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1

[Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy].  

PubMed

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is an inherited muscular disorder characterized by the triad of progressive weakness in humero-peroneal muscles, early onset contractures and cardiomyopathy with conduction block that shows a high risk of sudden death. In 1994, the gene responsible for X-linked EDMD has been identified to Xq28 (designated as STA), that encodes a serine-rich protein of 254 amino acids, named emerin. In 1996, we discovered a nuclear membrane localization of emerin in the normal skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles, but not in the tissues from patients with X-linked EDMD who had a nonsense mutation in the gene. In conclusion, molecular and genetic analyses of emerin are essential for accurate diagnosis of patients with EDMD. PMID:9436433

Kubo, S; Tsukahara, T; Arahata, K

1997-12-01

2

Disruption of nesprin-1 produces an Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy-like phenotype in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the gene encoding the inner nuclear membrane proteins lamins A and C produce cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction referred to as Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Lamins A and C participate in the LINC complex that, along with the nesprin and SUN proteins, LInk the Nucleoskeleton with the Cytoskeleton. Nesprins 1 and 2 are giant spectrin-repeat containing proteins that

Megan J. Puckelwartz; Eric Kessler; Yuan Zhang; Didier Hodzic; K. Natalie Randles; Glenn Morris; Judy U. Earley; Michele Hadhazy; James M. Holaska; Stephanie K. Mewborn; Peter Pytel; Elizabeth M. McNally

2009-01-01

3

Identification of new mutations in the Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy gene and evidence for genetic heterogeneity of the disease.  

PubMed

The Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EDMD) is an X-linked recessive muscular disorder characterized by early contractures of the elbows, Achilles tendons and postcervical muscles, slowly progressing muscle wasting and weakness and a cardiomyopathy characterized by conduction defects. Heart block is a frequent cause of death. Finding of mutations in one of the transcripts in the critical region in distal Xq28 led to the identification of the gene responsible for the disease. We now report the sequence of the gene which is 2100 bp long and the development of a set of primers to amplify and sequence the gene from patients' DNA. Eight unrelated X-linked familial cases were studied and they all carried different mutations, showing that lack of emerin in cardiac and skeletal muscle is the cause of the X-linked disease. No mutations were found in a family where the female carrier was affected nor in a sporadic case with a well established diagnosis of EDMD. Our findings suggest genetic heterogeneity of EDMD, and that at least two genes, the X-linked STA gene and one unidentified autosomal gene, are responsible for the disease. PMID:8595407

Bione, S; Small, K; Aksmanovic, V M; D'Urso, M; Ciccodicola, A; Merlini, L; Morandi, L; Kress, W; Yates, J R; Warren, S T

1995-10-01

4

Novel LMNA mutations in patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and functional characterization of four LMNA mutations.  

PubMed

Mutations in LMNA cause a variety of diseases affecting striated muscle including autosomal Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), LMNA-associated congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD), and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B (LGMD1B). Here, we describe novel and recurrent LMNA mutations identified in 50 patients from the United States and Canada, which is the first report of the distribution of LMNA mutations from a large cohort outside Europe. This augments the number of LMNA mutations known to cause EDMD by 16.5%, equating to an increase of 5.9% in the total known LMNA mutations. Eight patients presented with either p.R249W/Q or p.E358K mutations and an early onset EDMD phenotype: two mutations recently associated with L-CMD. Importantly, 15 mutations are novel and include eight missense mutations (p.R189P, p.F206L, p.S268P, p.S295P, p.E361K, p.G449D, p.L454P, and p.W467R), three splice site mutations (c.IVS4 + 1G>A, c.IVS6 - 2A>G, and c.IVS8 + 1G>A), one duplication/in frame insertion (p.R190dup), one deletion (p.Q355del), and two silent mutations (p.R119R and p.K270K). Analysis of 4 of our lamin A mutations showed that some caused nuclear deformations and lamin B redistribution in a mutation specific manner. Together, this study significantly augments the number of EDMD patients on the database and describes 15 novel mutations that underlie EDMD, which will contribute to establishing genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:20848652

Scharner, Juergen; Brown, Charlotte A; Bower, Matthew; Iannaccone, Susan T; Khatri, Ismail A; Escolar, Diana; Gordon, Erynn; Felice, Kevin; Crowe, Carol A; Grosmann, Carla; Meriggioli, Matthew N; Asamoah, Alexander; Gordon, Ora; Gnocchi, Viola F; Ellis, Juliet A; Mendell, Jerry R; Zammit, Peter S

2011-02-01

5

Abnormal proliferation and spontaneous differentiation of myoblasts from a symptomatic female carrier of X-linked Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by early contractures, slowly progressive muscular weakness and life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia that can develop into cardiomyopathy. In X-linked EDMD (EDMD1), female carriers are usually unaffected. Here we present a clinical description and in vitro characterization of a mildly affected EDMD1 female carrying the heterozygous EMD mutation c.174_175delTT; p.Y59* that yields loss of protein. Muscle tissue sections and cultured patient myoblasts exhibited a mixed population of emerin-positive and -negative cells; thus uneven X-inactivation was excluded as causative. Patient blood cells were predominantly emerin-positive, but considerable nuclear lobulation was observed in non-granulocyte cells – a novel phenotype in EDMD. Both emerin-positive and emerin-negative myoblasts exhibited spontaneous differentiation in tissue culture, though emerin-negative myoblasts were more proliferative than emerin-positive cells. The preferential proliferation of emerin-negative myoblasts together with the high rate of spontaneous differentiation in both populations suggests that loss of functional satellite cells might be one underlying mechanism for disease pathology. This could also account for the slowly developing muscle phenotype. PMID:25454731

Meinke, Peter; Schneiderat, Peter; Srsen, Vlastimil; Korfali, Nadia; Lê Thành, Phú; Cowan, Graeme J.M.; Cavanagh, David R.; Wehnert, Manfred; Schirmer, Eric C.; Walter, Maggie C.

2015-01-01

6

Abnormal proliferation and spontaneous differentiation of myoblasts from a symptomatic female carrier of X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by early contractures, slowly progressive muscular weakness and life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia that can develop into cardiomyopathy. In X-linked EDMD (EDMD1), female carriers are usually unaffected. Here we present a clinical description and in vitro characterization of a mildly affected EDMD1 female carrying the heterozygous EMD mutation c.174_175delTT; p.Y59* that yields loss of protein. Muscle tissue sections and cultured patient myoblasts exhibited a mixed population of emerin-positive and -negative cells; thus uneven X-inactivation was excluded as causative. Patient blood cells were predominantly emerin-positive, but considerable nuclear lobulation was observed in non-granulocyte cells - a novel phenotype in EDMD. Both emerin-positive and emerin-negative myoblasts exhibited spontaneous differentiation in tissue culture, though emerin-negative myoblasts were more proliferative than emerin-positive cells. The preferential proliferation of emerin-negative myoblasts together with the high rate of spontaneous differentiation in both populations suggests that loss of functional satellite cells might be one underlying mechanism for disease pathology. This could also account for the slowly developing muscle phenotype. PMID:25454731

Meinke, Peter; Schneiderat, Peter; Srsen, Vlastimil; Korfali, Nadia; Lê Thành, Phú; Cowan, Graeme J M; Cavanagh, David R; Wehnert, Manfred; Schirmer, Eric C; Walter, Maggie C

2015-02-01

7

Differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts expressing lamin A mutated at a site responsible for Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is improved by inhibition of the MEK-ERK pathway and stimulation of the PI3-kinase pathway  

SciTech Connect

Mutation R453W in A-type lamins, that are major nuclear envelope proteins, generates Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. We previously showed that mouse myoblasts expressing R453W-lamin A incompletely exit the cell cycle and differentiate into myocytes with a low level of multinucleation. Here we attempted to improve differentiation by treating these cells with a mixture of PD98059, an extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (also known as mitogen-activated kinase, MEK) inhibitor, and insulin-like growth factor-II, an activator of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. We show that mouse myoblasts expressing R453W-lamin A were sensitive to the drug treatment as shown by (i) an increase in multinucleation, (ii) downregulation of proliferation markers (cyclin D1, hyperphosphorylated Rb), (iii) upregulation of myogenin, and (iv) sustained activation of p21 and cyclin D3. However, nuclear matrix anchorage of p21 and cyclin D3 in a complex with hypophosphorylated Rb that is critical to trigger cell cycle arrest and myogenin induction was deficient and incompletely restored by drug treatment. As the turn-over of R453W-lamin A at the nuclear envelope was greatly enhanced, we propose that R453W-lamin A impairs the capacity of the nuclear lamina to serve as scaffold for substrates of the MEK-ERK pathway and for MyoD-induced proteins that play a role in the differentiation process.

Favreau, Catherine [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR7592, CNRS et Universites Paris 6 et 7, 2 Place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Delbarre, Erwan [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, PO Box 1112 Blindern, 0317 Oslo (Norway); Courvalin, Jean-Claude [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR7592, CNRS et Universites Paris 6 et 7, 2 Place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Buendia, Brigitte [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR7592, CNRS et Universites Paris 6 et 7, 2 Place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: buendia@ijm.jussieu.fr

2008-04-01

8

Rare Muscular Dystrophies: Congenital, Distal, Emery-Dreifuss and Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophies  

MedlinePLUS

... gene defects. Areas of especially active research include: • Gene therapy: a mechanism for supplementing defective genes with ... genes in the tissues affected by neuromuscular disease; • Gene silencing: turning off genetic instructions that cause the ...

9

Muscular Dystrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... affects about 1 out of every 3,500 boys. (Girls can carry the gene that causes the disease, ... and heart problems. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy affects boys and girls equally. Symptoms usually start when kids are between ...

10

A cross section of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies in 38 families  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies constitute a broad range of clinical and genetic entities. We have evaluated 38 autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2) families by linkage analysis for the known loci of LGMD2A-F and protein studies using immunofluorescence and western blotting of the sarcoglycan complex. One index case in each family was investigated thoroughly. The age of onset and the current ages were between 11/2 and 15 years and 6 and 36 years, respectively. The classification of families was as follows: calpainopathy 7, dysferlinopathy 3, ? sarcoglycan deficiency 2, ? sarcoglycan deficiency 7, ? sarcoglycan deficiency 5, ? sarcoglycan deficiency 1, and merosinopathy 2. There were two families showing an Emery-Dreifuss phenotype and nine showing no linkage to the LGMD2A-F loci, and they had preserved sarcoglycans.?? sarcoglycan deficiency seems to be the most severe group as a whole, whereas dysferlinopathy is the mildest. Interfamilial variation was not uncommon. Cardiomyopathy was not present in any of the families. In sarcoglycan deficiencies, sarcoglycans other than the primary ones may also be considerably reduced; however, this may not be reflected in the phenotype. Many cases of primary ? sarcoglycan deficiency showed normal or only mildly abnormal ? sarcoglycan staining.???Keywords: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy; genetic linkage analysis; sarcolemmal complex proteins PMID:10807695

Dincer, P.; Akcoren, Z.; Demir, E.; Richard, I.; Sancak, O.; Kale, G.; Ozme, S.; Karaduman, A.; Tan, E.; Urtizberea, J; Beckmann, J.; Topaloglu, H.

2000-01-01

11

Wasting Mechanisms in Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Muscular dystrophy is a group of more than 30 different clinical genetic disorders that are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle wasting and degeneration. Primary deficiency of specific extracellular matrix, sarcoplasmic, cytoskeletal, or nuclear membrane protein results in several secondary changes such as sarcolemmal instability, calcium influx, fiber necrosis, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, breakdown of extracellular matrix, and eventually fibrosis which leads to loss of ambulance and cardiac and respiratory failure. A number of molecular processes have now been identified which hasten disease progression in human patients and animal models of muscular dystrophy. Accumulating evidence further suggests that aberrant activation of several signaling pathways aggravate pathological cascades in dystrophic muscle. Although replacement of defective gene with wild-type is paramount to cure, management of secondary pathological changes has enormous potential to improving the quality of life and extending lifespan of muscular dystrophy patients. In this article, we have reviewed major cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to muscle wasting in muscular dystrophy. PMID:23669245

Shin, Jonghyun; Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Ogura, Yuji; Kumar, Ashok

2013-01-01

12

Halofuginone and muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Muscular dystrophies (MDs) include different inherited diseases that all result in progressive muscle degeneration, impaired locomotion and often premature death. The major focus of MD research has been on alleviating the primary genetic deficit - using gene therapy and myoblast-transfer approaches to promote expression of the deficient or mutated genes in the muscle fibers. Although promising, these approaches have not yet entered into clinical practice and unfortunately for MD patients, there is currently no cure. Thus, the development of complementary and supportive therapies that slow disease progression and improve patients' quality of life is critically important. The main features of MDs are sarcolemmal instability and increased myofiber vulnerability to mechanical stress, resulting in myofiber degeneration. Fibrosis, with progressive replacement of muscle tissue, is a prominent feature in some MDs, preventing complete regeneration and hampering muscle functions. TGF? is the leading candidate for activating fibroblasts and eliciting overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Halofuginone, an inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation downstream of TGF? signaling, inhibits the activation of fibroblasts and their ability to synthesize ECM, regardless of their origin or location. In animal models of MDs with prominent muscle fibrosis, halofuginone treatment has resulted in both prevention of collagen production in young animals and resolution of established fibrosis in older ones: the reduction in muscle collagen content was associated with improved muscle histopathology and major improvements in muscle function. Recently, these halofuginone-dependent improvements were also observed in MD with minor fibrosis involvement, probably due to a direct effect of halofuginone on muscle cells, resulting in myotube fusion that is dependent on Akt and MAPK pathway activation. In summary, halofuginone improves muscle histopathology and muscle functions in various MDs, via inhibition of muscle fibrosis on the one hand, and increased myotube fusion on the other. PMID:21117034

Pines, Mark; Halevy, Orna

2011-01-01

13

Modifying muscular dystrophy through TGF?  

PubMed Central

Muscular dystrophy arises from ongoing muscle degeneration and insufficient regeneration. This imbalance leads to loss of muscle with replacement by scar or fibrosis resulting in muscle weakness and, eventually, loss of muscle function. Human muscular dystrophy is characterized by a wide range of disease severity, even when the same genetic mutation is present. This variability implies that other factors, both genetic and environmental, modify the disease outcome. There has been an ongoing effort to define the genetic and molecular bases that influence muscular dystrophy onset and progression. Modifier genes for muscle disease have been identified through candidate gene approaches as well as genomewide surveys. Multiple lines of experimental evidence have now converged on the TGF? pathway as a modifier for muscular dystrophy. TGF? signaling is upregulated in dystrophic muscle as a result of a destabilized plasma membrane and/or altered extracellular matrix. Given the important biological role of the TGF? pathway, and its role beyond muscle homeostasis, we review modifier genes that alter the TGF? pathway and approaches to modulate TGF? activity to ameliorate muscle disease. PMID:23551962

Ceco, Ermelinda; McNally, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

14

Myoglobin in Primary Muscular Disease: I. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: and: II. Muscular Dystrophy of Distal Type  

PubMed Central

Skeletal myoglobin from two cases of muscular dystrophy, one of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and one of muscular dystrophy of distal type, have been examined and no differences from normal human myoglobin were found. The opportunity has been taken to discuss the nature of minor fractions of myoglobin-like material which are found when human skeletal myoglobin is isolated. Those which have been observed in the present study have been artefacts and it was possible to demonstrate that they were due to deamidation of certain glutamine and asparagine residues. Images PMID:4590363

Romero-Herrera, A. E.; Lehmann, H.; Tomlinson, B. E.; Walton, J. N.

1973-01-01

15

Zebrafish orthologs of human muscular dystrophy genes  

PubMed Central

Background Human muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders which cause decreased muscle strength and often result in premature death. There is no known cure for muscular dystrophy, nor have all causative genes been identified. Recent work in the small vertebrate zebrafish Danio rerio suggests that mutation or misregulation of zebrafish dystrophy orthologs can also cause muscular degeneration phenotypes in fish. To aid in the identification of new causative genes, this study identifies and maps zebrafish orthologs for all known human muscular dystrophy genes. Results Zebrafish sequence databases were queried for transcripts orthologous to human dystrophy-causing genes, identifying transcripts for 28 out of 29 genes of interest. In addition, the genomic locations of all 29 genes have been found, allowing rapid candidate gene discovery during genetic mapping of zebrafish dystrophy mutants. 19 genes show conservation of syntenic relationships with humans and at least two genes appear to be duplicated in zebrafish. Significant sequence coverage on one or more BAC clone(s) was also identified for 24 of the genes to provide better local sequence information and easy updating of genomic locations as the zebrafish genome assembly continues to evolve. Conclusion This resource supports zebrafish as a dystrophy model, suggesting maintenance of all known dystrophy-associated genes in the zebrafish genome. Coupled with the ability to conduct genetic screens and small molecule screens, zebrafish are thus an attractive model organism for isolating new dystrophy-causing genes/pathways and for use in high-throughput therapeutic discovery. PMID:17374169

Steffen, Leta S; Guyon, Jeffrey R; Vogel, Emily D; Beltre, Rosanna; Pusack, Timothy J; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard I; Kunkel, Louis M

2007-01-01

16

Genetics Home Reference: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... number of methyl groups (consisting of one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms) attached to the DNA. The addition of methyl ... glossary definitions help with understanding facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy? atom ; atrophy ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cardiac ; cell ; chromatin ; chromosome ; ...

17

Feline Muscular Dystrophy with Dystrophin Deficiency  

PubMed Central

This is the first description of a dystrophin-Deficient muscular dystrophy in domestic cats. The disorder appears to be of X-linked inheritance because it affected both males of a litter of four kittens. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescent detection of dystrophin showed dystrophin present in control cat muscle but no detectable dystrophin in either affected cat. The feline muscular dystrophy was progressive and histopathologically resembled human Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy except for the lack of fat infiltration and the presence of prominent hypertrophy of both muscle fibers and muscles groups in the feline disorder. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:2683799

Carpenter, James L.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Romanul, Flaviu C. A.; Kunkel, Louis M.; Rosales, Remedios K.; Ma, Nancy S. F.; Dasbach, James J.; Rae, John F.; Moore, Frances M.; McAfee, Mary B.; Pearce, Laurie K.

1989-01-01

18

Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

The muscular dystrophies are a group of heterogeneous genetic diseases characterized by progressive degeneration and weakness of skeletal muscle. Since the discovery of the first muscular dystrophy gene encoding dystrophin, a large number of genes have been identified that are involved in various muscle-wasting and neuromuscular disorders. Human genetic studies complemented by animal model systems have substantially contributed to our understanding of the molecular pathomechanisms underlying muscle degeneration. Moreover, these studies have revealed distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms that link genetic mutations to diverse muscle wasting phenotypes. PMID:23671309

2013-01-01

19

Diagnostic approach to the congenital muscular dystrophies.  

PubMed

Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are early onset disorders of muscle with histological features suggesting a dystrophic process. The congenital muscular dystrophies as a group encompass great clinical and genetic heterogeneity so that achieving an accurate genetic diagnosis has become increasingly challenging, even in the age of next generation sequencing. In this document we review the diagnostic features, differential diagnostic considerations and available diagnostic tools for the various CMD subtypes and provide a systematic guide to the use of these resources for achieving an accurate molecular diagnosis. An International Committee on the Standard of Care for Congenital Muscular Dystrophies composed of experts on various aspects relevant to the CMDs performed a review of the available literature as well as of the unpublished expertise represented by the members of the committee and their contacts. This process was refined by two rounds of online surveys and followed by a three-day meeting at which the conclusions were presented and further refined. The combined consensus summarized in this document allows the physician to recognize the presence of a CMD in a child with weakness based on history, clinical examination, muscle biopsy results, and imaging. It will be helpful in suspecting a specific CMD subtype in order to prioritize testing to arrive at a final genetic diagnosis. PMID:24581957

Bönnemann, Carsten G; Wang, Ching H; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Deconinck, Nicolas; Bertini, Enrico; Ferreiro, Ana; Muntoni, Francesco; Sewry, Caroline; Béroud, Christophe; Mathews, Katherine D; Moore, Steven A; Bellini, Jonathan; Rutkowski, Anne; North, Kathryn N

2014-04-01

20

Characterization of aquaporin-4 in muscle and muscular dystrophy  

E-print Network

demonstrate that AQP4 loss in skeletal muscle correlates with muscular dystrophy and is a common featureCharacterization of aquaporin-4 in muscle and muscular dystrophy RACHELLE H. CROSBIE,1 SHERRI A. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is enriched at the sarco- lemma of skeletal muscle and may play a role in accommodating

Campbell, Kevin P.

21

Update on the management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is familiar to paediatricians as the most common childhood muscular dystrophy and leads to severe disability and early death in the late teenage years if untreated. Improvements in general care, glucocorticoid corticosteroid treatment, non-invasive ventilatory support, and cardiomyopathy and scoliosis management have significantly changed the course of DMD in treated individuals, so that survival into adulthood

A Y Manzur; M Kinali; F Muntoni

2008-01-01

22

Consensus statement on standard of care for congenital muscular dystrophies.  

PubMed

Congenital muscular dystrophies are a group of rare neuromuscular disorders with a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Recent advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of congenital muscular dystrophy have enabled better diagnosis. However, medical care for patients with congenital muscular dystrophy remains very diverse. Advances in many areas of medical technology have not been adopted in clinical practice. The International Standard of Care Committee for Congenital Muscular Dystrophy was established to identify current care issues, review literature for evidence-based practice, and achieve consensus on care recommendations in 7 areas: diagnosis, neurology, pulmonology, orthopedics/rehabilitation, gastroenterology/ nutrition/speech/oral care, cardiology, and palliative care. To achieve consensus on the care recommendations, 2 separate online surveys were conducted to poll opinions from experts in the field and from congenital muscular dystrophy families. The final consensus was achieved in a 3-day workshop conducted in Brussels, Belgium, in November 2009. This consensus statement describes the care recommendations from this committee. PMID:21078917

Wang, Ching H; Bonnemann, Carsten G; Rutkowski, Anne; Sejersen, Thomas; Bellini, Jonathan; Battista, Vanessa; Florence, Julaine M; Schara, Ulrike; Schuler, Pamela M; Wahbi, Karim; Aloysius, Annie; Bash, Robert O; Béroud, Christophe; Bertini, Enrico; Bushby, Kate; Cohn, Ronald D; Connolly, Anne M; Deconinck, Nicolas; Desguerre, Isabelle; Eagle, Michelle; Estournet-Mathiaud, Brigitte; Ferreiro, Ana; Fujak, Albert; Goemans, Nathalie; Iannaccone, Susan T; Jouinot, Patricia; Main, Marion; Melacini, Paola; Mueller-Felber, Wolfgang; Muntoni, Francesco; Nelson, Leslie L; Rahbek, Jes; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Sewry, Caroline; Storhaug, Kari; Simonds, Anita; Tseng, Brian; Vajsar, Jiri; Vianello, Andrea; Zeller, Reinhard

2010-12-01

23

Cardiac findings in congenital muscular dystrophies.  

PubMed

Cardiac involvement (CI) in congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) has been only rarely investigated so far. By means of a systematic literature search we reviewed the literature about CI in CMD and found that CI is apparently absent in Ullrich CMD or CMD with integrin deficiency and only mild in Bethlem CMD. CI in merosin deficiency includes dilated cardiomyopathy and systolic dysfunction. CI in dystroglycanopathies seems most prevalent among all CMDs and includes dilated cardiomyopathy, systolic dysfunction, and myocardial fibrosis in Fukuyama CMD. Among the nonspecified dystroglycanopathies, CI manifests as dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CMP) or systolic dysfunction. With CMD type 1C, as well as with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I, up to half of the patients develop dilated cardiomyopathy. In rigid-spine syndrome, predominantly the right heart is affected secondary to thoracic deformity. In patients who carry LMNA mutations, CI may manifest as dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Overall, CI in patients with CMD varies considerably between the different CMD types from absent or mild CI to severe cardiac disease, particularly in merosin deficiency, dystroglycanopathies, and laminopathies. Patients with CMD with CI require regular cardiologic surveillance so that severe, treatable cardiac disease is not overlooked. PMID:20679303

Finsterer, Josef; Ramaciotti, Claudio; Wang, Ching H; Wahbi, Karim; Rosenthal, David; Duboc, Denis; Melacini, Paola

2010-09-01

24

The Identification of Carriers in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Following recurrent reports in the literature that it is possible to detect carriers of the gene for progressive muscular dystrophy (Duchenne), a survey of nine families was performed. No unequivocal results could be obtained in comparison of clinical data with circulation-time measurements or serum enzyme studies. It is concluded that carrier-labelling with respect to progressive muscular dystrophy is not yet at a satisfactory stage, although progress is being made. PMID:13935998

Monckton, George; Ludvigsen, Bernhard

1963-01-01

25

Muscular Dystrophies at Different Ages: Metabolic and Endocrine Alterations  

PubMed Central

Common metabolic and endocrine alterations exist across a wide range of muscular dystrophies. Skeletal muscle plays an important role in glucose metabolism and is a major participant in different signaling pathways. Therefore, its damage may lead to different metabolic disruptions. Two of the most important metabolic alterations in muscular dystrophies may be insulin resistance and obesity. However, only insulin resistance has been demonstrated in myotonic dystrophy. In addition, endocrine disturbances such as hypogonadism, low levels of testosterone, and growth hormone have been reported. This eventually will result in consequences such as growth failure and delayed puberty in the case of childhood dystrophies. Other consequences may be reduced male fertility, reduced spermatogenesis, and oligospermia, both in childhood as well as in adult muscular dystrophies. These facts all suggest that there is a need for better comprehension of metabolic and endocrine implications for muscular dystrophies with the purpose of developing improved clinical treatments and/or improvements in the quality of life of patients with dystrophy. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe the current knowledge about of metabolic and endocrine alterations in diverse types of dystrophinopathies, which will be divided into two groups: childhood and adult dystrophies which have different age of onset. PMID:22701119

Cruz Guzmán, Oriana del Rocío; Chávez García, Ana Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela

2012-01-01

26

Left ventricular noncompaction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) describes deep trabeculations in the left ventricular (LV) endocardium and a thinned epicardium. LVNC is seen both as a primary cardiomyopathy and as a secondary finding in other syndromes affecting the myocardium such as neuromuscular disorders. The objective of this study is to define the prevalence of LVNC in the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) population and characterize its relationship to global LV function. Methods Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was used to assess ventricular morphology and function in 151 subjects: DMD with ejection fraction (EF)?>?55% (n?=?66), DMD with EF??2.3 for any segment. Results LVNC criteria were met by 27/96 DMD patients (prevalence of 28%): 11 had an EF?>?55% (prevalence of 16.7%), and 16 had an EF??55%, 2.46 for DMD with EF?muscular degeneration versus compensatory remodeling. PMID:23914774

2013-01-01

27

People with a form of muscular dystrophy may have elevated cancer risk:  

Cancer.gov

Adults with a form of muscular dystrophy called myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) may be at increased risk of developing cancer, according to a study by investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health.

28

The burden of Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the total cost of illness and economic burden of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: Patients with DMD from Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, and United States were identified through Translational Research in Europe–Assessment & Treatment of Neuromuscular Diseases registries and invited to complete a questionnaire online together with a caregiver. Data on health care use, quality of life, work status, informal care, and household expenses were collected to estimate costs of DMD from the perspective of society and caregiver households. Results: A total of 770 patients (173 German, 122 Italian, 191 from the United Kingdom, and 284 from the United States) completed the questionnaire. Mean per-patient annual direct cost of illness was estimated at between $23,920 and $54,270 (2012 international dollars), 7 to 16 times higher than the mean per-capita health expenditure in these countries. Indirect and informal care costs were substantial, each constituting between 18% and 43% of total costs. The total societal burden was estimated at between $80,120 and $120,910 per patient and annum, and increased markedly with disease progression. The corresponding household burden was estimated at between $58,440 and $71,900. Conclusions: We show that DMD is associated with a substantial economic burden. Our results underscore the many different costs accompanying a rare condition such as DMD and the considerable economic burden carried by affected families. Our description of the previously unknown economic context of a rare disease serves as important intelligence input to health policy evaluations of intervention programs and novel therapies, financial support schemes for patients and their families, and the design of future cost studies. PMID:24991029

Landfeldt, Erik; Lindgren, Peter; Bell, Christopher F.; Schmitt, Claude; Guglieri, Michela; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns

2014-01-01

29

Treatment options for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The main goal in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is to maintain ambulation for as long as possible and to anticipate and manage the associated complications, such as joint contractures, scoliosis, cardiomyopathy, respiratory insufficiency, and weight gain. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms occur in about one third of patients, and it is important to recognize and manage them promptly, developing an individualized plan at school and at home to maximize the patient's cognitive abilities. In the late phase of the disease, palliative care is of paramount importance. Corticosteroid therapy (prednisone and deflazacort) is the only effective pharmacologic treatment for DMD. Daily prednisone treatment increases muscle strength and function, improves pulmonary function, and significantly slows the progression of weakness. Deflazacort has a similar effect on muscle strength, but it is not available in the United States. Treatment with corticosteroid should be offered to all patients with DMD, but the beneficial effects and potential adverse effects should be fully discussed before treatment begins. The optimal dose of prednisone is 0.75 mg/kg per day, up to a maximum of 40 mg/d. If adverse effects occur, a decrease in dosage is appropriate. Monitoring of muscle function and adverse effects by a neurologist or neuromuscular specialist is strongly recommended. Physical and occupational therapists should be involved early in the treatment of patients with DMD to develop a program that includes heel cord stretching and exercise. In the later phases, these therapists can recommend adaptive equipment and maximize independence. Orthopedic consultation is important in monitoring and managing scoliosis and joint contractures in the nonambulatory phase of the disease. Pulmonary evaluation for ventilatory care is important; pulmonary consultation is essential when vital capacity declines. The use of assistive cough devices, nasal bilevel positive airway pressure, and tracheostomy must be discussed with patients and their families. For all patients with DMD, particularly those receiving prednisone, consultation with a dietitian is very helpful to control weight and maintain a healthy diet. PMID:18334131

Ciafaloni, Emma; Moxley, Richard T

2008-03-01

30

Neuropsychological profile of duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited myogenic disorder characterized by progressive muscle wasting. DMD is a fatal X-linked recessive disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 3,500 male live births. This disease has long been associated with intellectual impairment. Research has shown that boys with DMD have variable intellectual performance, indicating the presence of specific cognitive deficits. The aim of the study was to use a battery of intelligence, learning, and memory tests to identify a neuropsychological profile in boys with DMD. A total of 22 boys diagnosed with DMD in the age range of 6 to 10 years old were evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Memory for Designs Test. The data were interpreted using means, standard deviations, percentages, and percentiles. Normative data were also used for further interpretation. The results showed that boys with DMD had a significantly lower IQ (88.5). Verbal IQ (86.59) was found to be lower than Performance IQ (92.64). There was evidence of impaired performance on the Processing Speed, Freedom From Distractibility, and Verbal Comprehension Indexes. Specific deficits in information processing, complex attention, immediate verbal memory span, verbal working memory, verbal comprehension, vocabulary, visuoconstruction ability, and verbal learning and encoding were observed. However, perceptional organization, general fund of information, abstract reasoning, visual discrimination and acuity, visual learning and memory, and verbal memory were adequate. The neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that these children have specific cognitive deficits as opposed to a global intellectual deficit. PMID:24279481

Perumal, Anna Roshini; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Nalini, Atchayaram

2015-01-01

31

Dystrophin abnormality in progressive muscular dystrophy--a review article.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked recessive disorder of muscle in children, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 3,300 male births. In about a third of affected boys, the disease is due to a new mutation, and most patients die in their early 20s. Over the last few years, the genetic, biochemical and histopathological basis of DMD has been elucidated greatly. In particular, the discovery of "dystrophin," the protein product of the DMD gene is truly an epoch-making success in the history of muscular dystrophy research. Dystrophin is now thought to be a cytoskeletal protein underlying the plasma membrane (known in muscle as the sarcolemma) of normal muscle fiber, and is undetectable or greatly reduced in DMD. In this review article, dystrophin in normal skeletal muscle and various neuromuscular diseases including DMD/BMD (Becker muscular dystrophy), and its carrier is discussed. PMID:1957648

Arahata, K

1991-04-01

32

Swallow Characteristics in Patients with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This prospective investigation evaluates oral weakness and its impact on swallow function, weight, and quality of life in patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Method: Intraoral pressure, swallow pressure, and endurance were measured using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument in participants with OPMD and matched…

Palmer, Phyllis M.; Neel, Amy T.; Sprouls, Gwyneth; Morrison, Leslie

2010-01-01

33

Stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify global research trends in stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy using a bibliometric analysis of Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy from 2002 to 2011 retrieved from Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed published articles on stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy indexed in Web of Science; (b) original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material, and news items; and (c) publication between 2002 and 2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) documents that were not published in the public domain; and (c) corrected papers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to subject areas; (3) distribution according to journals; (4) distribution according to country; (5) distribution according to institution; (6) distribution according to institution in China; (7) distribution according to institution that cooperated with Chinese institutions; (8) top-cited articles from 2002 to 2006; (9) top-cited articles from 2007 to 2011. RESULTS: A total of 318 publications on stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy were retrieved from Web of Science from 2002 to 2011, of which almost half derived from American authors and institutes. The number of publications has gradually increased over the past 10 years. Most papers appeared in journals with a focus on gene and molecular research, such as Molecular Therapy, Neuromuscular Disorders, and PLoS One. The 10 most-cited papers from 2002 to 2006 were mostly about different kinds of stem cell transplantation for muscle regeneration, while the 10 most-cited papers from 2007 to 2011 were mostly about new techniques of stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy. CONCLUSION: The publications on stem cell transplantation for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy were relatively few. It also needs more research to confirm that stem cell therapy is a reliable treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Yang, Xiaofeng

2012-01-01

34

Microdystrophin Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy in the Canine Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Dystrophin deficiency results in lethal Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Substituting missing dystrophin with abbreviated microdystrophin has dramatically alleviated disease in mouse DMD models. Unfortunately, translation of microdystrophin therapy has been unsuccessful in dystrophic dogs, the only large mammalian model. Approximately 70% of the dystrophin-coding sequence is removed in microdystrophin. Intriguingly, loss of ?50% dystrophin frequently results in severe disease in patients. To test whether the small gene size constitutes a fundamental design error for large mammalian muscle, we performed a comprehensive study using 22 dogs (8 normal and 14 dystrophic). We delivered the ?R2-15/?R18-19/?R20-23/?C microdystrophin gene to eight extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) muscles in six dystrophic dogs using Y713F tyrosine mutant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-9 (2.6 × 1013 viral genome (vg) particles/muscle). Robust expression was observed 2 months later despite T-cell infiltration. Major components of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) were restored by microdystrophin. Treated muscle showed less inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification. Importantly, therapy significantly preserved muscle force under the stress of repeated cycles of eccentric contraction. Our results have established the proof-of-concept for microdystrophin therapy in dystrophic muscles of large mammals and set the stage for clinical trial in human patients. PMID:23319056

Shin, Jin-Hong; Pan, Xiufang; Hakim, Chady H; Yang, Hsiao T; Yue, Yongping; Zhang, Keqing; Terjung, Ronald L; Duan, Dongsheng

2013-01-01

35

GENE AND CELL-MEDIATED THERAPIES FOR MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating muscle disorder that affects 1 in 3500 boys. Despite years of research and considerable progress in understanding the molecular mechanism of the disease and advancement of therapeutic approaches, there is no cure for DMD. The current treatment options are limited to physiotherapy and corticosteroids, and although they provide a substantial improvement in affected children, they only slow the course of the disorder. On a more optimistic note, the most recent approaches either significantly alleviate or eliminate muscular dystrophy in murine and canine models of DMD and importantly, many of them are being tested in early phase human clinical trials. This review summarizes advancements that have been made in viral and non-viral gene therapy as well as stem cell therapy for DMD with a focus on the replacement and repair of the affected dystrophin gene. PMID:23553671

Konieczny, Patryk; Swiderski, Kristy; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

36

Germinal mosaicism for LMNA mimics autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Life-threatening cardiac and respiratory complications are common in LMNA-related myopathies and early diagnosis is important for optimal patient care. Lamin A/C related congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD) is often caused by de novo mutation in LMNA, affecting a single child in a family. Germinal mosaicism is a rarer variant that can lead to two children inheriting the same new heterozygous mutation from a clinically unaffected parent. Both patterns mimic autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance and the possibility of de novo L-CMD may be forgotten since most causes of congenital muscular dystrophy follow AR inheritance. To illustrate the challenge of diagnosing L-CMD, we present a consanguineous family in which two children have early onset LMNA-related myopathy likely due to paternal germinal mosaicism. This emphasises that germinal mosaicism (and de novo mutations) for LMNA can arise in any family and direct gene sequencing is required to confirm or exclude the diagnosis. PMID:19084400

Makri, Samira; Clarke, Nigel F; Richard, Pascale; Maugenre, Svetlana; Demay, Laurence; Bonne, Gisèle; Guicheney, Pascale

2009-01-01

37

Ongoing therapeutic trials and outcome measures for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Muscular dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterised by progressive muscle tissue degeneration. No effective treatment has been discovered for these diseases. Preclinical and clinical studies aimed at the development of new therapeutic approaches have been carried out, primarily in subjects affected with dystrophinopathies (Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy). In this review, we outline the current therapeutic approaches and past and ongoing clinical trials, highlighting both the advantages and limits of each one. The experimental designs of these trials were based on different rationales, including immunomodulation, readthrough strategies, exon skipping, gene therapy, and cell therapy. We also provide an overview of available outcome measures, focusing on their reliability in estimating meaningful clinical improvement in order to aid in the design of future trials. This perspective is extremely relevant to the field considering the recent development of novel therapeutic approaches that will result in an increasing number of clinical studies over the next few years. PMID:23775131

Govoni, Alessandra; Magri, Francesca; Brajkovic, Simona; Zanetta, Chiara; Faravelli, Irene; Corti, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P

2013-12-01

38

The link between stress disorders and autonomic dysfunction in muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Muscular dystrophy is a progressive disease of muscle weakness, muscle atrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Patients afflicted with muscular dystrophy exhibit autonomic dysfunction along with cognitive impairment, severe depression, sadness, and anxiety. Although the psychological aspects of cardiovascular disorders and stress disorders are well known, the physiological mechanism underlying this relationship is not well understood, particularly in muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the goal of this perspective is to highlight the importance of autonomic dysfunction and psychological stress disorders in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. This article will for the first time—(i) outline autonomic mechanisms that are common to both psychological stress and cardiovascular disorders in muscular dystrophy; (ii) propose therapies that would improve behavioral and autonomic functions in muscular dystrophy. PMID:24523698

Sabharwal, Rasna

2014-01-01

39

Skeletal muscle pathology in ovine congenital progressive muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber-type proportions were determined in 12 skeletal muscles (peronaeus tertius, tibialis cranialis, tensor fascia lata, psoas major, extensor digitorum lateralis, tensor fascia antibrachii, vastus intermedius, soleus, anconaeus, and flexor digitorum superficialis of fore and hind limb) from infantile (20 weeks), juvenile (16 months) and adult (2.5 and 3.5 years) Merino sheep with ovine congenital progressive muscular dystrophy and in age-matched

R. B. Richards; I. K. Passmore; E. F. Dempsey

1988-01-01

40

RESPIRATORY DYSFUNCTION IN UNSEDATED DOGS WITH GOLDEN RETRIEVER MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY  

PubMed Central

Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a well-established model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The value of this model would be greatly enhanced with practical tools to monitor progression of respiratory dysfunction during treatment trials. Arterial blood gas analysis, tidal breathing spirometry, and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) were performed to determine if quantifiable abnormalities could be identified in unsedated, untrained, GRMD dogs. Results from 11 dogs with a mild phenotype of GRMD and 11 age-matched carriers were compared. Arterial blood gas analysis was successfully performed in all dogs, spirometry in 21 of 22 (95%) dogs, and RIP in 18 of 20 (90%) dogs. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentration were higher in GRMD dogs. Tidal breathing peak expiratory flows were markedly higher in GRMD dogs. Abnormal abdominal motion was present in 7 of 10 (70%) GRMD dogs. Each technique provided objective, quantifiable measures that will be useful for monitoring respiratory function in GRMD dogs during clinical trials while avoiding the influence of sedation on results. Increased expiratory flows and the pattern of abdominal breathing are novel findings, not reported in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and might be a consequence of hyperinflation. PMID:24295812

DeVanna, Justin C.; Kornegay, Joe N.; Bogan, Daniel J.; Bogan, Janet R.; Dow, Jennifer L.; Hawkins, Eleanor C.

2013-01-01

41

Gene Therapy in Large Animal Models of Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

The muscular dystrophies are a group of genetically and phenotypically heterogeneously inherited diseases characterized by progressive muscle wasting, which can lead to premature death in severe forms such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In many cases they are caused by the absence of proteins that are critical components of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, which links the cytoskeleton and the basal lamina. There is no effective treatment for these disorders at present, but several novel strategies for replacing or repairing the defective gene are in development, with early encouraging results from animal models. We review these strategies, which include the use of stem cells of different tissue origins, gene replacement therapies mediated by various viral vectors, and transcript repair treatments using exon skipping strategies. We comment on their advantages and on limitations that must be overcome before successful application to human patients. Our focus is on studies in a clinically relevant large canine model of DMD. Recent advances in the field suggest that effective therapies for muscular dystrophies are on the horizon. Because of the complex nature of these diseases, it may be necessary to combine multiple approaches to achieve a successful treatment. PMID:19293461

Wang, Zejing; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.; Tapscott, Stephen J.; Storb, Rainer

2009-01-01

42

Clinical Characteristics of Aged Becker Muscular Dystrophy Patients with Onset after 30 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the clinical characteristics of aged patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), 4 patients with this disease who were over 50 years were examined. The ages at onset in all patients were later than 30 years. All were proven to have a deletion around exons 45–55 of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene. Two patients became wheelchair bound in

Masahide Yazaki; Kunihiro Yoshida; Akinori Nakamura; Jun Koyama; Takashi Nanba; Nobuhira Ohori; Shu-ichi Ikeda

1999-01-01

43

[A case of symptomatic sinus dysfunction described in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Fortuitous association or syndrome?  

PubMed

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy is a rare genetic disease manifesting after 45years old, affecting the levator muscles of eyelids and muscles of swallowing. We report the first case of a patient of 73years old suffering from an oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy hospitalized for syncope, a complication of severe sinus dysfunction, requiring the implantation of a pacemaker. PMID:23177757

Belmihoub-Salmi, S

2012-08-28

44

Developmental Defects in a Zebrafish Model for Muscular Dystrophies Associated with the Loss of Fukutin-Related Protein (FKRP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of muscular dystrophies are associated with the defective glycosylation of [alpha]-dystroglycan and many are now known to result from mutations in a number of genes encoding putative or known glycosyltransferases. These diseases include severe forms of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) such as Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy

Thornhill, Paul; Bassett, David; Lochmuller, Hanns; Bushby, Kate; Straub, Volker

2008-01-01

45

Genetic epidemiology of muscular dystrophies resulting from sarcoglycan gene mutations.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a group of genetically heterogeneous muscle diseases characterised by progressive proximal limb muscle weakness. Six different loci have been mapped and pathogenetic mutations in the genes encoding the sarcoglycan complex components (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-sarcoglycan) have been documented. LGMD patients affected with primary "sarcoglycanopathies" are classified as LGMD2D, 2E, 2C, and 2F, respectively. METHODS: A geographical area in north east Italy (2,319,147 inhabitants) was selected for a genetic epidemiological study on primary sarcoglycanopathies. Within the period 1982 to 1996, all patients living in this region and diagnosed with muscular dystrophy were seen at our centre. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot screening for alpha-sarcoglycan protein deficiency was performed on all muscle biopsies from patients with a progressive muscular dystrophy of unknown aetiology and normal dystrophin. Sarcoglycan mutation analyses were conducted on all patient muscle biopsies shown to have complete or partial absence of alpha-sarcoglycan immunostaining or a decreased quantity of alpha-sarcoglycan protein on immunoblotting. RESULTS: Two hundred and four patient muscle biopsies were screened for alpha-sarcoglycan protein deficiency and 18 biopsies showed a deficiency. Pathogenetic mutations involving one gene for sarcoglycan complex components were identified in 13 patients: alpha-sarcoglycan in seven, beta-sarcoglycan in two, gamma-sarcoglycan in four, and none in the delta-sarcoglycan gene. The overall prevalence of primary sarcoglycanopathies, as of 31 December 1996, was estimated to be 5.6 x 10(-6) inhabitants. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate estimated in this study is the first to be obtained after biochemical and molecular genetic screening for sarcoglycan defects. PMID:9429136

Fanin, M; Duggan, D J; Mostacciuolo, M L; Martinello, F; Freda, M P; Sorarù, G; Trevisan, C P; Hoffman, E P; Angelini, C

1997-01-01

46

Halofuginone improves muscle-cell survival in muscular dystrophies.  

PubMed

Halofuginone has been shown to prevent fibrosis via the transforming growth factor-?/Smad3 pathway in muscular dystrophies. We hypothesized that halofuginone would reduce apoptosis--the presumed cause of satellite-cell depletion during muscle degradation-in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Six-week-old mdx mouse diaphragm exhibited fourfold higher numbers of apoptotic nuclei compared with wild-type mice as determined by a TUNEL assay. Apoptotic nuclei were found in macrophages and in Pax7-expressing cells; some were located in centrally-nucleated regenerating myofibers. Halofuginone treatment of mdx mice reduced the apoptotic nuclei number in the diaphragm, together with reduction in Bax and induction in Bcl2 levels in myofibers isolated from these mice. A similar effect was observed when halofuginone was added to cultured myofibers. No apparent effect of halofuginone was observed in wild-type mice. Inhibition of apoptosis or staurosporine-induced apoptosis by halofuginone in mdx primary myoblasts and C2 myogenic cell line, respectively, was reflected by less pyknotic/apoptotic cells and reduced Bax expression. This reduction was reversed by a phosphinositide-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase inhibitors, suggesting involvement of these pathways in mediating halofuginone's effects on apoptosis. Halofuginone increased apoptosis in ? smooth muscle actin- and prolyl 4-hydroxylase ?-expressing cells in mdx diaphragm and in myofibroblasts, the major source of extracellular matrix. The data suggest an additional mechanism by which halofuginone improves muscle pathology and function in muscular dystrophies. PMID:24703880

Bodanovsky, Anna; Guttman, Noga; Barzilai-Tutsch, Hila; Genin, Ola; Levy, Oshrat; Pines, Mark; Halevy, Orna

2014-07-01

47

The Molecular Biology of Mutations and Muscular Dystrophy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this mind-on analysis and discussion activity students explore the effects of different types of point mutations and deletion mutations and analyze the reasons why deletion mutations generally have more severe effects than point mutations. Students use their understanding of the molecular biology of mutations to analyze the genetic basis for the differences in severity of two types of muscular dystrophy. To maximize student participation and learning, I recommend that you have your students complete the questions individually or in pairs and then have a whole class discussion.

