldwide. Moreover, in recent years there has been a rise in the number of reports of intestinal infections continuously in the industrialized world. These are largely related to waterborne and food borne outbreaks. These occur by the pathogenesis of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms like bacteria and parasites. The parasitic intestinal infection has remained mostly unexplored and under assessed in terms of therapeutic development. The lack of new drugs and the risk of resistance have led us to carry out this review on drug development for parasitic diarrheal diseases. The major focus has been depicted on commercially available drugs, currently synthesized active heterocyclic compounds and unique drug targets, that are vital for the existence and growth of the parasites and can be further exploited for the search of therapeutically active anti-parasitic agents. PMID:26617574

  10. Schistosomiasis-an endemic parasitic waterborne disease.

    PubMed

    Drudge-Coates, Lawrence; Turner, Bruce

    Schistosomiasis (or bilharzia) is a chronic waterborne disease caused by parasitic worms or schistosoma in the tropics and sub tropics. Five main species exist, and common to all is its transmission to humans as a result of exposure to infested fresh water, into which the cercariae of the parasite are released by freshwater snails. With the rise of tourism and travel, more people are travelling to countries where schistosomiasis is a risk. Schistosoma haematobium is responsible for urogenital schistosomiasis, in which manifestations range from acute hypersensitivity reactions to bladder disease in the detection of which the nurse cystoscopist can have a significant role. Treatment is highly effective, and the diagnosis should be considered in individuals with possible clinical illness who have travelled to or lived in endemic areas. PMID:23752571

  11. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites Parasites Home Share Compartir Travel/Travelers International travelers can ... EST/ Monday-Friday Closed Holidays Contact CDC-INFO Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education ...

  12. Global parasite and Rattus rodent invasions: The consequences for rodent-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Bordes, Frédéric; Chen, Hsuan-Wien; Claude, Julien; Cosson, Jean-François; Galan, Maxime; Czirják, Gábor Á; Greenwood, Alex D; Latinne, Alice; Michaux, Johan; Ribas, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    We summarize the current knowledge on parasitism-related invasion processes of the globally invasive Rattus lineages, originating from Asia, and how these invasions have impacted the local epidemiology of rodent-borne diseases. Parasites play an important role in the invasion processes and successes of their hosts through multiple biological mechanisms such as "parasite release," "immunocompetence advantage," "biotic resistance" and "novel weapon." Parasites may also greatly increase the impact of invasions by spillover of parasites and other pathogens, introduced with invasive hosts, into new hosts, potentially leading to novel emerging diseases. Another potential impact is the ability of the invader to amplify local parasites by spillback. In both cases, local fauna and humans may be exposed to new health risks, which may decrease biodiversity and potentially cause increases in human morbidity and mortality. Here we review the current knowledge on these processes and propose some research priorities. PMID:26037785

  13. Whirling disease revisited: pathogenesis, parasite biology and disease intervention.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Subhodeep; Kallert, Dennis Marc; Hedrick, Ronald P; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-05-21

    Whirling disease (WD) is an ecologically and economically debilitating disease of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss caused by the actinosporean spores of the parasite Myxobolus cerebralis. M. cerebralis has a complex, 2-host life cycle alternating between salmonid fish and the oligochaete host Tubifex tubifex. The parasite alternates between 2 spore forms as transmission stages: an actinosporean triactinomyxon spore that is produced in the oligochaete host and a myxosporean spore that develops in the salmonid host. Waterborne triactinomyxon spores released from infected T. tubifex oligochaetes attach to the salmonid host by polar filament extrusion elicited by chemical (nucleoside) and mechanical (thigmotropy) stimuli-a process which is rapidly followed by active penetration of the sporoplasms into the fish epidermis. Upon penetration, sporoplasms multiply and migrate via peripheral nerves and the central nervous system to reach the cartilage where they form trophozoites which undergo further multiplication and subsequent sporogenesis. M. cerebralis myxospores are released into the aquatic environment when infected fish die and autolyse, or when they are consumed and excreted by predators. Myxospores released into the water are ingested by susceptible T. tubifex where they develop intercellularly in the intestine over a period of 3 mo through 4 developmental stages to give rise to mature actinospores. In this article, we review our current understanding of WD-the parasite and its alternate hosts, life cycle and development of the parasite in either host, disease distribution, susceptibility and resistance mechanisms in salmonid host and strategies involved in diagnosis, prevention and control of WD. PMID:25993890

  14. Concurrent Infections (Parasitism and Bacterial Disease) in Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most laboratory disease studies in tilapia to date have focused on a single parasite or a single bacterial pathogen. In intensive tilapia aquaculture, the reality of a single disease agent resulting in death-loss may be small. More likely, multiple disease agents are present (i.e., parasites, bacter...

  15. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  16. Invasive species challenge the global response to emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Hulme, Philip E

    2014-06-01

    Forecasts of emerging zoonoses neglect the threat alien species pose in disease transmission to humans. A review of alien parasites, hosts, and vectors introduced to Europe highlights the wide range of potential public health risks, the need for better surveillance and risk assessment, and major policy gaps in global preparedness. PMID:24862566

  17. The anther smut disease on Gypsophila repens: a case of parasite sub-optimal performance following a recent host shift?

    E-print Network

    López-Villavicencio, Manuela

    The anther smut disease on Gypsophila repens: a case of parasite sub-optimal performance following, VA, USA Introduction Studies of host shifts and inter-species disease transmis- sion are important to understanding the emergence of new diseases in humans or crops (Antonovics et al., 2002). Indeed, nearly 75

  18. Disease and the Extended Phenotype: Parasites Control Host Performance and Survival through Induced

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    Disease and the Extended Phenotype: Parasites Control Host Performance and Survival through Induced fitness. Citation: Goodman BA, Johnson PTJ (2011) Disease and the Extended Phenotype: Parasites Control, parasites harm their hosts. However, some forms of parasite-induced alterations increase parasite

  19. Multiple host shifts by the emerging honeybee parasite, Varroa jacobsoni.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J M K; Anderson, D L; Tay, W T

    2015-05-01

    Host shifts are a key mechanism of parasite evolution and responsible for the emergence of many economically important pathogens. Varroa destructor has been a major factor in global honeybee (Apis mellifera) declines since shifting hosts from the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) > 50 years ago. Until recently, only two haplotypes of V. destructor (Korea and Japan) had successfully host shifted to A. mellifera. In 2008, the sister species V. jacobsoni was found for the first time parasitizing A. mellifera in Papua New Guinea (PNG). This recent host shift presents a serious threat to world apiculture but also provides the opportunity to examine host shifting in this system. We used 12 microsatellites to compare genetic variation of V. jacobsoni on A. mellifera in PNG with mites on A. cerana in both PNG and surrounding regions. We identified two distinct lineages of V. jacobsoni reproducing on A. mellifera in PNG. Our analysis indicated independent host shift events have occurred through small numbers of mites shifting from local A. cerana populations. Additional lineages were found in the neighbouring Papua and Solomon Islands that had partially host shifted to A. mellifera, that is producing immature offspring on drone brood only. These mites were likely in transition to full colonization of A. mellifera. Significant population structure between mites on the different hosts suggested host shifted V. jacobsoni populations may not still reproduce on A. cerana, although limited gene flow may exist. Our studies provide further insight into parasite host shift evolution and help characterize this new Varroa mite threat to A. mellifera worldwide. PMID:25846956

  20. A closer look at M in the Mortality Equation: Diseases, Parasites, and

    E-print Network

    Limburg, Karin E.

    1 A closer look at M in the Mortality Equation: Diseases, Parasites, and Natural Mortality K · Some types of diseases and parasites · Examples: · Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) · Early mortality syndrome (nutrition) · Anguillicolla (parasite) · Harmful algal blooms (HABs) · Prospects for diseases/parasites

  1. Trypanosomatid comparative genomics: Contributions to the study of parasite biology and different parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Santuza M.; de Paiva, Rita Márcia Cardoso; Kangussu-Marcolino, Monica M.; DaRocha, Wanderson D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, draft sequences of the genomes of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major, also known as the Tri-Tryp genomes, were published. These protozoan parasites are the causative agents of three distinct insect-borne diseases, namely sleeping sickness, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, all with a worldwide distribution. Despite the large estimated evolutionary distance among them, a conserved core of ~6,200 trypanosomatid genes was found among the Tri-Tryp genomes. Extensive analysis of these genomic sequences has greatly increased our understanding of the biology of these parasites and their host-parasite interactions. In this article, we review the recent advances in the comparative genomics of these three species. This analysis also includes data on additional sequences derived from other trypanosmatid species, as well as recent data on gene expression and functional genomics. In addition to facilitating the identification of key parasite molecules that may provide a better understanding of these complex diseases, genome studies offer a rich source of new information that can be used to define potential new drug targets and vaccine candidates for controlling these parasitic infections. PMID:22481868

  2. [Intestinal parasitic diseases as a global health problem].

    PubMed

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2013-03-01

    In today's world, parasitic disease agents are not restricted by geography or economy, and have become a significant global threat. The increasing globalization of the fresh produce market and greater international trade and travels, have contributed to the spread of these organisms in the industrialized world. Parasitic protozoa cause waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrhea. The unprecedented flow of people introduces cultural and behavior patterns around the world; the increasing tendency to eat raw or undercooked meat and seafood, favors the dissemination of several parasitic pathogens. Climate changes are predicted to cause a global increase in soil-transmitted helminthiases. The multidisciplinary study of these agents, and the interaction among scientists, global health organizations and governments are imperative to reduce the burden of these diseases and improve the life of a large segment of the world population. PMID:23781708

  3. |Research Focus DNA barcoding of parasites and invertebrate disease

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    |Research Focus DNA barcoding of parasites and invertebrate disease vectors: what you don't know special- ists whose numbers are insufficient and dwindling. A DNA-based method called DNA barcoding has] specifically suggest the employ- ment of DNA sequences as taxon `barcodes' and propose that the mitochondrial

  4. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife: role in amphibian population declines and global implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A.A.; Hyatt, A.D.; Green, D.E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.

  5. Blockade of TNF receptor 1 reduces disease severity but increases parasite transmission during Plasmodium

    E-print Network

    Allen, Judith

    Blockade of TNF receptor 1 reduces disease severity but increases parasite transmission during, UK b Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Abstract Reducing host carriage of transmission-stage malaria parasites (gametocytes) is expected

  6. The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread

    PubMed Central

    Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

  7. Huntington's disease: underlying molecular mechanisms and emerging

    E-print Network

    Morimoto, Richard

    Huntington's disease: underlying molecular mechanisms and emerging concepts John Labbadia, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegen- erative disorder for which no disease modifying treat- ments exist. Many molecular changes and cellular

  8. Natural Products as a Source for Treating Neglected Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ndjonka, Dieudonné; Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Silber, Ariel M.; Liebau, Eva; Wrenger, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases caused by parasites are a major threat for the entire mankind, especially in the tropics. More than 1 billion people world-wide are directly exposed to tropical parasites such as the causative agents of trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which represent a major health problem, particularly in impecunious areas. Unlike most antibiotics, there is no “general” antiparasitic drug available. Here, the selection of antiparasitic drugs varies between different organisms. Some of the currently available drugs are chemically de novo synthesized, however, the majority of drugs are derived from natural sources such as plants which have subsequently been chemically modified to warrant higher potency against these human pathogens. In this review article we will provide an overview of the current status of plant derived pharmaceuticals and their chemical modifications to target parasite-specific peculiarities in order to interfere with their proliferation in the human host. PMID:23389040

  9. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  10. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  11. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  12. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  13. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  14. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section...Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock...infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed...

  15. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section...Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock...infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed...

  16. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section...AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock...infected with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed...

  17. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section...AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock...infected with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed...

  18. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section...AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock...infected with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed...

  19. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section...Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock...infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed...

  20. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section...AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock...infected with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed...

  1. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section...Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock...infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed...

  2. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section...Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock...infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have been exposed...

  3. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 true Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15 Section...AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock...infected with contagious or infectious diseases or parasites or have been exposed...

  4. Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities Pieter T. J, Berkeley, CA, and approved September 10, 2013 (received for review June 3, 2013) Host­parasite interactions parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite

  5. Drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne protozoal and bacterial diseases.

    PubMed

    Harrus, S; Baneth, G

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, vector-borne parasitic and bacterial diseases have emerged or re-emerged in many geographical regions causing global health and economic problems that involve humans, livestock, companion animals and wild life. The ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases are affected by the interrelations between three major factors comprising the pathogen, the host (human, animal or vector) and the environment. Important drivers for the emergence and spread of vector-borne parasites include habitat changes, alterations in water storage and irrigation habits, atmospheric and climate changes, immunosuppression by HIV, pollution, development of insecticide and drug resistance, globalization and the significant increase in international trade, tourism and travel. War and civil unrest, and governmental or global management failure are also major contributors to the spread of infectious diseases. The improvement of epidemic understanding and planning together with the development of new diagnostic molecular techniques in the last few decades have allowed researchers to better diagnose and trace pathogens, their origin and routes of infection, and to develop preventive public health and intervention programs. Health care workers, physicians, veterinarians and biosecurity officers should play a key role in future prevention of vector-borne diseases. A coordinated global approach for the prevention of vector-borne diseases should be implemented by international organizations and governmental agencies in collaboration with research institutions. PMID:16126213

  6. DARWIN'S NECESSARY MISFIT AND THE SLOSHING BUCKET: THE EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY OF EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolutionary studies suggest that the potential for rapid emergence of novel host-parasite associations appears to be a “built-in feature” of the complex phenomenon that is Darwinian evolution. The current Emerging Infectious Disease (EID) crisis is thus a new manifestation of an old and repeating p...

  7. Intestinal parasitic infection among Egyptian children with chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Lerine Bahy El-Dine; El-Faramawy, Amel Abdel Magid; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Ismail, Khadiga Ahmed; Fouad, Sally Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) are often highly susceptible to parasitic infection due to a depressed immune system. The objective of this study was to detect the most commonly intestinal parasites found among Egyptian children with CLD. The present study was conducted on 50 children with CLD of different etiology (25 were having different intestinal symptoms, 25 without intestinal symptoms) and 50 non-CLD children with gastrointestinal complaints served as controls. All cases were subjected to stool examination and investigated by liver function tests. Also, anthropometric measurements were taken for all children including weight and height. It was found that the most commonly intestinal protozoa identified in the patients with CLD in order of frequency were: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (16 %), Giardia lamblia (14 %), Blastocystis hominis (14 %), Cryptosporidium parvum (10 %), E. histolytica and G. lamblia (2 %), E. histolytica and B. hominis (2 %), G. lamblia and B. hominis (2 %), B. hominis and Entamoeba coli (2 %), Microsporidium (2 %) and no cases were found infected with Strongyloides stercoralis. As compared to the controls, the observed incidence of these organisms in CLD patients was significantly higher (p < 0.045) as regards stool examination by unstained techniques while, there was no significant difference between both groups as regards stool examination by stained techniques (p < 0.478). In addition, this study showed that the weight and height of studied patients were affected by parasitic infection while, there was no significant correlation between parasitic infection and liver function tests. In conclusion, chronic liver diseases affect the immunity of the patients as shown in significant increase in the incidence of intestinal parasites in cases compared to controls. PMID:25698851

  8. Pathogenesis of Chagas' Disease: Parasite Persistence and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Hecht, Mariana M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Nitz, Nadjar

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infections can be asymptomatic, but chronically infected individuals can die of Chagas' disease. The transfer of the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle to the genome of chagasic patients can explain the pathogenesis of the disease; in cases of Chagas' disease with evident cardiomyopathy, the kDNA minicircles integrate mainly into retrotransposons at several chromosomes, but the minicircles are also detected in coding regions of genes that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and immune responses. An accurate evaluation of the role played by the genotype alterations in the autoimmune rejection of self-tissues in Chagas' disease is achieved with the cross-kingdom chicken model system, which is refractory to T. cruzi infections. The inoculation of T. cruzi into embryonated eggs prior to incubation generates parasite-free chicks, which retain the kDNA minicircle sequence mainly in the macrochromosome coding genes. Crossbreeding transfers the kDNA mutations to the chicken progeny. The kDNA-mutated chickens develop severe cardiomyopathy in adult life and die of heart failure. The phenotyping of the lesions revealed that cytotoxic CD45, CD8+ ??, and CD8?+ T lymphocytes carry out the rejection of the chicken heart. These results suggest that the inflammatory cardiomyopathy of Chagas' disease is a genetically driven autoimmune disease. PMID:21734249

  9. Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed. PMID:20653938

  10. Temperature-driven shifts in a host-parasite interaction drive nonlinear changes in disease risk

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    Temperature-driven shifts in a host-parasite interaction drive nonlinear changes in disease risk and pathogens may respond differentially to climate shifts, however, predicting the net effects on disease of temperature, which likely resulted from changes in both host and parasite processes. Both hosts and parasites

  11. Do helminth parasites protect against atopy and allergic disease?

    PubMed

    Flohr, C; Quinnell, R J; Britton, J

    2009-01-01

    Allergic diseases are rare in areas with high helminth parasite exposure and common where helminth exposure is lacking or significantly reduced, such as urban areas of developing countries and industrialized nations. Studies suggest that helminths induce a systemic immuno-modulatory network, including regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory IL-10, which might play a key role in the protection against the allergic phenotype. Here, we review the current cross-sectional, birth cohort, and intervention study evidence for a protective effect of helminth infection on allergy. There is increasing evidence for a causal relationship between helminth infection and reduced skin prick test responsiveness to allergens. Cross-sectional studies have shown a consistent negative relationship, and these results have been confirmed in several, although not all, intervention studies. The immunological basis for this protective effect is less clear. Recent studies do not support the mast-cell IgE saturation hypothesis, but suggest that protection is associated with IL-10 production. As for allergic disease, cross-sectional studies support a negative relationship between clinical asthma and infection with some helminth species, particularly hookworm, but more studies are required to draw conclusions for eczema and rhinitis. In addition, none of the few intervention studies to date have demonstrated an increase in clinical allergy after helminth treatment, and further studies are needed. Furthermore, we are only beginning to understand the host genetic factors that are potentially involved. A genetically predetermined T-helper type 2 cell-dominated cytokine milieu reduces parasite burden and may enhance host survival in an environment where helminth parasites are prevalent. Lack of parasite exposure in such hosts might lead to hypersensitivity to seemingly minor environmental allergen stimuli. Large birth cohort studies in helminth-endemic areas that use epidemiological, genetic, and immunological tools are required to further examine how helminth parasites affect the development of atopy and allergic disease. Intervention studies with hookworm in parasite-naïve allergic individuals are currently ongoing in the United Kingdom to test the above hypotheses further. PMID:19128351

  12. Parasite control practices and public perception of parasitic diseases: A survey of dog and cat owners.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Owen, Sinclair Patrick; Nunes, Telmo; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2015-11-01

    Drugs used in the control of internal and external parasites in companion animals play a crucial role in Animal and Public Health. To ensure continuing protection, these drugs should be administered regularly and in intervals, as suggested by the manufacturers. To assess parasite control practices and other related factors, including the degree of public awareness on the topic, 312 dog and cat owners were surveyed while attending the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University. Results showed that 89.7% of the dogs were currently being treated with endoparasitic drugs. Of these, 74.3% were dewormed every four months or longer and merely 11.8% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). In cats, 63.6% were being treated with endoparasitic drugs and 85.7% of these were irregularly dewormed every four months or longer and merely 5.5% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). Combinations of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel were the most commonly used drugs in dogs, whereas macrocyclic lactones were more frequently used in cats. Regarding external parasitic control, 92.2% of the dogs were being treated, 50.5% of these at monthly intervals (all-year round or seasonally). The most common ectoparasitic drug formulation used on dogs was the spot-on imidacloprid+permethrin (89%). Only 28.4% of the dogs were uninterruptedly protected throughout the year from the main canine vector borne diseases transmitted by fleas, ticks, sandflies and mosquitoes. Merely 63.6% of the cats were being controlled with ectoparasitic drugs, most at infrequent drug intervals and imidacloprid was the most frequently used drug on cats (44.4%). Additionally, 85% of the respondents had never heard of the word "zoonosis" and 37% of them did not collect their dog's faeces in all public places. Scabies, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were the most frequent parasitic diseases identified by the public in this survey. Although the majority of pet owners give antiparasitic drugs, our results show that most of them do not follow the manufacturers recommendations, deworming at irregular and consequently ineffective intervals. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for the veterinarians to educate pet owners regarding parasite cycles, methods of prevention and transmission mechanisms, as well as to follow the drug recommendations, in order, respectively, to increase their awareness and thereby improve the effectiveness of the available control measures. PMID:26404913

  13. Gnathostomiasis, Another Emerging Imported Disease

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Joanna S.; Chiodini, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the late-third stage larvae of Gnathostoma spp. It is being seen with increasing frequency in countries where it is not endemic and should be regarded as another emerging imported disease. Previously, its foci of endemicity have been confined to Southeast Asia and Central and South America, but its geographical boundaries appear to be increasing, with recent reports of infection in tourists returning from southern Africa. It has a complex life cycle involving at least two intermediate hosts, with humans being accidental hosts in which the larvae cannot reach sexual maturity. The main risks for acquisition are consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish and geographical exposure. Infection results in initial nonspecific symptoms followed by cutaneous and/or visceral larva migrans, with the latter carrying high morbidity and mortality rates if there is central nervous system involvement. We review the literature and describe the epidemiology, life cycle, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gnathostomiasis. PMID:19597010

  14. Parasitic, fungal and prion zoonoses: an expanding universe of candidates for human disease.

    PubMed

    Akritidis, N

    2011-03-01

    Zoonotic infections have emerged as a burden for millions of people in recent years, owing to re-emerging or novel pathogens often causing outbreaks in the developing world in the presence of inadequate public health infrastructure. Among zoonotic infections, those caused by parasitic pathogens are the ones that affect millions of humans worldwide, who are also at risk of developing chronic disease. The present review discusses the global effect of protozoan pathogens such as Leishmania sp., Trypanosoma sp., and Toxoplasma sp., as well as helminthic pathogens such as Echinococcus sp., Fasciola sp., and Trichinella sp. The zoonotic aspects of agents that are not essentially zoonotic are also discussed. The review further focuses on the zoonotic dynamics of fungal pathogens and prion diseases as observed in recent years, in an evolving environment in which novel patient target groups have developed for agents that were previously considered to be obscure or of minimal significance. PMID:21129103

  15. Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243

  16. Selected emerging infectious diseases of ornamental fish.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Colin; Palmeiro, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Several emerging infectious diseases have serious implications for the trade and husbandry of ornamental fish. Although many of these diseases have been well studied and described in certain species, there are still many diseases that are not well understood. The following discussion focuses on select important emerging infectious diseases that affect ornamental fish in the aquarium and aquaculture industries: goldfish herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus, Ranavirus, Megalocytivirus, Betanodavirus, Francisella, Cryptobia iubilans, and Exophiala. When possible, the known species affected, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, disinfection, and prevention modalities for each disease are discussed. PMID:23642862

  17. Emerging Plant Diseases: What Are Our Best

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Karen A.

    152 11 Emerging Plant Diseases: What Are Our Best Strategies for Management? Karen A. Garrett, Ari Jumpponen, and Lorena Gomez Montano The impact of plant disease can be stark. Famine can result if no sys- tems are in place to replace lost crops. Notorious famines precipitated by plant disease include

  18. PROJECT SUMMARY Diseases caused by parasitic species of the genus, Perkinsus, in bivalve mollusks are world

    E-print Network

    Fabrizio, Mary C.

    PROJECT SUMMARY Diseases caused by parasitic species of the genus, Perkinsus, in bivalve mollusks are world wide problems. The parasite, Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) is one of the two important protozoan parasites causing severe mortality in the American (eastern) oyster, Crassostrea virginica, on the US east

  19. Diversity and disease: community structure drives parasite transmission and host fitness

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    LETTER Diversity and disease: community structure drives parasite transmission and host fitness inhibit parasite transmission and reduce disease (Ôdilution effectÕ sensu; Keesing et al. 2006). Because been linked to disease, but the mechanisms underlying such relationships and their applicability to non

  20. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  1. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  2. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  3. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  4. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  5. Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enabling JavaScript. Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Biodefense and Emerging ... VSV-based Nipah Virus Vaccine Fully Protects African Green Monkeys —June 12, 2015 Ciprofloxacin Licensed to Treat ...

  6. Emerging infectious diseases in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Ebright, John R; Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-12-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia's health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcosis, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  7. Genomic insights into the origin of parasitism in the emerging plant pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Cotton, James A; Dalzell, Jonathan J; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; McVeigh, Paul; Takanashi, Takuma; Tsai, Isheng J; Assefa, Samuel A; Cock, Peter J A; Otto, Thomas Dan; Hunt, Martin; Reid, Adam J; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Yokoi, Toshiro; Larsson, Mattias C; Miwa, Johji; Maule, Aaron G; Sahashi, Norio; Jones, John T; Berriman, Matthew

    2011-09-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the biology of this unusual parasite. PMID:21909270

  8. Genomic Insights into the Origin of Parasitism in the Emerging Plant Pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Cotton, James A.; Dalzell, Jonathan J.; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; McVeigh, Paul; Takanashi, Takuma; Tsai, Isheng J.; Assefa, Samuel A.; Cock, Peter J. A.; Otto, Thomas Dan; Hunt, Martin; Reid, Adam J.; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Yokoi, Toshiro; Larsson, Mattias C.; Miwa, Johji; Maule, Aaron G.; Sahashi, Norio; Jones, John T.; Berriman, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the biology of this unusual parasite. PMID:21909270

  9. VACCINATING AGAINST ZOONOTIC PARASITIC DISEASES: MYTH OR REALITY?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The largely unanticipated difficulties of parasite vaccine development have led us to a renewed awareness of the survival strategies evolutionarily embedded within parasites over hundreds of millions of years. We have grown to appreciate that efforts to disrupt parasite-host relationships are substa...

  10. Genetic Variability of the Neogregarine Apicystis bombi, an Etiological Agent of an Emergent Bumblebee Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maebe, Kevin; Arbetman, Marina; Morales, Carolina; Graystock, Peter; Hughes, William O. H.; Plischuk, Santiago; Lange, Carlos E.; de Graaf, Dirk C.; Zapata, Nelson; de la Rosa, Jose Javier Perez; Murray, Tomás E.; Brown, Mark J. F.; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of diseases is considered a major threat to biodiversity and a possible driver of the decline of pollinator populations, particularly when novel species or strains of parasites emerge. Previous studies have suggested that populations of introduced European honeybee (Apis mellifera) and bumblebee species (Bombus terrestris and Bombus ruderatus) in Argentina share the neogregarine parasite Apicystis bombi with the native bumblebee (Bombus dahlbomii). In this study we investigated whether A. bombi is acting as an emergent parasite in the non-native populations. Specifically, we asked whether A. bombi, recently identified in Argentina, was introduced by European, non-native bees. Using ITS1 and ITS2 to assess the parasite’s intraspecific genetic variation in bees from Argentina and Europe, we found a largely unstructured parasite population, with only 15% of the genetic variation being explained by geographic location. The most abundant haplotype in Argentina (found in all 9 specimens of non-native species) was identical to the most abundant haplotype in Europe (found in 6 out of 8 specimens). Similarly, there was no evidence of structuring by host species, with this factor explaining only 17% of the genetic variation. Interestingly, parasites in native Bombus ephippiatus from Mexico were genetically distant from the Argentine and European samples, suggesting that sufficient variability does exist in the ITS region to identify continent-level genetic structure in the parasite. Thus, the data suggest that A. bombi from Argentina and Europe share a common, relatively recent origin. Although our data did not provide information on the direction of transfer, the absence of genetic structure across space and host species suggests that A. bombi may be acting as an emergent infectious disease across bee taxa and continents. PMID:24324696

  11. Fascioliasis: a worldwide parasitic disease of importance in travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Keyhan; Bargues, M Dolores; O'Neill, Sandra; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic disease caused by the two parasite species Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This trematodiasis has never been claimed special relevance for travellers and migrants. However, the situation has drastically changed in the last two decades, in a way that fascioliasis should today be included in the list of diseases to be enhanced in Travel Medicine. Different kind of travellers have been involved in human infection reports: business travellers, tourists, migrants, expatriated workers, military personnel, religious missionaries, and refugees. Europe is the continent where more imported cases have been reported in many countries. More cases would have been probably reported in Europe if fascioliasis would be a reportable disease. In the Americas, most of the reports concern cases diagnosed in USA. Relative few patients have been diagnosed in studies on travellers performed in Asia. In Africa, most cases were reported in Maghreb countries. Blood eosinophilia and the ingestion of watercress or any other suggestive freshwater plant in anamnesis are extremely useful in guiding towards a fascioliasis diagnosis in a developed country, although may not be so in human endemic areas of developing countries. Several suggestive clinical presentation aspects may be useful, although the clinical polymorphism may be misleading in many cases. Non-invasive techniques are helpful for the diagnosis, although images may lead to confusion. Laparoscopic visualization should assist and facilitate procurement of an accurately guided biopsy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first choice in patients in the chronic phase. ERCP and sphincterotomy are used to extract parasites from the biliary tree. Fluke egg finding continues to be the gold standard and enables for burden quantification and establishing of the drug dose. Many serological and stool antigen detection tests have been developed. Immunological techniques present the advantages of being applicable during all periods of the disease, but fundamentally during the invasive or acute period, as well as to other situations in which coprological techniques may present problems. Triclabendazole is the drug of choice at present, although the spread of resistance to this drug is challenging. Prevention mainly concerns measures to avoid individual infection by considering the different human infection sources. PMID:25287722

  12. Climate Change Promotes the Emergence of Serious Disease Outbreaks of Filarioid Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Pusenius, Jyrki; Kumpula, Jouko; Venäläinen, Ari; Kortet, Raine; Oksanen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Filarioid parasites represent major health hazards with important medical, veterinary, and economic implications, and considerable potential to affect the everyday lives of tens of millions of people globally (World Health Organization, 2007). Scenarios for climate change vary latitudinally and regionally and involve direct and indirect linkages for increasing temperature and the dissemination, amplification, and invasiveness of vector-borne parasites. High latitude regions are especially influenced by global climate change and thus may be prone to altered associations and dynamics for complex host-pathogen assemblages and emergence of disease with cascading effects on ecosystem structure. Although the potential for substantial ecological perturbation has been identified, few empirical observations have emanated from systems across the Holarctic. Coincidental with decades of warming, and anomalies of high temperature and humidity in the sub-Arctic region of Fennoscandia, the mosquito-borne filarioid nematode Setaria tundra is now associated with emerging epidemic disease resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality for reindeer and moose. We describe a host-parasite system that involves reindeer, arthropods, and nematodes, which may contribute as a factor to ongoing declines documented for this ungulate species across northern ecosystems. We demonstrate that mean summer temperatures exceeding 14°C drive the emergence of disease due to S. tundra. An association between climate and emergence of filarioid parasites is a challenge to ecosystem services with direct effects on public health, sustainability of free-ranging and domestic ungulates, and ultimately food security for subsistence cultures at high latitudes. PMID:20422252

  13. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  14. Emerging virus diseases transmitted by whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Virus diseases that have emerged in the past two decades limit the production of important vegetable crops in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions worldwide, and many of the causal viruses are transmitted by whiteflies (order Hemiptera, family Aleyrodidae). Most of these whitefly-transmitted viruses are begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae), although whiteflies are also vectors of criniviruses, ipomoviruses, torradoviruses, and some carlaviruses. Factors driving the emergence and establishment of whitefly-transmitted diseases include genetic changes in the virus through mutation and recombination, changes in the vector populations coupled with polyphagy of the main vector, Bemisia tabaci, and long distance traffic of plant material or vector insects due to trade of vegetables and ornamental plants. The role of humans in increasing the emergence of virus diseases is obvious, and the effect that climate change may have in the future is unclear. PMID:21568700

  15. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pello, Susan J.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.

  16. LETTER Experimental warming drives a seasonal shift in the timing of host-parasite dynamics with consequences for disease risk

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    systems, including infectious diseases. Using a host­parasite system involving freshwater snails than changes in total parasite output for predict- ing climate-driven changes in disease risk. Keywords elevate disease risk by facilitating novel host­ parasite interactions through changes in species ranges

  17. Distinct genetic control of parasite elimination, dissemination, and disease after Leishmania major infection.

    PubMed

    Kurey, Iryna; Kobets, Tetyana; Havelková, Helena; Slapnicková, Martina; Quan, Lei; Trtková, Katerina; Grekov, Igor; Svobodová, Milena; Stassen, Alphons P; Hutson, Alan; Demant, Peter; Lipoldová, Marie

    2009-09-01

    Elimination of pathogens is the basis of host resistance to infections; however, relationship between persisting pathogens and disease has not been clarified. Leishmania major infection in mice is an important model of host-pathogen relationship. Infected BALB/c mice exhibit high parasite numbers in lymph nodes and spleens, and a chronic disease with skin lesions, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, increased serum IgE levels and cytokine imbalance. Although numerous gene loci affecting these disease symptoms have been reported, genes controlling parasites' elimination or dissemination have never been mapped. We therefore compared genetics of the clinical and immunologic symptomatology with parasite load in (BALB/c x CcS-11) F2 hybrids and mapped five loci, two of which control parasite elimination or dissemination. Lmr5 influences parasite loads in spleens (and skin lesions, splenomegaly, and serum IgE, IL-4, and IFNgamma levels), and Lmr20 determines parasite numbers in draining lymph nodes (and serum levels of IgE and IFNgamma), but no skin or visceral pathology. Three additional loci do not affect parasite numbers but influence significantly the disease phenotype-Lmr21: skin lesions and IFNgamma levels, Lmr22: IL-4 levels, Lmr23: IFNgamma levels, indicating that development of L. major-caused disease includes critical regulations additional to control of parasite spread. PMID:19705113

  18. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    "Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli). Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination. These factors are increasing in prevalence; this increase, together with the ongoing evolution of viral and microbial variants and selection for drug resistance, suggests that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase and emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance and control. Dr. David Satcher's article and this overview inaugurate Perspectives, a regular section in this journal intended to present and develop unifying concepts and strategies for considering emerging infections and their underlying factors. The editors welcome, as contributions to the Perspectives section, overviews, syntheses, and case studies that shed light on how and why infections emerge, and how they may be anticipated and prevented. PMID:8903148

  19. Emerging Therapeutic Approaches to Mitochondrial Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenz, Tina; Williams, Sion L.; Bacman, Sandra R.; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are very heterogeneous and can affect different tissues and organs. Moreover, they can be caused by genetic defects in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA as well as by environmental factors. All of these factors have made the development of therapies difficult. In this review article, we will discuss emerging approaches to…

  20. [Epidemiological surveillance of parasitic diseases in the republic of Armenia].

    PubMed

    Avetisian, L M

    2004-01-01

    Parasitic diseases play a very important role in the regional pathology of Armenia. Malaria was completely eradicated in Armenia in 1963; the malaria-free status was maintained till 1994. At present, the populations of the Ararat, Armavir, and Tavush regions of Armenia are at a potential risk for malaria. Nowadays, 6 species of Anopheles mosquitoes are spreading in Armenia. An analysis of many years' official statistics on the number of individuals infected with intestinal helminthiases and a retrospective analysis of those in 1986-2001 were made to study the current epidemiological laws on intestinal helminthiases. The infection rates of ascariasis, trichocephaliasis, enterobiasis, teniasis, and mixed infection were 4.0 +/- 0.4, 1.2 +/- 0.2, 25.9 +/- 1.0, 0.2 +/- 0.08, and 0.8 +/- 0.2%, respectively. Those of intestinal helminthiasis were higher in rural areas than those in urban areas and in Yerevan. The above fact makes it necessary to work out a new, comprehensive, scientifically-grounded parasitological service adjustable to the present new socioeconomic conditions. PMID:15042743

  1. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  2. Leptospirosis. A re-emerging zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Langston, Cathy E; Heuter, Kerry J

    2003-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging infectious disease that occurs in dogs in urban and rural environments. It is caused by a filamentous spiral bacterium that has a predilection for renal tubules. Acute renal failure, hepatic dysfunction, and hemorrhagic diathesis are the most common clinical signs. Treatment with antibiotics and supportive care can manage a high percentage of cases successfully. Newer vaccines developed in response to the change in frequency of certain serovars may decrease the incidence of clinical disease. Leptospirosis affects a wide variety of species and is zoonotic. PMID:12910744

  3. Evolution of parasite virulence when host responses cause disease 

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy; Graham, Andrea; Read, Andrew F

    The trade-off hypothesis of virulence evolution rests on the assumption that infection-induced mortality is a consequence of host exploitation by parasites. This hypothesis lies at the heart of many empirical and theoretical ...

  4. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  5. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an emerging infectious disease in travelers.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Elizabeth Noble; King, Allison Hutsell; Tuli, Malika

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis describes any of 3 diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, the most common of which is cutaneous leishmaniasis. The majority of cutaneous cases occur in Central and South America, the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, and Central Asia. Most cases diagnosed among nonmilitary personnel in the United States are acquired in Mexico and Central America. Here, we present the case of an American tourist who developed localized cutaneous leishmaniasis 2 weeks after returning from Costa Rica. After undergoing several unsuccessful rounds of empiric antibiotic treatment for a presumed Staphylococcus aureus skin infection, the patient was referred to our dermatology clinic where cutaneous leishmaniasis was diagnosed by tissue biopsy. This case highlights the importance of cutaneous leishmaniasis as an emerging infectious disease that may be misdiagnosed due to its rarity and varied clinical presentation as well as the limited use of tissue biopsy in general practice. We also provide relevant background information on cutaneous leishmaniasis, a rhyming poem, and an illustration in order to promote greater awareness of this disease and assist clinicians with its diagnosis. PMID:26682298

  6. Emerging infectious diseases: a cause for concern.

    PubMed

    Berns, D S; Rager, B

    2000-12-01

    As the twenty-first century begins it becomes increasingly apparent that the twentieth century, which opened with the promise of the eradication of most infectious diseases, closed with the specter of the reemergence of many deadly infectious diseases that have a rapidly increasing incidence and geographic range. Equally if not more alarming is the appearance of new infectious diseases that have become major sources of morbidity and mortality. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome (caused by a strain of Escherichia coli), Rift Valley fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever, malaria, cryptosporidiosis, and schistosomiasis. The reasons for this situation are easily identified in some cases as associated with treatment modalities (permissive use of antibiotics), the industrial use of antibiotics, demographic changes, societal behavior patterns, changes in ecology, global warming, the inability to deliver minimal health care and the neglect of well-established public health priorities. In addition is the emergence of diseases of another type. We have begun to characterize the potential microbial etiology of what has historically been referred to as chronic diseases. PMID:11344776

  7. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  8. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  9. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  10. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  11. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section... Exclusion from Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance is applied to a certified operation due to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and...

  12. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section 205...Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance...to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...

  13. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section 205...Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance...to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...

  14. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section 205...Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance...to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...

  15. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section 205...Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance...to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...

  16. 7 CFR 205.672 - Emergency pest or disease treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Emergency pest or disease treatment. 205.672 Section 205...Sale § 205.672 Emergency pest or disease treatment. When a prohibited substance...to a Federal or State emergency pest or disease treatment program and the...

  17. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  18. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota in Italian Stream Frogs (Rana italica) Infected and Uninfected by a Cutaneous Parasitic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Ermanno; Rossi, Roberta; Fidati, Laura; Paracucchi, Romina; Scargetta, Silvia; Montalbani, Elena; Franzetti, Andrea; La Porta, Gianandrea; Fagotti, Anna; Simonceli, Francesca; Cenci, Giovanni; Di Rosa, Ines

    2015-01-01

    In human and wildlife populations, the natural microbiota plays an important role in health maintenance and the prevention of emerging infectious diseases. In amphibians, infectious diseases have been closely associated with population decline and extinction worldwide. Skin symbiont communities have been suggested as one of the factors driving the different susceptibilities of amphibians to diseases. The activity of the skin microbiota of amphibians against fungal pathogens, such as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been examined extensively, whereas its protective role towards the cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the cutaneous microbiota of the Italian stream frog (Rana italica) and characterized the microbial assemblages of frogs uninfected and infected by Amphibiocystidium using the Illumina next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 629 different OTUs belonging to 16 different phyla were detected. Bacterial populations shared by all individuals represented only one fifth of all OTUs and were dominated by a small number of OTUs. Statistical analyses based on Bray-Curtis distances showed that uninfected and infected specimens had distinct cutaneous bacterial community structures. Phylotypes belonging to the genera Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Flavobacterium were more abundant, and sometimes almost exclusively present, in uninfected than in infected specimens. These bacterial populations, known to exhibit antifungal activity in amphibians, may also play a role in protection against cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites. PMID:26370166

  19. Human-Wildlife Contact and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    E-print Network

    Muehlenbein, Michael

    . In this chapter, I use a series of case studies involving SARS, HIV, Nipah virus, Lyme disease, malaria, and EbolaChapter 4 Human-Wildlife Contact and Emerging Infectious Diseases Michael P. Muehlenbein Abstract diseases. 4.1 Emerging Infectious Diseases The patterns of morbidity and mortality in human populations

  20. Diagnosis of Bioagents and Emerging Diseases William Longa

    E-print Network

    Szolovits, Peter

    Diagnosis of Bioagents and Emerging Diseases William Longa , Sarita Chungb , Kenneth D. Mandlb of suffering from exposure to a biological agent or an emerging disease. Since physicians may need the program with unusual symptom complexes that represent a rare disease or a new disease. This may occur as the result

  1. Emergence of Resistance to Atovaquone-Proguanil in Malaria Parasites: Insights from Computational Modeling and Clinical Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Musset, Lise; Hubert, Véronique; Le Bras, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of atovaquone-proguanil (AP) as an antimalarial treatment is compromised by the emergence of atovaquone resistance during therapy. However, the origin of the parasite mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation conferring atovaquone resistance remains elusive. Here, we report a patient-based stochastic model that tracks the intrahost emergence of mutations in the multicopy mtDNA during the first erythrocytic parasite cycles leading to the malaria febrile episode. The effect of mtDNA copy number, mutation rate, mutation cost, and total parasite load on the mutant parasite load per patient was evaluated. Computer simulations showed that almost any infected patient carried, after four to seven erythrocytic cycles, de novo mutant parasites at low frequency, with varied frequencies of parasites carrying varied numbers of mutant mtDNA copies. A large interpatient variability in the size of this mutant reservoir was found; this variability was due to the different parameters tested but also to the relaxed replication and partitioning of mtDNA copies during mitosis. We also report seven clinical cases in which AP-resistant infections were treated by AP. These provided evidence that parasiticidal drug concentrations against AP-resistant parasites were transiently obtained within days after treatment initiation. Altogether, these results suggest that each patient carries new mtDNA mutant parasites that emerge before treatment but are killed by high starting drug concentrations. However, because the size of this mutant reservoir is highly variable from patient to patient, we propose that some patients fail to eliminate all of the mutant parasites, repeatedly producing de novo AP treatment failures. PMID:24867967

  2. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  3. Asynchrony in host and parasite phenology may decrease disease risk in livestock under climate warming: Nematodirus battus in lambs as a case study.

    PubMed

    Gethings, Owen J; Rose, Hannah; Mitchell, Siân; Van Dijk, Jan; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-09-01

    Mismatch in the phenology of trophically linked species as a result of climate warming has been shown to have far-reaching effects on animal communities, but implications for disease have so far received limited attention. This paper presents evidence suggestive of phenological asynchrony in a host-parasite system arising from climate change, with impacts on transmission. Diagnostic laboratory data on outbreaks of infection with the pathogenic nematode Nematodirus battus in sheep flocks in the UK were used to validate region-specific models of the effect of spring temperature on parasite transmission. The hatching of parasite eggs to produce infective larvae is driven by temperature, while the availability of susceptible hosts depends on lambing date, which is relatively insensitive to inter-annual variation in spring temperature. In southern areas and in warmer years, earlier emergence of infective larvae in spring was predicted, with decline through mortality before peak availability of susceptible lambs. Data confirmed model predictions, with fewer outbreaks recorded in those years and regions. Overlap between larval peaks and lamb availability was not reduced in northern areas, which experienced no decreases in the number of reported outbreaks. Results suggest that phenological asynchrony arising from climate warming may affect parasite transmission, with non-linear but predictable impacts on disease burden. Improved understanding of complex responses of host-parasite systems to climate change can contribute to effective adaptation of parasite control strategies. PMID:26091257

  4. Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-11-01

    Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. PMID:23106703

  5. Network transmission inference: host behavior and parasite life cycle make social networks meaningful in disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Grear, Daniel A; Luong, Lien T; Hudson, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    The process of disease transmission is determined by the interaction of host susceptibility and exposure to parasite infectious stages. Host behavior is an important determinant of the likelihood of exposure to infectious stages but is difficult to measure and often assumed to be homogenous in models of disease spread. We evaluated the importance of precisely defining host contact when using networks that estimate exposure and predict infection prevalence in a replicated, empirical system. In particular, we hypothesized that infection patterns would be predicted only by a contact network that is defined according to host behavior and parasite life cycle. Two competing host contact criteria were used to construct networks defined by parasite life cycle and social contacts. First, parasite-defined contacts were based on shared space with a time delay corresponding to the environmental development time of nematode parasites with a direct fecal-oral life cycle. Second, social contacts were defined by shared space in the same time period. To quantify the competing networks of exposure and infection, we sampled natural populations of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and infection of their gastrointestinal helminth community using replicated longitudinal capture-mark-recapture techniques. We predicted that (1) infection with parasites with direct fecal-oral life cycles would be explained by the time delay contact network, but not the social contact network; (2) infection with parasites with trophic life cycles (via a mobile intermediate host; thus, spatially decoupling transmission from host contact) would not be explained by either contact network. The prevalence of fecal-oral life cycle nematode parasites was strongly correlated to the number and strength of network connections from the parasite-defined network (including the time delay), while the prevalence of trophic life cycle parasites was not correlated with any network metrics. We concluded that incorporating the parasite life cycle, relative to the way that exposure is measured, is key to inferring transmission and can be empirically quantified using network techniques. In addition, appropriately defining and measuring contacts according the life history of the parasite and relevant behaviors of the host is a crucial step in applying network analyses to empirical systems. PMID:24555316

  6. [ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL RISK FOR CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE WATER RESERVOIRS BY PATHOGENS OF HUMAN PARASITIC DISEASES].

    PubMed

    Khromenkova, E P; Dimidova, L L; Dumbadze, O S; Aidinov, G T; Shendo, G L; Agirov, A Kh; Batchaev, Kh Kh

    2015-01-01

    Sanitary and parasitological studies of the waste effluents and surface reservoir waters were conducted in the south of Russia. The efficiency of purification of waste effluents from the pathogens of parasitic diseases was investigated in the region's sewage-purification facilities. The water of the surface water reservoirs was found to contain helminthic eggs and larvae and intestinal protozoan cysts because of the poor purification and disinfection of service fecal sewage waters. The poor purification and disinvasion of waste effluents in the region determine the potential risk of contamination of the surface water reservoirs and infection of the population with the pathogens of human parasitic diseases. PMID:26152029

  7. New and emerging biomarkers in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Leah E; Bertoia, Monica L; Aroner, Sarah A; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Jensen, Majken K

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death and disability worldwide. Therefore, great importance has been placed on the discovery of novel risk factors and metabolic pathways relevant in the prevention and management of CVD. Such research is ongoing and may continue to lead to better risk stratification of individuals and/or the development of new intervention targets and treatment options. This review highlights emerging biomarkers related to lipid metabolism, glycemia, inflammation, and cardiac damage, some of which show promising associations with CVD risk and provide further understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. However, their measurement methodology and assays will require validation and standardization, and it will take time to accumulate evidence of their role in CVD in various population settings in order to fully assess their clinical utility. Several of the novel biomarkers represent intriguing, potentially game-changing targets for therapy. PMID:26370699

  8. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... RWI) Water Disinfection for Travelers Water-related Diseases, Contaminants, and Injuries Be Healthy. Think Healthy. Swim Healthy. ... Contact CDC-INFO Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay ...