Waldron, Ingrid

48

Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Emerging Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Multipotent cells that can give rise to bone, cartilage, fat, connective tissue, skeletal and cardiac muscle are termed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These cells were first identified in the bone marrow, distinct from blood-forming stem cells. Based on the embryologic derivation, availability, and various pro-regenerative characteristics, research exploring their use in cell therapy shows great promise for patients with degenerative muscle diseases and a number of other conditions. In this review, the authors explore the potential for MSC therapy in the emerging field of regenerative medicine with a focus on treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). PMID:19627945

Markert, Chad; Atala, Anthony; Cann, Jennifer K.; Christ, George; Furth, Mark; Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Childers, Martin K.

2009-01-01

49

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy subtypes: First-reported cohort from northeastern China  

PubMed Central

The relative frequencies of different subtypes of limb-girdle muscular dystrophies vary widely among different populations. We estimated the percentage of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy subtypes in Chinese people based on 68 patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy from the Myology Clinic, Neurology Department, First Hospital of Jilin University, China. A diagnosis of calpainopathy was made in 12 cases (17%), and dysferlin deficiency in 10 cases (15%). Two biopsies revealed ?-sarcoglycan deficiency (3%), and two others revealed a lack of caveolin-3 (3%). A diagnosis of unclassified limb-girdle muscular dystrophy was made in the remaining patients (62%). The appearances of calpain 3- and dysferlin-deficient biopsies were similar, though rimmed vacuoles were unique to dysferlinopathy, while inflammatory infiltrates were present in both these limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D biopsies. Macrophages were detected in seven dysferlinopathy biopsies. The results of this study suggest that the distribution of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy subtypes in the Han Chinese population is similar to that reported in the West. The less necrotic, regenerating and inflammatory appearance of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, but with more lobulated fibers, supports the idea that calpainopathy is a less active, but more chronic disease than dysferlinopathy. Unusual features indicated an extended limb-girdle muscular dystrophy disease spectrum. The use of acid phosphatase stain should be considered in suspected dysferlinopathies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to define the relative proportions of the various forms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in China, based on protein testing. PMID:25206500

Mahmood, Omar Abdulmonem; Jiang, Xinmei; Zhang, Qi

2013-01-01

50

Understanding the Process of Fibrosis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components during tissue healing leading to loss of its architecture and function. Fibrotic diseases are often associated with chronic pathologies and occur in a large variety of vital organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In human muscle, fibrosis is most readily associated with the severe muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by loss of dystrophin gene function. In DMD, skeletal muscle degenerates and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells and the functions of the muscle stem cells (satellite cells) become impeded and fibrogenic cells hyperproliferate and are overactivated, leading to the substitution of skeletal muscle with nonfunctional fibrotic tissue. Here, we review new developments in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to fibrosis in DMD and several recent advances towards reverting it, as potential treatments to attenuate disease progression. PMID:24877152

Kharraz, Yacine; Guerra, Joana; Serrano, Antonio L.; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

2014-01-01

51

Therapeutic effect of camostat mesilate on Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mdx mice.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is known to be caused by a defective gene of dystrophin, a 427-kDa cytoskeletal protein, but the effective therapeutic drug is presently unavailable. We previously reported that a trypsin-like protease designated as dystrypsin is markedly activated in the muscle microsomal fraction immediately before onset of the clinical signs in mdx mice, a dystrophin-deficient hereditary animal model for human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In order to examine the possible participation of dystrypsin in the occurrence of the disease, we investigated the therapeutic effects of dystrypsin inhibitors on the occurrence and progress of muscular dystrophy. Here, we show that camostat mesilate, a low-molecular-weight inhibitor of trypsin-like proteases, including dystrypsin, is a candidate drug for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:12843632

Sawada, Hitoshi; Nagahiro, Kazumi; Kikukawa, Yuhsuke; Ban, Susumu; Kakefuda, Reina; Shiomi, Tetsuo; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi

2003-07-01

52

People with a form of muscular dystrophy may have elevated cancer risk  

Cancer.gov

Adults with a form of muscular dystrophy called myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) may be at increased risk of developing cancer, according to a study by investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health. The scientists suggest that some of the genetic changes that lead to MMD may also be responsible for the observed increase in cancer risk, but more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. The study appeared Dec.

53

Diagnostic clues and manifesting carriers in fukutin-related protein (FKRP) limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Mutations in the fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene are a known cause of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Clinically, patients resemble Becker's muscular dystrophy and generally present in the first two decades of life with a mild, progressive phenotype. Cardiac involvement is variable. Heterozygous carriers are usually clinically unaffected. We report a patient presenting later in life with life-threatening cardiac failure and we describe for the first time clinically manifesting carriers in the family. PMID:25560911

Schottlaender, Lucia V; Petzold, Axel; Wood, Nicholas; Houlden, Henry

2015-01-15

54

X-linked Duchenne muscular dystrophy in an unusual family with manifesting carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a unique case of a 46-year-old female who had signs of Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy on clinical, electromyographic, and laboratory investigation. A brother, sister, maternal uncle, and her own son also had Duchenne type muscular dystrophy. Karyotype analysis in the proband showed both the X chromosomes to be morphologically normal. We discuss different hypothetical mechanisms to account for the

B. Kaladhar Reddy; T. E. Anandavalli; O. S. Reddi

1984-01-01

55

Proteomics profiling of urine reveals specific titin fragments as biomarkers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of muscular dystrophies is currently based on invasive methods requiring muscle biopsies or blood tests. The aim of the present study was to identify urinary biomarkers as a diagnostic tool for muscular dystrophies. Here, the urinary proteomes of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and healthy donors were compared with a bottom-up proteomic approach. Label-free analysis of more than 1100 identified proteins revealed that 32 of them were differentially expressed between healthy controls and DMD patients. Among these 32 proteins, titin showed the highest fold change between healthy subjects and DMD patients. Interestingly, most of the sequenced peptides belong to the N-terminal and C-terminal parts of titin, and the presence of the corresponding fragments in the urine of DMD patients was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Analysis of a large cohort of DMD patients and age-matched controls (a total of 104 individuals aged from 3 to 20 years) confirmed presence of the N-ter fragment in all but two patients. In two DMD patients aged 16 and 20 years this fragment was undetectable and two healthy controls of 16 and 19 years with serum CK >800 IU/L demonstrated a low level of the fragment. N- and C-terminal titin fragments were also detected in urine from patients with other muscular dystrophies such as Becker muscular dystrophy and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (type 1D, 2D and 2J) but not in neurogenic spinal muscular atrophy. They were also present in urine of dystrophin-deficient animal models (GRMD dogs and mdx mice). Titin is the first urinary biomarker that offers the possibility to develop a simple, non-invasive and easy-to-use test for pre-screening of muscular dystrophies, and may also prove to be useful for the non-invasive follow up of DMD patients under treatment. PMID:24813925

Rouillon, Jeremy; Zocevic, Aleksandar; Leger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Udd, Bjarne; Wong, Brenda; Servais, Laurent; Voit, Thomas; Svinartchouk, Fedor

2014-07-01

56

Dysferlin protein analysis in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies.  

PubMed

Dysferlin is the protein product of the DYSF gene mapped at 2p31, which mutations cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) and Miyoshi myopathy. To date, nine autosomal recessive forms (AR-LGMD) have been identified: four genes, which code for the sarcoglycan glycoproteins, are associated with both mild and severe forms, the sarcoglycanopathies (LGMD2C, 2D, 2E and 2F). The other five forms, usually causing a milder phenotype are LGMD2A (calpain 3), LGMD2B (dysferlin), LGMD2G (telethonin), LGMD2H (9q31-11), and LGMD21 (19q13.3). We studied dysferlin expression in a total of 176 patients, from 166 LGMD families: 12 LGMD2B patients, 70 with other known forms of muscular dystrophies (LGMD2A, sarcoglycanopathies, LGMD2G), in an attempt to assess the effect of the primary gene-product deficiency on dysferlin. In addition, 94 still unclassified LGMD families were screened for dysferlin deficiency. In eight LGMD2B patients from five families, no dysferlin was observed in muscle biopsies, both through immunofluorescence (IF) and Western blot methodologies, while in two families, a very faint band was detected. Both patterns, negative or very faint bands, were concordant in patients belonging to the same families, suggesting that dysferlin deficiency is specific to LGMD2B. Myoferlin, the newly identified homologue of dysferlin was studied for the first time in LGMD2B patients. Since no difference was observed between patients mildly and severely affected, this protein do not seem to modify the phenotype in the present dysferlin-deficient patients. Dystrophin, sarcoglycans, and telethonin were normal in all LGMD2B patients, while patients with sarcoglycanopathies (2C, 2D, and 2E), LGMD2A, LGMD2G, and DMD showed the presence of a normal dysferlin band by Western blot and a positive pattern on IF. These data suggest that there is no interaction between dysferlin and these proteins. However, calpain analysis showed a weaker band in four patients from two families with intra-familial concordance. Therefore, this secondary deficiency of calpain in LGMD2B families, may indicate an interaction between dysferlin and calpain in muscle. Dysferlin was also present in cultured myotubes, in chorionic villus, and in the skin. Dysferlin deficiency was found in 24 out of a total of 166 Brazilian AR-LGMD families screened for muscle proteins (approximately 14%), thus representing the second most frequent known LGMD form, after calpainopathy, in our population. PMID:11665864

Vainzof, M; Anderson, L V; McNally, E M; Davis, D B; Faulkner, G; Valle, G; Moreira, E S; Pavanello, R C; Passos-Bueno, M R; Zatz, M

2001-08-01

57

Investigation of Poor Academic Achievement in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a neurogenetic developmental disorder that presents with progressive muscular weakness. It is caused by a mutation in a gene that results in the absence of specific products that normally localize to muscle cells and the central nervous system (CNS). The majority of affected individuals have IQs within the…

Hinton, V. J.; De Vivo, D. C.; Fee, R.; Goldstein, E.; Stern, Y.

2004-01-01

58

Spectrum of muscular dystrophies associated with sarcolemmal-protein genetic defects.  

PubMed

Muscular dystrophies are heterogeneous genetic disorders that share progressive muscle wasting. This may generate partial impairment of motility as well as a dramatic and fatal course. Less than 30years ago, the identification of the genetic basis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy opened a new era. An explosion of new information on the mechanisms of disease was witnessed, with many thousands of publications and the characterization of dozens of other genetic forms. Genes mutated in muscular dystrophies encode proteins of the plasma membrane and extracellular matrix, several of which are part of the dystrophin-associated complex. Other gene products localize at the sarcomere and Z band, or are nuclear membrane components. In the present review, we focus on muscular dystrophies caused by defects that affect the sarcolemmal and sub-sarcolemmal proteins. We summarize the nature of each disease, the genetic cause, and the pathogenic pathways that may suggest future treatment options. We examine X-linked Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies and the autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcolemmal proteins. The mechanism of muscle damage is reviewed starting from disarray of the shock-absorbing dystrophin-associated complex at the sarcolemma and activation of inflammatory response up to the final stages of fibrosis. We trace only a part of the biochemical, physiopathological and clinical aspects of muscular dystrophy to avoid a lengthy list of different and conflicting observations. We attempt to provide a critical synthesis of what we consider important aspects to better understand the disease. In our opinion, it is becoming ever more important to go back to the bedside to validate and then translate each proposed mechanism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. PMID:25086336

Nigro, Vincenzo; Piluso, Giulio

2015-04-01

59

Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy assessed objectively by surface electromyography.  

PubMed

Objective swallowing assessment is indicated in the management of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Surface electromyography (sEMG) provides a non-invasive, objective method of quantifying muscle activity. It was hypothesised that the measurement of sEMG activity during swallowing would distinguish between preserved and disordered swallow function in DMD. This comparative study investigated the peak, duration, and relative timing of muscle activity during swallowing of four muscle groups: orbicularis oris, masseter, submental, and infrahyoid. The study included three groups of participants: Nine DMD patients with dysphagia (mean age = 21.7 ± 4.2 years), six DMD patients with preserved swallow function (21.0 ± 3.0 years), and 12 healthy controls (24.8 ± 3.1 years). Dysphagic DMD participants produced significantly higher normalised peak amplitude measurements than the healthy control group for masseter (61.77 vs. 5.07; p ? 0.01) and orbicularis oris muscles (71.87 vs. 26.22; p ? 0.05). Intrasubject variability for masseter peak amplitude was significantly greater for dysphagic DMD participants than the other groups (16.01 vs. 5.86 vs. 2.18; p ? 0.05). There were no differences in timing measurements between groups. Different characteristic sEMG waveforms were observed for the three groups. sEMG provides useful physiological information for the evaluation of swallowing in DMD patients, justifying further study. PMID:23179024

Archer, Sally K; Garrod, Rachel; Hart, Nicholas; Miller, Simon

2013-06-01

60

Muscle phenotypic variability in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2 G.  

PubMed

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 G (LGMD2G) is caused by mutations in the telethonin gene. Only few families were described presenting this disease, and they are mainly Brazilians. Here, we identified one additional case carrying the same common c.157C > T mutation in the telethonin gene but with an atypical histopathological muscle pattern. In a female patient with a long duration of symptoms (46 years), muscle biopsy showed, in addition to telethonin deficiency, the presence of nemaline rods, type 1 fiber predominance, nuclear internalization, lobulated fibers, and mitochondrial paracrystalline inclusions. Her first clinical signs were identified at 8 years old, which include tiptoe walking, left lower limb deformity, and frequent falls. Ambulation loss occurred at 41 years old, and now, at 54 years old, she presented pelvic girdle atrophy, winging scapula, foot deformity with incapacity to perform ankle dorsiflexion, and absent tendon reflexes. The presence of nemaline bodies could be a secondary phenomenon, possibly associated with focal Z-line abnormalities of a long-standing disease. However, these new histopathological findings, characteristic of congenital myopathies, expand muscle phenotypic variability of telethoninopathy. PMID:23479141

Paim, Julia F; Cotta, Ana; Vargas, Antonio P; Navarro, Monica M; Valicek, Jaquelin; Carvalho, Elmano; da-Cunha, Antonio L; Plentz, Estevão; Braz, Shelida V; Takata, Reinaldo I; Almeida, Camila F; Vainzof, Mariz

2013-06-01

61

Therapeutic potential of matrix metalloproteinases in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are secreted proteinases that have physiologic roles in degradation and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in almost all tissues. However, their excessive production in disease conditions leads to many pathological features including tissue breakdown, inflammation, cell death, and fibrosis. Duchenne Muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating genetic muscle disorder caused by partial or complete loss of cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Progressive muscle wasting in DMD is accompanied by myofiber necrosis followed by cycles of regeneration and degeneration and inflammation that eventually result in replacement of myofiber by connective and adipose tissues. Emerging evidence suggests that gene expression and the activity of various MMPs are aberrantly regulated in muscle biopsies from DMD patients and in skeletal muscle of animal models of DMD. Moreover, a few studies employing genetic mouse models have revealed that different MMPs play distinct roles in disease progression in DMD. Modulation of the activity of MMPs improves myofiber regeneration and enhances the efficacy of transplantation and engraftment of muscle progenitor cells in dystrophic muscle in mouse models of DMD. Furthermore, recent reports also suggest that some MMPs especially MMP-9 can serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of DMD. In this article, we provide a succinct overview of the regulation of various MMPs and their therapeutic importance in DMD. PMID:25364719

Ogura, Yuji; Tajrishi, Marjan M; Sato, Shuichi; Hindi, Sajedah M; Kumar, Ashok

2014-01-01

62

Functional muscle ischemia in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) comprise a spectrum of devastating X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. DMD/BMD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein that stabilizes the muscle membrane and also targets other proteins to the sarcolemma. Among these is the muscle-specific isoform of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS?) which binds spectrin-like repeats within dystrophin's rod domain and the adaptor protein ?-syntrophin. Dystrophin deficiency causes loss of sarcolemmal nNOS? and reduces paracrine signaling of muscle-derived nitric oxide (NO) to the microvasculature, which renders the diseased muscle fibers susceptible to functional muscle ischemia during exercise. Repeated bouts of functional ischemia superimposed on muscle fibers already weakened by dystrophin deficiency result in use-dependent focal muscle injury. Genetic and pharmacologic strategies to boost nNOS?-NO signaling in dystrophic muscle alleviate functional muscle ischemia and show promise as novel therapeutic interventions for the treatment of DMD/BMD. PMID:24391598

Thomas, Gail D.

2013-01-01

63

Trends with corticosteroid use in males with duchenne muscular dystrophy born 1982-2001.  

PubMed

This study examines trends in corticosteroid use for males with Duchenne muscular dystrophy by birth year, race/ethnicity, and knowledge of Duchenne muscular dystrophy family history. Firstborn males (n = 521) selected from a population-based surveillance system of Duchenne muscular dystrophy were analyzed using Kaplan Meier and regression methods. Comparing males born 1982 to 1986 with males born 1997 to 2001, steroid use increased from 54% to 72% and mean age at steroid initiation decreased from 8.2 to 7.1 years. Hispanics and non-Hispanic Black males used steroids less frequently and delayed initiation compared to white males. Compared to males without a Duchenne muscular dystrophy family history, males with known family history were half as likely to use steroids. Duration of steroid use increased over time and age at initiation decreased. Racial/ethnic disparities exist for steroid use and should be addressed to improve outcome and quality of life for boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:24682290

Fox, Deborah J; Kumar, Anil; West, Nancy A; DiRienzo, A Gregory; James, Katherine A; Oleszek, Joyce

2015-01-01

64

Trends in survival from muscular dystrophy in England and Wales and impact on respiratory services.  

PubMed

Respiratory failure is an important terminal event in muscular dystrophy, but increasingly is effectively treated by non-invasive ventilation. This study was designed to assess mortality statistics in this patient group in order to get an indication of future demand. Mortality data for all deaths from muscular dystrophy registered by death certification in England and Wales between 1993 and 1999 were analysed. In total, 817 deaths from muscular dystrophy were registered between 1993 and 1999. Annual number of deaths was unchanged over this period. Median age at death (interquartile range) for all cause muscular dystrophy increased from 20 (17-42.5) years in 1993, to 26 (17.5-63) years in 1999. Respiratory failure was the primary or contributory cause of death in 82% of cases. Two thirds of these deaths were during acute infection. We can expect 100 patients with muscular dystrophy to develop respiratory failure in England and Wales each year, so non-invasive ventilation services probably need to be able to provide for 0.2 new patients per 100,000 population annually. Respiratory services also need to provide adequate monitoring and early treatment of infection in these patients. PMID:16257521

Calvert, L D; McKeever, T M; Kinnear, W J M; Britton, J R

2006-06-01

65

Muscle MRI findings in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy with calpain 3 deficiency (LGMD2A) and early contractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is a common variant secondary to mutations in the calpain 3 gene. A proportion of patients has early and severe contractures, which can cause diagnostic difficulties with other conditions. We report clinical and muscle magnetic resonance imaging findings in seven limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A patients (four sporadic and three familial) who had prominent and

Eugenio Mercuri; Kate Bushby; Enzo Ricci; Daniel Birchall; Marika Pane; Maria Kinali; Joanna Allsop; Vincenzo Nigro; Amets Sáenz; Annachiara Nascimbeni; Luigi Fulizio; Corrado Angelini; Francesco Muntoni

2005-01-01

66

First use of an intra-pericardial continuous flow ventricular assist device in a child with muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Heart failure is a common cause of death in patients with muscular dystrophy. Mechanical support may be an important component of long-term heart failure therapy in these patients. We present a report of a child with muscular dystrophy successfully implanted with a Heartware HVAD. PMID:24512941

Davies, Ryan R; Priest, Marc; Pizarro, Christian

2015-01-01

67

Becker muscular dystrophy-like myopathy regarded as so-called "fatty muscular dystrophy" in a pig: a case report and its diagnostic method.  

PubMed

We describe a case of human Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD)-like myopathy that was characterized by the declined stainability of dystrophin at sarcolemma in a pig and the immunostaining for dystrophin on the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. The present case was found in a meat inspection center. The pig looked appeared healthy at the ante-mortem inspection. Muscular abnormalities were detected after carcass dressing as pale, discolored skeletal muscles with prominent fat infiltrations and considered so-called "fatty muscular dystrophy". Microscopic examination revealed following characteristics: diffused fat infiltration into the skeletal muscle and degeneration and regeneration of the remaining skeletal muscle fibers. Any lesions that were suspected of neurogenic atrophy, traumatic muscular degeneration, glycogen storage disease or other porcine muscular disorders were not observed. The immunostaining for dystrophin was conducted and confirmed to be applicable on FFPE porcine muscular tissues and revealed diminished stainability of dystrophin at the sarcolemma in the present case. Based on the histological observations and immunostaining results, the present case was diagnosed with BMD-like myopathy associated with dystrophin abnormality in a pig. Although the genetic properties were not clear, the present BMD-like myopathy implied the occurrence of dystrophinopathy in pigs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a natural case of myopathy associated with dystrophin abnormalities in a pig. PMID:24162004

Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Aihara, Naoyuki; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Kousaka, Shinichi; Nagafuchi, Tsuneyuki; Ochiai, Mariko; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Asai, Tetsuo; Oishi, Koji

2014-03-01

68

Becker Muscular Dystrophy-Like Myopathy Regarded as So-Called “Fatty Muscular Dystrophy” in a Pig: A Case Report and Its Diagnostic Method  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We describe a case of human Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD)-like myopathy that was characterized by the declined stainability of dystrophin at sarcolemma in a pig and the immunostaining for dystrophin on the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. The present case was found in a meat inspection center. The pig looked appeared healthy at the ante-mortem inspection. Muscular abnormalities were detected after carcass dressing as pale, discolored skeletal muscles with prominent fat infiltrations and considered so-called “fatty muscular dystrophy”. Microscopic examination revealed following characteristics: diffused fat infiltration into the skeletal muscle and degeneration and regeneration of the remaining skeletal muscle fibers. Any lesions that were suspected of neurogenic atrophy, traumatic muscular degeneration, glycogen storage disease or other porcine muscular disorders were not observed. The immunostaining for dystrophin was conducted and confirmed to be applicable on FFPE porcine muscular tissues and revealed diminished stainability of dystrophin at the sarcolemma in the present case. Based on the histological observations and immunostaining results, the present case was diagnosed with BMD-like myopathy associated with dystrophin abnormality in a pig. Although the genetic properties were not clear, the present BMD-like myopathy implied the occurrence of dystrophinopathy in pigs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a natural case of myopathy associated with dystrophin abnormalities in a pig. PMID:24162004

HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; AIHARA, Naoyuki; MIZUTANI, Hiroshi; KOUSAKA, Shinichi; NAGAFUCHI, Tsuneyuki; OCHIAI, Mariko; OCHIAI, Kazuhiko; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; ASAI, Tetsuo; OISHI, Koji

2013-01-01

69

Multiplex Screen of Serum Biomarkers in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have proposed a unified genetic model for Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), identifying potential therapeutic targets for future clinical trials. Serum biomarkers related to disease activity will be important for proof of concept or early phase clinical studies. Objective To identify potential serum biomarkers in FSHD for possible use in future clinical trials. Methods We performed a prospective cross-sectional study of serum biomarkers in 22 FSHD patients (19 FSHD1, 3 FSHD2) compared to 23 age and gender-matched healthy controls using a commercial multiplex, microsphere-based immune-fluorescent assay of 243 markers (Myriad, Human Discovery MAP 250, v2.0). Results 169 markers had values sufficient for analysis. Correction for multiple testing identified 7 biomarkers below a 5% false discovery rate: creatine kinase MB fraction (CKMB, 6.52 fold change, P<0.0001), tissue-type plasminogen activator (PLAT, 1.64 fold change, P<0.0001), myoglobin (2.23 fold change, P=0.0001), epidermal growth factor (EGF, 2.33 fold change, P=0.0004), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (1.48 fold change, P=0.0004), CD 40 ligand (1.89 fold change, P=0.001), and vitronectin (VTN, 1.28 fold change, P=0.001). Moderate correlations to measures of FSHD disease were seen for CKMB, PLAT, and EGF. Markers in the plasminogen pathway (PLAT, serpin peptidase inhibitor, and VTN) were correlated with each other in FSHD but not healthy controls. Conclusions Commercial multiplex immune-fluorescent screening is a potentially powerful tool for identifying biomarkers for future FSHD therapeutic trials. Biomarkers identified in this study warrant further study in a larger prospective validation study.

Statland, Jeffrey; Donlin-Smith, Colleen M; Tapscott, Stephen J; van der Maarel, Silvere; Tawil, Rabi

2015-01-01

70

Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy: More Complex than it Appears  

PubMed Central

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) has been classified as an autosomal dominant myopathy, linked to rearrangements in an array of 3.3 kb tandemly repeated DNA elements (D4Z4) located at the 4q subtelomere (4q35). For the last 20 years, the diagnosis of FSHD has been confirmed in clinical practice by the detection of one D4Z4 allele with a reduced number (?8) of repeats at 4q35. Although wide inter- and intra-familial clinical variability was found in subjects carrying D4Z4 alleles of reduced size, this DNA testing has been considered highly sensitive and specific. However, several exceptions to this general rule have been reported. Specifically, FSHD families with asymptomatic relatives carrying D4Z4 reduced alleles, FSHD genealogies with subjects affected with other neuromuscular disorders and FSHD affected patients carrying D4Z4 alleles of normal size have been described. In order to explain these findings, it has been proposed that the reduction of D4Z4 repeats at 4q35 could be pathogenic only in certain chromosomal backgrounds, defined as “permissive” specific haplotypes. However, our most recent studies show that the current DNA signature of FSHD is a common polymorphism and that in FSHD families the risk of developing FSHD for carriers of D4Z4 reduced alleles (DRA) depends on additional factors besides the 4q35 locus. These findings highlight the necessity to re-evaluate the significance and the predictive value of DRA, not only for research but also in clinical practice. Further clinical and genetic analysis of FSHD families will be extremely important for studies aiming at dissecting the complexity of FSHD.

G, Ricci; M, Zatz; R, Tupler

2014-01-01

71

Evaluation of neural damage in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.  

PubMed

The presence of non-progressive cognitive impairment is recognized as a common feature in a substantial proportion of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Concurrently, the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta42) protein has been associated with changes in memory and cognitive functions. Also, it has been shown that different subtypes of neural stem/progenitor cells (CD 34, CD 45, nestin) are involved in the innate repair of plasticity mechanisms by the injured brain, in which Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) acts as chemotactic agents to recruit such cells. Accordingly, the present study investigated levels of CD 34, CD 45, nestin and NGF in an attempt to investigate makers of neural regeneration in DMD. Neural damage was assayed in terms of Abeta42. Results showed that Abeta42 (21.9 +/- 6.7 vs. 12.13 +/- 4.5) was significantly increased among DMD patients compared to controls. NGF (165.8 +/- 72 vs. 89.8 +/- 35.9) and mononuclear cells expressing nestin (18.9 +/- 6 vs. 9 +/- 4), CD 45 (64 +/- 5.4 vs. 53.3 +/- 5.2) and CD34 (75 +/- 6.2 vs. 60 +/- 4.8) were significantly increased among DMD patients compared to controls. In conclusion cognitive function decline in DMD patients is associated with increased levels of Abeta42, which is suggested to be the cause of brain damage in such patients. The significant increase plasma NFG and in the number of mononuclear cells bearing CD34, CD45 and nestin indicates that regeneration is an ongoing process in these patients. However, this regeneration cannot counterbalance the damage induced by dystrophine mutation and increased Abeta42. PMID:25291916

Abdel Salam, Ekram; Abdel-Meguid, Iman Ehsan; Shatla, Rania; Korraa, Soheir

2014-05-01

72

Direct interplay between two candidate genes in FSHD muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common neuromuscular disorders. The major form of the disease (FSHD1) is linked to decrease in copy number of a 3.3-kb tandem repeated macrosatellite (D4Z4), located on chromosome 4q35. D4Z4 deletion alters chromatin structure of the locus leading to aberrant expression of nearby 4q35 genes. Given the high variability in disease onset and progression, multiple factors could contribute to the pathogenesis of FSHD. Among the FSHD candidate genes are double homeobox 4 (DUX4), encoded by the most telomeric D4Z4 unit, and FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1). DUX4 is a sequence-specific transcription factor. Here, we located putative DUX4 binding sites in the human FRG1 genomic area and we show specific DUX4 association to these regions. We found also that ectopically expressed DUX4 up-regulates the endogenous human FRG1 gene in healthy muscle cells, while DUX4 knockdown leads to a decrease in FRG1 expression in FSHD muscle cells. Moreover, DUX4 binds directly and specifically to its binding site located in the human FRG1 gene and transactivates constructs containing FRG1 genomic regions. Intriguingly, the mouse Frg1 genomic area lacks DUX4 binding sites and DUX4 is unable to activate the endogenous mouse Frg1 gene providing a possible explanation for the lack of muscle phenotype in DUX4 transgenic mice. Altogether, our results demonstrate that FRG1 is a direct DUX4 transcriptional target uncovering a novel regulatory circuit contributing to FSHD. PMID:25326393

Ferri, Giulia; Huichalaf, Claudia H; Caccia, Roberta; Gabellini, Davide

2015-03-01

73

A Congenital Muscular Dystrophy with Mitochondrial Structural Abnormalities Caused by Defective De Novo Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Congenital muscular dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of inherited muscle diseases characterized clinically by muscle weakness and hypotonia in early infancy. A number of genes harboring causative mutations have been identified, but several cases of congenital muscular dystrophy remain molecularly unresolved. We examined 15 individuals with a congenital muscular dystrophy characterized by early-onset muscle wasting, mental retardation, and peculiar enlarged mitochondria that are prevalent toward the periphery of the fibers but are sparse in the center on muscle biopsy, and we have identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding choline kinase beta (CHKB). This is the first enzymatic step in a biosynthetic pathway for phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant phospholipid in eukaryotes. In muscle of three affected individuals with nonsense mutations, choline kinase activities were undetectable, and phosphatidylcholine levels were decreased. We identified the human disease caused by disruption of a phospholipid de novo biosynthetic pathway, demonstrating the pivotal role of phosphatidylcholine in muscle and brain. PMID:21665002

Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Ohkuma, Aya; Talim, Beril; Karahashi, Minako; Koumura, Tomoko; Aoyama, Chieko; Kurihara, Mana; Quinlivan, Ros; Sewry, Caroline; Mitsuhashi, Hiroaki; Goto, Kanako; Koksal, Burcu; Kale, Gulsev; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Noguchi, Satoru; Hayashi, Yukiko K.; Nonaka, Ikuya; Sher, Roger B.; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasuhito; Cox, Gregory A.; Topaloglu, Haluk; Nishino, Ichizo

2011-01-01

74

Cytokines and Chemokines as Regulators of Skeletal Muscle Inflammation: Presenting the Case of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe inherited muscle disease that affects 1 in 3500 boys worldwide. Infiltration of skeletal muscle by inflammatory cells is an important facet of disease pathophysiology and is strongly associated with disease severity in the individual patient. In the chronic inflammation that characterizes Duchenne muscle, cytokines and chemokines are considered essential activators and recruiters of inflammatory cells. In addition, they provide potential beneficiary effects on muscle fiber damage control and tissue regeneration. In this review, current knowledge of cytokine and chemokine expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its relevant animal disease models is listed, and implications for future therapeutic avenues are discussed. PMID:24302815

De Bleecker, Jan L.

2013-01-01

75

Effects of therapeutic exercise on masticatory function in patients with progressive muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed Central

The slope of the curve relating integrated electromyographic activity of masseter muscle to biting force, the latency of the jaw-jerk reflex, and masticatory performance wee estimated in patients with Duchenne type of progressive muscular dystrophy before and during therapeutic exercise of the somatogenc system. The slope and latency were slightly decreased, and masticatory performance was increased during exercise. These results suggest that therapeutic exercise of the stomatognathic system is effective in improving masticatory function in patients with progressive muscular dystrophy. Images PMID:7077343

Kawazoe, Y; Kobayashi, M; Tasaka, T; Tamamoto, M

1982-01-01

76

Dystropathology increases energy expenditure and protein turnover in the Mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the mdx mouse model lack functional dystrophin and undergo repeated bouts of necrosis, regeneration, and growth. These processes have a high metabolic cost. However, the consequences for whole body energy and protein metabolism, and on the diet...

77

Plectin Deficiency Leads to Both Muscular Dystrophy and Pyloric Atresia in Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex  

PubMed Central

Plectin is a cytoskeletal linker protein which has a long central rod and N- and C-terminal globular domains. Mutations in the gene encoding plectin (PLEC) cause two distinct autosomal recessive subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa: EB simplex (EBS) with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD), and EBS with pyloric atresia (EBS-PA). Previous studies have demonstrated that loss of full-length plectin with residual expression of the rodless isoform leads to EBS-MD, whereas complete loss or marked attenuation of expression of full-length and rodless plectin underlies the more severe EBS-PA phenotype. However, muscular dystrophy has never been identified in EBS-PA, not even in the severe form of the disease. Here, we report the first case of EBS associated with both pyloric atresia and muscular dystrophy. Both of the premature termination codon-causing mutations of the proband are located within exon 32, the last exon of PLEC. Immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis of skin samples and cultured fibroblasts from the proband revealed truncated plectin protein expression in low amounts. This study demonstrates that plectin deficiency can indeed lead to both muscular dystrophy and pyloric atresia in an individual EBS patient. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20665883

Natsuga, Ken; Nishie, Wataru; Shinkuma, Satoru; Arita, Ken; Nakamura, Hideki; Ohyama, Makiko; Osaka, Hitoshi; Kambara, Takeshi; Hirako, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

78

Excess SMAD signaling contributes to heart and muscle dysfunction in muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Disruption of the dystrophin complex causes muscle injury, dysfunction, cell death and fibrosis. Excess transforming growth factor (TGF) ? signaling has been described in human muscular dystrophy and animal models, where it is thought to relate to the progressive fibrosis that characterizes dystrophic muscle. We now found that canonical TGF? signaling acutely increases when dystrophic muscle is stimulated to contract. Muscle lacking the dystrophin-associated protein ?-sarcoglycan (Sgcg null) was subjected to a lengthening protocol to produce maximal muscle injury, which produced rapid accumulation of nuclear phosphorylated SMAD2/3. To test whether reducing SMAD signaling improves muscular dystrophy in mice, we introduced a heterozygous mutation of SMAD4 (S4) into Sgcg mice to reduce but not ablate SMAD4. Sgcg/S4 mice had improved body mass compared with Sgcg mice, which normally show a wasting phenotype similar to human muscular dystrophy patients. Sgcg/S4 mice had improved cardiac function as well as improved twitch and tetanic force in skeletal muscle. Functional enhancement in Sgcg/S4 muscle occurred without a reduction in fibrosis, suggesting that intracellular SMAD4 targets may be important. An assessment of genes differentially expressed in Sgcg muscle focused on those encoding calcium-handling proteins and responsive to TGF? since this pathway is a target for mediating improvement in muscular dystrophy. These data demonstrate that excessive TGF? signaling alters cardiac and muscle performance through the intracellular SMAD pathway. PMID:25070948

Goldstein, Jeffery A; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Beiriger, Anastasia; Wren, Lisa M; Rossi, Ann E; Gao, Quan Q; Gardner, Brandon B; Earley, Judy U; Molkentin, Jeffery D; McNally, Elizabeth M

2014-12-20

79

Expression of Dystrophin in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients after Myoblast Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on originally designed technique of myoblast cultivation and in accordance with the approved by the Russian Ministry of Health “one muscle treatment” protocol of myoblast transplantation to the Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients, the first in Russia clinical trial of this gene correction method was carried out. Immunologically related myoblast cultures (30 to 90 million cells per patient) were injected

S. S. Shishkin; S. M. Terekhov; T. B. Krokhina; N. I. Shakhovskaya; A. N. Podobedova; G. F. Lyannaya; V. I. Tarasov; V. I. Ovchinnikov; I. N. Krakhmaleva; S. F. Zakharov; E. S. Ershova; S. A. Limborska; T. V. Pogoda; E. A. Zotikov; P. M. Kut'ina; M. A. Tarksh; V. S. Sukhorukov; N. L. Gerasimova

2001-01-01

80

Na+ Dysregulation Coupled with Ca2+ Entry through NCX1 Promotes Muscular Dystrophy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Unregulated Ca2+ entry is thought to underlie muscular dystrophy. Here, we generated skeletal-muscle-specific transgenic (TG) mice expressing the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) to model its identified augmentation during muscular dystrophy. The NCX1 transgene induced dystrophy-like disease in all hind-limb musculature, as well as exacerbated the muscle disease phenotypes in ?-sarcoglycan (Sgcd?/?), Dysf?/?, and mdx mouse models of muscular dystrophy. Antithetically, muscle-specific deletion of the Slc8a1 (NCX1) gene diminished hind-limb pathology in Sgcd?/? mice. Measured increases in baseline Na+ and Ca2+ in dystrophic muscle fibers of the hind-limb musculature predicts a net Ca2+ influx state due to reverse-mode operation of NCX1, which mediates disease. However, the opposite effect is observed in the diaphragm, where NCX1 overexpression mildly protects from dystrophic disease through a predicted enhancement in forward-mode NCX1 operation that reduces Ca2+ levels. Indeed, Atp1a2+/? (encoding Na+-K+ ATPase ?2) mice, which have reduced Na+ clearance rates that would favor NCX1 reverse-mode operation, showed exacerbated disease in the hind limbs of NCX1 TG mice, similar to treatment with the Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor digoxin. Treatment of Sgcd?/? mice with ranolazine, a broadly acting Na+ channel inhibitor that should increase NCX1 forward-mode operation, reduced muscular pathology. PMID:24662047

Burr, Adam R.; Millay, Douglas P.; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A.; Park, Ki Ho; Sargent, Michelle A.; Collins, James; Altamirano, Francisco; Philipson, Kenneth D.; Allen, Paul D.; Ma, Jianjie; López, José Rafael

2014-01-01

81

696 VOLUME 10 | NUMBER 7 | JULY 2004 NATURE MEDICINE Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), muscle-eye-brain  

E-print Network

dystrophy (FCMD), muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), and Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) are congenital muscular the glycosylation pathway of -DG by modulating the activity of other enzymes. Here we have evaluated the effect

Campbell, Kevin P.

82

Severe limb girdle muscular dystrophy in Spanish gypsies: further evidence for a founder mutation in the ?-sarcoglycan gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C) is an autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy with primary ?-sarcoglycan deficiency, generally associated with a severe clinical course. ?-sarcoglycan, a 35 kDa dystrophin-associated protein, is encoded by a single gene on chromosome 13q12. Six different mutations have been described in that gene, and it has been proved they are the origin of the disease. One

Adriana Lasa; Federica Piccolo; Carles de Diego; Marc Jeanpierre; Jaume Colomer; Maria José Rodríguez; Jon Andoni Urtizberea; Montserrat Baiget; Jean Claude Kaplan; Pia Gallano

1998-01-01

83

NUTRITIONAL MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY IN THE GUINEA PIG AND RABBIT  

PubMed Central

A diet is described, which leads to a progressive, highly selective, and ultimately fatal dystrophy of the voluntary muscles. Guinea pigs and rabbits are susceptible, rats resistant. The diet used is complete in known requirements, except for vitamin E; the addition of this factor, however, does not prevent the development of the disease. The lesions are not due to inanition, infection, or scurvy, and must be referred to some still unknown factor. PMID:19869905

Goettsch, Marianne; Pappenheimer, Alwin M.

1931-01-01

84

Genotype/phenotype analysis in Chinese laminin-?2 deficient congenital muscular dystrophy patients.  

PubMed

Laminin-?2 deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe muscular dystrophy, which is typically associated with abnormal white matter. In this study, we assessed 43 CMD patients with typical white matter abnormality and laminin-?2 deficiency (complete or partial) diagnosed by immunohistochemistry to determine the clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of laminin-?2 deficient CMD. LAMA2 gene mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNAs. Exonic deletion or duplication was identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and verified by high-density oligonucleotide-based CGH microarrays. Gene mutation analysis revealed 86 LAMA2 mutations (100%); 15 known and 37 novel. Among these mutations, 73.9% were nonsense, splice-site or frameshift and 18.8% were deletions of one or more exons. Genetic characterization of affected families will be valuable in prenatal diagnosis of CMD in the Chinese population. PMID:24611677

Xiong, H; Tan, D; Wang, S; Song, S; Yang, H; Gao, K; Liu, A; Jiao, H; Mao, B; Ding, J; Chang, X; Wang, J; Wu, Y; Yuan, Y; Jiang, Y; Zhang, F; Wu, H; Wu, X

2015-03-01

85

Childhood onset of left ventricular dysfunction in a female manifesting carrier of muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker muscular dystrophy are X-linked disorders that result from a mutation in the dystrophin gene that reduces the production or effectiveness of the protein dystrophin. These disorders are clinically characterized by progressive muscle degeneration. Manifesting female carriers are generally not identified as such until after puberty, when symptoms such as muscle weakness may arise. This clinical report describes a female manifesting carrier who started to show deterioration of left ventricular systolic function, but no marked skeletal muscle weakness, at the age of 10 years. The patient's cardiac function improved significantly after dual drug therapy with an ACE inhibitor (enalapril) and a beta-blocker (carvedilol). Our case adds to the existing evidence that left ventricular myocardial dysfunction may occur during childhood in female carriers of dystrophinopathies. PMID:22052614

Martinez, Hugo R; Pignatelli, Ricardo; Belmont, John W; Craigen, William J; Jefferies, John L

2011-12-01

86

Rapamycin nanoparticles target defective autophagy in muscular dystrophy to enhance both strength and cardiac function.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy in boys progresses rapidly to severe impairment of muscle function and death in the second or third decade of life. Current supportive therapy with corticosteroids results in a modest increase in strength as a consequence of a general reduction in inflammation, albeit with potential untoward long-term side effects and ultimate failure of the agent to maintain strength. Here, we demonstrate that alternative approaches that rescue defective autophagy in mdx mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, with the use of rapamycin-loaded nanoparticles induce a reproducible increase in both skeletal muscle strength and cardiac contractile performance that is not achievable with conventional oral rapamycin, even in pharmacological doses. This increase in physical performance occurs in both young and adult mice, and, surprisingly, even in aged wild-type mice, which sets the stage for consideration of systemic therapies to facilitate improved cell function by autophagic disposal of toxic byproducts of cell death and regeneration. PMID:24500923

Bibee, Kristin P; Cheng, Ya-Jian; Ching, James K; Marsh, Jon N; Li, Allison J; Keeling, Richard M; Connolly, Anne M; Golumbek, Paul T; Myerson, Jacob W; Hu, Grace; Chen, Junjie; Shannon, William D; Lanza, Gregory M; Weihl, Conrad C; Wickline, Samuel A

2014-05-01

87

Diffusion and ideal MRI techniques to characterize limb-girdle muscular dystrophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a group of autosomal dominantly or recessively inherited muscular dystrophies that also present with primary proximal (limb-girdle) muscle weakness. In the thigh, muscles at the back are affected, with a tendency to preserve the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius. The aim of this study was to compare quantitative MRI measurements from IDEAL-based imaging and DW imaging in the thigh muscles of adults with LGMDs and healthy volunteers(HC). Six women (three patients and three healthy volunteers) were examined. Imaging experiments were conducted on a 1.5T GE scanner (General Electric Medical Systems. Milwaukee). T1 IDEAL 2D images and diffusion images were acquired. Results demonstrated that the use of noninvasive MRI techniques may provide the means to characterize the muscle through quantitative methods to determine the percentage of fat and ADC values.

Hernández-Salazar, G.; Hidalgo-Tobon, S.; Vargas-Cañas, S.; Marrufo-Melendez, O.; Solis-Najera, S.; Taboada-Barajas, J.; Rodríguez, A. O.; Delgado-Hernández, R.

2012-10-01

88

DOK7 limb-girdle myasthenic syndrome mimicking congenital muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Congenital myasthenic syndrome shows a wide clinical heterogeneity. However, the unusual pattern of muscle weakness and the presence of variable degree of muscle pathology, subtle electrophysiological abnormalities and lack of circadian variability of symptoms may complicate its recognition. We have previously reported a Palestinian family with suspected congenital muscular dystrophy and linkage to chromosome 4p16.3. As the DOK7 gene is located in this genetic interval, we considered it a potential candidate for this condition. Patients showed a homozygous DOK7 pathogenic mutation (c.957delC). We have re-examined six patients and found permanent limb-girdle weakness, but also episodic crises without clear precipitating factors. Following the revised diagnosis, patients were treated with salbutamol for 8 months with significant improvement in their muscle strength and function. This family needs to be reclassified as congenital myasthenic syndrome rather than congenital muscular dystrophy. PMID:22884442

Mahjneh, Ibrahim; Lochmüller, Hanns; Muntoni, Francesco; Abicht, Angela

2013-01-01

89

Peter Becker and his Nazi past: the man behind Becker muscular dystrophy and Becker myotonia.  

PubMed

Peter Becker was a German neurologist who helped classify the muscular dystrophies, and described Becker muscular dystrophy and Becker myotonia. His involvement in National Socialism began in 1933, when he was compelled by his peers to join the SA (brown shirts). He later joined the Nazi party, the Nazi Doctors Association, and the Nazi Lecturers' Association. He renewed his SA membership to maintain his position at a genetics institute. Colleagues stated postwar that he was not an active Nazi, and he was de-Nazified in 1947, able to continue his career. Later, Becker admitted to most, but not all, of his Nazi memberships in his autobiography, and wrote 2 books exploring the origins of Nazism and racial hygiene. The "neurologic court of opinion" must weigh in on how we should best remember Becker, and at the very least, we as neurologists must learn the dangers of career opportunism at any cost. PMID:23576413

Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

2014-04-01

90

[Staircase phenomenon in children with progressive muscular dystrophy and dermatomyositis].  