  9. Lumpy Skin Disease in Iraq: Study of the Disease Emergence.

    PubMed

    Al-Salihi, K A; Hassan, I Q

    2015-10-01

    This study intends to report the first emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Iraq, in addition to describing its related clinical signs. In August 2013, 21 cases of four outbreaks developed clinical signs suggestive of LSD in the Nineveh (Mosul) and Baghdad Governorates, which were considered as the first infected foci of LSD in Iraq. The disease was diagnosed tentatively, on the basis of clinical signs and epidemiological features, and it was confirmed as positive by the polymerase chain reaction and histopathological features. In September 2013, eight new outbreaks of LSD also appeared in Baghdad and Nineveh. In 2014, the disease spread rapidly to the governorates of Kirkuk, Salah Al-Din, Al-Anbar, Diyala, Wasit, Babil, Karbala, Najaf, Al-Diwaniyah, Muthanna, Maysan, DhiQar and Basra. The total number of infected cows and calves reported was 7396 and 227, respectively. The apparent morbidity and mortality rates were 9.11% and 0.51%, respectively, while the apparent case-fatality rate was 5.56%. Skin nodules, anorexia, reduce in milk production and decrease in bodyweight were the common clinical signs. Moreover, myiasis and mastitis were seen as complications in some infected animals. Attempts were made to stop the distribution of the disease including quarantine and treatment, control over animal movement and arthropod control. Ring vaccination was used in a 10 km radius zone around the outbreak with live sheep pox vaccine. The highly contagious transboundary nature of the LSD, its endemic distribution in the Iraqi neighbouring countries, and the current armed conflict in the area were the possible factors for the disease being introduced into the country. LSD had spread through the Middle East and Gulf peninsula and could be a cause of danger to the rest of Asia and Europe. International precaution, cooperation and exchange of information could guarantee the prevention and further spread of the disease to the rest of Asia and Europe. PMID:26105081

  10. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

  11. [SWOT analysis of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan-hong; Zheng, Bin

    2014-04-01

    This study analyzes the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases by SWOT analysis comprehensively, and it puts forward some development strategies specifically, in order to provide some indicative references for the further development. PMID:25051844

  12. Environmental change and the dynamics of parasitic diseases in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Margonari, Carina; Quintão, Ana Flávia

    2014-01-01

    The Amazonian environment is changing rapidly, due to deforestation, in the short term, and, climatic change is projected to alter its forest cover, in the next few decades. These modifications to the, environment have been altering the dynamics of infectious diseases which have natural foci in the, Amazonian biome, especially in its forest. Current land use practices which are changing the, epidemiological profile of the parasitic diseases in the region are road building; logging; mining; expansion of agriculture and cattle ranching and the building of large dams. Malaria and the cutaneous, leishmaniasis are the diseases best known for their rapid changes in response to environmental, modifications. Others such as soil-transmitted helminthiases, filarial infections and toxoplasmosis, which have part of their developmental cycles in the biophysical environment, are also expected to, change rapidly. An interdisciplinary approach and an integrated, international surveillance are needed, to manage the environmentally-driven changes in the Amazonian parasitic diseases in the near future. PMID:24056199

  13. Emerging Food- and Waterborne Protozoan Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Toxoplasma are related apicomplexan parasites transmitted to humans worldwide through ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water. Of 15 species of Cryptosporidium- C parvum, C. hominis, C and C. meleagridis are the most prevalent infections in humans and the la...

  14. Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal Disorders: Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases, Celiac Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, and Parasitic Infections.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pooja; Furuta, Glenn T

    2015-08-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract provides an intriguing organ for considering the eosinophil's role in health and disease. The normal GI tract, except for the esophagus, is populated by eosinophils that are present throughout the mucosa, raising the possibility that eosinophils participate in innate mechanisms of defense. However, data from clinical studies associates increased numbers of eosinophils with inflammatory GI diseases, prompting concerns that eosinophils may have a deleterious effect on the gut. We present clinical features of 4 disease processes that have been associated with eosinophilia and suggest areas requiring investigation as to their clinical significance and scientific relevance. PMID:26209893

  15. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Torgerson, Paul R.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Willingham, Arve Lee; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Fèvre, Eric M.; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Fürst, Thomas; Budke, Christine M.; Carabin, Hélène; Kirk, Martyn D.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Havelaar, Arie; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background Foodborne diseases are globally important, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Parasitic diseases often result in high burdens of disease in low and middle income countries and are frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated food. This study presents the first estimates of the global and regional human disease burden of 10 helminth diseases and toxoplasmosis that may be attributed to contaminated food. Methods and Findings Data were abstracted from 16 systematic reviews or similar studies published between 2010 and 2015; from 5 disease data bases accessed in 2015; and from 79 reports, 73 of which have been published since 2000, 4 published between 1995 and 2000 and 2 published in 1986 and 1981. These included reports from national surveillance systems, journal articles, and national estimates of foodborne diseases. These data were used to estimate the number of infections, sequelae, deaths, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), by age and region for 2010. These parasitic diseases, resulted in 48.4 million cases (95% Uncertainty intervals [UI] of 43.4–79.0 million) and 59,724 (95% UI 48,017–83,616) deaths annually resulting in 8.78 million (95% UI 7.62–12.51 million) DALYs. We estimated that 48% (95% UI 38%-56%) of cases of these parasitic diseases were foodborne, resulting in 76% (95% UI 65%-81%) of the DALYs attributable to these diseases. Overall, foodborne parasitic disease, excluding enteric protozoa, caused an estimated 23.2 million (95% UI 18.2–38.1 million) cases and 45,927 (95% UI 34,763–59,933) deaths annually resulting in an estimated 6.64 million (95% UI 5.61–8.41 million) DALYs. Foodborne Ascaris infection (12.3 million cases, 95% UI 8.29–22.0 million) and foodborne toxoplasmosis (10.3 million cases, 95% UI 7.40–14.9 million) were the most common foodborne parasitic diseases. Human cysticercosis with 2.78 million DALYs (95% UI 2.14–3.61 million), foodborne trematodosis with 2.02 million DALYs (95% UI 1.65–2.48 million) and foodborne toxoplasmosis with 825,000 DALYs (95% UI 561,000–1.26 million) resulted in the highest burdens in terms of DALYs, mainly due to years lived with disability. Foodborne enteric protozoa, reported elsewhere, resulted in an additional 67.2 million illnesses or 492,000 DALYs. Major limitations of our study include often substantial data gaps that had to be filled by imputation and suffer from the uncertainties that surround such models. Due to resource limitations it was also not possible to consider all potentially foodborne parasites (for example Trypanosoma cruzi). Conclusions Parasites are frequently transmitted to humans through contaminated food. These estimates represent an important step forward in understanding the impact of foodborne diseases globally and regionally. The disease burden due to most foodborne parasites is highly focal and results in significant morbidity and mortality among vulnerable populations. PMID:26633705

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi in the Chicken Model: Chagas-Like Heart Disease in the Absence of Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Gomes, Clever; Nitz, Nadjar; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Alves, Rozeneide M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Cordeiro, Ciro; Bernal, Francisco M.; Rosa, Ana C.; Hejnar, Jiri; Leonardecz, Eduardo; Hecht, Mariana M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The administration of anti-trypanosome nitroderivatives curtails Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Chagas disease patients, but does not prevent destructive lesions in the heart. This observation suggests that an effective treatment for the disease requires understanding its pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the origin of clinical manifestations of the heart disease we used a chicken model system in which infection can be initiated in the egg, but parasite persistence is precluded. T. cruzi inoculation into the air chamber of embryonated chicken eggs generated chicks that retained only the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA minicircle in their genome after eight days of gestation. Crossbreeding showed that minicircles were transferred vertically via the germ line to chicken progeny. Minicircle integration in coding regions was shown by targeted-primer thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and detected by direct genomic analysis. The kDNA-mutated chickens died with arrhythmias, shortness of breath, cyanosis and heart failure. These chickens with cardiomyopathy had rupture of the dystrophin and other genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Tissue pathology revealed inflammatory dilated cardiomegaly whereby immune system mononuclear cells lyse parasite-free target heart fibers. The heart cell destruction implicated a thymus-dependent, autoimmune; self-tissue rejection carried out by CD45+, CD8??+, and CD8? lymphocytes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that genetic alterations resulting from kDNA integration in the host genome lead to autoimmune-mediated destruction of heart tissue in the absence of T. cruzi parasites. PMID:21468314

  17. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed. PMID:26061370

  18. Cross-Species Pathogen Transmission and Disease Emergence in Primates

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Amy B.

    to their rapidly growing human populations, close proximity to apes, and population centers with high density INTRODUCTION Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a serious and increasing threat to human healthB1, Canada Abstract: Many of the most virulent emerging infectious diseases in humans, e.g., AIDS

  19. Linking emergence of fungal plant diseases and ecological speciation

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, Tatiana; Gladieux, Pierre; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Emerging diseases represent a growing worldwide problem accompanying global environmental changes, and there is tremendous interest in identifying the factors controlling the appearance and spread of these diseases. Here, we discuss emerging fungal plant diseases, and argue that they often result from host shift speciation, a particular case of ecological speciation. We consider the factors controlling local adaptation and ecological speciation and show that certain life-history traits of many fungal plant pathogens are conducive for rapid ecological speciation, thus favoring the emergence of novel pathogen species adapted to new hosts. We argue that placing the problem of emerging fungal diseases of plants within the context of ecological speciation can significantly improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms governing emergence of such diseases. PMID:20434790

  20. Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture. PMID:25260074

  1. The parasite that causes whirling disease, Myxobolus cerebralis, is genetically variable within and across spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Lodh, Nilanjan; Kerans, Billie L; Stevens, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of parasite populations on the natural landscape can reveal important aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology and can indicate parasite dispersal across the landscape. Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), the causative agent of whirling disease in the definitive host Tubifex tubifex, is native to Eurasia and has spread to more than 25 states in the USA. The small amounts of data available to date suggest that M. cerebralis has little genetic variability. We examined the genetic variability of parasites infecting the definitive host T. tubifex in the Madison River, MT, and also from other parts of North America and Europe. We cloned and sequenced 18S ribosomal DNA and the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) gene. Five oligochaetes were examined for 18S and five for ITS-1, only one individual was examined for both genes. We found two different 18S rRNA haplotypes of M. cerebralis from five worms and both intra- and interworm genetic variation for ITS-1, which showed 16 different haplotypes from among 20 clones. Comparison of our sequences with those from other studies revealed M. cerebralis from MT was similar to the parasite collected from Alaska, Oregon, California, and Virginia in the USA and from Munich, Germany, based on 18S, whereas parasite sequences from West Virginia were very different. Combined with the high haplotype diversity of ITS-1 and uniqueness of ITS-1 haplotypes, our results show that M. cerebralis is more variable than previously thought and raises the possibility of multiple introductions of the parasite into North America. PMID:22151695

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors in Parasitic Diseases

    E-print Network

    Lanzrein, Beatrice

    important neglected human diseases: African trypano- somiasis, American trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis leishmaniasis DAPI 4,60 -diamidino-2-phenylindole EPAC Exchange protein activated by cAMP HAT Human African trypanosomiasis IBMX Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine MCL Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis PDE Cyclic nucleotide

  3. Parasitic and Infectious Disease Responses to Changing Global Nutrient Cycles

    E-print Network

    McKenzie, Valerie

    ) are a significant threat to human, livestock, and wildlife health and are changing dramatically in the face of human-induced environmental changes such as those in climate and land use. In this article we explore the little changing world. Effective management of disease burdens throughout the world must therefore incorporate

  4. [The evolution of the Th2 immune responses and its relationships with parasitic diseases and allergy].

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Luis; Zakzuk, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    A variety of links occur between parasites, particularly helminths, and allergic diseases--both common conditions of epidemiological importance in tropical regions. Although speculations are often made about the effects of parasitic diseases on the evolution of the immune system, the selective forces that have shaped the allergic response are unknown and probably include evolutionary mechanisms different to those traditionally reported. Helminths, infectious and antigenic sources that induce allergic-like responses, established themselves as parasites in organisms that already had cell groups related to the type 2 immunity. An essential component in the relationship between helminths and their hosts is that the former induce immunosuppression, creating a kind of balance that allows the survival of both. The development of this equilibrium undoubtedly includes adaptations in both organisms, and the survival of the parasite is the result of (a) acquiring immune suppressor mechanisms and (b) finding hosts with lower intensity of the type 2 response. This in turn suggests that although helminth infections have influenced the formation of type 2 immunity, they have not been an important selective force in the particular case of allergic response. The latter is more related to an exaggerated Th2/IgE response. PMID:23235797

  5. Tungiasis (sand flea disease): a parasitic disease with particular challenges for public health.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H; Sentongo, E; Krantz, I

    2013-01-01

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is caused by the penetration of females of Tunga penetrans into the skin of the feet. Within 2 weeks of penetration the burrowed flea increases its volume by a factor of 2,000. This is paralleled by intense inflammation of the surrounding tissue. Acute and chronic inflammation leads to the development of painful and debilitating clinical pathology. This results in impaired physical fitness and mobility. The social implications of tungiasis-associated morbidity are multifold. Children with tungiasis are teased and ridiculed, adults feel ashamed and stigmatized. There is anecdotal evidence that tungiasis negatively affects educational achievements. Impaired mobility and physical fitness will have a negative impact on household economics. Sand flea disease is common in resource-poor communities in South America and in sub-Saharan Africa with prevalence in the general population of up to 60%. In East Africa, it has re-emerged in epidemic dimensions in recent years. Hitherto, no effective drug treatment has been at hand. Traditional treatment, i.e., the manipulation of burrowed sand fleas with blunt and inappropriate instruments may facilitate the transmission of blood-derived pathogens. Prevention is feasible through regular application of a repellent based on coconut oil. Owing to its strong association with poverty, sand flea disease would be an excellent starting point for a community-based fight against rural poverty. PMID:22941398

  6. Targeting Transmission Pathways for Emerging Zoonotic Disease Surveillance and Control.

    PubMed

    Loh, Elizabeth H; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Olival, Kevin J; Bogich, Tiffany L; Johnson, Christine K; Mazet, Jonna A K; Karesh, William; Daszak, Peter

    2015-07-01

    We used literature searches and a database of all reported emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) to analyze the most important transmission pathways (e.g., vector-borne, aerosol droplet transmitted) for emerging zoonoses. Our results suggest that at the broad scale, the likelihood of transmission occurring through any one pathway is approximately equal. However, the major transmission pathways for zoonoses differ widely according to the specific underlying drivers of EID events (e.g., land-use change, agricultural intensification). These results can be used to develop better targeting of surveillance for, and more effective control of newly emerged zoonoses in regions under different underlying pressures that drive disease emergence. PMID:26186515

  7. Sheep helminth parasitic disease in south eastern Scotland arising as a possible consequence of climate change.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, F; Sargison, N D; Skuce, P J; Jackson, F

    2009-08-26

    The climate in the UK is changing, with a trend towards increased rainfall in the autumn and winter and warmer average temperatures throughout the year. There has also been a 4-week extension of the herbage growing season over the past 40 years. These changes may have implications for the epidemiology of sheep helminth parasites. Here, we describe production-limiting disease outbreaks caused by Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus battus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Fasciola hepatica in sheep flocks in south eastern Scotland. The occurrence and timing of these disease outbreaks could not have been predicted in this region highlighting changes in the epidemiology of helminth infections from the patterns historically described. These cases are used to introduce discussion regarding the potential effects of climate change on the epidemiology of helminth parasites and the implications for sheep farming in the UK. PMID:19556065

  8. Parasite diversity and coinfection determine pathogen infection success and host fitness

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    ecology for understanding infectious diseases. microbiome | parasite competition | emerging infectious (received for review January 31, 2012) While the importance of changes in host biodiversity for disease risk disease | ecosystem function | amphibian decline Ecological research has focused increasingly on the impor

  9. Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sandeep; Chang, Shih Chieh; Nguyen, Hai M.; Huq, Redwan; Tanner, Mark R.; Londono, Luz M.; Estrada, Rosendo; Dhawan, Vikas; Chauhan, Satendra; Upadhyay, Sanjeev K.; Gindin, Mariel; Hotez, Peter J.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Swarbrick, James D.; Wulff, Heike; Iadonato, Shawn P.; Gutman, George A.; Beeton, Christine; Pennington, Michael W.; Norton, Raymond S.; Chandy, K. George

    2014-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium (Kv) 1.3 channel is widely regarded as a therapeutic target for immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases. ShK-186, a selective inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels, ameliorates autoimmune diseases in rodent models, and human phase 1 trials of this agent in healthy volunteers have been completed. In this study, we identified and characterized a large family of Stichodactyla helianthus toxin (ShK)–related peptides in parasitic worms. Based on phylogenetic analysis, 2 worm peptides were selected for study: AcK1, a 51-residue peptide expressed in the anterior secretory glands of the dog-infecting hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and the human-infecting hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and BmK1, the C-terminal domain of a metalloprotease from the filarial worm Brugia malayi. These peptides in solution adopt helical structures closely resembling that of ShK. At doses in the nanomolar–micromolar range, they block native Kv1.3 in human T cells and cloned Kv1.3 stably expressed in L929 mouse fibroblasts. They preferentially suppress the proliferation of rat CCR7? effector memory T cells without affecting naive and central memory subsets and inhibit the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response caused by skin-homing effector memory T cells in rats. Further, they suppress IFN? production by human T lymphocytes. ShK-related peptides in parasitic worms may contribute to the potential beneficial effects of probiotic parasitic worm therapy in human autoimmune diseases.—Chhabra, S., Chang, S. C., Nguyen, H. M., Huq, R., Tanner, M. R., Londono, L. M., Estrada, R., Dhawan, V., Chauhan, S., Upadhyay, S. K., Gindin, M., Hotez, P. J., Valenzuela, J. G., Mohanty, B., Swarbrick, J. D., Wulff, H., Iadonato, S. P., Gutman, G. A., Beeton, C., Pennington, M. W., Norton, R. S., Chandy, K. G. Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases. PMID:24891519

  10. Emerging roles of chloride channels in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Puljak, Livia; Kilic, Gordan

    2006-04-01

    In the past decade, there has been remarkable progress in understanding of the roles of Cl(-) channels in the development of human diseases. Genetic studies in humans have identified mutations in the genes encoding Cl(-) channels which lead to a loss of Cl(-) channel activity. These mutations are responsible for the development of a variety of deleterious diseases in muscle, kidney, bone and brain including myotonia congenita, dystrophia myotonica, cystic fibrosis, osteopetrosis and epilepsy. Recent studies indicate that some diseases may develop as a result of Cl(-) channel activation. There is growing evidence that the progression of glioma in the brain and the growth of the malaria parasite in red blood cells may be mediated through Cl(-) channel activation. These findings suggest that Cl(-) channels may be novel targets for the pharmacological treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. This review discusses the proposed roles of abnormal Cl(-) channel activity in the pathogenesis of human diseases. PMID:16457993

  11. Eurytrematosis: An emerging and neglected disease in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schwertz, Claiton Ismael; Lucca, Neuber Jose; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Baska, Piotr; Bonetto, Gustavo; Gabriel, Mateus Eloir; Centofanti, Fábio; Mendes, Ricardo Evandro

    2015-01-01

    The trematodes of the genus Eurytrema are low pathogenic pancreatic parasites, but can be related to a decrease in cattle productive performance and eventually death. Parasitized animals develop chronic interstitial pancreatitis and may show a productive performance drop and emaciation. Human infection by Eurytrema sp. has already been reported in other countries as an incidental finding during autopsy or routine tests, but the parasite has not been found in humans in Brazil. However, it is possible that a large number of people could be infected, since parasitological tests have low sensitivity and the parasite is neglected as a pathogen for humans and even animals. Attempts to control and treat Eurytrematosis have generally presented low effectiveness. With the aim to control the disease and provide more information regarding its pathogenicity, our research group is developing a number of studies about Eurytrema spp. We hope to determine the damage in productivity, as well as, establish an efficient protocol for treatment and control of Eurytrematosis based on immunoprophylaxis and antiparasitical drug therapy. PMID:26309817

  12. Disease emergence and resurgence: the wildlife-human connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) was organized as a global disease watchdog group to coordinate disease outbreak information and health crisis response. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the headquarters for this network.2 Understandably, the primary focus for WHO is human health. However, diseases such as the H5N1 avian influenza epizootic in Asian bird populations demonstrate the need for integrating knowledge about disease emergence in animals and in humans.

  13. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  14. Evaluation of predators as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases 

    E-print Network

    Meredith, Anna Louise

    2012-06-30

    New and emerging diseases in human and animal populations appear to be predominately associated with generalist pathogens that are able to infect multiple hosts. Carnivores are susceptible to a wide range of these pathogens ...

  15. SURVEYING THE RISKS FROM EMERGING DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite advances in sanitation and public health, new waterborne diseases have continued to cause outbreaks in humans. The reason why these organisms can cause disease outbreaks, is that their biology allows them to circumvent the safeguards put in place to prevent transmission ...

  16. Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-12-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses as in the case of blue tongue virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus adds additional level of complexity. The increased incidence of emerging and reemerging viral diseases could be attributed to several factors including deforestation and surge in direct contact of livestock and humans with wild animals and birds. This special issue of "Indian Journal of Virology" is focused on diverse aspects of above diseases: isolation and characterization of viruses, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention measures and vaccine development. PMID:24426290

  17. The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in small ruminants in a high-potential farming area in central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kagira, J; Kanyaria, P W

    2001-09-01

    A 15-year retrospective study was performed to determine the role of parasitic diseases in causing mortalities in small ruminants. In total, 115 (32 %) sheep were diagnosed as having been killed by parasitic diseases out of 366 that died as a result of disease. The major cause of mortality was helminthosis (63 % of all parasitic cases). Most of the helminthosis cases were attributed to haemonchosis (40% of parasitic cases). Heartwater was the second most important parasitic disease (27% of all parasitic cases). Ninety-five (26%) goats were diagnosed to have been killed by parasitic diseases out of 365 cases presented at the post mortem facility. Helminthosis was the most frequent cause of mortality (55% of the total parasitic diseases). Twenty-six goats were killed by haemonchosis (27% of all parasitic diseases). Heartwater was the second most important parasitic disease, accounting for about 20% of all parasitic diseases. These findings indicate that viable helminth and tick control strategies should be devised in order to reduce mortality caused by helminthosis and heartwater and thereby achieve improved productivity. PMID:11811702

  18. Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disease emergence: The past, present, and future drivers of Nipah virus emergence

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, Peter; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Fernandez, Miguel; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Murray, Kris A.; Hamilton, Healy

    2013-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a significant threat to human health, economic stability, and biodiversity. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying disease emergence are still not fully understood, and control measures rely heavily on mitigating the impact of EIDs after they have emerged. Here, we highlight the emergence of a zoonotic Henipavirus, Nipah virus, to demonstrate the interdisciplinary and macroecological approaches necessary to understand EID emergence. Previous work suggests that Nipah virus emerged due to the interaction of the wildlife reservoir (Pteropus spp. fruit bats) with intensively managed livestock. The emergence of this and other henipaviruses involves interactions among a suite of anthropogenic environmental changes, socioeconomic factors, and changes in demography that overlay and interact with the distribution of these pathogens in their wildlife reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate how ecological niche modeling may be used to investigate the potential role of a changing climate on the future risk for Henipavirus emergence. We show that the distribution of Henipavirus reservoirs, and therefore henipaviruses, will likely change under climate change scenarios, a fundamental precondition for disease emergence in humans. We assess the variation among climate models to estimate where Henipavirus host distribution is most likely to expand, contract, or remain stable, presenting new risks for human health. We conclude that there is substantial potential to use this modeling framework to explore the distribution of wildlife hosts under a changing climate. These approaches may directly inform current and future management and surveillance strategies aiming to improve pathogen detection and, ultimately, reduce emergence risk. PMID:22936052

  19. Parasitic disease screening among HIV patients from endemic countries in a Toronto clinic

    PubMed Central

    Costiniuk, Cecilia T; Cooper, Curtis L; Doucette, Steve; Kovacs, Colin M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many North American-based HIV patients originate from parasitic disease-endemic regions. Strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis are important due to their wide distribution and potential for severe morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, as determined by serological screening, of strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis among patients in an HIV-focused, primary care practice in Toronto, Ontario. A secondary objective was to determine factors associated with positive serological screens. METHODS: A retrospective review of electronic patient records was conducted. Results of serological screens for parasites and relevant laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were identified. The patients’ mean CD4+ count was 0.45×109/L, median viral load was undetectable and 68% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Most originated from Africa (37%) and South America (35%). Of the 97 patients, 10.4% and 8.3% had positive or equivocal screening results for strongyloidiasis, respectively, 7.4% and 4.2% had positive or equivocal screening results for schistosomiasis and 5.5% and 6.8% had positive or equivocal screens for filariasis. Persons with positive parasitic serologies were more often female (28% versus 9%, P=0.03), younger in age (36 versus 43 years of age, P<0.01), had been in Canada for a shorter duration (5 versus 12 years, P<0.0001) and had a higher viral load (10,990 copies/mL versus <50 copies/mL, P <0.001). All patients were asymptomatic. Eosinophilia was not associated with positive screening results. CONCLUSIONS: Using symptoms and eosinophilia to identify parasitic infection was not reliable. Screening for strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis among patients with HIV from parasite-endemic countries is simple and benign, and may prevent future complications. The clinical benefits of screening for filariasis require further elucidation, but this practice appears to be the least warranted. PMID:23450241

  20. Parasite antigens*

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The currently available preparations used as antigen in the serological investigation of parasitic diseases are ill-defined heterogeneous mixtures, and there is an evident need for better characterized reagents. Antigens of different parasite species (schistosomes, filariae, trypanosomes, and plasmodia) are discussed and parasite sources enumerated. Modern methods for the preparation of antigenic extracts and their fractionation are described, together with certain guidelines as to their biochemical characterization and their immunological activity. In order to implement this endeavour and to make better use of serological techniques in parasitic diseases, proposals are made concerning collaborative research and field application among a number of laboratories on schistosome, onchocercal, trypanosome, and plasmodial antigens. PMID:1084794

  1. Research update on exotic and emerging poultry diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic and emerging diseases of poultry continue to be a threat to US poultry. Studies over the past year have demonstrated: 1) cooking poultry meat at minimum of 70C kills avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in a few seconds, 2) low pathogenicity (LP) AI viruses isolated from fr...

  2. Emerging Therapeutic Options for Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Anita; Stephen, Sindu; Borum, Marie L.

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that is more common than was previously thought. This disease is caused by an inappropriate immune response to wheat gluten, barley, and rye. Three main pathways cause celiac disease: the environmental trigger (gluten), genetic susceptibility, and unusual gut permeability. The only treatment currently available is a strict gluten-free diet. Unfortunately, a majority of patients have difficulty complying with this diet, and the response to therapy is poor. Therefore, alternative treatments are being developed, and new insights into the pathophysiology of celiac disease have led to research into novel therapies. New treatments include engineering gluten-free grains, decreasing intestinal permeability by blockage of the epithelial zonulin receptor, inducing oral tolerance to gluten with a therapeutic vaccine, and degrading immunodominant gliadin peptides using probiotics with endopeptidases or transglutaminase inhibitors. These nondiet-based therapies provide hope for enhanced, lifelong celiac disease management with improved patient compliance and better quality of life. PMID:23483819

  3. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  4. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-06-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  5. Occupational lifestyle diseases: An emerging issue.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Majumdar, P K

    2009-12-01

    Lifestyle diseases characterize those diseases whose occurrence is primarily based on the daily habits of people and are a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment. The main factors contributing to lifestyle diseases include bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body posture, and disturbed biological clock. A report, jointly prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Economic Forum, says India will incur an accumulated loss of $236.6 billion by 2015 on account of unhealthy lifestyles and faulty diet. According to the report, 60% of all deaths worldwide in 2005 (35 million) resulted from noncommunicable diseases and accounted for 44% of premature deaths. What's worse, around 80% of these deaths will occur in low and middle-income countries like India which are also crippled by an ever increasing burden of infectious diseases, poor maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies. According to a survey conducted by the Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ASSOC-HAM), 68% of working women in the age bracket of 21-52 years were found to be afflicted with lifestyle ailments such as obesity, depression, chronic backache, diabetes and hypertension. The study 'Preventive Healthcare and Corporate Female Workforce' also said that long hours and working under strict deadlines cause up to 75% of working women to suffer from depression or general anxiety disorder, compared to women with lesser levels of psychological demand at work. The study cited scientific evidence that healthy diet and adequate physical activity - at least 30 minutes of moderate activity at least five days a week - helped prevent NCDs. In India, 10% of adults suffer from hypertension while the country is home to 25-30 million diabetics. Three out of every 1,000 people suffer a stroke. The number of deaths due to heart attack is projected to increase from 1.2 million to 2 million in 2010. The diet [or lifestyle] of different populations might partly determine their rates of cancer, and the basis for this hypothesis was strengthened by results of studies showing that people who migrate from one country to another generally acquire the cancer rates of the new host country, suggesting that environmental [or lifestyle factors] rather than genetic factors are the key determinants of the international variation in cancer rates. Some of the common diseases encountered because of occupational lifestyle are Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, cancer, chronic liver disease/cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nephritis/CRF, and stroke. Occupational lifestyle diseases include those caused by the factors present in the vicinity like heat, sound, dust, fumes, smoke, cold, and other pollutants. These factors are responsible for allergy, respiratory and hearing problems, and heat or cold shock. So, A healthy lifestyle must be adopted to combat these diseases with a proper balanced diet, physical activity and by giving due respect to biological clock. Kids spending too much time slouched in front of the TV or PCs, should be encourage to find a physical sport or activity they enjoy. Fun exercises should be encouraged into family outings. A pizza-and-video evening should be replaced for a hike and picnic. Kids who do participate in sport, especially at a high competitive level, can find the pressure to succeed very stressful. To decrease the ailments caused by occupational postures, one should avoid long sitting hours and should take frequent breaks for stretching or for other works involving physical movements. PMID:20442827

  6. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  7. Emerging viral diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, J. S.; Chua, K. B.; Daniels, P. W.; Eaton, B. T.; Field, H. E.; Hall, R. A.; Halpin, K.; Johansen, C. A.; Kirkland, P. D.; Lam, S. K.; McMinn, P.; Nisbet, D. J.; Paru, R.; Pyke, A. T.; Ritchie, S. A.; Siba, P.; Smith, D. W.; Smith, G. A.; van den Hurk, A. F.; Wang, L. F.; Williams, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. The first of these disease agents to emerge was Hendra virus, formerly called equine morbillivirus. This was followed by outbreaks caused by a rabies-related virus, Australian bat lyssavirus, and a virus associated with porcine stillbirths and malformations, Menangle virus. Nipah virus caused an outbreak of fatal pneumonia in pigs and encephalitis in humans in the Malay Peninsula. Most recently, Tioman virus has been isolated from flying foxes, but it has not yet been associated with animal or human disease. Of nonzoonotic viruses, the most important regionally have been enterovirus 71 and HIV. PMID:11485641

  8. Detecting Emerging Diseases in Farm Animals through Clinical Observations

    PubMed Central

    Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Bridges, Victoria E.; Gibbens, Jane; De Groot, Brad D.; McIntyre, Lachlan; Poland, Roger; Barnouin, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Predicting emerging diseases is among the most difficult challenges facing researchers and health managers. We present available approaches and tools to detect emerging diseases in animals based on clinical observations of farm animals by veterinarians. Three information systems are described and discussed: Veterinary Practitioner Aided Disease Surveillance in New Zealand, the Rapid Syndrome Validation Project—Animal in the United States, and "émergences" in France. These systems are based on syndromic surveillance with the notification of every case or of specific clinical syndromes or on the notification of atypical clinical cases. Data are entered by field veterinarians into forms available through Internet-accessible devices. Beyond challenges of implementing new information systems, minimizing economic and health effects from emerging diseases in animals requires strong synergies across a group of field partners, in research, and in international animal and public health customs and practices. PMID:16494743

  9. Understanding complexity in neurodegenerative diseases: in silico reconstruction of emergence

    PubMed Central

    Kolodkin, Alexey; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Balling, Rudi; Westerhoff, Hans V.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy functioning is an emergent property of the network of interacting biomolecules that comprise an organism. It follows that disease (a network shift that causes malfunction) is also an emergent property, emerging from a perturbation of the network. On the one hand, the biomolecular network of every individual is unique and this is evident when similar disease-producing agents cause different individual pathologies. Consequently, a personalized model and approach for every patient may be required for therapies to become effective across mankind. On the other hand, diverse combinations of internal and external perturbation factors may cause a similar shift in network functioning. We offer this as an explanation for the multi-factorial nature of most diseases: they are “systems biology diseases,” or “network diseases.” Here we use neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson's disease (PD), as an example to show that due to the inherent complexity of these networks, it is difficult to understand multi-factorial diseases with simply our “naked brain.” When describing interactions between biomolecules through mathematical equations and integrating those equations into a mathematical model, we try to reconstruct the emergent properties of the system in silico. The reconstruction of emergence from interactions between huge numbers of macromolecules is one of the aims of systems biology. Systems biology approaches enable us to break through the limitation of the human brain to perceive the extraordinarily large number of interactions, but this also means that we delegate the understanding of reality to the computer. We no longer recognize all those essences in the system's design crucial for important physiological behavior (the so-called “design principles” of the system). In this paper we review evidence that by using more abstract approaches and by experimenting in silico, one may still be able to discover and understand the design principles that govern behavioral emergence. PMID:22934043

  10. Risk of parasite transmission influences perceived vulnerability to disease and perceived danger of disease-relevant animals.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Fancovicová, Jana

    2010-09-01

    Adaptationist view proposes that emotions were shaped by natural selection and their primary function is to protect humans against predators and/or disease threat. This study examined cross-cultural and inter-personal differences in behavioural immune system measured by disgust, fear and perceived danger in participants from high (Turkey) and low (Slovakia) pathogen prevalence areas. We found that behavioural immune system in Turkish participants was activated more than those of Slovakian participants when exposed to photographs depicting disease-relevant cues, but not when exposed to disease-irrelevant cues. However, participants from Slovakia, where human to human disease transmission is expected to be more prevalent than in Turkey, showed lower aversion in Germ Aversion subscale supporting hypersensitiveness of the behavioural immune system. Having animals at home was less frequent both in Turkey and in participants who perceived higher danger about disease relevant animals. Participants more vulnerable to diseases reported higher incidence of illness last year and considered perceived disease-relevant animals more dangerous than others. Females showed greater fear, disgust and danger about disease-relevant animals than males. Our results further support the finding that cultural and inter-personal differences in human personality are influenced by parasite threat. PMID:20558257

  11. [Socioeconomic impacts of an emerging disease].

    PubMed

    Grisotti, Márcia; de Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias

    2011-02-01

    In 1955 a population explosion of the slug Sarasinula linguaeformis (Semper, 1885) damaged crop plantations in the municipalities of Nova Itaberaba and Planalto Alegre, western of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In this article we analyze the socioeconomic impacts caused by the emergence of this plague, which raised the suspicion, eventually confirmed, of the occurrence of human cases of abdominal angyostrongiliasis. The data were collected through the observation of a serological study during the period of August 2000 to August 2001 by a research team from the Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) together with field technicians from the Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina S.A. (Epagri-SC), and with the members of 50 local families. In order to analyze these impacts, we elaborated several analytical categories as economic losses; preventive measures, habit change and social prejudice, that emerged from the narratives of the residents interviewed. It became evident the need for sociological analyses of epidemiological problems, in addition to strictly medico-sanitary considerations. PMID:21340340

  12. Focus Issue Articles on Emerging and Re-Emerging Plant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Krishna V; Sundin, George W; Klosterman, Steven J

    2015-07-01

    The history of plant pathology is closely tied to plant diseases that have changed the course of human history. The Irish potato famine, caused by late blight of potato, resulted in the starvation and death of millions of people and one of the most influential human migrations in history. Other plant diseases have impacted quality of life in myriad ways. The advent of fungicides, clean seeds, host resistance, and the development of a plethora of other techniques, has diminished the impact of plant diseases. However, impressive advances in modes of rapid transport have not only increased global trade and human migration, but also augmented the risk for anthropogenic invasions of plant pathogens. As a consequence, and possibly aggravated by climate change, many historical and contemporary diseases are emerging as threats to modern agriculture and food security. These emerging diseases are not only important in global crop production, but also pose severe risks on a local level, especially on small farms in developing countries. This Focus Issue of Phytopathology contains a collection of peer-reviewed research articles, invited reviews and perspective articles on an assortment of emerging and re-emerging diseases caused by bacterial (3 papers), fungal (6 papers), oomycete (5 papers), and viral plant pathogens (3 papers). These diseases cover a range of crops including annual field crops and perennial tree crops, and vegetables, across five continents. PMID:26204138

  13. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases – Incidence through Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Savi?, Sara; Vidi?, Branka; Grgi?, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector-borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and population of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector-borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, and leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fundamental role at primarily prevention and then treatment of vector-borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases. During a 4-year period, from 2009 to 2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analyzed for vector-borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis) in routine laboratory work. The analysis was done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis, and blood smear for babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on average more then half of the samples brought to the laboratory to analysis for different infectious diseases are analyzed for vector-borne diseases. In the region of Vojvodina (northern part of Serbia), the following vector-borne infectious diseases have been found in dogs so far borreliosis, babesiosis, dirofilariosis, leishmaniasis, and anaplasmosis. PMID:25520951

  14. Hypoparathyroidism - disease update and emerging treatments.

    PubMed

    Monis, Elizabeth L; Mannstadt, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the primary regulator of blood calcium levels and bone metabolism. Insufficient levels of PTH lead to hypoparathyroidism, characterized by low serum calcium and elevated serum phosphate levels. It is most commonly caused by the inadvertent damage to the parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery. Patients with hypoparathyroidism are currently being treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D, and to avoid worsening hypercalciuria, target serum calcium levels are within the lower end of normal. With current treatment, patients may suffer from large swings in serum calcium and are at a substantial risk of chronic renal failure, nephrocalcinosis, and kidney stones. The recent FDA approval of recombinant human (rh) PTH(1-84) for the treatment of hypoparathyroidism adds PTH replacement therapy to the endocrinologist's armamentarium to treat this chronic disease. PMID:25882889

  15. The Interplay of Host Microbiota and Parasitic Protozoans at Mucosal Interfaces: Implications for the Outcomes of Infections and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Jully; Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Infections by parasitic protozoans are largely neglected, despite threatening millions of people, particularly in developing countries. With descriptions of the microbiota in humans, a new frontier of investigation is developing to decipher the complexity of host–parasite–microbiota relationships, instead of the classic reductionist approach, which considers host–parasite in isolation. Here, we review with specific examples the potential roles that the resident microbiota can play at mucosal interfaces in the transmission of parasitic protozoans and in the progress of infection and disease. Although the mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood, some examples provide compelling evidence that specific components of the microbiota can potentially alter the outcomes of parasitic infections and diseases in humans. Most findings suggest a protective role of the microbiota, which might lead to exploratory research comprising microbiota-based interventions to prevent and treat protozoal infections in the future. However, these infections are often accompanied by an unbalanced microbiota and, in some specific cases, apparently, these bacteria may contribute synergistically to disease progression. Taken together, these findings provide a different perspective on the ecological nature of protozoal infections. This review focuses attention on the importance of considering polymicrobial associations, i.e., parasitic protozoans and the host microbiota, for understanding these human infections in their natural microbial context. PMID:26658061

  16. The Interplay of Host Microbiota and Parasitic Protozoans at Mucosal Interfaces: Implications for the Outcomes of Infections and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bär, Ann-Katrein; Phukan, Niha; Pinheiro, Jully; Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Infections by parasitic protozoans are largely neglected, despite threatening millions of people, particularly in developing countries. With descriptions of the microbiota in humans, a new frontier of investigation is developing to decipher the complexity of host-parasite-microbiota relationships, instead of the classic reductionist approach, which considers host-parasite in isolation. Here, we review with specific examples the potential roles that the resident microbiota can play at mucosal interfaces in the transmission of parasitic protozoans and in the progress of infection and disease. Although the mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood, some examples provide compelling evidence that specific components of the microbiota can potentially alter the outcomes of parasitic infections and diseases in humans. Most findings suggest a protective role of the microbiota, which might lead to exploratory research comprising microbiota-based interventions to prevent and treat protozoal infections in the future. However, these infections are often accompanied by an unbalanced microbiota and, in some specific cases, apparently, these bacteria may contribute synergistically to disease progression. Taken together, these findings provide a different perspective on the ecological nature of protozoal infections. This review focuses attention on the importance of considering polymicrobial associations, i.e., parasitic protozoans and the host microbiota, for understanding these human infections in their natural microbial context. PMID:26658061

  17. Disease ecology across soil boundaries: effects of below-ground fungi on above-ground host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Tao, Leiling; Gowler, Camden D; Ahmad, Aamina; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2015-10-22

    Host-parasite interactions are subject to strong trait-mediated indirect effects from other species. However, it remains unexplored whether such indirect effects may occur across soil boundaries and connect spatially isolated organisms. Here, we demonstrate that, by changing plant (milkweed Asclepias sp.) traits, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) significantly affect interactions between a herbivore (the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus) and its protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha), which represents an interaction across four biological kingdoms. In our experiment, AMF affected parasite virulence, host resistance and host tolerance to the parasite. These effects were dependent on both the density of AMF and the identity of milkweed species: AMF indirectly increased disease in monarchs reared on some species, while alleviating disease in monarchs reared on other species. The species-specificity was driven largely by the effects of AMF on both plant primary (phosphorus) and secondary (cardenolides; toxins in milkweeds) traits. Our study demonstrates that trait-mediated indirect effects in disease ecology are extensive, such that below-ground interactions between AMF and plant roots can alter host-parasite interactions above ground. In general, soil biota may play an underappreciated role in the ecology of many terrestrial host-parasite systems. PMID:26468247

  18. Current and Emerging Therapy for Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Makharia, Govind K.

    2014-01-01

    At present, strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Even small amounts of gluten (50?mg/day) can be immunogenic; therefore all food and food items and drugs that contain gluten and its derivatives must be eliminated completely from the diet. While prescribing gluten-free diet is easy; the key to the success is the dietary counseling by a nutrition specialist and maintenance of adherence to GFD by the patient. In recent times, a number of targets to halt the process of immunological injury have been explored to find out alternative treatment for celiac disease. These targets include exploration of ancient wheat if they are less immunogenic, intra-luminal digestion of gluten using prolylendopeptidases, pretreatment of whole gluten with bacterial-derived peptidase before ingestion; prevention of passage of immunogenic peptides through the tight junctions such as zonulin antagonists, Blocking of HLA-DQ2 to prevent binding of immunogenic peptides, inhibition of transglutaminase 2, immune-modulation, and induction of tolerance to gluten using gluten tolerizing vaccines, use of gluten-sequestering polymers, use of anti-inflammatory drugs (glucocorticoids, budesonides) and anti-cytokines such as anti TNF-?, and anti-interleukin-15. While many of these targets are still in the pre-clinical phase, some of them including zonulin antagonist and endopeptidases have already reached phase II and phase III clinical trials. Furthermore, while these targets appear very exciting; they at best are likely to be used as adjunctive therapy rather than a complete replacement for gluten-free diet. PMID:25705619

  19. Deer, predators, and the emergence of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Mangel, Marc; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2012-07-01

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America, and both the annual incidence and geographic range are increasing. The emergence of Lyme disease has been attributed to a century-long recovery of deer, an important reproductive host for adult ticks. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease risk may now be more dynamically linked to fluctuations in the abundance of small-mammal hosts that are thought to infect the majority of ticks. The continuing and rapid increase in Lyme disease over the past two decades, long after the recolonization of deer, suggests that other factors, including changes in the ecology of small-mammal hosts may be responsible for the continuing emergence of Lyme disease. We present a theoretical model that illustrates how reductions in small-mammal predators can sharply increase Lyme disease risk. We then show that increases in Lyme disease in the northeastern and midwestern United States over the past three decades are frequently uncorrelated with deer abundance and instead coincide with a range-wide decline of a key small-mammal predator, the red fox, likely due to expansion of coyote populations. Further, across four states we find poor spatial correlation between deer abundance and Lyme disease incidence, but coyote abundance and fox rarity effectively predict the spatial distribution of Lyme disease in New York. These results suggest that changes in predator communities may have cascading impacts that facilitate the emergence of zoonotic diseases, the vast majority of which rely on hosts that occupy low trophic levels. PMID:22711825

  20. Emergence of ratio-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses for pollination mutualism and seed parasitism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Holland, J. Nathaniel

    2006-01-01

    Prey (N) dependence [g(N)], predator (P) dependence [g(P) or g(N,P)], and ratio dependence [f(P/N)] are often seen as contrasting forms of the predator's functional response describing predator consumption rates on prey resources in predator–prey and parasitoid–host interactions. Analogously, prey-, predator-, and ratio-dependent functional responses are apparently alternative functional responses for other types of consumer–resource interactions. These include, for example, the fraction of flowers pollinated or seeds parasitized in pollination (pre-dispersal) seed-parasitism mutualisms, such as those between fig wasps and fig trees or yucca moths and yucca plants. Here we examine the appropriate functional responses for how the fraction of flowers pollinated and seeds parasitized vary with the density of pollinators (predator dependence) or the ratio of pollinator and flower densities (ratio dependence). We show that both types of functional responses can emerge from minor, but biologically important variations on a single model. An individual-based model was first used to describe plant–pollinator interactions. Conditional upon on whether the number of flowers visited by the pollinator was limited by factors other than search time (e.g., by the number of eggs it had to lay, if it was also a seed parasite), and on whether the pollinator could directly find flowers on a plant, or had to search, the simulation results lead to either a predator-dependent or a ratio-dependent functional response. An analytic model was then used to show mathematically how these two cases can arise.

  1. Parasitic colitis.

    PubMed

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; McQuade, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  2. Population viscosity suppresses disease emergence by preserving local herd immunity

    PubMed Central

    Reluga, Timothy C.; Shim, Eunha

    2014-01-01

    Animal reservoirs for infectious diseases pose ongoing risks to human populations. In this theory of zoonoses, the introduction event that starts an epidemic is assumed to be independent of all preceding events. However, introductions are often concentrated in communities that bridge the ecological interfaces between reservoirs and the general population. In this paper, we explore how the risks of disease emergence are altered by the aggregation of introduction events within bridge communities. In viscous bridge communities, repeated introductions can elevate the local prevalence of immunity. This local herd immunity can form a barrier reducing the opportunities for disease emergence. In some situations, reducing exposure rates counterintuitively increases the emergence hazards because of off-setting reductions in local immunity. Increases in population mixing can also increase emergence hazards, even when average contact rates are conserved. Our theory of bridge communities may help guide prevention and explain historical emergence events, where disruption of stable economic, political or demographic processes reduced population viscosity at ecological interfaces. PMID:25339728

  3. Reservoir Interactions and Disease Emergence , D. B. Walton3

    E-print Network

    Reluga, Tim

    Reservoir Interactions and Disease Emergence T. Reluga1 , R. Meza2 , D. B. Walton3 , A. P. Galvani1 Madison University12 Harrisonburg, Virginia 22807 1 #12;Abstract14 Animal populations act as reservoirs reproduction number R0 > 1. Following a16 founding transmission event from an animal reservoir to humans

  4. Introduction The number of catalogued emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), and

    E-print Network

    Sehgal, Ravinder

    ). Perhaps even more immediate than these other factors are the implications of large- scale deforestation on disease emergence. The global rate of tropical deforestation appears to be increasing readily; between of deforestation in parts of Africa are near 1% per year (FAO, 2009). Deforestation is also increasing in temperate

  5. INTEGRATED APPROACHES AND EMPIRICAL MODELS FOR INVESTIGATION OF PARASITIC DISEASE IN NOTHERN WILDLIFE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North serves as a natural laboratory to explore emerging infectious diseases (EID) and large scale drivers influencing distribution, host associations and evolution of pathogens among people, domestic animals and wildlife. We outline approaches, protocols and empirical models derived from a dec...