PubMed

The electrical and mechanical activity of the isometric twitch of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle during two per second indirect supramaximal stimulation for 90 sec was examined in 14 children with muscular distrophy and 8 children with dermatomyositis. The muscle electrical responses show no significant changes in the amplitude of its first negative phase. The first derivative of the dinamogram shows some of the following abnormalities in 8 of the examined children with muscular distrophy and in 2 of these with dermatomyositis: 1. Prolonged and increased negative staircase; 2. Insufficient or absent positive staircase potentiation. These abnormalities of the staircase phenomenon disclose disorders of the contractile function of the examined muscle. PMID:213914

Uzunova, M; Gatev, V; Stomatova, L

1978-01-01

91

A founder mutation in Anoctamin 5 is a major cause of limb girdle muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

The limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a group of disorders with wide genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Recently, mutations in the ANO5 gene, which encodes a putative calcium-activated chloride channel belonging to the Anoctamin family of proteins, were identified in five families with one of two previously identified disorders, LGMD2L and non-dysferlin Miyoshi muscular dystrophy (MMD3). We screened a candidate group of 64 patients from 59 British and German kindreds and found the truncating mutation, c.191dupA in exon 5 of ANO5 in 20 patients, homozygously in 15 and in compound heterozygosity with other ANO5 variants in the rest. An intragenic SNP and an extragenic microsatellite marker are in linkage disequilibrium with the mutation, suggesting a founder effect in the Northern European population. We have further defined the clinical phenotype of ANO5-associated muscular dystrophy. Patients show adult onset proximal lower limb weakness with highly raised creatinine kinase (CK) values (average 4500 IU/l) and frequent muscle atrophy and asymmetry of muscle involvement. Onset varies from the early 20s to 50s and the weakness is generally slowly progressive, with most patients remaining ambulant for several decades. Distal presentation is much less common but a milder degree of distal lower limb weakness is often observed. Upper limb strength is only mildly affected and cardiac and respiratory function is normal. Females appear less frequently affected. In the North of England population we have identified eight patients with ANO5 mutations, suggesting a minimum prevalence of 0.27/100 000, twice as common as dysferlinopathy. We suggest that mutations in ANO5 represent a relatively common cause of adult onset muscular dystrophy with high CK and that mutation screening, particularly of the common mutation c.191dupA, should be an early step in the diagnostic algorithm of adult LGMD patients. PMID:21186264

Muelas, Nuria; Köehler, Katrin; Huebner, Angela; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Barresi, Rita; Eagle, Michelle; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Bailey, Geraldine; Miller, James; Radunovic, Aleksander; Hughes, Paul J.; Roberts, Richard; Krause, Sabine; Walter, Maggie C.; Laval, Steven H.; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns; Bushby, Kate

2014-01-01

92

Co-occurring Duchenne muscular dystrophy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an adult with atypical cardiac phenotype.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 29-year-old man with mutation-positive Duchenne muscular dystrophy and mutation-positive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. His cardiac phenotype has characteristics of both disorders; he manifests sub-epicardial left ventricular free wall late gadolinium enhancement that is consistent with Duchenne cardiomyopathy, as well as asymmetric ventricular septal hypertrophy, hyperdynamic left ventricular systolic function, and septal mid-myocardial late gadolinium enhancement, which are characteristic of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24472441

Tandon, Animesh; Taylor, Michael D; Cripe, Linda H

2015-02-01

93

ISPD gene mutations are a common cause of congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies  

PubMed Central

Dystroglycanopathies are a clinically and genetically diverse group of recessively inherited conditions ranging from the most severe of the congenital muscular dystrophies, Walker–Warburg syndrome, to mild forms of adult-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Their hallmark is a reduction in the functional glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan, which can be detected in muscle biopsies. An important part of this glycosylation is a unique O-mannosylation, essential for the interaction of ?-dystroglycan with extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin-?2. Mutations in eight genes coding for proteins in the glycosylation pathway are responsible for ?50% of dystroglycanopathy cases. Despite multiple efforts using traditional positional cloning, the causative genes for unsolved dystroglycanopathy cases have escaped discovery for several years. In a recent collaborative study, we discovered that loss-of-function recessive mutations in a novel gene, called isoprenoid synthase domain containing (ISPD), are a relatively common cause of Walker–Warburg syndrome. In this article, we report the involvement of the ISPD gene in milder dystroglycanopathy phenotypes ranging from congenital muscular dystrophy to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and identified allelic ISPD variants in nine cases belonging to seven families. In two ambulant cases, there was evidence of structural brain involvement, whereas in seven, the clinical manifestation was restricted to a dystrophic skeletal muscle phenotype. Although the function of ISPD in mammals is not yet known, mutations in this gene clearly lead to a reduction in the functional glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan, which not only causes the severe Walker–Warburg syndrome but is also a common cause of the milder forms of dystroglycanopathy. PMID:23288328

Cirak, Sebahattin; Foley, Aileen Reghan; Herrmann, Ralf; Willer, Tobias; Yau, Shu; Stevens, Elizabeth; Torelli, Silvia; Brodd, Lina; Kamynina, Alisa; Vondracek, Petr; Roper, Helen; Longman, Cheryl; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Marrosu, Gianni; Nürnberg, Peter; Michele, Daniel E.; Plagnol, Vincent; Hurles, Matt; Moore, Steven A.; Sewry, Caroline A.; Campbell, Kevin P.; Voit, Thomas

2013-01-01

94

Abnormalities of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, and laminin alpha2 in the muscular dystrophies.  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, and laminin alpha2 are responsible for a subset of the muscular dystrophies. In this study we aim to characterise the nature and frequency of abnormalities of these proteins in an Australian population and to formulate an investigative algorithm to aid in approaching the diagnosis of the muscular dystrophies. To reduce ascertainment bias, biopsies with dystrophic (n=131) and non-dystrophic myopathic (n=71) changes were studied with antibodies to dystrophin, alpha, beta, and gamma sarcoglycan, beta dystroglycan, and laminin alpha2, and results were correlated with clinical phenotype. Abnormalities of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, or laminin alpha2 were present in 61/131 (47%) dystrophic biopsies and in 0/71 myopathic biopsies, suggesting that immunocytochemical study of dystrophin, the sarcoglycans, and laminin alpha2 may, in general, be restricted to patients with dystrophic biopsies. Two patients with mutations identified in gamma sarcoglycan had abnormal dystrophin (by immunocytochemistry and immunoblot), showing that abnormalities of dystrophin may be a secondary phenomenon. Therefore, biopsies should not be excluded from sarcoglycan analysis on the basis of abnormal dystrophin alone. The diagnostic yield was highest in those with severe, rapidly progressive limb-girdle weakness (92%). Laminin alpha2 deficiency was identified in 5/131 (4%) patients; 215 patients presented after infancy, indicating that abnormalities of laminin alpha2 are not limited to the congenital muscular dystrophy phenotype. Overall patterns of immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting provided a guide to mutation analysis and, on the basis of this study, we have formulated a diagnostic algorithm to guide the investigation of patients with muscular dystrophy. Images PMID:9610800

Jones, K J; Kim, S S; North, K N

1998-01-01

95

Concise review: mesoangioblast and mesenchymal stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophy: progress, challenges, and future directions.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and mesoangioblasts (MABs) are multipotent cells that differentiate into specialized cells of mesodermal origin, including skeletal muscle cells. Because of their potential to differentiate into the skeletal muscle lineage, these multipotent cells have been tested for their capacity to participate in regeneration of damaged skeletal muscle in animal models of muscular dystrophy. MSCs and MABs infiltrate dystrophic muscle from the circulation, engraft into host fibers, and bring with them proteins that replace the functions of those missing or truncated. The potential for systemic delivery of these cells increases the feasibility of stem cell therapy for the large numbers of affected skeletal muscles in patients with muscular dystrophy. The present review focused on the results of preclinical studies with MSCs and MABs in animal models of muscular dystrophy. The goals of the present report were to (a) summarize recent results, (b) compare the efficacy of MSCs and MABs derived from different tissues in restoration of protein expression and/or improvement in muscle function, and (c) discuss future directions for translating these discoveries to the clinic. In addition, although systemic delivery of MABs and MSCs is of great importance for reaching dystrophic muscles, the potential concerns related to this method of stem cell transplantation are discussed. PMID:25391645

Berry, Suzanne E

2015-01-01

96

Sulforaphane alleviates muscular dystrophy in mdx mice by activation of Nrf2.  

PubMed

Sulforaphane (SFN), one of the most important isothiocyanates in the human diet, is known to have chemo-preventive and antioxidant activities in different tissues via activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated induction of antioxidant/phase II enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1. However, its effects on muscular dystrophy remain unknown. This work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of SFN on Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Four-week-old mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg·kg body wt(-1)·day(-1) for 8 wk), and our results demonstrated that SFN treatment increased the expression and activity of muscle phase II enzymes NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 and heme oxygenase-1 with a Nrf2-dependent manner. SFN significantly increased skeletal muscle mass, muscle force (?30%), running distance (?20%), and GSH-to-GSSG ratio (?3.2-fold) of mdx mice and decreased the activities of plasma creatine phosphokinase (?45%) and lactate dehydrogenase (?40%), gastrocnemius hypertrophy (?25%), myocardial hypertrophy (?20%), and malondialdehyde levels (?60%). Furthermore, SFN treatment also reduced the central nucleation (?40%), fiber size variability, and inflammation and improved the sarcolemmal integrity of mdx mice. Collectively, these results show that SFN can improve muscle function and pathology and protect dystrophic muscle from oxidative damage in mdx mice associated with Nrf2 signaling pathway, which indicate Nrf2 may have clinical implications for the treatment of patients with muscular dystrophy. PMID:25593219

Sun, Chengcao; Yang, Cuili; Xue, Ruilin; Li, Shujun; Zhang, Ting; Pan, Lei; Ma, Xuejiao; Wang, Liang; Li, Dejia

2015-01-15

97

From proteins to genes: immunoanalysis in the diagnosis of muscular dystrophies  

PubMed Central

Muscular dystrophies are a large heterogeneous group of inherited diseases that cause progressive muscle weakness and permanent muscle damage. Very few muscular dystrophies show sufficient specific clinical features to allow a definite diagnosis. Because of the currently limited capacity to screen for numerous genes simultaneously, muscle biopsy is a time and cost-effective test for many of these disorders. Protein analysis interpreted in correlation with the clinical phenotype is a useful way of directing genetic testing in many types of muscular dystrophies. Immunohistochemistry and western blot are complementary techniques used to gather quantitative and qualitative information on the expression of proteins involved in this group of diseases. Immunoanalysis has a major diagnostic application mostly in recessive conditions where the absence of labelling for a particular protein is likely to indicate a defect in that gene. However, abnormalities in protein expression can vary from absence to very subtle reduction. It is good practice to test muscle biopsies with antibodies for several proteins simultaneously and to interpret the results in context. Indeed, there is a degree of direct or functional association between many of these proteins that is reflected by the presence of specific secondary abnormalities that are of value, especially when the diagnosis is not straightforward. PMID:21798100

2011-01-01

98

Preclinical Studies with Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Different Animal Models for Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been widely investigated for cell-based therapy studies as an alternative source to bone marrow transplantation. Umbilical cord tissue is a rich source of MSCs with potential to derivate at least muscle, cartilage, fat, and bone cells in vitro. The possibility to replace the defective muscle cells using cell therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of progressive muscular dystrophies (PMDs), independently of the specific gene mutation. Therefore, preclinical studies in different models of muscular dystrophies are of utmost importance. The main objective of the present study is to evaluate if umbilical cord MSCs have the potential to reach and differentiate into muscle cells in vivo in two animal models of PMDs. In order to address this question we injected (1) human umbilical cord tissue (hUCT) MSCs into the caudal vein of SJL mice; (2) hUCT and canine umbilical cord vein (cUCV) MSCs intra-arterially in GRMD dogs. Our results here reported support the safety of the procedure and indicate that the injected cells could engraft in the host muscle in both animal models but could not differentiate into muscle cells. These observations may provide important information aiming future therapy for muscular dystrophies. PMID:21785565

Zucconi, Eder; Vieira, Natassia Moreira; Bueno, Carlos Roberto; Secco, Mariane; Jazedje, Tatiana; Costa Valadares, Marcos; Fussae Suzuki, Miriam; Bartolini, Paolo; Vainzof, Mariz; Zatz, Mayana

2011-01-01

99

Anti-gravity training improves walking capacity and postural balance in patients with muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Recent studies in patients with muscular dystrophies suggest positive effects of aerobic and strength training. These studies focused training on using bicycle ergometers and conventional strength training, which precludes more severely affected patients from participating, because of their weakness. We investigated the functional effects of combined aerobic and strength training in patients with Becker and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies with knee muscle strength levels as low as 3% of normal strength. Eight patients performed 10 weeks of aerobic and strength training on an anti-gravity treadmill, which offered weight support up to 80% of their body weight. Six minute walking distance, dynamic postural balance, and plasma creatine kinase were assessed 10 weeks prior to training, immediately before training and after 10 weeks of training. Training elicited an improvement of walking distance by 8±2% and dynamic postural balance by 13±4%, indicating an improved physical function. Plasma creatine kinase remained unchanged. These results provide evidence that a combination of aerobic and strength training during anti-gravity has the potential to safely improve functional ability in severely affected patients with Becker and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. PMID:24684860

Berthelsen, Martin Peter; Husu, Edith; Christensen, Sofie Bouschinger; Prahm, Kira Philipsen; Vissing, John; Jensen, Bente Rona

2014-06-01

100

Further evidence of Fukutin mutations as a cause of childhood onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy without mental retardation  

PubMed Central

The dystroglycanopathies comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of muscular dystrophies characterized by deficient glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan. Mutations in the fukutin (FKTN) gene have primarily been identified among patients with classic Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), a severe form of dystroglycanopathy characterized by CMD, cobblestone lissencephaly and ocular defects. We describe two brothers of Caucasian and Japanese ancestry with normal intelligence and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) due to compound heterozygous FKTN mutations. Muscle biopsy showed a dystrophy with selectively reduced ?-dystroglycan glycoepitope immunostaining. Immunoblots revealed hypoglycosylation of ?-dystroglycan and loss of laminin binding. FKTN gene sequencing identified two variants: c.340G>A and c.527T>C, predicting missense mutations p.A114T and p.F176S, respectively. Our results provide further evidence for ethnic and allelic heterogeneity and the presence of milder phenotypes in FKTN-dystroglycanopathy despite a substantial degree of ?-dystroglycan hypoglycosylation in skeletal muscle. PMID:19342235

Puckett, Rebecca L.; Moore, Steven A.; Winder, Thomas L.; Willer, Tobias; Romansky, Stephen G.; Covault, Kelly King; Campbell, Kevin P.; Abdenur, Jose E.

2009-01-01

101

Specific profiles of neurocognitive and reading functions in a sample of 42 Italian boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 42 Italian boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy was compared with a control group of 10 boys with Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Osteogenesis Imperfecta on tests assessing general intellectual ability, language, neuropsychological functions, and reading skills with the aim of describing a comprehensive profile of the various functions and investigating their interrelationships. The influence of general intellectual level

Maria Luisa Lorusso; Federica Civati; Massimo Molteni; Anna Carla Turconi; Nereo Bresolin; Maria Grazia DAngelo

2012-01-01

102

Preliminary diffusion tensor imaging studies in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a group of autosomal dominantly or recessively inherited muscular dystrophies that also present with primary proximal (limb-girdle) muscle weakness. This type of dystrophy involves the shoulder and pelvic girdles, distinct phenotypic or clinical characteristics are recognized. Imaging experiments were conducted on a 1.5T GE scanner (General Electric Medical Systems. Milwaukee. USA), using a combination of two eight-channel coil array. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data were acquired using a SE-EPI sequence, diffusion weighted gradients were applied along 30 non-collinear directions with a b-value=550 s/mm2. The connective tissue content does not appear to have a significant effect on the directionality of the diffusion, as assessed by fractional anisotropy. The fibers of the Sartorius muscle and gracilis showed decreased number of tracts, secondary to fatty infiltration and replacement of connective tissue and muscle mass loss characteristic of the underlying pathology. Our results demonstrated the utility of non-invasive MRI techniques to characterize the muscle pathology, through quantitative and qualitative methods such as the FA values and tractrography.

Hidalgo-Tobon, S.; Hernandez-Salazar, G.; Vargas-Cañas, S.; Marrufo-Melendez, O.; Solis-Najera, S.; Taboada-Barajas, J.; Rodriguez, A. O.; Delgado-Hernandez, R.

2012-10-01

103

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1F is caused by a microdeletion in the transportin 3 gene  

PubMed Central

In 2001, we reported linkage of an autosomal dominant form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1F, to chromosome 7q32.1-32.2, but the identity of the mutant gene was elusive. Here, using a whole genome sequencing strategy, we identified the causative mutation of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1F, a heterozygous single nucleotide deletion (c.2771del) in the termination codon of transportin 3 (TNPO3). This gene is situated within the chromosomal region linked to the disease and encodes a nuclear membrane protein belonging to the importin beta family. TNPO3 transports serine/arginine-rich proteins into the nucleus, and has been identified as a key factor in the HIV-import process into the nucleus. The mutation is predicted to generate a 15-amino acid extension of the C-terminus of the protein, segregates with the clinical phenotype, and is absent in genomic sequence databases and a set of >200 control alleles. In skeletal muscle of affected individuals, expression of the mutant messenger RNA and histological abnormalities of nuclei and TNPO3 indicate altered TNPO3 function. Our results demonstrate that the TNPO3 mutation is the cause of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1F, expand our knowledge of the molecular basis of muscular dystrophies and bolster the importance of defects of nuclear envelope proteins as causes of inherited myopathies. PMID:23543484

Melià, Maria J.; Kubota, Akatsuki; Ortolano, Saida; Vílchez, Juan J.; Gámez, Josep; Tanji, Kurenai; Bonilla, Eduardo; Palenzuela, Lluís; Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; P?istoupilová, Anna; García-Arumí, Elena; Andreu, Antoni L.; Navarro, Carmen

2013-01-01

104

Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy associated with epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy and PLEC1 mutation.  

PubMed

Plectin mutations have been reported in epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy. We report the first case of left ventricular non-compaction in an 18-year-old male with epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy. The patient was diagnosed with epidermolysis bullosa simplex after blistering was noted at birth. Motor function difficulties were first recognized at age 11, however the patient was lost to follow up. He was re-evaluated at age 17 and demonstrated significant ptosis, ophthalmoparesis, and pharyngeal muscle weakness. He had predominant proximal muscle weakness with the inability to raise arms against gravity. He was ambulatory for short distances but lost the ability to rise from the floor at 14 years. He was subsequently diagnosed with epidermyolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy and a PLEC1 mutation. Screening cardiovascular imaging revealed a diagnosis of isolated left ventricular non-compaction. This case highlights the potential for delayed onset muscular dystrophy in patients with epidermolysis bullosa simplex. Furthermore, this case also underscores the importance of long term, routine cardiac evaluation, including imaging and electrophysiologic evaluation, in patients with epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy as the cardiac phenotype appears to parallel the variable severity and age of onset that characterize the neuromuscular phenotype. PMID:25454730

Villa, Chet R; Ryan, Thomas D; Collins, James J; Taylor, Michael D; Lucky, Anne W; Jefferies, John L

2015-02-01

105

Characterization of Dystrophin Deficient Rats: A New Model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

A few animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are available, large ones such as pigs or dogs being expensive and difficult to handle. Mdx (X-linked muscular dystrophy) mice only partially mimic the human disease, with limited chronic muscular lesions and muscle weakness. Their small size also imposes limitations on analyses. A rat model could represent a useful alternative since rats are small animals but 10 times bigger than mice and could better reflect the lesions and functional abnormalities observed in DMD patients. Two lines of Dmd mutated-rats (Dmdmdx) were generated using TALENs targeting exon 23. Muscles of animals of both lines showed undetectable levels of dystrophin by western blot and less than 5% of dystrophin positive fibers by immunohistochemistry. At 3 months, limb and diaphragm muscles from Dmdmdx rats displayed severe necrosis and regeneration. At 7 months, these muscles also showed severe fibrosis and some adipose tissue infiltration. Dmdmdx rats showed significant reduction in muscle strength and a decrease in spontaneous motor activity. Furthermore, heart morphology was indicative of dilated cardiomyopathy associated histologically with necrotic and fibrotic changes. Echocardiography showed significant concentric remodeling and alteration of diastolic function. In conclusion, Dmdmdx rats represent a new faithful small animal model of DMD. PMID:25310701

Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Thepenier, Virginie; François, Virginie; Le Guiner, Caroline; Goubin, Helicia; Dutilleul, Maéva; Guigand, Lydie; Toumaniantz, Gilles; De Cian, Anne; Boix, Charlotte; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yan; Giovannangeli, Carine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio; Huchet, Corinne

2014-01-01

106

Characterization of dystrophin deficient rats: a new model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

A few animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are available, large ones such as pigs or dogs being expensive and difficult to handle. Mdx (X-linked muscular dystrophy) mice only partially mimic the human disease, with limited chronic muscular lesions and muscle weakness. Their small size also imposes limitations on analyses. A rat model could represent a useful alternative since rats are small animals but 10 times bigger than mice and could better reflect the lesions and functional abnormalities observed in DMD patients. Two lines of Dmd mutated-rats (Dmdmdx) were generated using TALENs targeting exon 23. Muscles of animals of both lines showed undetectable levels of dystrophin by western blot and less than 5% of dystrophin positive fibers by immunohistochemistry. At 3 months, limb and diaphragm muscles from Dmdmdx rats displayed severe necrosis and regeneration. At 7 months, these muscles also showed severe fibrosis and some adipose tissue infiltration. Dmdmdx rats showed significant reduction in muscle strength and a decrease in spontaneous motor activity. Furthermore, heart morphology was indicative of dilated cardiomyopathy associated histologically with necrotic and fibrotic changes. Echocardiography showed significant concentric remodeling and alteration of diastolic function. In conclusion, Dmdmdx rats represent a new faithful small animal model of DMD. PMID:25310701

Larcher, Thibaut; Lafoux, Aude; Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Thepenier, Virginie; François, Virginie; Le Guiner, Caroline; Goubin, Helicia; Dutilleul, Maéva; Guigand, Lydie; Toumaniantz, Gilles; De Cian, Anne; Boix, Charlotte; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yan; Giovannangeli, Carine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio; Huchet, Corinne

2014-01-01

107

Early transplantation of human immature dental pulp stem cells from baby teeth to golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs: Local or systemic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs represent the best available animal model for therapeutic trials aiming at the future treatment of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have obtained a rare litter of six GRMD dogs (3 males and 3 females) born from an affected male and a carrier female which were submitted to a therapeutic trial with

Irina Kerkis; Carlos E Ambrosio; Alexandre Kerkis; Daniele S Martins; Eder Zucconi; Simone AS Fonseca; Rosa M Cabral; Carlos MC Maranduba; Thais P Gaiad; Adriana C Morini; Natassia M Vieira; Marina P Brolio; Osvaldo A Sant'Anna; Maria A Miglino; Mayana Zatz

2008-01-01

108

Genetic linkage relationships between the Xg blood group system and two X chromosome DNA polymorphisms in families with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of linkage has been investigated between the Xg blood group system, two DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) located on the short arm of the X chromosome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). No linkage was found between the Xg locus and the more proximal RFLP (L1.28); close linkage between Xg and the more distal

M. Sarfarazi; P. S. Harper; H. M. Kingston; J. M. Murray; T. O'Brien; K. E. Davies; R. Williamson; P. Tippett; R. Sanger

1983-01-01

109

Compound heterozygous PLEC mutations in a patient of consanguineous parentage with epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy and diffuse alopecia.  

PubMed

Epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD; OMIM 226670) is an autosomal recessive form of EBS, characterized by skin blistering at birth and delayed onset of muscle dystrophy. Mutations in PLEC, the gene encoding plectin, have been identified to be causal for EBS-MD. We report a case of EBS-MD with diffuse alopecia. Genetic study revealed the patient carrying compound heterozygous mutations in PLEC despite the consanguineous parentage. PMID:25209331

Yin, Jinghua; Ren, Yali; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Zhou, Yun; Yang, Yong

2015-02-01

110

Fnip1 regulates skeletal muscle fiber type specification, fatigue resistance, and susceptibility to muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Mammalian skeletal muscle is broadly characterized by the presence of two distinct categories of muscle fibers called type I "red" slow twitch and type II "white" fast twitch, which display marked differences in contraction strength, metabolic strategies, and susceptibility to fatigue. The relative representation of each fiber type can have major influences on susceptibility to obesity, diabetes, and muscular dystrophies. However, the molecular factors controlling fiber type specification remain incompletely defined. In this study, we describe the control of fiber type specification and susceptibility to metabolic disease by folliculin interacting protein-1 (Fnip1). Using Fnip1 null mice, we found that loss of Fnip1 increased the representation of type I fibers characterized by increased myoglobin, slow twitch markers [myosin heavy chain 7 (MyH7), succinate dehydrogenase, troponin I 1, troponin C1, troponin T1], capillary density, and mitochondria number. Cultured Fnip1-null muscle fibers had higher oxidative capacity, and isolated Fnip1-null skeletal muscles were more resistant to postcontraction fatigue relative to WT skeletal muscles. Biochemical analyses revealed increased activation of the metabolic sensor AMP kinase (AMPK), and increased expression of the AMPK-target and transcriptional coactivator PGC1? in Fnip1 null skeletal muscle. Genetic disruption of PGC1? rescued normal levels of type I fiber markers MyH7 and myoglobin in Fnip1-null mice. Remarkably, loss of Fnip1 profoundly mitigated muscle damage in a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These results indicate that Fnip1 controls skeletal muscle fiber type specification and warrant further study to determine whether inhibition of Fnip1 has therapeutic potential in muscular dystrophy diseases. PMID:25548157

Reyes, Nicholas L; Banks, Glen B; Tsang, Mark; Margineantu, Daciana; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Chan, Jacky; Torres, Michelle; Liggitt, H Denny; Hirenallur-S, Dinesh K; Hockenbery, David M; Raftery, Daniel; Iritani, Brian M

2015-01-13

111

Different Molecular Signatures in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Staged Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Muscles  

PubMed Central

Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common muscular dystrophies and is characterized by a non-conventional genetic mechanism activated by pathogenic D4Z4 repeat contractions. By muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) we observed that T2-short tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR) sequences identify two different conditions in which each muscle can be found before the irreversible dystrophic alteration, marked as T1-weighted sequence hyperintensity, takes place. We studied these conditions in order to obtain further information on the molecular mechanisms involved in the selective wasting of single muscles or muscle groups in this disease. Methods Histopathology, gene expression profiling and real time PCR were performed on biopsies from FSHD muscles with different MRI pattern (T1-weighted normal/T2-STIR normal and T1-weighted normal/T2-STIR hyperintense). Data were compared with those from inflammatory myopathies, dysferlinopathies and normal controls. In order to validate obtained results, two additional FSHD samples with different MRI pattern were analyzed. Results Myopathic and inflammatory changes characterized T2-STIR hyperintense FSHD muscles, at variance with T2-STIR normal muscles. These two states could be easily distinguished from each other by their transcriptional profile. The comparison between T2-STIR hyperintense FSHD muscles and inflammatory myopathy muscles showed peculiar changes, although many alterations were shared among these conditions. Conclusions At the single muscle level, different stages of the disease correspond to the two MRI patterns. T2-STIR hyperintense FSHD muscles are more similar to inflammatory myopathies than to T2-STIR normal FSHD muscles or other muscular dystrophies, and share with them upregulation of genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Our data suggest that selective inflammation, together with perturbation in biological processes such as neoangiogenesis, lipid metabolism and adipokine production, may contribute to the sequential bursts of muscle degeneration that involve individual muscles in an asynchronous manner in this disease. PMID:22719944

Monforte, Mauro; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Frusciante, Roberto; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Laschena, Francesco; Ottaviani, Pierfrancesco; Ricci, Enzo

2012-01-01

112

Identification of two novel SMCHD1 sequence variants in families with FSHD-like muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1 (FSHD1) is caused by a contraction in the number of D4Z4 repeats on chromosome 4, resulting in relaxation of D4Z4 chromatin causing inappropriate expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle. Clinical severity is inversely related to the number of repeats. In contrast, FSHD2 patients also have inappropriate expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle, but due to constitutional mutations in SMCHD1 (structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain containing 1), which cause global hypomethylation and hence general relaxation of chromatin. Thirty patients originally referred for FSHD testing were screened for SMCHD1 mutations. Twenty-nine had >11 D4Z4 repeats. SMCHD1 c.1040+1G>A, a pathogenic splice-site variant, was identified in a FSHD1 family with a borderline number of D4Z4 repeats (10) and a variable phenotype (in which a LMNA1 sequence variant was previously described), and SMCHD1 c.2606 G>T, a putative missense variant (p.Gly869Val) with strong in vitro indications of pathogenicity, was identified in a family with an unusual muscular dystrophy with some FSHD-like features. The two families described here emphasise the genetic complexity of muscular dystrophies. As SMCHD1 has a wider role in global genomic methylation, the possibility exists that it could be involved in other complex undiagnosed muscle disorders. Thus far, only 15 constitutional mutations have been identified in SMCHD1, and these two sequence variants add to the molecular and phenotypic spectrum associated with FSHD. PMID:24755953

Winston, Jincy; Duerden, Laura; Mort, Matthew; Frayling, Ian M; Rogers, Mark T; Upadhyaya, Meena

2015-01-01

113

Flt-1 haploinsufficiency ameliorates muscular dystrophy phenotype by developmentally increased vasculature in mdx mice  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene coding for the protein dystrophin. Recent work demonstrates that dystrophin is also found in the vasculature and its absence results in vascular deficiency and abnormal blood flow. This induces a state of ischemia further aggravating the muscular dystrophy pathogenesis. For an effective form of therapy of DMD, both the muscle and the vasculature need to be addressed. To reveal the developmental relationship between muscular dystrophy and vasculature, mdx mice, an animal model for DMD, were crossed with Flt-1 gene knockout mice to create a model with increased vasculature. Flt-1 is a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor, and therefore both homozygous (Flt-1?/?) and heterozygous (Flt-1+/?) Flt-1 gene knockout mice display increased endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density during embryogenesis. Here, we show that Flt-1+/? and mdx:Flt-1+/? adult mice also display a developmentally increased vascular density in skeletal muscle compared with the wild-type and mdx mice, respectively. The mdx:Flt-1+/? mice show improved muscle histology compared with the mdx mice with decreased fibrosis, calcification and membrane permeability. Functionally, the mdx:Flt-1+/? mice have an increase in muscle blood flow and force production, compared with the mdx mice. Consequently, the mdx:utrophin?/?:Flt-1+/? mice display improved muscle histology and significantly higher survival rates compared with the mdx:utrophin?/? mice, which show more severe muscle phenotypes than the mdx mice. These data suggest that increasing the vasculature in DMD may ameliorate the histological and functional phenotypes associated with this disease. PMID:20705734

Verma, Mayank; Asakura, Yoko; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Shuichi; Tastad, Christopher; Fong, Guo-Hua; Ema, Masatsugu; Call, Jarrod A.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Asakura, Atsushi

2010-01-01

114

Sildenafil reduces respiratory muscle weakness and fibrosis in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Loss of dystrophin initiates a progressive decline in skeletal muscle integrity and contractile capacity which weakens respiratory muscles including the diaphragm, culminating in respiratory failure, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in DMD patients. At present, corticosteroid treatment is the primary pharmacological intervention in DMD, but has limited efficacy and adverse side effects. Thus, there is an urgent need for new safe, cost-effective, and rapidly implementable treatments that slow disease progression. One promising new approach is the amplification of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) signalling pathways with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. PDE5 inhibitors serve to amplify NO signalling that is attenuated in many neuromuscular diseases including DMD. We report here that a 14-week treatment of the mdx mouse model of DMD with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (Viagra(®), Revatio(®)) significantly reduced mdx diaphragm muscle weakness without impacting fatigue resistance. In addition to enhancing respiratory muscle contractility, sildenafil also promoted normal extracellular matrix organization. PDE5 inhibition slowed the establishment of mdx diaphragm fibrosis and reduced matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression. Sildenafil also normalized the expression of the pro-fibrotic (and pro-inflammatory) cytokine tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?). Sildenafil-treated mdx diaphragms accumulated significantly less Evans Blue tracer dye than untreated controls, which is also indicative of improved diaphragm muscle health. We conclude that sildenafil-mediated PDE5 inhibition significantly reduces diaphragm respiratory muscle dysfunction and pathology in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This study provides new insights into the therapeutic utility of targeting defects in NO-cGMP signalling with PDE5 inhibitors in dystrophin-deficient muscle. PMID:22653783

Percival, Justin M; Whitehead, Nicholas P; Adams, Marvin E; Adamo, Candace M; Beavo, Joseph A; Froehner, Stanley C

2012-09-01

115

Propofol-induced violent coughing in a patient with Becker's muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Propofol anesthesia is often associated with decreased incidence of gagging, coughing or laryngospasm, and provides intense suppression on airway reflex during tracheal intubation and laryngeal mask airway insertion. Propofol pretreatment is also effective in reducing the occurrence of opioid-induced coughing. These benefits are often attributed to bronchodilator and sedative effects of propofol. However, severe coughing following sedative doses of 1% propofol has not been reported so far. We report a rare case of violent coughing following low-dose propofol infusion in a patient with Becker's muscular dystrophy. PMID:21845012

Jain, Amit

2011-07-01

116

Propofol-induced violent coughing in a patient with Becker's muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Propofol anesthesia is often associated with decreased incidence of gagging, coughing or laryngospasm, and provides intense suppression on airway reflex during tracheal intubation and laryngeal mask airway insertion. Propofol pretreatment is also effective in reducing the occurrence of opioid-induced coughing. These benefits are often attributed to bronchodilator and sedative effects of propofol. However, severe coughing following sedative doses of 1% propofol has not been reported so far. We report a rare case of violent coughing following low-dose propofol infusion in a patient with Becker's muscular dystrophy. PMID:21845012

Jain, Amit

2011-01-01

117

Complications with utilization of positive-pressure devices in a young man with duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Because of the progressive muscle weakness they experience, patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy frequently utilize positive-pressure devices to maintain adequate bronchial hygiene and ventilation. This case illustrates the course of a 19-y-old male who presented with a perforated right tympanic membrane (TM) following the use of these devices. Perforation of the TM while utilizing positive-pressure devices is a rarely reported event. A challenging aspect in this case was balancing the reduction of pressures and maintaining adequate ventilation while at the same time allowing the TM to heal. PMID:25161298

Gee, Scott L; Lowe, Gary R; Warren, Robert H

2015-02-01

118

Rigid spinal muscular dystrophy and rigid spine syndrome: report of 7 children.  

PubMed

Seven children (5 male, 2 female) were seen over the last 16 years with rigid spine syndrome. Six children had rigid spinal muscular dystrophy (selenoprotein N1-related myopathy [SEPN1RM]) and 1 had myopathy associated with rigid spine. The main presenting complaint in all was difficulty in bending the spine. The diagnosis was made on clinical features and imaging of the paraspinal muscles. Muscle histopathology revealed minimal myopathic changes to severe muscle degeneration. Genetic testing, which was only available for the last case, for selenoprotein was negative. PMID:23481446

Koul, Roshan; Al-Yarubi, Saif; Al-Kindy, Hussein; Al-Futaisi, Amna; Al-Thihli, Khalid; Chacko, Poovathoor Alexander; Sankhla, Dilip

2014-11-01

119

Nanolipodendrosome-loaded glatiramer acetate and myogenic differentiation 1 as augmentation therapeutic strategy approaches in muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Backgrond Muscular dystrophies consist of a number of juvenile and adult forms of complex disorders which generally cause weakness or efficiency defects affecting skeletal muscles or, in some kinds, other types of tissues in all parts of the body are vastly affected. In previous studies, it was observed that along with muscular dystrophy, immune inflammation was caused by inflammatory cells invasion – like T lymphocyte markers (CD8+/CD4+). Inflammatory processes play a major part in muscular fibrosis in muscular dystrophy patients. Additionally, a significant decrease in amounts of two myogenic recovery factors (myogenic differentation 1 [MyoD] and myogenin) in animal models was observed. The drug glatiramer acetate causes anti-inflammatory cytokines to increase and T helper (Th) cells to induce, in an as yet unknown mechanism. MyoD recovery activity in muscular cells justifies using it alongside this drug. Methods In this study, a nanolipodendrosome carrier as a drug delivery system was designed. The purpose of the system was to maximize the delivery and efficiency of the two drug factors, MyoD and myogenin, and introduce them as novel therapeutic agents in muscular dystrophy phenotypic mice. The generation of new muscular cells was analyzed in SW1 mice. Then, immune system changes and probable side effects after injecting the nanodrug formulations were investigated. Results The loaded lipodendrimer nanocarrier with the candidate drug, in comparison with the nandrolone control drug, caused a significant increase in muscular mass, a reduction in CD4+/CD8+ inflammation markers, and no significant toxicity was observed. The results support the hypothesis that the nanolipodendrimer containing the two candidate drugs will probably be an efficient means to ameliorate muscular degeneration, and warrants further investigation. PMID:23966782

Afzal, Ehsan; Zakeri, Saba; Keyhanvar, Peyman; Bagheri, Meisam; Mahjoubi, Parvin; Asadian, Mahtab; Omoomi, Nogol; Dehqanian, Mohammad; Ghalandarlaki, Negar; Darvishmohammadi, Tahmineh; Farjadian, Fatemeh; Golvajoee, Mohammad Sadegh; Afzal, Shadi; Ghaffari, Maryam; Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Gravand, Amin; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee

2013-01-01

120

Air stacking: effects on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy*,**  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Respiratory complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects that routine daily home air-stacking maneuvers have on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), as well as to identify associations between spinal deformities and the effects of the maneuvers. METHODS: Eighteen NMD patients (ten with CMD and eight with SMA) were submitted to routine daily air-stacking maneuvers at home with manual resuscitators for four to six months, undergoing pulmonary function tests before and after that period. The pulmonary function tests included measurements of FVC; PEF; maximum insufflation capacity (MIC); and assisted and unassisted peak cough flow (APCF and UPCF, respectively) with insufflations. RESULTS: After the use of home air-stacking maneuvers, there were improvements in the APCF and UPCF. In the patients without scoliosis, there was also a significant increase in FVC. When comparing patients with and without scoliosis, the increases in APCF and UPCF were more pronounced in those without scoliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Routine daily air-stacking maneuvers with a manual resuscitator appear to increase UPCF and APCF in patients with NMD, especially in those without scoliosis. PMID:25410841

Marques, Tanyse Bahia Carvalho; Neves, Juliana de Carvalho; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Salge, João Marcos; Zanoteli, Edmar; Reed, Umbertina Conti

2014-01-01

121

Generation of muscular dystrophy model rats with a CRISPR/Cas system.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene encoding Dystrophin. DMD model animals, such as mdx mice and canine X-linked muscular dystrophy dogs, have been widely utilized in the development of a treatment for DMD. Here, we demonstrate the generation of Dmd-mutated rats using a clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system, an RNA-based genome engineering technique that is also adaptive to rats. We simultaneously targeted two exons in the rat Dmd gene, which resulted in the absence of Dystrophin expression in the F0 generation. Dmd-mutated rats exhibited a decline in muscle strength, and the emergence of degenerative/regenerative phenotypes in the skeletal muscle, heart, and diaphragm. These mutations were heritable by the next generation, and F1 male rats exhibited similar phenotypes in their skeletal muscles. These model rats should prove to be useful for developing therapeutic methods to treat DMD. PMID:25005781

Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Fujii, Wataru; Tsuboi, Masaya; Tanihata, Jun; Teramoto, Naomi; Takeuchi, Shiho; Naito, Kunihiko; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

2014-01-01

122

Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy – a case report  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 9 Final Diagnosis: Duchenne muscular dystrophy Symptoms: Hyporeflexia • hypotonia • weaknes of lower limbs Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, genetic, progressive, degenerating muscle disorder. Current treatment options are palliative. Newer options of cellular therapy promise to alter the disease process. Preclinical studies have successfully tested myogenic, neurogenic potential and dystrophin expression of bone marrow mononuclear cells. Case Report: We treated a 9-year-old boy suffering from DMD with serial autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantations followed by multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Brooke-Vignos score was 10 and he was wheelchair-bound. Over 36 months, gradual progressive improvement was noticed in muscle strength, ambulation with assistive devices, fine motor movements, Brooke-Vignos score, and functional independence measure score. Nine months after the transplantation, electromyography findings showed development of new normal motor unit potentials of the vastus medialis muscle. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging scan of musculoskeletal systems showed no increase in fatty infiltration. This case report provides early investigative findings or the restorative effects of cellular therapy in DMD. PMID:24711886

Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Paranjape, Amruta; Bhagawanani, Khushboo; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Badhe, Prerna

2014-01-01

123

Deficiency of merosin in dystrophic dy mouse homologue of congenital muscular dystrophy  

SciTech Connect

Merosin (laminin M chain) is the predominant laminin isoform in the basal lamina of striated muscle and peripheral nerve and is a native ligand for {alpha}-dystroglycan, a novel laminin receptor. Merosin is linked to the subsarcolemmal actin cytoskeleton via the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), which plays an important role for maintenance of normal muscle function. We have mapped the mouse merosin gene, Lamm, to the region containing the dystrophia muscularis (dy) locus on chromosome 10. This suggested the possibility that a mutation in the merosin gene could be responsible for the dy mouse, an animal model for autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy, and prompted us to test this hypothesis. We analyzed the status of merosin expression in dy mouse by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. In dy mouse skeletal and cardiac muscle and peripheral nerve, merosin was reduced greater than 90% as compared to control mice. However, the expression of laminin B1/B2 chains and collagen type IV was smaller to that in control mice. These findings strongly suggest that merosin deficiency may be the primary defect in the dy mouse. Furthermore, we have identified two patients afflicted with congenital muscular dystrophy with merosin deficiency, providing the basis for future studies of molecular pathogenesis and gene therapy.

Sunada, Y.; Campbell, K.P. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bernier, S.M. [and others

1994-09-01

124

Candidate-gene testing for orphan limb-girdle muscular dystrophies  

PubMed Central

Summary The term limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) identify about two dozens of distinct genetic disorders. Additional genes must play a role, since there are LGMD families excluded from any known locus. The aim of our work is to test a number of candidate genes in unclassified LGMD patient and control DNA samples. We selected the following 11 candidate genes: myozenin 1, 2 and 3), gamma-filamin, kinectin-1, enolase-3 beta, ZASP, TRIM 11 and TRIM 17, OZZ and zeta –sarcoglycan. These candidates were chosen for a combination of different reasons: chromosomal position, sequence homology, interaction properties or muscular dystrophy phenotypes in animal models. The exon and flanking intron sequences were subjected to molecular testing by comparative mutation scanning by HT-DHPLC of LGMD patients versus control. We identified a large number of variations in any of the genes in both patients and controls. Correlations with disease or possible modifying effects on the LGMD phenotype remain to be investigated. PMID:19472918

Aurino, S; Piluso, G; Saccone, V; Cacciottolo, M; D’Amico, F; Dionisi, M; Totaro, A; Belsito, A; Di Vicino, U; Nigro, V

2008-01-01

125

Comparative Genomics of X-linked Muscular Dystrophies: The Golden Retriever Model  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease that dramatically decreases the lifespan and abilities of affected young people. The primary molecular cause of the disease is the absence of functional dystrophin protein, which is critical to proper muscle function. Those with DMD vary in disease presentation and dystrophin mutation; the same causal mutation may be associated with drastically different levels of disease severity. Also contributing to this variation are the influences of additional modifying genes and/or changes in functional elements governing such modifiers. This genetic heterogeneity complicates the efficacy of treatment methods and to date medical interventions are limited to treating symptoms. Animal models of DMD have been instrumental in teasing out the intricacies of DMD disease and hold great promise for advancing knowledge of its variable presentation and treatment. This review addresses the utility of comparative genomics in elucidating the complex background behind phenotypic variation in a canine model of DMD, Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD). This knowledge can be exploited in the development of improved, more personalized treatments for DMD patients, such as therapies that can be tailor-matched to the disease course and genomic background of individual patients. PMID:24403852

Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice; Kornegay, Joe N.

2013-01-01

126

Role of Telomere Dysfunction in Cardiac Failure in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), the most common inherited muscular dystrophy of childhood, leads to death due to cardiorespiratory failure. Paradoxically, mdx mice with the same genetic deficiency of dystrophin, exhibit minimal cardiac dysfunction, impeding the development of therapies. We postulated that the difference between mdx and DMD might result from differences in telomere lengths in mice and humans. We show here that, like DMD patients, mice that lack dystrophin and have shortened telomeres (mdx/mTRKO) develop severe functional cardiac deficits including ventricular dilation, contractile and conductance dysfunction, and accelerated mortality. These cardiac defects are accompanied by telomere erosion, mitochondrial fragmentation, and increased oxidative stress. Treatment with anti-oxidants significantly retards the onset of cardiac dysfunction and death of mdx/mTRKO mice. In corroboration, of four DMD patients analyzed, all had 45% shorter telomeres in their cardiomyocytes relative to age- and sex-matched controls. We propose that the demands of contraction in the absence of dystrophin coupled with increased oxidative stress conspire to accelerate telomere erosion culminating in cardiac failure and death. These findings provide strong support for a link between telomere length and dystrophin deficiency in the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy in DMD and suggest preventive interventions. PMID:23831727

Mourkioti, Foteini; Kustan, Jackie; Kraft, Peggy; Day, John W.; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Kost-Alimova, Maria; Protopopov, Alexei; DePinho, Ronald A.; Bernstein, Daniel; Meeker, Alan K.; Blau, Helen M.

2013-01-01

127

Suitability of North Star Ambulatory Assessment in young boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish the suitability of the North Star Ambulatory Assessment for use in young boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We studied 147 typically developing and 144 boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy between the ages of 3 and 5 years. More than 85% of the typically developing boys by the age of 4 years had full scores on all the items with total scores ?33/34. Before the age of 4 years more than 15% of the typically developing boys did not achieve full scores on all the items. Some items, such as standing on one leg, showed significant improvement with age. In contrast, other activities were rarely achieved even in the older boys. Even if there was a progressive increase in scores with age, both total and individual item scores in Duchenne were still far from those obtained in the typically developing children of the same age. Our findings suggest that the North Star Ambulatory Assessment can be reliably used at least from the age of 4 years. Longitudinal natural history data studies are needed to assess possible changes over time and the possible effect of early steroids. PMID:25454732

De Sanctis, Roberto; Pane, Marika; Sivo, Serena; Ricotti, Valeria; Baranello, Giovanni; Frosini, Silvia; Mazzone, Elena; Bianco, Flaviana; Fanelli, Lavinia; Main, Marion; Corlatti, Alice; D'Amico, Adele; Colia, Giulia; Scalise, Roberta; Palermo, Concetta; Alfonsi, Chiara; Tritto, Giovanna; Romeo, Domenico M; Graziano, Alessandra; Battini, Roberta; Morandi, Lucia; Bertini, Enrico; Muntoni, Francesco; Mercuri, Eugenio

2015-01-01

128

Therapeutic Potential of Proteasome Inhibition in Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophies  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and its milder allelic variant, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), result from mutations of the dystrophin gene and lead to progressive muscle deterioration. Enhanced activation of proteasomal degradation underlies critical steps in the pathogenesis of the DMD/BMD dystrophic process. Previously, we demonstrated that treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 rescues the cell membrane localization of dystrophin and the dystrophin glycoprotein complex in mdx mice, a natural genetic mouse model of DMD. The current work aims to thoroughly define the therapeutic potential in dystrophinopathies of Velcade, a drug that selectively blocks the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Velcade is particularly intriguing since it has been approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Therefore, its side effects in humans have been explored. Velcade effects were analyzed through two independent methodological approaches. First, we administered the drug systemically in mdx mice over a 2-week period. In this system, Velcade restores the membrane expression of dystrophin and dystrophin glycoprotein complex members and improves the dystrophic phenotype. In a second approach, we treated with the compound explants from muscle biopsies of DMD or BMD patients. We show that the inhibition of the proteasome pathway up-regulates dystrophin, ?-sarcoglycan, and ?-dystroglycan protein levels in explants from BMD patients, whereas it increases the proteins of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex in DMD cases. PMID:20304949

Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Assereto, Stefania; Bonetto, Andrea; Sotgia, Federica; Scarfì, Sonia; Pistorio, Angela; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Cilli, Michele; Bruno, Claudio; Zara, Federico; Lisanti, Michael P.; Minetti, Carlo

2010-01-01

129

Cardiomyopathy in patients with POMT1-related congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Protein-o-mannosyl transferase 1 (POMT1) is a glycosyltransferase involved in ?-dystroglycan (?-DG) glycosylation. Clinical phenotype in POMT1-mutated patients ranges from congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) with structural brain abnormalities, to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) with microcephaly and mental retardation, to mild LGMD. No cardiac involvement has until now been reported in POMT1-mutated patients. We report three patients who harbored compound heterozygous POMT1 mutations and showed left ventricular (LV) dilation and/or decrease in myocardial contractile force: two had a LGMD phenotype with a normal or close-to-normal cognitive profile and one had CMD with mental retardation and normal brain MRI. Reduced or absent ?-DG immunolabeling in muscle biopsies were identified in all three patients. Bioinformatic tools were used to study the potential effect of POMT1-detected mutations. All the detected POMT1 mutations were predicted in silico to interfere with protein folding and/or glycosyltransferase function. The report on the patients described here has widened the clinical spectrum associated with POMT1 mutations to include cardiomyopathy. The functional impact of known and novel POMT1 mutations was predicted with a bioinformatics approach, and results were compared with previous in vitro studies of protein-o-mannosylase function. PMID:22549409

Bello, Luca; Melacini, Paola; Pezzani, Raffaele; D'Amico, Adele; Piva, Luisa; Leonardi, Emanuela; Torella, Annalaura; Soraru, Gianni; Palmieri, Arianna; Smaniotto, Gessica; Gavassini, Bruno F; Vianello, Andrea; Nigro, Vincenzo; Bertini, Enrico; Angelini, Corrado; Tosatto, Silvio C E; Pegoraro, Elena

2012-01-01

130

Effects of an Immunosuppressive Treatment in the GRMD Dog Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

The GRMD (Golden retriever muscular dystrophy) dog has been widely used in pre-clinical trials targeting DMD (Duchenne muscular dystrophy), using in many cases a concurrent immune-suppressive treatment. The aim of this study is to assess if such a treatment could have an effect on the disease course of these animals. Seven GRMD dogs were treated with an association of cyclosporine A (immunosuppressive dosage) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg/d) during 7 months, from 2 to 9 months of age. A multi-parametric evaluation was performed during this period which allowed us to demonstrate that this treatment had several significant effects on the disease progression. The gait quality as assessed by 3D-accelerometry was dramatically improved. This was consistent with the evolution of other parameters towards a significant improvement, such as the clinical motor score, the post-tetanic relaxation and the serum CK levels. In contrast the isometric force measurement as well as the histological evaluation argued in favor of a more severe disease progression. In view of the disease modifying effects which have been observed in this study it should be concluded that immunosuppressive treatments should be used with caution when carrying out pre-clinical studies in this canine model of DMD. They also highlight the importance of using a large range of multi-parametric evaluation tools to reliably draw any conclusion from trials involving dystrophin-deficient dogs, which reproduce the complexity of the human disease. PMID:23185260

Barthélémy, Inès; Uriarte, Ane; Drougard, Carole; Unterfinger, Yves; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Blot, Stéphane

2012-01-01

131

P38? MAPK underlies muscular dystrophy and myofiber death through a Bax-dependent mechanism.  