  6. Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kongning; Wu, Deng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Miao, Zhengqiang; Jin, Nana; Bi, Xiaoman; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases. PMID:24949464

  7. Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Townsend, Alan R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Howarth, Robert W.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Rejmankova, Eliska; Ward, Mary H.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide increases in the numbers of human and wildlife diseases present ecologists with the challenge of understanding how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earth’s ecosystems is the alteration of global nutrient cycles, including those of phosphorus (P) and especially nitrogen (N). Alongside the obvious direct benefits of nutrient application for food production, growing evidence suggests that anthropogenic inputs of N and P can indirectly affect the abundance of infectious and noninfectious pathogens, sometimes leading to epidemic conditions. However, the mechanisms underpinning observed correlations, and how such patterns vary with disease type, have long remained conjectural. Here, we discuss recent experimental advances in this area to critically evaluate the relationship between environmental nutrient enrichment and disease. Given the inter-related nature of human and wildlife disease emergence, we include a broad range of human and wildlife examples from terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems. We examine the consequences of nutrient pollution on directly transmitted, vector-borne, complex life cycle, and noninfectious pathogens, including West Nile virus, malaria, harmful algal blooms, coral reef diseases and amphibian malformations. Our synthetic examination suggests that the effects of environmental nutrient enrichment on disease are complex and multifaceted, varying with the type of pathogen, host species and condition, attributes of the ecosystem and the degree of enrichment; some pathogens increase in abundance whereas others decline or disappear. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that ecological changes associated with nutrient enrichment often exacerbate infection and disease caused by generalist parasites with direct or simple life cycles. Observed mechanisms include changes in host/vector density, host distribution, infection resistance, pathogen virulence or toxicity, or the direct supplementation of pathogens. Collectively, these pathogens may be particularly dangerous because they can continue to cause mortality even as their hosts decline, potentially leading to sustained epidemics or chronic pathology. We suggest that interactions between nutrient enrichment and disease will become increasingly important in tropical and subtropical regions, where forecasted increases in nutrient application will occur in an environment rich with infectious pathogens. We emphasize the importance of careful disease management in conjunction with continued intensification of global nutrient cycles. PMID:20349828

  8. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: an emergency department presentation of a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Prince, Louise A; Mann, Deborah; Reilly, Tracey

    2006-07-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is one of a group of neurodegenerative disorders causing spongiform encephalopathies. CJD is the most common human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, or prion disease, but has an annual incidence of only 0.4-1.8 cases per million population worldwide. The prognosis for this disease is very poor and there is currently no cure. Patients typically present with non-specific neurological or psychiatric complaints and often have multiple physician visits before diagnosis, which requires histological examination of brain tissue. This patient had serial presentations to our Emergency Department, with progressive symptoms and multiple laboratory and radiological tests as well as consults, but her diagnosis remained unclear until her disease rapidly progressed and a brain biopsy was performed. With increasing concerns about prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-or mad cow disease-and CJD, awareness of the symptoms and diagnostic challenges associated with these diseases will be helpful to emergency physicians. PMID:16798153

  9. Emerging viral diseases in dromedary camels in the Southern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Touil, N; Cherkaoui, Z; Lmrabih, Z; Loutfi, C; Harif, B; El Harrak, M

    2012-04-01

    During the last fifteen years, new viral diseases such Bluetongue (BT), West Nile (WN), African horse sickness (AHS), Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) have extended their geographic distribution and emerged in North Africa and in Europe. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is considered as a potential vector in the transmission of some of these diseases while it is host-specific for Camelpox (CP). A serological survey was conducted on 1392 sera to estimate changes of these diseases prevalence in camels over two different time spans (2003 and 2009) and across different sites of South Morocco. Results indicate clearly that BT was circulating in camels before the first notified outbreak in Morocco (2004) with 42% positive sera in Guelmim in 2003. BT and WN prevalence's increased over time from 11 to 25% and from 10 to 13% respectively. Higher prevalence of both diseases was found in camels living in oases indicating an increased intensity of viral circulation in these sites. Camels have been tested negative for AHS, EHD and PPR viruses while higher CP prevalence has been detected in camels living in Smara, the most closed site to eastern borders (i.e. Mauritania). The seroprevalence of CP in camels at interval of 7 years increases from 23% to 37%. This survey could provide information on the possible use of camel as a sentinel animal for surveillance of emerging diseases such BT and WN. PMID:22222004

  10. Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J; De Leo, Giulio; Dobson, Andrew P; Dunne, Jennifer A; Johnson, Pieter T J; Kuris, Armand M; Marcogliese, David J; Martinez, Neo D; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A; McLaughlin, John P; Mordecai, Erin A; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W

    2008-06-01

    Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists. PMID:18462196

  11. Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J; De Leo, Giulio; Dobson, Andrew P; Dunne, Jennifer A; Johnson, Pieter T J; Kuris, Armand M; Marcogliese, David J; Martinez, Neo D; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A; McLaughlin, John P; Mordecai, Erin A; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W

    2008-01-01

    Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists. PMID:18462196

  12. Chikungunya fever. Rheumatic manifestations of an emerging disease in Europe.

    PubMed

    Horcada, M Loreto; Díaz-Calderón, Carlos; Garrido, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease caused by an alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, transmitted by several species of Aedes mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus). It is endemic in Africa and Asia with recurrent outbreaks. It is an emerging disease and cases in Europe transmitted by A. albopictus have been established in Mediterranean areas. The first autochthonous cases detected on the Caribbean islands suppose a serious threat of spreading disease to America, which so far has been disease free. Clinical symptoms begin abruptly with fever, skin rash and polyarthritis. Although mortality is low, a high percentage of patients develop a chronic phase defined by persistent arthritis for months or even years. A severe immune response is responsible for joint inflammation. The absence of specific treatment and lack of vaccine requires detailed studies about its immunopathogenesis in order to determine the most appropriate target. PMID:25192946

  13. Emerging role of long noncoding RNAs in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Cui; Pan, Hai-Feng; Leng, Rui-Xue; Wang, De-Guang; Li, Xiang-Pei; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), with size larger than 200 nucleotides, is a new class of noncoding RNA. Emerging evidence has revealed that lncRNAs play a key role in the regulation of immunological functions and autoimmunity. Herein, we review the recent findings of lncRNA regulation in immune functions and in the development of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease. In addition, we focus on the involvement of lncRNA regulation in innate and adaptive immune responses, immune cell development, and differential expression of lncRNAs in autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), multiple sclerosis (MS), autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), psoriasis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) and Crohn's disease (CD). PMID:25989481

  14. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI, IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994-Dec. 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, that set on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia, in Augus...

  15. Re: Treatment of Parasitic Skin Diseases with Dimeticones A New Family of Compounds with a Purely Physical Mode of Action.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian F

    2015-06-01

    The article on use of dimeticone for treatment of epidermal parasitic skin diseases is potentially confusing and misleading because, in a practical sense, only head louse infestation can be treated with this material. Scabies mites are unaffected by silicones and use of dimeticone against other ectoparasites may have unwanted side effects such as anaphylactiform reactions or increased risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26060419

  16. Parasitic Diseases as the Cause of Death of Prisoners of War during the Korean War (1950-1953)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea. PMID:25031479

  17. Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; de Bruijn, Irene; Jack, Allison L H; Drynan, Keith; van den Berg, Albert H; Thoen, Even; Sandoval-Sierra, Vladimir; Skaar, Ida; van West, Pieter; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; van der Voort, Menno; Mendes, Rodrigo; Mazzola, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2014-10-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases. PMID:24671087

  18. Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiying; de Bruijn, Irene; Jack, Allison LH; Drynan, Keith; van den Berg, Albert H; Thoen, Even; Sandoval-Sierra, Vladimir; Skaar, Ida; van West, Pieter; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; van der Voort, Menno; Mendes, Rodrigo; Mazzola, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2014-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases. PMID:24671087

  19. Tourism and Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in the Americas: What Physicians Must Remember for Patient Diagnosis and Care.

    PubMed

    Schmunis; Corber

    1999-04-01

    Emerging diseases are those which have shown an increased in humans over the last 20 years. Re-emerging diseases are those which have reappeared after a period of significant decrease in incidence. The etiological agents of these diseases in the Western Hemisphere are viruses (HIV, dengue, oroupuche, sabia, guanarito, or hanta), bacteria (Vibrio cholera, Borrellia burgdorferi, Legionella pneumofila, Eseherichia coli 0157:H7, or other bacteria with a new pattern of antibiotic resistance), or parasites (Cryptosporidia, Cyclosporidia or drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum). Due to the widespread geographical distribution of these infectious diseases in the Americas, and an increasing number of travellers (more than 87 million persons within the region in 1997), there are many opportunities to contract an infection when travelling in developed or undeveloped countries. The infection may present with symptoms during the trip, or following the traveler s return to his or her place of origin. However, too often practicing physicians do not inquire about the travel history of their patients and, when they do, they often lack the information about diseases relevant to travelers. From the regional perspective, the emerging or reemerging agents that pose a higher risk to tourists or travelers are: 1) those that cause enteric infections; 2) sexually transmitted diseases; and 3) vector-borne diseases, including those present in ecotourism areas. Emerging and re-emerging diseases that physicians may encounter in their clinical practice while caring for travelers returning from different countries of the Western Hemisphere are briefly described (Lyme disease, legionellosis, dengue, yellow fever, P. falciparum malaria, cyclosporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis). This report attempts to draw attention to the fact that new clinical and etiological entities are present in several geographical areas of the Americas; to place each of these entities into an epidemiological context; and to end the misconception that only travel to poor countries carries a risk of acquiring an infection. By knowing which infectious agents occur in each area and the incubation period of each disease, the treating physician can often treat patients successfully. Health care professionals must be aware of the organisms circulating in the region so that they have them in mind during their clinical practice. PMID:11098191

  20. Emerging diseases of Africa and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Rweyemamu, M; Paskin, R; Benkirane, A; Martin, V; Roeder, P; Wojciechowski, K

    2000-01-01

    The term "emerging diseases" has been used recently to refer to different scenarios, all of which indicate changes in the dynamics of disease in the population. Of the OIE List A diseases, major changes have been experienced with rinderpest, peste des petit ruminants (PPR), contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, lumpy skin disease, and Rift Valley fever. Rinderpest represents a success story of the 1990s, thanks to the programs of the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC). The situation has changed from that of the 1980s when rinderpest was widespread throughout most of Tropical Africa and the Middle East. PPR is a disease that has become of increasing importance throughout Tropical Africa and the Middle East. CBPP, which had previously been reduced to sporadic incidence within endemic areas, invaded new areas, causing heavy mortality. African swine fever has extended to West Africa and to Madagascar, in both regions resulting in heavy losses. Climatic changes in both East and West Africa were associated with an upsurge of Rift Valley fever. Deficiencies in national veterinary services have contributed to failures in early detection and response; in many regions investigation and diagnosis services have deteriorated. The continuing structural adjustment program for national veterinary services will need to take into account their transformation from providers of services (e.g., vaccinations, medicines) to inspection and quality assurance services. Surveillance, early warning, and disease emergency preparedness will need to be pursued more vigorously in Africa and the Middle East as vital components of national veterinary services. PMID:11193683

  1. Hsp90 inhibitors as new leads to target parasitic diarrheal diseases.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Anjan; Shahinas, Dea; Bryant, Clifford; Hirata, Ken; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Hwang, Grace; Gut, Jiri; Renslo, Adam R; Pillai, Dylan R; Eckmann, Lars; Reed, Sharon L; McKerrow, James H

    2014-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are anaerobic protozoan parasites that cause amebiasis and giardiasis, two of the most common diarrheal diseases worldwide. Current therapy relies on metronidazole, but resistance has been reported and the drug has significant adverse effects. Therefore, it is critical to search for effective, better-tolerated antiamebic and antigiardial drugs. We synthesized several examples of a recently reported class of Hsp90 inhibitors and evaluated these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Several of these inhibitors showed strong in vitro activity against both E. histolytica and G. lamblia trophozoites. The inhibitors were rescreened to discriminate between amebicidal and giardicidal activity and general cytotoxicity toward a mammalian cell line. No mammalian cytotoxicity was found at >100 ?M for 48 h for any of the inhibitors. To understand the mechanism of action, a competitive binding assay was performed using the fluorescent ATP analogue bis-ANS (4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid dipotassium salt) and recombinant E. histolytica Hsp90 preincubated in both the presence and absence of Hsp90 inhibitors. There was significant reduction in fluorescence compared to the level in the control, suggesting that E. histolytica Hsp90 is a selective target. The in vivo efficacy and safety of one Hsp90 inhibitor in a mouse model of amebic colitis and giardiasis was demonstrated by significant inhibition of parasite growth at a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 days and 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Considering the results for in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy, Hsp90 inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option for amebiasis and giardiasis. PMID:24820073

  2. Hsp90 Inhibitors as New Leads To Target Parasitic Diarrheal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shahinas, Dea; Bryant, Clifford; Hirata, Ken; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Hwang, Grace; Gut, Jiri; Renslo, Adam R.; Pillai, Dylan R.; Eckmann, Lars; Reed, Sharon L.; McKerrow, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are anaerobic protozoan parasites that cause amebiasis and giardiasis, two of the most common diarrheal diseases worldwide. Current therapy relies on metronidazole, but resistance has been reported and the drug has significant adverse effects. Therefore, it is critical to search for effective, better-tolerated antiamebic and antigiardial drugs. We synthesized several examples of a recently reported class of Hsp90 inhibitors and evaluated these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Several of these inhibitors showed strong in vitro activity against both E. histolytica and G. lamblia trophozoites. The inhibitors were rescreened to discriminate between amebicidal and giardicidal activity and general cytotoxicity toward a mammalian cell line. No mammalian cytotoxicity was found at >100 ?M for 48 h for any of the inhibitors. To understand the mechanism of action, a competitive binding assay was performed using the fluorescent ATP analogue bis-ANS (4,4?-dianilino-1,1?-binaphthyl-5,5?-disulfonic acid dipotassium salt) and recombinant E. histolytica Hsp90 preincubated in both the presence and absence of Hsp90 inhibitors. There was significant reduction in fluorescence compared to the level in the control, suggesting that E. histolytica Hsp90 is a selective target. The in vivo efficacy and safety of one Hsp90 inhibitor in a mouse model of amebic colitis and giardiasis was demonstrated by significant inhibition of parasite growth at a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 days and 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Considering the results for in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy, Hsp90 inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option for amebiasis and giardiasis. PMID:24820073

  3. Since parasitoids can be reared from their hosts and leave evidence of para-sitism after they emerge from hosts, some general outlines of their foraging

    E-print Network

    Giron, David - Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, Université François Rabelais

    primarily on the implications of these behaviors for density-dependent parasitism and optimal foraging. 3 they emerge from hosts, some general outlines of their foraging behavior can be inferred from field studies critical aspects of patch use, host finding, and host use. Studies of parasitoid foraging in the field

  4. Rice Sheath Rot: An Emerging Ubiquitous Destructive Disease Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bigirimana, Vincent de P.; Hua, Gia K. H.; Nyamangyoku, Obedi I.; Höfte, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Around one century ago, a rice disease characterized mainly by rotting of sheaths was reported in Taiwan. The causal agent was identified as Acrocylindrium oryzae, later known as Sarocladium oryzae. Since then it has become clear that various other organisms can cause similar disease symptoms, including Fusarium sp. and fluorescent pseudomonads. These organisms have in common that they produce a range of phytotoxins that induce necrosis in plants. The same agents also cause grain discoloration, chaffiness, and sterility and are all seed-transmitted. Rice sheath rot disease symptoms are found in all rice-growing areas of the world. The disease is now getting momentum and is considered as an important emerging rice production threat. The disease can lead to variable yield losses, which can be as high as 85%. This review aims at improving our understanding of the disease etiology of rice sheath rot and mainly deals with the three most reported rice sheath rot pathogens: S. oryzae, the Fusarium fujikuroi complex, and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae. Causal agents, pathogenicity determinants, interactions among the various pathogens, epidemiology, geographical distribution, and control options will be discussed. PMID:26697031

  5. Evolutionary Aspects of Emerging Lyme Disease in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ogden, N H; Feil, E J; Leighton, P A; Lindsay, L R; Margos, G; Mechai, S; Michel, P; Moriarty, T J

    2015-11-01

    In North America, Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne zoonosis caused by the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, which is maintained by wildlife. Tick vectors and bacteria are currently spreading into Canada and causing increasing numbers of cases of LD in humans and raising a pressing need for public health responses. There is no vaccine, and LD prevention depends on knowing who is at risk and informing them how to protect themselves from infection. Recently, it was found in the United States that some strains of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto cause severe disease, whereas others cause mild, self-limiting disease. While many strains occurring in the United States also occur in Canada, strains in some parts of Canada are different from those in the United States. We therefore recognize a need to identify which strains specific to Canada can cause severe disease and to characterize their geographic distribution to determine which Canadians are particularly at risk. In this review, we summarize the history of emergence of LD in North America, our current knowledge of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto diversity, its intriguing origins in the ecology and evolution of the bacterium, and its importance for the epidemiology and clinical and laboratory diagnosis of LD. We propose methods for investigating associations between B. burgdorferi sensu stricto diversity, ecology, and pathogenicity and for developing predictive tools to guide public health interventions. We also highlight the emergence of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto in Canada as a unique opportunity for exploring the evolutionary aspects of tick-borne pathogen emergence. PMID:26296723

  6. Comparison between Two Decades of Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Diseases and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Urban Centre

    PubMed Central

    Alves de Oliveira Serra, Maria Aparecida; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Branco Coêlho, Zirlane Castelo; de Castro Rodrigues, Naya Lúcia; Martins Vale, Josias; Teixeira, Maria Jânia; de Oliveira, Francisco Josemar Alves; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Coelho, Ivo Castelo Branco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study's objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992–1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated. It was observed that, in the period 1992–1996, playing out in the streets was associated with a higher risk for acquiring intestinal parasites. Over the 2010-2011 period, the characteristics of more than five residents per household, houses with dirt floors, children who live in homes without piped water, and children who play out in the streets were associated with a higher risk of intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion. The study showed a reduction of intestinal parasitic diseases to 23.8% in 2010-2011 from 81.3% in 1992–1996 and improvement of the social-sanitary conditions of the population between the decades analyzed. PMID:26692338

  7. Lurking in the Shadows: Emerging Rodent Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Besselsen, David G.; Franklin, Craig L.; Livingston, Robert S.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent parvoviruses, Helicobacter spp., murine norovirus, and several other previously unknown infectious agents have “emerged” in laboratory rodents relatively recently. These agents have been discovered serendipitously or through active investigation of atypical serology results, cell culture contamination, unexpected histopathology, or previously unrecognized clinical disease syndromes. The potential research impact of these agents is not fully known. Infected rodents have demonstrated immunomodulation, tumor suppression, clinical disease (particularly in immunodeficient rodents), and histopathology. Perturbations of organismal and cellular physiology also likely occur. These agents posed unique challenges to laboratory animal resource programs once discovered; it was necessary to develop specific diagnostic assays and an understanding of their epidemiology and transmission routes before attempting eradication, and then evaluate eradication methods for efficacy. Even then management approaches varied significantly, from apathy to total exclusion, and such inconsistency has hindered the sharing and transfer of rodents among institutions, particularly for genetically modified rodent models that may not be readily available. As additional infectious agents are discovered in laboratory rodents in coming years, much of what researchers have learned from experiences with the recently identified pathogens will be applicable. This article provides an overview of the discovery, detection, and research impact of infectious agents recently identified in laboratory rodents. We also discuss emerging syndromes for which there is a suspected infectious etiology, and the unique challenges of managing newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:18506061

  8. Dirofilaria immitis: an emerging parasite in dogs, red foxes and golden jackals in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sproch, Á; Szeredi, L; Sréter, T

    2014-07-14

    Hungary was not considered to be a heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) endemic country until 2007, when the first autochthonous canine infection was described. Herein we report additional autochthonous heartworm infections in two dogs (Canis familiaris), twenty red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (n=534; prevalence: 3.7%; 95% CI=2.4-5.7%) and two golden jackals (Canis aureus) (n=27; prevalence: 7.4%; 95% CI=2.1-23.4%) coming from eight counties. The identification of the parasite was based on morphology, morphometrics and amplification of 12S rDNA followed by sequencing in all cases. Our results indicate that Hungary became a D. immitis endemic country in the past decade. The prevalence and intensity of heartworm infection in wild canids is similar to or lower than that observed in the Mediterranean countries of Europe (3.7-7.4% vs. 0.4-12.7% and 1.5 vs. 2.9-4.4 worms/animal). These findings are in line with the results of the recently developed climate based forecast model to predict the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary. PMID:24810374

  9. Cracking the nodule worm code advances knowledge of parasite biology and biotechnology to tackle major diseases of livestock.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Rosa, Bruce A; Martin, John C; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-11-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens have a devastating, long-term impact on animal health and welfare. Hundreds of millions of animals are affected by parasitic nematodes of the order Strongylida. Unlocking the molecular biology of representatives of this order, and understanding nematode-host interactions, drug resistance and disease using advanced technologies could lead to entirely new ways of controlling the diseases that they cause. Oesophagostomum dentatum (nodule worm; superfamily Strongyloidea) is an economically important strongylid nematode parasite of swine worldwide. The present article reports recent advances made in biology and animal biotechnology through the draft genome and developmental transcriptome of O. dentatum, in order to support biological research of this and related parasitic nematodes as well as the search for new and improved interventions. This first genome of any member of the Strongyloidea is 443 Mb in size and predicted to encode 25,291 protein-coding genes. Here, we review the dynamics of transcription throughout the life cycle of O. dentatum, describe double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and infer molecules involved in development and reproduction, and in inducing or modulating immune responses or disease. The secretome predicted for O. dentatum is particularly rich in peptidases linked to interactions with host tissues and/or feeding activity, and a diverse array of molecules likely involved in immune responses. This research progress provides an important resource for future comparative genomic and molecular biological investigations as well as for biotechnological research toward new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests. PMID:26026709

  10. The Chagas disease domestic transmission cycle in Guatemala: Parasite-vector switches and lack of mitochondrial co-diversification between Triatoma dimidiata and Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations suggest non-vectorial parasite dispersal across the Motagua valley.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Pamela M; Messenger, Louisa Alexandra; Reina, Jeffrey; Juárez, José G; Lawrence, Gena G; Dotson, Ellen M; Llewellyn, Martin S; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2015-11-01

    Parasites transmitted by insects must adapt to their vectors and reservoirs. Chagas disease, an American zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted by several species of triatomines. In Central America, Triatoma dimidiata is a widely dispersed vector found in sylvatic and domestic habitats, with distinct populations across the endemic region of Guatemala. Our aim was to test the strength of association between vector and parasite genetic divergence in domestic environments. Microsatellite (MS) loci were used to characterize parasites isolated from T. dimidiata (n=112) collected in domestic environments. Moderate genetic differentiation was observed between parasites north and south of the Motagua Valley, an ancient biogeographic barrier (FST 0.138, p=0.009). Slightly reduced genotypic diversity and increased heterozygosity in the north (Allelic richness (Ar)=1.00-6.05, FIS -0.03) compared to the south (Ar=1.47-6.30, FIS 0.022) suggest either a selective or demographic process during parasite dispersal. Based on parasite genotypes and geographic distribution, 15 vector specimens and their parasite isolates were selected for mitochondrial co-diversification analysis. Genetic variability and phylogenetic congruence were determined with mitochondrial DNA sequences (10 parasite maxicircle gene fragments and triatomine ND4+CYT b). A Mantel test as well as phylogenetic, network and principal coordinates analyses supported at least three T. dimidiata haplogroups separated by geographic distance across the Motagua Valley. Maxicircle sequences showed low T. cruzi genetic variability (? nucleotide diversity 0.00098) with no evidence of co-diversification with the vector, having multiple host switches across the valley. Sylvatic Didelphis marsupialis captured across the Motagua Valley were found to be infected with T. cruzi strains sharing MS genotypes with parasites isolated from domiciliated triatomines. The current parasite distribution in domestic environments can be explained by multiple parasite-host switches between vector populations and selection or bottleneck processes across the Motagua Valley, with a possible role for didelphids in domestic transmission. PMID:26215126

  11. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

  12. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-09-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

  13. Emerging role of selective autophagy in human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mizumura, Kenji; Choi, Augustine M. K.; Ryter, Stefan W.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy was originally described as a highly conserved system for the degradation of cytosol through a lysosome-dependent pathway. In response to starvation, autophagy degrades organelles and proteins to provide metabolites and energy for its pro-survival effects. Autophagy is recognized as playing a role in the pathogenesis of disease either directly or indirectly, through the regulation of vital processes such as programmed cell death, inflammation, and adaptive immune mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy is not only a simple metabolite recycling system, but also has the ability to degrade specific cellular targets, such as mitochondria, cilia, and invading bacteria. In addition, selective autophagy has also been implicated in vesicle trafficking pathways, with potential roles in secretion and other intracellular transport processes. Selective autophagy has drawn the attention of researchers because of its potential importance in clinical diseases. Therapeutic strategies to target selective autophagy rather than general autophagy may maximize clinical benefit by enhancing selectivity. In this review, we outline the principle components of selective autophagy processes and their emerging importance in human disease, with an emphasis on pulmonary diseases. PMID:25414669

  14. The Emergence of ActualThe Emergence of Actual Human Disease as a Model forHuman Disease as a Model for

    E-print Network

    Boguski, Mark S.

    + Chromosomome +e + ""icsics"" == GenomicsGenomics 1990 Human Genome Project launched1990 Human Genome Project launched 1998 Human Genome Project1998 Human Genome Project acceleratedaccelerated 20002000 ""DraftThe Emergence of ActualThe Emergence of Actual Human Disease as a Model forHuman Disease as a Model

  15. Parasitic colitides.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Joel E

    2007-02-01

    Parasitic infections are a major worldwide health problem, and they account for millions of infections and deaths each year. Most of the infections as well as the morbidity and mortality from these diseases occur in the developing world in rural regions. However, these diseases have become more common in Western countries and in big cities over the past 25 years. These changing disease patterns can be attributed to emigration from the third world to developed countries and migration of rural populations to the big cities in developing nations. These parasitic infections have protean manifestations and consequences. The medical problems range from chronic asymptomatic carrier to fulminant infections and even death. Several factors such as the host immune status, the infecting organism, and the availability of treatment all play key roles in the outcomes of parasitic colitides. The two major classes of parasites causing these infections are the helminthes (ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis, and schistosomiasis) and the protozoa (Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Trypanosoma cruzi, Giardia lamblia, and Balantidium coli). This article summarizes the salient features of each parasite with respect to epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. The vast majority of these infections have a self-limited clinical course or are easily treated with medical management, and surgery is rarely needed. PMID:20011360

  16. SPECIES AND STRAIN-SPECIFIC TYPING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES IN CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cryptosporidiosis has recently attracted attention as an emerging water borne and food borne disease as well as an opportunistic infection in HIV infected indivduals. The lack of genetic information, however, has resulted in confusion in the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium parasites ...

  17. Long-Term Disease Dynamics for a Specialized Parasite of Ant Societies: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Elliot, Simon L.; Freitas, Mayara L. R.; Pereira, Thairine M.; Hughes, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated how social insects behave when a parasite is introduced into their colonies. These studies have been conducted in the laboratory, and we still have a limited understanding of the dynamics of ant-parasite interactions under natural conditions. Here we consider a specialized parasite of ant societies (Ophiocordyceps camponoti-rufipedis infecting Camponotus rufipes) within a rainforest. We first established that the parasite is unable to develop to transmission stage when introduced within the host nest. Secondly, we surveyed all colonies in the studied area and recorded 100% prevalence at the colony level (all colonies were infected). Finally, we conducted a long-term detailed census of parasite pressure, by mapping the position of infected dead ants and foraging trails (future hosts) in the immediate vicinity of the colonies over 20 months. We report new dead infected ants for all the months we conducted the census – at an average of 14.5 cadavers/month/colony. Based on the low infection rate, the absence of colony collapse or complete recovery of the colonies, we suggest that this parasite represents a chronic infection in the ant societies. We also proposed a “terminal host model of transmission” that links the age-related polyethism to the persistence of a parasitic infection. PMID:25133749

  18. Diseases and parasites of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Lake Huron basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLain, Alberton L.

    1952-01-01

    Sea lampreys from the Lake Huron basin carried no external parasites and showed a fairly low degree of infection by internal parasites. The material examined represented three life-history stages of the sea lamprey. Recently transformed downstream migrants (215 specimens) harbored only nematodes belonging to the genus Camallanus. The percentage of infection was 2.3. Active feeders from the lake (29 lampreys) revealed the highest degree of parasitism (31.0 percent) with the following parasites present: Echinorhynchus coregoni Linkins; Triaenophorus crasses Forel; and Camallanus sp. Among the 257 sexually mature upstream migrants (14.8 percent infected) Echinorhynchus coregoni and E. leidyi Van Cleave were the most common. Only occasional nematodes and cestodes were found, which fact indicates a failure of the lamprey to carry these parasites to the end of its natural life. Of the parasites observed, only the nematodes gave evidence of serious damage to the host. The study suggests that the role played by parasites in the natural control of the sea lamprey in its new habitat in the upper Great Lakes is of minor importance.

  19. Bacillus sphaericus in the adults of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes emerged from treated larvae and its effect on development of the filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti.

    PubMed

    Paily, K P; Geetha, I; Kumar, B A; Balaraman, K

    2012-06-01

    Bacillus sphaericus is a bio-control agent effective against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of bancroftian filariasis. Apart from its larvicidal effect, there are reports of reduced infection of filarial parasites in mosquitoes exposed to it. In the present study, adults of Cx. quinquefasciatus emerged from B. sphaericus treated larvae were fed on blood samples positive for microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and examined at various time intervals to assess the infection level. The rate of infection was reduced from 95% on day 1 post-feeding to 75% on day 13, when fed with blood sample containing 41 mf/20 ?l. The mean parasite burden was also reduced from 4.9 per mosquito on day 1 to 2.15 on day 13. When fed with another sample (30 mf/20 ?l), the infection was reduced from 100% on day 1 to 80% on day 13. Reduction in parasite burden was 4.0 to 1.75. Abnormally developed second-stage larvae of the parasite were seen in treated mosquitoes. Thus, the results indicated adverse effect of B. sphaericus treatment on infection and development of the filarial parasite in mosquitoes. The possible reason for the parasite regulation was studied through the assessment of the carryover of the bacterium as well as its toxins to the surviving mosquitoes. The presence of B. sphaericus was determined through plating of homogenate of survived mosquitoes on NYSM agar. Toxic protein was detected through immunoblotting. The bacterium as well as its 41.9-kDa toxic protein was found to be transmitted from larvae to adults and affected the parasite development, directly by the toxin or indirectly by eliciting humoral immune response of the mosquito. PMID:22173452

  20. Disease associated with integumentary and cloacal parasites in tadpoles of northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Camann, Michael A; Foley, Janet E; Reiss, John O

    2007-10-31

    A total of 6830 northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora tadpoles were examined under a dissecting microscope for oral disc, integumentary, and cloacal abnormalities in 13 ponds in and near Redwood National Park in northern California. Of these, 163 tadpoles were collected for histopathological investigation, including 115 randomly collected individuals, 38 collected with oral disc abnormalities, and 10 collected due to severe morbidity of unknown etiology. The tadpoles were infected with 8 parasites, including Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (the amphibian chytrid), trematodes, leeches, and protozoa. Chytridiomycosis was detected at an overall prevalence of 6.4%, but prevalence was higher in tadpoles with oral disc lesions than in those with normal oral discs (43.5% versus 6.1%). Interestingly, infection was associated with some environmental and co-infection risk factors. Individual tadpoles possessed 0 to 5 species of parasites in varying intensities. Apiosoma sp. was the most prevalent (66%) and widespread. Tadpoles infected with B. dendrobatidis had a lower diversity of oral parasites than those uninfected. During the field portion of the study, a large number (approximately 500) of moribund and dead tadpoles was seen occurring at multiple locations within and surrounding Redwood National Park. Ten animals were collected for histological examination and a diverse protozoal infection was discovered, including some known pathogens of fish. This study is the first reporting parasitism and disease in natural populations of northern red-legged frogs. PMID:18159674

  1. Hot spots in a wired world: WHO surveillance of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Heymann, D L; Rodier, G R

    2001-12-01

    The resurgence of the microbial threat, rooted in several recent trends, has increased the vulnerability of all nations to the risk of infectious diseases, whether newly emerging, well-established, or deliberately caused. Infectious disease intelligence, gleaned through sensitive surveillance, is the best defence. The epidemiological and laboratory techniques needed to detect, investigate, and contain a deliberate outbreak are the same as those used for natural outbreaks. In April 2000, WHO formalised an infrastructure (the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network) for responding to the heightened need for early awareness of outbreaks and preparedness to respond. The Network, which unites 110 existing networks, is supported by several new mechanisms and a computer-driven tool for real time gathering of disease intelligence. The procedure for outbreak alert and response has four phases: systematic detection, outbreak verification, real time alerts, and rapid response. For response, the framework uses different strategies for combating known risks and unexpected events, and for improving both global and national preparedness. New forces at work in an electronically interconnected world are beginning to break down the traditional reluctance of countries to report outbreaks due to fear of the negative impact on trade and tourism. About 65% of the world's first news about infectious disease events now comes from informal sources, including press reports and the internet. PMID:11871807

  2. Kelch proteins: emerging roles in skeletal muscle development and diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of genes that cause skeletal muscle disease has increased tremendously over the past three decades. Advances in approaches to genetics and genomics have aided in the identification of new pathogenic mechanisms in rare genetic disorders and have opened up new avenues for therapeutic interventions by identification of new molecular pathways in muscle disease. Recent studies have identified mutations of several Kelch proteins in skeletal muscle disorders. The Kelch superfamily is one of the largest evolutionary conserved gene families. The 66 known family members all possess a Kelch-repeat containing domain and are implicated in diverse biological functions. In skeletal muscle development, several Kelch family members regulate the processes of proliferation and/or differentiation resulting in normal functioning of mature muscles. Importantly, many Kelch proteins function as substrate-specific adaptors for Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase (Cul3), a core component of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to regulate the protein turnover. This review discusses the emerging roles of Kelch proteins in skeletal muscle function and disease. PMID:24959344

  3. Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

  4. Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Certain foodborne ...

  5. One World-One Health and neglected zoonotic disease: elimination, emergence and emergency in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Smith, James; Taylor, Emma Michelle; Kingsley, Pete

    2015-03-01

    This paper traces the emergence and tensions of an internationally constructed and framed One World-One Health (OWOH) approach to control and attempt to eliminate African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda. In many respects Trypanosomiasis is a disease that an OWOH approach is perfectly designed to treat, requiring an integrated approach built on effective surveillance in animals and humans, quick diagnosis and targeting of the vector. The reality appears to be that the translation of global notions of OWOH down to national and district levels generates problems, primarily due to interactions between: a) international, external actors not engaging with the Ugandan state; b) actors setting up structures and activities parallel to those of the state; c) actors deciding when emergencies begin and end without consultation; d) weak Ugandan state capacity to coordinate its own integrated response to disease; e) limited collaboration between core Ugandan planning activities and a weak, increasingly devolved district health system. These interrelated dynamics result in the global, international interventionalist mode of OWOH undermining the Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU), the body within the Ugandan state mandated expressly with managing a sustainable One Health response to trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Uganda. This does two things, firstly it suggests we need a more grounded, national perspective of OWOH, where states and health systems are acknowledged and engaged with by international actors and initiatives. Secondly, it suggests that more support needs to be given to core coordinating capacity in resource-poor contexts. Supporting national coordinating bodies, focused around One Health, and ensuring that external actors engage with and through those bodies can help develop a sustained, effective OWOH presence in resource-poor countries, where after all most zoonotic disease burden remains. PMID:24984807

  6. Emerging diseases and ecosystem instability: new threats to public health.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, P R

    1995-01-01

    Ecologists have begun to describe an environmental distress syndrome, whereby widespread loss of top predators and harsh environmental conditions are encouraging the selection of opportunistic pests and pathogens across a wide taxonomic range of plants and animals. Environmental change and pollutants stress individuals and populations, and this may be reflected in the global resurgence of infectious disease as these stresses cascade through the community assemblages of species. In 1993, the sudden appearance of a virulent, rodent-borne hantavirus in the arid US Southwest accompanied anomalous weather patterns, and a novel Vibrio cholerae variant (O139 Bengal) emerged in Asia where marine ecosystems are experiencing a pandemic of coastal algal blooms, apparently harboring and amplifying the agent. This paper suggests a framework for integrating the surveillance of health outcomes and key reservoir and vector species, with ecological and climatic monitoring. PMID:7856775

  7. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt”. Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococal disease burden among children under 5 years of age. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In the first stage we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging MC vaccines relevant to 12 criteria of interest. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies). They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results For MenA conjugate vaccine the experts showed very high level of optimism (~ 90% or more) for 7 out of the 12 criteria. The experts felt that the likelihood of efficacy on meningitis was very high (~ 90%). Deliverability, acceptability to health workers, end users and the effect on equity were all seen as highly likely (~ 90%). In terms of the maximum potential impact on meningitis disease burden, the median potential effectiveness of the vaccines in reduction of overall meningitis mortality was estimated to be 20%; (interquartile range 20-40% and min. 8%, max 50 %). For the multivalent meningococcal vaccines the experts had similar optimism for most of the 12 CHNRI criteria with slightly lower optimism in answerability and low development cost criteria. The main concern was expressed over the cost of product, its affordability and cost of implementation. Conclusions With increasing recognition of the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially during epidemics in Africa, it is vitally important that strategies are taken to reduce the morbidity and mortality attributable to this disease. Improved MC vaccines are a promising investment that could substantially contribute to reduction of child meningitis mortality world-wide. PMID:21501447

  8. The emerging role of microRNAs in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Femminella, Grazia D.; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA which have been shown to regulate gene expression. The alteration ofmiRNAs expression has been associated with several pathological processes, including neurodegeneration. In the search for easily accessible and non-invasive biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis and prognosis, circulating miRNAs are among the most promising candidates. Some of them have been consistently identified as AD-specific miRNAs and their targets also seem implicated in pathophysiological processes underlying AD. Here, we review the emerging role for miRNA in AD, giving an overview on general miRNAs biology, their implications in AD pathophysiology and their potential role as future biomarkers. PMID:25729367

  9. Emerging Role of Human Basophil Biology in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cromheecke, Jessica L.; Nguyen, Kathleen T.; Huston, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Basophils have emerged in recent years as a small but potent subpopulation of leukocytes capable of bridging innate and adaptive immunity. They can be activated through IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mechanisms to release preformed mediators and to produce Th2 cytokines. In addition to their role in protective immunity to helminths, basophils are major participants in allergic reactions as diverse as anaphylaxis and immediate hypersensitivity reactions, late-phase hypersensitivity reactions, and delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Additionally, basophils have been implicated in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases such as lupus nephritis and rheumatoid arthritis, and the modulation of immune responses to bacterial infections, as well as being a feature of myelogenous leukemias. Distinct signals for activation, degranulation, transendothelial migration, and immune regulation are being defined, and demonstrate the important role of basophils in promoting a Th2 microenvironment. These mechanistic insights are driving innovative approaches for diagnostic testing and therapeutic targeting of basophils. PMID:24346805

  10. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures), and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future. PMID:25949827

  11. Treatment of Parasitic Skin Diseases with Dimeticones A New Family of Compounds with a Purely Physical Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) are common in the tropics and sub-tropics. They are caused by mites, lice and other blood-sucking insects. In resource-poor countries they are associated with considerable morbidity. Hitherto, EPSD are treated with insecticides with a neurotoxic mode of action. The efficacy of this treatment is variable, and the development and spread of resistant mites and lice is alarming. A new concept for treating EPSD is presented which is based on the topical application of dimeticones, silicone oils of low viscosity which rapidly kill insects and mites by a physical mode of action. They creep into the respiratory system and block oxygen supply. The physical mode of action makes the development of resistant parasite strains very unlikely. Due to their safety and efficacy, dimeticones are promising candidates for population-based intervention programmes targeted against EPSD in resource-poor settings. PMID:25425946

  12. Preventing parasites in cats.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    The monthly administration of broad-spectrum heartworm medications can effectively prevent a variety of internal and external parasitic diseases in cats. Although not every parasite can be stopped, many of the common feline parasites are susceptible to these agents. This article discusses the epidemiology and prevention strategies for those parasites that can be controlled by the administration of ivermectin, milbemycin oxime, or selamectin, either alone or in conjunction with an external parasiticide. PMID:16299672

  13. Heteromeric dopamine receptor signaling complexes: emerging neurobiology and disease relevance.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Melissa L; Hasbi, Ahmed; O'Dowd, Brian F; George, Susan R

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological modification of dopamine transmission has long been employed as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of many mental health disorders. However, as many of the pharmacotherapies today are not without significant side effects, or they alleviate only a particular subset of symptoms, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is imperative. In light of these challenges, the recognition that dopamine receptors can form heteromers has significantly expanded the range of physiologically relevant signaling complexes as well as potential drug targets. Furthermore, as the physiology and disease relevance of these receptor heteromers is further understood, their ability to exhibit pharmacological and functional properties distinct from their constituent receptors, or modulate the function of endogenous homomeric receptor complexes, may allow for the development of alternate therapeutic strategies and provide new avenues for drug design. In this review, we describe the emerging neurobiology of the known dopamine receptor heteromers, their physiological relevance in brain, and discuss the potential role of these receptor complexes in neuropsychiatric disease. We highlight their value as targets for future drug development and discuss innovative research strategies designed to selectively target these dopamine receptor heteromers in the search for novel and clinically efficacious pharmacotherapies. PMID:23774533

  14. Noncoding RNAs, Emerging Regulators of Skeletal Muscle Development and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Mao; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Liu, Jianming; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    A healthy and independent life requires skeletal muscles to maintain optimal function throughout the lifespan, which is in turn dependent on efficient activation of processes that regulate muscle development, homeostasis, and metabolism. Thus, identifying mechanisms that modulate these processes is of crucial priority. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), have emerged as a class of previously unrecognized transcripts whose importance in a wide range of biological processes and human disease is only starting to be appreciated. In this review, we summarize the roles of recently identified miRNAs and lncRNAs during skeletal muscle development and pathophysiology. We also discuss several molecular mechanisms of these noncoding RNAs. Undoubtedly, further systematic understanding of these noncoding RNAs' functions and mechanisms will not only greatly expand our knowledge of basic skeletal muscle biology, but also significantly facilitate the development of therapies for various muscle diseases, such as muscular dystrophies, cachexia, and sarcopenia. PMID:26258142

  15. Variations in prevalence of viral, bacterial, and rhizocephalan diseases and parasites of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-05-01

    Prevalence of blue crab diseases and parasites has not been consistently monitored in the Gulf of Mexico. To establish current prevalence levels and to more fully understand population dynamics, commercial landing trends, and effects of future natural and anthropogenic disasters on animal health, we measured the prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Loxothylacus texanus, shell disease, and Vibrio spp. in blue crabs collected from Louisiana in 2013 and the beginning of 2014. We used PCR to detect WSSV and L. texanus infections, visual gross diagnosis for L. texanus externae and shell disease, and standard microbiological culture techniques and biochemical testing for Vibrio spp. We found no crabs infected with WSSV or L. texanus. Absence of L. texanus parasitization was expected based on the sampled salinities and the sampling focus on large crabs. Shell disease was present at a level of 54.8% and was most prevalent in the winter and summer and least prevalent in the spring. Vibrio spp. were found in the hemolymph of 22.3% of the crabs and prevalence varied by site, season, and sex. Additionally, three of 39 crabs tested were infected with reo-like virus. PMID:25769514

  16. The Role of HLA-G Molecule and HLA-G Gene Polymorphisms in Tumors, Viral Hepatitis, and Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fabrício C.; Castelli, Erick C.; Collares, Cristhianna V. A.; Moreau, Philippe; Donadi, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Considering that the non-classical HLA-G molecule has well-recognized tolerogenic properties, HLA-G expression is expected to be deleterious when present in tumor cells and in cells chronically infected by viruses, whereas HLA-G expression is expected to be advantageous in autoimmune disorders. The expression of HLA-G on tissue or peripheral blood cells, the levels of soluble HLA-G and polymorphic sites along the gene have been studied in several disorders. In this study, we revised the role of the molecule and polymorphic sites along the HLA-G gene in tumors, viral hepatitis, and parasitic disorders. Overall, several lines of evidence clearly show that the induction of HLA-G expression in tumors has been associated with worse disease outcome and disease spread. In addition, the few studies conducted on hepatitis and parasitic disorders indicate that HLA-G may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Few isolated polymorphic sites, primarily located at the coding or 3? untranslated HLA-G region, have been evaluated in these disorders, and a complete HLA-G typing together with the study of gene regulatory elements may further help on the understanding of the influence of the genetic background on disease susceptibility. PMID:25699038

  17. Diversification and host switching in avian malaria parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E; Fallon, Sylvia M

    2002-01-01

    The switching of parasitic organisms to novel hosts, in which they may cause the emergence of new diseases, is of great concern to human health and the management of wild and domesticated populations of animals. We used a phylogenetic approach to develop a better statistical assessment of host switching in a large sample of vector-borne malaria parasites of birds (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over their history of parasite-host relations. Even with sparse sampling, the number of parasite lineages was almost equal to the number of avian hosts. We found that strongly supported sister lineages of parasites, averaging 1.2% sequence divergence, exhibited highly significant host and geographical fidelity. Event-based matching of host and parasite phylogenetic trees revealed significant cospeciation. However, the accumulated effects of host switching and long distance dispersal cause these signals to disappear before 4% sequence divergence is achieved. Mitochondrial DNA nucleotide substitution appears to occur about three times faster in hosts than in parasites, contrary to findings on other parasite-host systems. Using this mutual calibration, the phylogenies of the parasites and their hosts appear to be similar in age, suggesting that avian malaria parasites diversified along with their modern avian hosts. Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management. PMID:12028770

  18. The emergence of resistance to the benzimidazole anthlemintics in parasitic nematodes of livestock is characterised by multiple independent hard and soft selective sweeps.

    PubMed

    Redman, Elizabeth; Whitelaw, Fiona; Tait, Andrew; Burgess, Charlotte; Bartley, Yvonne; Skuce, Philip John; Jackson, Frank; Gilleard, John Stuart

    2015-02-01

    Anthelmintic resistance is a major problem for the control of parasitic nematodes of livestock and of growing concern for human parasite control. However, there is little understanding of how resistance arises and spreads or of the "genetic signature" of selection for this group of important pathogens. We have investigated these questions in the system for which anthelmintic resistance is most advanced; benzimidazole resistance in the sheep parasites Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta. Population genetic analysis with neutral microsatellite markers reveals that T. circumcincta has higher genetic diversity but lower genetic differentiation between farms than H. contortus in the UK. We propose that this is due to epidemiological differences between the two parasites resulting in greater seasonal bottlenecking of H. contortus. There is a remarkably high level of resistance haplotype diversity in both parasites compared with drug resistance studies in other eukaryotic systems. Our analysis suggests a minimum of four independent origins of resistance mutations on just seven farms for H. contortus, and even more for T. circumincta. Both hard and soft selective sweeps have occurred with striking differences between individual farms. The sweeps are generally softer for T. circumcincta than H. contortus, consistent with its higher level of genetic diversity and consequent greater availability of new mutations. We propose a model in which multiple independent resistance mutations recurrently arise and spread by migration to explain the widespread occurrence of resistance in these parasites. Finally, in spite of the complex haplotypic diversity, we show that selection can be detected at the target locus using simple measures of genetic diversity and departures from neutrality. This work has important implications for the application of genome-wide approaches to identify new anthelmintic resistance loci and the likelihood of anthelmintic resistance emerging as selection pressure is increased in human soil-transmitted nematodes by community wide treatment programs. PMID:25658086

  19. The Emergence of Resistance to the Benzimidazole Anthlemintics in Parasitic Nematodes of Livestock Is Characterised by Multiple Independent Hard and Soft Selective Sweeps

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Elizabeth; Whitelaw, Fiona; Tait, Andrew; Burgess, Charlotte; Bartley, Yvonne; Skuce, Philip John; Jackson, Frank; Gilleard, John Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance is a major problem for the control of parasitic nematodes of livestock and of growing concern for human parasite control. However, there is little understanding of how resistance arises and spreads or of the “genetic signature” of selection for this group of important pathogens. We have investigated these questions in the system for which anthelmintic resistance is most advanced; benzimidazole resistance in the sheep parasites Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta. Population genetic analysis with neutral microsatellite markers reveals that T. circumcincta has higher genetic diversity but lower genetic differentiation between farms than H. contortus in the UK. We propose that this is due to epidemiological differences between the two parasites resulting in greater seasonal bottlenecking of H. contortus. There is a remarkably high level of resistance haplotype diversity in both parasites compared with drug resistance studies in other eukaryotic systems. Our analysis suggests a minimum of four independent origins of resistance mutations on just seven farms for H. contortus, and even more for T. circumincta. Both hard and soft selective sweeps have occurred with striking differences between individual farms. The sweeps are generally softer for T. circumcincta than H. contortus, consistent with its higher level of genetic diversity and consequent greater availability of new mutations. We propose a model in which multiple independent resistance mutations recurrently arise and spread by migration to explain the widespread occurrence of resistance in these parasites. Finally, in spite of the complex haplotypic diversity, we show that selection can be detected at the target locus using simple measures of genetic diversity and departures from neutrality. This work has important implications for the application of genome-wide approaches to identify new anthelmintic resistance loci and the likelihood of anthelmintic resistance emerging as selection pressure is increased in human soil-transmitted nematodes by community wide treatment programs. PMID:25658086

  20. Systems analysis of host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Swann, Justine; Jamshidi, Neema; Lewis, Nathan E; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Parasitic diseases caused by protozoan pathogens lead to hundreds of thousands of deaths per year in addition to substantial suffering and socioeconomic decline for millions of people worldwide. The lack of effective vaccines coupled with the widespread emergence of drug-resistant parasites necessitates that the research community take an active role in understanding host-parasite infection biology in order to develop improved therapeutics. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and the rapid development of publicly accessible genomic databases for many human pathogens have facilitated the application of systems biology to the study of host-parasite interactions. Over the past decade, these technologies have led to the discovery of many important biological processes governing parasitic disease. The integration and interpretation of high-throughput -omic data will undoubtedly generate extraordinary insight into host-parasite interaction networks essential to navigate the intricacies of these complex systems. As systems analysis continues to build the foundation for our understanding of host-parasite biology, this will provide the framework necessary to drive drug discovery research forward and accelerate the development of new antiparasitic therapies. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2015, 7:381-400. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1311 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26306749

  1. ACE2 and Microbiota: Emerging Targets for Cardiopulmonary Disease Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Liu, Meng; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K; Shenoy, Vinayak

    2015-12-01

    The health of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is inextricably linked to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Physiologically speaking, a balance between the vasodeleterious (Angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE]/Angiotensin II [Ang II]/Ang II type 1 receptor [AT1R]) and vasoprotective (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]/Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor [MasR]) components of the RAS is critical for cardiopulmonary homeostasis. Upregulation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis shifts the system toward vasoconstriction, proliferation, hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis, all factors that contribute to the development and progression of cardiopulmonary diseases. Conversely, stimulation of the vasoprotective ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis produces a counter-regulatory response that promotes cardiovascular health. Current research is investigating novel strategies to augment actions of the vasoprotective RAS components, particularly ACE2, in order to treat various pathologies. Although multiple approaches to increase the activity of ACE2 have displayed beneficial effects against experimental disease models, the mechanisms behind its protective actions remain incompletely understood. Recent work demonstrating a non-catalytic role for ACE2 in amino acid transport in the gut has led us to speculate that the therapeutic effects of ACE2 can be mediated, in part, by its actions on the gastrointestinal tract and/or gut microbiome. This is consistent with emerging data which suggest that dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiomes is associated with cardiopulmonary disease. This review highlights new developments in the protective actions of ACE2 against cardiopulmonary disorders, discusses innovative approaches to targeting ACE2 for therapy, and explores an evolving role for gut and lung microbiota in cardiopulmonary health. PMID:26322922

  2. Tradition and transition: parasitic zoonoses of people and animals in Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zoonotic parasites have been recognized as important causes of endemic and emerging human disease in northern North America and Greenland, with increased prevalence of some parasites in Indigenous and northern residents as compared to the general North American population. This is in part due to tr...