PubMed

Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic diseases that lead to muscle wasting and, in most cases, premature death. Cytokines and inflammatory factors are released during the disease process where they promote deleterious signaling events that directly participate in myofiber death. Here, we show that p38?, a kinase in the greater mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-signaling network, serves as a nodal regulator of disease signaling in dystrophic muscle. Deletion of Mapk14 (p38?-encoding gene) in the skeletal muscle of mdx- (lacking dystrophin) or sgcd- (?-sarcoglycan-encoding gene) null mice resulted in a significant reduction in pathology up to 6 months of age. We also generated MAPK kinase 6 (MKK6) muscle-specific transgenic mice to model heightened p38? disease signaling that occurs in dystrophic muscle, which resulted in severe myofiber necrosis and many hallmarks of muscular dystrophy. Mechanistically, we show that p38? directly induces myofiber death through a mitochondrial-dependent pathway involving direct phosphorylation and activation of the pro-death Bcl-2 family member Bax. Indeed, muscle-specific deletion of Bax, but not the apoptosis regulatory gene Tp53 (encoding p53), significantly reduced dystrophic pathology in the muscles of MKK6 transgenic mice. Moreover, use of a p38 MAPK pharmacologic inhibitor reduced dystrophic disease in Sgcd(-/-) mice suggesting a future therapeutic approach to delay disease. PMID:24876160

Wissing, Erin R; Boyer, Justin G; Kwong, Jennifer Q; Sargent, Michelle A; Karch, Jason; McNally, Elizabeth M; Otsu, Kinya; Molkentin, Jeffery D

2014-10-15

132

Contribution of oxidative stress to pathology in diaphragm and limb muscles with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative skeletal muscle disease that makes walking and breathing difficult. DMD is caused by an X-linked (Xp21) mutation in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin is a scaffolding protein located in the sarcolemmal cytoskeleton, important in maintaining structural integrity and regulating muscle cell (muscle fiber) growth and repair. Dystrophin deficiency in mouse models (e.g., mdx mouse) destabilizes the interface between muscle fibers and the extracellular matrix, resulting in profound damage, inflammation, and weakness in diaphragm and limb muscles. While the link between dystrophin deficiency with inflammation and pathology is multi-factorial, elevated oxidative stress has been proposed as a central mediator. Unfortunately, the use of non-specific antioxidant scavengers in mouse and human studies has led to inconsistent results, obscuring our understanding of the importance of redox signaling in pathology of muscular dystrophy. However, recent studies with more mechanistic approaches in mdx mice suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase and nuclear factor-kappaB are important in amplifying dystrophin-deficient muscle pathology. Therefore, more targeted antioxidant therapeutics may ameliorate damage and weakness in human population, thus promoting better muscle function and quality of life. This review will focus upon the pathobiology of dystrophin deficiency in diaphragm and limb muscle primarily in mouse models, with a rationale for development of targeted therapeutic antioxidants in DMD patients. PMID:23104273

Kim, Jong-Hee; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Thompson, LaDora V; Lawler, John M

2013-02-01

133

Generation of muscular dystrophy model rats with a CRISPR/Cas system  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene encoding Dystrophin12. DMD model animals, such as mdx mice and canine X-linked muscular dystrophy dogs, have been widely utilized in the development of a treatment for DMD3. Here, we demonstrate the generation of Dmd-mutated rats using a clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system, an RNA-based genome engineering technique that is also adaptive to rats. We simultaneously targeted two exons in the rat Dmd gene, which resulted in the absence of Dystrophin expression in the F0 generation. Dmd-mutated rats exhibited a decline in muscle strength, and the emergence of degenerative/regenerative phenotypes in the skeletal muscle, heart, and diaphragm. These mutations were heritable by the next generation, and F1 male rats exhibited similar phenotypes in their skeletal muscles. These model rats should prove to be useful for developing therapeutic methods to treat DMD. PMID:25005781

Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Fujii, Wataru; Tsuboi, Masaya; Tanihata, Jun; Teramoto, Naomi; Takeuchi, Shiho; Naito, Kunihiko; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

2014-01-01

134

Atrophy, fibrosis, and increased PAX7-positive cells in pharyngeal muscles of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy patients.  

PubMed

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset autosomal dominant inherited dystrophy caused by an abnormal trinucleotide repeat expansion in the poly(A)-binding-protein-nuclear 1 (PABPN1) gene. Primary muscular targets of OPMD are the eyelid elevator and pharyngeal muscles, including the cricopharyngeal muscle (CPM), the progressive involution of which leads to ptosis and dysphagia, respectively. To understand the consequences of PABPN1 polyalanine expansion in OPMD, we studied muscle biopsies from 14 OPMD patients, 3 inclusion body myositis patients, and 9 healthy controls. In OPMD patient CPM (n = 6), there were typical dystrophic features with extensive endomysial fibrosis and marked atrophy of myosin heavy-chain IIa fibers. There were more PAX7-positive cells in all CPM versus other muscles (n = 5, control; n = 3, inclusion body myositis), and they were more numerous in OPMD CPM versus control normal CPM without any sign of muscle regeneration. Intranuclear inclusions were present in all OPMD muscles but unaffected OPMD patient muscles (i.e. sternocleidomastoid, quadriceps, or deltoid; n = 14) did not show evidence of fibrosis, atrophy, or increased PAX7-positive cell numbers. These results suggest that the specific involvement of CPM in OPMD might be caused by failure of the regenerative response with dysfunction of PAX7-positive cells and exacerbated fibrosis that does not correlate with the presence of PABPN1 inclusions. PMID:23399899

Gidaro, Teresa; Negroni, Elisa; Perié, Sophie; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Lainé, Jeanne; Lacau St Guily, Jean; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Trollet, Capucine

2013-03-01

135

Antisense-induced multiexon skipping for Duchenne muscular dystrophy makes more sense.  

PubMed

Dystrophin deficiency, which leads to severe and progressive muscle degeneration in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), is caused by frameshifting mutations in the dystrophin gene. A relatively new therapeutic strategy is based on antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) that induce the specific skipping of a single exon, such that the reading frame is restored. This allows the synthesis of a largely functional dystrophin, associated with a milder Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype. We have previously successfully targeted 20 different DMD exons that would, theoretically, be beneficial for >75% of all patients. To further enlarge this proportion, we here studied the feasibility of double and multiexon skipping. Using a combination of AONs, double skipping of exon 43 and 44 was induced, and dystrophin synthesis was restored in myotubes from one patient affected by a nonsense mutation in exon 43. For another patient, with an exon 46-50 deletion, the therapeutic double skipping of exon 45 and 51 was achieved. Remarkably, in control myotubes, the latter combination of AONs caused the skipping of the entire stretch of exons from 45 through 51. This in-frame multiexon skipping would be therapeutic for a series of patients carrying different DMD-causing mutations. In fact, we here demonstrate its feasibility in myotubes from a patient with an exon 48-50 deletion. The application of multiexon skipping may provide a more uniform methodology for a larger group of patients with DMD. PMID:14681829

Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Janson, Anneke A M; Kaman, Wendy E; Bremmer-Bout, Mattie; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; den Dunnen, Johan T; van Deutekom, Judith C T

2004-01-01

136

Antisense-Induced Multiexon Skipping for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Makes More Sense  

PubMed Central

Dystrophin deficiency, which leads to severe and progressive muscle degeneration in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), is caused by frameshifting mutations in the dystrophin gene. A relatively new therapeutic strategy is based on antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) that induce the specific skipping of a single exon, such that the reading frame is restored. This allows the synthesis of a largely functional dystrophin, associated with a milder Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype. We have previously successfully targeted 20 different DMD exons that would, theoretically, be beneficial for >75% of all patients. To further enlarge this proportion, we here studied the feasibility of double and multiexon skipping. Using a combination of AONs, double skipping of exon 43 and 44 was induced, and dystrophin synthesis was restored in myotubes from one patient affected by a nonsense mutation in exon 43. For another patient, with an exon 46–50 deletion, the therapeutic double skipping of exon 45 and 51 was achieved. Remarkably, in control myotubes, the latter combination of AONs caused the skipping of the entire stretch of exons from 45 through 51. This in-frame multiexon skipping would be therapeutic for a series of patients carrying different DMD-causing mutations. In fact, we here demonstrate its feasibility in myotubes from a patient with an exon 48–50 deletion. The application of multiexon skipping may provide a more uniform methodology for a larger group of patients with DMD. PMID:14681829

Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Janson, Anneke A. M.; Kaman, Wendy E.; Bremmer-Bout, Mattie; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; van Deutekom, Judith C. T.

2004-01-01

137

Diaphragm remodeling and compensatory respiratory mechanics in a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Ventilatory insufficiency remains the leading cause of death and late stage morbidity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). To address critical gaps in our knowledge of the pathobiology of respiratory functional decline, we used an integrative approach to study respiratory mechanics in a translational model of DMD. In studies of individual dogs with the Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) mutation, we found evidence of rapidly progressive loss of ventilatory capacity in association with dramatic morphometric remodeling of the diaphragm. Within the first year of life, the mechanics of breathing at rest, and especially during pharmacological stimulation of respiratory control pathways in the carotid bodies, shift such that the primary role of the diaphragm becomes the passive elastic storage of energy transferred from abdominal wall muscles, thereby permitting the expiratory musculature to share in the generation of inspiratory pressure and flow. In the diaphragm, this physiological shift is associated with the loss of sarcomeres in series (? 60%) and an increase in muscle stiffness (? 900%) compared with those of the nondystrophic diaphragm, as studied during perfusion ex vivo. In addition to providing much needed endpoint measures for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics, we expect these findings to be a starting point for a more precise understanding of respiratory failure in DMD. PMID:24408990

Mead, A F; Petrov, M; Malik, A S; Mitchell, M A; Childers, M K; Bogan, J R; Seidner, G; Kornegay, J N; Stedman, H H

2014-04-01

138

Exacerbation of pathology by oxidative stress in respiratory and locomotor muscles with Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most devastating type of muscular dystrophy, leading to progressive weakness of respiratory (e.g. diaphragm) and locomotor muscles (e.g. gastrocnemius). DMD is caused by X-linked defects in the gene that encodes for dystrophin, a key scaffolding protein of the dystroglycan complex (DCG) within the sarcolemmal cytoskeleton. As a result of a compromised dystroglycan complex, mechanical integrity is impaired and important signalling proteins (e.g. nNOS, caveolin-3) and pathways are disrupted. Disruption of the dystroglycan complex leads to high susceptibility to injury with repeated, eccentric contractions as well as inflammation, resulting in significant damage and necrosis. Chronic damage and repair cycling leads to fibrosis and weakness. While the link between inflammation with damage and weakness in the DMD diaphragm is unresolved, elevated oxidative stress may contribute to damage, weakness and possibly fibrosis. While utilization of non-specific antioxidant interventions has yielded inconsistent results, recent data suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase could play a pivotal role in elevating oxidative stress via integrated changes in caveolin-3 and stretch-activated channels (SACs). Oxidative stress may act as an amplifier, exacerbating disruption of the dystroglycan complex, upregulation of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-?B, and thus functional impairment of force-generating capacity. PMID:21486793

Lawler, John M

2011-01-01

139

Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Modulating Autophagy as a Promising Therapeutic Strategy  

PubMed Central

Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic and heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders characterized by the primary wasting of skeletal muscle. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most severe form of these diseases, the mutations in the dystrophin gene lead to muscle weakness and wasting, exhaustion of muscular regenerative capacity, and chronic local inflammation leading to substitution of myofibers by connective and adipose tissue. DMD patients suffer from continuous and progressive skeletal muscle damage followed by complete paralysis and death, usually by respiratory and/or cardiac failure. No cure is yet available, but several therapeutic approaches aiming at reversing the ongoing degeneration have been investigated in preclinical and clinical settings. Autophagy is an important proteolytic system of the cell and has a crucial role in the removal of proteins, aggregates, and organelles. Autophagy is constantly active in skeletal muscle and its role in tissue homeostasis is complex: at high levels, it can be detrimental and contribute to muscle wasting; at low levels, it can cause weakness and muscle degeneration, due to the unchecked accumulation of damaged proteins and organelles. The causal relationship between DMD pathogenesis and dysfunctional autophagy has been recently investigated. At molecular level, the Akt axis is one of the key dysregulated pathways, although the molecular events are not completely understood. The aim of this review is to describe and discuss the clinical relevance of the recent advances dissecting autophagy and its signaling pathway in DMD. The picture might pave the way for the development of interventions that are able to boost muscle growth and/or prevent muscle wasting. PMID:25104934

De Palma, Clara; Perrotta, Cristiana; Pellegrino, Paolo; Clementi, Emilio; Cervia, Davide

2014-01-01

140

Gene Expression Profiling in Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2A  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is a recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in calpain 3 (CAPN3). Calpain 3 plays different roles in muscular cells, but little is known about its functions or in vivo substrates. The aim of this study was to identify the genes showing an altered expression in LGMD2A patients and the possible pathways they are implicated in. Ten muscle samples from LGMD2A patients with in which molecular diagnosis was ascertained were investigated using array technology to analyze gene expression profiling as compared to ten normal muscle samples. Upregulated genes were mostly those related to extracellular matrix (different collagens), cell adhesion (fibronectin), muscle development (myosins and melusin) and signal transduction. It is therefore suggested that different proteins located or participating in the costameric region are implicated in processes regulated by calpain 3 during skeletal muscle development. Genes participating in the ubiquitin proteasome degradation pathway were found to be deregulated in LGMD2A patients, suggesting that regulation of this pathway may be under the control of calpain 3 activity. As frizzled-related protein (FRZB) is upregulated in LGMD2A muscle samples, it could be hypothesized that ?-catenin regulation is also altered at the Wnt signaling pathway, leading to an incorrect myogenesis. Conversely, expression of most transcription factor genes was downregulated (MYC, FOS and EGR1). Finally, the upregulation of IL-32 and immunoglobulin genes may induce the eosinophil chemoattraction explaining the inflammatory findings observed in presymptomatic stages. The obtained results try to shed some light on identification of novel therapeutic targets for limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. PMID:19015733

Sáenz, Amets; Azpitarte, Margarita; Armañanzas, Rubén; Leturcq, France; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Inza, Iñaki; García-Bragado, Federico; De la Herran, Gaspar; Corcuera, Julián; Cabello, Ana; Navarro, Carmen; De la Torre, Carolina; Gallardo, Eduard; Illa, Isabel; de Munain, Adolfo López

2008-01-01

141

Enhanced Ca²? influx from STIM1-Orai1 induces muscle pathology in mouse models of muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Muscular dystrophy is a progressive muscle wasting disease that is thought to be initiated by unregulated Ca(2+) influx into myofibers leading to their death. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) through sarcolemmal Ca(2+) selective Orai1 channels in complex with STIM1 in the sarcoplasmic reticulum is one such potential disease mechanism for pathologic Ca(2+) entry. Here, we generated a mouse model of STIM1 overexpression in skeletal muscle to determine whether this type of Ca(2+) entry could induce muscular dystrophy. Myofibers from muscle-specific STIM1 transgenic mice showed a significant increase in SOCE in skeletal muscle, modeling an observed increase in the same current in dystrophic myofibers. Histological and biochemical analysis of STIM1 transgenic mice showed fulminant muscle disease characterized by myofiber necrosis, swollen mitochondria, infiltration of inflammatory cells, enhanced interstitial fibrosis and elevated serum creatine kinase levels. This dystrophic-like disease in STIM1 transgenic mice was abrogated by crossing in a transgene expressing a dominant-negative Orai1 (dnOrai1) mutant. The dnOrai1 transgene also significantly reduced the severity of muscular dystrophy in both mdx (dystrophin mutant mice) and ?-sarcoglycan-deficient (Sgcd(-/-)) mouse models of disease. Hence, Ca(2+) influx across an unstable sarcolemma due to increased activity of a STIM1-Orai1 complex is a disease determinant in muscular dystrophy, and hence, SOCE represents a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24556214

Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A; Davis, Jennifer; Kwong, Jennifer Q; Accornero, Federica; Wei-LaPierre, Lan; Sargent, Michelle A; Dirksen, Robert T; Molkentin, Jeffery D

2014-07-15

142

The seventh form of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is mapped to 17q11-12.  

PubMed Central

The group of autosomal recessive (AR) muscular dystrophies includes, among others, two main clinical entities, the limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) and the distal muscular dystrophies. The former are characterized mainly by muscle wasting of the upper and lower limbs, with a wide range of clinical severity. This clinical heterogeneity has been demonstrated at the molecular level, since the genes for six AR forms have been cloned and/or have been mapped to 15q15.1 (LGMD2A), 2p12-16 (LGMD2B), 13q12 (LGMD2C), 17q12-q21.33 (LGMD2D),4q12 (LGMD2E), and 5q33-34 (LGMD2F). The AR distal muscular dystrophies originally included two subgroups, Miyoshi myopathy, characterized mainly by extremely elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and by a dystrophic muscle pattern, and Nonaka myopathy, which is distinct from the others because of the normal to slightly elevated serum CK levels and a myopathic muscle pattern with rimmed vacuoles. With regard to our unclassified AR LGMD families, analysis of the affected sibs from one of them (family LG61) revealed some clinical and laboratory findings (early involvement of the distal muscles, mildly elevated serum CK levels, and rimmed vacuoles in muscle biopsies) that usually are not observed in the analysis of patients with LGMD2A-LGMD2F. In the present investigation, through a genomewide search in family LG61, we demonstrated linkage of the allele causing this form of muscular dystrophy to a 3-cM region on 17q11-12. We suggest that this form, which, interestingly, clinically resembles AR Kugelberg-Welander disease, should be classified as LGMD2G. In addition, our results indicate the existence of still another locus causing severe LGMD. Images Figure 1 PMID:9245996

Moreira, E S; Vainzof, M; Marie, S K; Sertié, A L; Zatz, M; Passos-Bueno, M R

1997-01-01

143

The seventh form of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is mapped to 17q11-12.  

PubMed

The group of autosomal recessive (AR) muscular dystrophies includes, among others, two main clinical entities, the limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) and the distal muscular dystrophies. The former are characterized mainly by muscle wasting of the upper and lower limbs, with a wide range of clinical severity. This clinical heterogeneity has been demonstrated at the molecular level, since the genes for six AR forms have been cloned and/or have been mapped to 15q15.1 (LGMD2A), 2p12-16 (LGMD2B), 13q12 (LGMD2C), 17q12-q21.33 (LGMD2D),4q12 (LGMD2E), and 5q33-34 (LGMD2F). The AR distal muscular dystrophies originally included two subgroups, Miyoshi myopathy, characterized mainly by extremely elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and by a dystrophic muscle pattern, and Nonaka myopathy, which is distinct from the others because of the normal to slightly elevated serum CK levels and a myopathic muscle pattern with rimmed vacuoles. With regard to our unclassified AR LGMD families, analysis of the affected sibs from one of them (family LG61) revealed some clinical and laboratory findings (early involvement of the distal muscles, mildly elevated serum CK levels, and rimmed vacuoles in muscle biopsies) that usually are not observed in the analysis of patients with LGMD2A-LGMD2F. In the present investigation, through a genomewide search in family LG61, we demonstrated linkage of the allele causing this form of muscular dystrophy to a 3-cM region on 17q11-12. We suggest that this form, which, interestingly, clinically resembles AR Kugelberg-Welander disease, should be classified as LGMD2G. In addition, our results indicate the existence of still another locus causing severe LGMD. PMID:9245996

Moreira, E S; Vainzof, M; Marie, S K; Sertié, A L; Zatz, M; Passos-Bueno, M R

1997-07-01

144

Sparing of extraocular muscle in aging and muscular dystrophies: a myogenic precursor cell hypothesis.  

PubMed

The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even in aging. These data suggested the hypothesis that there is a population of myogenic precursor cells (mpcs) in EOM that is different from those in limb, with either elevated numbers of stem cells and/or mpcs with superior proliferative capacity compared to mpcs in limb. Using flow cytometry, EOM and limb muscle mononuclear cells were compared, and a number of differences were seen. Using two different cell isolation methods, EOM have significantly more mpcs per mg muscle than limb skeletal muscle. One specific subpopulation significantly increased in EOM compared to limb was positive for CD34 and negative for Sca-1, M-cadherin, CD31, and CD45. We named these the EOMCD34 cells. Similar percentages of EOMCD34 cells were present in both newborn EOM and limb muscle. They were retained in aged EOM, whereas the population decreased significantly in adult limb muscle and were extremely scarce in aged limb muscle. Most importantly, the percentage of EOMCD34 cells was elevated in the EOM from both the mdx and the mdx/utrophin(-/-) (DKO) mouse models of DMD and extremely scarce in the limb muscles of these mice. In vitro, the EOMCD34 cells had myogenic potential, forming myotubes in differentiation media. After determining a media better able to induce proliferation in these cells, a fusion index was calculated. The cells isolated from EOM had a 40% higher fusion index compared to the same cells isolated from limb muscle. The EOMCD34 cells were resistant to both oxidative stress and mechanical injury. These data support our hypothesis that the EOM may be spared in aging and in muscular dystrophies due to a subpopulation of mpcs, the EOMCD34 cells, that are retained in significantly higher percentages in normal, mdx and DKO mice EOM, appear to be resistant to elevated levels of oxidative stress and toxins, and actively proliferate throughout life. Current studies are focused on further defining the EOMCD34 cell subtype molecularly, with the hopes that this may shed light on a cell type with potential therapeutic use in patients with sarcopenia, cachexia, or muscular dystrophy. PMID:21277300

Kallestad, Kristen M; Hebert, Sadie L; McDonald, Abby A; Daniel, Mark L; Cu, Sharon R; McLoon, Linda K

2011-04-01

145

Sparing of extraocular muscle in aging and muscular dystrophies: A myogenic precursor cell hypothesis  

SciTech Connect

The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even in aging. These data suggested the hypothesis that there is a population of myogenic precursor cells (mpcs) in EOM that is different from those in limb, with either elevated numbers of stem cells and/or mpcs with superior proliferative capacity compared to mpcs in limb. Using flow cytometry, EOM and limb muscle mononuclear cells were compared, and a number of differences were seen. Using two different cell isolation methods, EOM have significantly more mpcs per mg muscle than limb skeletal muscle. One specific subpopulation significantly increased in EOM compared to limb was positive for CD34 and negative for Sca-1, M-cadherin, CD31, and CD45. We named these the EOMCD34 cells. Similar percentages of EOMCD34 cells were present in both newborn EOM and limb muscle. They were retained in aged EOM, whereas the population decreased significantly in adult limb muscle and were extremely scarce in aged limb muscle. Most importantly, the percentage of EOMCD34 cells was elevated in the EOM from both the mdx and the mdx/utrophin{sup -/-} (DKO) mouse models of DMD and extremely scarce in the limb muscles of these mice. In vitro, the EOMCD34 cells had myogenic potential, forming myotubes in differentiation media. After determining a media better able to induce proliferation in these cells, a fusion index was calculated. The cells isolated from EOM had a 40% higher fusion index compared to the same cells isolated from limb muscle. The EOMCD34 cells were resistant to both oxidative stress and mechanical injury. These data support our hypothesis that the EOM may be spared in aging and in muscular dystrophies due to a subpopulation of mpcs, the EOMCD34 cells, that are retained in significantly higher percentages in normal, mdx and DKO mice EOM, appear to be resistant to elevated levels of oxidative stress and toxins, and actively proliferate throughout life. Current studies are focused on further defining the EOMCD34 cell subtype molecularly, with the hopes that this may shed light on a cell type with potential therapeutic use in patients with sarcopenia, cachexia, or muscular dystrophy.

Kallestad, Kristen M.; Hebert, Sadie L.; McDonald, Abby A.; Daniel, Mark L.; Cu, Sharon R.; McLoon, Linda K., E-mail: mcloo001@tc.umn.edu

2011-04-01

146

Muscular dystrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... is a group of inherited disorders that cause muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue, which get worse over time. ... of strength in a muscle or group of muscles as an adult Loss in muscle size Problems walking (delayed walking) Intellectual ...

147

Upper extremity function and activity in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The aims of this review were (1) to provide insight into the natural course of upper-extremity (UE) impairments and UE activity limitations associated with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD), and (2) to provide an overview of outcome measures used to evaluate UE function and activity in patients with FSHD and LGMD. Methods: Scientific literature databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane) were searched for relevant publications. Inclusion criteria: (1) studies that included persons with a diagnosis of FSHD or LGMD; and (2) studies that reported the natural course of the UE functions and/or activity with outcome measures at these levels. Results: 247 publications were screened, of which 16 fulfilled the selection criteria. Most studies used manual muscle testing (MMT) to evaluate UE function and the Brooke Scale to evaluate UE mobility activities. The clinical picture of UE impairments and limitations of UE activities in FSHD and LGMD patients was highly variable. In general, FSHD and LGMD patients experience difficulty elevating their upper extremities and the execution of tasks takes considerably longer time. Conclusions: The clinical course of UE impairments and activity limitations associated with FSHD and LGMD is difficult to predict due to its high variability. Although measures like MMT and the Brooke Scale are often used, there is a lack of more specific outcome measures to assess UE function and UE capacity and performance in daily life. Measures such as 3D motion analysis and electromyography (EMG) recordings are recommended to provide additional insight in UE function. Questionnaires like the Abilhand are recommended to assess UE capacity and accelerometry to assess UE performance in daily life. Implications for Rehabilitation There is a need for specific outcome measures on the level of UE activity. Both the level of capacity and performance should be assessed. Possible outcome measures include 3D motion analysis to assess UE function, questionnaires like the Abilhand to assess UE capacity and accelerometry to assess performance of UE activities in daily life. PMID:25098592

Bergsma, Arjen; Cup, Edith H C; Geurts, Alexander C H; de Groot, Imelda J M

2014-08-01

148

Respiratory and cardiac function in congenital muscular dystrophies with alpha dystroglycan deficiency  

PubMed Central

The aim of this retrospective study was to assess respiratory and cardiac function in a large cohort of patients with congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) with reduced glycosylation of alphadystroglycan (?-DG). Thirteen of the 115 patients included in the study died between the age of 1 month and 20 years. The age at last follow up of the surviving 102 ranged between 1 year and 68 years (median: 9.3 years). Cardiac involvement was found in 7 of the 115 (6%), 5 with dilated cardiomyopathy, 1 cardiac conductions defects and 1 mitral regurgitation. Respiratory function was impaired in 14 (12%). Ten of the 14 required non invasive nocturnal respiratory support, while the other four required invasive ventilation. Cardiac or respiratory involvement was found in patients with mutations in FKRP, POMT1, POMT2. All of the patients in whom mutation in POMGnT1 were identified had normal cardiac and respiratory function. PMID:22727687

Pane, M.; Messina, S.; Vasco, G.; Foley, A.R.; Morandi, L.; Pegoraro, E.; Mongini, T.; D’Amico, A.; Bianco, F.; Lombardo, M.E.; Scalise, R.; Bruno, C.; Berardinelli, A.; Pini, A.; Moroni, I.; Mora, M.; Toscano, A.; Moggio, M.; Comi, G.; Santorelli, F.M.; Bertini, E.; Muntoni, F.; Mercuri, E.

2012-01-01

149

Robust analysis in joint models: an application to a study on muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Generalized partial ordinal models occur frequently in biomedical investigations where, along with ordinal longitudinal outcomes, there are time-dependent covariates that act nonparametrically. In these studies, an association between such outcomes and time to an event is of considerable interest to medical practitioners. The primary objective in the present article is to study the robustness of estimators of the parameters of interest in a joint generalized partial ordinal models and a time-to-event model, because in many situations, the estimators in such joint models are sensitive to outliers. A Monte Carlo Metropolis-Hastings Newton Raphson algorithm is proposed for robust estimation. A detailed simulation study was performed to justify the behavior of the proposed estimators. By way of motivation, we consider a data set concerning longitudinal outcomes of children involved in a study on muscular dystrophy. Our analysis revealed some interesting findings that may be useful to medical practitioners. PMID:22815236

Das, Kalyan; Chakraborty, Arindom

2012-12-20

150

Mesenchymal stem cells as anti-inflammatories: implications for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked musculodegenerative condition consisting of an underlying genetic defect whose manifestation is augmented by inflammatory mechanisms. Previous treatment approaches using gene replacement, exon-skipping or allogeneic cell therapy have been relatively unsuccessful. The only intervention to mediate improvement in survival, albeit minor, is glucocorticoid treatment. Given this modality appears to function via suppression of underlying inflammation; we focus this review on the inflammatory response as a target for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy. In contrast to other cell based therapies attempted in DMD, MSC have the advantages of (a) ability to fuse with and genetically complement dystrophic muscle; (b) possess anti-inflammatory activities; and (c) produce trophic factors that may augment activity of endogenous repair cells. We conclude by describing one practical scenario of stem cell therapy for DMD. PMID:19917503

Ichim, Thomas E; Alexandrescu, Doru T; Solano, Fabio; Lara, Fabian; Campion, Rosalia De Necochea; Paris, Eugenia; Woods, Erik J; Murphy, Michael P; Dasanu, Constantin A; Patel, Amit N; Marleau, Annette M; Leal, Alejandro; Riordan, Neil H

2010-01-01

151

Intermittent Pre-Excitation-Syndrome in Facio-Scapulo-Humeral Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Pre-excitation-syndrome has not been reported as a phenotypic feature of facio-scapulo-humeral muscular dystrophy (FSH-MD). In a 39-year-old male with FSH-MD due to a reduced tandem repeat size in the D4Z4-locus on chromosome 4q35, cardiac involvement, manifesting as an incomplete right bundle-branch-block, tall T-waves in V 3-5, ST-elevation in V 2-4, and mild thickening of the left ventricular myocardium, was first recognised 10 years earlier. Follow-up at age 39 years revealed mild myocardial thickening, two intra-ventricular aberrant bands, and, surprisingly, intermittent pre-excitation on a routine electrocardiography. Cardiac involvement in FSH-MD may manifest as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or various arrhythmias, of which one may be pre-excitation-syndrome. PMID:25278989

Stöllberger, Claudia; Gatterer, Edmund; Jakubiczka, Sibylle

2014-01-01

152

Mammalian Models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Pathological Characteristics and Therapeutic Applications  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating X-linked muscle disorder characterized by muscle wasting which is caused by mutations in the DMD gene. The DMD gene encodes the sarcolemmal protein dystrophin, and loss of dystrophin causes muscle degeneration and necrosis. Thus far, therapies for this disorder are unavailable. However, various therapeutic trials based on gene therapy, exon skipping, cell therapy, read through therapy, or pharmaceutical agents have been conducted extensively. In the development of therapy as well as elucidation of pathogenesis in DMD, appropriate animal models are needed. Various animal models of DMD have been identified, and mammalian (murine, canine, and feline) models are indispensable for the examination of the mechanisms of pathogenesis and the development of therapies. Here, we review the pathological features of DMD and therapeutic applications, especially of exon skipping using antisense oligonucleotides and gene therapies using viral vectors in murine and canine models of DMD. PMID:21274260

Nakamura, Akinori; Takeda, Shin'ichi

2011-01-01

153

RISCALW: a Windows program for risk calculation in families with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

RISCALW is a novel convenient Windows program for risk calculation in families with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. It is based on an extended genetic model which includes germline mosaicism and different new mutation rates depending on sex and mutation type. Arbitrary family structures and additional diagnostic information such as genotypes from intragenic and flanking genetic markers of the dystrophin gene, creatin kinase values, and female deletion test results can be taken into account. Comprehensive online help is available. RISCALW has been extensively tested in more than 100 families. The user is able to perform risk calculations in large families in an easy way, and thus explore the dependence of the results on different model assumptions, for example different mutation rates in males and females. A detailed handbook and example files are distributed with the program. RISCALW is freely available for scientific use at http://www.riscalw.uni-hd.de. PMID:16626334

Fischer, C; Krüger, J; Gross, W

2006-03-01

154

The role of proteases in excitation-contraction coupling failure in muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most frequent types of muscular dystrophy. Alterations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) handling are thought to contribute to the disease severity in DMD, possibly due to the activation of Ca(2+)-activated proteases. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine whether prolonged excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling disruption following repeated contractions is greater in animals lacking both dystrophin and utrophin (mdx/Utr(-/-)) compared with mice lacking only dystrophin (mdx); and 2) to assess whether protease inhibition can prevent E-C coupling failure following repeated tetani in these dystrophic mouse models. Excitation-contraction coupling was assessed using Fura-2 ratio, as an index of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, in response to electrical stimulation of single muscle fibers from the flexor digitorum brevis muscle. Resting Fura-2 ratio was higher in dystrophic compared with control (Con) fibers, but peak Fura-2 ratios during stimulation were similar in dystrophic and Con fibers. One hour after a series of repeated tetani, peak Fura-2 ratios were reduced by 30 ± 5.6%, 23 ± 2%, and 36 ± 3.1% in mdx, mdx/Utr(+/-), and mdx/Utr(-/-), respectively, with the greatest reduction in mdx/Utr(-/-) fibers (P < 0.05). Protease inhibition attenuated this decrease in peak Fura-2 ratio. These data indicate that E-C coupling impairment after repeated contractions is greatest in fibers lacking both dystrophin and utrophin and that prevention of protease activation can mitigate the prolonged E-C coupling impairment. These data further suggest that acute protease inhibition may be useful in reducing muscle weakness in DMD. PMID:25298424

Mázala, Davi A G; Grange, Robert W; Chin, Eva R

2015-01-01

155

Pharmacologic Management of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Target Identification and Preclinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked human disorder in which absence of the protein dystrophin causes degeneration of skeletal and cardiac muscle. For the sake of treatment development, over and above definitive genetic and cell-based therapies, there is considerable interest in drugs that target downstream disease mechanisms. Drug candidates have typically been chosen based on the nature of pathologic lesions and presumed underlying mechanisms and then tested in animal models. Mammalian dystrophinopathies have been characterized in mice (mdx mouse) and dogs (golden retriever muscular dystrophy [GRMD]). Despite promising results in the mdx mouse, some therapies have not shown efficacy in DMD. Although the GRMD model offers a higher hurdle for translation, dogs have primarily been used to test genetic and cellular therapies where there is greater risk. Failed translation of animal studies to DMD raises questions about the propriety of methods and models used to identify drug targets and test efficacy of pharmacologic intervention. The mdx mouse and GRMD dog are genetically homologous to DMD but not necessarily analogous. Subcellular species differences are undoubtedly magnified at the whole-body level in clinical trials. This problem is compounded by disparate cultures in clinical trials and preclinical studies, pointing to a need for greater rigor and transparency in animal experiments. Molecular assays such as mRNA arrays and genome-wide association studies allow identification of genetic drug targets more closely tied to disease pathogenesis. Genes in which polymorphisms have been directly linked to DMD disease progression, as with osteopontin, are particularly attractive targets. PMID:24936034

Kornegay, Joe N.; Spurney, Christopher F.; Nghiem, Peter P.; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

2014-01-01

156

Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A: A case report.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical and genetic features of a 4-year-old female with merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A). MDC1A is the most common form of congenital muscular dystrophy. MDC1A is caused by mutation of the laminin ?-2 gene (LAMA2), localized to chromosome 6q22-23. Clinical presentation, as well as the results of neuro-imaging, electrophysiology and molecular genetic tests were used to evaluate a patient with MDC1A. The patient exhibited severe hypotonia and marked proximal weakness at 6 months of age, as well as delayed developmental milestones. The serum creatine kinase levels of the patient were elevated at 1,556 IU/l. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the white matter in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes was abnormal with low signal intensities on T1-weighted images and high signal intensities on T2-weighted images; however, the cortex was normal. Sequencing of the 65 exons of the LAMA2 revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in exon 50: a C>T exchange in nucleotide 7147 that resulted in a stop codon (Arg2383X stop). Molecular genetic testing is a reliable method for confirming a diagnosis of MDC1A. When a patient presents with severe congenital hypotonia, muscle weakness, high serum creatine kinase (CK) levels and white matter abnormalities, the evaluation may directly proceed to molecular genetic testing of the LAMA2 gene without performing a muscle biopsy. PMID:24223650

He, Zhanwen; Luo, Xiangyang; Liang, Liyang; Li, Pinggan; Li, Dongfang; Zhe, Meng

2013-11-01

157

Delayed bone regeneration is linked to chronic inflammation in murine muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients exhibit skeletal muscle weakness with continuous cycles of muscle fiber degeneration/regeneration, chronic inflammation, low bone mineral density and increased risks of fracture. Fragility fractures and associated complications are considered as a consequence of the osteoporotic condition in these patients. Here, we aimed to establish the relationship between muscular dystrophy and fracture healing by assessing bone regeneration in mdx mice, a model of DMD with absence of osteoporosis. Our results illustrate that muscle defects in mdx mice impact the process of bone regeneration at various levels. In mdx fracture calluses, both cartilage and bone deposition were delayed followed by a delay in cartilage and bone remodeling. Vascularization of mdx fracture calluses was also decreased during the early stages of repair. Dystrophic muscles are known to contain elevated numbers of macrophages contributing to muscle degeneration. Accordingly, we observed increased macrophage recruitment in the mdx fracture calluses and abnormal macrophage accumulation throughout the process of bone regeneration. These changes in the inflammatory environment subsequently had an impact on the recruitment of osteoclasts and the remodeling phase of repair. Further damage to the mdx muscles, using a novel model of muscle trauma, amplified both the chronic inflammatory response and the delay in bone regeneration. In addition, PLX3397 treatment of mdx mice, a cFMS inhibitor in monocytes, partially rescued the bone repair defect through increasing cartilage deposition and decreasing macrophage number. In conclusion, chronic inflammation in mdx mice contributes to the fracture healing delay and is associated with a decrease in angiogenesis and a transient delay in osteoclast recruitment. By revealing the role of dystrophic muscle in regulating the inflammatory response during bone repair, our results emphasize the implication of muscle in the normal bone repair process and may lead to improved treatment of fragility fractures in DMD patients. PMID:23857747

Abou-Khalil, Rana; Yang, Frank; Mortreux, Marie; Lieu, Shirley; Yu, Yan-Yiu; Wurmser, Maud; Pereira, Catia; Relaix, Frédéric; Miclau, Theodore; Marcucio, Ralph S.; Colnot, Céline

2013-01-01

158

Skeletal muscle imaging in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, pattern and asymmetry of individual muscle involvement.  

PubMed

To better understand postural and movement disabilities, the pattern of total body muscle fat infiltration was analyzed in a large group of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Additionally, we studied whether residual D4Z4 repeat array length adjusted for age and gender could predict the degree of muscle involvement. Total body computed tomography scans of 70 patients were used to assess the degree of fat infiltration of 42 muscles from neck to ankle level on a semi-quantitative scale. Groups of muscles that highly correlated regarding fat infiltration were identified using factor analysis. Linear regression analysis was performed using muscle fat infiltration as the dependent variable and D4Z4 repeat length and age as independent variables. A pattern of muscle fat infiltration in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy could be constructed. Trunk muscles were most frequently affected. Of these, back extensors were more frequently affected than previously reported. Asymmetry in muscle involvement was seen in 45% of the muscles that were infiltrated with fat. The right-sided upper extremity showed significantly higher scores for fat infiltration compared to the left side, which could not be explained by handedness. It was possible to explain 29% of the fat infiltration based on D4Z4 repeat length, corrected for age and gender. Based on our results we conclude that frequent involvement of fat infiltration in back extensors, in addition to the abdominal muscles, emphasizes the extent of trunk involvement, which may have a profound impact on postural control even in otherwise mildly affected patients. PMID:25176503

Rijken, N H M; van der Kooi, E L; Hendriks, J C M; van Asseldonk, R J G P; Padberg, G W; Geurts, A C H; van Engelen, B G M

2014-12-01

159

Emerging gene editing strategies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy targeting stem cells  

PubMed Central

The progressive loss of muscle mass characteristic of many muscular dystrophies impairs the efficacy of most of the gene and molecular therapies currently being pursued for the treatment of those disorders. It is becoming increasingly evident that a therapeutic application, to be effective, needs to target not only mature myofibers, but also muscle progenitors cells or muscle stem cells able to form new muscle tissue and to restore myofibers lost as the result of the diseases or during normal homeostasis so as to guarantee effective and lost lasting effects. Correction of the genetic defect using oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) or engineered nucleases holds great potential for the treatment of many of the musculoskeletal disorders. The encouraging results obtained by studying in vitro systems and model organisms have set the groundwork for what is likely to become an emerging field in the area of molecular and regenerative medicine. Furthermore, the ability to isolate and expand from patients various types of muscle progenitor cells capable of committing to the myogenic lineage provides the opportunity to establish cell lines that can be used for transplantation following ex vivo manipulation and expansion. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on approaches aimed at correcting the genetic defect using gene editing strategies and currently under development for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most sever of the neuromuscular disorders. Emphasis will be placed on describing the potential of using the patient own stem cell as source of transplantation and the challenges that gene editing technologies face in the field of regenerative biology. PMID:24795643

Bertoni, Carmen

2014-01-01

160

Becker muscular dystrophy severity is linked to the structure of dystrophin.  

PubMed

In-frame exon deletions of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produce internally truncated proteins that typically lead to Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), a milder allelic disorder of DMD. We hypothesized that differences in the structure of mutant dystrophin may be responsible for the clinical heterogeneity observed in Becker patients and we studied four prevalent in-frame exon deletions, i.e. ?45-47, ?45-48, ?45-49 and ?45-51. Molecular homology modelling revealed that the proteins corresponding to deletions ?45-48 and ?45-51 displayed a similar structure (hybrid repeat) than the wild-type dystrophin, whereas deletions ?45-47 and ?45-49 lead to proteins with an unrelated structure (fractional repeat). All four proteins in vitro expressed in a fragment encoding repeats 16-21 were folded in ?-helices and remained highly stable. Refolding dynamics were slowed and molecular surface hydrophobicity were higher in fractional repeat containing ?45-47 and ?45-49 deletions compared with hybrid repeat containing ?45-48 and ?45-51 deletions. By retrospectively collecting data for a series of French BMD patients, we showed that the age of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) onset was delayed by 11 and 14 years in ?45-48 and ?45-49 compared with ?45-47 patients, respectively. A clear trend toward earlier wheelchair dependency (minimum of 11 years) was also observed in ?45-47 and ?45-49 patients compared with ?45-48 patients. Muscle dystrophin levels were moderately reduced in most patients without clear correlation with the deletion type. Disease progression in BMD patients appears to be dependent on the deletion itself and associated with a specific structure of dystrophin at the deletion site. PMID:25348330

Nicolas, Aurélie; Raguénès-Nicol, Céline; Ben Yaou, Rabah; Ameziane-Le Hir, Sarah; Chéron, Angélique; Vié, Véronique; Claustres, Mireille; Leturcq, France; Delalande, Olivier; Hubert, Jean-François; Tuffery-Giraud, Sylvie; Giudice, Emmanuel; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth

2015-03-01

161

The involvement of collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 in muscular dystrophies.  