  3. Selective mass treatment with ivermectin to control intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in a severely affected population.

    PubMed Central

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Winter, Benedikt; Wilcke, Thomas; Muehlen, Marion; Albrecht, Stephan; de Oliveira, Fabíola Araújo Sales; Kerr-Pontes, Lígia Regina Sansigolo; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term and long-term impact of selective mass treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in an economically depressed community in north-east Brazil. METHODS: An intervention was carried out in a traditional fishing village in north-east Brazil where the population of 605 is heavily affected by ectoparasites and enteroparasites. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was determined by serial stool examination and the prevalence of parasitic skin diseases by clinical inspection. A total of 525 people out of a target population of 576 were treated at baseline. The majority of these were treated with ivermectin (200 microg/kg with a second dose given after 10 days). If ivermectin was contraindicated, participants were treated with albendazole or mebendazole for intestinal helminths or with topical deltamethrin for ectoparasites. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 month and 9 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prevalence rates of intestinal helminthiases before treatment and at 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: hookworm disease 28.5%, 16.4% and 7.7%; ascariasis 17.1%, 0.4% and 7.2%; trichuriasis 16.5%, 3.4% and 9.4%; strongyloidiasis 11.0%, 0.6% and 0.7%; and hymenolepiasis 0.6%; 0.4% and 0.5%, respectively. Prevalence rates of parasitic skin diseases before treatment and 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: active pediculosis 16.1%, 1.0% and 10.3%; scabies 3.8%, 1.0% and 1.5%; cutaneous larva migrans 0.7%, 0% and 0%; tungiasis 51.3%, 52.1% and 31.2%, respectively. Adverse events occurred in 9.4% of treatments. They were all of mild to moderate severity and were transient. CONCLUSION: Mass treatment with ivermectin was an effective and safe means of reducing the prevalence of most of the parasitic diseases prevalent in a poor community in north-east Brazil. The effects of treatment lasted for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375445

  4. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS AND ATOPIC DISEASES IN CHILDREN: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY.

    PubMed

    Al Ghwass, Mohamed Me; El Dash, Hanaa H; Amin, Sayed A; Hussin, Shimaa S

    2015-08-01

    Different helminth parasites may have different effects on allergy depending on the timing of the exposure. A meta-analysis of many of studies reported the association between the presence of geohelminth eggs in stool samples and asthma provided some evidence for parasite-specific effects. This study evaluated the occurrence of allergy among different intestinal parasitic infected patients. A cross sectional study was carried out from June, 2013 to October, 2013 in the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic of Al-Fayoum University Hospitals among 55 children aged 2 years to 13 years. The data were collected using ISSAC questionnaire of allergy (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) also laboratory analysis of complete blood picture, stool analysis and measurement of total serum IgE were performed for the patients. Among the patients 27 suffered from allergy and 28 had no allergic complain. Stool examinations showed Entrobius vernicularis (15), Trichostrongylus species (9), Hymenolepis nana (8), Entameba histolytica (8), Giardia lamblia (6), and mixed infections (9). The allergic group by parasitological examination 7 children (25.9%) had Entrobius vermicularis; 6 children (22.2%) Entameba histolytica; and 2 children (7.4 %) Giardia lamblia, with eosinophilic count was higher in the enterobiasis infected children than in protozoa infected ones. There were significantly high IgE levels in mixed parasitic infection (P= 0.006) and with Entrobius vermicularis infections (P=0.04). Also statistically significant difference between allergic groups by ISAAC score and the non allergic group regarding Ig E levels (P= 0.03). There was no significant difference between numbers of children with allergy and those without allergy among different parasitic infections. However, a marked significant association between the allergy and parasitic infected children was not declaimed. PMID:26485861

  5. Emerging viral threats in Gabon: health capacities and response to the risk of emerging zoonotic diseases in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bourgarel, M; Wauquier, N; Gonzalez, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are currently the major threat to public health worldwide and most EID events have involved zoonotic infectious agents. Central Africa in general and Gabon in particular are privileged areas for the emergence of zoonotic EIDs. Indeed, human incursions in Gabonese forests for exploitation purposes lead to intensified contacts between humans and wildlife thus generating an increased risk of emergence of zoonotic diseases. In Gabon, 51 endemic or potential endemic viral infectious diseases have been reported. Among them, 22 are of zoonotic origin and involve 12 families of viruses. The most notorious are dengue, yellow fever, ebola, marburg, Rift Valley fever and chikungunya viruses. Potential EID due to wildlife in Gabon are thereby plentiful and need to be inventoried. The Gabonese Public Health system covers geographically most of the country allowing a good access to sanitary information and efficient monitoring of emerging diseases. However, access to treatment and prevention is better in urban areas where medical structures are more developed and financial means are concentrated even though the population is equally distributed between urban and rural areas. In spite of this, Gabon could be a good field for investigating the emergence or re-emergence of zoonotic EID. Indeed Gabonese health research structures such as CIRMF, advantageously located, offer high quality researchers and facilities that study pathogens and wildlife ecology, aiming toward a better understanding of the contact and transmission mechanisms of new pathogens from wildlife to human, the emergence of zoonotic EID and the breaking of species barriers by pathogens. PMID:22460397

  6. Parasitic gastro-enteritis in lambs — A model for estimating the timing of the larval emergence peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J. R.; Thomas, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    The life history of the nematode parasites of domestic ruminants usually involves the development and survival of free-living stages on pasture. The pasture is, therefore, the site of deposition, development and transmission of nematode infection and meteorological factors affecting the pasture will affect the parasites. Recently Thomas and Starr (1978) discussed an empirical technique for forecasting the timing of the summer wave of gastro-intestinal parasitism in North-East England in the lamb crop using meteorological data and in particular estimates of the duration of “surface wetness”. This paper presents an attempt to model “surface wetness” and the temperature limitation to nematode development.

  7. Association of Liberibacter with Newly Emerging Psyllid-Transmitted Diseases of Potato and Other Annual Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fastidious bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, vectored by at least four psyllid species, has recently been associated with newly emerging and economically important diseases of citrus and solanaceous crops. Huanglongbing or citrus greening disease is associated with three species of liberibact...

  8. Congenital Chagas disease as an ecological model of interactions between Trypanosoma cruzi parasites, pregnant women, placenta and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Yves; Truyens, Carine

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the main ecological interactions between the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and its hosts, the mother and the fetus, leading to the transmission and development of congenital Chagas disease. One or several infecting strains of T. cruzi (with specific features) interact with: (i) the immune system of a pregnant woman whom responses depend on genetic and environmental factors, (ii) the placenta harboring its own defenses, and, finally, (iii) the fetal immune system displaying responses also susceptible to be modulated by maternal and environmental factors, as well as his own genetic background which is different from her mother. The severity of congenital Chagas disease depends on the magnitude of such final responses. The paper is mainly based on human data, but integrates also complementary observations obtained in experimental infections. It also focuses on important gaps in our knowledge of this congenital infection, such as the role of parasite diversity vs host genetic factors, as well as that of the maternal and placental microbiomes and the microbiome acquisition by infant in the control of infection. Investigations on these topics are needed in order to improve the programs aiming to diagnose, manage and control congenital Chagas disease. PMID:26293886

  9. Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia or "snail fever," is a parasitic disease carried by

    E-print Network

    Davis, Richard E.

    water snails infected with five varieties of the parasite Schistosoma. Found predomi- nantly in tropical and sub-tropical climates, schistosomiasis infects 207 million people in 74 countries worldwide, including schistosomiasis causes scarring and tearing of the bladder and kidneys, and can lead to blad- der cancer

  10. Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan: Disease Emergence, Clinical Signs, Complications and Preliminary-associated Economic Losses.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Ababneh, M M; Al Zoubi, I G; Al Sheyab, O M; Al Zoubi, M G; Alekish, M O; Al Gharabat, R J

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to report the emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Jordan and associated clinical signs, complications and preliminary economic losses. In mid-April, 2013, two adult dairy cattle developed clinical signs suggestive of LSD and were confirmed as positive by PCR. The two cases were in Bani Kenanah district, Irbid governorate, on the Jordanian border of Israel and Syria. The disease spread rapidly to all the districts of Irbid governorate. During the month following the emergence of the disease, data were collected related to the epidemiology of the disease and the numbers of affected cattle on the premises. Forty-one dairy cattle holdings were surveyed. The morbidity rate ranged from 3% to 100%, (Mean = 35.1%, SD ±28.5%). The mortality rate ranged from 0% to 20%, (Mean = 1.3%, SD ±4.4%). The case fatality rate ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 6.2%, SD ±22%). The overall morbidity rate was 26%, mortality rate 1.9% and case fatality rate 7.5%. Skin nodules, anorexia, decreased milk production and decreased body weight were common clinical signs, while mastitis and myiasis were seen as complications in a few affected animals. Decreased body weight ranged from 0% to 80%, (Mean = 23.1%, SD ±15.7%). Decreased milk production ranged from 0% to 100%, (Mean = 51.5%, SD ±22.2%). Affected cattle were treated mainly with broad-spectrum antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. The cost of treatment ranged from 0 to 84.3 British Pound/animal, (Mean = 27.9 GBP, SD ±22.5 GBP). LSD continues to spread through the Middle East region and poses a serious threat to the rest of Asia and Europe. International collaboration and communication is warranted to prevent the further spread of the disease to the rest of Asia and Europe. PMID:24148185

  11. Gastrointestinal parasite infestation.

    PubMed

    Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E; Sammak, Bassam M; Mohamed, Abdulrahman E; Al Karawi, Mohamed A; Al Shahed, Mona; Al Thagafi, Mohamed A

    2004-03-01

    Twenty-five percent of the world's population could be suffering parasitic infestation. Highest prevalence is in underdeveloped agricultural and rural areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. In some areas incidence may reach 90% of the population. In contrast, some major economic projects intended to promote local development have, paradoxically, caused parasitic proliferation, e.g. bilharziasis in Egypt and Sudan and Chagas disease in Brazil. The commonest cosmopolitan gastrointestinal parasite is Entamoeba histolytica. Some intestinal parasite are endemic in temperate climates, e.g. Entrobius vermicularis. The AIDS epidemic has increased the prevalence and severity of parasitic disease, particularly Strongyloides stercolaris. Tropical parasites are seen in Western people who travel to tropical countries. Radiology has acquired a major role in diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal parasite infestations and their complications. PMID:14749961

  12. Worms, slugs and humans: the medical and popular construction of an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Grisotti, Márcia; Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias de

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the worm Angiostrongylus costaricensis parasitizing land snails and humans in Southern Brazil suggests under-diagnosis and under-notification of patients with abdominal angiostrongyliasis. This article analyzes how the concept of abdominal angiostrongyliasis was constructed in different ways in Costa Rica and Brazil and how these changes affected the understanding of its clinical and epidemiological diagnosis. The research shows that abdominal angiostrongyliasis is, de facto, a sociocultural construct, although the parasites and vectors are real. The analisys also shows the importance of an interdisciplinary approach for understanding disease. PMID:22012103

  13. Emergence of Polycystic Neotropical Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Stich, August; Frosch, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis of increasing concern. In 1903, the first cases of human polycystic echinococcosis, a disease resembling alveolar echinococcosis, emerged in Argentina. One of the parasites responsible, Echinococcus oligarthrus, had been discovered in its adult strobilar stage before 1850. However, >100 years passed from the first description of the adult parasite to the recognition that this species is responsible for some cases of human neotropical polycystic echinococcosis and the elucidation of the parasite’s life cycle. A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972. Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species. To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries. PMID:18258123

  14. Practice of Epidemiology When Is Quarantine a Useful Control Strategy for Emerging Infectious Diseases?

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy

    Practice of Epidemiology When Is Quarantine a Useful Control Strategy for Emerging Infectious long nor very short. communicable diseases, emerging; disease outbreaks; epidemiologic methods; patient;163:479­485 American Journal of Epidemiology Copyright ª 2006 by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

  15. Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Anderson, M; Ritchie, B W; Ciembor, P; Rimoldi, G; Piazza, M; Pesti, D; Clifford, D L; Giannitti, F

    2015-11-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California. PMID:25445322

  16. Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leismaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection. PMID:22310820

  17. EMERGING CRYPTIC DISEASES OF FOREST TREES B. Slippers and M.J. Wingfield

    E-print Network

    EMERGING CRYPTIC DISEASES OF FOREST TREES B. Slippers and M.J. Wingfield Department of Genetics revolutionized the identification of fungi causing diseases of forest trees. This process started almost two sequencing. In many cases, the causal agents of tree diseases have turned out to be a number of mor

  18. The re-emergency and persistence of vaccine preventable diseases.

    PubMed

    Borba, Rodrigo C N; Vidal, Vinícius M; Moreira, Lilian O

    2015-08-01

    The introduction of vaccination worldwide dramatically reduced the incidence of pathogenic bacterial and viral diseases. Despite the highly successful vaccination strategies, the number of cases among vaccine preventable diseases has increased in the last decade and several of those diseases are still endemic in different countries. Here we discuss some epidemiological aspects and possible arguments that may explain why ancient diseases such as, measles, polio, pertussis, diphtheria and tuberculosis are still with us. PMID:26312431

  19. Disease elimination and re-emergence in differential-equation models.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Scott; Galvani, Alison P; Medlock, Jan

    2015-12-21

    Traditional differential equation models of disease transmission are often used to predict disease trajectories and evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies. However, such models cannot account explicitly for probabilistic events, such as those that dominate dynamics when disease prevalence is low during the elimination and re-emergence phases of an outbreak. To account for the dynamics at low prevalence, i.e. the elimination and risk of disease re-emergence, without the added analytical and computational complexity of a stochastic model, we develop a novel application of control theory. We apply our approach to analyze historical data of measles elimination and re-emergence in Iceland from 1923 to 1938, predicting the temporal trajectory of local measles elimination and re-emerge as a result of disease migration from Copenhagen, Denmark. PMID:26471072

  20. Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as Sentinels of Parasitic Diseases in the Province of Soria, Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente; Serrano, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Four hundred red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined for ecto- (arthropods) and endoparasites (Leishmania spp., Trichinella spp., and intestinal parasites). Different species of flea (total prevalence, 40.50%), tick (16.25%), mite (7.25%), and fly (1.50%) were identified. The most prevalent flea was Pulex irritans (found on 29% of the foxes); the most prevalent tick, mite, and fly were Ixodes canisuga (on 5%), Sarcoptes scabiei (on 5.25%), and Hippobosca equina (on 1%), respectively. The endoparasites identified included Leishmania spp. (found in 12% of the foxes), Trichinella spp. (in 15.5%, with T. britovi the most prevalent species in 15.25%), Cestoda (in 72.75%, with Mesocestoides spp. the most prevalent in 69.50%), and intestinal ascarids (in 73.25%, with Ancylostoma caninum the most prevalent in 12.50%). No animal was free of parasites. The present results suggest that foxes can act as sentinels of diseases transmitted by ecto- and endoparasites. PMID:26565688

  1. 76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products.'' The purpose of the public...

  2. [Selected parasitic and infectious diseases in persons returning from the tropics].

    PubMed

    Jeske, J; Bergiel, A; Kamerys, J; Malinowska, B; Malowiejska, M

    1999-01-01

    Due to dramatic development of modern means of transport, exotic countries located on distant continents are today within a few-hour reach by a jet. Every year several million people travelled by air in business or as a tourists. This results in easy transmission of parasitic and infectious factors from continent to continent or from country to country. Plasmodium vivax infection: diagnosis concerned 6 men who had returned from Thailand, India, Senegal and Zaire. The parasitosis was detected as a result of thin smear of periferal blond tests - there were found P. vivax trophozoites an shizontes in erythrocytes. In the patients we found haematologic and termoregulation disturbances as well as hapepatosplenomegaly. Halfan was applied in therapy. Plasmodium falciparum infection: the infection was found in a man and a women after return from Kenya and Sudan. The parasitosis was detected as a result of thin smear of peripheral blond test - there found trophozoites of the parasite in erthorocytes. The course of malaria in the woman was very severe with cerebral malaria, DIC syndrome and blond circulation disturbances, hepatocellular and nephrocellular damage. Entamoeba histolytica, HAV and Candida albicans mixed infections: found in men who had returned from India. Severe E. histolytica infection: diagnosed in a women after return from Greece. There were found massive lesion of large intestine mucosa and high-degree disturbances. Leptospirosis icterohaemorrhagiae infection: found in a man after return from Belarus. Haematologic disturbance and hepatocellular and nephrocellular damage were observed. PMID:16886451

  3. Communicating risk and promoting disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease settings

    PubMed Central

    Schiavo, Renata; Leung, May May; Brown, Mason

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review aims to identify and assess evidence on interventions to communicate risk and promote disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease outbreak settings. The study focuses on data that are relevant to low and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search using five major electronic databases (Pubmed Medline, Biomed Central, EMBASE, Science of Citation Index, and Cochrane Library) and other sources to identify relevant studies published from January 2002 to July 2013. The review was guided by the socio-ecological model/perspective of public health and the ideation theory and focused on interventions at the community, healthcare, and multi-sectoral settings, which also reflect key intervention levels of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Eligible quantitative studies were selected according to specific study criteria and assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) framework. Conversely, qualitative studies, reviews, case studies, and editorials were not included. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Results Twenty-nine relevant studies from 16 countries were included. Most studies focused on a single intervention or intervention level, rather than multi-sectoral interventions. The majority of the evidence relates to programs aimed at behavioral and social results (or relevant intermediate steps) within a specific population group. Two studies included implications for improvements in health service delivery, two studies examined the intervention’s impact on health systems-related outcomes, and three had also implications for environmental health outcomes. Cost- and health equity-related implications for select evidence were also discussed. Conclusions The paucity of well-designed quantitative evaluations of interventions to communicate health risk and promote disease control measures in LMICs does not allow for any definitive conclusions. Yet, the review identified several promising interventions and areas for future investigation. Among them, community-based and participatory interventions seemed to be central within epidemic and emerging disease settings, particularly in low-resource settings. Yet, evidence on their effectiveness is not conclusive and needs to be explored by future studies. Other promising areas for future investigation include multi-component and multi-sectoral approaches to intervention design. Major research gaps referred to any evaluation of the impact of these kinds of interventions on health policy adoption and/or implementation, and social determinants of health. Research on cost-effectiveness also needs to be strengthened. This review identified several research gaps and questions, and discusses potential future directions for increasing capacity for future and more rigorous assessments. PMID:24649867

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi III from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) from Northeastern Venezuela and its biological behavior in murine model. Risk of emergency of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Morocoima, Antonio; Carrasco, Hernán J; Boadas, Johanna; Chique, José David; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2012-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), Monagas and Anzoátegui States (endemics). The isolates, genetically typed by PCR-RFLP as belonging to the TcIII DTU, have demonstrated in murine model heterogenic parasitemia, mortality and histotropism with marked parasitism in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth myocytes that showed correlation with lymphobasophilic inflammatory infiltrates. Our finding of T. cruzi infected armadillos in Isla Margarita (Nueva Esparta State), together with reports of triatomine vectors in this region, the accentuated synanthropy of armadillos, intense economic activity, migration due to tourism and the lack of environmental education programs all of them represent risks that could cause the emergence of Chagas' disease in this area. This is the first report of the TcIII DTU in Northeastern Venezuela, thus widening the geographic distribution of this DTU. PMID:22902748

  5. Preparing for Emergencies: A Checklist for People with Neuromuscular Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fast. Develop an escape plan by drawing a floor plan of your residence. Show the location of doors, ... at least twice each year. Example: Floor one Floor Plan Floor One Floor Two Normal Exit Route Emergency ...

  6. Parasites in marine food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Most species interactions probably involve parasites. This review considers the extent to which marine ecologists should consider parasites to fully understand marine communities. Parasites are influential parts of food webs in estuaries, temperate reefs, and coral reefs, but their ecological importance is seldom recognized. Though difficult to observe, parasites can have substantial biomass, and they can be just as common as free-living consumers after controlling for body mass and trophic level. Parasites have direct impacts on the energetics of their hosts and some affect host behaviors, with ecosystem-level consequences. Although they cause disease, parasites are sensitive components of ecosystems. In particular, they suffer secondary extinctions due to biodiversity loss. Some parasites can also return to a system after habitat restoration. For these reasons, parasites can make good indicators of ecosystem integrity. Fishing can indirectly increase or decrease parasite populations and the effects of climate change on parasites are likely to be equally as complex.

  7. Emerging novel concept of chaperone therapies for protein misfolding diseases

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Chaperone therapy is a newly developed molecular therapeutic approach to protein misfolding diseases. Among them we found unstable mutant enzyme proteins in a few lysosomal diseases, resulting in rapid intracellular degradation and loss of function. Active-site binding low molecular competitive inhibitors (chemical chaperones) paradoxically stabilized and enhanced the enzyme activity in somatic cells by correction of the misfolding of enzyme protein. They reached the brain through the blood-brain barrier after oral administration, and corrected pathophysiology of the disease. In addition to these inhibitory chaperones, non-competitive chaperones without inhibitory bioactivity are being developed. Furthermore molecular chaperone therapy utilizing the heat shock protein and other chaperone proteins induced by small molecules has been experimentally tried to handle abnormally accumulated proteins as a new approach particularly to neurodegenerative diseases. These three types of chaperones are promising candidates for various types of diseases, genetic or non-genetic, and neurological or non-neurological, in addition to lysosomal diseases. PMID:24814990

  8. Drugs against parasitic diseases: R&D methodologies and issues SECTION III A. H. FAIRLAMB 107 Target discovery and validation with

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    Drugs against parasitic diseases: R&D methodologies and issues · SECTION III · A. H. FAIRLAMB 107 target for drug discovery and drug development. This article considers the various approaches to target of target validation by chemical and genetic methods. Particular reference is made to the prospects of drug

  9. Demodectic Mange, Dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospecti...

  10. Machine Learning for Zoonotic Emerging Disease Detection Xiaojin Zhu

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

    Information Node, Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies Wildlife Disease Information Node, National Wildlife Health Center, US Geological Survey University of Wisconsin-Madison. Madison, WI 53706 USA diseases in the environment could have sig- nificant impacts on human and animal health, food production

  11. Population viscosity suppresses disease emergence by preserving local herd immunity2

    E-print Network

    Reluga, Tim

    reservoirs for infectious diseases pose on-going risks to human6 populations. In the current theory-setting reductions in local immunity. Increases in population mixing can also increase emergence hazards, even when probability, high consequence risks that the human population of planet earth faces from nature, the emergence

  12. The emerging role of nutrition in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Stacey E.; Santiago, Jose A.; Bilyk, Hope; Potashkin, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in ageing individuals. It is now clear that genetic susceptibility and environmental factors play a role in disease etiology and progression. Because environmental factors are involved with the majority of the cases of PD, it is important to understand the role nutrition plays in both neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. Recent epidemiological studies have revealed the promise of some nutrients in reducing the risk of PD. In contrast, other nutrients may be involved with the etiology of neurodegeneration or exacerbate disease progression. This review summarizes the studies that have addressed these issues and describes in detail the nutrients and their putative mechanisms of action in PD. PMID:24639650

  13. NOD2 prevents emergence of disease-predisposing microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Secher, Thomas; Normand, Sylvain; Chamaillard, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The gut flora is composed of a huge number of diverse, well-adapted symbionts that interact with epithelial lining throughout the host's entire life. Not all commensals have the same ability to maintain quiescent, protective inflammation. Importantly, instability in the composition of gut microbial communities (referred to as dysbiosis) has been linked to loss of gut barrier in the context of common human illnesses with increasing socio-economic impacts, such as Crohn disease and colorectal cancer. Our recent findings suggest that disease-predisposing dysbiosis can now be intentionally manipulated by targeting the major Crohn disease-predisposing NOD2 gene. That knowledge will not only add a new dimension to the often overlooked microbiology of Crohn disease and colorectal cancer, but will also have a broad impact on biomedical sciences worldwide. PMID:23778641

  14. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. PMID:23812027

  15. Are we prepared for emerging and re-emerging diseases? Experience and lessons from epidemics that occurred in Tanzania during the last five decades.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Mboera, Leonard E G; Mbugi, Erasto; Simba, Azma; Kivaria, Fredrick M; Mmbuji, Peter; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2011-12-01

    This paper reviews preparedness for containing and controlling emerging and re-emerging diseases drawing lessons from disease events that occurred in animal and human populations in the last five decades (1961-2011). A comprehensive analysis based on retrieval and analysis of grey and published literature as well as reported cases was carried out to document type and trend of occurrence of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in different parts of Tanzania. Overall, the majority of diseases reported in the country were viral in nature followed by bacterial diseases. The trend for the occurrence shows a number of new emerging diseases as well as re-occurrence of old diseases in both animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. In humans, the major disease epidemics reported in the last five decades include cholera, influenza A H1N1, plague and rubella. In animals, the major epidemic diseases reported were Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia, Peste des petits ruminants and Giraffe Ear and Skin Diseases. Some epidemics have been reported in both human and animal populations including Rift Valley fever and anthrax. The emergence of the 'fit-for purpose' approaches and technologies such as the discipline of One Health, use of participatory epidemiology and disease surveillance and mobile technologies offers opportunity for optimal use of limited resources to improve early detection, diagnosis and response to disease events and consequently reduced impact of such diseases in animal and human populations. PMID:26591993

  16. LETTER Parasite consumption and host interference can inhibit disease spread in dense populations

    E-print Network

    Hall, Spencer

    alternatives when fit to experimental data using a zooplankton host (Daphnia dentifera) that consumes spores, a mechanistic approach to transmission can reveal new insights into disease outbreaks. Keywords Daphnia lack potentially important biology ­ they cannot identify the mechanisms underlying transmission

  17. Review of the diseases, parasites and miscellaneous pathological conditions of North American bison

    PubMed Central

    Tessaro, Stacy V.

    1989-01-01

    The involvement of veterinarians in the health management of North American bison will continue to increase, particularly in regard to the development of the bison ranching industry. More intensive management of bison will lead to greater recognition of diseases, and will raise concerns about the transmission of diseases between bison and other livestock species. This review of the infectious and noninfectious diseases of free-ranging and captive bison populations indicates that bison are susceptible to a wide range of indigenous and foreign diseases that occur in cattle and other livestock species. Most of the available information is based on necropsy results or serological surveys, and there is much less information on clinical, diagnostic and preventive medicine, or on the evaluation of conventional diagnostic tests, therapeutic regimens, or vaccines in bison. PMID:17423322

  18. Chagas disease as a cause of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias in patients long removed from endemic areas: an emerging problem in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, Vieri; Tomberli, Benedetta; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Fornaro, Alessandra; Castelli, Gabriele; Pieralli, Filippo; Berni, Andrea; Yacoub, Sophie; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Olivotto, Iacopo

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. In endemic areas (South and Central America), Chagas disease represents a relevant public health issue, and is the most frequent cause of cardiomyopathy. In nonendemic areas, such as Europe, Chagas disease represents an emerging problem following the establishment of sizeable communities from Brazil and Bolivia. Chagas cardiomyopathy represents the most frequent and serious complication of chronic Chagas disease, affecting about 20-30% of patients, potentially leading to heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolism, stroke and sudden death. Because late complications of Chagas disease may develop several years or even decades after the acute infection, it may be extremely challenging to reach the correct diagnosis in patients long removed from the countries of origin. We report two examples of Chagas cardiomyopathy in South American women permanently residing in Italy for more than 20 years, presenting with cardiac manifestations ranging from left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure to isolated ventricular arrhythmias. The present review emphasizes that Chagas disease should be considered as a potential diagnosis in patients from endemic areas presenting with 'idiopathic' cardiac manifestations, even when long removed from their country of origin, with potential implications for treatment and control of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:25022923

  19. Parasitic infections in travelers and immigrants: part I protozoa.

    PubMed

    Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Perez-Molina, Jose A; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    The growth in international commerce, travel and migration contribute to the global emergence of certain parasitic infections. Importation of vectors and food products may contribute to the emergence of protozoan infections in nonendemic countries. Infections such as malaria are potentially fatal, especially in nonimmune patients, and outcome depends largely on timely diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis/management of imported parasitic infections may be complex especially as some patients may have underlying immunosuppressive conditions such as HIV infection. Major challenges concern the development of improved diagnostic techniques, safer/more effective drug therapies and identification of biological markers of progression and response to treatment. Imported parasitic diseases which may be transmitted vertically or through blood transfusion/organ donation could become a public health priority in the near future. Climate change may affect arthropod distribution and facilitate the spread of protozoan vector-borne diseases. The first part of this review focuses on protozoan infections in travelers and immigrants. PMID:25598338

  20. Emerging prion disease drives host selection in a wildlife population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Johnson, Chad J; Adams, Marie; McKenzie, Debbie I

    2012-04-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly recognized as an important force driving population dynamics, conservation biology, and natural selection in wildlife populations. Infectious agents have been implicated in the decline of small or endangered populations and may act to constrain population size, distribution, growth rates, or migration patterns. Further, diseases may provide selective pressures that shape the genetic diversity of populations or species. Thus, understanding disease dynamics and selective pressures from pathogens is crucial to understanding population processes, managing wildlife diseases, and conserving biological diversity. There is ample evidence that variation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) impacts host susceptibility to prion diseases. Still, little is known about how genetic differences might influence natural selection within wildlife populations. Here we link genetic variation with differential susceptibility of white-tailed deer to chronic wasting disease (CWD), with implications for fitness and disease-driven genetic selection. We developed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay to efficiently genotype deer at the locus of interest (in the 96th codon of the PRNP gene). Then, using a Bayesian modeling approach, we found that the more susceptible genotype had over four times greater risk of CWD infection; and, once infected, deer with the resistant genotype survived 49% longer (8.25 more months). We used these epidemiological parameters in a multi-stage population matrix model to evaluate relative fitness based on genotype-specific population growth rates. The differences in disease infection and mortality rates allowed genetically resistant deer to achieve higher population growth and obtain a long-term fitness advantage, which translated into a selection coefficient of over 1% favoring the CWD-resistant genotype. This selective pressure suggests that the resistant allele could become dominant in the population within an evolutionarily short time frame. Our work provides a rare example of a quantifiable disease-driven selection process in a wildlife population, demonstrating the potential for infectious diseases to alter host populations. This will have direct bearing on the epidemiology, dynamics, and future trends in CWD transmission and spread. Understanding genotype-specific epidemiology will improve predictive models and inform management strategies for CWD-affected cervid populations. PMID:22645831

  1. Biology Today: Parasites and Human Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1984-01-01

    Offers various reasons why the study of parasites and the diseases they cause should be incorporated into classroom biology discussions. Examples of several parasitic diseases and their ecological significance are provided. (JN)

  2. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging Infections Sentinel Network (EISN) Research, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), CK11-002,...

  3. The emerging roles of ?-arrestins in fibrotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuan-jing; Sun, Wu-yi; Zhang, Sen; Wu, Jing-jing; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    ?-Arrestins and ?-arrestin2 are important adaptor proteins and signal transduction proteins that are mainly involved in the desensitization and internalization of G-protein-coupled receptors. Fibrosis is characterized by accumulation of excess extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules caused by chronic tissue injury. If highly progressive, the fibrotic process leads to organ malfunction and, eventually, death. The incurable lung fibrosis, renal fibrosis and liver fibrosis are among the most common fibrotic diseases. Recent studies show that ?-arrestins can activate signaling cascades independent of G-protein activation and scaffold many intracellular signaling networks by diverse types of signaling pathways, including the Hedgehog, Wnt, Notch and transforming growth factor-? pathways, as well as downstream kinases such as MAPK and PI3K. These signaling pathways are involved in the pathological process of fibrosis and fibrotic diseases. This ?-arrestin-mediated regulation not only affects cell growth and apoptosis, but also the deposition of ECM, activation of inflammatory response and development of fibrotic diseases. In this review, we survey the involvement of ?-arrestins in various signaling pathways and highlight different aspects of their regulation of fibrosis. We also discuss the important roles of ?-arrestins in the process of fibrotic diseases by regulating the inflammation and deposit of ECM. It is becoming more evident that targeting ?-arrestins may offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of fibrotic diseases. PMID:26388156

  4. The emerging roles of ?-arrestins in fibrotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuan-Jing; Sun, Wu-Yi; Zhang, Sen; Wu, Jing-Jing; Wei, Wei

    2015-11-01

    ?-Arrestins and ?-arrestin2 are important adaptor proteins and signal transduction proteins that are mainly involved in the desensitization and internalization of G-protein-coupled receptors. Fibrosis is characterized by accumulation of excess extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules caused by chronic tissue injury. If highly progressive, the fibrotic process leads to organ malfunction and, eventually, death. The incurable lung fibrosis, renal fibrosis and liver fibrosis are among the most common fibrotic diseases. Recent studies show that ?-arrestins can activate signaling cascades independent of G-protein activation and scaffold many intracellular signaling networks by diverse types of signaling pathways, including the Hedgehog, Wnt, Notch and transforming growth factor-? pathways, as well as downstream kinases such as MAPK and PI3K. These signaling pathways are involved in the pathological process of fibrosis and fibrotic diseases. This ?-arrestin-mediated regulation not only affects cell growth and apoptosis, but also the deposition of ECM, activation of inflammatory response and development of fibrotic diseases. In this review, we survey the involvement of ?-arrestins in various signaling pathways and highlight different aspects of their regulation of fibrosis. We also discuss the important roles of ?-arrestins in the process of fibrotic diseases by regulating the inflammation and deposit of ECM. It is becoming more evident that targeting ?-arrestins may offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of fibrotic diseases. PMID:26388156

  5. Pets and Parasites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... make me sick? Household pets such as dogs, cats, birds and reptiles can carry diseases or parasites ... might be used as litter boxes by neighborhood cats. Keep your children out of the dirt in ...

  6. Factors shaping the adaptive landscape for arboviruses: implications for the emergence of disease

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Lark L; Forrester, Naomi; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    Many examples of the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases involve the adaptation of zoonotic viruses to new amplification hosts or to humans themselves. These include several instances of simple mutational adaptations, often to hosts closely related to the natural reservoirs. However, based on theoretical grounds, arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, may face several challenges for adaptation to new hosts. Here, we review recent findings regarding adaptive evolution of arboviruses and its impact on disease emergence. We focus on the zoonotic alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis and chikungunya viruses, which have undergone adaptive evolution that mediated recent outbreaks of disease, as well as the flaviviruses dengue and West Nile viruses, which have emerged via less dramatic adaptive mechanisms. PMID:23374123

  7. How urbanization affects the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Neiderud, Carl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    The world is becoming more urban every day, and the process has been ongoing since the industrial revolution in the 18th century. The United Nations now estimates that 3.9 billion people live in urban centres. The rapid influx of residents is however not universal and the developed countries are already urban, but the big rise in urban population in the next 30 years is expected to be in Asia and Africa. Urbanization leads to many challenges for global health and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. New megacities can be incubators for new epidemics, and zoonotic diseases can spread in a more rapid manner and become worldwide threats. Adequate city planning and surveillance can be powerful tools to improve the global health and decrease the burden of communicable diseases. PMID:26112265

  8. The genetic epidemiology of diverticulosis and diverticular disease: Emerging evidence

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Matthias C

    2015-01-01

    Diverticular disease (DD) is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders. The pathogenesis of diverticulosis and DD is controversially discussed. Current studies call the traditional concept of a fibre-deficient diet causing the development of diverticula into question. Data from two recent twin studies have provided conclusive evidence for a strong genetic component to diverticulosis. Although genomewide association studies have provided new insights into the polygenic architecture of human diseases, genomic research in diverticulosis and DD has just been started. This is an astonishing fact given the high morbidity and mortality of the disease, as well as the substantial economic burden on health care systems. For this review, we provide an update of the molecular pathobiology and summarise recent evidence supporting the hypothesis that distinct, yet unidentified genetic variants contribute to the development of diverticulosis and DD. PMID:26535118

  9. The genetic epidemiology of diverticulosis and diverticular disease: Emerging evidence.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Matthias C; Lammert, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Diverticular disease (DD) is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders. The pathogenesis of diverticulosis and DD is controversially discussed. Current studies call the traditional concept of a fibre-deficient diet causing the development of diverticula into question. Data from two recent twin studies have provided conclusive evidence for a strong genetic component to diverticulosis. Although genomewide association studies have provided new insights into the polygenic architecture of human diseases, genomic research in diverticulosis and DD has just been started. This is an astonishing fact given the high morbidity and mortality of the disease, as well as the substantial economic burden on health care systems. For this review, we provide an update of the molecular pathobiology and summarise recent evidence supporting the hypothesis that distinct, yet unidentified genetic variants contribute to the development of diverticulosis and DD. PMID:26535118

  10. Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations.

    PubMed

    Lam, Eugene; McCarthy, Amanda; Brennan, Muireann

    2015-11-01

    Humanitarian emergencies may result in breakdown of regular health services including routine vaccination programs. Displaced populations including refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Common VPDs encountered in humanitarian emergencies include measles, polio, and depending on geographical location, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, and cholera. We conducted a review of 50 published articles from 2000 to 2015 concerning VPDs in humanitarian emergencies. This article provides an update on the available literature regarding vaccinations among this highly vulnerable population and describes the unique challenges of VPDs during humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian emergencies place affected populations at risk for elevated morbidity and mortality from VPDs due to creation or exacerbation of factors associated with disease transmission such as mass population movements, overcrowding, malnutrition, and poor water and sanitation conditions. Vaccination is one of the most basic and critical health interventions for protecting vulnerable populations during emergencies. Growing insecurity, as seen in the increasing number of targeted attacks on health workers in recent years, as well as destruction of cold chain and infrastructure for transportation of supplies, are creating new challenges in provision of life saving vaccines in conflict settings. Population displacement can also threaten global VPD eradication and elimination efforts. While highly effective vaccines and guidelines to combat VPDs are available, the trend of increasing number of humanitarian emergencies globally poses new and emerging challenges in providing vaccination among displaced populations. PMID:26406333

  11. Alternative Medicines as Emerging Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P.; Busbee, Brandon; Guan, H.; Singh, Balwan; Price, Robert L.; Taub, Dennis D.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be divided into two major categories, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). While the main cause(s) of IBD remain unknown, a number of interventional and preventive strategies have been proposed for use against CD and UC. Many reports have focused on the use of alternative natural medicines as potential therapeutic interventions in IBD patients with minimal side effects. While the use of alternative medicines may be effective in IBD patients that are refractory to corticosteroids or thiopurins, alternative treatment strategies are limited and require extensive clinical testing before being optimized for use in patients. PMID:22251008

  12. Heterogeneity in hotspots: spatio-temporal patterns in neglected parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lal, A; Hales, S

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recognized by the WHO as 'Neglected Diseases'. Minimal attention has been paid to the spatial and temporal distribution of disease incidence patterns. Using disease notification data, we detected spatio-temporal clusters of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis across three time periods: (i) 1997-2000, (ii) 2001-2004, (iii) 2005-2008. There was substantial variation in the geographical location and timing of recurrent cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis clusters. Statistically significant (P < 0·05) giardiasis clusters tended to occur in predominantly urban areas with little apparent seasonal influence, while statistically significant cryptosporidiosis clusters were detected in spring, in areas with high livestock land use. The location and timing of cryptosporidiosis clusters suggest an influence of livestock production practices, while urban exposures and host behaviour are likely to influence giardiasis clusters. This approach provides a resource-efficient method for public health authorities to prioritize future research needs and areas for intervention. PMID:24819745

  13. Evidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.

    PubMed

    Saegerman, Claude; Humblet, Marie-France; Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Zanella, Gina; Martinelle, Ludovic

    2012-03-01

    If diseases of food-producing animals or zoonoses (re-)emerge, early clinical decision making is of major importance. In this particular condition, it is difficult to apply a classic evidence-based veterinary medicine process, because of a lack of available published data. A method based on the partition of field clinical observations (evidences) could be developed as an interesting alternative approach. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to improve the early clinical detection in two cases of emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and bluetongue due to the serotype 8-virus in cattle. PMID:22374122

  14. A Case of Motor Neuron Disease Presenting as Dyspnea in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Motor neuron disease encompasses a group of progressive neurologic disorders that destroy cells responsible for the control of essential muscles. The disorders are characterized by progressive weakness, muscle atrophy and fasciculation, spasticity, dysarthria, dysphagia, and respiratory compromise. A 66-year-old male presented to the emergency department with progressive dyspnea and, ultimately, respiratory failure. In spite of extensive cardiopulmonary evaluation, a cause could not be identified except aging. After complete history taking, physical and neurologic examination, motor neuron disease was suspected at last. Thus, elderly patients with dyspnea in the emergency department could have hidden diseases beyond the normal aging process. PMID:22745895

  15. North American soft ticks (Ornithodoros spp.): biology and feral swine parasitism as risks for the emergence of African swine fever in the U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Swine Fever (ASF) is an emerging arboviral disease that affects pigs. The causative agent is the double-stranded DNA African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV). Several soft tick species in the genus Ornithodoros are known arthropod vectors of ASFV. Infection with ASFV can result in a hemorrhagic synd...

  16. Psyllids as vectors of emerging bacterial diseases of annual crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psyllids are important pests of agricultural crops worldwide. These insects may cause damage to plants by direct feeding and/or vectoring plant pathogens. Psyllid-transmitted bacterial diseases are increasingly becoming important in perennial and annual crops. Several reports have shown that the fas...

  17. The emerging use of zebrafish to model metabolic disease

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Asha; Stemple, Derek L.; Barroso, Inês

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish research community is celebrating! The zebrafish genome has recently been sequenced, the Zebrafish Mutation Project (launched by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) has published the results of its first large-scale ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen, and a host of new techniques, such as the genome editing technologies TALEN and CRISPR-Cas, are enabling specific mutations to be created in model organisms and investigated in vivo. The zebrafish truly seems to be coming of age. These powerful resources invoke the question of whether zebrafish can be increasingly used to model human disease, particularly common, chronic diseases of metabolism such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In recent years, there has been considerable success, mainly from genomic approaches, in identifying genetic variants that are associated with these conditions in humans; however, mechanistic insights into the role of implicated disease loci are lacking. In this Review, we highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of zebrafish to address the organism’s utility as a model system for human metabolic diseases. PMID:24046387

  18. Actinomyces in Chronic Granulomatous Disease: An Emerging and Unanticipated Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Reichenbach, Janine; Lopatin, Uri; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Beovic, Bojana; Siler, Ulrich; Zbinden, Reinhard; Seger, Reinhard A.; Galmiche, Louise; Brousse, Nicole; Kayal, Samer; Güngör, Tayfun; Blanche, Stéphane; Holland, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system that causes defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life-threatening infections, mostly by catalase-producing organisms. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, chronic infections with Actinomyces species in 10 patients with CGD. Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous condition that commonly manifests as cervicofacial, pulmonary, or abdominal disease, caused by slowly progressive infection with oral and gastrointestinal commensal Actinomyces species. Treatment of actinomycosis is usually simple in immunocompetent individuals, requiring long-term, high-dose intravenous penicillin, but is more complicated in those with CGD because of delayed diagnosis and an increased risk of chronic invasive or debilitating disease. Methods Actinomyces was identified by culture, staining, 16S ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction, and/ or a complement fixation test in 10 patients with CGD. Results All 10 patients presented with a history of fever and elevated inflammatory signs without evident focus. Diagnosis was delayed and clinical course severe and protracted despite high-dose intravenous antibiotic therapy and/or surgery. These results suggest an unrecognized and unanticipated susceptibility to weakly pathogenic Actinomyces species in patients with CGD because these are catalase-negative organisms previously thought to be nonpathogenic in CGD. Conclusions Actinomycosis should be vigorously sought and promptly treated in patients with CGD presenting with uncommon and prolonged clinical signs of infection. Actinomycosis is a catalase-negative infection important to consider in CGD. PMID:19874205

  19. Emerging Biophotonic Technologies in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    andharnessing light (photons) to image, detect and manipulate biological materials.manipulate biological - identify unaffected individuals who carry one copy of a gene Forensic/identity testing (i.e., paternity brain disorder resulting in loss of muscle control and cancers) Gaucher disease (GD; enlarged liver

  20. The syntaxin 31-induced gene, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1), functions in Glycine max defense to the root parasite Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Shankar R; Krishnavajhala, Aparna; McNeece, Brant T; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P

    2015-01-01

    Experiments show the membrane fusion genes ? soluble NSF attachment protein (?-SNAP) and syntaxin 31 (Gm-SYP38) contribute to the ability of Glycine max to defend itself from infection by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Accompanying their expression is the transcriptional activation of the defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) that function in salicylic acid (SA) signaling. These results implicate the added involvement of the antiapoptotic, environmental response gene LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) in defense. Roots engineered to overexpress the G. max defense genes Gm-?-SNAP, SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BOTRYTIS INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced Gm-LSD1 (Gm-LSD1–2) transcriptional activity. In reciprocal experiments, roots engineered to overexpress Gm-LSD1–2 in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced levels of SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BIK1 and XTH, but not ?-SNAP prior to infection. In tests examining the role of Gm-LSD1–2 in defense, its overexpression results in ?52 to 68% reduction in nematode parasitism. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) of Gm-LSD1–2 in the resistant genotype G. max[Peking/PI 548402] results in an 3.24–10.42 fold increased ability of H. glycines to parasitize. The results identify that Gm-LSD1–2 functions in the defense response of G. max to H. glycines parasitism. It is proposed that LSD1, as an antiapoptotic protein, may establish an environment whereby the protected, living plant cell could secrete materials in the vicinity of the parasitizing nematode to disarm it. After the targeted incapacitation of the nematode the parasitized cell succumbs to its targeted demise as the infected root region is becoming fortified. PMID:25530246

  1. The syntaxin 31-induced gene, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1), functions in Glycine max defense to the root parasite Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Pant, Shankar R; Krishnavajhala, Aparna; McNeece, Brant T; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P

    2015-01-01

    Experiments show the membrane fusion genes ? soluble NSF attachment protein (?-SNAP) and syntaxin 31 (Gm-SYP38) contribute to the ability of Glycine max to defend itself from infection by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Accompanying their expression is the transcriptional activation of the defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) that function in salicylic acid (SA) signaling. These results implicate the added involvement of the antiapoptotic, environmental response gene LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) in defense. Roots engineered to overexpress the G. max defense genes Gm-?-SNAP, SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BOTRYTIS INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced Gm-LSD1 (Gm-LSD1-2) transcriptional activity. In reciprocal experiments, roots engineered to overexpress Gm-LSD1-2 in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced levels of SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BIK1 and XTH, but not ?-SNAP prior to infection. In tests examining the role of Gm-LSD1-2 in defense, its overexpression results in ?52 to 68% reduction in nematode parasitism. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) of Gm-LSD1-2 in the resistant genotype G. max[Peking/PI 548402] results in an 3.24-10.42 fold increased ability of H. glycines to parasitize. The results identify that Gm-LSD1-2 functions in the defense response of G. max to H. glycines parasitism. It is proposed that LSD1, as an antiapoptotic protein, may establish an environment whereby the protected, living plant cell could secrete materials in the vicinity of the parasitizing nematode to disarm it. After the targeted incapacitation of the nematode the parasitized cell succumbs to its targeted demise as the infected root region is becoming fortified. PMID:25530246

  2. Status of mastitis as an emerging disease in improved and periurban dairy farms in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sachin; Gokhale, Suresh

    2006-10-01

    While reviewing present status of mastitis in India, results of investigations from periurban dairy farms on epidemiological, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, bacterial isolation, in vitro drug sensitivity, and treatment of subclinical mastitis have been presented. Mastitis, on account of its causing serious wastage and undesirable milk quality, is emerging as a major challenge among the others (like breeding improvement, nutrition management, control of infectious, tick-borne, blood, and internal parasitic diseases) in dairy development of tropics. Subclinical mastitis was found more important in India (varying from 10-50% in cows and 5-20% in buffaloes) than clinical mastitis (1-10%). The incidence was highest in Purebred Holsteins and Jerseys and lowest in local cattle and buffaloes. An investigation on 250 animals from periurban farms indicated that the monsoon season was more prone to subclinical mastitis than summer or winter, prevalence increased with higher lactation number and animals in 4th-5th month of lactation were found more susceptible (59.49%), hind quarters were found more affected (56.52%) than fore quarters (43.47%). The factors like herd size, agro climatic conditions of the region, variations in sociocultural practices, milk marketing, literacy level of the animal owner, system of feeding, and management were found important affecting the incidence of subclinical mastitis. Comparison of efficacy of different diagnostic techniques for subclinical mastitis, such as modified California mastitis test (MCMT), bromo thymol blue (BTB), modified whiteside test, trypsin inhibition test, milk pH, and electric conductivity indicated MCMT to be most sensitive (95.16%) and specific (98.02%) test. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that most of the bacterial strains (gram positive, gram negative, and mixed) isolated from subclinical mastitis milk samples, were highly sensitive to enrofloxacin 53.91%, least sensitive to oxytetracycline 17.39% and ampicillin 7.83%, and resistant to streptomycin. The therapy with enrofloxacin and nimesulide was found more efficacious (92.30%) in treating subclinical mastitis cows. It was concluded that consideration of socioecological factors for mastitis control in periurban area would help to reduce the cost of mastitis control in clean milk production. PMID:17135496

  3. EMERGENCE AND STAND ESTABLISHMENT OF SMOOTH ROOT GERMPLASM IN DISEASED AND NON-DISEASED NURSERIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling emergence and stand establishment in sugarbeet continue to be a high priority for growers. Any useful test to be used for breeding and selection of emergence potential needs to reflect field performance. We conducted a test to compare emergence and stand establishment among smooth-root (SR)...

  4. Emerging viral disease risk to pollinating insects: ecological, evolutionary and anthropogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Robyn; Boots, Mike; Wilfert, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The potential for infectious pathogens to spillover and emerge from managed populations to wildlife communities is poorly understood, but ecological, evolutionary and anthropogenic factors are all likely to influence the initial exposure and subsequent infection, spread and impact of disease. Fast-evolving RNA viruses, known to cause severe colony losses in managed honeybee populations, deserve particular attention for their propensity to jump between host species and thus threaten ecologically and economically important wild pollinator communities. We review the literature on pollinator viruses to identify biological and anthropogenic drivers of disease emergence, highlight gaps in the literature, and discuss potential management strategies. We provide evidence that many wild pollinator species are exposed to viruses from commercial species, resulting in multiple spillover events. However, it is not clear whether species become infected as a result of spillover or whether transmission is occurring within these wild populations. Ecological traits of pollinating insects, such as overlapping ranges, niches and behaviours, clearly promote cross-species transmission of RNA viruses. Moreover, we conclude that the social behaviour and phylogenetic relatedness of social pollinators further facilitate within- and between-host transmission, leaving these species particularly vulnerable to emerging diseases. We argue that the commercial use of pollinators is a key driver of disease emergence in these beneficial insects and that this must be addressed by management and policy. Synthesis and applications. There are important knowledge gaps, ranging from disease distribution and prevalence, to pathogen life history and virulence, to the impacts of disease emergence, which need to be addressed as research priorities. It is clear that avoiding anthropogenic pathogen spillover is crucial to preventing and managing disease emergence in pollinators, with far-reaching effects on our food security, ecosystem services and biodiversity. We argue that it is crucial to prevent the introduction of diseased pollinators into natural environments, which can be achieved through improved monitoring and management practices. PMID:25954053

  5. Expansion of host cellular niche can drive adaptation of a zoonotic malaria parasite to humans

    PubMed Central

    DeSimone, Tiffany M.; Moreno, Yovany; Junker, Klara; Bei, Amy; Brugnara, Carlo; Buckee, Caroline O.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2013-01-01

    The macaque malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has recently emerged as an important zoonosis in Southeast Asia. Infections are typically mild but can cause severe disease, achieving parasite densities similar to fatal Plasmodium falciparum infections. We show that a primate-adapted P. knowlesi parasite proliferates poorly in human blood due to a strong preference for young red blood cells. We establish a continuous in vitro culture system by using human blood enriched for young cells. Mathematical modeling predicts that parasite adaptation for invasion of older red blood cells is a likely mechanism leading to high parasite densities in clinical infections. Consistent with this model, we find that P. knowlesi can adapt to invade a wider age range of red blood cells, resulting in proliferation in normal human blood. Such cellular niche expansion may increase pathogenesis in humans and will be a key feature to monitor as P. knowlesi emerges in human populations. PMID:23535659

  6. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Free-Ranging Wildlife–Australian Zoo Based Wildlife Hospitals Contribute to National Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Cox-Witton, Keren; Reiss, Andrea; Woods, Rupert; Grillo, Victoria; Baker, Rupert T.; Blyde, David J.; Boardman, Wayne; Cutter, Stephen; Lacasse, Claude; McCracken, Helen; Pyne, Michael; Smith, Ian; Vitali, Simone; Vogelnest, Larry; Wedd, Dion; Phillips, Martin; Bunn, Chris; Post, Lyndel

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife. Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases. PMID:24787430

  7. Exploiting dendrimer multivalency to combat emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mintzer, Meredith A.; Dane, Eric L.; O’Toole, George A.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of bacterial strains that are resistant to current antibiotics reveals the clinical need for new agents that possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Furthermore, bacteriophobic coatings that repel bacteria are important for medical devices, as the lifetime, reliability, and performance of implant devices are hindered by bacterial adhesion and infection. Dendrimers, a specific class of monodisperse macromolecules, have recently shown potential to function as both antibacterial agents as well as antimicrobial surface coatings. This review discusses the limitations with currently used antibacterial agents and describes how various classes of dendrimers, including glycodendrimers, cationic dendrimers, anionic dendrimers, and peptide dendrimers, have the potential to improve upon or replace certain antibiotics. Furthermore, the unexplored areas in this field of research will be mentioned to present opportunities for additional studies regarding the use of dendrimers as antimicrobial agents. PMID:22126461

  8. Parasitism, Emergence, and Development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Pupae of Different Ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host–parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3–5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6–7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2–5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6–7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. PMID:25700538

  9. Treatment of fabry disease: current and emerging strategies.

    PubMed

    Rozenfeld, Paula; Neumann, Pablo M

    2011-06-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) due to deficiency of the enzyme ?-galactosidase A (GLA). Absent or reduced enzyme activity leads to impaired catabolism of neutral glycosphingolipids, particularly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), resulting in intracellular deposition of such lipids. Clinical manifestations in hemizygote males include angiokeratoma, hypohydrosis, acroparesthesia, abdominal pain, proteinuria, renal insufficiency, left ventricular hypertrophy and cerebrovascular accidents. Heterozygote women may present with mild to severe signs and symptoms. Since year 2001, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is the only specific treatment for Fabry disease. The beneficial effect of ERT on different organs/systems has been extensively evaluated, and an improvement in renal function, cardiac mass and quality of life has been reported. Different treatment approaches are currently on development. One of them implies the use of the active-site-specific chaperone 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin that acts facilitating folding of mutant GLA in the endoplasmic reticulum and increasing its lysosomal residual activity. Reduction of Gb3 deposits has been shown in lymphoblasts from Fabry patients with missense mutations and transgenic mouse model expressing a missense mutation GLA. Gene therapy has been also developed as a potential option for treatment of Fabry disease. This review will discuss these novel therapeutic options along with their advantages and limitations. PMID:21235448

  10. Health Literacy: Emerging Evidence and Applications in Kidney Disease Care

    PubMed Central

    Dageforde, Leigh Anne; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.

    2013-01-01

    Health literacy represents the communication among patients, their social networks, providers, and health systems to promote patients’ understanding and engagement in their care. This is particularly relevant in kidney disease, in which the complexity of the medical condition and the extent of the health-care team require strategies to overcome health-literacy-related barriers. Limited literacy is common in patients with all stages of kidney disease and is associated with important outcomes, including reduced knowledge, less adherence, hospitalization, and death. A growing understanding and characterization of the health system, or organizational health literacy, may further our understanding of this dynamic relationship. Although various valid methods exist, assessment of health literacy within individuals or systematically within care settings has not been routinely performed. This may be in part due to the limited research in kidney-specific strategies to address limited health literacy. Future research to understand the mechanisms of health literacy will permit targeted, efficient interventions to bridge gaps and improve outcomes even in patients with complex kidney disease. PMID:23809283

  11. The emerging role of epigenetics in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gay, Steffen; Wilson, Anthony G

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetics is a key mechanism regulating the expression of genes. There are three main and interrelated mechanisms: DNA methylation, post-translational modification of histone proteins and non-coding RNA. Gene activation is generally associated with lower levels of DNA methylation in promoters and with distinct histone marks such as acetylation of amino acids in histones. Unlike the genetic code, the epigenome is altered by endogenous (e.g. hormonal) and environmental (e.g. diet, exercise) factors and changes with age. Recent evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of common rheumatic disease, including RA, OA, SLE and scleroderma. Epigenetic drift has been implicated in age-related changes in the immune system that result in the development of a pro-inflammatory status termed inflammageing, potentially increasing the risk of age-related conditions such as polymyalgia rheumatica. Therapeutic targeting of the epigenome has shown promise in animal models of rheumatic diseases. Rapid advances in computational biology and DNA sequencing technology will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of common rheumatic diseases. PMID:24026248

  12. Coordinating research on neglected parasitic diseases in Southeast Asia through networking.

    PubMed

    Olveda, Remigio; Leonardo, Lydia; Zheng, Feng; Sripa, Banchob; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    The new dialogue between stakeholders, that is, scientists, research administrators and donors as well as the populations victimized by endemic infections, is initiating a virtuous circle leading to lower disease-burdens, improved public health and the mitigation of poverty. There is now general agreement that control activities need research collaboration to advance, while surveillance plays an increasingly important role in sustaining long-term relief. On the part of the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)), this has led to a new vision not only focused on general strengthening of research capabilities but also on furthering efforts to close the gap between research and control and bridge different branches of science. From its original, exclusive focus on schistosomiasis, RNAS(+) has expanded to include food-borne and soil-transmitted helminth infections as well. Its current repository of data on the distribution, prevalence and severity of these diseases is increasingly utilised by decision makers charged with epidemiological control in the endemic countries. Thanks to a more rapid translation of research results into control applications and the dissemination of data and new technology through networking, the overall situation is improving. Working as a virtual organisation of researchers and control officers in the endemic countries of Southeast Asia, RNAS(+) is playing an important role in this conversion. Its responsibilities are divided along disease lines into five main areas, but no serious, endemic disease is considered to be outside the network's sphere of interest. This chapter recounts some of the more important RNAS(+) accomplishments, pinpoints potential directions for future operations and highlights areas where research is most needed. PMID:20624528

  13. Application of Radar Altimetry Methods to Monitoring of Parasitic Disease Transmission: Schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandless, M.; Ibaraki, M.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Liang, S.

    2008-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second-most prevalent tropical disease after malaria affecting two-hundred million people annually world-wide; it shortens lifespan on average by ten years in endemic areas and no vaccine exists. The current control methods of human host chemotherapy and application of molluscicides to the environment do not break the disease transmission cycle. Schistosomiasis transmission in southern China involves an amphibious intermediate host snail for which hydrology is a key factor because the adults need moist vegetation while the juveniles are fully aquatic. Thus, hydrology is a key factor in schistosomiasis transmission and understanding its role can inform control measures. Our objective is to integrate hydrologic, ecologic, and other environmental factors to determine the changes in available snail habitat through space and time. We use radar altimetry measurements to determine water level every 35 days when the Envisat (Environmental Satellite) passes over the lake. The radar altimetry readings have been calibrated to levels from in-situ gauging stations and will support remote analysis of disease transmission potential without the need for gauging station data. A geographic information system was used to combine key factors including water level, topography, and air temperature data to identify areas of available snail habitat. In order to accomplish this, we conducted three steps including: delineating the watershed, specifying potential snail habitat areas through topography and air temperature classification, and calculating the intersection between potential snail habitat and non-flooded areas in the watershed. Statistical analyses of total available habitat area are also conducted. These maps and statistics analyses can be used by public health agencies to monitor snail habitat trends over time. Coupling remote sensing of water levels with a geographic information system model will continue to be important as the hydrology of the lake changes due to the completion of the upstream Three Gorges Dam project.

  14. Parasite Virulence 14Parasite Virulence

    E-print Network

    Schall, Joseph J.

    Parasite Virulence 14Parasite Virulence Jos J. Schall Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA The Problem Some parasites exact a terrible price from their hosts, causing severe pathology and reducing the host's fitness, whereas other parasites are essentially benign. Several kinds

  15. Current and emerging treatment options for Peyronie’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Ahmet; Wang, Julie C; Powers, Mary K; Hellstrom, Wayne JG

    2013-01-01

    Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a condition of the penis, characterized by the presence of localized fibrotic plaque in the tunica albuginea. PD is not an uncommon disorder, with recent epidemiologic studies documenting a prevalence of 3–9% of adult men affected. The actual prevalence of PD may be even higher. It is often associated with penile pain, anatomical deformities in the erect penis, and difficulty with intromission. As the definitive pathophysiology of PD has not been completely elucidated, further basic research is required to make progress in the understanding of this enigmatic condition. Similarly, research on effective therapies is limited. Currently, nonsurgical treatments are used for those men who are in the acute stage of PD, whereas surgical options are reserved for men with established PD who cannot successfully penetrate. Intralesional treatments are growing in clinical popularity as a minimally invasive approach in the initial treatment of PD. A surgical approach should be considered when men with PD do not respond to conservative, medical, or minimally invasive therapies for approximately 1 year and cannot have satisfactory sexual intercourse. As scientific breakthroughs in the understanding of the mechanisms of this disease process evolve, novel treatments for the many men suffering with PD are anticipated. PMID:24400231

  16. Emerging Science of Hydroxyurea Therapy for Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Green, Nancy S.; Barral, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is the sole approved pharmacologic therapy for sickle cell disease (SCD). Higher fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels diminish de-oxygenated sickle globin polymerization in vitro and clinically reduce the incidence of disease morbidities. Clinical and laboratory effects of hydroxyurea largely result from induction of HbF expression, though to a highly variable extent. Baseline and hydroxyurea-induced HbF expression are both inherited complex traits. In children with SCD, baseline HbF remains the best predictor of drug-induced levels, but accounts for only portion of the induction. A limited number of validated genetic loci are strongly associated with higher baseline HbF levels in SCD. For induced HbF levels, genetic approaches using candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have identified some of these same loci as also associated with induction. However, SNP associations to induced HbF are only partially independent of baseline levels. Additional approaches to understanding the impact of hydroxyurea on HbF and its other therapeutic effects on SCD include pharmaco-kinetic, gene expression and epigenetic analyses in patients and through existing murine models for SCD. Understanding the genetic and other factors underlying the variability in therapeutic effects of hydroxyurea for pediatric SCD is critical for prospectively predicting good responders and for designing other effective therapies. PMID:24252885

  17. Alzheimers disease: review of emerging treatment role for intravenous immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Kayed, Rakez; Jackson, George R; Estes, D Mark; Barrett, Alan D T

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Currently available therapies are symptomatic but do not alter underlying disease progression. Immunotherapeutic approaches such as anti A? peptide active vaccination trials have had limited success to date. Intravenous immunoblobulin (IVIg) is widely used in immune-mediated neurological disorders such myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These preparations have been obtained from the pooled plasma of healthy human donors and contain natural anti-amyloid antibodies and are well tolerated. A small pilot study of passive immunotherapy using IVIg has suggested cognitive improvement. A multicenter phase III trial is ongoing and will determine whether or not this treatment can ameliorate cognitive deficits in mild-to-moderate AD. Here, we briefly review the pathogenic role of amyloid and tau in AD, as well as immunotherapeutic efforts to date. We also summarize what is known about naturally occurring anti-A? and tau antibodies in IVIg with a view toward explaining potential mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects. PMID:23861639

  18. Alzheimers Disease: Review of Emerging Treatment Role for Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Kayed, Rakez; Jackson, George R.; Estes, D. Mark; Barrett, Alan D.T.

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Currently available therapies are symptomatic but do not alter underlying disease progression. Immunotherapeutic approaches such as anti A? peptide active vaccination trials have had limited success to date. Intravenous immunoblobulin (IVIg) is widely used in immune-mediated neurological disorders such myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These preparations have been obtained from the pooled plasma of healthy human donors and contain natural anti-amyloid antibodies and are well tolerated. A small pilot study of passive immunotherapy using IVIg has suggested cognitive improvement. A multicenter phase III trial is ongoing and will determine whether or not this treatment can ameliorate cognitive deficits in mild-to-moderate AD. Here, we briefly review the pathogenic role of amyloid and tau in AD, as well as immunotherapeutic efforts to date. We also summarize what is known about naturally occurring anti-A? and tau antibodies in IVIg with a view toward explaining potential mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects. PMID:23861639

  19. Preventive chemotherapy as a strategy for elimination of neglected tropical parasitic diseases: endgame challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bockarie, Moses J.; Kelly-Hope, Louise A.; Rebollo, Maria; Molyneux, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Global efforts to address neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) were stimulated in January 2012 by the London declaration at which 22 partners, including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and major pharmaceutical companies committed to sustaining and expanding NTD programmes to eliminate or eradicate 11 NTDs by 2020 to achieve the goals outlined in the recently published WHO road map. Here, we present the current context of preventive chemotherapy for some NTDs, and discuss the problems faced by programmes as they consider the ‘endgame’, such as difficulties of access to populations in post-conflict settings, limited human and financial resources, and the need to expand access to clean water and improved sanitation for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. In the case of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, ivermectin treatment carries a significant risk owing to serious adverse effects in some patients co-infected with the tropical eye worm Loa loa filariasis. We discuss the challenges of managing complex partnerships, and maintain advocacy messages for the continued support for elimination of these preventable diseases. PMID:23798692

  20. [Emergencies in colorectal diseases: role of the endoscopist].

    PubMed

    Frezza, M; Buri, L; Peri, A; Widmayer, C; Vram, A

    1996-01-01

    In some emergency situations of colo-rectal pathology, especially those characterized by hemorrhaging, the endoscopy has acquired, with the passing of years, a fundamental role both from the diagnostic and the therapeutic point of view. In no more than 25% of the lower intestinal tract hemorrhages, the clinical picture does have the signs of an emergency. The diverticula, IBD and angiodysplasias are primarily responsible for rendering these characteristics. Even when possible problems concerning an accurate intestinal cleaning can arise, a correct diagnosis is possible at least in seven cases out ten. When the colonoscopy isn't conclusive and the bleeding persists may be recommended the selective arteriography (helpful also in hemorrhages lower than 0.5 ml/min). Also in cases of acute obstructive syndrome the colonoscopy, taking advantage of the direct view of the lesion, can give a correct diagnosis, sometimes supported by the histologic examination. Regarding the operating capacity of the method, the endoscopy can resolve minute and localized bleeding lesions. The Argon or Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation is widely used. Recently BICAP and heater probe methods have been developed, which aveld the problem connected to the HF electrocoagulation. A very efficacious and simple method is that of injecting 1:10.000 adrenalin, 1% polidocanol, absolute ethanol or hypertonic solution around the lesion. The scarred strictures are those more easily and safely treated by pneumatic dilatation or (limited to the rectum-sigmoid) by Savary sounds. In the volvulus or bowel invagination, just by having the endoscope goes up in the lumen, often normal condition settles again. In the Ogilvie's syndrome you can deflate the cecum with an aspirator or more simply by positioning a tube above the hepatic flexure, with 85% success. In the malignant strictures the debulking of tumor mass by laser treatment, sometimes followed by dilatation, may be preparatory to the surgery or purely palliative. Finally the extraction of foreign bodies must be performed, in order to obtain a relaxed anal sphincter, in general anaesthesia or by a previous rigid rectoscope dilatation. PMID:8929030

  1. Public health challenges and emerging diseases: the case of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    da Silva, L J

    2001-01-01

    The author discusses the challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases in 100 years of public health in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With an advanced and organized public health system, São Paulo responded to the emergence of infectious diseases by creating research institutions and control programs. The late 19th century witnessed the first modern research institution in microbiology, in response to the bubonic plague. A changing economy led to constant changes in ecosystems. The late 20th century presents a wide array of both emerging and rapidly changing infectious diseases. The present situation calls for creative solutions. Ecosystem analysis and more agile epidemiological surveillance are seen as the best alternatives. PMID:11426275

  2. Leishmaniasis Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease Ulcerative skin lesion, with ... with some of the species (types) of the parasite that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis in parts of Latin ...

  3. Understanding the Emergence of Ebola Virus Disease in Sierra Leone: Stalking the Virus in the Threatening Wake of Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Wauquier, Nadia; Bangura, James; Moses, Lina; Humarr Khan, Sheik; Coomber, Moinya; Lungay, Victor; Gbakie, Michael; Sesay, Mohammed S.K.; Gassama, Ibrahim A.K.; Massally, James L.B.; Gbakima, Aiah; Squire, James; Lamin, Mohamed; Kanneh, Lansana; Yillah, Mohammed; Kargbo, Kandeh; Roberts, Willie; Vandi, Mohammed; Kargbo, David; Vincent, Tom; Jambai, Amara; Guttieri, Mary; Fair, Joseph; Souris, Marc; Gonzalez, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Since Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was first identified in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, and despite the numerous outbreaks recorded to date, rarely has an epidemic origin been identified. Indeed, among the twenty-one most documented EVD outbreaks in Africa, an index case has been identified four times, and hypothesized in only two other instances. The initial steps of emergence and spread of a virus are critical in the development of a potential outbreak and need to be thoroughly dissected and understood in order to improve on preventative strategies. In the current West African outbreak of EVD, a unique index case has been identified, pinpointing the geographical origin of the epidemic in Guinea. Herein, we provide an accounting of events that serve as the footprint of EVD emergence in Sierra Leone and a road map for risk mitigation fueled by lessons learned. PMID:25969797

  4. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Management of metastatic disease and emerging therapies

    PubMed Central

    Vadakara, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Prior to the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors like imatinib, there were few treatment options available to patients with metastatic GIST. Surgery was the mainstay of treatment and the prognosis for patients with metastatic GIST was dismal. With the advent of imatinib the prognosis of metastatic GIST has improved dramatically. Second line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as sunitinib and regorafenib have further bettered prognosis, however there is still a need for therapies for patients with disease refractory to TKI therapy. Newer agents such as the Hsp90 inhibitors, PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors and IGF1-R inhibitors are currently under investigation and may have promise. This review discusses the current standard of care in terms of pharmacotherapy, both standard and investigational (summarized in Box 1), in the management of metastatic GIST. PMID:24093167

  5. The emerging roles of GPRC5A in diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Honglei; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2014-01-01

    The ‘Retinoic Acid-Inducible G-protein-coupled receptors’ or RAIG are a group comprising the four orphan receptors GPRC5A, GPRC5B, GPRC5C and GPRC5D. As the name implies, their expression is induced by retinoic acid but beyond that very little is known about their function. In recent years, one member, GPRC5A, has been receiving increasing attention as it was shown to play important roles in human cancers. As a matter of fact, dysregulation of GPRC5A has been associated with several cancers including lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Here we review the current state of knowledge about the heterogeneity and evolution of GPRC5A, its regulation, its molecular functions, and its involvement in human disease. PMID:25621293

  6. The emerging roles of GPRC5A in diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Honglei; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2014-01-01

    The 'Retinoic Acid-Inducible G-protein-coupled receptors' or RAIG are a group comprising the four orphan receptors GPRC5A, GPRC5B, GPRC5C and GPRC5D. As the name implies, their expression is induced by retinoic acid but beyond that very little is known about their function. In recent years, one member, GPRC5A, has been receiving increasing attention as it was shown to play important roles in human cancers. As a matter of fact, dysregulation of GPRC5A has been associated with several cancers including lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Here we review the current state of knowledge about the heterogeneity and evolution of GPRC5A, its regulation, its molecular functions, and its involvement in human disease. PMID:25621293

  7. Emerging effects of sevelamer in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ikee, Ryota; Tsunoda, Masataka; Sasaki, Naomi; Sato, Naritsugu; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Sevelamer, a non-absorbable anion exchange resin, is used to control hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) by binding to dietary phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract. Lipid-lowering effect is a widely recognized pleiotropic effect of sevelamer. In addition, many studies have reported that sevelamer leads to reduced vascular calcification compared with calcium-containing phosphate binders, which is attributed to the improved lipid profiles and decreased calcium load. In addition, recent studies have suggested novel pleiotropic effects on bone structure, inflammation, oxidative stress, anemia, fetuin-A, and trace element metabolism in CKD patients. All of these effects have the potential to suppress the development/progression of cardiovascular lesions and reduce mortality. This review summarizes novel findings from recent studies and discusses the potential pleiotropic effects of sevelamer on non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in CKD patients. PMID:23486088

  8. An Emerging Approach for Parallel Quantification of Intracellular Protozoan Parasites and Host Cell Characterization Using TissueFAXS Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Maximilian; Dufner, Bianca; Dürk, Julius; Bedal, Konstanze; Stricker, Kristina; Prokoph, Lukas Ali; Koch, Christoph; Wege, Anja K.; Zirpel, Henner; van Zandbergen, Ger; Ecker, Rupert; Boghiu, Bogdan; Ritter, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of host-pathogen interactions is a fundamental approach in microbiological and immunological oriented disciplines. It is commonly accepted that host cells start to change their phenotype after engulfing pathogens. Techniques such as real time PCR or ELISA were used to characterize the genes encoding proteins that are associated either with pathogen elimination or immune escape mechanisms. Most of such studies were performed in vitro using primary host cells or cell lines. Consequently, the data generated with such approaches reflect the global RNA expression or protein amount recovered from all cells in culture. This is justified when all host cells harbor an equal amount of pathogens under experimental conditions. However, the uptake of pathogens by phagocytic cells is not synchronized. Consequently, there are host cells incorporating different amounts of pathogens that might result in distinct pathogen-induced protein biosynthesis. Therefore, we established a technique able to detect and quantify the number of pathogens in the corresponding host cells using immunofluorescence-based high throughput analysis. Paired with multicolor staining of molecules of interest it is now possible to analyze the infection profile of host cell populations and the corresponding phenotype of the host cells as a result of parasite load. PMID:26488169

  9. De-Politicizing Parasites: Reflections on Attempts to Control the Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Melissa; Allen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of funding are being allocated to the control of neglected tropical diseases. Strategies primarily rely on the mass distribution of drugs to adults and children living in endemic areas. The approach is presented as morally appropriate, technically effective, and context-free. Drawing on research undertaken in East Africa, we discuss ways in which normative ideas about global health programs are used to set aside social and biological evidence. In particular, there is a tendency to ignore local details, including information about actual drug take up. Ferguson’s ‘anti-politics’ thesis is a useful starting point for analyzing why this happens, but is overly deterministic. Anti-politics discourse about healing the suffering poor may shape thinking and help explain cognitive dissonance. However, use of such discourse is also a means of strategically promoting vested interests and securing funding. Whatever the underlying motivations, rhetoric and realities are conflated, with potentially counterproductive consequences. PMID:24761976

  10. Recent developments in the diagnosis of ectoparasite infections and disease through a better understanding of parasite biology and host responses.

    PubMed

    Wells, Beth; Burgess, Stewart T G; McNeilly, Tom N; Huntley, John F; Nisbet, Alasdair J

    2012-02-01

    Some conventional methods of diagnosis of ectoparasite infections can have low sensitivity and/or specificity. In addition, early infestations, sub-clinical and carrier hosts often go un-diagnosed, allowing infestations to spread. This review focuses on the important ectoparasites of human, livestock and companion animals for which improved diagnostic tools are either already in use, or in development. These advances in diagnostic technologies have resulted in improved treatment, control and preventative strategies for many ectoparasitic diseases. Immunodiagnostic methods have had a large impact, with the emergence of highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for sarcoptic and psoroptic mange, with further improved tests in development. In the present review, the advantages and limitations of such tests are discussed and the potential for future development explored. The increasing use of molecular tools, for example, PCR and other molecular methods, has improved our understanding of the epidemiology of ectoparasitic diseases, with practical consequences for community-based control programmes. Recently, the identification of specific signalling pathways during the host response to ectoparasites has led to the identification of disease biomarkers which, along with new technologies, such as multiplexed assays and microfluidic platforms, could lead to more cost-effective, rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID:21982815

  11. Infectious disease emergence and global change: thinking systemically in a shrinking world

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Concern intensifying that emerging infectious diseases and global environmental changes that could generate major future human pandemics. Method A focused literature review was undertaken, partly informed by a forthcoming report on environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty, facilitated by the Special Programme for Tropical Diseases. Results More than ten categories of infectious disease emergence exist, but none formally analyse past, current or future burden of disease. Other evidence suggests that the dominant public health concern focuses on two informal groupings. Most important is the perceived threat of newly recognised infections, especially viruses that arise or are newly discovered in developing countries that originate in species exotic to developed countries, such as non-human primates, bats and rodents. These pathogens may be transmitted by insects or bats, or via direct human contact with bushmeat. The second group is new strains of influenza arising from intensively farmed chickens or pigs, or emerging from Asian “wet markets” where several bird species have close contact. Both forms appear justified because of two great pandemics: HIV/AIDS (which appears to have originated from bushmeat hunting in Africa before emerging globally) and Spanish influenza, which killed up to 2.5% of the human population around the end of World War I. Insufficiently appreciated is the contribution of the milieu which appeared to facilitate the high disease burden in these pandemics. Additionally, excess anxiety over emerging infectious diseases diverts attention from issues of greater public health importance, especially: (i) existing (including neglected) infectious diseases and (ii) the changing milieu that is eroding the determinants of immunity and public health, caused by adverse global environmental changes, including climate change and other components of stressed life and civilisation-supporting systems. Conclusions The focus on novel pathogens and minor forms of anti-microbial resistance in emerging disease literature is unjustified by their burden of disease, actual and potential, and diverts attention from far more important health problems and determinants. There is insufficient understanding of systemic factors that promote pandemics. Adverse global change could generate circumstances conducive to future pandemics with a high burden of disease, arising via anti-microbial and insecticidal resistance, under-nutrition, conflict, and public health breakdown. PMID:23849217

  12. Response to an emerging vector-borne disease: surveillance and preparedness for Schmallenberg virus.

    PubMed

    Roberts, H C; Elbers, A R W; Conraths, F J; Holsteg, M; Hoereth-Boentgen, D; Gethmann, J; van Schaik, G

    2014-10-15

    Surveillance for new emerging animal diseases from a European perspective is complicated by the non-harmonised approach across Member States for data capture, recording livestock populations and case definitions. In the summer of 2011, a new vector-borne Orthobunyavirus emerged in Northern Europe and for the first time, a coordinated approach to horizon scanning, risk communication, data and diagnostic test sharing allowed EU Member States to develop early predictions of the disease, its impact and risk management options. There are many different systems in place across the EU for syndromic and scanning surveillance and the differences in these systems have presented epidemiologists and risk assessors with concerns about their combined use in early identification of an emerging disease. The emergence of a new disease always will raise challenging issues around lack of capability and lack of knowledge; however, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) gave veterinary authorities an additional complex problem: the infection caused few clinical signs in adult animals, with no indication of the possible source and little evidence about its spread or means of transmission. This paper documents the different systems in place in some of the countries (Germany and the Netherlands) which detected disease initially and predicted its spread (to the UK) and how information sharing helped to inform early warning and risk assessment for Member States. Microarray technology was used to identify SBV as a new pathogen and data from the automated cattle milking systems coupled with farmer-derived data on reporting non-specific clinical signs gave the first indications of a widespread issue while the UK used meteorological modelling to map disease incursion. The coordinating role of both EFSA and the European Commission were vital as are the opportunities presented by web-based publishing for disseminating information to industry and the public. The future of detecting emerging disease looks more positive in the light of this combined approach in the EU. PMID:25236564

  13. Patient-Centred Coordinated Care in Times of Emerging Diseases and Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E.; Dexheimer, J. W.; Gong, Y.; Kennebeck, S.; Kushniruk, A.; Kuziemsky, C.; Saranto, K.; Weber, J.; Takeda, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives In this paper the researchers describe how existing health information technologies (HIT) can be repurposed and new technologies can be innovated to provide patient-centered care to individuals affected by new and emerging diseases. Methods The researchers conducted a focused review of the published literature describing how HIT can be used to support safe, patient-centred, coordinated care to patients who are affected by Ebola (an emerging disease). Results New and emerging diseases present opportunities for repurposing existing technologies and for stimulating the development of new HIT innovation. Innovative technologies may be developed such as new software used for tracking patients during new or emerging disease outbreaks or by repurposing and extending existing technologies so they can be used to support patients, families and health professionals who may have been exposed to a disease. The paper describes the development of new technologies and the repurposing and extension of existing ones (such as electronic health records) using the most recent outbreak of Ebola as an example. PMID:26123904

  14. Tick-Borne Rickettsioses, Neglected Emerging Diseases in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Fenollar, Florence; Sokhna, Cheikh; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background Rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in West Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings Overall seroprevalence evaluated by immunofluorescence using six rickettsial antigens (spotted fever and typhus group) in rural populations of two villages of the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal was found to be 21.4% and 51% for spotted fever group rickettsiae for Dielmo and Ndiop villages, respectively. We investigated the role of tick-borne rickettsiae as the cause of acute non-malarial febrile diseases in the same villages. The incidence of rickettsial DNA in 204 blood samples from 134 (62M and 72F) febrile patients negative for malaria was studied. DNA extracted from whole blood was tested by two qPCR systems. Rickettsial DNA was found in nine patients, eight with Rickettsia felis (separately reported). For the first time in West Africa, Rickettsia conorii was diagnosed in one patient. We also tested 2,767 Ixodid ticks collected in two regions of Senegal (Niakhar and Sine-Saloum) from domestic animals (cows, sheep, goats, donkeys and horses) by qPCR and identified five different pathogenic rickettsiae. We found the following: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (51.3% and 44.8% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively), in Hyalomma truncatum (6% and 6.8%) and in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.5%, only in Niakhar); R. c. conorii in Rh. e. evertsi (0.4%, only in Sine-Saloum); Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus guilhoni (22.4%, only in Niakhar); Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in Hyalomma truncatum (13.5%, only in Sine-Saloum); and Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.7% and 0.4% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively) as well as in Rhipicephalus annulatus (20%, only in Sine-Saloum). We isolated two rickettsial strains from H. truncatum: R. s. mongolitimonae and R. aeschlimannii. Conclusions/Significance We believe that together with our previous data on the high prevalence of R. africae in Amblyomma ticks and R. felis infection in patients, the presented results on the distribution of pathogenic rickettsiae in ticks and the first R. conorii case in West Africa show that the rural population of Senegal is at risk for other tick-borne rickettsioses, which are significant causes of febrile disease in this area. PMID:20856858

  15. 2002 Nature Publishing Group Trypanosomatid protozoans are important parasites

    E-print Network

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    © 2002 Nature Publishing Group REVIEWS Trypanosomatid protozoans are important parasites of humans PARASITE GENETICS COMES OF AGE Stephen M. Beverley Trypanosomatid protozoans cause important diseases

  16. Dysfunctional adaptive immunity during parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Ryan A.; Butler, Noah S.

    2014-01-01

    Parasite-driven dysfunctional adaptive immunity represents an emerging hypothesis to explain the chronic or persistent nature of parasitic infections, as well as the observation that repeated exposure to most parasitic organisms fails to engender sterilizing immunity. This review discusses recent examples from clinical studies and experimental models of parasitic infection that substantiate the role for immune dysfunction in the inefficient generation and maintenance of potent anti-parasitic immunity. Better understanding of the complex interplay between parasites, host adaptive immunity, and relevant negative regulatory circuits will inform efforts to enhance resistance to chronic parasitic infections through vaccination or immunotherapy. PMID:24839433

  17. Drivers of Emerging Infectious Disease Events as a Framework for Digital Detection

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sarah H.; Benedum, Corey M.; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Preston, Nicholas D.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Joly, Damien O.

    2015-01-01

    The growing field of digital disease detection, or epidemic intelligence, attempts to improve timely detection and awareness of infectious disease (ID) events. Early detection remains an important priority; thus, the next frontier for ID surveillance is to improve the recognition and monitoring of drivers (antecedent conditions) of ID emergence for signals that precede disease events. These data could help alert public health officials to indicators of elevated ID risk, thereby triggering targeted active surveillance and interventions. We believe that ID emergence risks can be anticipated through surveillance of their drivers, just as successful warning systems of climate-based, meteorologically sensitive diseases are supported by improved temperature and precipitation data. We present approaches to driver surveillance, gaps in the current literature, and a scientific framework for the creation of a digital warning system. Fulfilling the promise of driver surveillance will require concerted action to expand the collection of appropriate digital driver data. PMID:26196106

  18. An Emerging Mycoplasma Associated with Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Infection and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J. Paul; Glascock, Abigail L.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.; Buck, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as “Mnola.” In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name “Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii” for this potential new pathogen. PMID:25337710

  19. Emerging Significance of NLRs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Beckley K.; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Eden, Kristin; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Allen, Irving C.

    2015-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors are essential mediators of host defense and inflammation in the gastrointestinal system. Recent data have revealed that toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs) function to maintain homeostasis between the host microbiome and mucosal immunity. The NLR proteins are a diverse class of cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors. In humans, only about half of the identified NLRs have been adequately characterized. The majority of well-characterized NLRs participate in the formation of a multiprotein complex, termed the inflammasome, which is responsible for the maturation of interleukin-1? and interleukin-18. However, recent observations have also uncovered the presence of a novel subgroup of NLRs that function as positive or negative regulators of inflammation through modulating critical signaling pathways, including NF-?B. Dysregulation of specific NLRs from both proinflammatory and inhibitory subgroups have been associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in genetically susceptible human populations. Our own preliminary retrospective data mining efforts have identified a diverse range of NLRs that are significantly altered at the messenger RNA level in colons from patients with IBD. Likewise, studies using genetically modified mouse strains have revealed that multiple NLR family members have the potential to dramatically modulate the immune response during IBD. Targeting NLR signaling represents a promising and novel therapeutic strategy. However, significant effort is necessary to translate the current understanding of NLR biology into effective therapies. PMID:25153506

  20. K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture and linked natural systems using 1 ecological principles. Pages 368-386 in Infectious disease ecology: The effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Karen A.

    K. A. Garrett and C. M. Cox. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture and linked natural systems using 1 ecological principles. Pages 368-386 in Infectious disease ecology: The effects of ecosystems on disease and of disease on ecosystems. R. Ostfeld, F. Keesing, and V

  1. Parasitic Manipulation of Host Behaviour: Baculovirus SeMNPV EGT Facilitates Tree-Top Disease in Spodoptera exigua Larvae by Extending the Time to Death

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yue; van Houte, Stineke; Drees, Gerben F.; van Oers, Monique M.; Ros, Vera I. D.

    2015-01-01

    Many parasites enhance their dispersal and transmission by manipulating host behaviour. One intriguing example concerns baculoviruses that induce hyperactivity and tree-top disease (i.e., climbing to elevated positions prior to death) in their caterpillar hosts. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of such parasite-induced behavioural changes. Here, we studied the role of the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) gene of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) in tree-top disease in S. exigua larvae. Larvae infected with a mutant virus lacking the egt gene exhibited a shorter time to death and died before the induction of tree-top disease. Moreover, deletion of either the open reading frame or the ATG start codon of the egt gene prevented tree-top disease, indicating that the EGT protein is involved in this process. We hypothesize that SeMNPV EGT facilitates tree-top disease in S. exigua larvae by prolonging the larval time to death. Additionally, we discuss the role of egt in baculovirus-induced tree-top disease. PMID:26463412

  2. Unhealthy Landscapes: Policy Recommendations on Land Use Change and Infectious Disease Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Patz, Jonathan A.; Daszak, Peter; Tabor, Gary M.; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Pearl, Mary; Epstein, Jon; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Molyneux, David; Bradley, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes drive a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and modify the transmission of endemic infections. These drivers include agricultural encroachment, deforestation, road construction, dam building, irrigation, wetland modification, mining, the concentration or expansion of urban environments, coastal zone degradation, and other activities. These changes in turn cause a cascade of factors that exacerbate infectious disease emergence, such as forest fragmentation, disease introduction, pollution, poverty, and human migration. The Working Group on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence grew out of a special colloquium that convened international experts in infectious diseases, ecology, and environmental health to assess the current state of knowledge and to develop recommendations for addressing these environmental health challenges. The group established a systems model approach and priority lists of infectious diseases affected by ecologic degradation. Policy-relevant levels of the model include specific health risk factors, landscape or habitat change, and institutional (economic and behavioral) levels. The group recommended creating Centers of Excellence in Ecology and Health Research and Training, based at regional universities and/or research institutes with close links to the surrounding communities. The centers’ objectives would be 3-fold: a) to provide information to local communities about the links between environmental change and public health; b) to facilitate fully interdisciplinary research from a variety of natural, social, and health sciences and train professionals who can conduct interdisciplinary research; and c) to engage in science-based communication and assessment for policy making toward sustainable health and ecosystems. PMID:15238283

  3. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists. PMID:26430268

  4. Human tularemia in Italy. Is it a re-emerging disease?

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, D; Napoli, C; Nusca, A; Bella, A; Funari, E

    2015-07-01

    Tularemia is a contagious infectious disease due to Francisiella tularensis that can cause serious clinical manifestations and significant mortality if untreated. Although the frequency and significance of the disease has diminished over the last decades in Central Europe, over the past few years, there is new evidence suggesting that tularemia has re-emerged worldwide. To know the real epidemiology of the disease is at the root of correct control measures. In order to evaluate whether tularemia is re-emerging in Italy, data on mortality and morbidity (obtained by the National Institute of Statistics; ISTAT), Italian cases described in the scientific literature and data concerning hospitalizations for tularemia (obtained by the National Hospital Discharge Database) were analysed. From 1979 to 2010, ISTAT reported 474 cases and no deaths. The overall number of cases obtained from the literature review was at least 31% higher than that reported by ISTAT. Moreover, the number of cases reported by ISTAT was 3·5 times smaller than hospitalized cases. In Italy tularemia is sporadic, rarely endemic and self-limiting; but, although the trend of reported tularemia does not support the hypothesis of a re-emerging disease, the study demonstrates a wide underreporting of the disease. The real frequency of the disease should be carefully investigated and taken into account in order to implement specific prevention measures. PMID:25336123

  5. A Learner-led, Discussion-based Elective on Emerging Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Clinton

    2015-08-25

    Objective. To implement a learner-led, discussion-based course aimed at exposing second-year pharmacy learners to the study of emerging infectious diseases from a global health perspective and to assess the role and importance of pharmacists in the management of disease outbreaks. Design. Learners examined literature pertinent to an emerging infectious disease in a 3-credit, discussion-based course and participated in peer discussion led by a designated learner. Instructional materials included journal articles, audio-visual presentations, documentaries, book chapters, movies, newspaper/magazine articles, and other materials. Learning outcomes were measured based on the ability of learners to perform critical thinking and analysis, communicate with their peers, and participate in class discussions. Assessment. The course was offered to 2 consecutive cohorts consisting of 14 and 16 learners, respectively. Overall, every learner in the first cohort achieved a final grade of A for the course. In the second cohort, the overall grade distribution consisted of grades of A, B, and C for the course. Learner evaluations indicated that the active-learning, discussion-based environment significantly enhanced interest in the topic and overall performance in the course. Conclusion. The elective course on emerging infectious diseases provided in-depth exposure to disease topics normally not encountered in the pharmacy curriculum. Learners found the material and format valuable, and the course enhanced their appreciation of infectious diseases, research methodology, critical thinking and analysis, and their roles as pharmacists. PMID:26430268

  6. The Emerging Functions of Long Noncoding RNA in Immune Cells: Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ao; Wang, Yin; Duan, Lihua; Zhang, YanLin

    2015-01-01

    The long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNA transcripts more than 200 nucleotides in length, which do not encode proteins. The lncRNAs are emerging as an important regulator of biological process, such as chromatin remodeling, gene transcription, protein transport, and trafficking through diverse mechanisms. The lncRNAs play crucial role in various multigenetics human diseases including cancers and neurological diseases and currently its role in autoimmune diseases is attracting many researchers. Recent studies have reported that differentiation and activation of immune cells, T cells, B cells, macrophages, and NK cells have correlation with lncRNAs, which have also an essential role in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and SLE. Therefore, elucidation of the roles of lncRNAs in autoimmunity could be beneficial to understand the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In this review article we attempt to highlight the recent progress regarding lncRNAs studies and summarize its role in autoimmune diseases. PMID:26090502

  7. Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Craig; Artsob, Harvey; Bowie, William R; Drebot, Michael; Fraser, Erin; Leighton, Ted; Morshed, Muhammad; Ong, Corinne; Patrick, David

    2004-01-01

    Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread. Emerging infectious disease research should rest on four pillars: enhanced communications across disciplinary and agency boundaries; the assessment and development of surveillance and disease detection tools; the examination of linkages between animal health determinants of human health outcomes; and finally, cross-disciplinary training and research. A national strategy to predict, prevent and manage emerging diseases must have a prominent and explicit role for veterinary and biological researchers. An integrated health approach would provide decision makers with a firmer foundation from which to build evidence-based disease prevention and control plans that involve complex human/animal/environmental systems, and would serve as the foundation to train and support the new cadre of individuals ultimately needed to maintain and apply research capacity in this area. PMID:18159512

  8. Parasite transmission through suspension feeding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Bidegain, Gorka; Huey, Lauren; Narvaez, Diego A; Bushek, David

    2015-10-01

    Suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs are confronted with a wide range of materials in the benthic marine environment. These materials include various sized plankton and the organic material derived from it, macroalgae, detritus and a diversity of microbial parasites that have adapted life stages to survive in the water column. For bivalve parasites to infect hosts though, they must first survive and remain infectious in the water column to make initial contact with hosts, and once in contact, enter and overcome elaborate pathways for particle sorting and selection. Even past these defenses, bivalve parasites are challenged with efficient systems of mechanical and chemical digestion and highly evolved systems of innate immunity. Here we review how bivalve parasites evade these hurdles to complete their life cycles and establish within bivalve hosts. We broadly cover significant viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites of marine bivalve molluscs, and illustrate the emergent properties of these host-parasite systems where parasite transmission occurs through suspension feeding. PMID:26210495

  9. Genes, Disease and Genetic Diseases Emerging from its beginnings about 100 years ago with the rediscovery of Mendel's laws of hereditary, genetics is

    E-print Network

    Stephan, Frank

    Genes, Disease and Genetic Diseases Abstract Emerging from its beginnings about 100 years ago between genes and diseases. From the earliest recognition of the role of single gene defects in rare hereditary diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Huntington's chorea and Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, it is now

  10. Use of Pneumococcal Disease Epidemiology to Set Policy and Prevent Disease during 20 Years of the Emerging Infections Program

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Cynthia G.