PubMed

Fibrosis is the main complication of muscular dystrophies. We identified collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1) in skeletal and cardiac muscles of mice, representing Duchenne and congenital muscle dystrophies (DMD and CMD, respectively), and dysferlinopathy. In all of the mice, Cthrc1 was associated with high collagen type I levels; no Cthrc1 or collagen was observed in muscles of control mice. High levels of Cthrc1 were also observed in biopsy specimens from patients with DMD, in whom they were reversibly correlated with that of ?-dystroglycan, whereas collagen type I levels were elevated in all patients with DMD. At the muscle sites where collagen and Cthrc1 were adjacent, collagen fibers appeared smaller, suggesting involvement of Cthrc1 in collagen turnover. Halofuginone, an inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation downstream of the transforming growth factor-? signaling, reduced Cthrc1 levels in skeletal and cardiac muscles of mice, representing DMD, CMD, and dysferlinopathy. The myofibroblasts infiltrating the dystrophic muscles of the murine models of DMD, CMD, and dysferlinopathy were the source of Cthrc1. Transforming growth factor-? did not affect Cthrc1 levels in the mdx fibroblasts but decreased them in the control fibroblasts, in association with increased migration of mdx fibroblasts and dystrophic muscle invasion by myofibroblasts. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of Cthrc1 as a marker of the severity of the disease progression in the dystrophic muscles, and as a possible target for therapy. PMID:23274062

Spector, Itai; Zilberstein, Yael; Lavy, Adi; Genin, Olga; Barzilai-Tutsch, Hila; Bodanovsky, Ana; Halevy, Orna; Pines, Mark

2013-03-01

162

The empowerment of translational research: lessons from laminopathies  

PubMed Central

The need for a collaborative approach to complex inherited diseases collectively referred to as laminopathies, encouraged Italian researchers, geneticists, physicians and patients to join in the Italian Network for Laminopathies, in 2009. Here, we highlight the advantages and added value of such a multidisciplinary effort to understand pathogenesis, clinical aspects and try to find a cure for Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, Mandibuloacral dysplasia, Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria and forms of lamin-linked cardiomyopathy, neuropathy and lipodystrophy. PMID:22691392

2012-01-01

163

Autonomic, locomotor and cardiac abnormalities in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy: targeting the renin–angiotensin system  

PubMed Central

Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetic muscle diseases characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy. Mutations in sarcoglycans and other subunits of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex cause muscular dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy in animals and humans. Aberrant autonomic signalling is recognized in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. We hypothesized that activation of the renin–angiotensin system contributes to skeletal muscle and autonomic dysfunction in mice deficient in the sarcoglycan-? (Sgcd) gene at a young age and that this early autonomic dysfunction contributes to the later development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and increased mortality. We demonstrated that young Sgcd?/? mice exhibit histopathological features of skeletal muscle dystrophy, decreased locomotor activity and severe autonomic dysregulation, but normal LV function. Autonomic regulation continued to deteriorate in Sgcd?/? mice with age and was accompanied by LV dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy at older ages. Autonomic dysregulation at a young age predicted later development of LV dysfunction and higher mortality in Sgcd?/? mice. Treatment of Sgcd?/? mice with the angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker losartan for 8–9 weeks, beginning at 3 weeks of age, decreased fibrosis and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, increased locomotor activity and prevented autonomic dysfunction. Chronic infusion of the counter-regulatory peptide angiotensin-(1–7) resulted in similar protection. We conclude that activation of the renin–angiotensin system, at a young age, contributes to skeletal muscle and autonomic dysfunction in muscular dystrophy. We speculate that the latter is mediated via abnormal sensory nerve and/or cytokine signalling from dystrophic skeletal muscle to the brain and contributes to age-related LV dysfunction, dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias and premature death. Therefore, correcting the early autonomic dysregulation and renin–angiotensin system activation may provide a novel therapeutic approach in muscular dystrophy. PMID:24334334

Sabharwal, Rasna; Chapleau, MarkW.

2015-01-01

164

Dysregulation of matricellular proteins is an early signature of pathology in laminin-deficient muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background MDC1A is a congenital neuromuscular disorder with developmentally complex and progressive pathologies that results from a deficiency in the protein laminin ?2. MDC1A is associated with a multitude of pathologies, including increased apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis. In order to assess and treat a complicated disease such as MDC1A, we must understand the natural history of the disease so that we can identify early disease drivers and pinpoint critical time periods for implementing potential therapies. Results We found that DyW mice show significantly impaired myogenesis and high levels of apoptosis as early as postnatal week 1. We also saw a surge of inflammatory response at the first week, marked by high levels of infiltrating macrophages, nuclear factor ?B activation, osteopontin expression and overexpression of inflammatory cytokines. Fibrosis markers and related pathways were also observed to be elevated throughout early postnatal development in these mice, including periostin, collagen and fibronectin gene expression, as well as transforming growth factor ? signaling. Interestingly, fibronectin was found to be the predominant fibrous protein of the extracellular matrix in early postnatal development. Lastly, we observed upregulation in various genes related to angiotensin signaling. Methods We sought out to examine the dysregulation of various pathways throughout early development (postnatal weeks 1-4) in the DyW mouse, the most commonly used mouse model of laminin-deficient muscular dystrophy. Muscle function tests (stand-ups and retractions) as well as gene (qRT-PCR) and protein levels (western blot, ELISA), histology (H&E, picrosirius red staining) and immunohistochemistry (fibronectin, TUNEL assay) were used to assess dysregulation of matricelluar protieins. Conclusions Our results implicate the involvement of multiple signaling pathways in driving the earliest stages of pathology in DyW mice. As opposed to classical dystrophies, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the dysregulation of various matricellular proteins appears to be a distinct feature of the early progression of DyW pathology. On the basis of our results, we believe that therapies that may reduce apoptosis and stabilize the homeostasis of extracellular matrix proteins may have increased efficacy if started at a very early age. PMID:25075272

2014-01-01

165

New linkage data for the X-linked types of muscular dystrophy and G6PD variants, colour blindness, and Xg blood groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six families in which Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and G6PD or deutan colour blindness are segregating are reported. The sum of the lod-scores of these families together with three published previously indicates that the DMD locus is far from the G6PD:deutan cluster. The lod-scores of two families with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) informative for the G6PD locus together with those

Mayana Zatz; Sueli B. Itskan; Ruth Sanger; O. Frota-Pessoa; P. H. Saldanha

1974-01-01

166

Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy with cerebral white matter changes: a clue to its diagnosis beyond infancy.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old boy born by a third-degree consanguineous marriage presented with progressive muscle weakness and delayed motor milestones noticed in early infancy with preserved language and social milestones. Examination revealed generalised hypotonia and hyporeflexia. Baseline haematological and biochemical investigations were normal except for mildly elevated creatine kinase. Provisional diagnosis of congenital myopathy was entertained. We performed brain imaging to look for abnormalities associated with congenital muscular dystrophy even though there were only features of myopathy with normal mentation. An MRI of the brain revealed periventricular and subcortical white matter hyperintensities suggestive of leucoencephalopathy. Muscle biopsy findings were consistent with degenerative muscle changes and immunohistochemical staining for merosin was negative, thus confirming the diagnosis of merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. Supportive care in the form of physiotherapy was initiated. The family was offered genetic counselling in their second pregnancy and immunohistochemistry at 12 weeks confirmed the fetus to be affected, which was then terminated. PMID:24604798

Kumar, Sandeep; Aroor, Shrikiran; Mundkur, Suneel; Kumar, Maneesh

2014-01-01

167

Is functional dependence of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients determinant of the quality of life and burden of their caregivers?  

PubMed

Objective The relationship between functional dependence and quality of life (QOL) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and burden and QOL in caregivers is not clear. This study investigated possible relationships between functional dependence/QOL of DMD patients and QOL/burden of caregivers. Method This study included 35 boys (6-17 years) and respective caregivers (above 21 years). Caregivers answered to World Health Organization Quality of Life and Zarit Burden Interview questionnaires. Patients were assessed with the Motor Function Measure and the Autoquestionnaire Qualité de vie Enfant Imagé. Spearman correlations and linear regressions were run to investigate relationships between the variables. Results The occurrence of lower QOL and higher burden among the caregivers of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy was evidenced. The functional dependence of patients was not considered a determinant factor. Higher caregivers' burden was related to lower caregivers' QOL and to higher patients' ages. PMID:25608128

Moura, Maria Clara Drummond Soares de; Wutzki, Hanna Camila; Voos, Mariana Callil; Resende, Maria Bernadete Dutra; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Hasue, Renata Hydee

2015-01-01

168

Exploring the Frontiers of Therapeutic Exon Skipping for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy by Double Targeting within One or Multiple Exons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through antisense-induced single-, double-, and multiexon skipping, we have previously demonstrated restoration of dystrophin expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patient-derived muscle cells in vitro. In this study we further explored the frontiers of this strategy by using specific combinations of 2?-O-methyl phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) targeting either one or multiple exons. We show that skipping efficiencies may indeed be

Annemieke Aartsma-Rus; Wendy E. Kaman; Rudie Weij; Johan T. den Dunnen; Gert-Jan. B. van Ommen; Judith C. T. van Deutekom

2006-01-01

169

Strong correlation between the 6-minute walk test and accelerometry functional outcomes in boys with duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Accelerometry provides information on habitual physical capability that may be of value in the assessment of function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This preliminary investigation describes the relationship between community ambulation measured by the StepWatch activity monitor and the current standard of functional assessment, the 6-minute walk test, in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 13). All participants completed a 6-minute walk test and wore the StepWatch™ monitor for 5 consecutive days. Both the 6-minute walk test and StepWatch accelerometry identified a decreased capacity for ambulation in boys with Duchenne compared to healthy controls. There were strong, significant correlations between 6-minute walk distance and all StepWatch parameters in affected boys only (r = 0.701-0.804). These data proffer intriguing observations that warrant further exploration. Specifically, accelerometry outcomes may compliment the 6-minute walk test in assessment of therapeutic interventions for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:24762862

Davidson, Zoe E; Ryan, Monique M; Kornberg, Andrew J; Walker, Karen Z; Truby, Helen

2015-03-01

170

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of cardiomyopathy in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and 2I  

PubMed Central

Background Limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are inclusive of 7 autosomal dominant and 14 autosomal recessive disorders featuring progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Studies of cardiac function have not yet been well-defined in deficiencies of dysferlin (LGMD2B) and fukutin related protein (LGMD2I). In this study of patients with these two forms of limb girdle muscular dystrophy, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) was used to more specifically define markers of cardiomyopathy including systolic dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction. Methods Consecutive patients with genetically-proven LGMD types 2I (n = 7) and 2B (n = 9) and 8 control subjects were enrolled. All subjects underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) on a standard 1.5 Tesla clinical scanner with cine imaging for left ventricular (LV) volume and ejection fraction (EF) measurement, vector velocity analysis of cine data to calculate myocardial strain, and late post-gadolinium enhancement imaging (LGE) to assess for myocardial fibrosis. Results Sixteen LGMD patients (7 LGMD2I, 9 LGMD2B), and 8 control subjects completed CMR. All but one patient had normal LV size and systolic function; one (type 2I) had severe dilated cardiomyopathy. Of 15 LGMD patients with normal systolic function, LGE imaging revealed focal myocardial fibrosis in 7 (47%). Peak systolic circumferential strain rates were similar in patients vs. controls: ?endo was -23.8 ± 8.5vs. -23.9 ± 4.2%, ?epi was -11.5 ± 1.7% vs. -10.1 ± 4.2% (p = NS for all). Five of 7 LGE-positive patients had grade I diastolic dysfunction [2I (n = 2), 2B (n = 3)]. that was not present in any LGE-negative patients or controls. Conclusions LGMD2I and LGMD2B generally result in mild structural and functional cardiac abnormalities, though severe dilated cardiomyopathy may occur. Long-term studies are warranted to evaluate the prognostic significance of subclinical fibrosis detected by CMR in these patients. PMID:21816046

2011-01-01

171

Nuclear entrapment and extracellular depletion of PCOLCE is associated with muscle degeneration in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle fibrosis characterizes degenerated muscles in muscular dystrophies and in late onset myopathies. Fibrotic muscles often exhibit thickening of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The molecular regulation of this process is not fully understood. In oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD), an expansion of an alanine tract at the N-terminus of poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1) causes muscle symptoms. OPMD patient muscle degeneration initiates after midlife, while at an earlier age carriers of alanine expansion mutant PABPN1 (expPABPN1) are clinically pre-symptomatic. OPMD is characterized by fibrosis in skeletal muscles but the causative molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods We studied the molecular processes that are involved in OPMD pathology using cross-species mRNA expression profiles in muscles from patients and model systems. We identified significant dysregulation of the ECM functional group, among which the procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer 1 gene (PCOLCE) was consistently down-regulated across species. We investigated PCOLCE subcellular localization in OPMD muscle samples and OPMD model systems to investigate any functional relevance of PCOLCE down-regulation in this disease. Results We found that muscle degeneration in OPMD is associated with PCOLCE down-regulation. In addition to its known presence at the ECM, we also found PCOLCE within the nucleus of muscle cells. PCOLCE sub-cellular localization changes during myoblast cell fusion and is disrupted in cells expressing mutant expPABPN1. Our results show that PCOLCE binds to soluble PABPN1 and co-localizes with aggregated PABPN1 with a preference for the mutant protein. In muscle biopsies from OPMD patients we find that extracellular PCOLCE is depleted with its concomitant enrichment within the nuclear compartment. Conclusions PCOLCE regulates collagen processing at the ECM. Depletion of extracellular PCOLCE is associated with the expression of expPABPN1 in OPMD patient muscles. PCOLCE is also localized within the nucleus where it binds to PABPN1, suggesting that PCOLCE shuttles between the ECM and the nucleus. PCOLCE preferentially binds to expPABPN1. Nuclear-localized PCOLCE is enriched in muscle cells expressing expPABPN1. We suggest that nuclear entrapment of PCOLCE and its extracellular depletion represents a novel molecular mechanism in late-onset muscle fibrosis. PMID:23815790

2013-01-01

172

Longitudinal assessment of grip strength using bulb dynamometer in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Grip strength is used to infer functional status in several pathological conditions, and the hand dynamometer has been used to estimate performance in other areas. However, this relationship is controversial in neuromuscular diseases and studies with the bulb dynamometer comparing healthy children and children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) are limited. OBJECTIVE: The evolution of grip strength and the magnitude of weakness were examined in boys with DMD compared to healthy boys. The functional data of the DMD boys were correlated with grip strength. METHOD: Grip strength was recorded in 18 ambulant boys with DMD (Duchenne Group, DG) aged 4 to 13 years (mean 7.4±2.1) and 150 healthy volunteers (Control Group, CG) age-matched using a bulb dynamometer (North Coast- NC70154). The follow-up of the DG was 6 to 33 months (3-12 sessions), and functional performance was verified using the Vignos scale. RESULTS: There was no difference between grip strength obtained by the dominant and non-dominant side for both groups. Grip strength increased in the CG with chronological age while the DG remained stable or decreased. The comparison between groups showed significant difference in grip strength, with CG values higher than DG values (confidence interval of 95%). In summary, there was an increment in the differences between the groups with increasing age. Participants with 24 months or more of follow-up showed a progression of weakness as well as maintained Vignos scores. CONCLUSIONS: The amplitude of weakness increased with age in the DG. The bulb dynamometer detected the progression of muscular weakness. Functional performance remained virtually unchanged in spite of the increase in weakness. PMID:25003277

Pizzato, Tatiana M.; Baptista, Cyntia R. J. A.; Souza, Mariana A.; Benedicto, Michelle M. B.; Martinez, Edson Z.; Mattiello-Sverzut, Ana C.

2014-01-01

173

Prevention of muscular dystrophy in mice by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of germline DNA.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited X-linked disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a protein required for muscle fiber integrity. DMD is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and a shortened life span, and there is no effective treatment. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-mediated genome editing to correct the dystrophin gene (Dmd) mutation in the germ line of mdx mice, a model for DMD, and then monitored muscle structure and function. Genome editing produced genetically mosaic animals containing 2 to 100% correction of the Dmd gene. The degree of muscle phenotypic rescue in mosaic mice exceeded the efficiency of gene correction, likely reflecting an advantage of the corrected cells and their contribution to regenerating muscle. With the anticipated technological advances that will facilitate genome editing of postnatal somatic cells, this strategy may one day allow correction of disease-causing mutations in the muscle tissue of patients with DMD. PMID:25123483

Long, Chengzu; McAnally, John R; Shelton, John M; Mireault, Alex A; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

2014-09-01

174

Sustaining cardiac claudin-5 levels prevents functional hallmarks of cardiomyopathy in a muscular dystrophy mouse model.  

PubMed

Identification of new molecular targets in heart failure could ultimately have a substantial positive impact on both the health and financial aspects of treating the large heart failure population. We originally identified reduced levels of the cell junction protein claudin-5 specifically in heart in the dystrophin/utrophin-deficient (Dmd(mdx);Utrn(-/-)) mouse model of muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy, which demonstrates physiological hallmarks of heart failure. We then showed that at least 60% of cardiac explant samples from patients with heart failure resulting from diverse etiologies also have reduced claudin-5 levels. These claudin-5 reductions were independent of changes in other cell junction proteins previously linked to heart failure. The goal of this study was to determine whether sustaining claudin-5 levels is sufficient to prevent the onset of histological and functional indicators of heart failure. Here, we show the proof-of-concept rescue experiment in the Dmd(mdx);Utrn(-/-) model, in which claudin-5 reductions were originally identified. Expression of claudin-5 4 weeks after a single administration of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) containing a claudin-5 expression cassette prevented the onset of physiological hallmarks of cardiomyopathy and improved histological signs of cardiac damage. This experiment demonstrates that claudin-5 may represent a novel treatment target for prevention of heart failure. PMID:22547149

Delfín, Dawn A; Xu, Ying; Schill, Kevin E; Mays, Tessily A; Canan, Benjamin D; Zang, Kara E; Barnum, Jamie A; Janssen, Paul M L; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A

2012-07-01

175

Compound heterozygosity in a South African patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterised by weakness and atrophy of the facial and shoulder girdle muscles. The FSHD phenotype segregates as an autosomal dominant trait and is caused by a deletion of an integral number of 3.3 kilobase pair (kb) repeat units on chromosome 4q35. Haplotype and Southern blot analyses of chromosome 4 resulted in the detection of two BlnI resistant deletion fragments, of 24 kb and 34 kb respectively, in a single individual from a South African FSHD family. The patient had moderate facial weakness and marked winging and high-riding of the scapulae with prominent pectoral and proximal arm muscle atrophy and weakness. Quadriceps and anterior tibial muscles were weak and the patient had bilateral foot drop. Although none of his children were symptomatic yet and only two showed very mild clinical signs, one had inherited the 24 kb deletion fragment, while the other two had the 34 kb deletion fragment. Molecular analysis conclusively identified the first compound heterozygous case in the South African FSHD population. However, in accordance with other studies of compound heterozygotes and clinical findings, no direct correlation between the clinical severity of this patient and the number of deletion fragments was observed. PMID:22652079

Olckers, Antonel; van der Merwe, Annelize; Wayne Towers, G; Retief, Chris F; Honey, Engela; Schutte, Clara-Maria

2012-08-01

176

High prevalence of incomplete right bundle branch block in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy without cardiac symptoms  

PubMed Central

Summary The exact prevalence and nature of cardiac involvement in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is unknown. Nevertheless, the current opinion is that symptomatic cardiac disease is rare. We performed a cardiac screening [electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography in the event of ECG abnormalities] in 75 genetically confirmed, ambulant FSHD patients without cardiac symptoms, with an eight-year follow-up of 57 patients, and compared the findings with results of previously performed cardiac screenings in the normal population. Baseline ECG demonstrated incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) in 33%, complete RBBB in 4%, and other minor abnormalities in 16%. Echocardiography showed no abnormalities. No significant changes were found after eight years of follow-up. Comparison with ECG abnormalities in the normal population showed a higher prevalence of incomplete RBBB (9.7 times higher) and of complete RBBB (4.8 times higher) in FSHD patients. This study in cardiac asymptomatic FSHD patients shows i) increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy; ii) no progression of these abnormalities during eight years of follow-up. We conclude that FSHD patients without cardiac complaints do not need specific cardiac screening or surveillance. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy suggests a selective involvement of the His-Purkinje system in FSHD. PMID:25473735

van Dijk, Gaby Pons; van der Kooi, Elly; Behin, Anthony; Smeets, Joep; Timmermans, Janneke; van der Maarel, Silvère; Padberg, George; Voermans, Nicol; van Engelen, Baziel

2014-01-01

177

Becoming a back-up carer: Parenting sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy transitioning into adulthood.  

PubMed

The population of adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy is increasing rapidly. However, information for individuals with DMD and their parents about the transition to adulthood is lacking; young adult sons and their parents may struggle to maintain smooth family functioning and well-being during this period. This study examined the process of change in parental behaviors during their son's transition. The participants were 18 parents with sons aged 15-30 years. Data were obtained from semi-structured interviews and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Eleven categories of behaviors were identified across three domains: emotional, physical, and determination. The changes made by parents were directed toward becoming a back-up carer: letting go of some control but still being active participants in their sons' lives. We identified several issues important for well-being in the transition period: psychological support, the aging of the parents (the primary caregivers) and the concomitant emergency and specialized care needs, and parents' intervention in the self-determination of adult sons with DMD. The findings of this study may provide a rationale to advocate for policies to improve support for parents of sons with DMD transitioning to adulthood and provide information to help parents in their role as primary care providers. PMID:25435264

Yamaguchi, Miku; Suzuki, Machiko

2015-01-01

178

Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in a developing country over a 10-year period.  

PubMed

Clinical data on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are lacking in developing countries. The objective of this study was to delineate the demographic characteristics, investigations, and outcome of 21 Malaysian males diagnosed with DMD over a period of 10 years. Mean age presentation was 3 years 8 months (SD 23mo; range 10 to 84mo), mean duration from first presentation to diagnosis was 3y 7mo (SD 26mo; range 5 to 84) and the mean age for loss of ambulation was 11 years (SD 25mo; range 102 to 168). There was family history of DMD in five of the 21 patients. Muscle biopsy showed confirmatory findings of DMD in the 16 patients tested. Molecular genetic analysis showed dystrophin gene deletions in 11 of these 16 patients. Four and seven of the students stopped schooling and had learning difficulties, respectively; only nine had satisfactory school performances. Eight out of 14 patients evaluated were classified as having severe to total dependency levels on the modified Barthel Index for activities of daily living assessment. DMD is associated with significant medical and social needs for a developing country such as Malaysia. Earlier referral, genetic counselling, and provision of support and rehabilitative services are the main priorities. PMID:15991868

Thong, Meow-Keong; Bazlin, R I Raja; Wong, Kum-Thong

2005-07-01

179

The 6 Minute Walk Test and Performance of Upper Limb in Ambulant Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Boys  

PubMed Central

The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase. PMID:25642376

Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D’Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D’Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

2014-01-01

180

The 6 minute walk test and performance of upper limb in ambulant duchenne muscular dystrophy boys.  

PubMed

The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase. PMID:25642376

Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

2014-01-01

181

Reliability of the Performance of Upper Limb assessment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The Performance of Upper Limb was specifically designed to assess upper limb function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The aim of this study was to assess (1) a cohort of typically developing children from the age of 3years onwards in order to identify the age when the activities assessed in the individual items are consistently achieved, and (2) a cohort of 322 Duchenne children and young adults to establish the range of findings at different ages. We collected normative data for the scale validation on 277 typically developing subjects from 3 to 25years old. A full score was consistently achieved by the age of 5years. In the Duchenne cohort there was early involvement of the proximal muscles and a proximal to distal progressive involvement. The scale was capable of measuring small distal movements, related to activities of daily living, even in the oldest and weakest patients. Our data suggest that the assessment can be reliably used in both ambulant and non ambulant Duchenne patients in a multicentric setting and could therefore be considered as an outcome measure for future trials. PMID:24440357

Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena S; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; Bianco, Flaviana; Sivo, Serena; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gianluca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Catteruccia, Michela; Palermo, Concetta; D'Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Iotti, Elena; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Morandi, Lucia; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Sormani, MariaPia; Mercuri, Eugenio

2014-03-01

182

Identification of de novo Mutations of Duchénnè/Becker Muscular Dystrophies in Southern Spain  

PubMed Central

Background: Duchénnè/Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD/BMD) are X-linked diseases, which are caused by a de novo gene mutation in one-third of affected males. The study objectives were to determine the incidence of DMD/BMD in Andalusia (Spain) and to establish the percentage of affected males in whom a de novo gene mutation was responsible. Methods: Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technology was applied to determine the incidence of DMD/BMD in 84 males with suspicion of the disease and 106 female relatives. Results: Dystrophin gene exon deletion (89.5%) or duplication (10.5%) was detected in 38 of the 84 males by MLPA technology; de novo mutations account for 4 (16.7%) of the 24 mother-son pairs studied. Conclusions: MLPA technology is adequate for the molecular diagnosis of DMD/BMD and establishes whether the mother carries the molecular alteration responsible for the disease, a highly relevant issue for genetic counseling. PMID:25076844

Garcia, Susana; de Haro, Tomás; Zafra-Ceres, Mercedes; Poyatos, Antonio; Gomez-Capilla, Jose A.; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina

2014-01-01

183

Current Challenges and Future Directions in Recombinant AAV-Mediated Gene Therapy of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Various characteristics of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors with long-term safe expression have made it an exciting transduction tool for clinical gene therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although host immune reactions against the vector as well as transgene products were detected in some instances of the clinical studies, there have been promising observations. Methods of producing AAV vectors for considerable in vivo experimentation and clinical investigations have been developed and a number of studies with AAV vector-mediated muscle transduction were attempted. Notably, an intravenous limb perfusion transduction technique enables extensive transgene expression in the skeletal muscles without noticeable adverse events. Furthermore, cardiac transduction by the rAAV9-microdystrophin would be promising to prevent development of cardiac dysfunction. Recent achievements in transduction technology suggest that long-term transgene expression with therapeutic benefits in DMD treatment would be achieved by the rAAV-mediated transduction strategy with an adequate regimen to regulate host immune response. PMID:24276316

Okada, Takashi; Takeda, Shin'ichi

2013-01-01

184

Burden, professional support, and social network in families of children and young adults with muscular dystrophies.  

PubMed

Introduction This study explores burden and social and professional support in families of young patients with muscular dystrophies (MDs) in Italy. Methods The study was carried out on 502 key relatives of 4-25 year-old patients, suffering from Duchenne, Becker, or Limb-Girdle MD who were living with at least 1 adult relative. Results 77.1% of relatives reported feelings of loss, 74.0% had feelings of sadness, and 59.1% had constraints in leisure activities. Burden was higher among relatives of patients with higher disability and who spent more daily hours in caregiving. Practical difficulties were higher among relatives who perceived lower help in patient emergencies and less practical support by their social network. Psychological burden was higher in those relatives who were unemployed, those with poorer support in emergencies, and those with lower social contacts. Discussion Caring for patients with MDs may be demanding for relatives even in the early stages of these disorders, especially when social support is poor and the patient's disability increases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25363165

Magliano, Lorenza; Patalano, Melania; Sagliocchi, Alessandra; Scutifero, Marianna; Zaccaro, Antonella; Grazia D'Angelo, Maria; Civati, Federica; Brighina, Erika; Vita, Giuseppe; Vita, Gian Luca; Messina, Sonia; Sframeli, Maria; Pane, Marika; Lombardo, Maria Elena; Scalise, Roberta; D'Amico, Adele; Colia, Giulia; Catteruccia, Michela; Balottin, Umberto; Berardinelli, Angela; Motta, Maria Chiara; Angelini, Corrado; Gaiani, Alessandra; Semplicini, Claudio; Bello, Luca; Battini, Roberta; Astrea, Guja; Politano, Luisa

2014-10-31

185

MRI/MRS Evaluation of a Female Carrier of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal muscle composition of lower extremity muscles in a manifesting female carrier of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (MFCDMD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS). MRI/MRS was performed on the lower extremities and heart of a MFCDMD (47yr, 51kg) on four occasions within 21 months and in a control subject. Heterogeneity and asymmetry among muscles in the MFCDMD was observed in lipid fraction and mean transverse relaxation time (T2) of lower extremity muscles with some muscles presenting as unaffected (e.g., rectus femoris) and others showing substantial deterioration and lipid infiltration (e.g., vasti muscles). There was an association of abnormal MRI findings and strength and motor function. Over the 21 months a small decrease in CSAmax and increase in lipid fraction and T2 was observed in the MFCDMD in some muscles. In summary, this MFCDMD revealed significant imaging evidence of pathologic heterogeneity among muscles. Furthermore, this study shows the feasibility of combining various quantitative MRI and MRS approaches to monitor skeletal muscle involvement. PMID:22980762

Forbes, Sean C.; Lott, Donovan J.; Finkel, Richard S.; Senesac, Claudia; Byrne, Barry J.; Sweeney, H. L.; Walter, Glenn A.; Vandenborne, Krista

2012-01-01

186

A human skeletal muscle interactome centered on proteins involved in muscular dystrophies: LGMD interactome  

PubMed Central

Background The complexity of the skeletal muscle and the identification of numerous human disease-causing mutations in its constitutive proteins make it an interesting tissue for proteomic studies aimed at understanding functional relationships of interacting proteins in both health and diseases. Method We undertook a large-scale study using two-hybrid screens and a human skeletal-muscle cDNA library to establish a proteome-scale map of protein-protein interactions centered on proteins involved in limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD). LGMD is a group of more than 20 different neuromuscular disorders that principally affect the proximal pelvic and shoulder girdle muscles. Results and conclusion The interaction network we unraveled incorporates 1018 proteins connected by 1492 direct binary interactions and includes 1420 novel protein-protein interactions. Computational, experimental and literature-based analyses were performed to assess the overall quality of this network. Interestingly, LGMD proteins were shown to be highly interconnected, in particular indirectly through sarcomeric proteins. In-depth mining of the LGMD-centered interactome identified new candidate genes for orphan LGMDs and other neuromuscular disorders. The data also suggest the existence of functional links between LGMD2B/dysferlin and gene regulation, between LGMD2C/?-sarcoglycan and energy control and between LGMD2G/telethonin and maintenance of genome integrity. This dataset represents a valuable resource for future functional investigations. PMID:23414517

2013-01-01

187

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies: Where next after six decades from the first proposal (Review)  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders, which has led to certain investigators disputing its rationality. The mutual feature of LGMD is limb-girdle affection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perioral skin biopsies, blood-based assays, reverse-protein arrays, proteomic analyses, gene chips and next generation sequencing are the leading diagnostic techniques for LGMD and gene, cell and pharmaceutical treatments are the mainstay therapies for these genetic disorders. Recently, more highlights have been shed on disease biomarkers to follow up disease progression and to monitor therapeutic responsiveness in future trials. In this study, we review LGMD from a variety of aspects, paying specific attention to newly evolving research, with the purpose of bringing this information into the clinical setting to aid the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this hereditary disease. In conclusion, substantial progress in our ability to diagnose and treat LGMD has been made in recent decades, however enhancing our understanding of the detailed pathophysiology of LGMD may enhance our ability to improve disease outcome in subsequent years. PMID:24626787

MAHMOOD, OMAR A.; JIANG, XIN MEI

2014-01-01

188

How to tackle the diagnosis of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2A  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) 2A (calpainopathy) is the most frequent form of LGMD in many European countries. The increasing demand for a molecular diagnosis makes the identification of strategies to improve gene mutation detection crucial. We conducted both a quantitative analysis of calpain-3 protein in 519 muscles from patients with unclassified LGMD, unclassified myopathy and hyperCKemia, and a functional assay of calpain-3 autolytic activity in 108 cases with LGMD and normal protein quantity. Subsequently, screening of CAPN3 gene mutations was performed using allele-specific tests and simplified SSCP analysis. We diagnosed a total of 94 LGMD2A patients, carrying 66 different mutations (six are newly identified). The probability of diagnosing calpainopathy was very high in patients showing either a quantitative (80%) or a functional calpain-3 protein defect (88%). Our data show a high predictive value for reduced-absent calpain-3 or lost autolytic activity. These biochemical assays are powerful tools for otherwise laborious genetic screening of cases with a high probability of being primary calpainopathy. Our multistep diagnostic approach is rational and highly effective. This strategy has improved the detection rate of the disease and our extension of screening to presymptomatic phenotypes (hyperCKemia) has allowed us to obtain early diagnoses, which has important consequences for patient care and genetic counseling. PMID:18854869

Fanin, Marina; Nascimbeni, Anna Chiara; Tasca, Elisabetta; Angelini, Corrado

2009-01-01

189

B3GALNT2 is a gene associated with congenital muscular dystrophy with brain malformations.  

PubMed

Congenital muscular dystrophies associated with brain malformations are a group of disorders frequently associated with aberrant glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan. They include disease entities such a Walker-Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease and various other clinical phenotypes. Different genes involved in glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan are associated with these dystroglycanopathies. We describe a 5-year-old girl with psychomotor retardation, ataxia, spasticity, muscle weakness and increased serum creatine kinase levels. Immunhistochemistry of skeletal muscle revealed reduced glycosylated ?-dystroglycan. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at 3.5 years of age showed increased T2 signal from supratentorial and infratentorial white matter, a hypoplastic pons and subcortical cerebellar cysts. By whole exome sequencing, the patient was identified to be compound heterozygous for a one-base duplication and a missense mutation in the gene B3GALNT2 (?-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2; B3GalNAc-T2). This patient showed a milder phenotype than previously described patients with mutations in the B3GALNT2 gene. PMID:24084573

Hedberg, Carola; Oldfors, Anders; Darin, Niklas

2014-05-01

190

The value of respiratory muscle testing in a child with congenital muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Respiratory muscle testing is often limited to noninvasive volitional tests such as vital capacity and maximal static pressures. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) in whom invasive and non-volitional respiratory muscle tests showed an elective diaphragmatic dysfunction with the preservation of expiratory muscle strength. This finding, coupled with a clinical phenotype associating diffuse muscle atrophy with finger hyperlaxity and proximal contractures, strengthened the suspicion of Ullrich CMD. Skin-cultured fibroblasts showed intracellular retention of collagen 6 (COL6), muscle magnetic resonance imaging was typical of COL6 myopathy, and molecular studies identified a COL6 gene mutation (COL6A2 c.954+2T>C). The diagnosis of a diaphragmatic dysfunction led to a sleep study that evidenced periods of hypoxemia which justified nocturnal noninvasive ventilation. This case report highlights the benefit of assessing respiratory muscles, through invasive procedure, to assist in clinical diagnosis and to guide clinical management. PMID:25473580

Khirani, Sonia; Dabaj, Ivana; Amaddeo, Alessandro; Ramirez, Adriana; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Fauroux, Brigitte

2014-01-01

191

Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in skeletal muscle of knockout mice suffering Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in fibrotic lesion in mdx mice. A total of six male C57BL/10 mice and six C57BL/10-DMD/mdx were distributed into two groups: control and animals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The medial part of gastrocnemius muscle was evaluated being the specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Sirius Red under normal and polarized light to differentiate type I (red and yellow) and III (green) collagen. COX-2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results revealed histopathological changes in C57BL/10-DMD/mdx as depicted by regenerating fibers. Sirius Red stain showed a substantial increase in the amount of type I collagen of mdx mice. DMD induced a strong COX-2 immunoexpression in intercellular space. Taken together, our results are consistent with the notion that necrotic and fibrotic lesions are able to increase COX-2 expression in DMD. PMID:23188550

de Oliveira, Flavia; Flavia, De Oliveira; Quintana, Hananiah Tardivo; Bortolin, Jeferson André; Gomes, Odair Alfredo; Liberti, Edson Aparecido; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2013-05-01

192

The anticancer drug tamoxifen counteracts the pathology in a mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe disorder characterized by progressive muscle wasting,respiratory and cardiac impairments, and premature death. No treatment exists so far, and the identification of active substances to fight DMD is urgently needed. We found that tamoxifen, a drug used to treat estrogen-dependent breast cancer, caused remarkable improvements of muscle force and of diaphragm and cardiac structure in the mdx(5Cv) mouse model of DMD. Oral tamoxifen treatment from 3 weeks of age for 15 months at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day stabilized myofiber membranes, normalized whole body force, and increased force production and resistance to repeated contractions of the triceps muscle above normal values. Tamoxifen improved the structure of leg muscles and diminished cardiac fibrosis by~ 50%. Tamoxifen also reduced fibrosis in the diaphragm, while increasing its thickness,myofiber count, and myofiber diameter, thereby augmenting by 72% the amount of contractile tissue available for respiratory function. Tamoxifen conferred a markedly slower phenotype to the muscles.Tamoxifen and its metabolites were present in nanomolar concentrations in plasma and muscles,suggesting signaling through high-affinity targets. Interestingly, the estrogen receptors ERa and ERb were several times more abundant in dystrophic than in normal muscles, and tamoxifen normalized the relative abundance of ERb isoforms. Our findings suggest that tamoxifen might be a useful therapy for DMD. PMID:23332367

Dorchies, Olivier M; Reutenauer-Patte, Julie; Dahmane, Elyes; Ismail, Heham M; Petermann, Olivier; Patthey- Vuadens, Ophélie; Comyn, Sophie A; Gayi, Elinam; Piacenza, Tony; Handa, Robert J; Décosterd, Laurent A; Ruegg, Urs T

2013-02-01

193

Clinical outcome measures for trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: report from International Working Group meetings  

PubMed Central

In June 2010, 25 representatives from Europe and the US met in Washington, DC, USA, to discuss clinical outcome measures in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in the context of clinical trial design and analysis. The workshop was organized in response to a September 2009 European Medicines Agency meeting where a clear directive was given that an international consensus needs to be developed that provides a foundation for age-appropriate clinical outcome measures for use in clinical trials of emerging therapeutics for DMD. Data were presented from eight multicenter longitudinal datasets, representing nearly 1900 patients over a 20-year time period. This experience confirmed the feasibility of repeated evaluations performed at multiple sites and addressed several core issues in drug development for DMD, such as the ‘new’ natural history in the steroidera, reliability and sensitivity of specific outcome measures, as well as disease staging and patient selection. These data form a valuable asset for academic investigators, pharmaceutical sponsors and regulatory agencies involved in DMD therapeutics. The group remains committed working together on a number of collaborative goals to support the therapeutics development effort in this orphan disease and to make these data available to stakeholders working in the field. PMID:22639722

Bushby, Kate; Connor, Edward

2012-01-01

194

Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy: clinicopathological features, natural history and pathomechanism(s).  

PubMed

Collagen VI is widely distributed throughout extracellular matrices (ECMs) in various tissues. In skeletal muscle, collagen VI is particularly concentrated in and adjacent to basement membranes of myofibers. Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is caused by mutations in either COL6A1, COL6A2 or COL6A3 gene, thereby leading to collagen VI deficiency in the ECM. It is known to occur through either recessive or dominant genetic mechanism, the latter most typically by de novo mutations. UCMD is well defined by the clinicopathological hallmarks including distal hyperlaxity, proximal joint contractures, protruding calcanei, scoliosis and respiratory insufficiency. Recent reports have depicted the robust natural history of UCMD; that is, loss of ambulation by early teenage years, rapid decline in respiratory function by 10?years of age and early-onset, rapidly progressive scoliosis. Muscle pathology is characterised by prominent interstitial fibrosis disproportionate to the relative paucity of necrotic and regenerating fibres. To date, treatment for patients is supportive for symptoms such as joint contractures, respiratory failure and scoliosis. There have been clinical trials based on the theory of mitochondrion-mediated myofiber apoptosis or impaired autophagy. Furthermore, the fact that collagen VI producing cells in skeletal muscle are interstitial mesenchymal cells can support proof of concept for stem cell-based therapy. PMID:24938411

Yonekawa, Takahiro; Nishino, Ichizo

2015-03-01

195

Behavioral Responses in Animal Model of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy 1D.  

PubMed

Congenital muscular dystrophies 1D (CMD1D) present a mutation on the LARGE gene and are characterized by an abnormal glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan (?-DG), strongly implicated as having a causative role in the development of central nervous system abnormalities such as cognitive impairment seen in patients. However, in the animal model of CMD1D, the brain involvement remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the cognitive involvement in the Large(myd) mice. To this aim, we used adult homozygous, heterozygous, and wild-type mice. The mice underwent six behavioral tasks: habituation to an open field, step-down inhibitory avoidance, continuous multiple trials step-down inhibitory avoidance task, object recognition, elevated plus-maze, and forced swimming test. It was observed that Large(myd) individuals presented deficits on the habituation to the open field, step down inhibitory avoidance, continuous multiple-trials step-down inhibitory avoidance, object recognition, and forced swimming. This study shows the first evidence that abnormal glycosylation of ?-DG may be affecting memory storage and restoring process in an animal model of CMD1D. PMID:25465243

Comim, Clarissa M; Schactae, Aryadnne L; Soares, Jaime A; Ventura, Letícia; Freiberger, Viviane; Mina, Francielle; Dominguini, Diogo; Vainzof, Mariz; Quevedo, João

2014-12-01

196

Genetic heterogeneity of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in Amish populations  

SciTech Connect

The autosomal recessive form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2) is characterized by onset in childhood, progressive weakness predominantly of shoulder, pelvic and trunk muscles with sparing of facial muscles. A gene for LGMD2 was localized to chromosome 15q by Beckmann et al. in 1991 in Isle La Reunion families, subsequently confirmed in Amish families and in Brazilian families where genetic heterogeneity has been demonstrated. Analysis of LGM2 families for recombination events permitted the gene region to be restricted to an interval of about 7 cM defined by flanking markers D15S129 and D15S143. Extended haplotypes were established in the families on the basis of the segregation of multiple markers within this interval. Although the nine northern Indiana Amish families showed linkage of the gene to chromosome 15 markers (maximum lod score of 7.58 at {theta}=0.06 for D15S129 and 12.57 at {theta}=0.046 for D15S143), six large southern Indiana families with LGMD2, clinically indistinguishable from the LGMD2 in northern Indiana, were found to have a disease neither linked to chromosome 15 nor to chromosome 2 where a second localization has been reported. Although these two Indiana Amish LGMD2 kindreds contain some common ancestors and are clinically similar, the LGMD2 appears to be genetically heterogeneous.

Beckmann, J.S.; Allamand, V.; Broux, O. [CEPH, Paris (France)] [and others

1994-09-01

197

Gene Expression Profiling in Tibial Muscular Dystrophy Reveals Unfolded Protein Response and Altered Autophagy  

PubMed Central

Tibial muscular dystrophy (TMD) is a late onset, autosomal dominant distal myopathy that results from mutations in the two last domains of titin. The cascade of molecular events leading from the causative Titin mutations to the preterm death of muscle cells in TMD is largely unknown. In this study we examined the mRNA and protein changes associated with the myopathology of TMD. To identify these components we performed gene expression profiling using muscle biopsies from TMD patients and healthy controls. The profiling results were confirmed through quantitative real-time PCR and protein level analysis. One of the pathways identified was activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. UPR activation was supported by elevation of the marker genes HSPA5, ERN1 and the UPR specific XBP1 splice form. However, UPR activation appears to be insufficient to correct the protein abnormalities causing its activation because degenerative TMD muscle fibres show an increase in ubiquitinated protein inclusions. Abnormalities of VCP-associated degradation pathways are also suggested by the presence of proteolytic VCP fragments in western blotting, and VCP's accumulation within rimmed vacuoles in TMD muscle fibres together with p62 and LC3B positive autophagosomes. Thus, pathways controlling turnover and degradation, including autophagy, are distorted and lead to degeneration and loss of muscle fibres. PMID:24618559

Screen, Mark; Raheem, Olayinka; Holmlund-Hampf, Jeanette; Jonson, Per Harald; Huovinen, Sanna; Hackman, Peter; Udd, Bjarne

2014-01-01

198

Autologous Myoblast Transplantation for Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy: a Phase I/Iia Clinical Study  

PubMed Central

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset autosomal dominant genetic disease mainly characterized by ptosis and dysphagia. We conducted a phase I/IIa clinical study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00773227) using autologous myoblast transplantation following myotomy in adult OPMD patients. This study included 12 patients with clinical diagnosis of OPMD, indication for cricopharyngeal myotomy, and confirmed genetic diagnosis. The feasibility and safety end points of both autologous myoblast transplantation and the surgical procedure were assessed by videoendoscopy in addition to physical examinations. Potential therapeutic benefit was also assessed through videoendoscopy and videofluoroscopy of swallowing, quality of life score, dysphagia grade, and a drink test. Patients were injected with a median of 178 million myoblasts following myotomy. Short and long-term (2 years) safety and tolerability were observed in all the patients, with no adverse effects. There was an improvement in the quality of life score for all 12 patients, and no functional degradation in swallowing was observed for 10 patients. A cell dose-dependant improvement in swallowing was even observed in this study. This trial supports the hypothesis that a local injection of autologous myoblasts in the pharyngeal muscles is a safe and efficient procedure for OPMD patients. PMID:23831596

Périé, Sophie; Trollet, Capucine; Mouly, Vincent; Vanneaux, Valérie; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Bouazza, Belaïd; Marolleau, Jean Pierre; Laforêt, Pascal; Chapon, Françoise; Eymard, Bruno; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Larghero, Jérome; St Guily, Jean Lacau

2014-01-01

199

PDE5 inhibition alleviates functional muscle ischemia in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibition can alleviate exercise-induced skeletal muscle ischemia in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: In 10 boys with DMD and 10 healthy age-matched male controls, we assessed exercise-induced attenuation of reflex sympathetic vasoconstriction, i.e., functional sympatholysis, a protective mechanism that matches oxygen delivery to metabolic demand. Reflex vasoconstriction was induced by simulated orthostatic stress, measured as the decrease in forearm muscle oxygenation with near-infrared spectroscopy, and performed when the forearm muscles were rested or lightly exercised with rhythmic handgrip exercise. Then, the patients underwent an open-label, dose-escalation, crossover trial with single oral doses of tadalafil or sildenafil. Results: The major new findings are 2-fold: first, sympatholysis is impaired in boys with DMD—producing functional muscle ischemia—despite contemporary background therapy with corticosteroids alone or in combination with cardioprotective medication. Second, PDE5 inhibition with standard clinical doses of either tadalafil or sildenafil alleviates this ischemia in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PDE5 inhibition also normalizes the exercise-induced increase in skeletal muscle blood flow (measured by Doppler ultrasound), which is markedly blunted in boys with DMD. Conclusions: These data provide in-human proof of concept for PDE5 inhibition as a putative new therapeutic strategy for DMD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that in patients with DMD, PDE5 inhibition restores functional sympatholysis. PMID:24808022

Nelson, Michael D.; Rader, Florian; Tang, Xiu; Tavyev, Jane; Nelson, Stanley F.; Miceli, M. Carrie; Elashoff, Robert M.; Sweeney, H. Lee

2014-01-01

200

Improved regenerative myogenesis and muscular dystrophy in mice lacking Mkp5  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative skeletal muscle disease caused by mutations in dystrophin. The degree of functional deterioration in muscle stem cells determines the severity of DMD. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are inactivated by MAPK phosphatases (MKPs), represent a central signaling node in the regulation of muscle stem cell function. Here we show that the dual-specificity protein phosphatase DUSP10/MKP-5 negatively regulates muscle stem cell function in mice. MKP-5 controlled JNK to coordinate muscle stem cell proliferation and p38 MAPK to control differentiation. Genetic loss of Mkp5 in mice improved regenerative myogenesis and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice lacking Mkp5 exhibited an attenuated dystrophic muscle phenotype. Hence, enhanced promyogenic MAPK activity preserved muscle stem cell function even in the absence of dystrophin and ultimately curtailed the pathogenesis associated with DMD. These results identify MKP-5 as an essential negative regulator of the promyogenic actions of the MAPKs and suggest that MKP-5 may serve as a target to promote muscle stem cell function in the treatment of degenerative skeletal muscle diseases. PMID:23543058

Shi, Hao; Verma, Mayank; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Chen; Flavell, Richard A.; Bennett, Anton M.