    2015-01-01

    Two decades ago, the Emerging Infections Program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented what seemed like a simple yet novel idea: a population- and laboratory-based surveillance system designed to identify and characterize invasive bacterial infections, including those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This system, known as Active Bacterial Core surveillance, has since served as a flexible platform for following trends in invasive pneumococcal disease and studying vaccination as the most effective method for prevention. We report the contributions of Active Bacterial Core surveillance to every pneumococcal vaccine policy decision in the United States during the past 20 years. PMID:26291238

  11. The emerging infectious disease crisis and pathogen pollution: a question of ecology and evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Risk of emerging infectious diseases (EID) on a global scale has accelerated over the past 10,000 years in conjunction with agriculture, domestication, and globalization as the interfaces for people and environments have been altered over time. EID exist at the junction of 3 ongoing global challenge...

  12. EMERGENCE OF BACTERIAL DISEASES CAUSED BY FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONAS SPP. IN CENTRAL COASTAL CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research has resulted in the identification of one new pathogen (Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis) and the identification of several pathogens on new hosts and/or new to Monterey County. It is not clear if the emergence of bacterial diseases caused by fluorescent pseudomonads in the past 8 y...

  13. Drivers, dynamics, and control of emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, A Marm; Randolph, Sarah E

    2012-12-01

    Emerging vector-borne diseases are an important issue in global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, while many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and emergence of endemic pathogens are often considered to be distinct processes, many endemic pathogens are actually spreading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. We draw attention to key differences between dynamics and disease burden that result from increased pathogen transmission after habitat change and after introduction into new regions. Local emergence is commonly driven by changes in human factors as much as by enhanced enzootic cycles, whereas pathogen invasion results from anthropogenic trade and travel where and when conditions (eg, hosts, vectors, and climate) are suitable for a pathogen. Once a pathogen is established, ecological factors related to vector characteristics can shape the evolutionary selective pressure and result in increased use of people as transmission hosts. We describe challenges inherent in the control of vector-borne zoonotic diseases and some emerging non-traditional strategies that could be effective in the long term. PMID:23200503

  14. Innate immunity and the evolution of resistance to an emerging infectious disease in a wild bird

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Scott

    Innate immunity and the evolution of resistance to an emerging infectious disease in a wild bird University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Abstract Innate immunity is expected to play a primary role infections and cDNA microarrays to examine whether changes in the innate and/ or acquired immune responses

  15. GIS-Based Epidemiological Modeling of an Emerging Forest Disease: Spread of

    E-print Network

    247 GIS-Based Epidemiological Modeling of an Emerging Forest Disease: Spread of Sudden Oak Death of epidemiological models to realistic landscapes in a GIS can allow for a rigorous validation of model performance applied in a GIS to real-world wildland landscapes. In this paper, we present and evaluate a GIS

  16. 616 SAGE-GROUSE AND WEST NILE VIRUS Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious

    E-print Network

    Naugle, Dave

    616 SAGE-GROUSE AND WEST NILE VIRUS Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious threat to wildlife virus and sage-grouse: What more have we learned? David E. Naugle, Cameron L. Aldridge, Brett L. Walker. Mortality associated with WNv infection decreased survival of female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus

  17. Trichomoniasis in finches from the Canadian Maritime provinces — An emerging disease

    PubMed Central

    Forzán, María J.; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Melekhovets, Yuri F.; McBurney, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Trichomoniasis was diagnosed in multiple incidents of mortality in wild purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus) and American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) in the Canadian Maritimes. Birds exhibited regurgitation, emaciation, and hyperplastic oropharyngitis, ingluvitis, and esophagitis. Trichomonas gallinae was identified by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Trichomoniasis (trichomonosis) is an emerging disease in wild finches of eastern Canada. PMID:20592828

  18. Review: lumpy skin disease: an emerging threat to Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, E S M; Oura, C A L

    2012-02-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically devastating emerging viral disease of cattle. Lumpy skin disease is currently endemic in most African countries and has recently spread out of Africa into the Middle East region. In this article, we review the putative mechanisms of spread of LSD into the Middle East and the risks of further spread into Turkey, Europe and Asia. We also review the latest findings on the epidemiology of LSD, its mechanisms of transmission, the potential role of wildlife in its maintenance and spread and the diagnostic tests and control methods currently available. PMID:21749675

  19. Management of Acute Exacerbation of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Suau, Salvador J; DeBlieux, Peter M C

    2016-02-01

    Acute asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are the most common respiratory diseases requiring emergent medical evaluation and treatment. Asthma and COPD are chronic, debilitating disease processes that have been differentiated traditionally by the presence or absence of reversible airflow obstruction. Asthma and COPD exacerbations impose an enormous economic burden on the US health care budget. In daily clinical practice, it is difficult to differentiate these 2 obstructive processes based on their symptoms, and on their nearly identical acute treatment strategies; major differences are important when discussing anatomic sites involved, long-term prognosis, and the nature of inflammatory markers. PMID:26614239

  20. Emerging infectious diseases and public health policy: insights from Cambodia, Hong Kong and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Burgos, S; Ear, S

    2015-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases affect the health of animal and human populations, but the impact goes beyond health as it extends to political, economic, social and environmental domains, as well as inter-state relations. Deeper understanding of these impacts aids public health authorities in their duties of protection and improvement of the health of their communities, promotion of healthy practices and research on disease, injury and threat prevention and mitigation. This empirical essay gathers insights from Cambodia, Hong Kong and Indonesia as they attempt to design and implement control and surveillance systems against avian influenza - an infectious disease. PMID:23551938

  1. Networks and the ecology of parasite transmission: A framework for wildlife parasitology?

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Social network analysis has recently emerged as a popular tool for understanding disease transmission in host populations. Although social networks have most extensively been applied to modelling the transmission of diseases through human populations, more recently the method has been applied to wildlife populations. The majority of examples from wildlife involve modelling the transmission of contagious microbes (mainly viruses and bacteria), normally in context of understanding wildlife disease epidemics. However, a growing number of studies have used networks to explore the ecology of parasite transmission in wildlife populations for a range of endemic parasites representing a diversity of life cycles and transmission methods. This review addresses the application of network models in representing the transmission of parasites with more complex life cycles, and illustrates the way in which this approach can be used to answer ecological questions about the transmission of parasites in wildlife populations. PMID:24533342

  2. Using Biotic Interaction Networks for Prediction in Biodiversity and Emerging Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Christopher R.; Heau, Joaquín Giménez; González, Camila; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; González-Salazar, Constantino

    2009-01-01

    Networks offer a powerful tool for understanding and visualizing inter-species ecological and evolutionary interactions. Previously considered examples, such as trophic networks, are just representations of experimentally observed direct interactions. However, species interactions are so rich and complex it is not feasible to directly observe more than a small fraction. In this paper, using data mining techniques, we show how potential interactions can be inferred from geographic data, rather than by direct observation. An important application area for this methodology is that of emerging diseases, where, often, little is known about inter-species interactions, such as between vectors and reservoirs. Here, we show how using geographic data, biotic interaction networks that model statistical dependencies between species distributions can be used to infer and understand inter-species interactions. Furthermore, we show how such networks can be used to build prediction models. For example, for predicting the most important reservoirs of a disease, or the degree of disease risk associated with a geographical area. We illustrate the general methodology by considering an important emerging disease - Leishmaniasis. This data mining methodology allows for the use of geographic data to construct inferential biotic interaction networks which can then be used to build prediction models with a wide range of applications in ecology, biodiversity and emerging diseases. PMID:19478956

  3. microRNAs in parasites and parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E.

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases. PMID:23392243

  4. New advances in molecular mechanisms and emerging therapeutic targets in alcoholic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica A; Manley, Sharon; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a major health problem in the United States and worldwide. Chronic alcohol consumption can cause steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and even liver cancer. Significant progress has been made to understand key events and molecular players for the onset and progression of alcoholic liver disease from both experimental and clinical alcohol studies. No successful treatments are currently available for treating alcoholic liver disease; therefore, development of novel pathophysiological-targeted therapies is urgently needed. This review summarizes the recent progress on animal models used to study alcoholic liver disease and the detrimental factors that contribute to alcoholic liver disease pathogenesis including miRNAs, S-adenosylmethionine, Zinc deficiency, cytosolic lipin-1?, IRF3-mediated apoptosis, RIP3-mediated necrosis and hepcidin. In addition, we summarize emerging adaptive protective effects induced by alcohol to attenuate alcohol-induced liver pathogenesis including FoxO3, IL-22, autophagy and nuclear lipin-1?. PMID:25278688

  5. Emergency Quadrido-Bentall Procedure for Aortic Rupture in a Patient with Behcet’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Jun; Lee, Jeong-woo; Kim, Joon Bum

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular involvement in cases of Behcet’s disease is a rare but life-threatening condition, and prosthetic valve detachment is a frequent and serious complication attributable to Behcet’s disease following the surgical repair of aortic regurgitation. We report the case of a patient with Behcet’s disease presenting with contained aortic rupture around the aortic root. The patient had previously undergone aortic valve surgery three times due to recurrent prosthetic valve detachment. An emergency operation was performed, consisting of aortic root replacement (ARR) using a composite valved conduit and the replacement of the hemiarch. ARR may be an appropriate surgical option for patients with Behcet’s disease in order to prevent recurrence of the disease. PMID:26509132

  6. Emerging infectious diseases in an island ecosystem: the New Zealand perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Crump, J. A.; Murdoch, D. R.; Baker, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    Several unique features characterize infectious disease epidemiology in New Zealand. Historically, well-organized, government-run control programs have eliminated several zoonoses. More recently, however, communicable disease control has been mixed. Rates of rheumatic fever, tuberculosis, and enteric infectious are high, and rates of meningococcal disease are increasing. These diseases are over-represented in New Zealanders of Polynesian descent, who generally live in more deprived and overcrowded conditions than do those of European descent. Measles and pertussis epidemics are recurring because of inadequate vaccine coverage, despite a well-developed childhood immunization program. A progressive response to the HIV epidemic has resulted in relatively low rates of infection, particularly among injecting drug users; however, the response to other sexually transmitted infections has been poor. A key challenge for the future is to build on successful strategies and apply them to persisting and emerging infectious disease threats in a small, geographically isolated country with limited economic resources. PMID:11747690

  7. Emergency Quadrido-Bentall Procedure for Aortic Rupture in a Patient with Behcet's Disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Jun; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Joon Bum

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular involvement in cases of Behcet's disease is a rare but life-threatening condition, and prosthetic valve detachment is a frequent and serious complication attributable to Behcet's disease following the surgical repair of aortic regurgitation. We report the case of a patient with Behcet's disease presenting with contained aortic rupture around the aortic root. The patient had previously undergone aortic valve surgery three times due to recurrent prosthetic valve detachment. An emergency operation was performed, consisting of aortic root replacement (ARR) using a composite valved conduit and the replacement of the hemiarch. ARR may be an appropriate surgical option for patients with Behcet's disease in order to prevent recurrence of the disease. PMID:26509132

  8. Differential modulation of eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) disease parasites by the El-Niño-Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.; Powell, Eric N.

    2009-02-01

    The eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) is affected by two protozoan parasites, Perkinsus marinus which causes Dermo disease and Haplosporidium nelsoni which causes MSX (Multinucleated Sphere Unknown) disease. Both diseases are largely controlled by water temperature and salinity and thus are potentially sensitive to climate variations resulting from the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which influences climate along the Gulf of Mexico coast, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which influences climate along the Atlantic coast of the United States. In this study, a 10-year time series of temperature and salinity and P. marinus infection intensity for a site in Louisiana on the Gulf of Mexico coast and a 52-year time series of air temperature and freshwater inflow and oyster mortality from Delaware Bay on the Atlantic coast of the United States were analyzed to determine patterns in disease and disease-induced mortality in C. virginica populations that resulted from ENSO and NAO climate variations. Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the environmental, disease infection intensity and oyster mortality time series into a time-frequency space to determine the dominant modes of variability and the time variability of the modes. For the Louisiana site, salinity and Dermo disease infection intensity are correlated at a periodicity of 4 years, which corresponds to ENSO. The influence of ENSO on Dermo disease along the Gulf of Mexico is through its effect on salinity, with high salinity, which occurs during the La Niña phase of ENSO at this location, favoring parasite proliferation. For the Delaware Bay site, the primary correlation was between temperature and oyster mortality, with a periodicity of 8 years, which corresponds to the NAO. Warmer temperatures, which occur during the positive phase of the NAO, favor the parasites causing increased oyster mortality. Thus, disease prevalence and intensity in C. virginica populations along the Gulf of Mexico coast is primarily regulated by salinity, whereas temperature regulates the disease process along the United States east coast. These results show that the response of an organism to climate variability in a region is not indicative of the response that will occur over the entire range of a particular species. This has important implications for management of marine resources, especially those that are commercially harvested.

  9. Proventricular dilatation disease: an emerging exotic disease of parrots in Australia.

    PubMed

    Doneley, R J T; Miller, R I; Fanning, T E

    2007-03-01

    Proventricular dilatation disease is a viral disease seen as a segmental neuropathy in parrots. It has always been believed to be a disease exotic to Australia, with the only reported case being a legally imported Green Wing Macaw (Ara chloroptera) in 1993. This paper reports a cluster of cases seen in south-east Queensland in 2005 to 2006. Clinical signs, autopsy findings and histopathological findings are described. No pattern or common source for these cases could be identified. The implications for Australian aviculture and avifauna are discussed. PMID:17359314

  10. Infection with parasitic nematodes confounds vaccination efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Joseph F.; Steenhard, Nina R.; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I.; Dawson, Harry D.; Iweala, Onyinye I.; Nagler, Cathryn R.; Noland, Gregory S.; Kumar, Nirbhay; Anthony, Robert M.; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Weinstock, Joel; Gause, William C.

    2007-01-01

    T helper (Th) cells produce signature cytokine patterns, induced largely by intracellular versus extracellular pathogens that provide the cellular and molecular basis for counter regulatory expression of protective immunity during concurrent infections. The production of IL-12 and IFN-?, for example, resulting from exposure to many bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens is responsible for Th1-derived protective responses that also can inhibit development of Th2-cells expressing IL-4-dependent immunity to extracellular helminth parasites and vice versa. In a similar manner, concurrent helminth infection alters optimal vaccine-induced responses in humans and livestock; however, the consequences of this condition have not been adequately studied especially in the context of a challenge infection following vaccination. Demands for new and effective vaccines to control chronic and emerging diseases, and the need for rapid deployment of vaccines for bio security concerns requires a systematic evaluation of confounding factors that limit vaccine efficacy. One common albeit overlooked confounder is the presence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in populations of humans and livestock targeted for vaccination. This is particularly important in areas of the world were helminth infections are prevalent, but the interplay between parasites and emerging diseases that can be transmitted worldwide make this a global issue. In addition, it is not clear if the epidemic in allergic disease in industrialized countries substitutes for geohelminth infection to interfere with effective vaccination regimens. This presentation will focus on recent vaccination studies in mice experimentally infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus to model the condition of gastrointestinal parasite infestation in mammalian populations targeted for vaccination. In addition, a large animal vaccination and challenge model against Mycoplasma hyopneumonia in swine exposed to Ascaris suum will provide a specific example of the need for further work in this area, and for controlled field studies to assess the impact of other similar scenarios. PMID:17587500

  11. Emerging Infectious Diseases in 2012: 20 Years after the Institute of Medicine Report

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Twenty years ago (1992), a landmark Institute of Medicine report entitled “Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States” underscored the important but often underappreciated concept of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). A review of the progress made and setbacks experienced over the past 2 decades suggests that even though many new diseases have emerged, such as SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and the 2009 pandemic influenza, significant advances have occurred in EID control, prevention, and treatment. Among many elements of the increase in the capacity to control EIDs are genomics-associated advances in microbial detection and treatment, improved disease surveillance, and greater awareness of EIDs and the complicated variables that underlie emergence. In looking back over the past 20 years, it is apparent that we are in a time of great change in which both the challenge of EIDs and our responses to them are being transformed. Recent advances support guarded optimism that further breakthroughs lie ahead. PMID:23232716

  12. Systematic review of emergent laparoscopic colorectal surgery for benign and malignant disease

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Manish; Siddiqui, Muhammed RS; Gupta, Ashish; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Tekkis, Paris; Parvaiz, Amjad; Mirnezami, Alex H; Qureshi, Tahseen

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become well established in the management of both and malignant colorectal disease. The last decade has seen increasing numbers of surgeons trained to a high standard in minimally-invasive surgery. However there has not been the same enthusiasm for the use of laparoscopy in emergency colorectal surgery. There is a perception that emergent surgery is technically more difficult and may lead to worse outcomes. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive and critical appraisal of the available literature on the use of laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) in the emergency setting. The literature is broadly divided by the underlying pathology; that is, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis and malignant obstruction. There were no randomized trials and the majority of the studies were case-matched series or comparative studies. The overall trend was that LCS is associated with shorter hospital stay, par or fewer complications but an increased operating time.Emergency LCS can be safely undertaken for both benign and malignant disease providing there is appropriate patient selection, the surgeon is adequately experienced and there are sufficient resources to allow for a potentially more complex operation. PMID:25493008

  13. The infectious diseases impact statement: a mechanism for addressing emerging diseases.

    PubMed Central

    McSweegan, E.

    1996-01-01

    The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:8903209

  14. Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gould, E.A.; Higgs, S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary While some sceptics remain unconvinced that global climate change is a reality, there is no doubt that during the past 50 years or so, patterns of emerging arbovirus diseases have changed significantly. Can this be attributed to climate change? Climate is a major factor in determining: (1) the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods; (2) characteristics of arthropod life cycles; (3) dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses; (4) the evolution of arboviruses; and (5) the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. Thus, under the influence of increasing temperatures and rainfall through warming of the oceans, and alteration of the natural cycles that stabilise climate, one is inevitably drawn to the conclusion that arboviruses will continue to emerge in new regions. For example, we cannot ignore the unexpected but successful establishment of chikungunya fever in northern Italy, the sudden appearance of West Nile virus in North America, the increasing frequency of Rift Valley fever epidemics in the Arabian Peninsula, and very recently, the emergence of Bluetongue virus in northern Europe. In this brief review we ask the question, are these diseases emerging because of climate change or do other factors play an equal or even more important role in their emergence? PMID:18799177

  15. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries are at increased risk for adverse effects of malaria infection (for example, miscarriage, low birth weight). Women ...

  16. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that cause diarrhea, loose or watery stools, cramping, flatulence (gas) and other abdominal illness. CDC recommends that ... that cause diarrhea, loose or watery stools, cramping, flatulence (gas) and other abdominal illness. This test is ...

  17. Children and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... well studied. They include strongyloidiasis , caused by a worm infection that is of particular danger for children ... immune system. It is acquired when larvae (immature worms) in soil contaminated with infected human feces come ...

  18. A Novel Botrytis Species Is Associated with a Newly Emergent Foliar Disease in Cultivated Hemerocallis

    PubMed Central

    Grant-Downton, Robert T.; Terhem, Razak B.; Kapralov, Maxim V.; Mehdi, Saher; Rodriguez-Enriquez, M. Josefina; Gurr, Sarah J.; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Dewey, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids) showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as ‘spring sickness’ were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s) of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight) which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of ‘spring sickness’ symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants. PMID:24887415

  19. A novel Botrytis species is associated with a newly emergent foliar disease in cultivated Hemerocallis.

    PubMed

    Grant-Downton, Robert T; Terhem, Razak B; Kapralov, Maxim V; Mehdi, Saher; Rodriguez-Enriquez, M Josefina; Gurr, Sarah J; van Kan, Jan A L; Dewey, Frances M

    2014-01-01

    Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids) showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as 'spring sickness' were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s) of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight) which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of 'spring sickness' symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants. PMID:24887415

  20. Parasite and viral species richness of Southeast Asian bats: Fragmentation of area distribution matters

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Noellie; Olival, Kevin J.; Bumrungsri, Sara; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Morand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Interest in bat-borne diseases and parasites has grown in the past decade over concerns for human health. However, the drivers of parasite diversity among bat host species are understudied as are the links between parasite richness and emerging risks. Thus, we aimed at exploring factors that explain macro and microparasite species richness in bats from Southeast Asia, a hotspot of emerging infectious diseases. First, we identified bat species that need increased sampling effort for pathogen discovery. Our approach highlights pathogen investigation disparities among species within the same genus, such as Rhinolophus and Pteropus. Secondly, comparative analysis using independent contrasts method allowed the identification of likely factors explaining parasite and viral diversity of bats. Our results showed a key role of bat distribution shape, an index of the fragmentation of bat distribution, on parasite diversity, linked to a decrease for both viral and endoparasite species richness. We discuss how our study may contribute to a better understanding of the link between parasite species richness and emergence. PMID:25161915

  1. Re-emergence of foot-and-mouth disease in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Baipoledi, E K; Matlho, G; Letshwenyo, M; Chimbombi, M; Adom, E K; Raborokgwe, M V; Hyera, J M K

    2004-07-01

    The re-emergence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Botswana is reported. The disease outbreak occurred in the Matsiloje Extension Area of Francistown veterinary district situated in the northeastern part of the country in an Office International des épízooties (OIE) recognized FMD free zone without vaccination. The disease affected cattle only and did not spillover into sheep and goats resident in the same extension area, as demonstrated by lack of seroconversion to FMD when tested. The virus isolate associated with the outbreak was identified as FMD virus; Southern African Territories (SAT) type SAT-2. The disease outbreak is discussed in relation to FMD outbreaks that have occurred previously within and outside Botswana. PMID:15158214

  2. Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Tesh, R B; Watts, D M; Russell, K L; Damodaran, C; Calampa, C; Cabezas, C; Ramirez, G; Vasquez, B; Hayes, C G; Rossi, C A; Powers, A M; Hice, C L; Chandler, L J; Cropp, B C; Karabatsos, N; Roehrig, J T; Gubler, D J

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically. PMID:10028074

  3. Modeling climate impact on an emerging disease, the Phytophthora alni-induced alder decline.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Jaime; Elegbede, Fabrice; Husson, Claude; Saintonge, François-Xavier; Marçais, Benoît

    2014-10-01

    Alder decline caused by Phytophthora alni is one of the most important emerging diseases in natural ecosystems in Europe, where it has threatened riparian ecosystems for the past 20 years. Environmental factors, such as mean site temperature and soil characteristics, play an important role in the occurrence of the disease. The objective of the present work was to model and forecast the effect of environment on the severity of alder Phytophthora outbreaks, and to determine whether recent climate change might explain the disease emergence. Two alder sites networks in NE and SW France were surveyed to assess the crown health of trees; the oomycete soil inoculum was also monitored in the NE network. The main factors explaining the temporal annual variation in alder crown decline or crown recovery were the mean previous winter and previous summer temperatures. Both low winter temperatures and high summer temperatures were unfavorable to the disease. Cold winters promoted tree recovery because of poor survival of the pathogen, while hot summer temperature limited the incidence of tree decline. An SIS model explaining the dynamics of the P. alni-induced alder decline was developed using the data of the NE site network and validated using the SW site network. This model was then used to simulate the frequency of declining alder over time with historical climate data. The last 40 years' weather conditions have been generally favorable to the establishment of the disease, indicating that others factors may be implicated in its emergence. The model, however, showed that the climate of SW France was much more favorable for the disease than that of the Northeast, because it seldom limited the overwintering of the pathogen. Depending on the European area, climate change could either enhance or decrease the severity of the alder decline. PMID:24729529

  4. Emerging infectious diseases in cetaceans worldwide and the possible role of environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Raga, Juan Antonio; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Jepson, Paul D; Duignan, Padraig J; Siebert, Ursula; Barrett, Tom; Santos, Marcos César de Oliveira; Moreno, Ignacio B; Siciliano, Salvatore; Aguilar, Alex; Van Waerebeek, Koen

    2009-09-23

    We reviewed prominent emerging infectious diseases of cetaceans, examined their potential to impact populations, re-assessed zoonotic risk and evaluated the role of environmental stressors. Cetacean morbilliviruses and papillomaviruses as well as Brucella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are thought to interfere with population abundance by inducing high mortalities, lowering reproductive success or by synergistically increasing the virulence of other diseases. Severe cases of lobomycosis and lobomycosis-like disease (LLD) may contribute to the death of some dolphins. The zoonotic hazard of marine mammal brucellosis and toxoplasmosis may have been underestimated, attributable to frequent misdiagnoses and underreporting, particularly in developing countries and remote areas where carcass handling without protective gear and human consumption of fresh cetacean products are commonplace. Environmental factors seem to play a role in the emergence and pathogenicity of morbillivirus epidemics, lobomycosis/LLD, toxoplasmosis, poxvirus-associated tattoo skin disease and, in harbour porpoises, infectious diseases of multifactorial aetiology. Inshore and estuarine cetaceans incur higher risks than pelagic cetaceans due to habitats often severely altered by anthropogenic factors such as chemical and biological contamination, direct and indirect fisheries interactions, traumatic injuries from vessel collisions and climate change. PMID:19902843

  5. Determining Chronic Disease Prevalence in Local Populations Using Emergency Department Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Long, Judith A.; Wall, Stephen P.; Carr, Brendan G.; Satchell, Samantha N.; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Elbel, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to improve public health surveillance by using a geographic analysis of emergency department (ED) visits to determine local chronic disease prevalence. Methods. Using an all-payer administrative database, we determined the proportion of unique ED patients with diabetes, hypertension, or asthma. We compared these rates to those determined by the New York City Community Health Survey. For diabetes prevalence, we also analyzed the fidelity of longitudinal estimates using logistic regression and determined disease burden within census tracts using geocoded addresses. Results. We identified 4.4 million unique New York City adults visiting an ED between 2009 and 2012. When we compared our emergency sample to survey data, rates of neighborhood diabetes, hypertension, and asthma prevalence were similar (correlation coefficient?=?0.86, 0.88, and 0.77, respectively). In addition, our method demonstrated less year-to-year scatter and identified significant variation of disease burden within neighborhoods among census tracts. Conclusions. Our method for determining chronic disease prevalence correlates with a validated health survey and may have higher reliability over time and greater granularity at a local level. Our findings can improve public health surveillance by identifying local variation of disease prevalence. PMID:26180983

  6. Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other Orbivirus diseases

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, N. James; Guthrie, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod-transmitted viruses (Arboviruses) are important causes of disease in humans and animals, and it is proposed that climate change will increase the distribution and severity of arboviral diseases. Orbiviruses are the cause of important and apparently emerging arboviral diseases of livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), equine encephalosis virus (EEV), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) that are all transmitted by haematophagous Culicoides insects. Recent changes in the global distribution and nature of BTV infection have been especially dramatic, with spread of multiple serotypes of the virus throughout extensive portions of Europe and invasion of the south-eastern USA with previously exotic virus serotypes. Although climate change has been incriminated in the emergence of BTV infection of ungulates, the precise role of anthropogenic factors and the like is less certain. Similarly, although there have been somewhat less dramatic recent alterations in the distribution of EHDV, AHSV, and EEV, it is not yet clear what the future holds in terms of these diseases, nor of other potentially important but poorly characterized Orbiviruses such as Peruvian horse sickness virus. PMID:20167199

  7. Applying Biotechnology and Bioengineering to Pediatric Lung Disease: Emerging Paradigms and Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Kelley L.; Yeager, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric lung diseases remain a costly worldwide health burden. For many children with end-stage lung disease, lung transplantation remains the only therapeutic option. Due to the limited number of lungs available for transplantation, alternatives to lung transplant are desperately needed. Recently, major improvements in tissue engineering have resulted in newer technology and methodology to develop viable bioengineered lungs. These include critical advances in lung cell biology, stem cell biology, lung extracellular matrix, microfabrication techniques, and orthotopic transplantation of bioartificial lungs. The goal of this short review is to engage the reader’s interest with regard to these emerging concepts and to stimulate their interest to learn more. We review the existing state of the art of lung tissue engineering, and point to emerging paradigms and platforms in the field. Finally, we summarize the challenges and unmet needs that remain to be overcome. PMID:26106589

  8. Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

    2014-05-01

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential. PMID:23912715

  9. Leveraging Rural Energy Investment for Parasitic Disease Control: Schistosome Ova Inactivation and Energy Co-Benefits of Anaerobic Digesters in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Remais, Justin; Chen, Lin; Seto, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Background Cooking and heating remain the most energy intensive activities among the world's poor, and thus improved access to clean energies for these tasks has been highlighted as a key requirement of attaining the major objectives of the UN Millennium Development Goals. A move towards clean energy technologies such as biogas systems (which produce methane from human and animal waste) has the potential to provide immediate benefits for the control of neglected tropical diseases. Here, an assessment of the parasitic disease and energy benefits of biogas systems in Sichuan Province, China, is presented, highlighting how the public health sector can leverage the proliferation of rural energy projects for infectious disease control. Methodology/Findings First, the effectiveness of biogas systems at inactivating and removing ova of the human parasite Schistosoma japonicum is experimentally evaluated. Second, the impact of biogas infrastructure on energy use and environmental quality as reported by surveyed village populations is assessed, as is the community acceptance of the technology. No viable eggs were recovered in the effluent collected weekly from biogas systems for two months following seeding with infected stool. Less than 1% of ova were recovered viable from a series of nylon bags seeded with ova, a 2-log removal attributable to biochemical inactivation. More than 90% of Ascaris lumbricoides ova (used as a proxy for S. japonicum ova) counted at the influent of two biogas systems were removed in the systems when adjusted for system residence time, an approximate 1-log removal attributable to sedimentation. Combined, these inactivation/removal processes underscore the promise of biogas infrastructure for reducing parasite contamination resulting from nightsoil use. When interviewed an average of 4 years after construction, villagers attributed large changes in fuel usage to the installation of biogas systems. Household coal usage decreased by 68%, wood by 74%, and crop waste by 6%. With reported energy savings valued at roughly 600 CNY per year, 2–3 years were required to recoup the capital costs of biogas systems. In villages without subsidies, no new biogas systems were implemented. Conclusions Sustainable strategies that integrate rural energy needs and sanitation offer tremendous promise for long-term control of parasitic diseases, while simultaneously reducing energy costs and improving quality of life. Government policies can enhance the financial viability of such strategies by introducing fiscal incentives for joint sanitation/sustainable energy projects, along with their associated public outreach and education programs. PMID:19293926

  10. Overcoming drug resistance for macro parasites.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mrigank; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2015-11-01

    Helminth infections impose burden on human and livestock populations, and their control predominantly relies on periodic mass administration of anthelmintic drugs. However, recent emergence of drug resistance among parasites to currently available drugs raises serious problems for continuation of control strategies and achievement of elimination of parasitic diseases. This review discusses the problem of anthelmintic resistance in humans and livestock, and suggests steps that can be taken to overcome this problem. To achieve the goals of morbidity reduction or elimination of infection we need to develop novel tools, including more efficacious drugs, vaccines and/or antivectorial agents; new diagnostics for infection and assessment of drug efficacy; and markers for possible anthelmintic resistance. Harnessing the knowledge generated from sequencing of parasite genome sequences is the key to identify genes responsible for drug resistance, which can be used as a starting point for discovery of target-specific pharmacological or genetic modulation to test the functional importance of individual genes and pathways. Involvement of chemical genetic screens and Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system for drug discovery needs to be explored in greater detail. Collective effort from several quarters is needed to think of a world that is free of parasitic infections. PMID:26517758

  11. Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India.

    PubMed

    Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M

    2011-02-01

    Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. PMID:21214867

  12. Applying the theory of island biogeography to emerging pathogens: toward predicting the sources of future emerging zoonotic and vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Reperant, Leslie A

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Emerging infectious diseases are recognized as increasing threats to public and animal health, global economy, and social and political stability. Climate change, environmental changes, changes in human demographics and behaviors, and the rise of global trade and travel are most-often-cited drivers for the emergence of infectious diseases in human and animal populations (Schrag and Wiener 1995 , Daszak et al. 2001 , Dobson and Foufopoulos 2001 , May et al. 2001 , Taylor et al. 2001 , Antia et al. 2003 , IOM 2003 , Kuiken et al. 2003 , Weiss and McMichael 2004 , Wolfe et al. 2005 , Woolhouse and Gowtage-Sequeria 2005 , Chomel et al. 2007 , Woolhouse and Gaunt 2007 , Jones et al. 2008 ). Emerging pathogens are more likely to be zoonotic or vector-borne with a broad host range (Daszak et al. 2000 , Taylor et al. 2001 , Woolhouse and Gowtage-Sequeria 2005 , Jones et al. 2008 ). Emerging pathogens are also more frequently RNA viruses (Woolhouse and Gowtage-Sequeria 2005 ), which may better adapt to and establish in novel host species (Antia et al. 2003 , Andre and Day 2005 , Woolhouse et al. 2005 ). Determining the factors driving disease emergence eventually aims at assisting the prediction of the future emergence of infectious diseases. However, because of the multifactorial nature of the drivers involved (IOM 2003 ), our ability to predict which pathogens may arise in human or animal populations in the future remains limited (WHO/FAO/OIE 2004 ). In particular, the ability to identify the animal reservoirs where the greatest risks to human health will originate was deemed improbable (WHO/FAO/OIE 2004 ). Applying the theory of island biogeography (MacArthur and Wilson 1967 ) to emerging pathogens identifies (i) interactions between recipient host species and species sources of pathogens (including vector species), (ii) interactions within species sources of pathogens, and (iii) interactions within recipient host species, as mechanisms directly driving disease emergence. Most identified drivers for disease emergence correspond to changes in one or more of these three sets of interactions. Importantly, applying the theory of island biogeography to emerging pathogens assists in predicting from which animal species future zoonotic and vector-borne pathogens will most probably emerge. Identifying known and unknown pathogens such species harbor may bring us one step forward toward predicting which pathogen will next emerge in human populations. PMID:19589061

  13. Parasite Prevalence and the Distribution of Intelligence among the States of the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppig, Christopher; Fincher, Corey L.; Thornhill, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the parasite-stress hypothesis for the distribution of intelligence among the USA states: the hypothesis proposes that intelligence emerges from a developmental trade-off between maximizing brain vs. immune function. From this we predicted that among the USA states where infectious disease stress was high, average…

  14. 1 Emerging therapies for Parkinson's disease: From bench to bedside 2 F.I.Q1 Tarazi a,

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    U N C O R R E C T E D P R O O F 1 Emerging therapies for Parkinson's disease: From bench to bedside 13 MicroRNAs 14 Parkinson's disease 15 Pallidotomy 16 Stem cells 17 Viral vector gene therapy 18The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) increases with age and is projected to increase in parallel

  15. Emergence and Prevalence of Human Vector-Borne Diseases in Sink Vector Populations

    PubMed Central

    Rascalou, Guilhem; Pontier, Dominique; Menu, Frédéric; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining ‘source’ populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector populations, but where immigration allows them to persist. We built an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of six major human vector borne-diseases in such non self-sustaining ‘sink’ vector populations. The model was parameterized through a review of the literature, and we performed extensive sensitivity analysis to look at the emergence and prevalence of the pathogen that could be encountered in these populations. Despite the low vector abundance in typical sink populations, all six human diseases were able to spread in 15–55% of cases after accidental introduction. The rate of spread was much more strongly influenced by vector longevity, immigration and feeding rates, than by transmission and virulence of the pathogen. Prevalence in humans remained lower than 5% for dengue, leishmaniasis and Japanese encephalitis, but substantially higher for diseases with longer duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were again the key factors, although their influence was lower than on pathogen emergence. Our results emphasize the need for ecology and evolution to be thought in the context of metapopulations made of a mosaic of sink and source habitats, and to design vector control program not only targeting areas of high vector density, but working at a larger spatial scale. PMID:22629337

  16. Infectious disease and worldwide declines of amphibian populations, with comments on emerging diseases in coral reef organisms and in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, C

    2000-01-01

    Many populations of amphibians are declining on all six continents on which they occur. Some causes of amphibian declines, such as habitat destruction, direct application of xenobiotics, and introduction of predators or competitors, are clearly attributable to human activities. Infectious disease appears to be the direct cause of mass amphibian die-offs in relatively undisturbed areas of the world where anthropomorphic environmental disruption is minimal. In these cases, it is not yet clear whether these epizootics result from the natural evolution of new pathogens or from environmental changes that promote the emergence of pathogenic forms and/or that weaken the immune defenses of amphibians. Because some aspects of pathogen-related amphibian mass mortalities are similar to outbreaks of new diseases in humans and coral reef organisms, amphibian declines may be part of a much larger pattern than previously appreciated. PMID:10698730

  17. Pathogens and Politics: Further Evidence That Parasite Prevalence Predicts Authoritarianism

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Damian R.; Schaller, Mark; Suedfeld, Peter

    2013-01-01

    According to a "parasite stress" hypothesis, authoritarian governments are more likely to emerge in regions characterized by a high prevalence of disease-causing pathogens. Recent cross-national evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but there are inferential limitations associated with that evidence. We report two studies that address some of these limitations, and provide further tests of the hypothesis. Study 1 revealed that parasite prevalence strongly predicted cross-national differences on measures assessing individuals' authoritarian personalities, and this effect statistically mediated the relationship between parasite prevalence and authoritarian governance. The mediation result is inconsistent with an alternative explanation for previous findings. To address further limitations associated with cross-national comparisons, Study 2 tested the parasite stress hypothesis on a sample of traditional small-scale societies (the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample). Results revealed that parasite prevalence predicted measures of authoritarian governance, and did so even when statistically controlling for other threats to human welfare. (One additional threat—famine—also uniquely predicted authoritarianism.) Together, these results further substantiate the parasite stress hypothesis of authoritarianism, and suggest that societal differences in authoritarian governance result, in part, from cultural differences in individuals' authoritarian personalities. PMID:23658718

  18. Training in Infectious Disease Epidemiology through the Emerging Infections Program Sites

    PubMed Central

    Meek, James I.; Danila, Richard N.; Jones, Timothy F.; Schaffner, William; Baumbach, Joan; Lathrop, Sarah; Farley, Monica M.; Tobin-D’Angelo, Melissa; Miller, Lisa; Harrison, Lee H.; Bennett, Nancy M.; Cieslak, Paul R.; Cartter, Matthew L.; Reingold, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    One objective of the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is to provide training opportunities in infectious disease epidemiology. To determine the extent of training performed since the program's inception in 1995, we reviewed training efforts at the 10 EIP sites. By 2015, all sites hosted trainees (most were graduate public health students and physicians) who worked on a variety of infectious disease surveillance and epidemiologic projects. Trainee projects at all sites were used for graduate student theses or practicums. Numerous projects resulted in conference presentations and publications in peer-reviewed journals. Local public health and health care partners have also benefitted from EIP presentations and training. Consideration should be given to standardizing and documenting EIP training and to sharing useful training initiatives with other state and local health departments and academic institutions. PMID:26291924

  19. Humans, Evolutionary and Ecologic Forces Shaped the Phylogeography of Recently Emerged Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Keim, Paul S.; Wagner, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Many infectious diseases have emerged and circulated around the world with the development of human civilizations and global commerce. Anthrax, plague and tularemia are three such zoonotic diseases that have been intensely studied through genome characterization and phylogeographic analyses. A few highly fit genotypes within each of the causative species represent the vast majority of observed disease cases. Mutational and selective forces working together create highly adapted pathogens, but this has to be coupled with ecological opportunities for global expansion. This Review describes the distributions of the bacteria that cause anthrax, plague and tularemia and investigates the forces that created a clonal structure in both these species, and specific groups within these species. PMID:19820723

  20. Emerging technologies for oral diagnostics: lessons from chronic graft-versus-host disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Jacqueline W.; Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Bassim, Carol W.; Melvin, James E.

    2013-05-01

    Saliva is a protein-rich oral fluid that contains information about systemic and oral-specific disease pathogenesis and diagnosis. Technologies are emerging to improve detection of protein components of human saliva for use not only in biomarker discovery, but also for the illumination of pathways involved in oral disease. These include the optimization of liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of saliva in health and disease. Downstream of saliva component identification and validation comes the complex task of connecting salivary proteomic data to biological function, disease state, and other clinical patient information in a meaningful way. Augmentation of database information with biological expertise is crucial for effective analysis of potential biomarkers and disease pathways in order to improve diagnosis and identify putative therapeutic targets. This presentation will use LC-MS/MS analysis of saliva from chronic Graft-versus-Host disease (cGVHD) patients to illustrate these principles, and includes a discussion of the complex clinical and diagnostic issues related to proteomics and biomarker research in cGVHD.

  1. Cardiac Involvement with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hidron, Alicia; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rassi, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Parasitic infections previously seen only in developing tropical settings can be currently diagnosed worldwide due to travel and population migration. Some parasites may directly or indirectly affect various anatomical structures of the heart, with infections manifested as myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, or pulmonary hypertension. Thus, it has become quite relevant for clinicians in developed settings to consider parasitic infections in the differential diagnosis of myocardial and pericardial disease anywhere around the globe. Chagas' disease is by far the most important parasitic infection of the heart and one that it is currently considered a global parasitic infection due to the growing migration of populations from areas where these infections are highly endemic to settings where they are not endemic. Current advances in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis offer hope to prevent not only the neurological complications but also the frequently identified cardiac manifestations of this life-threatening parasitic infection. The lack of effective vaccines, optimal chemoprophylaxis, or evidence-based pharmacological therapies to control many of the parasitic diseases of the heart, in particular Chagas' disease, makes this disease one of the most important public health challenges of our time. PMID:20375355

  2. Ebola from emergence to epidemic: the virus and the disease, global preparedness and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Humans constantly encounter threats from many infectious, zoonotic, and devastating pathogens. Outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bird flu, and swine flu posing pandemic threats have compelled health agencies to follow global preparedness for combating the emerging deadly pathogens. The outbreak in West Africa of highly contagious Ebola viral disease (EVD) that started in Guinea in December 2013, assumed global proportions to become the largest outbreak of EVD and the most prominent international health concern. With fatality rates of nearly 50%-90%, it has claimed, as of 11 April 2015, 10,619 human lives out of a total of 25,626 cases reported worldwide. Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of Filoviridae family, is associated with severe, often lethal, hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and animals. The animal hosts, including non-human primates and reservoir hosts (fruit bats), play a significant role in transmission and maintenance of EBOV in nature. Although no approved vaccine for the prevention of EVD currently exists, disease control can be greatly enhanced by timely laboratory confirmation through blood tests using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Adherence to strict sanitary and hygienic measures, monitoring and surveillance of EBOV, as well as quarantine checks on international trade, transport, and visitors from affected countries are mandatory to prevent and control the spread of EVD. This review describes the salient properties of EBOV and the development of novel diagnostics, vaccines, and control strategies for this emerging disease of high public health concern and international emergency. PMID:25989163

  3. Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kristensen, Thomas K; Bergquist, N Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Malone, John B

    2009-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The work made public at this occasion is briefly summarized here to highlight the advances made and to put forth research priorities in this area. Approaches such as geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS) and remote sensing (RS), including spatial statistics, web-based GIS and map visualization of field investigations, figured prominently in the presentation. PMID:19193214

  4. Systemic Arterial Hypertension in the Emergency Service: medication adherence and understanding of this disease

    PubMed Central

    Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Oliveira, Gabriella Novelli; Andrade, Thaisa Fernanda Landim; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identify the epidemiological profile of hypertension patients, how much they understand about the disease and the rate of adherence to treatment by these patients who had been hospitalized in the Brazilian emergency service. Methods: this cross-sectional study was performed with 116 patients, both male and female and aged over 18 years, who had been hospitalized in the Emergency Service of a University Hospital between March and June, 2013. The studied variables were data referring to socio-demographics, comorbidities, physical activity and knowledge regarding the disease. Patient adherence to treatment and the identification of the barriers were respectively evaluated using the Morisky test and the Brief Medication Questionnaire. Results: most of the patients involved in this study were women (55%), with white skin color (55%), married (51%), retirees or pensioners (64%) and with a low educational level (58%). Adherence to treatment, in most cases (55%), was moderate and the most prevalent adherence barrier was recall (67%). When medication was acquired at no cost to the patient, there was greater adherence to treatment. Conclusion: this study's patients had a moderate understanding about the disease. The high correlation between the number of drugs used and the recall barrier suggests that monotherapy is an option that can facilitate treatment adherence and reduce how often the patients forget to take their medication. PMID:26626007

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An emerging field.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging health concern in both developed and non-developed world, encompassing from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and liver cancer. Incidence and prevalence of this disease are increasing due to the socioeconomic transition and change to harmful diet. Currently, gold standard method in NAFLD diagnosis is liver biopsy, despite complications and lack of accuracy due to sampling error. Further, pathogenesis of NAFLD is not fully understood, but is well-known that obesity, diabetes and metabolic derangements played a major role in disease development and progression. Besides, gut microbioma and host genetic and epigenetic background could explain considerable interindividual variability. Knowledge that epigenetics, heritable events not caused by changes in DNA sequence, contribute to development of diseases has been a revolution in the last few years. Recently, evidences are accumulating revealing the important role of epigenetics in NAFLD pathogenesis and in NASH genesis. Histone modifications, changes in DNA methylation and aberrant profiles or microRNAs could boost development of NAFLD and transition into clinical relevant status. PNPLA3 genotype GG has been associated with a more progressive disease and epigenetics could modulate this effect. The impact of epigenetic on NAFLD progression could deserve further applications on therapeutic targets together with future non-invasive methods useful for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD. PMID:26523202

  6. TB meets COPD: An emerging global co-morbidity in human lung disease.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Ronan F; Shukla, Shakti D; Walters, E Haydn

    2015-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is emerging as the third largest cause of human mortality worldwide after heart disease and stroke. There is growing evidence of a co-morbidity between COPD and tuberculosis (TB), the leading cause of death globally due to respiratory infection. Thus, the increase in the burden of COPD over the coming decades, as predicted by the World Health Organisation, is of concern with respect to the control of TB. A better understanding of the interactions between these two diseases is essential for the design of complementary preventive and control strategies. In this review, some of the known risk factors that are common to both diseases are discussed. Furthermore, we examine how impairment of the innate immune system, and corticosteroid therapy, in COPD patients may increase the risk of TB manifestation. Conversely, we review how TB lung pathology may heighten susceptibility to subsequent development of COPD, even after completion of effective TB treatment. Growing evidence appears to point towards a bi-directional relationship between these two lung diseases where each may act as an independent risk factor for the other. This has important implications for the respective long-term management of TB and COPD. PMID:26386744

  7. The Emerging Role of Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uzoigwe, Jacinta C.; Prum, Thavaleak; Bresnahan, Eric; Garelnabi, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor air pollution poses a significant cardiovascular risk, and has been associated with atherosclerosis, the main underlying pathology in many cardiovascular diseases. Although, it is well known that exposure to air pollution causes pulmonary disease, recent studies have shown that cardiovascular health consequences of air pollution generally equal or exceed those due to pulmonary diseases. The objective of this article is to evaluate the current evidence on the emerging role of environmental air pollutions in cardiovascular disease, with specific focus on the types of air pollutants and mechanisms of air pollution-induced cardiotoxicity. Published literature on pollution was systematically reviewed and cited in this article. It is hoped that this review will provide a better understanding of the harmful cardiovascular effects induced by air pollution exposure. This will help to bring a better understanding on the possible preventive health measures and will also serve regulatory agencies and researchers. In addition, elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying the link between air pollution and cardiovascular disease is an essential target in developing novel pharmacological strategies aimed at decreasing adverse effects of air pollution on cardiovascular system. PMID:24083218

  8. Epigenetic mechanisms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An emerging field

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging health concern in both developed and non-developed world, encompassing from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and liver cancer. Incidence and prevalence of this disease are increasing due to the socioeconomic transition and change to harmful diet. Currently, gold standard method in NAFLD diagnosis is liver biopsy, despite complications and lack of accuracy due to sampling error. Further, pathogenesis of NAFLD is not fully understood, but is well-known that obesity, diabetes and metabolic derangements played a major role in disease development and progression. Besides, gut microbioma and host genetic and epigenetic background could explain considerable interindividual variability. Knowledge that epigenetics, heritable events not caused by changes in DNA sequence, contribute to development of diseases has been a revolution in the last few years. Recently, evidences are accumulating revealing the important role of epigenetics in NAFLD pathogenesis and in NASH genesis. Histone modifications, changes in DNA methylation and aberrant profiles or microRNAs could boost development of NAFLD and transition into clinical relevant status. PNPLA3 genotype GG has been associated with a more progressive disease and epigenetics could modulate this effect. The impact of epigenetic on NAFLD progression could deserve further applications on therapeutic targets together with future non-invasive methods useful for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD. PMID:26523202

  9. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants of Anamalai Hills, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Debapriyo; Hussain, Shaik; Reddy, D Mahendar; Raut, Sachin; Tiwari, Sunil; Kumar, Vinod; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-06-01