2013-01-01

201

AMPK activation stimulates autophagy and ameliorates muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse diaphragm.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by myofiber death from apoptosis or necrosis, leading in many patients to fatal respiratory muscle weakness. Among other pathological features, DMD muscles show severely deranged metabolic gene regulation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Defective mitochondria not only cause energetic deficiency, but also play roles in promoting myofiber atrophy and injury via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Autophagy is a bulk degradative mechanism that serves to augment energy production and eliminate defective mitochondria (mitophagy). We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master metabolic sensor in cells and on-switch for the autophagy-mitophagy pathway, would be beneficial in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Treatment of mdx mice for 4 weeks with an established AMPK agonist, AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-d-ribofuranoside), potently triggered autophagy in the mdx diaphragm without inducing muscle fiber atrophy. In AICAR-treated mdx mice, the exaggerated sensitivity of mdx diaphragm mitochondria to calcium-induced permeability transition pore opening was restored to normal levels. There were associated improvements in mdx diaphragm histopathology and in maximal force-generating capacity, which were not linked to increased mitochondrial biogenesis or up-regulated utrophin expression. These findings suggest that agonists of AMPK and other inducers of the autophagy-mitophagy pathway can help to promote the elimination of defective mitochondria and may thus serve as useful therapeutic agents in DMD. PMID:22683340

Pauly, Marion; Daussin, Frederic; Burelle, Yan; Li, Tong; Godin, Richard; Fauconnier, Jeremy; Koechlin-Ramonatxo, Christelle; Hugon, Gerald; Lacampagne, Alain; Coisy-Quivy, Marjorie; Liang, Feng; Hussain, Sabah; Matecki, Stefan; Petrof, Basil J

2012-08-01

202

Melanocytes—A Novel Tool to Study Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Dystrophin is a subsarcolemmal protein that, by linking the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix via dystroglycans, is critical for the integrity of muscle fibers. Here, we report that epidermal melanocytes, obtained from conventional skin biopsy, express dystrophin with a restricted localization to the plasma membrane facing the dermal–epidermal junction. In addition the full-length muscle isoform mDp427 was clearly detectable in melanocyte cultures as assessed by immunohistochemistry, RNA, and Western blot analysis. Melanocytes of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients did not express dystrophin, and the ultrastructural analysis revealed typical mitochondrial alterations similar to those occurring in myoblasts from the same patients. Mitochondria of melanocytes from DMD patients readily accumulated tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester, indicating that they are energized irrespective of the presence of dystrophin but, at variance from mitochondria of control donors, depolarized upon the addition of oligomycin, suggesting that they are affected by a latent dysfunction unmasked by inhibition of the ATP synthase. Pure melanocyte cultures can be readily obtained by conventional skin biopsies and may be a feasible and reliable tool alternative to muscle biopsy for functional studies in dystrophinopathies. The mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in DMD melanocytes could represent a promising cellular biomarker for monitoring dystrophinopathies also in response to pharmacological treatments. J. Cell. Physiol. 228: 1323–1331, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23169061

Pellegrini, Camilla; Zulian, Alessandra; Gualandi, Francesca; Manzati, Elisa; Merlini, Luciano; Michelini, Maria E; Benassi, Luisa; Marmiroli, Sandra; Ferlini, Alessandra; Sabatelli, Patrizia; Bernardi, Paolo; Maraldi, Nadir M

2013-01-01

203

Utility of Cystatin C to monitor renal function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Creatinine as a marker of renal function has limited value in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) because of reduced muscle mass. Alternative methods of assessing renal function are sorely needed. Cystatin C, a nonglycosylated protein unaffected by muscle mass, is potentially an ideal biomarker of nephrotoxicity for this population but requires validation. Methods: 75 subjects were recruited: 35 DMD (mean age 10.8 ± 5.4 years, corticosteroids n = 19, ambulatory n = 26), 29 healthy controls, 10 with renal disease, and one DMD with renal failure. Results: Cystatin C levels in DMD were normal irrespective of age, ambulation or corticosteroid treatment. Serum cystatin C was 0.67 ± 0.11 mg/L compared to normal controls 0.69 ± 0.09. mg/L. In these same individuals serum creatinine was severely reduced (0.27 ± 0.12 mg/dL) versus normals (0.75 ± 0.15 mg/dL, p < 0.01). In one DMD subject in renal failure, cystatin C was elevated. Discussion: This study demonstrates the potential value of cystatin C as a biomarker for monitoring renal function in DMD. Its applicability extends to other neuromuscular diseases. PMID:19623638

Viollet, Laurence; Gailey, Susan; Thornton, David J.; Friedman, Neil R.; Flanigan, Kevin M.; Mahan, John D.; Mendell, Jerry R.

2009-01-01

204

?-Catenin is central to DUX4-driven network rewiring in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an incurable disease, characterized by skeletal muscle weakness and wasting. Genetically, FSHD is characterized by contraction or hypomethylation of repeat D4Z4 units on chromosome 4, which causes aberrant expression of the transcription factor DUX4 from the last repeat. Many genes have been implicated in FSHD pathophysiology, but an integrated molecular model is currently lacking. We developed a novel differential network methodology, Interactome Sparsification and Rewiring (InSpiRe), which detects network rewiring between phenotypes by integrating gene expression data with known protein interactions. Using InSpiRe, we performed a meta-analysis of multiple microarray datasets from FSHD muscle biopsies, then removed secondary rewiring using non-FSHD datasets, to construct a unified network of rewired interactions. Our analysis identified ?-catenin as the main coordinator of FSHD-associated protein interaction signalling, with pathways including canonical Wnt, HIF1-? and TNF-? clearly perturbed. To detect transcriptional changes directly elicited by DUX4, gene expression profiling was performed using microarrays on murine myoblasts. This revealed that DUX4 significantly modified expression of the genes in our FSHD network. Furthermore, we experimentally confirmed that Wnt/?-catenin signalling is affected by DUX4 in murine myoblasts. Thus, we provide the first unified molecular map of FSHD signalling, capable of uncovering pathomechanisms and guiding therapeutic development. PMID:25551153

Banerji, Christopher R S; Knopp, Paul; Moyle, Louise A; Severini, Simone; Orrell, Richard W; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Zammit, Peter S

2015-01-01

205

X-linked markers in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene associated with oral clefts.  

PubMed

As part of an international consortium, case-parent trios were collected for a genome-wide association study of isolated, non-syndromic oral clefts, including cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and cleft lip and palate (CLP). Non-syndromic oral clefts have a complex and heterogeneous etiology. Risk is influenced by genes and environmental factors, and differs markedly by gender. Family-based association tests (FBAT) were used on 14,486 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the X chromosome, stratified by type of cleft and racial group. Significant results, even after multiple-comparisons correction, were obtained for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, the largest single gene in the human genome, among CL/P (i.e., both CL and CLP combined) trios. When stratified into groups of European and Asian ancestry, stronger signals were obtained for Asian subjects. Although conventional sliding-window haplotype analysis showed no increase in significance, selected combinations of the 25 most significant SNPs in the DMD gene identified four SNPs together that attained genome-wide significance among Asian CL/P trios, raising the possibility of interaction between distant SNPs within the DMD gene. PMID:23489894

Patel, Poorav J; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L; Munger, Ronald G; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Wu, Tao; Murray, Tanda; Rose, Margaret; Redett, Richard J; Jin, Sheng C; Lie, Rolv T; Wu-Chou, Yah-Huei; Wang, Hong; Ye, Xiaoqian; Yeow, Vincent; Chong, Samuel; Jee, Sun H; Shi, Bing; Scott, Alan F

2013-04-01

206

Correlation of clinical and deletion data in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed Central

Cloned cDNA sequences representing exons from the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) gene were used for deletion screening in a population of 287 males males affected with DMD or BMD. The clinical phenotypes of affected boys were classified into three clinical severity groups based on the age at which ambulation was lost. Boys in group 1 had DMD, losing ambulation before their 13th birthday; those in group 2 had disease of intermediate severity, losing ambulation between the ages of 13 and 16 years; and boys in group 3 had BMD, being ambulant beyond 16 years. A fourth group consisted of patients too young to be classified. Clinical group allocation was made without previous knowledge of the DNA results. A gene deletion was found in 124 cases where the clinical severity group of the affected boy was known. The extent of the deletions was delineated using cDNA probes. There were 74 different deletions. Fifty-five of these were unique to individual patients, but the other 19 were found in at least two unrelated patients. The different clinical groups showed generally similar distributions of deletions, and the number of exon bands deleted (that is, deletion size) was independent of phenotype. Some specific deletion types, however, correlated with the clinical severity of the disease. Deletion of exons containing HindIII fragments 33 and 34 and 33 to 35 were associated with BMD and were not found in patients with DMD. Deletions 3 to 7 occurred in four patients with the intermediate phenotype and one patient with BMD. Other shared deletions were associated with DMD, although in four cases patients with disease of intermediate severity apparently shared the same deletion with boys with DMD. The range of phenotypes observed, and the overlap at the genetic level between severe and intermediate and mild and intermediate forms of dystrophy, emphasizes the essential continuity of the clinical spectrum of DMD/BMD. There were no characteristic deletions found in boys with mental retardation or short stature which differed from deletions in affected boys without these features. Images PMID:2585468

Hodgson, S; Hart, K; Abbs, S; Heckmatt, J; Rodillo, E; Bobrow, M; Dubowitz, V

1989-01-01

207

Nanoparticle Delivery of Antisense Oligonucleotides and Their Application in the Exon Skipping Strategy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Antisense therapy is a powerful tool for inducing post-transcriptional modifications and thereby regulating target genes associated with disease. There are several classes of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) with therapeutic use, such as double-stranded RNAs (interfering RNAs, utilized for gene silencing, and single-stranded AONs with various chemistries, which are useful for antisense targeting of micro-RNAs and mRNAs. In particular, the use of AONs for exon skipping, by targeting pre-mRNA, is proving to be a highly promising therapy for some genetic disorders like Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. However, AONs are unable to cross the plasma membrane unaided, and several other obstacles still remain to be overcome, in particular their instability due to their nuclease sensitivity and their lack of tissue specificity. Various drug delivery systems have been explored to improve the bioavailability of nucleic acids, and nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested as potential vectors for DNA/RNA. This review describes the recent progress in AON conjugation with natural and synthetic delivery systems, and provides an overview of the efficacy of NP-AON complexes as an exon-skipping treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:24506782

Falzarano, Maria Sofia; Passarelli, Chiara

2014-01-01

208

DNA Methylation Analysis of the Macrosatellite Repeat Associated with FSHD Muscular Dystrophy at Single Nucleotide Level.  

PubMed

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common inherited diseases of the skeletal muscle. It is characterized by asymmetric muscle weakness and variable penetrance. FSHD is linked to a reduction in copy number of the D4Z4 3.3 kb macrosatellite repeat, located in 4q35. This causes the epigenetic de-repression of FSHD candidate genes leading to disease. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism responsible for silencing of FSHD candidate genes in healthy subjects is not fully understood. While a role for DNA methylation has been suggested, so far there is limited information regarding the methylation status of the 325 CpGs contained in each D4Z4 unit. Using a human/rodent monochromosomal hybrid cell line containing a single human chromosome 4, we performed an in depth analysis of DNA methylation for the majority of the CpGs inside D4Z4 at single nucleotide level. We found that D4Z4 is not uniformly methylated and that the level of DNA methylation does not correlate with the density of CpG dinucleotides. Moreover, in several D4Z4 regions characterized by near complete methylation, we found specific unmethylated CpGs. These elements are enriched in transcription factor binding sites that could be involved in muscle-specific D4Z4 activity. Our approach also detected differential methylation among different D4Z4 units, suggesting that the D4Z4 array is a mosaic of euchromatic and heterochromatic domains. Finally, we found that DNA methylation and histone de-acetylation are required to maintain FSHD candidate genes repressed. Taken together, our data underscore new players involved in the epigenetic regulation of the FSHD locus that could be targeted for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25545674

Huichalaf, Claudia; Micheloni, Stefano; Ferri, Giulia; Caccia, Roberta; Gabellini, Davide

2014-01-01

209

High Throughput Screening in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: From Drug Discovery to Functional Genomics  

PubMed Central

Centers for the screening of biologically active compounds and genomic libraries are becoming common in the academic setting and have enabled researchers devoted to developing strategies for the treatment of diseases or interested in studying a biological phenomenon to have unprecedented access to libraries that, until few years ago, were accessible only by pharmaceutical companies. As a result, new drugs and genetic targets have now been identified for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most prominent of the neuromuscular disorders affecting children. Although the work is still at an early stage, the results obtained to date are encouraging and demonstrate the importance that these centers may have in advancing therapeutic strategies for DMD as well as other diseases. This review will provide a summary of the status and progress made toward the development of a cure for this disorder and implementing high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies as the main source of discovery. As more academic institutions are gaining access to HTS as a valuable discovery tool, the identification of new biologically active molecules is likely to grow larger. In addition, the presence in the academic setting of experts in different aspects of the disease will offer the opportunity to develop novel assays capable of identifying new targets to be pursued as potential therapeutic options. These assays will represent an excellent source to be used by pharmaceutical companies for the screening of larger libraries providing the opportunity to establish strong collaborations between the private and academic sectors and maximizing the chances of bringing into the clinic new drugs for the treatment of DMD. PMID:25405319

Gintjee, Thomas J.J.; Magh, Alvin S.H.; Bertoni, Carmen

2014-01-01

210

24 Month Longitudinal Data in Ambulant Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of the study was i) to assess the spectrum of changes over 24 months in ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy, ii) to establish the difference between the first and the second year results and iii) to identify possible early markers of loss of ambulation. Methods One hundred and thirteen patients (age range 4.1–17, mean 8.2) fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 67 of the 113 were on daily and 40 on intermittent steroids, while 6 were not on steroids. All were assessed using the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) and timed test. Results On the 6MWT there was an average overall decline of ?22.7 (SD 81.0) in the first year and of ?64.7 (SD 123.1) in the second year. On the NSAA the average overall decline was of ?1.86 (SD 4.21) in the first year and of ?2.98 (SD 5.19) in the second year. Fourteen children lost ambulation, one in the first year and the other 13 in the second year of the study. A distance of at least 330 meters on the 6MWT, or a NSAA score of 18 at baseline reduced significantly the risk of losing ambulation within 2 years. Conclusions These results can be of help at the time of using inclusion criteria for a study in ambulant patients in order to minimize the risk of patients who may lose ambulation within the time of the trial. PMID:23326337

Sormani, Maria Pia; Scalise, Roberta; Berardinelli, Angela; Messina, Sonia; Torrente, Yvan; D’Amico, Adele; Doglio, Luca; Viggiano, Emanuela; D’Ambrosio, Paola; Cavallaro, Filippo; Frosini, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Bonfiglio, Serena; De Sanctis, Roberto; Rolle, Enrica; Bianco, Flaviana; Magri, Francesca; Rossi, Francesca; Vasco, Gessica; Vita, GianLuca; Motta, Maria Chiara; Donati, Maria Alice; Sacchini, Michele; Mongini, Tiziana; Pini, Antonella; Battini, Roberta; Pegoraro, Elena; Previtali, Stefano; Napolitano, Sara; Bruno, Claudio; Politano, Luisa; Comi, Giacomo Pietro; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

2013-01-01

211

Importance of SPP1 genotype as a covariate in clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test the effect of the single nucleotide polymorphism ?66 T>G (rs28357094) in the osteopontin gene (SPP1) on functional measures over 12 months in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: This study was conducted on a cohort of ambulatory patients with DMD from a network of Italian neuromuscular centers, evaluated longitudinally with the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) and the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) at study entry and after 12 months. Genotype at rs28357094 was determined after completion of the clinical evaluations. Patients were stratified in 2 groups according to a dominant model (TT homozygotes vs TG heterozygotes and GG homozygotes) and clinical data were retrospectively compared between groups. Results: Eighty patients were selected (age 4.1–19.3 years; mean 8.3 ± 2.7 SD). There were no differences in age or steroid treatment between the 2 subgroups. Paired t test showed a significant difference in both NSAA (p = 0.013) and 6MWT (p = 0.03) between baseline and follow-up after 12 months in patients with DMD carrying the G allele. The difference was not significant in the T subgroup. The analysis of covariance using age and baseline values as covariate and SPP1 genotype as fixed effect showed that these parameters are significantly correlated with the 12-month values. Conclusions: These data provide evidence of the role of SPP1 genotype as a disease modifier in DMD and support its relevance in the selection of homogeneous groups of patients for future clinical trials. PMID:22744661

Bello, Luca; Piva, Luisa; Barp, Andrea; Taglia, Antonella; Picillo, Esther; Vasco, Gessica; Pane, Marika; Previtali, Stefano C.; Torrente, Yvan; Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Chiara Motta, Maria; Grieco, Gaetano S.; Napolitano, Sara; Magri, Francesca; D'Amico, Adele; Astrea, Guja; Messina, Sonia; Sframeli, Maria; Luca Vita, Gian; Boffi, Patrizia; Mongini, Tiziana; Ferlini, Alessandra; Gualandi, Francesca; Soraru', Gianni; Ermani, Mario; Vita, Giuseppe; Battini, Roberta; Bertini, Enrico; Comi, Giacomo P.; Berardinelli, Angela; Minetti, Carlo; Bruno, Claudio; Mercuri, Eugenio; Politano, Luisa; Angelini, Corrado; Hoffman, Eric P.

2012-01-01

212

Quantitative muscle strength assessment in duchenne muscular dystrophy: longitudinal study and correlation with functional measures  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment using Quantitative Muscle Testing (QMT) in a cohort of ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to correlate the results of QMT with functional measures. This study is to date the most thorough long-term evaluation of QMT in a cohort of DMD patients correlated with other measures, such as the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) or thee 6-min walk test (6MWT). Methods This is a single centre, prospective, non-randomised, study assessing QMT using the Kin Com® 125 machine in a study cohort of 28 ambulant DMD boys, aged 5 to 12?years. This cohort was assessed longitudinally over a 12?months period of time with 3 monthly assessments for QMT and with assessment of functional abilities, using the NSAA and the 6MWT at baseline and at 12?months only. QMT was also used in a control group of 13 healthy age-matched boys examined at baseline and at 12?months. Results There was an increase in QMT over 12?months in boys below the age of 7.5?years while in boys above the age of 7.5?years, QMT showed a significant decrease. All the average one-year changes were significantly different than those experienced by healthy controls. We also found a good correlation between quantitative tests and the other measures that was more obvious in the stronger children. Conclusion Our longitudinal data using QMT in a cohort of DMD patients suggest that this could be used as an additional tool to monitor changes, providing additional information on segmental strength. PMID:22974002

2012-01-01

213

High throughput screening in duchenne muscular dystrophy: from drug discovery to functional genomics.  

PubMed

Centers for the screening of biologically active compounds and genomic libraries are becoming common in the academic setting and have enabled researchers devoted to developing strategies for the treatment of diseases or interested in studying a biological phenomenon to have unprecedented access to libraries that, until few years ago, were accessible only by pharmaceutical companies. As a result, new drugs and genetic targets have now been identified for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most prominent of the neuromuscular disorders affecting children. Although the work is still at an early stage, the results obtained to date are encouraging and demonstrate the importance that these centers may have in advancing therapeutic strategies for DMD as well as other diseases. This review will provide a summary of the status and progress made toward the development of a cure for this disorder and implementing high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies as the main source of discovery. As more academic institutions are gaining access to HTS as a valuable discovery tool, the identification of new biologically active molecules is likely to grow larger. In addition, the presence in the academic setting of experts in different aspects of the disease will offer the opportunity to develop novel assays capable of identifying new targets to be pursued as potential therapeutic options. These assays will represent an excellent source to be used by pharmaceutical companies for the screening of larger libraries providing the opportunity to establish strong collaborations between the private and academic sectors and maximizing the chances of bringing into the clinic new drugs for the treatment of DMD. PMID:25405319

Gintjee, Thomas J J; Magh, Alvin S H; Bertoni, Carmen

2014-01-01

214

Genetic analysis in a variant of limb girdle muscular dystrophy in an inbred aboriginal community  

SciTech Connect

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable inheritance patterns, age-of-onset, rates of progression and patterns of muscle involvement. To date, 4 different chromosomal assignments have been described; LGMD1 to chromosome 5q, LGMD2 to chromosome 15q, SCARMD to chromosome 13q and a fourth locus on chromosome 2p. Because of this genetic heterogeneity, only large unambiguous multiplex families which are clearly linked to a particular locus can be utilized in a genetic analysis. We now report preliminary findings in a large highly inbred aboriginal kindred with 8 probands (5 females, 3 males) from 6 nuclear families with a progressive LMD. All presented in their mid- to late teens with gait disturbances. At time of presentation all except one had both proximal as well as distal muscle involvement, facial muscle sparing, CK levels 25 to 100 times normal (3762-20,400 U/l), dystrophic muscle biopsies and normal dystrophin and dystrophin-associated glycoprotein expression. We have studied the segregation of highly informative microsatellite markers for FBN1, D15S132 and the gene for thrombospondin on chromosome 15q and D2S134, D2S136, D2S147, and D2S166 on chromosome 2. Linkage to chromosome 15q has been excluded and two-point lod scores are not significant as yet to either confirm or exclude linkage to chromosome 2p. However, visual inspection reveals that affected individuals are not consistently homozygous for the chromosome 2p markers as would be predicted in such an inbred population. Clinically, SCARMD is unlikely and if the locus on chromosomes 2p and 5q can also be excluded, a genome-wide search using evenly spaced microsatellites will be initiated. A second geographically distinct aboriginal kindred with a similar clinical phenotype has now also been identified.

Greenberg, C.R.; Nylen, E.G.; Halliday, W. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

215

Postural alignment in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its relationship with balance  

PubMed Central

Background In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, functional deficits seem to arise from body misalignment, deconditioning, and obesity secondary to weakness and immobility. The question remains about the effects of postural deviations on the functional balance of these children. Objectives To identify and quantify postural deviations in children with DMD in comparison to non-affected children (eutrophic and overweight/obese), exploring relationships between posture and function. Method This case-control study evaluated 29 participants aged 6 to 11 years: 10 DMD (DG), 10 eutrophic (EG), and 9 overweight/obese (OG). Digital photogrammetry and SAPo program were used to measure postural alignment and the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) was used to measure balance. The Kruskall-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests were used for inter-group comparison of posture and balance. Spearman's coefficient tested the correlation between postural and balance variables. Results The horizontal pelvic alignment data indicated that the anteversion of the DG was similar to that of the OG and twice that of the EG (p<0.05). Compared to the EG, the DG and OG showed an increased forward position of the center of mass (p<0.05). There was a moderate and weak correlation between the PBS score and horizontal pelvic alignment (0.58 and 0.47-left/right). The PBS showed a weak correlation with asymmetries in the sagittal plane (-0.39). The PBS scores for the OG and EG suggest that obesity did not have a deleterious effect on balance. Conclusions The balance deficit in children with DMD was accompanied by an increased forward position of the center of mass and significant pelvic anteversion that constitutes a compensatory strategy to guarantee similar performance to the children not affected by the disease. PMID:24838810

Baptista, Cyntia R. J. A.; Costa, Andreia A.; Pizzato, Tatiana M.; Souza, Francine B.; Mattiello-Sverzut, Ana C.

2014-01-01

216

Autonomic Dysfunction: A Driving Force for Myocardial Fibrosis in Young Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients?  

PubMed

Cardiac manifestations of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) include progressive cardiac dysfunction and an elevated resting heart rate (HR). We hypothesized this elevated HR reflects autonomic dysfunction that can be identified by heart rate variability (HRV) analyses which will be associated with myocardial fibrosis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMR). DMD patients (N = 74) and controls (N = 17) had time and frequency domain HRV analyses calculated via Holter monitoring. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed on DMD cases only. ? (2) test, T test, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used to perform comparisons between groups. A p value of <0.05 was used for statistical significance. DMD cases had higher resting average HR than controls (99.4 ± 8.9, 85.4 + 6.2, p < 0.001). Among HRV variables, decreases were seen in the following: standard deviation of R to R intervals, the percent RR intervals differing by >50 ms from previous RR interval, the root-meansquare of successive differences of RR intervals, the standard deviation of the mean R to R segment (SDANN), low frequency, and high frequency domain, all p values 0.001. Maximum HR and SDANN most significantly associated with positive LGE on cMR (p = 0.008, p = 0.016). DMD cases on beta blocker had an average HR lower than those not on beta blocker (p = 0.009), but with no difference in HRV analysis. DMD patients have reduced HRV and therefore autonomic dysfunction prior to the onset of heart failure which is associated with myocardial fibrosis. PMID:25399404

Thomas, Tamara O; Jefferies, John L; Lorts, Angela; Anderson, Jeffrey B; Gao, Zhiqian; Woodrow Benson, D; Hor, Kan N; Cripe, Linda H; Urbina, Elaine M

2014-11-16

217

Dystropathology Increases Energy Expenditure and Protein Turnover in the Mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

The skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the mdx mouse model lack functional dystrophin and undergo repeated bouts of necrosis, regeneration, and growth. These processes have a high metabolic cost. However, the consequences for whole body energy and protein metabolism, and on the dietary requirements for these macronutrients at different stages of the disease, are not well-understood. This study used juvenile (4- to 5- wk-old) and adult (12- to 14-wk-old) male dystrophic C57BL/10ScSn-mdx/J and age-matched C57BL/10ScSn/J control male mice to measure total and resting energy expenditure, food intake, spontaneous activity, body composition, whole body protein turnover, and muscle protein synthesis rates. In juvenile mdx mice that have extensive muscle damage, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were higher than in age-matched controls. Adaptations in food intake and decreased activity were insufficient to meet the increased energy and protein needs of juvenile mdx mice and resulted in stunted growth. In (non-growing) adult mdx mice with less severe dystropathology, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were also higher than in age-matched controls. Food intake was sufficient to meet their protein and energy needs, but insufficient to result in fat deposition. These data show that dystropathology impacts the protein and energy needs of mdx mice and that tailored dietary interventions are necessary to redress this imbalance. If not met, the resultant imbalance blunts growth, and may limit the benefits of therapies designed to protect and repair dystrophic muscles. PMID:24586653

Radley-Crabb, Hannah G.; Marini, Juan C.; Sosa, Horacio A.; Castillo, Liliana I.; Grounds, Miranda D.; Fiorotto, Marta L.

2014-01-01

218

Early Treatment with Lisinopril and Spironolactone Preserves Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly-universal cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) contributes to heart failure and death. As DMD patients show myocardial fibrosis well before functional impairment, we postulated that earlier treatment using drugs with anti-fibrotic effect may be beneficial. Methods and Results Three groups of 10 utrn+/?;mdx or “het” mice with skeletal myopathy and cardiomyopathy that closely mimics clinical DMD were studied. One het group received spironolactone and lisinopril starting at 8 weeks-of-life (het-treated-8), a second received the same starting at 4 weeks-of-life (het-treated-4), and the third het group was untreated. At 20 weeks, all mice had normal EFs though circumferential strain rate was abnormal (?0.21±0.08) in untreated hets. This improved to ?0.40±0.07 in het-treated-8 mice (p=0.003), and further improved to ?0.56±0.10 in het-treated-4 mice (p=0.014 for het-treated-4 vs. het-treated-8). Treated mice showed less cardiomyocyte damage, with a 44% reduction in intra-cardiomyocyte serum IgG localization in het-treated-8 mice (p<0.0001), and further 53% reduction in het-treated-4 mice (p=0.0003 vs. het-treated-8); matrix metalloproteinases were similarly reduced. Cardiac, limb and diaphragm function by ex vivo muscle testing remained at 80% of normal with early treatment compared to a decline to 40% of normal skeletal muscle function without treatment. Conclusions These findings offer clinically-available medications with proven anti-fibrotic effect as a new therapeutic strategy in DMD. Early initiation greatly attenuated myocardial disease and, for the first time with these drugs, improved skeletal myopathy. Thus, early initiation of such agents warrants further clinical evaluation to maintain ambulatory, respiratory and cardiac function for DMD and related myopathies. PMID:21768542

Rafael-Fortney, Jill A.; Chimanji, Neeraj S.; Schill, Kevin E.; Martin, Christopher D.; Murray, Jason D.; Ganguly, Ranjit; Stangland, Jenna E.; Tran, Tam; Xu, Ying; Canan, Benjamin D.; Mays, Tessily A.; Delfín, Dawn A.; Janssen, Paul M.L.; Raman, Subha V.

2011-01-01

219

Muscle MRS detects elevated PDE/ATP ratios prior to fatty infiltration in Becker muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Muscles show structural changes (fatty infiltration, fibrosis) and metabolic changes, both of which can be assessed using MRI and MRS. It is unknown at what stage of the disease process metabolic changes arise and how this might vary for different metabolites. In this study we assessed metabolic changes in skeletal muscles of Becker patients, both with and without fatty infiltration, quantified via Dixon MRI and (31) P MRS. MRI and (31) P MRS scans were obtained from 25 Becker patients and 14 healthy controls using a 7 T MR scanner. Five lower-leg muscles were individually assessed for fat and muscle metabolite levels. In the peroneus, soleus and anterior tibialis muscles with non-increased fat levels, PDE/ATP ratios were higher (P < 0.02) compared with controls, whereas in all muscles with increased fat levels PDE/ATP ratios were higher compared with healthy controls (P ? 0.05). The Pi /ATP ratio in the peroneus muscles was higher in muscles with increased fat fractions (P = 0.005), and the PCr/ATP ratio was lower in the anterior tibialis muscles with increased fat fractions (P = 0.005). There were no other significant changes in metabolites, but an increase in tissue pH was found in all muscles of the total group of BMD patients in comparison with healthy controls (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that (31) P MRS can be used to detect early changes in individual muscles of BMD patients, which are present before the onset of fatty infiltration. PMID:25196814

Wokke, B H; Hooijmans, M T; van den Bergen, J C; Webb, A G; Verschuuren, J J; Kan, H E

2014-11-01

220

Gene correction of a duchenne muscular dystrophy mutation by meganuclease-enhanced exon knock-in.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe inherited, muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Gene therapy development for DMD has concentrated on vector-based DMD minigene transfer, cell-based gene therapy using genetically modified adult muscle stem cells or healthy wild-type donor cells, and antisense oligonucleotide-induced exon-skipping therapy to restore the reading frame of the mutated DMD gene. This study is an investigation into DMD gene targeting-mediated correction of deletions in human patient myoblasts using a target-specific meganuclease (MN) and a homologous recombination repair matrix. The MN was designed to cleave within DMD intron 44, upstream of a deletion hotspot, and integration-competent lentiviral vectors expressing the nuclease (LVcMN) were generated. MN western blotting and deep gene sequencing for LVcMN-induced non-homologous end-joining InDels (microdeletions or microinsertions) confirmed efficient MN expression and activity in transduced DMD myoblasts. A homologous repair matrix carrying exons 45-52 (RM45-52) was designed and packaged into integration-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs; LVdRM45-52). After cotransduction of DMD myoblasts harboring a deletion of exons 45 to 52 with LVcMN and LVdRM45-52 vectors, targeted knock-in of the RM45-52 region in the correct location in DMD intron 44, and expression of full-length, correctly spliced wild-type dystrophin mRNA containing exons 45-52 were observed. This work demonstrates that genome surgery on human DMD gene mutations can be achieved by MN-induced locus-specific genome cleavage and homologous recombination knock-in of deleted exons. The feasibility of human DMD gene repair in patient myoblasts has exciting therapeutic potential. PMID:23790397

Popplewell, Linda; Koo, Taeyoung; Leclerc, Xavier; Duclert, Aymeric; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Gouble, Agnés; Mouly, Vincent; Voit, Thomas; Pâques, Frédéric; Cédrone, Frédéric; Isman, Olga; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J; Dickson, George

2013-07-01

221

Lack of Functional Benefit with Glutamine versus Placebo in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Randomized Crossover Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Oral glutamine decreases whole body protein breakdown in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We evaluated the functional benefit of 4 months oral glutamine in DMD. Methodology/Principal Findings 30 ambulant DMD boys were included in this double-blind, randomized crossover trial with 2 intervention periods: glutamine (0.5 g/kg/d) and placebo, 4 months each, separated by a 1-month wash-out, at 3 outpatient clinical investigation centers in France. Functional benefit was tested by comparing glutamine versus placebo on change in walking speed at 4 months. Secondary outcome measures were: 2-minute walk test, work, power, muscle mass (urinary creatinine), markers of myofibrillar protein breakdown (urinary 3-methyl-histidine/creatinine), serum creatine phospho-kinase, body composition (fat free mass, fat mass percentage), safety and oral nutrient intake. There was no improvement in the primary end point (walking speed) or in secondary measures of muscle function (2-minute walk test, work, power) in the glutamine group compared with placebo. However, subjects receiving glutamine or placebo showed no deterioration in functional measures over the course of the 9-month trial. No differences in muscle mass, markers of protein breakdown or serum creatine phosho-kinase were observed, except for a blunted increase in fat free mass in the glutamine group which led to a greater increase in fat mass percentage. Glutamine was safe and well-tolerated. Conclusions This trial did not identify additional benefit of 4 months oral glutamine over placebo on muscle mass or function in ambulatory DMD boys. Although apparently safe, current data cannot support routine supplementation in this population as a whole, until further research proves otherwise. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00296621 PMID:19421321

Mok, Elise; Letellier, Guy; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Denjean, André; Gottrand, Frédéric; Alberti, Corinne; Hankard, Régis

2009-01-01

222

Dystrophin Gene Mutation Location and the Risk of Cognitive Impairment in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background A significant component of the variation in cognitive disability that is observed in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is known to be under genetic regulation. In this study we report correlations between standardised measures of intelligence and mutational class, mutation size, mutation location and the involvement of dystrophin isoforms. Methods and Results Sixty two male subjects were recruited as part of a study of the cognitive spectrum in boys with DMD conducted at the Sydney Children's Hospital (SCH). All 62 children received neuropsychological testing from a single clinical psychologist and had a defined dystrophin gene (DMD) mutation; including DMD gene deletions, duplications and DNA point mutations. Full Scale Intelligence Quotients (FSIQ) in unrelated subjects with the same mutation were found to be highly correlated (r?=?0.83, p?=?0.0008), in contrast to results in previous publications. In 58 cases (94%) it was possible to definitively assign a mutation as affecting one or more dystrophin isoforms. A strong association between the risk of cognitive disability and the involvement of groups of DMD isoforms was found. In particular, improvements in the correlation of FSIQ with mutation location were identified when a new classification system for mutations affecting the Dp140 isoform was implemented. Significance These data represent one of the largest studies of FSIQ and mutational data in DMD patients and is among the first to report on a DMD cohort which has had both comprehensive mutational analysis and FSIQ testing through a single referral centre. The correlation between FSIQ results with the location of the dystrophin gene mutation suggests that the risk of cognitive deficit is a result of the cumulative loss of central nervous system (CNS) expressed dystrophin isoforms, and that correct classification of isoform involvement results in improved estimates of risk. PMID:20098710

Maroulis, Sarah; Gilissen, Christian; Pedersen, Robyn L.; Mowat, David R.; Johnston, Heather M.; Buckley, Michael F.

2010-01-01

223

DNA Methylation Analysis of the Macrosatellite Repeat Associated with FSHD Muscular Dystrophy at Single Nucleotide Level  

PubMed Central

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common inherited diseases of the skeletal muscle. It is characterized by asymmetric muscle weakness and variable penetrance. FSHD is linked to a reduction in copy number of the D4Z4 3.3 kb macrosatellite repeat, located in 4q35. This causes the epigenetic de-repression of FSHD candidate genes leading to disease. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism responsible for silencing of FSHD candidate genes in healthy subjects is not fully understood. While a role for DNA methylation has been suggested, so far there is limited information regarding the methylation status of the 325 CpGs contained in each D4Z4 unit. Using a human/rodent monochromosomal hybrid cell line containing a single human chromosome 4, we performed an in depth analysis of DNA methylation for the majority of the CpGs inside D4Z4 at single nucleotide level. We found that D4Z4 is not uniformly methylated and that the level of DNA methylation does not correlate with the density of CpG dinucleotides. Moreover, in several D4Z4 regions characterized by near complete methylation, we found specific unmethylated CpGs. These elements are enriched in transcription factor binding sites that could be involved in muscle-specific D4Z4 activity. Our approach also detected differential methylation among different D4Z4 units, suggesting that the D4Z4 array is a mosaic of euchromatic and heterochromatic domains. Finally, we found that DNA methylation and histone de-acetylation are required to maintain FSHD candidate genes repressed. Taken together, our data underscore new players involved in the epigenetic regulation of the FSHD locus that could be targeted for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25545674

Huichalaf, Claudia; Micheloni, Stefano; Ferri, Giulia; Caccia, Roberta; Gabellini, Davide

2014-01-01

224

Depletion of zebrafish Tcap leads to muscular dystrophy via disrupting sarcomere–membrane interaction, not sarcomere assembly  

PubMed Central

Tcap/telethonin encodes a Z-disc protein that plays important roles in sarcomere assembly, sarcomere-membrane interaction and stretch sensing. It remains unclear why mutations in Tcap lead to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2G (LGMD2G) in human patients. Here, we cloned tcap in zebrafish and conducted genetic studies. We show that tcap is functionally conserved, as the Tcap protein appears in the sarcomeric Z-disc and reduction of Tcap resulted in muscular dystrophy-like phenotypes including deformed muscle structure and impaired swimming ability. However, the observations that Tcap integrates into the sarcomere at a stage after the Z-disc becomes periodic, and that the sarcomere remains intact in tcap morphants, suggest that defective sarcomere assembly does not contribute to this particular type of muscular dystrophy. Instead, a defective interaction between the sarcomere and plasma membrane was detected, which was further underscored by the disrupted development of the T-tubule system. Pertinent to a potential function in stretch sensor signaling, zebrafish tcap exhibits a variable expression pattern during somitogenesis. The variable expression is inducible by stretch force, and the expression level of Tcap is negatively regulated by integrin-link kinase (ILK), a protein kinase that is involved in stretch sensing signaling. Together, our genetic studies of tcap in zebrafish suggested that pathogenesis in LGMD2G is due to a disruption of sarcomere–T-tubular interaction, but not of sarcomere assembly per se. In addition, our data prompted a novel hypothesis that predicts that the transcription level of Tcap can be regulated by the stretch force to ensure proper sarcomere–membrane interaction in striated muscles. PMID:19679566

Zhang, Ruilin; Yang, Jingchun; Zhu, Jin; Xu, Xiaolei

2009-01-01

225

Depletion of zebrafish Tcap leads to muscular dystrophy via disrupting sarcomere-membrane interaction, not sarcomere assembly.  

PubMed

Tcap/telethonin encodes a Z-disc protein that plays important roles in sarcomere assembly, sarcomere-membrane interaction and stretch sensing. It remains unclear why mutations in Tcap lead to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2G (LGMD2G) in human patients. Here, we cloned tcap in zebrafish and conducted genetic studies. We show that tcap is functionally conserved, as the Tcap protein appears in the sarcomeric Z-disc and reduction of Tcap resulted in muscular dystrophy-like phenotypes including deformed muscle structure and impaired swimming ability. However, the observations that Tcap integrates into the sarcomere at a stage after the Z-disc becomes periodic, and that the sarcomere remains intact in tcap morphants, suggest that defective sarcomere assembly does not contribute to this particular type of muscular dystrophy. Instead, a defective interaction between the sarcomere and plasma membrane was detected, which was further underscored by the disrupted development of the T-tubule system. Pertinent to a potential function in stretch sensor signaling, zebrafish tcap exhibits a variable expression pattern during somitogenesis. The variable expression is inducible by stretch force, and the expression level of Tcap is negatively regulated by integrin-link kinase (ILK), a protein kinase that is involved in stretch sensing signaling. Together, our genetic studies of tcap in zebrafish suggested that pathogenesis in LGMD2G is due to a disruption of sarcomere-T-tubular interaction, but not of sarcomere assembly per se. In addition, our data prompted a novel hypothesis that predicts that the transcription level of Tcap can be regulated by the stretch force to ensure proper sarcomere-membrane interaction in striated muscles. PMID:19679566

Zhang, Ruilin; Yang, Jingchun; Zhu, Jin; Xu, Xiaolei

2009-11-01

226

Alterations in Notch signalling in skeletal muscles from mdx and dko dystrophic mice and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

New Findings What is the central question of this study? The Notch signalling pathway plays an important role in muscle regeneration, and activation of the pathway has been shown to enhance muscle regeneration in aged mice. It is unknown whether Notch activation will have a similarly beneficial effect on muscle regeneration in the context of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). What is the main finding and its importance? Although expression of Notch signalling components is altered in both mouse models of DMD and in human DMD patients, activation of the Notch signalling pathway does not confer any functional benefit on muscles from dystrophic mice, suggesting that other signalling pathways may be more fruitful targets for manipulation in treating DMD. Abstract In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), muscle damage and impaired regeneration lead to progressive muscle wasting, weakness and premature death. The Notch signalling pathway represents a central regulator of gene expression and is critical for cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic signalling during all stages of embryonic muscle development. Notch activation improves muscle regeneration in aged mice, but its potential to restore regeneration and function in muscular dystrophy is unknown. We performed a comprehensive examination of several genes involved in Notch signalling in muscles from dystrophin-deficient mdx and dko (utrophin- and dystrophin-null) mice and DMD patients. A reduction of Notch1 and Hes1 mRNA in tibialis anterior muscles of dko mice and quadriceps muscles of DMD patients and a reduction of Hes1 mRNA in the diaphragm of the mdx mice were observed, with other targets being inconsistent across species. Activation and inhibition of Notch signalling, followed by measures of muscle regeneration and function, were performed in the mouse models of DMD. Notch activation had no effect on functional regeneration in C57BL/10, mdx or dko mice. Notch inhibition significantly depressed the frequency-force relationship in regenerating muscles of C57BL/10 and mdx mice after injury, indicating reduced force at each stimulation frequency, but enhanced the frequency-force relationship in muscles from dko mice. We conclude that while Notch inhibition produces slight functional defects in dystrophic muscle, Notch activation does not significantly improve muscle regeneration in murine models of muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, the inconsistent expression of Notch targets between murine models and DMD patients suggests caution when making interspecies comparisons. PMID:24443351

Church, Jarrod E; Trieu, Jennifer; Chee, Annabel; Naim, Timur; Gehrig, Stefan M; Lamon, Séverine; Angelini, Corrado; Russell, Aaron P; Lynch, Gordon S

2014-04-01

227

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G with myopathic-neurogenic motor unit potentials and a novel muscle image pattern  

PubMed Central

Background Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G (LGMD2G) is a subtype of autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the telethonin gene. There are few LGMD2G patients worldwide reported, and this is the first description associated with early tibialis anterior sparing on muscle image and myopathic-neurogenic motor unit potentials. Case presentation Here we report a 31 years old caucasian male patient with progressive gait disturbance, and severe lower limb proximal weakness since the age of 20 years, associated with subtle facial muscle weakness. Computed tomography demonstrated soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and diffuse thigh muscles involvement with tibialis anterior sparing. Electromyography disclosed both neurogenic and myopathic motor unit potentials. Muscle biopsy demonstrated large groups of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers, frequent fibers with intracytoplasmic rimmed vacuoles full of autophagic membrane and sarcoplasmic debris, and a total deficiency of telethonin. Molecular investigation identified the common homozygous c.157C?>?T in the TCAP gene. Conclusion This report expands the phenotypic variability of telethoninopathy/ LGMD2G, including: 1) mixed neurogenic and myopathic motor unit potentials, 2) facial weakness, and 3) tibialis anterior sparing. Appropriate diagnosis in these cases is important for genetic counseling and prognosis. PMID:25298746

2014-01-01

228

Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Four Korean Patients with Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2B  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B), a subtype of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (ARLGMD), is characterized by a relatively late onset and slow progressive course. LGMD2B is known to be caused by the loss of the dysferlin protein at sarcolemma in muscle fibers. In this study, the clinical and pathological characteristics of Korean LGMD2B patients were investigated. Seventeen patients with ARLGMD underwent muscle biopsy and the histochemical examination was performed. For the immunocytochemistry, a set of antibodies against dystrophin, ?, ?, ?, ?-sarcoglycans, dysferlin, caveolin-3, and ?-dystroglycan was used. Four patients (24%) showed selective loss of immunoreactivity against dysferlin at the sarcolemma on the muscle specimens. Therefore, they were classified into the LGMD2B category. The age at the onset of disease ranged from 9 yr to 33 yr, and none of the patients was wheelchair bound at the neurological examination. The serum creatine kinase (CK) was high in all the patients (4010-5310 IU/L). The pathologic examination showed mild to moderate dystrophic features. These are the first Korean LGMD2B cases with a dysferlin deficiency confirmed by immunocytochemistry. The clinical, pathological, and immunocytochemical findings of the patients with LGMD2B in this study were in accordance with those of other previous reports. PMID:15201514

Oh, Seung-Hun; Kang, Seong-Woong; Lee, Jin-Goo; Na, Sang-Jun; Kim, Tai-Seung

2004-01-01

229

Deletion of periostin reduces muscular dystrophy and fibrosis in mice by modulating the transforming growth factor-? pathway.  

PubMed

The muscular dystrophies are broadly classified as muscle wasting diseases with myofiber dropout due to cellular necrosis, inflammation, alterations in extracellular matrix composition, and fatty cell replacement. These events transpire and progress despite ongoing myofiber regeneration from endogenous satellite cells. The degeneration/regeneration response to muscle injury/disease is modulated by the proinflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), which can also profoundly influence extracellular matrix composition through increased secretion of profibrotic proteins, such as the matricellular protein periostin. Here we show that up-regulation and secretion of periostin is pathological and enhances disease in the ?-sarcoglycan null (Sgcd(-/-)) mouse model of muscular dystrophy (MD). Indeed, MD mice lacking the Postn gene showed dramatic improvement in skeletal muscle structure and function. Mechanistically, Postn gene deletion altered TGF-? signaling so that it now enhanced tissue regeneration with reduced levels of fibrosis. Systemic antagonism of TGF-? with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody mitigated the beneficial effects of Postn deletion in vivo. These data suggest that periostin functions as a disease determinant in MD by promoting/allowing the pathological effects of TGF-?, suggesting that inhibition of periostin could represent a unique treatment approach. PMID:22711826

Lorts, Angela; Schwanekamp, Jennifer A; Baudino, Troy A; McNally, Elizabeth M; Molkentin, Jeffery D

2012-07-01

230

Angiogenesis as a novel therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy through decreased ischemia and increased satellite cells  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary muscular dystrophy caused by mutation in dystrophin, and there is no curative therapy. Dystrophin is a protein which forms the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) at the sarcolemma linking the muscle cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. When dystrophin is absent, muscle fibers become vulnerable to mechanical stretch. In addition to this, accumulating evidence indicates DMD muscle having vascular abnormalities and that the muscles are under an ischemic condition. More recent studies demonstrate decreased vascular densities and impaired angiogenesis in the muscles of murine model of DMD. Therefore, generation of new vasculature can be considered a potentially effective strategy for DMD therapy. The pro-angiogenic approaches also seem to be pro-myogenic and could induce muscle regeneration capacity through expansion of the satellite cell juxtavascular niche in the mouse model. Here, we will focus on angiogenesis, reviewing the background, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor-pathway, effect, and concerns of this strategy in DMD. PMID:24600399

Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Asakura, Atsushi

2014-01-01

231

Severe limb girdle muscular dystrophy in Spanish gypsies: further evidence for a founder mutation in the gamma-sarcoglycan gene.  