    Habitat fragmentation is postulated to be a major factor influencing infectious disease dynamics in wildlife populations and may also be responsible, at least in part, for the recent spurt in the emergence, or re-emergence, of infectious diseases in humans. The mechanism behind these relationships are poorly understood due to the lack of insights into the interacting local factors and insufficient baseline data in ecological parasitology of wildlife. Here, we studied the gastrointestinal parasites of nonhuman mammalian hosts living in 10 rainforest patches of the Anamalai Tiger Reserve, India. We examined 349 faecal samples of 17 mammalian species and successfully identified 24 gastrointestinal parasite taxa including 1 protozoan, 2 trematode, 3 cestode and 18 nematode taxa. Twenty of these parasites are known parasites of humans. We also found that as much as 73% of all infected samples were infected by multiple parasites. In addition, the smallest and most fragmented forest patches recorded the highest parasite richness; the pattern across fragments, however, seemed to be less straightforward, suggesting potential interplay of local factors. PMID:25963266

  10. Chagas’ Disease: An Emergent Urban Zoonosis. The Caracas Valley (Venezuela) as an Epidemiological Model

    PubMed Central

    Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas’ disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas’ disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control, and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty, and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of emergent diseases. PMID:25520950

  11. Chagas' disease: an emergent urban zoonosis. The caracas valley (Venezuela) as an epidemiological model.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas' disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas' disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control, and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty, and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of emergent diseases. PMID:25520950

  12. Evaluation of emergency drug releases from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Quarantine Stations.

    PubMed

    Roohi, Shahrokh; Grinnell, Margaret; Sandoval, Michelle; Cohen, Nicole J; Crocker, Kimberly; Allen, Christopher; Dougherty, Cindy; Jolly, Julian; Pesik, Nicki

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Quarantine Stations distribute select lifesaving drug products that are not commercially available or are in limited supply in the United States for emergency treatment of certain health conditions. Following a retrospective analysis of shipment records, the authors estimated an average of 6.66 hours saved per shipment when drug products were distributed from quarantine stations compared to a hypothetical centralized site from CDC headquarters in Atlanta, GA. This evaluation supports the continued use of a decentralized model which leverages CDC's regional presence and maximizes efficiency in the distribution of lifesaving drugs. PMID:25779896

  13. EMERGING APPLICATIONS OF NANOMEDICINE FOR THERAPY AND DIAGNOSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Biana; Sakamoto, Jason H.; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field of medicine which utilizes nanotechnology concepts for advanced therapy and diagnostics. This convergent discipline, which merges research areas such as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics and engineering thus bridging the gap between molecular and cellular interactions, has a potential to revolutionize current medical practice. This review presents recent developments in nanomedicine research, which are poised to have an important impact on cardiovascular disease and treatment by improving therapy and diagnosis of such cardiovascular disorders as atherosclerosis, restenosis and myocardial infarction. Specifically, we discuss the use of nanoparticles for molecular imaging and advanced therapeutics, specially designed drug eluting stents and in vivo/ex vivo early detection techniques. PMID:20172613

  14. Emerging issues for our nation's health: the intersection of marijuana use and cardiometabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Vidot, Denise C; Prado, Guillermo; Hlaing, WayWay M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Current marijuana use rates are the highest they have been in the past decade and are not likely to decrease given the legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational use. Concurrently, the nation is facing epidemic levels of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus; but, little is known about the intersecting relationships of marijuana use and cardiometabolic health. The objective of this study was to explore emerging issues in context with the intersection of cardiometabolic risk and marijuana use. This topic has potential important implications for our nation's health as we relax our approach to marijuana but continue to have unacceptable rates of cardiometabolic illnesses. PMID:24471513

  15. Emerging applications of nanomedicine for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Godin, Biana; Sakamoto, Jason H; Serda, Rita E; Grattoni, Alessandro; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that utilizes nanotechnology concepts for advanced therapy and diagnostics. This convergent discipline merges research areas such as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics and engineering. It therefore bridges the gap between molecular and cellular interactions, and has the potential to revolutionize medicine. This review presents recent developments in nanomedicine research poised to have an important impact on the treatment of cardiovascular disease. This will occur through improvement of the diagnosis and therapy of cardiovascular disorders as atherosclerosis, restenosis and myocardial infarction. Specifically, we discuss the use of nanoparticles for molecular imaging and advanced therapeutics, specially designed drug eluting stents and in vivo/ex vivo early detection techniques. PMID:20172613

  16. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-04-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n = 138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83·3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  17. Social and environmental health determinants and their relationship with parasitic diseases in asymptomatic children from a shantytown in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Garbossa, Graciela; Pía Buyayisqui, María; Geffner, Laura; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Haedo, Ana S; Marconi, Adela E; Frid, Juan C; Nesse, Alcira B; Bordoni, Noemí

    2013-01-01

    Health inequities are a common problem for all countries and are the result of not only adverse social conditions but also poor public policies. Today chronic diseases represent the most relevant threats and are a current challenge. Parasitic infections, a leading cause of child morbidity affecting low-income populations, can be transmitted because of an unhealthy environment. Notwithstanding, scarce data have been published on the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasitoses in asymptomatic children living in shantytowns. Vulnerable populations settled in slums are growing in Argentina, particularly in Buenos Aires city. Consequently, this work intended to screen healthy carriers of enteric parasites and determine the epidemiologic profile in asymptomatic children residing in one of those communities, to explore risk factors associated with the transmission of parasites, and to initiate a basic health education campaign to promote healthy behavior in the community. Fecal samples (n?=?138) were analyzed by conventional parasitological methods and a survey gathered data on symptoms, family composition, and environmental and hygiene-related variables. High prevalence of feco-orally-transmitted parasitoses (83.3%) and polyparasitism were remarkable findings. The main environmental health determinants were those related to excreta disposal and water provision. Health promotion actions were performed through the diffusion of a set of posters with iconic images and brief messages for health education. Results suggest the need for an environmental sanitation policy to complement health promotion actions. It is essential to spread the results of investigations that address inequities and social determinants of health in order to integrate data with local political processes and alert on acceptable actions for developing appropriate interventions. PMID:23683369

  18. Ecological and inhost factors promoting distinct parasite life-history strategies in Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Haven, James; Magori, Krisztian; Park, Andrew W

    2012-08-01

    Understanding the ecology and evolution of tick-borne parasites is the foundation for preventing and managing tick-borne diseases. Tick-borne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, are an emerging health threat in America, Europe, and Asia. Certain strains of Borrelia burgdorferi (the etiological agent of Lyme borreliosis) sampled in nature appear to be rapidly cleared by murine hosts. These strains, unlike their inhost-persistent counterparts, are unlikely to manifest severe disease. Their emergence and abundance in North America is unclear. Understanding why strains adopt a persistent or rapid-clearing phenotype is a crucial question in Lyme biology. Using dynamic, data-driven infectivity profiles in a competitive, two-strain mathematical model, we show that these phenotypes are differentially favored under distinct ecological conditions (i.e. vector phenology). We argue these two phenotypes represent distinct parasite life-history strategies, impacting regional Lyme disease severity across North America. PMID:22939312

  19. Emergency total thyroidectomy due to non traumatic disease. Experience of a surgical unit and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory failure due to thyroid compression or invasion of the tracheal lumen is a surgical emergency requiring urgent management. The aim of this paper is to describe a series of six patients treated successfully in the emergency setting with total thyroidectomy due to ingravescent dyspnoea and asphyxia, as well as review related data reported in literature. Methods During 2005-2010, of 919 patients treated by total thyroidectomy at our Academic Hospital, 6 (0.7%; 4 females and 2 men, mean age: 68.7 years, range 42-81 years) were treated in emergency. All the emergency operations were performed for life-threatening respiratory distress. The clinical picture at admission, clinical features, type of surgery, outcomes and complications are described. Mean duration of surgery was 146 minutes (range: 53-260). Results In 3/6 (50%) a manubriotomy was necessary due to the extension of the mass into the upper mediastinum. In all cases total thyroidectomy was performed. In one case (16.7%) a parathyroid gland transplantation and in another one (16.7%) a tracheotomy was necessary due to a condition of tracheomalacia. Mean post-operative hospital stay was 6.5 days (range: 2-10 days). Histology revealed malignancy in 4/6 cases (66.7%), showing 3 primitive, and 1 secondary tumors. Morbidity consisted of 1 transient recurrent laryngeal palsy, 3 transient postoperative hypoparathyroidism, and 4 pleural effusions, treated by medical therapy in 3 and by drains in one. There was no mortality. Conclusion On the basis of our experience and of literature review, we strongly advocate elective surgery for patients with thyroid disease at the first signs of tracheal compression. When an acute airway distress appears, an emergency life-threatening total thyroidectomy is recommended in a high-volume centre. PMID:22494456

  20. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis: an emergent disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Fernandez, Monica; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) is an acute disease that affects the central nervous system. It is primarily caused by infection with the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This infection was previously restricted to certain Asian countries and the Pacific Islands, but it was first reported in Brazil in 2007. Since then, intermediate and definitive hosts infected with A. cantonensis have been identified within the urban areas of many states in Brazil, including those in the northern, northeastern, southeastern and southern regions. The goals of this review are to draw the attention of the medical community and health centres to the emergence of EoM in Brazil, to compile information about several aspects of the human infection and mode of transmission and to provide a short protocol of procedures for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:25075779

  1. Anthropogenics: human influence on global and genetic homogenization of parasite populations.

    PubMed

    Zarlenga, Dante S; Hoberg, Eric; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, abundance, and diversity of life on Earth have been greatly shaped by human activities. This includes the geographic expansion of parasites; however, measuring the extent to which humans have influenced the dissemination and population structure of parasites has been challenging. In-depth comparisons among parasite populations extending to landscape-level processes affecting disease emergence have remained elusive. New research methods have enhanced our capacity to discern human impact, where the tools of population genetics and molecular epidemiology have begun to shed light on our historical and ongoing influence. Only since the 1990s have parasitologists coupled morphological diagnosis, long considered the basis of surveillance and biodiversity studies, with state-of-the-art tools enabling variation to be examined among, and within, parasite populations. Prior to this time, populations were characterized only by phenotypic attributes such as virulence, infectivity, host range, and geographical location. The advent of genetic/molecular methodologies (multilocus allozyme electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction-DNA [PCR-DNA] fragments analysis, DNA sequencing, DNA microsatellites, single nucleotide polymorphisms, etc.) have transformed our abilities to reveal variation among, and within, populations at local, regional, landscape, and global scales, and thereby enhanced our understanding of the biosphere. Numerous factors can affect population structure among parasites, e.g., evolutionary and ecological history, mode of reproduction and transmission, host dispersal, and life-cycle complexity. Although such influences can vary considerably among parasite taxa, anthropogenic factors are demonstrably perturbing parasite fauna. Minimal genetic structure among many geographically distinct (isolated) populations is a hallmark of human activity, hastened by geographic introductions, environmental perturbation, and global warming. Accelerating environmental change now plays a primary role in defining where hosts, parasites, and other pathogens occur. This review examines how anthropogenic factors serve as drivers of globalization and genetic homogenization of parasite populations and demonstrates the impact that human intervention has had on the global dissemination of parasites and the accompanying diseases. PMID:25198251

  2. Pictures as a neurological tool: lessons from enhanced and emergent artistry in brain disease.

    PubMed

    Schott, G D

    2012-06-01

    Pictures created spontaneously by patients with brain disease often display impaired or diminished artistry, reflecting the patient's cerebral damage. This article explores the opposite: those pictures created in the face of brain disease that show enhanced or enduring artistry, and those that emerge for the first time in artistically naïve patients. After comments on background issues relating to the patient and the viewer, the paintings and drawings are considered in relation to the heterogeneous conditions in which this artistic creativity is seen. These conditions include various dementias-most notably frontotemporal lobar dementia, stroke, Parkinson's disease, autism and related disorders and psychiatric disease, epilepsy, migraine and trauma. In the discussion, it is argued that evidence of underlying brain dysfunction revealed by these pictures often rests on the abnormal context in which the pictures are created, or on changes in artistry demonstrated by a sequence of pictures. In the former, the compulsive element and sensory and emotional accompaniments are often important features; in the latter, evolving changes are evident, and have included depiction of increasing menace in portrayal of faces. The occurrence of synaesthesia, and its relation to creativity, are briefly discussed in respect of two unusual patients, followed by considering the role of the anterior and frontal lobes, mesolimbic connections and the right hemisphere. In at least some patients, impaired inhibition leading to paradoxical functional facilitation, with compensatory changes particularly in the right posterior hemisphere, is likely to be pivotal in enabling unusual artistry to emerge; preservation of language, however, is not a prerequisite. Many patients studied have been artists, and it appears possible that some of those with an artistic predisposition may be more likely to experience pathologically obsessive creativity. The discussion concludes that occasionally pictures created by these rare individuals unexpectedly prove to be an invaluable but little studied tool for investigating the dysfunctioning brain. PMID:22300875

  3. Canine Distemper Virus: an Emerging Disease in Wild Endangered Amur Tigers (Panthera tigris altaica)

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Tracie A.; Miquelle, Dale G.; Chang, Tylis Y.; Newton, Alisa L.; Korotkova, Irina; Ivanchuk, Galina; Lyubchenko, Elena; Tupikov, Andre; Slabe, Evgeny; McAloose, Denise

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fewer than 500 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) remain in the wild. Due to low numbers and their solitary and reclusive nature, tiger sightings across their range in the Russian Far East and China are rare; sightings of sick tigers are rarer still. Serious neurologic disease observed in several wild tigers since 2001 suggested disease emergence in this endangered species. To investigate this possibility, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were performed on tissues from 5 affected tigers that died or were destroyed in 2001, 2004, or 2010. Our results reveal canine distemper virus (CDV) infection as the cause of neurologic disease in two tigers and definitively establish infection in a third. Nonsuppurative encephalitis with demyelination, eosinophilic nuclear viral inclusions, and positive immunolabeling for CDV by IHC and ISH were present in the two tigers with available brain tissue. CDV phosphoprotein (P) and hemagglutinin (H) gene products were obtained from brains of these two tigers by RT-PCR, and a short fragment of CDV P gene sequence was detected in lymph node tissue of a third tiger. Phylogenetically, Amur tiger CDV groups with an Arctic-like strain in Baikal seals (Phoca siberica). Our results, which include mapping the location of positive tigers and recognition of a cluster of cases in 2010, coupled with a lack of reported CDV antibodies in Amur tigers prior to 2000 suggest wide geographic distribution of CDV across the tiger range and recent emergence of CDV as a significant infectious disease threat to endangered Amur tigers in the Russian Far East. PMID:23943758

  4. Invited Review Malaria parasite colonisation of the mosquito midgut Placing

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    Invited Review Malaria parasite colonisation of the mosquito midgut ­ Placing the Plasmodium 3 March 2012 Keywords: Malaria Plasmodium Mosquito Anopheles Ookinete Oocyst Midgut traversal drugs is emerging. Malaria parasite migration through the mosquito host constitutes a major population

  5. Emerging and Reemerging Neglected Tropical Diseases: a Review of Key Characteristics, Risk Factors, and the Policy and Innovation Environment

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A.; Cuomo, Raphael; Hafen, Ryan; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Lee, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In global health, critical challenges have arisen from infectious diseases, including the emergence and reemergence of old and new infectious diseases. Emergence and reemergence are accelerated by rapid human development, including numerous changes in demographics, populations, and the environment. This has also led to zoonoses in the changing human-animal ecosystem, which are impacted by a growing globalized society where pathogens do not recognize geopolitical borders. Within this context, neglected tropical infectious diseases have historically lacked adequate attention in international public health efforts, leading to insufficient prevention and treatment options. This subset of 17 infectious tropical diseases disproportionately impacts the world's poorest, represents a significant and underappreciated global disease burden, and is a major barrier to development efforts to alleviate poverty and improve human health. Neglected tropical diseases that are also categorized as emerging or reemerging infectious diseases are an even more serious threat and have not been adequately examined or discussed in terms of their unique risk characteristics. This review sets out to identify emerging and reemerging neglected tropical diseases and explore the policy and innovation environment that could hamper or enable control efforts. Through this examination, we hope to raise awareness and guide potential approaches to addressing this global health concern. PMID:25278579

  6. From Fossil Parasitoids to Vectors: Insects as Parasites and Hosts.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Christina; Haug, Joachim T

    2015-01-01

    Within Metazoa, it has been proposed that as many as two-thirds of all species are parasitic. This propensity towards parasitism is also reflected within insects, where several lineages independently evolved a parasitic lifestyle. Parasitic behaviour ranges from parasitic habits in the strict sense, but also includes parasitoid, phoretic or kleptoparasitic behaviour. Numerous insects are also the host for other parasitic insects or metazoans. Insects can also serve as vectors for numerous metazoan, protistan, bacterial and viral diseases. The fossil record can report this behaviour with direct (parasite associated with its host) or indirect evidence (insect with parasitic larva, isolated parasitic insect, pathological changes of host). The high abundance of parasitism in the fossil record of insects can reveal important aspects of parasitic lifestyles in various evolutionary lineages. For a comprehensive view on fossil parasitic insects, we discuss here different aspects, including phylogenetic systematics, functional morphology and a direct comparison of fossil and extant species. PMID:26597067

  7. Emerging treatments for complex perianal fistula in Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Taxonera, Carlos; Schwartz, David A; García-Olmo, Damián

    2009-01-01

    Complex perianal fistulas have a negative impact on the quality of life of sufferers and should be treated. Correct diagnosis, characterization and classification of the fistulas are essential to optimize treatment. Nevertheless, in the case of patients whose fistulas are associated with Crohn’s disease, complete closure is particularly difficult to achieve. Systemic medical treatments (antibiotics, thiopurines and other immunomodulatory agents, and, more recently, anti-tumor necrosis factor-? agents such as infliximab) have been tried with varying degrees of success. Combined medical (including infliximab) and less aggressive surgical therapy (drainage and seton placement) offer the best outcomes in complex Crohn’s fistulas while more aggressive surgical procedures such as fistulotomy or fistulectomy may increase the risk of incontinence. This review will focus on emerging novel treatments for perianal disease in Crohn’s patients. These include locally applied infliximab or tacrolimus, fistula plugs, instillation of fibrin glue and the use of adult expanded adipose-derived stem cell injection. More well-designed controlled studies are required to confirm the effectiveness of these emerging treatments. PMID:19750568

  8. The Emerging Adult with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Challenges and Recommendations for the Adult Gastroenterologist

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising. Adult gastroenterologists are seeing increasing numbers of young adults with IBD, a subpopulation with unique needs and challenges that can impair their readiness to thrive in an adult healthcare system. Most adult gastroenterologists might not have the training or resources to address these needs. “Emerging adulthood” is a useful developmental lens through which this group can be studied. With complex disease phenotype and specific concerns of medication side effects and reproductive health, compounded by challenges of geographical and social flux and lack of adequate health insurance, emerging adults with IBD (EAI) are at risk of disrupted care with lack of continuity. Lessons learned from structured healthcare transition process from pediatric to adult services can be applied towards challenges in ongoing care of this population in the adult healthcare system. This paper provides an overview of the challenges in caring for the post transition EAI from the perspective of adult gastroenterologists and offers a checklist of provider and patient skills that enable effective care. This paper discusses the system-based challenges in care provision and search for meaningful patient-oriented outcomes and presents a conceptual model of determinants of continuity of care in this unique population. PMID:26064089

  9. Compound processes as models for clumped parasite data

    E-print Network

    Barbour, Andrew

    Compound processes as models for clumped parasite data Dominik Heinzmann1,2 , A.D. Barbour1 by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The hypothesis of a clumped infection process against single ingestions infection, mixed Poisson, parasite data, Echinococcus. 1 Introduction Parasitic disease data often consist

  10. Parasites and conservation biology: the `ibex-ecosystem'

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    -1 Parasites and conservation biology: the `ibex-ecosystem' JESU´ S M. PE´ REZ1,* , PIER G. MENEGUZ, Parasites, Protected areas, Wildlife diseases Abstract. Parasites, as organisms with a particular way conservation of parasites, at least within natural and protected areas. Little is known about such complex

  11. Parasite predators exhibit a rapid numerical response to increased parasite abundance and reduce transmission to hosts

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Skylar R; Wyderko, Jennie A; Sheehy, Robert R; Belden, Lisa K; Wojdak, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    Predators of parasites have recently gained attention as important parts of food webs and ecosystems. In aquatic systems, many taxa consume free-living stages of parasites, and can thus reduce parasite transmission to hosts. However, the importance of the functional and numerical responses of parasite predators to disease dynamics is not well understood. We collected host–parasite–predator cooccurrence data from the field, and then experimentally manipulated predator abundance, parasite abundance, and the presence of alternative prey to determine the consequences for parasite transmission. The parasite predator of interest was a ubiquitous symbiotic oligochaete of mollusks, Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei, which inhabits host shells and consumes larval trematode parasites. Predators exhibited a rapid numerical response, where predator populations increased or decreased by as much as 60% in just 5 days, depending on the parasite:predator ratio. Furthermore, snail infection decreased substantially with increasing parasite predator densities, where the highest predator densities reduced infection by up to 89%. Predators of parasites can play an important role in regulating parasite transmission, even when infection risk is high, and especially when predators can rapidly respond numerically to resource pulses. We suggest that these types of interactions might have cascading effects on entire disease systems, and emphasize the importance of considering disease dynamics at the community level. PMID:24340184

  12. A brief review of infectious and parasitic diseases of wapiti, with emphasis on western Canada and the northwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Smits, J E

    1991-08-01

    In this paper I review diseases reported in both captive and free-ranging wapiti in western North America, with some reference to diseases in captive red deer in Great Britain, Europe, New Zealand, and eastern North America.With the exception of coronavirus in neonates, few viral agents are reported to cause serious disease losses in wapiti in North America at this time. Bacterial diseases of current significance include brucellosis (focus in Wyoming), clostridial diseases, coliform enteritis of neonates, pasteurellosis, and necrobacillosis. The endoparasites most likely to be seen causing lesions in wapiti of western North America are lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus), arterial worm (Elaeophora schneideri), and, possibly, liver fluke (Fascioloides magna). Ectoparasites of importance to wapiti are Psoroptes cervinus and Dermacentor albipictus. Nutritional diseases are not covered in this review. PMID:17423839

  13. A brief review of infectious and parasitic diseases of wapiti, with emphasis on western Canada and the northwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Judit E.G.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper I review diseases reported in both captive and free-ranging wapiti in western North America, with some reference to diseases in captive red deer in Great Britain, Europe, New Zealand, and eastern North America. With the exception of coronavirus in neonates, few viral agents are reported to cause serious disease losses in wapiti in North America at this time. Bacterial diseases of current significance include brucellosis (focus in Wyoming), clostridial diseases, coliform enteritis of neonates, pasteurellosis, and necrobacillosis. The endoparasites most likely to be seen causing lesions in wapiti of western North America are lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus), arterial worm (Elaeophora schneideri), and, possibly, liver fluke (Fascioloides magna). Ectoparasites of importance to wapiti are Psoroptes cervinus and Dermacentor albipictus. Nutritional diseases are not covered in this review. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17423839

  14. Scabies: Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease When a person is ... reaction) to the proteins and feces of the parasite. Severe itching (pruritus), especially at night, is the ...

  15. The Effect and Relative Importance of Neutral Genetic Diversity for Predicting Parasitism Varies across Parasite

    E-print Network

    Gompper, Matthew E.

    The Effect and Relative Importance of Neutral Genetic Diversity for Predicting Parasitism Varies across Parasite Taxa Mari´a Jose´ Ruiz-Lo´ pez1,2 *, Ryan J. Monello1¤ , Matthew E. Gompper1 , Lori S of parasitism across individuals is a major challenge in disease ecology. It is known that genetic makeup plays

  16. Tularemia, a re-emerging infectious disease in Iran and neighboring countrie

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Afsaneh; Maurin, Max; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Tularemia is a zoonotic disease transmitted by direct contact with infected animals and through arthropod bites, inhalation of contaminated aerosols, ingestion of contaminated meat or water, and skin contact with any infected material. It is widespread throughout the northern hemisphere, including Iran and its neighbors to the north, northeast, and northwest. METHODS: In this paper, the epidemiology of tularemia as a re-emerging infectious disease in the world with a focus on Iran and the neighboring countries is reviewed. RESULTS: In Iran, positive serological tests were first reported in 1973, in wildlife and domestic livestock in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the country. The first human case was reported in 1980 in the southwest of Iran, and recent studies conducted among at-risk populations in the western, southeastern, and southwestern parts of Iran revealed seroprevalences of 14.4, 6.52, and 6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Several factors may explain the absence of reported tularemia cases in Iran since 1980. Tularemia may be underdiagnosed in Iran because Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica is likely to be the major etiological agent and usually causes mild to moderately severe disease. Furthermore, tularemia is not a disease extensively studied in the medical educational system in Iran, and empirical therapy may be effective in many cases. Finally, it should be noted that laboratories capable of diagnosing tularemia have only been established in the last few years. Since both recent and older studies have consistently found tularemia antibodies in humans and animals, the surveillance of this disease should receive more attention. In particular, it would be worthwhile for clinical researchers to confirm tularemia cases more often by isolating F. tularensis from infected humans and animals. PMID:25773439

  17. Host Sexual Dimorphism and Parasite Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    In species with separate sexes, parasite prevalence and disease expression is often different between males and females. This effect has mainly been attributed to sex differences in host traits, such as immune response. Here, we make the case for how properties of the parasites themselves can also matter. Specifically, we suggest that differences between host sexes in many different traits, such as morphology and hormone levels, can impose selection on parasites. This selection can eventually lead to parasite adaptations specific to the host sex more commonly encountered, or to differential expression of parasite traits depending on which host sex they find themselves in. Parasites adapted to the sex of the host in this way can contribute to differences between males and females in disease prevalence and expression. Considering those possibilities can help shed light on host–parasite interactions, and impact epidemiological and medical science. PMID:22389630

  18. Importation and Transmission of Parasitic and Other Infectious Diseases Associated with International Adoptees and Refugees Immigrating into the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Smith Darr, Jordan; Conn, David Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Each year, hundreds of millions of people travel across international borders or even oceans, and up to 230 million may remain for long periods. Among these, 3–5 million settle permanently in their new homes, with about 1 million migrating permanently to the United States of America. This may result in transport of parasites and other pathogens, which might become established, infecting individuals in the new location. Beyond concern of disease spread, the health of migrants is of concern since the rigors, circumstances, and living conditions surrounding migrations may increase the vulnerability of migrants to infections. International adoptees and refugees are a small subset of these migrants but are of special significance inasmuch as adoptees may be more vulnerable to infection due to their immature immune status, and refugees may be more vulnerable due to substandard living conditions. Both originate from diverse regions, but often from environments of low hygiene and health care standards. This review examines recent examples of infections reported from adoptees and refugees entering the USA through 2010, highlighting the most common origin countries and the diseases most frequently involved, including Chagas disease, Balamuthia amebic meningoencephalitis, giardiasis, microsporidiosis, hepatitis, measles, pertussis, tuberculosis, malaria, intestinal helminths, and syphilis. PMID:26583130

  19. Importation and Transmission of Parasitic and Other Infectious Diseases Associated with International Adoptees and Refugees Immigrating into the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Smith Darr, Jordan; Conn, David Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Each year, hundreds of millions of people travel across international borders or even oceans, and up to 230 million may remain for long periods. Among these, 3-5 million settle permanently in their new homes, with about 1 million migrating permanently to the United States of America. This may result in transport of parasites and other pathogens, which might become established, infecting individuals in the new location. Beyond concern of disease spread, the health of migrants is of concern since the rigors, circumstances, and living conditions surrounding migrations may increase the vulnerability of migrants to infections. International adoptees and refugees are a small subset of these migrants but are of special significance inasmuch as adoptees may be more vulnerable to infection due to their immature immune status, and refugees may be more vulnerable due to substandard living conditions. Both originate from diverse regions, but often from environments of low hygiene and health care standards. This review examines recent examples of infections reported from adoptees and refugees entering the USA through 2010, highlighting the most common origin countries and the diseases most frequently involved, including Chagas disease, Balamuthia amebic meningoencephalitis, giardiasis, microsporidiosis, hepatitis, measles, pertussis, tuberculosis, malaria, intestinal helminths, and syphilis. PMID:26583130

  20. Emergence of exosomal miRNAs as a diagnostic biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Van Giau, Vo; An, Seong Soo A

    2016-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive degenerative disorder, and is characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline. It is a complex disorder with both environmental and genetic components. Current diagnosis of AD is based primarily on the analysis of the patient's cognitive function using imaging techniques and the biochemical analyses of bodily fluids. Efforts have been made to develop not only an effective therapeutic, but also a diagnostic capable of identifying AD before the onset of irreversible neurological damage. The molecular content of exosomes is a fingerprint of the releasing cell type and its status. A significant body of literature has demonstrated that molecular constituents of exosomes, especially exosomal proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs), hold great promise as novel biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. In addition, expression profiling of miRNAs found in nanovesicles has revealed diagnostic potential in neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, exosomal miRNAs within biological fluids are known as good disease-related markers, and have emerged as a powerful tool for solving many difficulties in both the diagnosis and treatment of AD patients. In this review, we reviewed recent advances in the research of exosomal biomarkers as well as exosomal miRNAs, summarized of actively used approaches to identifying potential miRNA biomarkers through mouse models and their potential application in clinical diagnostics in AD. We also supply a comprehensive overview of the formation, function, and isolation of exosomes. PMID:26723991

  1. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Trypansoma cruzi parasite ... thin blood smear. (CDC Photo) The diagnosis of Chagas disease can be made by observation of the parasite ...

  2. Evolution in action: Climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climatological variation and ecological perturbation have been pervasive drivers of faunal assembly, structure and diversification for parasites and pathogens through recurrent events of geographic and host colonization at varying spatial and temporal scales of Earth history. Episodic shifts in clim...

  3. Predator diversity, intraguild predation, and indirect effects drive parasite transmission

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Jason R.; Civitello, David J.; Crumrine, Patrick W.; Halstead, Neal T.; Miller, Andrew D.; Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Stenoien, Carl; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Beasley, Val R.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are altering biodiversity globally and infectious diseases are on the rise; thus, there is interest in understanding how changes to biodiversity affect disease. Here, we explore how predator diversity shapes parasite transmission. In a mesocosm experiment that manipulated predator (larval dragonflies and damselflies) density and diversity, non-intraguild (non-IG) predators that only consume free-living cercariae (parasitic trematodes) reduced metacercarial infections in tadpoles, whereas intraguild (IG) predators that consume both parasites and tadpole hosts did not. This likely occurred because IG predators reduced tadpole densities and anticercarial behaviors, increasing per capita exposure rates of the surviving tadpoles (i.e., via density- and trait-mediated effects) despite the consumption of parasites. A mathematical model demonstrated that non-IG predators reduce macroparasite infections, but IG predation weakens this “dilution effect” and can even amplify parasite burdens. Consistent with the experiment and model, a wetland survey revealed that the diversity of IG predators was unrelated to metacercarial burdens in amphibians, but the diversity of non-IG predators was negatively correlated with infections. These results are strikingly similar to generalities that have emerged from the predator diversity–pest biocontrol literature, suggesting that there may be general mechanisms for pest control and that biocontrol research might inform disease management and vice versa. In summary, we identified a general trait of predators—where they fall on an IG predation continuum—that predicts their ability to reduce infections and possibly pests in general. Consequently, managing assemblages of predators represents an underused tool for the management of human and wildlife diseases and pest populations. PMID:25713379

  4. Molecular pathological epidemiology of epigenetics: emerging integrative science to analyze environment, host, and disease.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Shuji; Lochhead, Paul; Chan, Andrew T; Nishihara, Reiko; Cho, Eunyoung; Wolpin, Brian M; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Meissner, Alexander; Schernhammer, Eva S; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Epigenetics acts as an interface between environmental/exogenous factors, cellular responses, and pathological processes. Aberrant epigenetic signatures are a hallmark of complex multifactorial diseases (including neoplasms and malignancies such as leukemias, lymphomas, sarcomas, and breast, lung, prostate, liver, and colorectal cancers). Epigenetic signatures (DNA methylation, mRNA and microRNA expression, etc) may serve as biomarkers for risk stratification, early detection, and disease classification, as well as targets for therapy and chemoprevention. In particular, DNA methylation assays are widely applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue specimens as clinical pathology tests. To better understand the interplay between etiological factors, cellular molecular characteristics, and disease evolution, the field of 'molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE)' has emerged as an interdisciplinary integration of 'molecular pathology' and 'epidemiology'. In contrast to traditional epidemiological research including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), MPE is founded on the unique disease principle, that is, each disease process results from unique profiles of exposomes, epigenomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes, microbiomes, and interactomes in relation to the macroenvironment and tissue microenvironment. MPE may represent a logical evolution of GWAS, termed 'GWAS-MPE approach'. Although epigenome-wide association study attracts increasing attention, currently, it has a fundamental problem in that each cell within one individual has a unique, time-varying epigenome. Having a similar conceptual framework to systems biology, the holistic MPE approach enables us to link potential etiological factors to specific molecular pathology, and gain novel pathogenic insights on causality. The widespread application of epigenome (eg, methylome) analyses will enhance our understanding of disease heterogeneity, epigenotypes (CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 (long interspersed nucleotide element-1; also called long interspersed nuclear element-1; long interspersed element-1; L1) hypomethylation, etc), and host-disease interactions. In this article, we illustrate increasing contribution of modern pathology to broader public health sciences, which attests pivotal roles of pathologists in the new integrated MPE science towards our ultimate goal of personalized medicine and prevention. PMID:23307060

  5. Global honey bee viral landscape altered by a parasitic mite.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen J; Highfield, Andrea C; Brettell, Laura; Villalobos, Ethel M; Budge, Giles E; Powell, Michelle; Nikaido, Scott; Schroeder, Declan C

    2012-06-01

    Emerging diseases are among the greatest threats to honey bees. Unfortunately, where and when an emerging disease will appear are almost impossible to predict. The arrival of the parasitic Varroa mite into the Hawaiian honey bee population allowed us to investigate changes in the prevalence, load, and strain diversity of honey bee viruses. The mite increased the prevalence of a single viral species, deformed wing virus (DWV), from ~10 to 100% within honey bee populations, which was accompanied by a millionfold increase in viral titer and a massive reduction in DWV diversity, leading to the predominance of a single DWV strain. Therefore, the global spread of Varroa has selected DWV variants that have emerged to allow it to become one of the most widely distributed and contagious insect viruses on the planet. PMID:22679096

  6. Monitoring parasite diversity for malaria elimination in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ghansah, Anita; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Andagalu, Ben; Apinjoh, Tobias; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle; Cornelius, Victoria; Golassa, Lemu; Andrianaranjaka, Voahangy Hanitriniaina; Ishengoma, Deus; Johnson, Kimberly; Kamau, Edwin; Maïga-Ascofaré, Oumou; Mumba, Dieudonne; Tindana, Paulina; Tshefu-Kitoto, Antoinette; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; William, Yavo; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.

    2015-01-01

    The African continent continues to bear the greatest burden of malaria and the greatest diversity of parasites, mosquito vectors and human victims. The evolutionary plasticity of malaria parasites and their vectors is a major obstacle to elimination of the disease. Of current concern is the recently reported emergence of resistance to the front-line drug, artemisinin, in South-East Asia in Plasmodium falciparum, which calls for pre-emptive surveillance of the African parasite population for genetic markers of emerging drug resistance. Here we describe the Plasmodium Diversity Network Africa (PDNA) which has been established across eleven countries in sub-Saharan Africa to ensure that African scientists are enabled to work together and to play a key role in the global effort for tracking and responding to this public health threat. PMID:25214619

  7. Foodborne protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Dawson, David

    2005-08-25

    This report addresses Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and more briefly, Toxoplasma as the main parasitic protozoa of concern to food production worldwide. Other parasitic protozoa may be spread in food or water but are not considered as great a risk to food manufacture. The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora have proven potential to cause waterborne and foodborne disease. Toxoplasma gondii has been considered a risk in specific cases, but humans are not its primary host. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are widespread in the environment, particularly the aquatic environment, and major outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have occurred as a result of contaminated drinking water. Large outbreaks of waterborne cyclosporiasis have not been identified. Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora have potential significance in the preparation and consumption of fresh produce and in catering practice, in which ready-to-eat foods may be served that have not received heat treatment. None of the three organisms Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora has been shown to be a problem for heat processed food or tap water that has undergone appropriate treatment at a water treatment works. All three are sensitive to standard pasteurisation techniques. Although humans are not a primary host for T. gondii, the potential exists for both waterborne and foodborne toxoplasmosis. Parasitic protozoa do not multiply in foods, but they may survive in or on moist foods for months in cool, damp environments. Their ecology makes control of these parasites difficult. For general control of parasitic protozoa in the food chain, the following steps are necessary: - Follow good hygienic practice in food service and catering industries.- Minimise dissemination of cysts and oocysts in the farming environment and via human waste management.- Include these microorganisms in Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plans of water suppliers, industries or sectors that use fresh produce, and operations in which contaminated process or ingredient water could end up in the product (e.g., where water supplies may become contaminated). PMID:16083823

  8. The emerging role of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase in the treatment of Dupuytren disease

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alexis; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2010-01-01

    Dupuytren disease (DD) is a common fibroproliferative disease of unknown etiopathogenesis affecting the palmar aponeurosis, causing reduced hand function and resulting in fixed flexion contractures of the digits. Current gold standard treatment for the management of DD is surgical excision involving removal of the affected palmar fascial tissue. However, there are potential complications associated with surgery as it is costly and a positive surgical outcome is often short-lived because the disease tends to recur. Therefore, there is growing interest in nonsurgical, outpatient-based treatments that could be quicker, cheaper, reduce morbidity, show a decreased rate of recurrence, and give DD patients an improved quality of life when compared with traditional surgical management. Of the available nonsurgical options, injectable Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (CHC) has received recent clinical interest. In this article, a brief overview of DD surgical and nonsurgical treatments utilized is given, followed by a detailed examination of the nine papers published to date on the use of CHC in DD (and similar fibrotic disorders). These papers have investigated safe and efficacious doses for the injection of CHC to treat palpable DD cords in adult patients and have shown significant short- to mid-term results for correction to near-full digital extension (?5° extension) following CHC injection of DD cords. CHC has been shown to target the collagen-based DD cords while sparing surrounding neurovasculature, with a complication profile that appears comparable to that of the surgical methods currently utilized. In conclusion, clostridial collagenase is a novel nonsurgical treatment option of considerable potential in the management of DD when administered by specialist hand surgeons with detailed knowledge of the disease and the relevant anatomy. Nonetheless, there is a need for further data on long-term results, complications, and rate of recurrence with the use of this emerging treatment option. PMID:21127696

  9. Emerging role of P2X7 receptors in CNS health and disease.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Manju; Seth, Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Purinergic signalling in the brain is becoming an important focus in the study of CNS health and disease. Various purinergic receptors are found to be present in different brain cells in varying extent, which get activated upon binding of ATP or its analogues. Conventionally, ATP was considered only as a major metabolic fuel of the cell but its recognition as a neurotransmitter in early 1970s, brought meaningful insights in neuron glia crosstalk, participating in various physiological functions in the brain. P2X7R, a member of ligand gated purinergic receptor (P2X) family, is gaining attention in the field of neuroscience because of its emerging role in broad spectrum of ageing and age related neurological disorders. The aim of this review is to provide an overview about the structure and function of P2X7R highlighting its unique features which distinguish it from the other members of its family. This review critically analyzes the literature mentioning the details about the agonist and antagonist of the P2X7R. It also emphasizes the advancements in understanding the dual role of P2X7R in brain development and disorders inviting meaningful insights about its involvement in Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Neuropathic pain, Spinal Cord Injury and NeuroAIDS. Exploring the roles of P2X7R in detail is critical to identify its therapeutic potential in the treatment of acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, this review also helps to raise more interest in the neurobiology of the purinergic receptors and thus providing new avenues for future research. PMID:26478005

  10. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Fungal Disease Emergence and Spread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton J.; Yager, Karina; Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence from multiple sources show the Earth has been warming since the late 19th century. More recently, evidence for this warming trend is strongly supported by satellite data since the late 1970s from the cryosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and land that confirms increasing temperature trends and their consequences (e.g., reduced Arctic sea ice, rising sea level, ice sheet mass loss, etc.). At the same time, satellite observations of the Sun show remarkably stable solar cycles since the late 1970s, when direct observations of the Sun's total solar irradiance began. Numerical simulation models, driven in part by assimilated satellite data, suggest that future-warming trends will lead to not only a warmer planet, but also a wetter and drier climate depending upon location in a fashion consistent with large-scale atmospheric processes. Continued global warming poses new opportunities for the emergence and spread of fungal disease, as climate systems change at regional and global scales, and as animal and plant species move into new niches. Our contribution to this proceedings is organized thus: First, we review empirical evidence for a warming Earth. Second, we show the Sun is not responsible for the observed warming. Third, we review numerical simulation modeling results that project these trends into the future, describing the projected abiotic environment of our planet in the next 40 to 50 years. Fourth, we illustrate how Rift Valley fever outbreaks have been linked to climate, enabling a better understanding of the dynamics of these diseases, and how this has led to the development of an operational predictive outbreak model for this disease in Africa. Fifth, We project how this experience may be applicable to predicting outbreaks of fungal pathogens in a warming world. Lastly, we describe an example of changing species ranges due to climate change, resulting from recent warming in the Andes and associated glacier melt that has enabled amphibians to colonize higher elevation lakes, only to be followed shortly by the emergence of fungal disease in the new habitats.

  11. [Chikungunya, an emerging viral disease. Proposal of an algorithm for its clinical management].

    PubMed

    Palacios-Martínez, D; Díaz-Alonso, R A; Arce-Segura, L J; Díaz-Vera, E

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an emerging viral disease. It is caused by the Chikungunya virus, an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. They are also involved in the transmission of dengue, malaria, etc. CHIK is now endemic in any region of Africa and Southeast-Asia. Cases of CHIK have been reported in America, the Caribbean, and Europe (France, Italy and Spain). There are reservoirs of these mosquitoes in some regions of Spain (Catalonia, Alicante, Murcia and Balearic islands). CHIK is characterized by a sudden high and debilitating fever, and severe or disabling symmetrical arthralgia. It tends to improve in days or weeks. There are severe and chronic forms of CHIK. There is no specific treatment or prophylaxis for CHIK. An algorithm is proposed for the clinical management of CHIK based in the latest guidelines. PMID:25440971

  12. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePLUS

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  13. The pediatric disease spectrum in emergency departments across Pakistan: data from a pilot surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing number of urgently ill and injured children being seen in emergency departments (ED) of developing countries. The pediatric disease burden in EDs across Pakistan is generally unknown. Our main objective was to determine the spectrum of disease and injury among children seen in EDs in Pakistan through a nationwide ED-based surveillance system. Methods Through the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS), data were collected from November 2010 to March 2011 in seven major tertiary care centers representing all provinces of Pakistan. These included five public and two private hospitals, with a collective annual census of over one million ED encounters. Results Of 25,052 children registered in Pak-NEDS (10% of all patients seen): 61% were male, 13% under 5 years, while almost 65% were between 10 to < 16 years. The majority (90%) were seen in public hospital EDs. About half the patients were discharged from the EDs, 9% admitted to hospitals and only 1.3% died in the EDs. Injury (39%) was the most common presenting complaint, followed by fever/malaise (19%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (18%). Injury was more likely in males vs. females (43% vs. 33%; p < 0.001), with a peak presentation in the 5-12 year age group (45%). Conclusions Pediatric patients constitute a smaller proportion among general ED users in Pakistan. Injury is the most common presenting complaint for children seen in the ED. These data will help in resource allocation for cost effective pediatric ED service delivery systems. Prospective longer duration surveillance is needed in more representative pediatric EDs across Pakistan. PMID:26691052

  14. Emergence of a novel avian pox disease in British tit species.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Becki; Lachish, Shelly; Colvile, Katie M; Durrant, Chris; Peck, Kirsi M; Toms, Mike P; Sheldon, Ben C; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major) from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Britain, 2006-2010. Reports of affected Paridae (211 incidents) outnumbered reports in non-Paridae (91 incidents). The majority (90%) of Paridae incidents involved great tits. Paridae pox incidents were more likely to involve multiple individuals (77.3%) than were incidents in non-Paridae hosts (31.9%). Unlike the small wart-like lesions usually seen in non-Paridae with avian pox in Great Britain, lesions in Paridae were frequently large, often with an ulcerated surface and caseous core. Spatial analyses revealed strong clustering of suspected avian pox incidents involving Paridae hosts, but only weak, inconsistent clustering of incidents involving non-Paridae hosts. There was no spatial association between Paridae and non-Paridae incidents. We documented significant spatial spread of Paridae pox from an origin in south-east England; no spatial spread was evident for non-Paridae pox. For both host clades, there was an annual peak of reports in August/September. Sequencing of the avian poxvirus 4b core protein produced an identical viral sequence from each of 20 great tits tested from Great Britain. This sequence was identical to that from great tits from central Europe and Scandinavia. In contrast, sequence variation was evident amongst virus tested from 17 non-Paridae hosts of 5 species. Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia. PMID:23185231

  15. The Importance of Veterinary Policy in Preventing the Emergence and Re-Emergence of Zoonotic Disease: Examining the Case of Human African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Okello, Anna L.; Welburn, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in human behavior, resource utilization, and other extrinsic environmental factors continue to threaten the current distribution of several endemic and historically neglected zoonoses in many developing regions worldwide. There are numerous examples of zoonotic diseases which have circulated within relatively localized geographical areas for some time, before emerging into new regions as a result of changing human, environmental, or behavioral dynamics. While the world’s focus is currently on the Ebola virus gaining momentum in western Africa, another pertinent example of this phenomenon is zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), endemic to south and eastern Africa, and spread via infected cattle. In recent years, the ongoing northwards spread of this disease in the country has posed a serious public health threat to the human population of Uganda, increasing the pressure on both individual families and government services to control the disease. Moreover, the emergence of HAT into new areas of Uganda in recent years exemplifies the important role of veterinary policy in mitigating the severe human health and economic impacts of zoonotic disease. The systemic challenges surrounding the development and enforcement of veterinary policy described here are similar across sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the necessity to consider and support zoonotic disease control in broader human and animal health systems strengthening and associated development programs on the continent. PMID:25405148

  16. Morphological and Molecular Descriptors of the Developmental Cycle of Babesia divergens Parasites in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rossouw, Ingrid; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Niemand, Jandeli; van Biljon, Riette; Smit, Annel; Olivier, Nicholas A.; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Human babesiosis, especially caused by the cattle derived Babesia divergens parasite, is on the increase, resulting in renewed attentiveness to this potentially life threatening emerging zoonotic disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and intra-erythrocytic development of these parasites are poorly understood. This impedes concerted efforts aimed at the discovery of novel anti-babesiacidal agents. By applying sensitive cell biological and molecular functional genomics tools, we describe the intra-erythrocytic development cycle of B. divergens parasites from immature, mono-nucleated ring forms to bi-nucleated paired piriforms and ultimately multi-nucleated tetrads that characterizes zoonotic Babesia spp. This is further correlated for the first time to nuclear content increases during intra-erythrocytic development progression, providing insight into the part of the life cycle that occurs during human infection. High-content temporal evaluation elucidated the contribution of the different stages to life cycle progression. Moreover, molecular descriptors indicate that B. divergens parasites employ physiological adaptation to in vitro cultivation. Additionally, differential expression is observed as the parasite equilibrates its developmental stages during its life cycle. Together, this information provides the first temporal evaluation of the functional transcriptome of B. divergens parasites, information that could be useful in identifying biological processes essential to parasite survival for future anti-babesiacidal discoveries. PMID:25955414

  17. Morphological and Molecular Descriptors of the Developmental Cycle of Babesia divergens Parasites in Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, Ingrid; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Niemand, Jandeli; van Biljon, Riette; Smit, Annel; Olivier, Nicholas A; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2015-05-01

    Human babesiosis, especially caused by the cattle derived Babesia divergens parasite, is on the increase, resulting in renewed attentiveness to this potentially life threatening emerging zoonotic disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and intra-erythrocytic development of these parasites are poorly understood. This impedes concerted efforts aimed at the discovery of novel anti-babesiacidal agents. By applying sensitive cell biological and molecular functional genomics tools, we describe the intra-erythrocytic development cycle of B. divergens parasites from immature, mono-nucleated ring forms to bi-nucleated paired piriforms and ultimately multi-nucleated tetrads that characterizes zoonotic Babesia spp. This is further correlated for the first time to nuclear content increases during intra-erythrocytic development progression, providing insight into the part of the life cycle that occurs during human infection. High-content temporal evaluation elucidated the contribution of the different stages to life cycle progression. Moreover, molecular descriptors indicate that B. divergens parasites employ physiological adaptation to in vitro cultivation. Additionally, differential expression is observed as the parasite equilibrates its developmental stages during its life cycle. Together, this information provides the first temporal evaluation of the functional transcriptome of B. divergens parasites, information that could be useful in identifying biological processes essential to parasite survival for future anti-babesiacidal discoveries. PMID:25955414

  18. Exploring apposite therapeutic target for apoptosis in filarial parasite: a plausible hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hande, Sneha; Goswami, Kalyan; Jena, Lingaraj; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami

    2014-03-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic disease with profound socioeconomic encumbrance owing to its associated disability, affecting predominantly but not limited to the developing nations of tropics and subtropics. There are several technical issues like poor therapeutic and preventive repertoire as well as administrative and infrastructural limitations which jeopardize the salvage measures and further complicate the plight. Therefore, considering the gravity of the problem, WHO has mandated (under tropical disease research scheme) for placing emphasis on validation of novel therapeutic targets against this disease with the unfortunate tag of 'neglected tropical disease'. However, dearth of knowledge of parasite biology viciously coupled with difficulty of access to parasitic material from suitable animal model along with growing cost burden of high end research poses formidable challenge. Based on the recent research evidences, here we propose a premise with targeted apoptotic impact as a novel rationale to be exploited towards anti-parasitic drug development. The new era of bioinformatics ushers in new optimism with a wide range of genomic and proteomic database in public domain. Such platform might offer wonders for drug research, but needs highly selective criterion specificity. In order to test our hypothesis presumptively, we deployed a scheme for identification of target proteins from filarial parasitic origin through wide database search with precise criteria of non-homology against the host along with functional essentiality for the parasite. Further screening for proteins with growth potential from such list of essential non-homologous proteins was undertaken to mine out suitable representative target for ensuing apoptotic impact though effective inhibitors. A unique protein enzyme, RNA dependent RNA polymerase, which besides its vital role in RNA virus is believed to have regulatory role in gene expression, emerged as a plausible target. This protein is rather unknown in human host and present in related nematode parasites including the pathogen of human lymphatic parasite. Further exploitation of bioinformatics approach with a proven inhibitor of this enzyme by molecular docking technique revealed the feasibility as valid antifilarial candidate. This strategy also underscored the significance of bioinformatics tools in circumventing the resource intensive research for drug development. This virtually verified paradigm need to be tested in real lab setting not only for therapeutic authentication of this novel rationale but also for development of insight into parasitic biology that may open up new outlook in host parasite relationship. If successful, this might ensure effective measure against this menace of such 'neglected tropical parasitic diseases'. PMID:24472864

  19. Parasites and the conservation of small populations: The case of Baylisascaris procyonis?

    PubMed Central

    Kristen Page, L.