PubMed

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C) is an autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy with primary gamma-sarcoglycan deficiency, generally associated with a severe clinical course. gamma-sarcoglycan, a 35kDa dystrophin-associated protein, is encoded by a single gene on chromosome 13q12. Six different mutations have been described in that gene, and it has been proved they are the origin of the disease. One of these mutations (C283Y), a G-->A transition in codon 283, was recently and exclusively identified in Gypsy patients from different European countries. We report the study of 11 LGMD2C unrelated Gypsy families (nine Spanish and two Portugese). The muscle biopsies of these patients showed a drastically decreased immunostaining with alpha and gamma-sarcoglycan antibodies. All the patients were homozygous for C283Y missense mutation, and all affected chromosomes (patients and heterozygous relatives) carried the allele 5 (112 bp) of the intragenic microsatellite D13S232. Unexpectedly, this allele is most frequent in the Caucasian population but not in the normal Gypsy population. The clinical severity of all patients demonstrates that the C283Y missense mutation in a homozygous state causes a severe LGMD2C (DMD-like). The elevated number of families ascertained let us assume that LGMD2C is prevalent in the Gypsy population, and that all the families have inherited a founding mutation. PMID:9781048

Lasa, A; Piccolo, F; de Diego, C; Jeanpierre, M; Colomer, J; Rodríguez, M J; Urtizberea, J A; Baiget, M; Kaplan, J; Gallano, P

1998-01-01

232

Membrane-myofibril cross-talk in myofibrillogenesis and in muscular dystrophy pathogenesis: lessons from the zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Striated muscle has a highly ordered structure in which specialized domains of the cell membrane involved in force transmission (costameres) and excitation-contraction coupling (T tubules) as well as the internal membranes of the sarcoplasmic reticulum are organized over specific regions of the sarcomere. Optimal muscle function is dependent on this high level of organization but how it established and maintained is not well understood. Due to its ex utero development and transparency, the zebrafish embryo is an excellent vertebrate model for the study of dynamic relationships both within and between cells during development. Transgenic models have allowed the delineation of cellular migration and complex morphogenic rearrangements during the differentiation of skeletal myocytes and the assembly and organization of new myofibrils. Molecular targeting of genes and transcripts has allowed the identification of key requirements for myofibril assembly and organization. With the recent advances in gene editing approaches, the zebrafish will become an increasingly important model for the study of human myopathies and muscular dystrophies. Its high fecundity and small size make it well suited to high-throughput screenings to identify novel pharmacologic and molecular therapies for the treatment of a broad range of neuromuscular conditions. In this review, we examine the lessons learned from the zebrafish model regarding the complex interactions between the sarcomere and the sarcolemma that pattern the developing myocyte and discuss the potential for zebrafish as a model system to examine the pathophysiology of, and identify new treatments for, human myopathies and muscular dystrophies. PMID:24478725

Raeker, Maide Ö.; Shavit, Jordan A.; Dowling, James J.; Michele, Daniel E.; Russell, Mark W.

2014-01-01

233

Effects of yoga breathing exercises on pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an exploratory analysis*, **  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, and children with DMD die prematurely because of respiratory failure. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of yoga breathing exercises, as well as the effects of those exercises on respiratory function, in such children. METHODS: This was a prospective open-label study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD, recruited from among those followed at the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were taught how to perform hatha yoga breathing exercises and were instructed to perform the exercises three times a day for 10 months. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 35 dropped out and 15 were unable to perform the breathing exercises, 26 having therefore completed the study (mean age, 9.5 ± 2.3 years; body mass index, 18.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2). The yoga breathing exercises resulted in a significant increase in FVC (% of predicted: 82.3 ± 18.6% at baseline vs. 90.3 ± 22.5% at 10 months later; p = 0.02) and FEV1 (% of predicted: 83.8 ± 16.6% at baseline vs. 90.1 ± 17.4% at 10 months later; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Yoga breathing exercises can improve pulmonary function in patients with DMD. PMID:24831396

Rodrigues, Marcos Rojo; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

2014-01-01

234

Congenital disorder of glycosylation due to DPM1 mutations presenting with dystroglycanopathy-type congenital muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are rare genetic defects mainly in the post-translational modification of proteins via attachment of carbohydrate chains. We describe an infant with the phenotype of a congenital muscular dystrophy, with borderline microcephaly, hypotonia, camptodactyly, severe motor delay, and elevated creatine kinase. Muscle biopsy showed muscular dystrophy and reduced ?-dystroglycan immunostaining with glycoepitope-specific antibodies in a pattern diagnostic of dystroglycanopathy. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin testing showed a pattern pointing to a CDG type I. Sanger sequencing of DPM1 (dolichol-P-mannose synthase subunit 1) revealed a novel Gly>Val change c.455 G>T missense mutation resulting in p.Gly152Val) of unknown pathogenicity and deletion/duplication analysis revealed an intragenic deletion from exons 3 to 7 on the other allele. DPM1 activity in fibroblasts was reduced by 80%, while affinity for the substrate was not depressed, suggesting a decrease in the amount of active enzyme. Transfected cells expressing tagged versions of wild type and the p.Gly152Val mutant displayed reduced binding to DPM3, an essential, non-catalytic subunit of the DPM complex, suggesting a mechanism for pathogenicity. The present case is the first individual described with DPM1-CDG (CDG-Ie) to also have clinical and muscle biopsy findings consistent with dystroglycanopathy. PMID:23856421

Moore, Steven A.; Rush, Jeffrey; Waechter, Charles J.; Raymond, Kimiyo M.; Willer, Tobias; Campbell, Kevin P.; Freeze, Hudson H.; Mehta, Lakshmi

2013-01-01

235

Founder SVA retrotransposal insertion in Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy and its origin in Japanese and Northeast Asian populations.  

PubMed

Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in Japan, is characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy associated with brain malformation due to a defect in neuronal migration. Previously, we identified the gene responsible for FCMD, which encodes the fukutin protein. Most FCMD-bearing chromosomes (87%) are derived from a single ancestral founder, who lived 2,000-2,500 years ago and whose mutation consisted of a 3-kb retrotransposal insertion in the 3' non-coding region of the fukutin gene. Here we show, through detailed sequence analysis, that the founder insertion is derived from the SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) retroposon. To enable rapid detection of this insertion, we have developed a PCR-based diagnostic method that uses three primers simultaneously. We used this method to investigate the distribution and origin of the founder insertion, screening a total of 4,718 control DNA samples from Japanese and other Northeast Asian populations. Fifteen founder chromosomes were detected among 2,814 Japanese individuals. Heterozygous carriers were found in various regions throughout Japan, with an averaged ratio of 1 in 188. In Korean populations, we detected one carrier in 935 individuals. However, we were unable to detect any heterozygous alleles in 203 Mongolians and 766 Mainland Chinese populations. These data largely rule out the possibility that a single ancestor bearing an insertion-chromosome immigrated to Japan from Korea or Mainland China and appear to confirm that FCMD carriers are rare outside of Japan. PMID:16222679

Watanabe, Masashi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Jin, Feng; Park, Kyung Sook; Yamada, Takatsugu; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Toda, Tatsushi

2005-11-01

236

Congenital disorder of glycosylation due to DPM1 mutations presenting with dystroglycanopathy-type congenital muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are rare genetic defects mainly in the post-translational modification of proteins via attachment of carbohydrate chains. We describe an infant with the phenotype of a congenital muscular dystrophy, with borderline microcephaly, hypotonia, camptodactyly, severe motor delay, and elevated creatine kinase. Muscle biopsy showed muscular dystrophy and reduced ?-dystroglycan immunostaining with glycoepitope-specific antibodies in a pattern diagnostic of dystroglycanopathy. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin testing showed a pattern pointing to a CDG type I. Sanger sequencing of DPM1 (dolichol-P-mannose synthase subunit 1) revealed a novel Gly > Val change c.455G > T missense mutation resulting in p.Gly152Val) of unknown pathogenicity and deletion/duplication analysis revealed an intragenic deletion from exons 3 to 7 on the other allele. DPM1 activity in fibroblasts was reduced by 80%, while affinity for the substrate was not depressed, suggesting a decrease in the amount of active enzyme. Transfected cells expressing tagged versions of wild type and the p.Gly152Val mutant displayed reduced binding to DPM3, an essential, non-catalytic subunit of the DPM complex, suggesting a mechanism for pathogenicity. The present case is the first individual described with DPM1-CDG (CDG-Ie) to also have clinical and muscle biopsy findings consistent with dystroglycanopathy. PMID:23856421

Yang, Amy C; Ng, Bobby G; Moore, Steven A; Rush, Jeffrey; Waechter, Charles J; Raymond, Kimiyo M; Willer, Tobias; Campbell, Kevin P; Freeze, Hudson H; Mehta, Lakshmi

2013-11-01

237

Pathogenic exon-trapping by SVA retrotransposon and rescue in Fukuyama muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Fukuyama muscular dystrophy (FCMD; MIM253800), one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in Japan, was the first human disease found to result from ancestral insertion of a SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) retrotransposon into a causative gene1-3. In FCMD, the SVA insertion occurs in the 3?-untranslated region (UTR) of the fukutin gene. The pathogenic mechanism for FCMD is unknown, and no effective clinical treatments exist. Here we show that aberrant mRNA splicing, induced by SVA exon-trapping, underlies the molecular pathogenesis of FCMD. Quantitative mRNA analysis pinpointed a region that was missing from transcripts in FCMD patients. This region spans part of the 3? end of the fukutin coding region, proximal part of the 3? UTR, and the SVA insertion. Correspondingly, fukutin mRNA transcripts in FCMD patients and SVA knock-in (KI) model mice were shorter than the expected length. Sequence analysis revealed an abnormal splicing event, provoked by a strong acceptor site in SVA and a rare alternative donor site in fukutin exon 10. The resulting product truncates the fukutin C-terminus and adds 129 amino acids encoded by the SVA. Introduction of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) targeting the splice acceptor, the predicted exonic splicing enhancer, and the intronic splicing enhancer prevented pathogenic exon-trapping by SVA in FCMD patient cells and model mice, rescuing normal fukutin mRNA expression and protein production. AON treatment also restored fukutin functions, including O-glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan (?-DG) and laminin binding by ?-DG. Moreover, we observe exon-trapping in other SVA insertions associated with disease (hypercholesterolemia4, neutral lipid storage disease5) and human-specific SVA insertion in a novel gene. Thus, although splicing into SVA is known6-8, we have discovered in human disease a role for SVA-mediated exon-trapping and demonstrated the promise of splicing modulation therapy as the first radical clinical treatment for FCMD and other SVA-mediated diseases. PMID:21979053

Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Kanagawa, Motoi; Yu, Chih-chieh; Mori, Kouhei; Oda, Tetsuya; Kuga, Atsushi; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Akman, Hasan O.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Kaji, Ryuji; Yokota, Toshifumi; Takeda, Shin’ichi; Toda, Tatsushi

2012-01-01

238

Pathogenic exon-trapping by SVA retrotransposon and rescue in Fukuyama muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Fukuyama muscular dystrophy (FCMD; MIM253800), one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in Japan, was the first human disease found to result from ancestral insertion of a SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) retrotransposon into a causative gene. In FCMD, the SVA insertion occurs in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the fukutin gene. The pathogenic mechanism for FCMD is unknown, and no effective clinical treatments exist. Here we show that aberrant messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, induced by SVA exon-trapping, underlies the molecular pathogenesis of FCMD. Quantitative mRNA analysis pinpointed a region that was missing from transcripts in patients with FCMD. This region spans part of the 3' end of the fukutin coding region, a proximal part of the 3' UTR and the SVA insertion. Correspondingly, fukutin mRNA transcripts in patients with FCMD and SVA knock-in model mice were shorter than the expected length. Sequence analysis revealed an abnormal splicing event, provoked by a strong acceptor site in SVA and a rare alternative donor site in fukutin exon 10. The resulting product truncates the fukutin carboxy (C) terminus and adds 129 amino acids encoded by the SVA. Introduction of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) targeting the splice acceptor, the predicted exonic splicing enhancer and the intronic splicing enhancer prevented pathogenic exon-trapping by SVA in cells of patients with FCMD and model mice, rescuing normal fukutin mRNA expression and protein production. AON treatment also restored fukutin functions, including O-glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan (?-DG) and laminin binding by ?-DG. Moreover, we observe exon-trapping in other SVA insertions associated with disease (hypercholesterolemia, neutral lipid storage disease) and human-specific SVA insertion in a novel gene. Thus, although splicing into SVA is known, we have discovered in human disease a role for SVA-mediated exon-trapping and demonstrated the promise of splicing modulation therapy as the first radical clinical treatment for FCMD and other SVA-mediated diseases. PMID:21979053

Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Kanagawa, Motoi; Yu, Chih-chieh; Mori, Kouhei; Oda, Tetsuya; Kuga, Atsushi; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Akman, Hasan O; DiMauro, Salvatore; Kaji, Ryuji; Yokota, Toshifumi; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Toda, Tatsushi

2011-10-01

239

High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in the dy\\/dy mouse with merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in the cerebral white matter are a consistent feature of merosin-deficient human congenital muscular dystrophy, a disease caused by a primary defect in the expression of the laminin ?2 chain of merosin. To investigate the relationship between imaging changes and merosin deficiency we undertook a MRI study in the dy\\/dy mouse, an animal model for

David J. Dubowitz; J. Michael Tyszka; Caroline A. Sewry; Rex A. Moats; Miriam Scadeng; Victor Dubowitz

2000-01-01

240

Relationship Between Clinical Outcome Measures and Parent Proxy Reports of Health-related Quality of Life in Ambulatory Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, data directly linking changes in clinical outcome measures to patient-perceived well-being are lacking. Our study evaluated the relationship between clinical outcome measures used in clinical trials of ambulatory Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Vignos functional grade, quantitative knee extension strength, timed functional performance measures, and gait velocity) and 2 health-related quality of life measures — the PODCI and PedsQL™ — in 52 ambulatory Duchenne muscular dystrophy subjects and 36 controls. Those with the disease showed significant decrements in parent proxy-reported health-related quality of life measures versus controls across all domains. The PODCI transfers/basic mobility, PODCI sports/physical function, and PedsQL™ physical functioning domains had significant associations with age (and hence disease progression), and traditional clinical outcome measures employed in clinical trials of ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Selected domains of the PODCI and generic PedsQL™ are potential patient-reported outcome measures for clinical trials in ambulatory individuals with the disease. PMID:20558672

McDonald, Craig M.; McDonald, Dawn A.; Bagley, Anita M.; Sienko-Thomas, Susan; Buckon, Cathleen; Henricson, Eric; Nicorici, Alina; Sussman, Michael D.

2013-01-01

241

A gene for autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in Manitoba Hutterites maps to chromosome region 9q31-q33: evidence for another limb-girdle muscular dystrophy locus.  

PubMed Central

Characterized by proximal muscle weakness and wasting, limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a heterogeneous group of clinical disorders. Previous reports have documented either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive modes of inheritance, with genetic linkage studies providing evidence for the existence of at least 12 distinct loci. Gene products have been identified for five genes responsible for autosomal recessive forms of the disorder. We performed a genome scan using pooled DNA from a large Hutterite kindred in which the affected members display a mild form of autosomal recessive LGMD. A total of 200 markers were used to screen pools of DNA from patients and their siblings. Linkage between the LGMD locus and D9S302 (maximum LOD score 5.99 at recombination fraction .03) was established. Since this marker resides within the chromosomal region known to harbor the gene causing Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), we expanded our investigations, to include additional markers in chromosome region 9q31-q34.1. Haplotype analysis revealed five recombinations that place the LGMD locus distal to the FCMD locus. The LGMD locus maps close to D9S934 (maximum multipoint LOD score 7.61) in a region that is estimated to be approximately 4.4 Mb (Genetic Location Database composite map). On the basis of an inferred ancestral recombination, the gene may lie in a 300-kb region between D9S302 and D9S934. Our results provide compelling evidence that yet another gene is involved in LGMD; we suggest that it be named "LGMD2H." PMID:9634523

Weiler, T; Greenberg, C R; Zelinski, T; Nylen, E; Coghlan, G; Crumley, M J; Fujiwara, T M; Morgan, K; Wrogemann, K

1998-01-01

242

Cardiomyopathy in the dystrophin/utrophin-deficient mouse model of severe muscular dystrophy is characterized by dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinases.  

PubMed

Cardiomyopathy is a significant component in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Although mdx mice are deficient in dystrophin, they only develop mild indicators of cardiomyopathy before 1year-of-age, making therapeutic investigations using this model lengthy. In contrast, mdx mice also lacking utrophin (utrn(-/-);mdx) show severely reduced cardiac contractile function and histological indicators of cardiomyopathy by 8-10weeks-of-age. Here we demonstrate that utrn(-/-);mdx mice show a similar pattern of cardiac damage to that in dystrophic patients. Matrix metalloproteinases required for ventricular remodeling during the evolution of heart failure are upregulated in utrn(-/-);mdx mice concurrent with the onset of cardiac pathology by 10weeks-of-age. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is further dysregulated due to reduced levels of endogenous tissue inhibitors and co-localizes with fibroblasts and collagen I-containing scars. utrn(-/-);mdx mice are therefore a very useful model for investigating potential cardiac therapies. PMID:22749475

Delfín, Dawn A; Zang, Kara E; Schill, Kevin E; Patel, Nikita T; Janssen, Paul M L; Raman, Subha V; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A

2012-11-01

243

CARDIAC PATHOLOGY EXCEEDS SKELETAL MUSCLE PATHOLOGY IN TWO CASES OF LIMB-GIRDLE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY TYPE 2I  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD-2I) is caused by mutations in fukutin-related protein gene (FKRP) that lead to abnormal glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan in skeletal muscle. Heart involvement in LGMD-2I is common, but little is known about underlying cardiac pathology. Here, we describe two patients with LGMD-2I (homozygous FKRP mutation c.826C>A, p.Leu276Ile) who developed severe congestive heart failure requiring cardiac transplantation. The dystrophic pathology and impairment of ?-dystroglycan glycosylation were severe in the heart but mild in the skeletal muscle, underscoring the lack of correlation between cardiac and skeletal muscle involvement in some LGMD-2I patients. PMID:19705481

Margeta, Marta; Connolly, Anne M.; Winder, Thomas L.; Pestronk, Alan; Moore, Steven A.

2010-01-01

244

Towards developing standard operating procedures for pre-clinical testing in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

This review discusses various issues to consider when developing standard operating procedures for pre-clinical studies in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The review describes and evaluates a wide range of techniques used to measure parameters of muscle pathology in mdx mice and identifies some basic techniques that might comprise standardised approaches for evaluation. While the central aim is to provide a basis for the development of standardised procedures to evaluate efficacy of a drug or a therapeutic strategy, a further aim is to gain insight into pathophysiological mechanisms in order to identify other therapeutic targets. The desired outcome is to enable easier and more rigorous comparison of pre-clinical data from different laboratories around the world, in order to accelerate identification of the best pre-clinical therapies in the mdx mouse that will fast-track translation into effective clinical treatments for DMD. PMID:18499465

Grounds, Miranda D.; Radley, Hannah G.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; De Luca, Annamaria

2008-01-01

245

Seven autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies in the Brazilian population: from LGMD2A to LGMD2G.  

PubMed

The autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (AR-LGMDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders of progressive weakness of the pelvic and shoulder girdle musculature. The clinical course is characterized by great variability, ranging from severe forms with onset in the first decade and rapid progression resembling clinically Xp21 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) to milder forms with later onset and slower course. Eight genes are mapped for the AR-LGMDs; they are: LGMD2A (CAPN3) at 15q, LGMD2B (dysferlin) at 2p, LGMD2C (gamma-SG) at 13q, LGMD2D (alpha-SG) at 17q, LGMD2E (beta-SG) at 4q, LGMD2F (6-SG) at 5q, LGMD2G at 17q, and more recently LGMD2H at 9q. The LGMD2F (delta-SG) and LGMD2G genes were mapped in Brazilian AR-LGMD families. Linkage analysis in two unlinked families excluded the eight AR-LGMD genes, indicating that there is at least one more gene responsible for AR-LGMD. We have analyzed 140 patients (from 40 families) affected with one of seven autosomal recessive LGMD loci, that is, from LGMD2A to LGMD2G. The main observations were: 1) all LGMD2E and LGMD2F patients had a severe condition, but considerable inter- and intra-familial clinical variability was observed among patients from all other groups; 2) serum CK activities showed the highest values in LGMD2D (alpha-SG) patients among sarcoglycanopathies and LGMD2B (dysferlin) patients among nonsarcoglycanopathies; 3) comparison between LGMD2A (CAPN3) and LGMD2B (dysferlin) showed that the first have on average a more severe course and have calf hypertrophy more frequently (86% versus 13%); and 4) inability to walk on toes was observed in approximately 70% of LGMD2B patients. PMID:10069710

Passos-Bueno, M R; Vainzof, M; Moreira, E S; Zatz, M

1999-02-19

246

Exploration of Lipid Metabolism in Relation with Plasma Membrane Properties of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Cells: Influence of L-Carnitine  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) arises as a consequence of mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin is a membrane-spanning protein that connects the cytoskeleton and the basal lamina. The most distinctive features of DMD are a progressive muscular dystrophy, a myofiber degeneration with fibrosis and metabolic alterations such as fatty infiltration, however, little is known on lipid metabolism changes arising in Duchenne patient cells. Our goal was to identify metabolic changes occurring in Duchenne patient cells especially in terms of L-carnitine homeostasis, fatty acid metabolism both at the mitochondrial and peroxisomal level and the consequences on the membrane structure and function. In this paper, we compared the structural and functional characteristics of DMD patient and control cells. Using radiolabeled L-carnitine, we found, in patient muscle cells, a marked decrease in the uptake and the intracellular level of L-carnitine. Associated with this change, a decrease in the mitochondrial metabolism can be seen from the analysis of mRNA encoding for mitochondrial proteins. Probably, associated with these changes in fatty acid metabolism, alterations in the lipid composition of the cells were identified: with an increase in poly unsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in medium chain fatty acids, mono unsaturated fatty acids and in cholesterol contents. Functionally, the membrane of cells lacking dystrophin appeared to be less fluid, as determined at 37°C by fluorescence anisotropy. These changes may, at least in part, be responsible for changes in the phospholipids and cholesterol profile in cell membranes and ultimately may reduce the fluidity of the membrane. A supplementation with L-carnitine partly restored the fatty acid profile by increasing saturated fatty acid content and decreasing the amounts of MUFA, PUFA, VLCFA. L-carnitine supplementation also restored muscle membrane fluidity. This suggests that regulating lipid metabolism in DMD cells may improve the function of cells lacking dystrophin. PMID:23209572

Le Borgne, Françoise; Guyot, Stéphane; Logerot, Morgan; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick; Demarquoy, Jean

2012-01-01

247

The Relationship Between Sexual Function and Quality of Sleep in Caregiving Mothers of Sons with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Introduction The task of the caregiver, especially a caregiving mother of a son with a chronic and fatal disease, may interfere with their quality of sleep, sexuality, and some hormone levels. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the sexual function and the quality of sleep of caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods We evaluated 20 caregiving mothers of sons with DMD and 20 caregiving mothers of sons without any neuromuscular or chronic disease. All of them voluntarily responded to the evaluating questionnaires about their sexuality and their quality of sleep, and gave blood samples to evaluate their hormonal levels. Main Outcome Measures All mothers were evaluated using the questionnaire of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Pittsburgh questionnaire (PSQI). The blood samples were tested to determine serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, progesterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol. Results Caregiving mothers of sons with DMD had significantly lower scores in the FSFI questionnaire, suggesting a higher risk for sexual dysfunction. The PSQI demonstrated that these caregiving mothers present increased sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction, and poor sleep quality. Blood tests showed a rise in cortisol levels, which correlated with the compromised sexuality and quality of sleep. Conclusions This study indicates that caregiving mothers of sons with DMD show major risk for sexual dysfunction and a reduction in their quality of sleep mediated in part by the hormonal changes related to stress. Nozoe KT, Hachul H, Hirotsu C, Polesel DN, Moreira GA, Tufik S, and Andersen ML. The relationship between sexual function and quality of sleep in caregiving mothers of sons with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Sex Med 2014;2:133–140. PMID:25356310

Nozoe, Karen T; Hachul, Helena; Hirotsu, Camila; Polesel, Daniel N; Moreira, Gustavo A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

2014-01-01

248

From Innate to Adaptive Immune Response in Muscular Dystrophies and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration: The Role of Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle is able to restore contractile functionality after injury thanks to its ability to regenerate. Following muscle necrosis, debris is removed by macrophages, and muscle satellite cells (MuSCs), the muscle stem cells, are activated and subsequently proliferate, migrate, and form muscle fibers restoring muscle functionality. In most muscle dystrophies (MDs), MuSCs fail to properly proliferate, differentiate, or replenish the stem cell compartment, leading to fibrotic deposition. However, besides MuSCs, interstitial nonmyogenic cells and inflammatory cells also play a key role in orchestrating muscle repair. A complete understanding of the complexity of these mechanisms should allow the design of interventions to attenuate MDs pathology without disrupting regenerative processes. In this review we will focus on the contribution of immune cells in the onset and progression of MDs, with particular emphasis on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We will briefly summarize the current knowledge and recent advances made in our understanding of the involvement of different innate immune cells in MDs and will move on to critically evaluate the possible role of cell populations within the acquired immune response. Revisiting previous observations in the light of recent evidence will likely change our current view of the onset and progression of the disease. PMID:25028653

Madaro, Luca; Bouché, Marina

2014-01-01

249

VBP15, a novel anti-inflammatory and membrane-stabilizer, improves muscular dystrophy without side effects  

PubMed Central

Absence of dystrophin makes skeletal muscle more susceptible to injury, resulting in breaches of the plasma membrane and chronic inflammation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Current management by glucocorticoids has unclear molecular benefits and harsh side effects. It is uncertain whether therapies that avoid hormonal stunting of growth and development, and/or immunosuppression, would be more or less beneficial. Here, we discover an oral drug with mechanisms that provide efficacy through anti-inflammatory signaling and membrane-stabilizing pathways, independent of hormonal or immunosuppressive effects. We find VBP15 protects and promotes efficient repair of skeletal muscle cells upon laser injury, in opposition to prednisolone. Potent inhibition of NF-?B is mediated through protein interactions of the glucocorticoid receptor, however VBP15 shows significantly reduced hormonal receptor transcriptional activity. The translation of these drug mechanisms into DMD model mice improves muscle strength, live-imaging and pathology through both preventive and post-onset intervention regimens. These data demonstrate successful improvement of dystrophy independent of hormonal, growth, or immunosuppressive effects, indicating VBP15 merits clinical investigation for DMD and would benefit other chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:24014378

Heier, Christopher R; Damsker, Jesse M; Yu, Qing; Dillingham, Blythe C; Huynh, Tony; Van der Meulen, Jack H; Sali, Arpana; Miller, Brittany K; Phadke, Aditi; Scheffer, Luana; Quinn, James; Tatem, Kathleen; Jordan, Sarah; Dadgar, Sherry; Rodriguez, Olga C; Albanese, Chris; Calhoun, Michael; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Jaiswal, Jyoti K; Connor, Edward M; McCall, John M; Hoffman, Eric P; Reeves, Erica K M; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

2013-01-01

250

Human adipose-derived stem cell transplantation as a potential therapy for collagen VI-related congenital muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by muscle weakness within the first two years of life. Collagen VI-related muscle disorders have recently emerged as one of the most common types of CMD. COL6 CMD is caused by deficiency and/or dysfunction of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein collagen VI. Currently, there is no specific treatment for this disabling and life-threatening disease. The primary cellular targets for collagen VI CMD therapy are fibroblasts in muscle, tendon and skin, as opposed to muscle cells for other types of muscular dystrophies. However, recent advances in stem cell research have raised the possibility that use of adult stem cells may provide dramatic new therapies for treatment of COL6 CMD. Methods Here, we developed a procedure for isolation of human stem cells from the adipose layer of neonatal skin. The adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) were examined for expression of ECM and related genes using gene expression array analysis. The therapeutic potential of ADSC was assessed after a single intramuscular transplantation in collagen VI-deficient mice. Results Analysis of primary cultures confirmed that established ADSC represent a morphologically homogenous population with phenotypic and functional features of adult mesenchymal stem cells. A comprehensive gene expression analysis showed that ADSC express a vast array of ECM genes. Importantly, it was observed that ADSC synthesize and secrete all three collagen VI chains, suggesting suitability of ADSC for COL6 CMD treatment. Furthermore, we have found that a single intramuscular transplantation of ADSC into Col6a1?/?Rag1?/? mice under physiological and cardiotoxin-induced injury/regeneration conditions results in efficient engraftment and migration of stem cells within the skeletal muscle. Importantly, we showed that ADSC can survive long-term and continuously secrete the therapeutic collagen VI protein missing in the mutant mice. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that stem cell therapy can potentially provide a new avenue for the treatment of COL6 CMD and other muscular disorders and injuries. PMID:24522088

2014-01-01

251

Cytochemical localization of lactate dehydrogenase in muscular dystrophy of the mouse.  

PubMed

By use of phenazine methosulfate and the "ncubation mixture film method," lactate dehydrogenase activity has been demonstrated in the dystrophic muscle fibers of strain 129 mice. The results indicate that for demonstration of lactate dehydrogenase activity in dystrophic muscle fibers phenazine methosulfate is necessary. This finding is typical for the "white" muscle fibers in the normal muscle and suggests that the dystrophy affects primarily the "white" muscle fibers. PMID:4161197

Fahimi, H D; Troy, P

1966-06-24

252

Protein-carbohydrate supplements improve muscle protein balance in muscular dystrophy patients after endurance exercise: a placebo-controlled crossover study.  

PubMed

In healthy individuals, postexercise protein supplementation increases muscle protein anabolism. In patients with muscular dystrophies, aerobic exercise improves muscle function, but the effect of exercise on muscle protein balance is unknown. Therefore, we investigated 1) muscle protein balance before, during, and after exercise and 2) the effect of postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation on muscle protein balance in patients with muscular dystrophies. In 17 patients [7 women and 10 men, aged 33 ± 11 yr (18-52), body mass index: 22 ± 3 kg/m(2) (16-26)] and 8 healthy matched controls [3 women and 5 men, age 33 ± 13 years (19-54), body mass index: 23 ± 3 kg/m(2) (19-27)], muscle protein synthesis, breakdown, and fractional synthesis rates (FSR) were measured across the leg using tracer dilution methodology on two occasions, with and without oral postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation. In patients, muscle protein breakdown increased in the recovery period (11 ± 1 ?mol phenylalanine/min) vs. rest (8 ± 1 ?mol phenylalanine/min, P = 0.02), enhancing net muscle protein loss. In contrast, postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation reduced protein breakdown, abolished net muscle protein loss, and increased the muscle FSR in patients (0.04 to 0.06%/h; P = 0.03). In conclusion, postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation reduces skeletal mixed-muscle protein breakdown, enhances FSR, resulting in a reduced net muscle loss in patients with muscular dystrophies. The findings suggest that postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation could be an important add-on to exercise training therapy in muscular dystrophies, and long-term studies of postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation are warranted in these conditions. PMID:25411362

Andersen, Grete; Ørngreen, Mette C; Preisler, Nicolai; Jeppesen, Tina D; Krag, Thomas O; Hauerslev, Simon; van Hall, Gerrit; Vissing, John

2015-01-15

253

New FKRP mutations causing congenital muscular dystrophy associated with mental retardation and central nervous system abnormalities. Identification of a founder mutation in Tunisian families  

PubMed Central

The congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) constitute a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive myopathies. Patients show congenital hypotonia, muscle weakness and dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy. Mutations in four genes (FKT1, POMGnT1, POMT1, FKRP) encoding for putative glycosyltransferases have been identified in a subset of patients which is characterized by a deficient glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan on muscle biopsy. FKRP mutations account for a broad spectrum of patients with muscular dystrophy, from a severe congenital form with or without mental retardation (MDC1C) to a much milder limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2I). We identified two novel homozygous missense FKRP mutations, one, A455D, in six unrelated Tunisian patients and the other, V405L, in an Algerian boy. The patients, between the age of 3 and 12 years, presented with a severe form of MDC1C with calf hypertrophy, high serum creatine kinase levels. None had never walked. Two had cardiac dysfunction and one strabismus. They all had mental retardation, microcephaly, cerebellar cysts, and hypoplasia of the vermis. White matter abnormalities were found in five of them, mostly when cranial MRI was performed at a young age. These abnormalities were shown to regress in one case, as has been observed in FCMD patients. Identification of a new microsatellite close to FKRP allowed us to confirm the founder origin of the Tunisian mutation. These results suggest strongly that particular FKRP mutations in the homozygous state induce structural and clinical neurological lesions in addition to muscular dystrophy and relate MDC1C to other CMDs with abnormal protein glycosylation and disordered brain function. PMID:14652796

Louhichi, Nacim; Triki, Chahnez; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Richard, Pascale; Makri, Samira; Méziou, Mériem; Estournet, Brigitte; Mrad, Slah; Romero, Norma B.; Ayadi, Hammadi; Guicheney, Pascale; Fakhfakh, Faiza

2004-01-01

254

Restriction Map of a YAC and Cosmid Contig Encompassing the Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy Candidate Region on Chromosome 14q11.2–q13  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of our effort to clone positionally the oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) gene, we constructed a YAC contig, a cosmid contig, and anEcoRI restriction map of the OPMD candidate region. The YAC contig spans more than 2 Mb and encompasses the loci D14S283 and D14S990 and the cardiac ? and ? myosin heavy chain genes (MYH6 and MYH7). A

Ya-Gang Xie; Daniel Rochefort; Bernard Brais; Heidi Howard; Fei-Yu Han; Lu-Ping Gou; Patricia Maciel; Bin Tean The; Catherina Larsson; Guy A. Rouleau

1998-01-01

255

Interactions with M-band Titin and Calpain 3 Link Myospryn (CMYA5) to Tibial and Limb-girdle Muscular Dystrophies*  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the C terminus of titin, situated at the M-band of the striated muscle sarcomere, cause tibial muscular dystrophy (TMD) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2J. Mutations in the protease calpain 3 (CAPN3), in turn, lead to LGMD2A, and secondary CAPN3 deficiency in LGMD2J suggests that the pathomechanisms of the diseases are linked. Yeast two-hybrid screens carried out to elucidate the molecular pathways of TMD/LGMD2J and LGMD2A resulted in the identification of myospryn (CMYA5, cardiomyopathy-associated 5) as a binding partner for both M-band titin and CAPN3. Additional yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed both interactions. The interaction of myospryn and M-band titin was supported by localization of endogenous and transfected myospryn at the M-band level. Coexpression studies showed that myospryn is a proteolytic substrate for CAPN3 and suggested that myospryn may protect CAPN3 from autolysis. Myospryn is a muscle-specific protein of the tripartite motif superfamily, reported to function in vesicular trafficking and protein kinase A signaling and implicated in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The novel interactions indicate a role for myospryn in the sarcomeric M-band and may be relevant for the molecular pathomechanisms of TMD/LGMD2J and LGMD2A. PMID:20634290

Sarparanta, Jaakko; Blandin, Gaëlle; Charton, Karine; Vihola, Anna; Marchand, Sylvie; Milic, Astrid; Hackman, Peter; Ehler, Elisabeth; Richard, Isabelle; Udd, Bjarne

2010-01-01

256

Sensitive ultrasonic detection of dystrophic skeletal muscle in patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy using an entropy-based signal receiver.  

PubMed

The dystrophinopathies comprise a group of X-linked genetic diseases that feature dystrophin deficiency. Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy are characterized by progressive weakness and wasting of skeletal, smooth, and/or cardiac muscle. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most severe dystrophinopathy, with an incidence of 1:3500 male births. Despite understanding the structural and genetic basis for DMD, the pathogenesis and clinical basis for more severe involvement in specific skeletal muscle groups and the heart are poorly understood. Current techniques, such as strength testing for monitoring progress of disease and therapy in DMD patients, are imprecise and physically demanding for test subjects. Ultrasound is well-suited to detect changes in structure and organization in muscle tissue in a manner that makes low demands on the patient. Therefore, we investigated the use of ultrasound to quantitatively phenotype the remodeling process in patients with DMD. Beam-formed radio-frequency (RF) data were acquired from the skeletal muscles of nine DMD and five normal subjects imaged with a clinical imaging system (HDI5000 w/7 MHz probe applied above left biceps muscle). From these data, images were reconstructed using B-mode (log of analytic signal magnitude) and information-theoretic receivers (H(f)-receiver). H(f) images obtained from dystrophic muscle contained extensive "mottled" regions (i.e., areas with heterogeneous image contrast) that were not readily apparent from the B-Mode images. The 2-D autocorrelation of DMD H(f) images have broader peaks than those of normal subjects, which is indicative of larger scatterer sizes, consistent with pathologic changes of fibers, edema and fatty infiltration. Comparison of the relative peak widths (full width measured at 60% maximum) of the autocorrelation of the DMD and normal H(f) images shows a quantitative difference between the two groups (p < 0.005, student two-tailed paired t-test). Consequently, these imaging techniques may prove useful for longitudinal monitoring of disease progression and therapy. PMID:17467153

Hughes, Michael S; Marsh, Jon N; Wallace, Kirk D; Donahue, Tamara A; Connolly, Anne M; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

2007-08-01

257

Activation and localization of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in the skeletal muscle of the muscular dystrophy dog (CXMDJ)  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key regulatory molecules in the formation, remodeling and degradation of all extracellular matrix (ECM) components in both physiological and pathological processes in various tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of gelatinase MMP family members, MMP-2 and MMP-9, in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle. Towards this aim, we made use of the canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan (CXMDJ) model, a suitable animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Methods We used surgically biopsied tibialis cranialis muscles of normal male dogs (n = 3) and CXMDJ dogs (n = 3) at 4, 5 and 6 months of age. Muscle sections were analyzed by conventional morphological methods and in situ zymography to identify the localization of MMP-2 and MMP-9. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was examined by gelatin zymography and the levels of the respective mRNAs in addition to those of regulatory molecules, including MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and RECK, were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results In CXMDJ skeletal muscle, multiple foci of both degenerating and regenerating muscle fibers were associated with gelatinolytic MMP activity derived from MMP-2 and/or MMP-9. In CXMDJ muscle, MMP-9 immunoreactivity localized to degenerated fibers with inflammatory cells. Weak and disconnected immunoreactivity of basal lamina components was seen in MMP-9-immunoreactive necrotic fibers of CXMDJ muscle. Gelatinolytic MMP activity observed in the endomysium of groups of regenerating fibers in CXMDJ did not co-localize with MMP-9 immunoreactivity, suggesting that it was due to the presence of MMP-2. We observed increased activities of pro MMP-2, MMP-2 and pro MMP-9, and levels of the mRNAs encoding MMP-2, MMP-9 and the regulatory molecules, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and RECK in the skeletal muscle of CXMDJ dogs compared to the levels observed in normal controls. Conclusion MMP-2 and MMP-9 are likely involved in the pathology of dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle. MMP-9 may be involved predominantly in the inflammatory process during muscle degeneration. In contrast, MMP-2, which was activated in the endomysium of groups of regenerating fibers, may be associated with ECM remodeling during muscle regeneration and fiber growth. PMID:17598883

Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Akinori; Ueda, Hideho; Yuasa, Katsutoshi; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

2007-01-01

258

Regional Circumferential Strain is a Biomarker for Disease Severity in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Heart Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine the contribution of strain ? cc in mid left ventricular (LV) segments to the reduction of composite LV circumferential ? cc in assess severity of duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) heart disease as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). DMD patients and control subjects were stratified by age, LV ejection fraction, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) status. Tagged CMR images were analyzed for global ventricular function, LGE imaging, and composite and segmental ? cc. The relationship between changes in segmental ? cc changes and LGE across patient groups was assessed by a statistical step-down model. LV ? cc exhibited segmental heterogeneity; in control subjects and young DMD patients, ? cc was greatest in LV lateral free wall segments. However, with increasing age and cardiac disease severity as demonstrated by decreased EF and development of myocardial strain the segmental differences diminished. In subjects with advanced heart disease as evidenced by reduced LV ejection fraction and presence of LGE, very little segmental heterogeneity was present. In control subjects and young DMD patients, ? cc was greatest in LV lateral free wall segments. Increased DMD heart disease severity was associated with reduced composite; ? cc diminished regional ? cc heterogeneity and positive LGE imaging. Taken together, these findings suggest that perturbation of segmental, heterogeneous ? cc is an early biomarker of disease severity in this cross-section of DMD patients. PMID:25085262

Hor, Kan N; Kissoon, Narayan; Mazur, Wojciech; Gupta, Resmi; Ittenbach, Richard F; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Cripe, Linda H; Raman, Subha V; Puchalski, Michael D; Gottliebson, William M; Benson, D Woodrow

2015-01-01

259

Targeted Deletion of the Muscular Dystrophy Gene myotilin Does Not Perturb Muscle Structure or Function in Mice?  

PubMed Central

Myotilin, palladin, and myopalladin form a novel small subfamily of cytoskeletal proteins that contain immunoglobulin-like domains. Myotilin is a thin filament-associated protein localized at the Z-disk of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. The direct binding to F-actin, efficient cross-linking of actin filaments, and prevention of induced disassembly of filaments are key roles of myotilin that are thought to be involved in structural maintenance and function of the sarcomere. Missense mutations in the myotilin-encoding gene cause dominant limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1A and spheroid body myopathy and are the molecular defect that can cause myofibrillar myopathy. Here we describe the generation and analysis of mice that lack myotilin, myo?/? mice. Surprisingly, myo?/? mice maintain normal muscle sarcomeric and sarcolemmal integrity. Also, loss of myotilin does not cause alterations in the heart or other organs of newborn or adult myo?/? mice. The mice develop normally and have a normal life span, and their muscle capacity does not significantly differ from wild-type mice even after prolonged physical stress. The results suggest that either myotilin does not participate in muscle development and basal function maintenance or other proteins serve as structural and functional compensatory molecules when myotilin is absent. PMID:17074808

Moza, Monica; Mologni, Luca; Trokovic, Ras; Faulkner, Georgine; Partanen, Juha; Carpén, Olli

2007-01-01

260

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2I: A Multinational Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

We conducted a prospective multinational study of muscle pathology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I). Thirty eight adult ambulant LGMD2I patients (19 male; 19 female) with genetically identical mutations (c.826C>A) in the fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene were recruited. In each patient, T1-weighted (T1w) imaging was assessed by qualitative grading for 15 individual lower limb muscles and quantitative Dixon imaging was analysed on 14 individual lower limb muscles by region of interest analysis. We described the pattern and appearance of muscle pathology and gender differences, not previously reported for LGMD2I. Diffuse fat infiltration of the gastrocnemii muscles was demonstrated in females, whereas in males fat infiltration was more prominent in the medial than the lateral gastrocnemius (p?=?0.05). In the anterior thigh of males, in contrast to females, median fat infiltration in the vastus medialis muscle (45.7%) exceeded that in the vastus lateralis muscle (11.2%) (p<0.005). MRI is non-invasive, objective and does not rely on patient effort compared to clinical and physical measures that are currently employed. We demonstrated (i) that the quantitative Dixon technique is an objective quantitative marker of disease and (ii) new observations of gender specific patterns of muscle involvement in LGMD2I. PMID:24587344

Coombs, Anna; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Andersen, Soren; Stojkovic, Tanya; Eagle, Michelle; Mayhew, Anna; de Sousa, Paulo Loureiro; Dewar, Liz; Morrow, Jasper M.; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Thornton, John S.; Bushby, Kate; Lochmuller, Hanns; Hanna, Michael G.; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Carlier, Pierre G.; Vissing, John; Straub, Volker

2014-01-01

261

Parallel Synthesis of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Conjugates of PMO Toward Exon Skipping Enhancement in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.  