    2013-01-01

    Human demands on natural resources result in landscape changes that facilitate the emergence of disease. Most emerging diseases are zoonotic, and some of these pathogens play a role in the decline of vulnerable wildlife species. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common roundworm parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor), is a well recognized zoonotic infection that has many of the properties associated with a pathogen capable of driving extinction. It is highly non-specific and frequently pathogenic with regard to paratenic hosts, which contact eggs of B. procyonis at raccoon latrines. Eggs accumulate at latrines and remain viable for many years. Transmission of B. procyonis is sensitive to changes in land-use, and fragmented habitats increase contact rates between raccoons, potential paratenic hosts, and the parasite. Raccoons, and subsequently B. procyonis, have been introduced to Europe and Japan, where naïve vertebrates may be exposed to the parasite. Finally, domestic animals and exotic pets can carry patent infections with B. procyonis, thus increasing environmental contamination beyond raccoon latrines, and expanding the area of risk to potential paratenic hosts. This parasite can potentially contribute to extinctions of vulnerable species, as exemplified by the case of the Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister), a species that has experienced local declines and extinctions that are linked to B. procyonis. Conservation strategies for vulnerable species should consider the transmission ecology of parasitic pathogens, like B. procyonis. PMID:24533336

  20. Parasites of Insect Pests

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Parasites of Insect Pests Parasites of Insect Pests A parasite is an organism that lives and feeds in or on a larger animal (host). Nearly all insect pests have at least one parasite that attacks them. Insects that parasitize other invertebrates (sometimes called parasitoids) are parasitic only in their immature stages

  1. Changing Emergence of Shigella Sero-Groups in Bangladesh: Observation from Four Different Diarrheal Disease Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Ferdous, Farzana; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Leung, Daniel T.; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Raqib, Rubhana

    2013-01-01

    Background Shigellosis continues to be a public health challenge for developing countries, including Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to demonstrate recent changes in Shigella sero-groups and their geographical diversity. Methods Data were extracted from data archive of four diarrheal disease surveillance systems. A 2% sub sample from urban Dhaka Hospital (2008–2011; n?=?10,650), and 10% from urban Mirpur Treatment Centre (2009–2011; n?=?3,585), were enrolled systematically; whereas, all patients coming from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System area in rural Matlab (2008–2011; n?=?6,399) and rural Mirzapur (2010–2011; n?=?2,812) were included irrespective of age, sex, and disease severity. A fresh stool specimen was collected for identification of Shigella spp. Of them, 315 (3%) were positive for Shigella in Dhaka, 490 (8%) from Matlab, 109 (3%) from Mirpur and 369 (13%) from Mirzapur and considered as analyzable sample size. Results Among all Shigella isolates regardless of age, significant decreases in percentage of S. flexneri over time was observed in Mirpur (55?29%; p value of ?2-for trend?=?0.019) and Mirzapur (59?47%; p?=?0.025). A non-significant decrease was also seen in Dhaka (58?48%), while in Matlab there was a non-significant increase (73?81%). Similar patterns were observed among under-5 children at all sites. Emergence of S. sonnei was found in Dhaka (8?25%; p<0.001) and Mirpur (10?33%; p?=?0.015), whereas it decreased in Mirzapur (32?23%; p?=?0.056). The emergence of S. boydii was seen in all ages in Mirzapur [(3?28%; p<0.001); (3?27%; p<0.001)]. On the other hand, we saw non-significant percent reductions in S. boydii in Dhaka [overall (25?16%); under-5 (16?9%)]. Decreasing rates of Shigella dysenteriae were observed in Matlab, Mirpur and Mirzapur; whereas, in Dhaka it remained unchanged. Conclusion and Significance Emergence of S. sonnei and S. boydii as important infectious diarrhea etiologies and variations in geographical diversity underscore the need for monitoring, with possible implications for vaccine development. PMID:23658619

  2. Decision Support System for the Response to Infectious Disease Emergencies Based on WebGIS and Mobile Services in China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Su-qing; Wang, Zhen; Gao, Hong-wei; Liu, Peng; Wang, Ze-rui; Li, Yan-li; Zhu, Xu-guang; Li, Xin-lou; Xu, Bo; Li, Yin-jun; Yang, Hong; de Vlas, Sake J.; Shi, Tao-xing; Cao, Wu-chun

    2013-01-01

    Background For years, emerging infectious diseases have appeared worldwide and threatened the health of people. The emergence and spread of an infectious-disease outbreak are usually unforeseen, and have the features of suddenness and uncertainty. Timely understanding of basic information in the field, and the collection and analysis of epidemiological information, is helpful in making rapid decisions and responding to an infectious-disease emergency. Therefore, it is necessary to have an unobstructed channel and convenient tool for the collection and analysis of epidemiologic information in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings Baseline information for each county in mainland China was collected and a database was established by geo-coding information on a digital map of county boundaries throughout the country. Google Maps was used to display geographic information and to conduct calculations related to maps, and the 3G wireless network was used to transmit information collected in the field to the server. This study established a decision support system for the response to infectious-disease emergencies based on WebGIS and mobile services (DSSRIDE). The DSSRIDE provides functions including data collection, communication and analyses in real time, epidemiological detection, the provision of customized epidemiological questionnaires and guides for handling infectious disease emergencies, and the querying of professional knowledge in the field. These functions of the DSSRIDE could be helpful for epidemiological investigations in the field and the handling of infectious-disease emergencies. Conclusions/Significance The DSSRIDE provides a geographic information platform based on the Google Maps application programming interface to display information of infectious disease emergencies, and transfers information between workers in the field and decision makers through wireless transmission based on personal computers, mobile phones and personal digital assistants. After a 2-year practice and application in infectious disease emergencies, the DSSRIDE is becoming a useful platform and is a useful tool for investigations in the field carried out by response sections and individuals. The system is suitable for use in developing countries and low-income districts. PMID:23372780

  3. New and emerging technologies for the treatment of inherited retinal diseases: a horizon scanning review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J; Ward, D; Michaelides, M; Moore, A T; Simpson, S

    2015-01-01

    The horizon scanning review aimed to identify new and emerging technologies in development that have the potential to slow or stop disease progression and/or reverse sight loss in people with inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). Potential treatments were identified using recognized horizon scanning methods. These included a combination of online searches using predetermined search terms, suggestions from clinical experts and patient and carer focus groups, and contact with commercial developers. Twenty-nine relevant technologies were identified. These included 9 gene therapeutic approaches, 10 medical devices, 5 pharmacological agents, and 5 regenerative and cell therapies. A further 11 technologies were identified in very early phases of development (typically phase I or pre-clinical) and were included in the final report to give a complete picture of developments ‘on the horizon'. Clinical experts and patient and carer focus groups provided helpful information and insights, such as the availability of specialised services for patients, the potential impacts of individual technologies on people with IRDs and their families, and helped to identify additional relevant technologies. This engagement ensured that important areas of innovation were not missed. Most of the health technologies identified are still at an early stage of development and it is difficult to estimate when treatments might be available. Further, well designed trials that generate data on efficacy, applicability, acceptability, and costs of the technologies, as well as the long-term impacts for various conditions are required before these can be considered for adoption into routine clinical practice. PMID:26113499

  4. Long-Range Control of Gene Expression: Emerging Mechanisms and Disruption in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kleinjan, Dirk A.; van Heyningen, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional control is a major mechanism for regulating gene expression. The complex machinery required to effect this control is still emerging from functional and evolutionary analysis of genomic architecture. In addition to the promoter, many other regulatory elements are required for spatiotemporally and quantitatively correct gene expression. Enhancer and repressor elements may reside in introns or up- and downstream of the transcription unit. For some genes with highly complex expression patterns—often those that function as key developmental control genes—the cis-regulatory domain can extend long distances outside the transcription unit. Some of the earliest hints of this came from disease-associated chromosomal breaks positioned well outside the relevant gene. With the availability of wide-ranging genome sequence comparisons, strong conservation of many noncoding regions became obvious. Functional studies have shown many of these conserved sites to be transcriptional regulatory elements that sometimes reside inside unrelated neighboring genes. Such sequence-conserved elements generally harbor sites for tissue-specific DNA-binding proteins. Developmentally variable chromatin conformation can control protein access to these sites and can regulate transcription. Disruption of these finely tuned mechanisms can cause disease. Some regulatory element mutations will be associated with phenotypes distinct from any identified for coding-region mutations. PMID:15549674

  5. Saliva proteomics as an emerging, non-invasive tool to study livestock physiology, nutrition and diseases.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Elsa; Mau, Marcus

    2012-07-19

    Saliva is an extraordinary fluid in terms of research and diagnostic possibilities. Its composition in electrolytes, hormones and especially its proteome contains information about feeding status, nutritional requirements and adaptations to diet and environment, and also about health status of animals. It is easy to collect on a non-invasive and routine basis without any need for special training. Therefore, the analysis of salivary proteomes is going to emerge into a field of high interest with the future goal to maintain and improve livestock productivity and welfare. Moreover, the comprehensive analysis and identification of salivary proteins and peptides in whole and glandular saliva is a necessary pre-requisite to identify animal disease biomarkers and a powerful tool to better understand animal physiology. This review focuses on the different approaches used to study the salivary proteomes of farm animals, in respect to the physiology of nutrition and food perception in relation to food choices. The potential of animal saliva as a source of disease biomarkers will also be pointed out. Special emphasis is laid on the 'ruminating triad' - cattle, goat and sheep - as well as swine as major species of animal production in Western and Southern Europe. PMID:22583933

  6. Chagas disease screening among HIV-positive Latin American immigrants: an emerging problem.

    PubMed

    Llenas-García, J; Hernando, A; Fiorante, S; Maseda, D; Matarranz, M; Salto, E; Rubio, R; Pulido, F

    2012-08-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is an emergent disease in Europe that can behave as an opportunistic infection in HIV positive patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a CD screening programme in an HIV unit. An immunochromatography (ICT) of Trypanosoma cruzi was performed as a screening tool in HIV-positive patients born in CD endemic countries. ELISA and IFAT were used to confirm the diagnosis. A total of 155 patients, 116 males and 38 females, were included. Mean age was 36.9 years (± 8.4) and mean length of stay in Spain at the screening was 7.1 years (± 4.7). T. cruzi ICT was positive in four cases (2.6%), being confirmed (by ELISA and IFAT) in three of those (1.9%). Factors associated with confirmed positive T.cruzi serology were: Bolivia origin (p=0.016), Bolivia or Argentina origin (p=0.002), Southern Cone origin (p=0.015), rural origin (p=0.023), previously living in an adobe-made (p=0.001) or thatch-roofed house (p<0.0001), having a previous CD test (p=0.015), previous knowledge about CD (p=0.019), about vector (p=0.009) or recorded seeing vectors at home (p=0.012). Units dealing with HIV patients from endemic areas of American trypanosomiasis should implement CD screening protocols. Interviews of patients coming from endemic areas should include CD epidemiological questions. PMID:22258424

  7. Sedentary behaviour as an emerging risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Travis J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour (e.g. TV viewing, seated video game playing, prolonged sitting) has recently emerged as a distinct risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases in children and youth. This narrative review provides an overview of recent evidence in this area and highlights research gaps. Current evidence suggests that North American children and youth spend between 40% and 60% of their waking hours engaging in sedentary pursuits. Although data are lacking concerning temporal trends of objectively measured sedentary time, self-reported sedentary behaviours have increased over the past half century, with a rapid increase since the late 1990s. Excessive sedentary behaviour has been found to have independent and deleterious associations with markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk. These associations are especially consistent for screen-based sedentary behaviours (TV viewing, computer games, etc), with more conflicting findings observed for overall sedentary time. The above associations are possibly mediated by the influence of screen-based sedentary behaviours on energy intake. Although excessive sitting has been reported to have adverse acute and chronic metabolic impacts in adults, research on children is lacking. Research is particularly needed to investigate the impact of characteristics of sedentary behaviour (i.e. type/context, sedentary bout length, breaks in sedentary time, etc), as well as interventions that examine the health and behavioural impacts of sitting per se. PMID:24485214

  8. Hepcidin: an emerging biomarker for iron disorders, inflammatory diseases, and infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerman, Mark E.; Olbina, Gordana; Ostland, Vaughn E.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2010-04-01

    The peptide hormone hepcidin, has emerged as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of hepcidin is a principal or contributing factor in most genetic and acquired systemic iron disorders, including anemia of inflammation (anemia of chronic disease). Hepcidin maintains healthy blood iron levels by regulating dietary iron absorption and transport from body iron stores to plasma. High serum hepcidin levels observed in chronic and acute inflammatory conditions can cause anemia by limiting plasma iron available for erythropoiesis. Chronically low serum hepcidin levels cause iron-overload and ultimately, accumulation of iron in liver and heart. We recently validated the first immunoassay for serum hepcidin and established the normal ranges in adults. Hepcidin has excellent potential as a biomarker and has a known mechanism of action, good stability, and rapid response to iron stores, inflammatory stimuli, and bacterial infections. Hepcidin can be measured in blood, urine, and saliva, and is generally not measurable in iron deficient/anemic patients and highly elevated in inflammatory diseases and infections. Intrinsic LifeSciences (ILS) is developing second generation hepcidin immunoassays and lateral-flow POC devices for hepcidin, a well characterized multi-purpose biomarker with applications in global health security.

  9. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as Ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for 'white spot', a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. Options for disease control are extremely limited, and Ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. Unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, Ich belongs to a phylum composed primarily of free-living members. Indeed, it is closely related to the model organism Tetrahymena thermophila. Genomic studies represent a promising strategy to reduce the impact of this disease and to understand the evolutionary transition to parasitism. Results We report the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the Ich macronuclear genome. Compared with its free-living relative T. thermophila, the Ich genome is reduced approximately two-fold in length and gene density and three-fold in gene content. We analyzed in detail several gene classes with diverse functions in behavior, cellular function and host immunogenicity, including protein kinases, membrane transporters, proteases, surface antigens and cytoskeletal components and regulators. We also mapped by orthology Ich's metabolic pathways in comparison with other ciliates and a potential host organism, the zebrafish Danio rerio. Conclusions Knowledge of the complete protein-coding and metabolic potential of Ich opens avenues for rational testing of therapeutic drugs that target functions essential to this parasite but not to its fish hosts. Also, a catalog of surface protein-encoding genes will facilitate development of more effective vaccines. The potential to use T. thermophila as a surrogate model offers promise toward controlling 'white spot' disease and understanding the adaptation to a parasitic lifestyle. PMID:22004680

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections and micronutrient deficiency: a review.

    PubMed

    Hesham, M S; Edariah, A B; Norhayati, M

    2004-06-01

    Malnutrition including vitamin A and iron deficiency and parasitic diseases have a strikingly similar geographical distribution with the same people experiencing both insults together for much of their lives. Parasitic infections are thought to contribute to child malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency through subtle reduction in digestion and absorption, chronic inflammation and loss of nutrients. Parasites may affect the intake of food; it's subsequent digestion and absorption, metabolism and the maintenance of nutrient pools. The most important parasites related to nutritional status are intestinal parasites especially soil transmitted helminthes, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, followed by other parasites such as the coccidia, Schistosoma sp. and malarial parasites. PMID:15559182

  11. QUANTITATIVE GENETIC AND FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS APPROACHES TO INVESTIGATING PARASITE DISEASE RESISTANCE AND PROTECTIVE IMMUNE MECHANISMS IN AVIAN COCCIDIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major challenge for the commercial poultry production is controlling enteric disease-causing pathogens in the absence of prophylactic drugs. Although traditional genetic approaches have contributed to enhanced efficiency of poultry production and increased the ability of the industry to provide sa...

  12. Deer Prion Proteins Modulate the Emergence and Adaptation of Chronic Wasting Disease Strains

    PubMed Central

    Duque Velásquez, Camilo; Kim, Chiye; Herbst, Allen; Daude, Nathalie; Garza, Maria Carmen; Wille, Holger; Aiken, Judd

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) between cervids is influenced by the primary structure of the host cellular prion protein (PrPC). In white-tailed deer, PRNP alleles encode the polymorphisms Q95 G96 (wild type [wt]), Q95 S96 (referred to as the S96 allele), and H95 G96 (referred to as the H95 allele), which differentially impact CWD progression. We hypothesize that the transmission of CWD prions between deer expressing different allotypes of PrPC modifies the contagious agent affecting disease spread. To evaluate the transmission properties of CWD prions derived experimentally from deer of four PRNP genotypes (wt/wt, S96/wt, H95/wt, or H95/S96), transgenic (tg) mice expressing the wt allele (tg33) or S96 allele (tg60) were challenged with these prion agents. Passage of deer CWD prions into tg33 mice resulted in 100% attack rates, with the CWD H95/S96 prions having significantly longer incubation periods. The disease signs and neuropathological and protease-resistant prion protein (PrP-res) profiles in infected tg33 mice were similar between groups, indicating that a prion strain (Wisc-1) common to all CWD inocula was amplified. In contrast, tg60 mice developed prion disease only when inoculated with the H95/wt and H95/S96 CWD allotypes. Serial passage in tg60 mice resulted in adaptation of a novel CWD strain (H95+) with distinct biological properties. Transmission of first-passage tg60CWD-H95+ isolates into tg33 mice, however, elicited two prion disease presentations consistent with a mixture of strains associated with different PrP-res glycotypes. Our data indicate that H95-PRNP heterozygous deer accumulated two CWD strains whose emergence was dictated by the PrPC primary structure of the recipient host. These findings suggest that CWD transmission between cervids expressing distinct PrPC molecules results in the generation of novel CWD strains. IMPORTANCE CWD prions are contagious among wild and captive cervids in North America and in South Korea. We present data linking the amino acid variant Q95H in white-tailed deer cellular prion protein (PrPC) to the emergence of a novel CWD strain (H95+). We show that, upon infection, deer expressing H95-PrPC molecules accumulated a mixture of CWD strains that selectively propagated depending on the PRNP genotype of the host in which they were passaged. Our study also demonstrates that mice expressing the deer S96-PRNP allele, previously shown to be resistant to various cervid prions, are susceptible to H95+ CWD prions. The potential for the generation of novel strains raises the possibility of an expanded host range for CWD. PMID:26423950

  13. When parasites become prey: ecological and epidemiological significance of eating parasites.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Dobson, Andrew; Lafferty, Kevin D; Marcogliese, David J; Memmott, Jane; Orlofske, Sarah A; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W

    2010-06-01

    Recent efforts to include parasites in food webs have drawn attention to a previously ignored facet of foraging ecology: parasites commonly function as prey within ecosystems. Because of the high productivity of parasites, their unique nutritional composition and their pathogenicity in hosts, their consumption affects both food-web topology and disease risk in humans and wildlife. Here, we evaluate the ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological significance of feeding on parasites, including concomitant predation, grooming, predation on free-living stages and intraguild predation. Combining empirical data and theoretical models, we show that consumption of parasites is neither rare nor accidental, and that it can sharply affect parasite transmission and food web properties. Broader consideration of predation on parasites will enhance our understanding of disease control, food web structure and energy transfer, and the evolution of complex life cycles. PMID:20185202

  14. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    PubMed

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p?1 year of age (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR?=?0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR?=?0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ?1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs living together with other pets than that for a dog without other dogs or cats. PMID:26350379

  15. Environmental and social influences on emerging infectious diseases: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    2004-07-29

    During the processes of human population dispersal around the world over the past 50 000-100 000 years, along with associated cultural evolution and inter-population contact and conflict, there have been several major transitions in the relationships of Homo sapiens with the natural world, animate and inanimate. Each of these transitions has resulted in the emergence of new or unfamiliar infectious diseases. The three great historical transitions since the initial advent of agriculture and livestock herding, from ca. 10 000 years ago, occurred when: (i) early agrarian-based settlements enabled sylvatic enzootic microbes to make contact with Homo sapiens; (ii) early Eurasian civilizations (such as the Greek and Roman empires, China and south Asia) came into military and commercial contact, ca. 3000-2000 years ago, swapping their dominant infections; and (iii) European expansionism, over the past five centuries, caused the transoceanic spread of often lethal infectious diseases. This latter transition is best known in relation to the conquest of the Americas by Spanish conquistadores, when the inadvertent spread of measles, smallpox and influenza devastated the Amerindian populations.Today, we are living through the fourth of these great transitional periods. The contemporary spread and increased lability of various infectious diseases, new and old, reflect the combined and increasingly widespread impacts of demographic, environmental, behavioural, technological and other rapid changes in human ecology. Modern clinical medicine has, via blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and the use of hypodermic syringes, created new opportunities for microbes. These have contributed to the rising iatrogenic problems of hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS and several other viral infections. Meanwhile, the injudicious use of antibiotics has been a rare instance of human action actually increasing 'biodiversity'. Another aspect of this fourth transition is that modern hyper-hygienic living restricts microbial exposure in early life. This, in the 1950s, may have contributed to an epidemic of more serious, disabling, poliomyelitis, affecting older children than those affected in earlier, more endemic decades. As with previous human-microbe transitions, a new equilibrial state may lie ahead. However, it certainly will not entail a world free of infectious diseases. Any mature, sustainable, human ecology must come to terms with both the need for, and the needs of, the microbial species that help to make up the interdependent system of life on Earth. Humans and microbes are not "at war"; rather, both parties are engaged in amoral, self-interested, coevolutionary struggle. We need to understand better, and therefore anticipate, the dynamics of that process. PMID:15306389

  16. Environmental and social influences on emerging infectious diseases: past, present and future.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, A J

    2004-01-01

    During the processes of human population dispersal around the world over the past 50 000-100 000 years, along with associated cultural evolution and inter-population contact and conflict, there have been several major transitions in the relationships of Homo sapiens with the natural world, animate and inanimate. Each of these transitions has resulted in the emergence of new or unfamiliar infectious diseases.The three great historical transitions since the initial advent of agriculture and livestock herding, from ca. 10 000 years ago, occurred when: (i) early agrarian-based settlements enabled sylvatic enzootic microbes to make contact with Homo sapiens; (ii) early Eurasian civilizations (such as the Greek and Roman empires, China and south Asia) came into military and commercial contact, ca. 3000-2000 years ago, swapping their dominant infections; and (iii) European expansionism, over the past five centuries, caused the transoceanic spread of often lethal infectious diseases. This latter transition is best known in relation to the conquest of the Americas by Spanish conquistadores, when the inadvertent spread of measles, smallpox and influenza devastated the Amerindian populations.Today, we are living through the fourth of these great transitional periods. The contemporary spread and increased lability of various infectious diseases, new and old, reflect the combined and increasingly widespread impacts of demographic, environmental, behavioural, technological and other rapid changes in human ecology. Modern clinical medicine has, via blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and the use of hypodermic syringes, created new opportunities for microbes. These have contributed to the rising iatrogenic problems of hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS and several other viral infections. Meanwhile, the injudicious use of antibiotics has been a rare instance of human action actually increasing 'biodiversity'.Another aspect of this fourth transition is that modern hyper-hygienic living restricts microbial exposure in early life. This, in the 1950s, may have contributed to an epidemic of more serious, disabling, poliomyelitis, affecting older children than those affected in earlier, more endemic decades. As with previous human-microbe transitions, a new equilibrial state may lie ahead. However, it certainly will not entail a world free of infectious diseases. Any mature, sustainable, human ecology must come to terms with both the need for, and the needs of, the microbial species that help to make up the interdependent system of life on Earth. Humans and microbes are not "at war"; rather, both parties are engaged in amoral, self-interested, coevolutionary struggle. We need to understand better, and therefore anticipate, the dynamics of that process. PMID:15306389

  17. Cholesterol-conjugated peptide antivirals: a path to a rapid response to emerging viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Pessi, Antonello

    2015-05-01

    While it is now possible to identify and genetically fingerprint the causative agents of emerging viral diseases, often with extraordinary speed, suitable therapies cannot be developed with equivalent speed, because drug discovery requires information that goes beyond knowledge of the viral genome. Peptides, however, may represent a special opportunity. For all enveloped viruses, fusion between the viral and the target cell membrane is an obligatory step of the life cycle. Class I fusion proteins harbor regions with a repeating pattern of amino acids, the heptad repeats (HRs), that play a key role in fusion, and HR-derived peptides such as enfuvirtide, in clinical use for HIV, can block the process. Because of their characteristic sequence pattern, HRs are easily identified in the genome by means of computer programs, providing the sequence of candidate peptide inhibitors directly from genomic information. Moreover, a simple chemical modification, the attachment of a cholesterol group, can dramatically increase the antiviral potency of HR-derived inhibitors and simultaneously improve their pharmacokinetics. Further enhancement can be provided by dimerization of the cholesterol-conjugated peptide. The examples reported so far include inhibitors of retroviruses, paramyxoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses, and filoviruses. For some of these viruses, in vivo efficacy has been demonstrated in suitable animal models. The combination of bioinformatic lead identification and potency/pharmacokinetics improvement provided by cholesterol conjugation may form the basis for a rapid response strategy, where development of an emergency cholesterol-conjugated therapeutic would immediately follow the availability of the genetic information of a new enveloped virus. PMID:25331523

  18. Multi-criteria decision analysis tools for prioritising emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases associated with climate change in Canada.

    PubMed

    Cox, Ruth; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is known to result in the emergence or re-emergence of some infectious diseases. Reliable methods to identify the infectious diseases of humans and animals and that are most likely to be influenced by climate are therefore required. Since different priorities will affect the decision to address a particular pathogen threat, decision makers need a standardised method of prioritisation. Ranking methods and Multi-Criteria Decision approaches provide such a standardised method and were employed here to design two different pathogen prioritisation tools. The opinion of 64 experts was elicited to assess the importance of 40 criteria that could be used to prioritise emerging infectious diseases of humans and animals in Canada. A weight was calculated for each criterion according to the expert opinion. Attributes were defined for each criterion as a transparent and repeatable method of measurement. Two different Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis tools were tested, both of which used an additive aggregation approach. These were an Excel spreadsheet tool and a tool developed in software 'M-MACBETH'. The tools were trialed on nine 'test' pathogens. Two different methods of criteria weighting were compared, one using fixed weighting values, the other using probability distributions to account for uncertainty and variation in expert opinion. The ranking of the nine pathogens varied according to the weighting method that was used. In both tools, using both weighting methods, the diseases that tended to rank the highest were West Nile virus, Giardiasis and Chagas, while Coccidioidomycosis tended to rank the lowest. Both tools are a simple and user friendly approach to prioritising pathogens according to climate change by including explicit scoring of 40 criteria and incorporating weighting methods based on expert opinion. They provide a dynamic interactive method that can help to identify pathogens for which a full risk assessment should be pursued. PMID:23950868

  19. The Dialogue of the Host-Parasite Relationship: Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Carlos Gustavo Vieira; Castro Lima, Ana Karina; dos Santos, Rosiane Freire; Da-Silva, Silvia Amaral Gonçalves; Dutra, Patrícia Maria Lourenço

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular protozoa Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi and the causative agents of Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, respectively, belong to the Trypanosomatidae family. Together, these two neglected tropical diseases affect approximately 25 million people worldwide. Whether the host can control the infection or develops disease depends on the complex interaction between parasite and host. Parasite surface and secreted molecules are involved in triggering specific signaling pathways essential for parasite entry and intracellular survival. The recognition of the parasite antigens by host immune cells generates a specific immune response. Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi have a multifaceted repertoire of strategies to evade or subvert the immune system by interfering with a range of signal transduction pathways in host cells, which causes the inhibition of the protective response and contributes to their persistence in the host. The current therapeutic strategies in leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are very limited. Efficacy is variable, toxicity is high, and the emergence of resistance is increasingly common. In this review, we discuss the molecular basis of the host-parasite interaction of Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi infection and their mechanisms of subverting the immune response and how this knowledge can be used as a tool for the development of new drugs. PMID:26090399

  20. This education program seeks to increase awareness of biological hazards encountered in biodefense and emerging disease research laboratories, to

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    This education program seeks to increase awareness of biological hazards encountered in biodefense and emerging disease research laboratories, to provide a scientific basis for assessing risks associated housekeeping, thorough personal hygiene, and a plan for responding to accidents. It is likely that laboratories

  1. "Candidatus phytoplasma costaricanum" a new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease in soybean in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease, soybean stunt (SoyST), in soybean (Glycine max) was found in 2002 in a soybean plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. The same or very closely related phytoplasma also infected sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) with purple vein syndrome ...

  2. Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

  3. Swine immunity to selected parasites.

    PubMed

    Baker, D G; Bryant, J D; Urban, J F; Lunney, J K

    1994-10-01

    Swine parasitism exerts a significant economic impact worldwide. In the United States, the greatest losses are due directly or indirectly to the costs of zoonotic parasitisms. Three of the six most common foodborne parasitic diseases of humans in the United States are associated with pork consumption. These include toxoplasmosis, taeniasis or cysticercosis (caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium), and trichinellosis. Toxoplasmosis is of particular concern because of the fulminating disease that occurs in immunocompromised people. Generalizations and extrapolations of information derived from rodent and human studies, to swine parasitisms, are complicated by immunological differences between the hosts, and by the diverse biological characteristics of internal and external parasites studied. Swine studies thus far reported have demonstrated that protective immunity to helminth infection involves both cellular and humoral mechanisms, with antibodies and antibody-mediated responses playing important roles in preventing establishment of newly acquired larvae. Protection against protozoan parasites is primarily by cell-mediated strategies, whereas protective immunity to arthropod infestation is primarily through humoral mechanisms, principally those associated with type 1 hypersensitivity. PMID:7856043

  4. Parasitic Pneumonia and Lung Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches. PMID:24995332

  5. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: An update on an emerging and re-emerging viral disease of swine.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognized in the late 1980’s in North America and Europe the syndrome that caused reproductive and respiratory problems in swine was initially called “Mystery Swine Disease” and is now termed “Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)”. In the early 1990’s an arterivirus, referred to as ...

  6. Climate change promotes the emergence of serious disease outbreaks for Filarioid nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scenarios for climate change involve direct linkages for increasing temperature, invasiveness and dissemination of vector-borne parasites. Coincidental with decades of warming, and anomalies of high temperature and humidity in Fennoscandia, the mosquito-borne filarioid nematode Setaria tundra is now...

  7. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic "puppet masters", with their twisted, self-serving life history strategies and impressive evolutionary takeovers of host minds, capture the imagination of listeners—even those that might not normally fi nd the topic of parasitism appealing (which includes most everyone). A favorite anecdote concerns the trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum migrating to the eyestalks of its intermediate host snail and pulsating its colored body, presumably to attract the predatory birds that are the final hosts for the worm. Identifying a parasite as “manipulative” infers that a change in host behavior or appearance is a direct consequence of the parasite’s adaptive actions that, on average, will increase the fi tness of the parasite. The list of parasites that manipulate their hosts is long and growing. Holmes and Bethel (1972) presented the earliest comprehensive review and brought the subject to mainstream ecologists. Over two decades ago, Andy Dobson (1988) listed seven cestodes, seven trematodes, ten acanthocephalans, and three nematodes that manipulated host behavior. Fifteen years later, Janice Moore (2002) filled a book with examples. The five infectious trophic strategies, typical parasites (macroparasites), pathogens, trophically transmitted parasites, parasitic castrators, and parasitoids (Kuris and Lafferty 2000; Lafferty and Kuris 2002, 2009) can modify host behavior, but the likelihood that a parasite manipulates behavior differs among strategies. The most studied infectious agents, non-trophically transmitted pathogens and macroparasites, have enormous public health, veterinary, and wildlife disease importance, yet few manipulate host behavior. The beststudied manipulative infectious agents are trophically transmitted parasites in their prey intermediate hosts. Parasitoids and parasitic castrators can also manipulate host behavior, but for different purposes and with different implications. Several studies of manipulative parasites conclude with phrases such as “may ultimately infl uence community structure” (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1999), yet few demonstrate ecological effects. Here, we consider the conditions under which manipulative parasites might have a substantial ecological effect in nature and highlight those for which evidence exists (see also Chapter 10).

  8. Current and emerging treatment options for the elderly patient with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fassett, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the current and emerging treatments of CKD prior to dialysis in the elderly. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of people who are aged over 65 years. In parallel, there are increasing numbers of elderly patients presenting with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in the more advanced stages. The elderly have quite different health care needs related to their associated comorbidity, frailty, social isolation, poor functional status, and cognitive decline. Clinical trials assessing treatments for CKD have usually excluded patients older than 70–75 years; therefore, it is difficult to translate current therapies recommended for younger patients with CKD across to the elderly. Many elderly people with CKD progress to end-stage kidney disease and face the dilemma of whether to undertake dialysis or accept a conservative approach supported by palliative care. This places pressure on the patient, their family, and on health care resources. The clinical trajectory of elderly CKD patients has in the past been unclear, but recent evidence suggests that many patients over 75 years of age with multiple comorbidities have greatly reduced life expectancies and quality of life, even if they choose dialysis treatment. Offering a conservative pathway supported by palliative care is a reasonable option for some patients under these circumstances. The elderly person who chooses to have dialysis will frequently have different requirements than younger patients. Kidney transplantation can still result in improved life expectancy and quality of life in the elderly, in carefully selected people. There is a genuine need for the inclusion of the elderly in CKD clinical trials in the future so we can produce evidence-based therapies for this group. In addition, new therapies to treat and slow CKD progression are needed for all age groups. PMID:24477220

  9. Emergence of Hydrogen Sulfide as an Endogenous Gaseous Signaling Molecule in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polhemus, David J.; Lefer, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Long recognized as a malodorous and highly toxic gas, recent experimental studies have revealed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced enzymatically in all mammalian species including man and exerts a number of critical actions to promote cardiovascular homeostasis and health. During the past 15 years, scientists have determined that H2S is produced by three endogenous enzymes and exerts powerful effects on endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclear transcription factors. These effects have been reported in multiple organ systems and the vast majority of data clearly indicate that H2S produced by the endogenous enzymes exerts cytoprotective actions. Recent preclinical studies investigating cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated that the administration of physiological or pharmacological levels of H2S attenuates myocardial injury, protects blood vessels, limits inflammation, and regulates blood pressure. H2S has emerged as a critical cardiovascular signaling molecule similar to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) with a profound impact on the heart and circulation (Figure 1). Our improved understanding of how H2S elicits protective actions, coupled with the very rapid development of novel H2S releasing agents, has resulted in heightened enthusiasm for the clinical translation of this ephemeral gaseous molecule. This review will examine our current state of knowledge regarding the actions of H2S within the cardiovascular system with an emphasis on the therapeutic potential and molecular crosstalk between H2S, NO, and CO. PMID:24526678

  10. Role Bending: Complex Relationships Between Viruses, Hosts, and Vectors Related to Citrus Leprosis, an Emerging Disease.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avijit; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Shao, Jonathan; Leon, Guillermo; Melzer, Michael J; Beard, Jennifer J; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-07-01

    Citrus leprosis complex is an emerging disease in the Americas, associated with two unrelated taxa of viruses distributed in South, Central, and North America. The cytoplasmic viruses are Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2), and Hibiscus green spot virus 2, and the nuclear viruses are Citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) and Citrus necrotic spot virus. These viruses cause local lesion infections in all known hosts, with no natural systemic host identified to date. All leprosis viruses were believed to be transmitted by one species of mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis. However, mites collected from CiLV-C and CiLV-N infected citrus groves in Mexico were identified as B. yothersi and B. californicus sensu lato, respectively, and only B. yothersi was detected from CiLV-C2 and CiLV-N mixed infections in the Orinoco regions of Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 domains and p24 gene amino acid sequences of cytoplasmic leprosis viruses showed a close relationship with recently deposited mosquito-borne negevirus sequences. Here, we present evidence that both cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses seem to replicate in viruliferous Brevipalpus species. The possible replication in the mite vector and the close relationship with mosquito borne negeviruses are consistent with the concept that members of the genus Cilevirus and Higrevirus originated in mites and citrus may play the role of mite virus vector. PMID:25775106

  11. Macromolecular transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm: Advances in mechanism and emerging links to disease.

    PubMed

    Tran, Elizabeth J; King, Megan C; Corbett, Anita H

    2014-11-01

    Transport of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and the nucleus is critical for the function of all eukaryotic cells. Large macromolecular channels termed nuclear pore complexes that span the nuclear envelope mediate the bidirectional transport of cargoes between the nucleus and cytoplasm. However, the influence of macromolecular trafficking extends past the nuclear pore complex to transcription and RNA processing within the nucleus and signaling pathways that reach into the cytoplasm and beyond. At the Mechanisms of Nuclear Transport biennial meeting held from October 18 to 23, 2013 in Woods Hole, MA, researchers in the field met to report on their recent findings. The work presented highlighted significant advances in understanding nucleocytoplasmic trafficking including how transport receptors and cargoes pass through the nuclear pore complex, the many signaling pathways that impinge on transport pathways, interplay between the nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complexes, and transport pathways, and numerous links between transport pathways and human disease. The goal of this review is to highlight newly emerging themes in nuclear transport and underscore the major questions that are likely to be the focus of future research in the field. PMID:25116306

  12. Diurnal temperature range and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wen-Miin; Liu, Wen-Pin; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and emergency room (ER) admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in an ER in Taichung City, Taiwan. The design was a longitudinal study in which DTR was related to COPD admissions to the ER of the city’s largest hospital. Daily ER admissions for COPD and ambient temperature were collected from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2002. There was a significant negative association between the average daily temperature and ER admissions for COPD ( r = -0.95). However, a significant positive association between DTR and COPD admissions was found ( r = 0.90). Using the Poisson regression model after adjusting for the effects of air pollutants and the day of the week, COPD admissions to the ER increased by 14% when DTR was over 9.6°C. COPD patients must be made aware of the increased risk posed by large DTR. Hospitals and ERs should take into account the increased demand of specific facilities during periods of large temperature variations.

  13. Macromolecular Transport between the Nucleus and the Cytoplasm: Advances in Mechanism and Emerging Links to Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Elizabeth J.; King, Megan C.; Corbett, Anita H.

    2014-01-01

    Transport of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and the nucleus is critical for the function of all eukaryotic cells. Large macromolecular channels termed nuclear pore complexes that span the nuclear envelope mediate the bidirectional transport of cargoes between the nucleus and cytoplasm. However, the influence of macromolecular trafficking extends past the nuclear pore complex to transcription and RNA processing within the nucleus and signaling pathways that reach into the cytoplasm and beyond. At the Mechanisms of Nuclear Transport biennial meeting held from October 18-23, 2013 in Woods Hole, MA, researchers in the field met to report on their recent findings. The work presented highlighted significant advances in understanding nucleocytoplasmic trafficking including how transport receptors and cargoes pass through the nuclear pore complex, the many signaling pathways that impinge on transport pathways, interplay between the nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complexes, and transport pathways, and numerous links between transport pathways and human disease. The goal of this review is to highlight newly emerging themes in nuclear transport and underscore the major questions that are likely to be the focus of future research in the field. PMID:25116306

  14. The dawn of Structural One Health: a new science tracking disease emergence along circuits of capital.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Robert G; Bergmann, Luke; Kock, Richard; Gilbert, Marius; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Wallace, Rodrick; Holmberg, Mollie

    2015-03-01

    The One Health approach integrates health investigations across the tree of life, including, but not limited to, wildlife, livestock, crops, and humans. It redresses an epistemological alienation at the heart of much modern population health, which has long segregated studies by species. Up to this point, however, One Health research has also omitted addressing fundamental structural causes underlying collapsing health ecologies. In this critical review we unpack the relationship between One Health science and its political economy, particularly the conceptual and methodological trajectories by which it fails to incorporate social determinants of epizootic spillover. We also introduce a Structural One Health that addresses the research gap. The new science, open to incorporating developments across the social sciences, addresses foundational processes underlying multispecies health, including the place-specific deep-time histories, cultural infrastructure, and economic geographies driving disease emergence. We introduce an ongoing project on avian influenza to illustrate Structural One Health's scope and ambition. For the first time researchers are quantifying the relationships among transnational circuits of capital, associated shifts in agroecological landscapes, and the genetic evolution and spatial spread of a xenospecific pathogen. PMID:25311784

  15. Current and emerging strategies for the prevention of graft versus host disease

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Won; Reddy, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) represents the most serious and challenging complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). New insights on the role of regulatory T cells, T cells, and antigen presenting cells have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of GVHD. However, little progress has been made since the introduction of calcineurin-inhibitor-based regimens in the mid-1980s. Despite standard prophylaxis with these regimens, GVHD still develops in approximately 40–60% of recipients. Thus, there is a need for developing newer approaches to mitigate GVHD, which may facilitate the use of allogeneic HCT for the treatment of a wider range of haematological cancers. We will discuss the rationale, clinical evidence, and outcomes of current (and widely employed) strategies for GVHD prophylaxis, namely calcineurin-inhibitor-based regimen (such as cyclosporine or tacrolimus) combined with methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil. We assess the clinical evidence for emerging approaches in the prevention of GVHD, including therapies targeting T cells or B cells, mesenchymal stem cells, the use of chemo-cytokine antagonists (such as maraviroc, TNF-? inhibitor, IL-2 receptor antagonist, IL-6 inhibitor), and the use of novel molecular regulators that target multiple cell types simultaneously (such as atorvastatin, bortezomib, and epigenetic modulators). PMID:24958183

  16. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging Infections Sentinel Network (EISN) Research, Funding Opportunity Announcement...evaluation of applications received in response to ``Emerging Infections Sentinel Network (EISN) Research, FOA CK11- 002,...

  17. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vector is a triatomine bug that carries the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi which causes the disease. Chagas disease ... potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) . It is found mainly ...

  18. Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) as marine ecosystem sentinels: ecotoxicology and emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Jailson Fulgencio; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lemos, Leila; Emin-Lima, Renata; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) are small cetaceans that inhabit coastal regions down to a 50 m depth. As a coastally distributed species, they are exposed to a variety of human-induced risks that include passive fishing nets, persistent environmental pollution, and emerging diseases. As a top predatorS. guianensis occupies an important ecological niche in marine ecosystems. However, this niche also exposes this dolphin to extensive biomagnification of marine contaminants that may accumulate and be stored throughout their life of about 30 years.In this paper, we have compiled available data on the Guiana dolphin as regards its exposure to chemical pollutants, pathogenic microbes, infectious diseases, and injuries caused by interactions with passive fishing gears. Our analysis of the data shows that Guiana dolphins are particularly sensitive to environmental changes.Although the major mortal threat to dolphins results from contact with fishing other human-related activities in coastal zones also pose risks and need more attention.Such human-related risks include the presence of persistent toxicants in the marine environment, such as PCBs and PBDEs. Residues of these chemicals have been detected in Guiana dolphin's tissues at similar or higher levels that exist in cetaceans from other known polluted areas. Another risk encountered by this species is the non lethal injuries caused by fishing gear. Several incidents of this sort have occurred along the Brazilian coast with this species. When injuries are produced by interaction with fishing gear, the dorsal fin is the part of the dolphin anatomy that is more affected, commonly causing severe laceration or even total loss.The Guiana dolphins also face risks from infectious diseases. The major ones thus far identified include giardiasis, lobomycosis, toxoplasmosis, skin and skeletal lesions. Many bacterial pathogens from the family Aeromonadaceae and Vibrionaceae have been isolated from Guiana dolphins. Several helminth species have also been observed to affectS. guianensis. These results suggest a vulnerability of this species to environmental disturbances. Moreover, there is some evidence that the effects of some infectious diseases may be enhanced from stress caused by habitat impairment. For example, certain diseases and pathogenic organisms in S.guianensis may be associated with the high levels of endocrine-disruptor contaminants(e.g., PCBs; DDTs; PBDEs) that have been detected in marine waters.Although the data available on S. guianensis is growing, most of the work has been focused on a small portion of the species total area of distribution. Most studies,to date, have been carried out in the Southern region of the distribution, and in north eastern Brazil. Few studies have been conducted in the northern region of the South America or in Central America. Therefore, future studies should be conducted that address the heterogeneity of this species total distribution.The biology and ecology of the Guiana dolphin renders this species potentially useful as a sentinel species for detecting environmental changes, such as chemical and biological pollution. Research about this dolphin is encouraged as a way to assess what coastal environmental changes have occurred and to continue evaluating the health status of this vulnerable species in a changing environment. PMID:24162090

  19. Parasites - Lice

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  20. Gender-specific research for emergency diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease: proceedings from the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Cardiovascular Research Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; Nagurney, John T; Anise, Ayodola; DeVon, Holli A; D'Onofrio, Gail; Hess, Erik P; Hollander, Judd E; Legato, Mariane J; McGregor, Alyson J; Scott, Jane; Tewelde, Semhar; Diercks, Deborah B

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of death for both men and women. However, over the years, emergency physicians, cardiologists, and other health care practitioners have observed varying outcomes in men and women with symptomatic CAD. Women in general are 10 to 15 years older than men when they develop CAD, but suffer worse postinfarction outcomes compared to age-matched men. This article was developed by the cardiovascular workgroup at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference to identify sex- and gender-specific gaps in the key themes and research questions related to emergency cardiac ischemia care. The workgroup had diverse stakeholder representation from emergency medicine, cardiology, critical care, nursing, emergency medical services, patients, and major policy-makers in government, academia, and patient care. We implemented the nominal group technique to identify and prioritize themes and research questions using electronic mail, monthly conference calls, in-person meetings, and Web-based surveys between June 2013 and May 2014. Through three rounds of nomination and refinement, followed by an in-person meeting on May 13, 2014, we achieved consensus on five priority themes and 30 research questions. The overarching themes were as follows: 1) the full spectrum of sex-specific risk as well as presentation of cardiac ischemia may not be captured by our standard definition of CAD and needs to incorporate other forms of ischemic heart disease (IHD); 2) diagnosis is further challenged by sex/gender differences in presentation and variable sensitivity of cardiac biomarkers, imaging, and risk scores; 3) sex-specific pathophysiology of cardiac ischemia extends beyond conventional obstructive CAD to include other causes such as microvascular dysfunction, takotsubo, and coronary artery dissection, better recognized as IHD; 4) treatment and prognosis are influenced by sex-specific variations in biology, as well as patient-provider communication; and 5) the changing definitions of pathophysiology call for looking beyond conventionally defined cardiovascular outcomes to patient-centered outcomes. These emergency care priorities should guide future clinical and basic science research and extramural funding in an area that greatly influences patient outcomes. PMID:25413468