PubMed

We describe two new methods of parallel chemical synthesis of libraries of peptide conjugates of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO) cargoes on a scale suitable for cell screening prior to in vivo analysis for therapeutic development. The methods represent an extension of the SELPEPCON approach previously developed for parallel peptide-peptide nucleic acid (PNA) synthesis. However, these new methods allow for the utilization of commercial PMO as cargo with both C- and N-termini unfunctionalized. The synthetic methods involve conjugation in solution phase, followed by rapid purification via biotin-streptavidin immobilization and subsequent reductive release into solution, avoiding the need for painstaking high-performance liquid chromatography purifications. The synthesis methods were applied for screening of PMO conjugates of a 16-member library of variants of a 10-residue ApoE peptide, which was suggested for blood-brain barrier crossing. In this work the conjugate library was tested in an exon skipping assay using skeletal mouse mdx cells, a model of Duchene's muscular dystrophy where higher activity peptide-PMO conjugates were identified compared with the starting peptide-PMO. The results demonstrate the power of the parallel synthesis methods for increasing the speed of optimization of peptide sequences in conjugates of PMO for therapeutic screening. PMID:25412073

O'Donovan, Liz; Okamoto, Itaru; Arzumanov, Andrey A; Williams, Donna L; Deuss, Peter; Gait, Michael J

2014-11-20

262

Wild-Type Mouse Models to Screen Antisense Oligonucleotides for Exon-Skipping Efficacy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

A readily available animal model is essential for rapidly identifying effective treatments for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a devastating neuromuscular disorder caused by the lack of dystrophin protein, which results from frame-disrupting mutations in the DMD gene. Currently, the mdx mouse is the most commonly used model for antisense oligonucleotide (AO)-mediated exon skipping pre-clinical studies, with a mild phenotype. However, the accessibility of mdx mouse colonies particularly in developing countries can constrain research. Therefore in this study we explore the feasibility of using wild-type mice as models to establish exon-skipping efficiency of various DMD AO chemistries and their conjugates. Four different strains of wild-type mice and six different AO chemistries were investigated intramuscularly and the results indicated that the same exon-skipping efficiency was achieved for all tested AOs as that from mdx mice. Notably, levels of exon-skipping obtained in C57BL6 and C3H and mdx mice were most closely matched, followed by ICR and BALB/C mice. Systemic validation revealed that wild-type mice are less responsive to AO-mediated exon skipping than mdx mice. Our study provides evidence for the first time that wild-type mice can be appropriate models for assessing DMD AO exon-skipping efficiency with similar sensitivity to that of mdx mice and this finding can further accelerate the development of effective DMD AOs. PMID:25365558

Cao, Limin; Han, Gang; Gu, Ben; Yin, HaiFang

2014-01-01

263

Dystrophin Deficiency Compromises Force Production of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle in the Canine Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Loss of muscle force is a salient feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a fatal disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Assessment of force production from a single intact muscle has been considered as the gold standard for studying physiological consequences in murine models of DMD. Unfortunately, equivalent assays have not been established in dystrophic dogs. To fill the gap, we developed a novel in situ protocol to measure force generated by the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) muscle of a dog. We also determined the muscle length to fiber length ratio and the pennation angle of the ECU muscle. Muscle pathology and contractility were compared between normal and affected dogs. Absence of dystrophin resulted in marked histological damage in the ECU muscle of affected dogs. Central nucleation was significantly increased and myofiber size distribution was altered in the dystrophic ECU muscle. Muscle weight and physiological cross sectional area (PCSA) showed a trend of reduction in affected dogs although the difference did not reach statistical significance. Force measurement revealed a significant decrease of absolute force, and the PCSA or muscle weight normalized specific forces. To further characterize the physiological defect in affected dog muscle, we conducted eccentric contraction. Dystrophin-null dogs showed a significantly greater force loss following eccentric contraction damage. To our knowledge, this is the first convincing demonstration of force deficit in a single intact muscle in the canine DMD model. The method described here will be of great value to study physiological outcomes following innovative gene and/or cell therapies. PMID:22973449

Hakim, Chady H.; Pan, Xiufang; Terjung, Ronald L.; Duan, Dongsheng

2012-01-01

264

Parallel Synthesis of Cell-Penetrating Peptide Conjugates of PMO Toward Exon Skipping Enhancement in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

We describe two new methods of parallel chemical synthesis of libraries of peptide conjugates of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO) cargoes on a scale suitable for cell screening prior to in vivo analysis for therapeutic development. The methods represent an extension of the SELection of PEPtide CONjugates (SELPEPCON) approach previously developed for parallel peptide-peptide nucleic acid (PNA) synthesis. However, these new methods allow for the utilization of commercial PMO as cargo with both C- and N-termini unfunctionalized. The synthetic methods involve conjugation in solution phase, followed by rapid purification via biotin-streptavidin immobilization and subsequent reductive release into solution, avoiding the need for painstaking high-performance liquid chromatography purifications. The synthesis methods were applied for screening of PMO conjugates of a 16-member library of variants of a 10-residue ApoE peptide, which was suggested for blood-brain barrier crossing. In this work the conjugate library was tested in an exon skipping assay using skeletal mouse mdx cells, a model of Duchene's muscular dystrophy where higher activity peptide-PMO conjugates were identified compared with the starting peptide-PMO. The results demonstrate the power of the parallel synthesis methods for increasing the speed of optimization of peptide sequences in conjugates of PMO for therapeutic screening. PMID:25412073

O'Donovan, Liz; Okamoto, Itaru; Arzumanov, Andrey A.; Williams, Donna L.; Deuss, Peter

2015-01-01

265

Long-term persistence of donor nuclei in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient receiving bone marrow transplantation  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe progressive muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Studies have shown that bone marrow cells transplanted into lethally irradiated mdx mice, the mouse model of DMD, can become part of skeletal muscle myofibers. Whether human marrow cells also have this ability is unknown. Here we report the analysis of muscle biopsies from a DMD patient (DMD-BMT1) who received bone marrow transplantation at age 1 year for X-linked severe combined immune deficiency and who was diagnosed with DMD at age 12 years. Analysis of muscle biopsies from DMD-BMT1 revealed the presence of donor nuclei within a small number of muscle myofibers (0.5-0.9%). The majority of the myofibers produce a truncated, in-frame isoform of dystrophin lacking exons 44 and 45 (not wild-type). The presence of bone marrow-derived donor nuclei in the muscle of this patient documents the ability of exogenous human bone marrow cells to fuse into skeletal muscle and persist up to 13 years after transplantation. PMID:12235112

Gussoni, Emanuela; Bennett, Richard R.; Muskiewicz, Kristina R.; Meyerrose, Todd; Nolta, Jan A.; Gilgoff, Irene; Stein, James; Chan, Yiu-mo; Lidov, Hart G.; Bönnemann, Carsten G.; von Moers, Arpad; Morris, Glenn E.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.; Kunkel, Louis M.; Weinberg, Kenneth

2002-01-01

266

MicroRNA-486–dependent modulation of DOCK3/PTEN/AKT signaling pathways improves muscular dystrophy–associated symptoms  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, which results in dysfunctional signaling pathways within muscle. Previously, we identified microRNA-486 (miR-486) as a muscle-enriched microRNA that is markedly reduced in the muscles of dystrophin-deficient mice (Dmdmdx-5Cv mice) and in DMD patient muscles. Here, we determined that muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of miR-486 in muscle of Dmdmdx-5Cv mice results in reduced serum creatine kinase levels, improved sarcolemmal integrity, fewer centralized myonuclei, increased myofiber size, and improved muscle physiology and performance. Additionally, we identified dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (DOCK3) as a miR-486 target in skeletal muscle and determined that DOCK3 expression is induced in dystrophic muscles. DOCK3 overexpression in human myotubes modulated PTEN/AKT signaling, which regulates muscle hypertrophy and growth, and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, several components of the PTEN/AKT pathway were markedly modulated by miR-486 in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Skeletal muscle–specific miR-486 overexpression in Dmdmdx-5Cv animals decreased levels of DOCK3, reduced PTEN expression, and subsequently increased levels of phosphorylated AKT, which resulted in an overall beneficial effect. Together, these studies demonstrate that stable overexpression of miR-486 ameliorates the disease progression of dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle. PMID:24789910

Alexander, Matthew S.; Casar, Juan Carlos; Motohashi, Norio; Vieira, Natássia M.; Eisenberg, Iris; Marshall, Jamie L.; Gasperini, Molly J.; Lek, Angela; Myers, Jennifer A.; Estrella, Elicia A.; Kang, Peter B.; Shapiro, Frederic; Rahimov, Fedik; Kawahara, Genri; Widrick, Jeffrey J.; Kunkel, Louis M.

2014-01-01

267

Dystrophin deficiency compromises force production of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle in the canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Loss of muscle force is a salient feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a fatal disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Assessment of force production from a single intact muscle has been considered as the gold standard for studying physiological consequences in murine models of DMD. Unfortunately, equivalent assays have not been established in dystrophic dogs. To fill the gap, we developed a novel in situ protocol to measure force generated by the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) muscle of a dog. We also determined the muscle length to fiber length ratio and the pennation angle of the ECU muscle. Muscle pathology and contractility were compared between normal and affected dogs. Absence of dystrophin resulted in marked histological damage in the ECU muscle of affected dogs. Central nucleation was significantly increased and myofiber size distribution was altered in the dystrophic ECU muscle. Muscle weight and physiological cross sectional area (PCSA) showed a trend of reduction in affected dogs although the difference did not reach statistical significance. Force measurement revealed a significant decrease of absolute force, and the PCSA or muscle weight normalized specific forces. To further characterize the physiological defect in affected dog muscle, we conducted eccentric contraction. Dystrophin-null dogs showed a significantly greater force loss following eccentric contraction damage. To our knowledge, this is the first convincing demonstration of force deficit in a single intact muscle in the canine DMD model. The method described here will be of great value to study physiological outcomes following innovative gene and/or cell therapies. PMID:22973449

Yang, Hsiao T; Shin, Jin-Hong; Hakim, Chady H; Pan, Xiufang; Terjung, Ronald L; Duan, Dongsheng

2012-01-01

268

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy region gene-1 (FRG-1) is an actin-bundling protein associated with muscle-attachment sites  

PubMed Central

In vertebrates, overexpression of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) region gene 1 (FRG1) recapitulates the pathophysiology exhibited by FSHD patients, although the role of FRG1 in FSHD remains controversial and no precise function for FRG1 has been described in any organism. To gain insight into the function and potential role of FRG1 in FSHD, we analyzed the highly conserved Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog, frg-1. C. elegans body-wall muscles contain two distinct subcellular pools of FRG-1: nuclear FRG-1, concentrated in the nucleoli; and cytoplasmic FRG-1, associated with the Z-disk and costamere-like structures known as dense bodies. Functionally, we demonstrate that FRG-1 is an F-actin-bundling protein, consistent with its localization to dense bodies; this activity is conserved in human FRG1. This is particularly intriguing because it places FRG-1 along side the list of dense-body components whose vertebrate orthologs are involved in the myriad myopathies associated with disrupted costameres and Z-disks. Interestingly, overexpressed FRG-1 preferentially accumulates in the nucleus and, when overexpressed specifically from the frg-1 promoter, disrupts the adult ventral muscle structure and organization. Together, these data further support a role for FRG1 overexpression in FSHD pathophysiology and reveal the previously unsuspected direct involvement of FRG-1 in muscle structure and integrity. PMID:20215405

Liu, Qian; Jones, Takako Iida; Tang, Vivian W.; Brieher, William M.; Jones, Peter L.

2010-01-01

269

Exploring the frontiers of therapeutic exon skipping for Duchenne muscular dystrophy by double targeting within one or multiple exons.  

PubMed

Through antisense-induced single-, double-, and multiexon skipping, we have previously demonstrated restoration of dystrophin expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patient-derived muscle cells in vitro. In this study we further explored the frontiers of this strategy by using specific combinations of 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) targeting either one or multiple exons. We show that skipping efficiencies may indeed be improved by targeting two putative splicing regulatory sequences within one exon. In particular, such double targeting was effective for the thus far "unskippable" exons 47 and 57. We previously reported the feasibility of multiexon skipping spanning exon 45 to exon 51, using a combination of AONs targeting both outer exons (45 and 51). This would be applicable to 13% of all DMD patients. We here explored the frontiers of multiexon skipping both to increase the number of patients that can be treated with the same set of AONs and to mimic large deletions found in relatively mildly affected BMD patients. We aimed at inducing larger multiexon-skipping stretches, such as exons 17-51, exons 42-55, and exons 45-59. However, this appeared complicated and may be dependent on cotranscriptional splicing and the size of the flanking introns. PMID:16753346

Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Kaman, Wendy E; Weij, Rudie; den Dunnen, Johan T; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; van Deutekom, Judith C T

2006-09-01

270

Reliability of the walking energy cost test and the six-minute walk test in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

The walking energy cost test (WECT) is a useful tool when measuring ambulatory function in children with motor disorders. However, data on the reliability of this test in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is not available. In this study we established the reliability of the WECT and the commonly used six-minute walk test (6MWT) in 19 boys with DMD, aged 6-12years. Participants performed the WECT and 6MWT twice within three weeks. Reliability was determined for walking distance (D, m) and gross energy cost (EC, Jkg(-1)m(-1)), using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) and smallest detectable change (SDC). Reliability for walking distance was good, with an ICC of 0.92 [95% CI: 0.81-0.97] and 0.83 [CI: 0.53-0.94] for the 6MWT and WECT, respectively, and an ICC of 0.85 [CI: 0.64-0.94] for gross EC. SDCs were 12.2% for D6MWT, 12.7% for DWECT and 18.5% for gross EC. In conclusion, in young boys with DMD, the reliability of both the WECT and 6MWT for assessing walking distance is adequate. Gross EC, as assessed with the WECT is also reliable and sufficiently sensitive to detect change in walking strain following interventions at group level. PMID:24365209

Kempen, J C E; Harlaar, J; van der Kooi, A J; de Groot, I J M; van den Bergen, J C; Niks, E H; Verschuuren, J J G M; Brehm, M A

2014-03-01

271

Heat shock protein families 70 and 90 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and inflammatory myopathy: balancing muscle protection and destruction.  

PubMed

Heat shock proteins are important factors in skeletal muscle physiology and stress response. We examined the effects of chronic inflammation on the distribution of heat shock protein families 70 and 90 using immunofluorescence and Western blotting, in muscle biopsies from 33 idiopathic inflammatory myopathy patients [aged 26-66 (dermatomyositis), 17-78 (polymyositis) and 57-80 (sporadic inclusion body myositis) years], and seven Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients (aged 3-19 years). Our results reveal the multifaceted role played by chaperones in inflammatory muscle tissue. On the one hand, regenerating, atrophic and vacuolated muscle fibers displayed upregulation of both protein families. Higher levels of chaperones in challenged fibers point to the myocyte's attempt to restore and regenerate. On the other hand, heat shock proteins of the 90 family were strongly upregulated in macrophages and cytotoxic T-cells actively invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers of sporadic inclusion body myositis and polymyositis, probably conferring enhanced myocytotoxic capacity. Our data provide positive arguments for exploring heat shock protein 90-based therapy in inflammatory muscle disease. PMID:21855341

Paepe, Boel De; Creus, Kim K; Weis, Joachim; Bleecker, Jan L De

2012-01-01

272

Mutations affecting the cytoplasmic functions of the co-chaperone DNAJB6 cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1D (LGMD1D) was linked to 7q36 over a decade ago1, but its genetic cause has remained elusive. We have studied nine LGMD families from Finland, the U.S., and Italy, and identified four dominant missense mutations leading to p.Phe93Leu or p.Phe89Ile changes in the ubiquitously expressed co-chaperone DNAJB6. Functional testing in vivo showed that the mutations have a dominant toxic effect mediated specifically by the cytoplasmic isoform of DNAJB6. In vitro studies demonstrated that the mutations increase the half-life of DNAJB6, extending this effect to the wild-type protein, and reduce its protective anti-aggregation effect. Further, we show that DNAJB6 interacts with members of the CASA complex, including the myofibrillar-myopathy-causing protein BAG3. Our data provide the genetic cause of LGMD1D, suggest that the pathogenesis is mediated by defective chaperone function, and highlight how mutations expressed ubiquitously can exert their effect in a tissue-, cellular compartment-, and isoform-specific manner. PMID:22366786

Sarparanta, Jaakko; Jonson, Per Harald; Golzio, Christelle; Sandell, Satu; Luque, Helena; Screen, Mark; McDonald, Kristin; Stajich, Jeffrey M.; Mahjneh, Ibrahim; Vihola, Anna; Raheem, Olayinka; Penttilä, Sini; Lehtinen, Sara; Huovinen, Sanna; Palmio, Johanna; Tasca, Giorgio; Ricci, Enzo; Hackman, Peter; Hauser, Michael; Katsanis, Nicholas; Udd, Bjarne

2012-01-01

273

Genetic Analysis of Dystrophin Gene for Affected Male and Female Carriers with Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy in Korea  

PubMed Central

Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutation in dystrophin gene. We analyzed the results of a genetic test in 29 DMD/BMD patients, their six female relatives, and two myopathic female patients in Korea. As the methods developed, we applied different procedures for dystrophin gene analysis; initially, multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used, followed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Additionally, we used direct DNA sequencing for some patients who had negative results using the above methods. The overall mutation detection rate was 72.4% (21/29) in DMD/BMD patients, identifying deletions in 58.6% (17/29). Most of the deletions were confined to the central hot spot region between exons 44 and 55 (52.9%, 7/19). The percentage of deletions and duplications revealed by MLPA was 45.5% (5/11) and 27.2% (3/11), respectively. Using the MLPA method, we detected mutations confirming their carrier status in all female relatives and symptomatic female patients. In one patient in whom MLPA revealed a single exon deletion of the dystrophin gene, subsequent DNA sequencing analysis identified a novel nonsense mutation (c.4558G > T; Gln1520X). The MLPA assay is a useful quantitative method for detecting mutation in asymptomatic or symptomatic carriers as well as DMD/BMD patients. PMID:22379338

Lee, Bo Lyun; Nam, Sook Hyun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Ki, Chang Seok; Lee, Munhyang

2012-01-01

274

Capillary electrophoresis for analysis of deletion and duplication in exon 44-55 of Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene.  

PubMed

In this study, a genotyping CGE method was established for analysis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene deletions and duplications in exon 44-55. A total of 12 DMD exons (exon 44-55) and 2 internal standard gene fragments were simultaneously amplified by using a universal multiplex PCR (UMPCR) and determined by CGE. The conditions of UMPCR and CGE were optimized, including the kinds of polymerase, temperatures in UMPCR, separation matrix, separation temperature, and voltage. Finally, the separation was performed by 1.2% poly(ethylene oxide) in 1× TBE buffer at -6 kV and 25°C. After validation, our results showed the peak patterns for differentiation of genetic deletion or duplication in 27 DMD patients and normal subjects, according to the peak height ratios by comparison of two internal standard peaks. Among the 27 subjects, 23 cases are deletion type and four are duplication type. The data of two patients analyzed by this CGE-PCR method were different from that of multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification method, and the sequencing results demonstrated that our results were correct. This UMPCR-CGE method was considered better than the multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification method. Furthermore, this method can be used for eugenics in clinical applications. PMID:23818053

Chen, Chung-An; Chang, Ming-Yuh; Chang, Tung-Ming; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Wu, Shou-Mei

2013-09-01

275

Automated genomic sequence analysis of the three collagen VI genes: applications to Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Mutations in the genes encoding collagen VI (COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3) cause Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). BM is a relatively mild dominantly inherited disorder with proximal weakness and distal joint contractures. UCMD is an autosomal recessive condition causing severe muscle weakness with proximal joint contractures and distal hyperlaxity. Methods: We developed a method for rapid direct sequence analysis of all 107 coding exons of the COL6 genes using single condition amplification/internal primer (SCAIP) sequencing. We have sequenced all three COL6 genes from genomic DNA in 79 patients with UCMD or BM. Results: We found putative mutations in one of the COL6 genes in 62% of patients. This more than doubles the number of identified COL6 mutations. Most of these changes are consistent with straightforward autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance. However, some patients showed changes in more than one of the COL6 genes, and our results suggest that some UCMD patients may have dominantly acting mutations rather than recessive disease. Discussion: Our findings may explain some or all of the cases of UCMD that are unlinked to the COL6 loci under a recessive model. The large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms which we generated in the course of this work may be of importance in determining the major phenotypic variability seen in this group of disorders. PMID:15689448

Lampe, A; Dunn, D; von Niederhausern, A C; Hamil, C; Aoyagi, A; Laval, S; Marie, S; Chu, M; Swoboda, K; Muntoni, F; Bonnemann, C; Flanigan, K; Bushby, K; Weiss, R

2005-01-01

276

Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Calpain 3 and Protein Expression in Muscle from Patients with Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2A  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies were raised to two regions of calpain 3 (muscle-specific calcium-activated neutral protease), which is the product of the gene that is defective in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A. The antibodies produced characteristic patterns of bands on Western blots: normal calpain 3 protein was represented by bands at 94 kd, plus additional fragments at ?60 or 30 kd, according to the antibody used. Specificity was confirmed by the loss of all bands in patients with null gene mutations. The “normal” profile of bands was observed in muscle from 33 control subjects and 70 disease-control patients. Calpain 3 protein was found to be extremely stable in fresh human muscle, with full-size protein being detected 8 hours after the muscle had been removed. Blots of muscle from nine limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A patients with defined mutations showed variation in protein expression, with seven showing a clear reduction in the abundance of protein detected. No simple relationship was found between the abundance and clinical severity. Two patients showed normal expression of the full-size 94 kd band accompanied by a clear reduction in the smaller fragments. This pattern was also observed in one patient with an undefined form of limb-girdle dystrophy. These results indicate that immunodiagnosis is feasible, but caution will need to be exercised with the interpretation of near-normal protein profiles. PMID:9777948

Anderson, Louise V. B.; Davison, Keith; Moss, Jennifer A.; Richard, Isabelle; Fardeau, Michel; Tomé, Fernando M. S.; Hübner, Christoph; Lasa, Adriana; Colomer, Jaume; Beckmann, Jacques S.

1998-01-01

277

LINC complex alterations in DMD and EDMD/CMT fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a late onset-disease characterized by skeletal muscle wasting and heart defects with associated risk of sudden death. The autosomal dominant form of the disease is caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LaminA and C, the X-linked form results from mutations in the gene encoding the inner nuclear membrane protein Emerin (STA). Both Emerin and LaminA/C interact with the nuclear envelope proteins Nesprin-1 and -2 and mutations in genes encoding C-terminal isoforms of Nesprin-1 and -2 have also been implicated in EDMD. Here we analyse primary fibroblasts from patients affected by either Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy/Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome (EDMD/CMT) that in addition to the disease causing mutations harbour mutations in the Nesprin-1 gene and in the SUN1 and SUN2 gene, respectively. SUN proteins together with the Nesprins form the core of the LINC complex which connects the nucleus with the cytoskeleton. The mutations are accompanied by changes in cell adhesion, cell migration, senescence, and stress response, as well as in nuclear shape and nuclear envelope composition which are changes characteristic for laminopathies. Our results point to a potential influence of mutations in components of the LINC complex on the clinical outcome and the molecular pathology in the patients. PMID:22555292

Taranum, Surayya; Vaylann, Eva; Meinke, Peter; Abraham, Sabu; Yang, Liu; Neumann, Sascha; Karakesisoglou, Iakowos; Wehnert, Manfred; Noegel, Angelika A

2012-08-01

278

Evaluation of post-contrast myocardial t1 in duchenne muscular dystrophy using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to perform a retrospective pilot study to evaluate the potential of myocardial T1 in assessment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cardiomyopathy. Early identification of DMD cardiac disease, particularly myocardial fibrosis, would allow earlier therapy, potentially improving outcomes. Shortened myocardial T1 measured by cardiac MRI (CMR) is a measure of cardiac fibrosis that may be detected before late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). We hypothesized that the post-contrast T1 obtained from the Look-Locker sequences (T1LL), an easily obtainable surrogate of myocardial T1, would be abnormally shortened in DMD compared with controls. T1LL measurement was performed on 21 DMD subjects and 11 controls; to account for individual variations in gadolinium distribution, myocardial T1LL was divided by blood pool T1LL, deriving T1LL ratios. DMD subjects had shorter mean T1LL ratio than controls (1.42 vs 1.72, p < 0.001). Subset analyses in DMD subjects with normal LVEF and without LGE also demonstrated significantly shorter T1LL ratio (-0.28, p < 0.001 and -0.25, p = 0.028). Post-contrast T1LL ratio is abnormally shortened in DMD compared with controls, even in DMD patients with otherwise normal CMRs. The application of more aggressive therapy for those with shorter T1LL may favorably alter morbidity and improve mortality associated with DMD cardiomyopathy. These data suggest that further prospective evaluation of myocardial T1 will be of benefit to patients with DMD. PMID:25070387

Soslow, Jonathan H; Damon, Bruce M; Saville, Benjamin R; Lu, Zengqi; Burnette, W Bryan; Lawson, Mark A; Parra, David A; Sawyer, Douglas B; Markham, Larry W

2015-01-01

279

Skeletal Muscle Fibrosis in the mdx/utrn+/- Mouse Validates Its Suitability as a Murine Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.  

PubMed

Various therapeutic approaches have been studied for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but none of these approaches have led to significant long-term effects in patients. One reason for this observed inefficacy may be the use of inappropriate animal models for the testing of therapeutic agents. The mdx mouse is the most widely used murine model of DMD, yet it does not model the fibrotic progression observed in patients. Other murine models of DMD are available that lack one or both alleles of utrophin, a functional analog of dystrophin. The aim of this study was to compare fibrosis and myofiber damage in the mdx, mdx/utrn+/- and double knockout (dko) mouse models. We used Masson's trichrome stain and percentage of centrally-nucleated myofibers as indicators of fibrosis and myofiber regeneration, respectively, to assess disease progression in diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscles harvested from young and aged wild-type, mdx, mdx/utrn+/- and dko mice. Our results indicated that eight week-old gastrocnemius muscles of both mdx/utrn+/- and dko hind limb developed fibrosis whereas age-matched mdx gastrocnemius muscle did not (p = 0.002). The amount of collagen found in the mdx/utrn+/- diaphragm was significantly higher than that found in the corresponding diaphragm muscles of wild-type animals, but not of mdx animals (p = 0.0003). Aged mdx/utrn+/- mice developed fibrosis in both diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscles compared to wild-type controls (p = 0.003). Mdx diaphragm was fibrotic in aged mice as well (p = 0.0235), whereas the gastrocnemius muscle in these animals was not fibrotic. We did not measure a significant difference in collagen staining between wild-type and mdx gastrocnemius muscles. The results of this study support previous reports that the moderately-affected mdx/utrn+/- mouse is a better model of DMD, and we show here that this difference is apparent by 2 months of age. PMID:25607927

Gutpell, Kelly M; Hrinivich, William T; Hoffman, Lisa M

2015-01-01

280

NIM811, a cyclophilin inhibitor without immunosuppressive activity, is beneficial in collagen VI congenital muscular dystrophy models.  

PubMed

Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM) are inherited muscle diseases due to mutations in the genes encoding the extracellular matrix protein collagen (Col) VI. Opening of the cyclosporin A-sensitive mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) is a causative event in disease pathogenesis, and a potential target for therapy. Here, we have tested the effect of N-methyl-4-isoleucine-cyclosporin (NIM811), a non-immunosuppressive cyclophilin inhibitor, in a zebrafish model of ColVI myopathy obtained by deletion of the N-terminal region of the ColVI ?1 triple helical domain, a common mutation of UCMD. Treatment with antisense morpholino sequences targeting col6a1 exon 9 at the 1-4 cell stage (within 1 h post fertilization, hpf) caused severe ultrastructural and motor abnormalities as assessed by electron and fluorescence microscopy, birefringence, spontaneous coiling events and touch-evoked responses measured at 24-48 hpf. Structural and functional abnormalities were largely prevented when NIM811--which proved significantly more effective than cyclosporin A--was administered at 21 hpf, while FK506 was ineffective. Beneficial effects of NIM811 were also detected (i) in primary muscle-derived cell cultures from UCMD and BM patients, where the typical mitochondrial alterations and depolarizing response to rotenone and oligomycin were significantly reduced; and (ii) in the Col6a1(-/-) myopathic mouse model, where apoptosis was prevented and muscle strength was increased. Since the PTP of zebrafish shares its key regulatory features with the mammalian pore, our results suggest that early treatment with NIM811 should be tested as a potential therapy for UCMD and BM. PMID:24852368

Zulian, Alessandra; Rizzo, Erika; Schiavone, Marco; Palma, Elena; Tagliavini, Francesca; Blaauw, Bert; Merlini, Luciano; Maraldi, Nadir Mario; Sabatelli, Patrizia; Braghetta, Paola; Bonaldo, Paolo; Argenton, Francesco; Bernardi, Paolo

2014-10-15

281

The Dietary Supplement Protandim® Decreases Plasma Osteopontin and Improves Markers of Oxidative Stress in Muscular Dystrophy Mdx Mice  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic options for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common and lethal neuromuscular disorder in children, remain elusive. Oxidative damage is implicated as a pertinent factor involved in its pathogenesis. Protandim® is an over-the-counter supplement with the ability to induce antioxidant enzymes. In this study we investigated whether Protandim® provided benefit using surrogate markers and functional measures in the dystrophin-deficient (mdx)mouse model of DMD. Male 3-week-old mdx mice were randomized into two treatment groups: control (receiving standard rodent chow) and Protandim®-supplemented standard rodent chow. The diets were continued for 6-week and 6-month studies. The endpoints included the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), plasma osteopontin (OPN), plasma paraoxonase (PON1) activity, H&E histology, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of leg muscle and motor functional measurements. The Protandim® chow diet in mdx mice for 6 months was safe and well tolerated. After 6 months of Protandim®, a 48% average decrease in plasma TBARS was seen; 0.92 nmol/mg protein in controls versus 0.48 nmol/mg protein in the Protandim® group (p = .006). At 6 months, plasma OPN was decreased by 57% (p = .001) in the Protandim®-treated mice. Protandim® increased the plasma antioxidant enzyme PON1 activity by 35% (p = .018). After 6 months, the mdx mice with Protandim® showed 38% less MRI signal abnormality (p = .07) than mice on control diet. In this 6-month mdx mouse study, Protandim® did not significantly alter motor function nor histological criteria. PMID:20740052

Qureshi, Muhammad Muddasir; McClure, Warren C.; Arevalo, Nicole L.; Rabon, Rick E.; Mohr, Benjamin; Bose, Swapan K.; McCord, Joe M.; Tseng, Brian S.

2010-01-01

282

The Dietary Supplement Protandim Decreases Plasma Osteopontin and Improves Markers of Oxidative Stress in Muscular Dystrophy Mdx Mice.  

PubMed

Therapeutic options for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common and lethal neuromuscular disorder in children, remain elusive. Oxidative damage is implicated as a pertinent factor involved in its pathogenesis. Protandim((R)) is an over-the-counter supplement with the ability to induce antioxidant enzymes. In this study we investigated whether Protandim((R)) provided benefit using surrogate markers and functional measures in the dystrophin-deficient (mdx)mouse model of DMD. Male 3-week-old mdx mice were randomized into two treatment groups: control (receiving standard rodent chow) and Protandim((R))-supplemented standard rodent chow. The diets were continued for 6-week and 6-month studies. The endpoints included the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), plasma osteopontin (OPN), plasma paraoxonase (PON1) activity, H&E histology, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of leg muscle and motor functional measurements. The Protandim((R)) chow diet in mdx mice for 6 months was safe and well tolerated. After 6 months of Protandim((R)), a 48% average decrease in plasma TBARS was seen; 0.92 nmol/mg protein in controls versus 0.48 nmol/mg protein in the Protandim((R)) group (p = .006). At 6 months, plasma OPN was decreased by 57% (p = .001) in the Protandim((R))-treated mice. Protandim((R)) increased the plasma antioxidant enzyme PON1 activity by 35% (p = .018). After 6 months, the mdx mice with Protandim((R)) showed 38% less MRI signal abnormality (p = .07) than mice on control diet. In this 6-month mdx mouse study, Protandim((R)) did not significantly alter motor function nor histological criteria. PMID:20740052

Qureshi, Muhammad Muddasir; McClure, Warren C; Arevalo, Nicole L; Rabon, Rick E; Mohr, Benjamin; Bose, Swapan K; McCord, Joe M; Tseng, Brian S

2010-06-01

283

Age-Related Longitudinal Changes in Metabolic Energy Expenditure during Walking in Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related changes in metabolic walking energy expenditure in ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy over a follow-up period of 12 months. Methods At baseline (T1) and 12 months later (T2), metabolic walking energy expenditure was assessed during a 6-minute walk test at comfortable speed in 14 ambulant boys with Duchenne (age range: 6.0-12.5 years, mean 8.2). Outcome measures derived from the assessment included the 6-minute comfortable walking distance (m) and net-nondimensional energy cost relative to speed-matched control cost (SMC-EC, %). Statistical comparisons were made using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA (factors: time (T1 versus T2) and age (<8 years of age (yoa) versus ?8 yoa)). Results Over the course of the study, a significant decrease of -28m (?8.2%, p?=?0.043) was noted in the walked distance at comfortable speed. Besides, SMC-EC increased with 4.4%, although this change was not significant (p?=?0.452). Regarding age groups, boys below 8 yoa showed a smaller annual decrease in the walked distance (?15 m) compared to boys above 8 yoa (?37 m). SMC-EC increased with 10% in the older boys, while in the younger boys it decreased (?2.1%). The main effect of age group on walking distance and SMC-EC however was not significant (p>0.158), and also there were no interaction effects (p>0.248). Conclusions The results of our small study suggest that the natural course of walking performance in ambulant boys with Duchenne is characterized by a decrease in comfortable walking distance and an increase in walking energy cost. The rate of energy cost seems to increase with age, while walking distance decreases, which is opposite from the trend in typically developing children. PMID:25506914

Brehm, Merel-Anne; Kempen, Jiska C. E.; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Groot, Imelda J. M.; van den Bergen, Janneke C.; Verschuuren, Jan J. G. M.; Niks, Erik H.; Harlaar, Jaap

2014-01-01

284

Upper Limb Strength and Function Changes during a One-Year Follow-Up in Non-Ambulant Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An Observational Multicenter Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Upper limb evaluation of patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is crucially important to evaluations of efficacy of new treatments in non-ambulant patients. In patients who have lost ambulation, there are few validated and informative outcome measures. In addition, longitudinal data demonstrating sensitivity to clinical evolution of outcome measures over short-term periods are lacking. Patients and Methods We report here the results of a one-year multicenter study using specifically designed tools to assess grip, pinch strength, and hand function in wheelchair-bound patients. Our study assessed 53 non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy aged 17.1 ± 4.8 years (range: 9 – 28.1 years). The average Brooke functional score of these patients was 4.6 ± 1.1. The average forced vital capacity was 44.5% predicted and 19 patients used non-invasive ventilation. Patients were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and one year using the Motor Function Measure and innovative devices (namely the MyoSet composed of MyoGrip, MyoPinch, and MoviPlate). Results Our study confirmed preliminary data previously reported regarding feasibility of use and of reliability of the MyoSet and the correlation at baseline between distal strength and clinical outcomes such as FVC, Brooke score, age, and duration since loss of ambulation. A significant correlation was observed between the distal upper limb strength and clinical variables. The sensitive dynamometers (MyoGrip and MyoPinch) and MoviPlate captured a 12-month change in non-ambulant Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients of all ages. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00993161 NCT00993161 PMID:25643053

Seferian, Andreea Mihaela; Moraux, Amélie; Annoussamy, Mélanie; Canal, Aurélie; Decostre, Valérie; Diebate, Oumar; Le Moing, Anne-Gaëlle; Gidaro, Teresa; Deconinck, Nicolas; Van Parys, Frauke; Vereecke, Wendy; Wittevrongel, Sylvia; Mayer, Michèle; Maincent, Kim; Desguerre, Isabelle; Thémar-Noël, Christine; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Tiffreau, Vincent; Denis, Severine; Jousten, Virginie; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Voit, Thomas; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Servais, Laurent

2015-01-01

285

EPA protects against muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by promoting a shift from the M1 to M2 macrophage phenotype.  

PubMed

In dystrophic mdx mice and in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, inflammation contributes to myonecrosis. Previously, we demonstrated that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased inflammation and necrosis in dystrophic muscle. In the present study, we examined the effects of EPA and the corticoid deflazacort (DFZ) as modulators of M1 (iNOS-expressing cells) and M2 (CD206-expressing cells) macrophages. Mdx mice (14 days old) received EPA or DFZ for 16 days. The diaphragm, biceps brachii and quadriceps muscles were studied. Immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and ELISA assays showed that EPA increased interleucin-10, reduced interferon-? and was more effective than DFZ in promoting a shift from M1 to M2. PMID:24090650

Carvalho, Samara Camaçari de; Apolinário, Leticia Montanholi; Matheus, Selma Maria Michelin; Santo Neto, Humberto; Marques, Maria Julia

2013-11-15

286

High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in the dy/dy mouse with merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in the cerebral white matter are a consistent feature of merosin-deficient human congenital muscular dystrophy, a disease caused by a primary defect in the expression of the laminin alpha2 chain of merosin. To investigate the relationship between imaging changes and merosin deficiency we undertook a MRI study in the dy/dy mouse, an animal model for this form of human congenital muscular dystrophy. High resolution in vivo imaging was performed on anaesthetized animals (two homozygous dy/dy mutants and two heterozygous dy/DY controls, aged 2.5 months) in a dedicated 11.7T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. T(1) and T(2) weighted images were normal in all mice and white matter changes were not seen at a stage of maturity when MRI changes are already very striking in human patients. Cerebral MRI abnormalities do not appear to be a feature of dy/dy mice, despite the virtual absence of merosin expression in the dy/dy mouse brain. Possible causes for this absence of MRI changes, and implications for the pathogenesis of the MRI changes in humans are reviewed. PMID:10838257

Dubowitz, D J; Tyszka, J M; Sewry, C A; Moats, R A; Scadeng, M; Dubowitz, V

2000-06-01

287

THE 6-MINUTE WALK TEST AND OTHER CLINICAL ENDPOINTS IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: RELIABILITY, CONCURRENT VALIDITY, AND MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES FROM A MULTICENTER STUDY  

PubMed Central

Introduction: An international clinical trial enrolled 174 ambulatory males ?5 years old with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD). Pretreatment data provide insight into reliability, concurrent validity, and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints. Methods: Screening and baseline evaluations included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), quantitative strength by myometry, the PedsQL, heart rate–determined energy expenditure index, and other exploratory endpoints. Results: The 6MWT proved feasible and reliable in a multicenter context. Concurrent validity with other endpoints was excellent. The MCID for 6MWD was 28.5 and 31.7 meters based on 2 statistical distribution methods. Conclusions: The ratio of MCID to baseline mean is lower for 6MWD than for other endpoints. The 6MWD is an optimal primary endpoint for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) clinical trials that are focused therapeutically on preservation of ambulation and slowing of disease progression. Muscle Nerve 48: 357–368, 2013 PMID:23674289

McDonald, Craig M; Henricson, Erik K; Abresch, R Ted; Florence, Julaine; Eagle, Michelle; Gappmaier, Eduard; Glanzman, Allan M; Spiegel, Robert; Barth, Jay; Elfring, Gary; Reha, Allen; Peltz, Stuart W

2013-01-01

288

[Early detection of myocardial disease in young patients with Becker's muscular dystrophy asymptomatic from the cardiac point of view: value of myocardial doppler tissue imaging].  

PubMed

Becker's muscular dystrophy is an X-linked hereditary disorder characterised by progressive muscle weakness and possible cardiac disease. Cardiac involvement is assumed to be rare in young patients. Early diagnosis could lead to earlier treatment at an infra-clinical stage of the disease. The object of the study was to evaluate systolic and diastolic cardiac function of young patients with Becker's disease by echocardiography and using Doppler tissue imaging. Consecutive patients under 20 years of age with Becker's disease confirmed genetically were included and compared with paired normal subjects. Subendocardial and subepicardial myocardial velocities were obtained by Doppler tissue imaging and the corresponding velocity gradients were measured. Twelve patients were included (17.4 +/- 2.5 years). None of them had disabling muscle disease. No significant difference was observed from normal subjects with respect to: ventricular dimensions, wall thickness, fractional shortening, E/A ratio measured by transmitral Doppler. Nevertheless, patients with Becker's disease had lower systolic and diastolic intra-myocardial velocity gradients: 2.2 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.4 s(-1), p = 0.006, and 3.6 +/- 2.0 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.3 s(-1), p = 0.048, respectively, compared with the control group. These results show that myocardial disease is possible in patients with Becker's muscular dystrophy under the age of 20. Myocardial Doppler tissue imaging is a sensitive method for detecting these early abnormalities and should be recommended in the young patients. PMID:17536422

Meune, C; Wahbi, K; Bécane, H M; Laforet, P; Eymard, B; Leturcq, F; Devaux, J Y; Weber, S; Duboc, D

2007-03-01

289

The Rag2?Il2rb?Dmd? mouse: a novel dystrophic and immunodeficient model to assess innovating therapeutic strategies for muscular dystrophies.  

PubMed

The development of innovative therapeutic strategies for muscular dystrophies, particularly cell-based approaches, is still a developing field. Although positive results have been obtained in animal models, they have rarely been confirmed in patients and resulted in very limited clinical improvements, suggesting some specificity in humans. These findings emphasized the need for an appropriate animal model (i.e., immunodeficient and dystrophic) to investigate in vivo the behavior of transplanted human myogenic stem cells. We report a new model, the Rag2(-)Il2rb(-)Dmd(-) mouse, which lacks T, B, and NK cells, and also carries a mutant Dmd allele that prevents the production of any dystrophin isoform. The dystrophic features of this new model are comparable with those of the classically used mdx mouse, but with the total absence of any revertant dystrophin positive fiber. We show that Rag2(-)Il2rb(-)Dmd(-) mice allow long-term xenografts of human myogenic cells. Altogether, our findings indicate that the Rag2(-)Il2rb(-)Dmd(-) mouse represents an ideal model to gain further insights into the behavior of human myogenic stem cells in a dystrophic context, and can be used to assess innovative therapeutic strategies for muscular dystrophies. PMID:23975040

Vallese, Denis; Negroni, Elisa; Duguez, Stéphanie; Ferry, Arnaud; Trollet, Capucine; Aamiri, Ahmed; Vosshenrich, Christian A J; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Di Santo, James P; Vitiello, Libero; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent

2013-10-01

290

Muscle-Specific SIRT1 Gain-of-Function Increases Slow-Twitch Fibers and Ameliorates Pathophysiology in a Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

SIRT1 is a metabolic sensor and regulator in various mammalian tissues and functions to counteract metabolic and age-related diseases. Here we generated and analyzed mice that express SIRT1 at high levels specifically in skeletal muscle. We show that SIRT1 transgenic muscle exhibits a fiber shift from fast-to-slow twitch, increased levels of PGC-1?, markers of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, and decreased expression of the atrophy gene program. To examine whether increased activity of SIRT1 protects from muscular dystrophy, a muscle degenerative disease, we crossed SIRT1 muscle transgenic mice to mdx mice, a genetic model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. SIRT1 overexpression in muscle reverses the phenotype of mdx mice, as determined by histology, creatine kinase release into the blood, and endurance in treadmill exercise. In addition, SIRT1 overexpression also results in increased levels of utrophin, a functional analogue of dystrophin, as well as increased expression of PGC-1? targets and neuromuscular junction genes. Based on these findings, we suggest that pharmacological interventions that activate SIRT1 in skeletal muscle might offer a new approach for treating muscle diseases. PMID:25032964

Chalkiadaki, Angeliki; Igarashi, Masaki; Nasamu, Armiyaw Sebastian; Knezevic, Jovana; Guarente, Leonard

2014-01-01

291

Expression of plectin and HD1 epitopes in patients with epidermolysis bullosa simplex associated with muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Plectin, a widespread cytoskeletal linker protein, is prominently expressed in basal keratinocytes of the epidermis. HD1, originally identified as a hemidesmosomal protein, has been suggested to be an isoform of or closely related to plectin, but the exact relationship between these proteins is unknown. Plectin has recently been identified as the gene/protein system at fault in epidermolysis bullosa simplex associated with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD; OMIM# 226670). In this study, we examined the expression patterns of plectin and HD1 epitopes in the skin of four unrelated patients with EBS-MD confirmed to be caused by plectin gene mutations. By indirect immunofluorescence, all monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to plectin (5B3, 10F6) or to HD1 (121, E2, K15, 156) bound to the epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ) of normal human skin. In addition, immunostaining along the periphery of keratinocytes was detected with mAbs 5B3, 10F6 (antiplectin), K15 and 156 (anti-HD1), but not with mAbs 121 and E2 (anti-HD1). Immunolabeling for mAbs 5B3 and 10F6 (antiplectin) was absent in the skin of three patients who had premature termination codon mutations in the plectin gene in both alleles. In contrast, labeling was only slightly reduced in a patient who was homozygous for a 9-bp in-frame deletion mutation in the same gene. Interestingly, peripheral labeling of keratinocytes using mAbs K15 and 156 (anti-HD1) was clearly present in all the patients despite the disappearance of BMZ labeling. Quantitative analysis by postembedding immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that both plectin and HD1 epitopes were localized in the inner plaque of hemidesmosomes with a mean distance of 110 and 120 nm from the plasma membrane, respectively. These results confirm the molecular heterogeneity of EBS-MD in terms of the expression patterns of plectin and HD1 epitopes which correlate with clinical severity, the pattern of plectin gene mutations and their consequences. PMID:10552210

Shimizu, H; Masunaga, T; Kurihara, Y; Owaribe, K; Wiche, G; Pulkkinen, L; Uitto, J; Nishikawa, T

1999-10-01

292

Skeletal Muscle Fibrosis in the mdx/utrn+/- Mouse Validates Its Suitability as a Murine Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Various therapeutic approaches have been studied for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but none of these approaches have led to significant long-term effects in patients. One reason for this observed inefficacy may be the use of inappropriate animal models for the testing of therapeutic agents. The mdx mouse is the most widely used murine model of DMD, yet it does not model the fibrotic progression observed in patients. Other murine models of DMD are available that lack one or both alleles of utrophin, a functional analog of dystrophin. The aim of this study was to compare fibrosis and myofiber damage in the mdx, mdx/utrn+/- and double knockout (dko) mouse models. We used Masson’s trichrome stain and percentage of centrally-nucleated myofibers as indicators of fibrosis and myofiber regeneration, respectively, to assess disease progression in diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscles harvested from young and aged wild-type, mdx, mdx/utrn+/- and dko mice. Our results indicated that eight week-old gastrocnemius muscles of both mdx/utrn+/- and dko hind limb developed fibrosis whereas age-matched mdx gastrocnemius muscle did not (p = 0.002). The amount of collagen found in the mdx/utrn+/- diaphragm was significantly higher than that found in the corresponding diaphragm muscles of wild-type animals, but not of mdx animals (p = 0.0003). Aged mdx/utrn+/- mice developed fibrosis in both diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscles compared to wild-type controls (p = 0.003). Mdx diaphragm was fibrotic in aged mice as well (p = 0.0235), whereas the gastrocnemius muscle in these animals was not fibrotic. We did not measure a significant difference in collagen staining between wild-type and mdx gastrocnemius muscles. The results of this study support previous reports that the moderately-affected mdx/utrn+/- mouse is a better model of DMD, and we show here that this difference is apparent by 2 months of age. PMID:25607927

Gutpell, Kelly M.; Hrinivich, William T.; Hoffman, Lisa M.

2015-01-01

293

Expectations and experiences of investigators and parents involved in a clinical trial for Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background The social context of rare disease research is changing, with increased community engagement around drug development and clinical trials. This engagement may benefit patients and families, but may also lead to heightened trial expectations and therapeutic misconception. Clinical investigators are also susceptible to harboring high expectations. Little is known about parental motivations and expectations for clinical trials for rare pediatric disorders. Purpose We describe the experience of parents and clinical investigators involved in a phase II clinical trial for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy: their expectations, hopes, motivations, and reactions to the termination of the trial. Methods This qualitative study was based on interviews with clinical investigators and parents of sons with DBMD who participated in the phase IIa or IIb ataluren clinical trial in the United States. Interviews were transcribed and coded for thematic analysis. Results Participants were twelve parents of affected boys receiving active drug and nine clinical investigators. High trial expectations of direct benefit were reported by parents and many clinicians. Investigators described monitoring and managing parents’ expectations; several worried about their own involvement in increasing parents’ expectations. Most parents were able to differentiate their expectations from their optimistic hopes for a cure. Parents’ expectations arose from other parents, advocacy organizations, and the sponsor. All parents reported some degree of clinical benefit to their children. Secondary benefits were hopefulness and powerful feelings associated with active efforts to affect the disease course. Parents and clinical investigators reported strong, close relationships that were mutually important. Parents and clinicians felt valued by the sponsor for the majority of the trial. When the trial abruptly stopped, they described loss of engagement, distress, and feeling unprepared for the possibility of trial termination. Limitations This was a retrospective study of one clinical trial. We were unable to recruit participants whose children received placebo. The interviews occurred during a time of significant uncertainty and distress for many of the participants. Conclusions This pilot study reflects complex outcomes of strong community engagement. The findings highlight a need for renewed education about, and support for, clinical trial termination and loss of drug access. The primary positive outcome was demonstration of strong relationships among committed parents and study teams. These relationships were highly valued by both parties, and may suggest an ideal intervention opportunity for efforts to improve psychological wellbeing. A negative outcome attributed, in part, to community engagement was inappropriately high trial expectations. More optimistically, high expectations were attributed, in part, to the importance of hope and powerful feelings associated with active efforts to affect the disease course. PMID:24311736

Peay, Holly L; Tibben, Aad; Fisher, Tyler; Brenna, Ethan; Biesecker, Barbara B

2014-01-01

294

Participation and quality of life in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health  

PubMed Central

Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by muscle damage and progressive loss of muscle function in male children. DMD is one of the most devastating genetically linked neuromuscular diseases for which there is currently no cure. Most clinical studies for DMD utilize a standard protocol for measurement exploring pathophysiology, muscle strength and timed tasks. However, we propose that examining broader components of health as emphasized by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) may be of great value to children and their families, and important outcomes for future clinical trials. Methods Fifty boys with DMD and 25 unaffected age-matched boys completed two self-report measures: the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and the Pediatric Quality of Life InventoryTM 4.0. We investigated differences between the two groups with regard to participation in life activities and perceived quality of life (QoL). Additionally, we compared participation in activities and QoL in both cohorts of younger and older boys. Results Participation in physical activities was significantly lower in boys with DMD than unaffected boys. Perceived QoL was markedly diminished in children with DMD relative to unaffected controls, except in the emotional domain. The amount of time boys engage in an activity, as well as participation in social activities, declined for our older boys with DMD but no changes were observed for our older unaffected boys. For both groups, QoL remained constant over time. Conclusions The ICF-CY provides a conceptual framework and specific terminology that facilitates investigation of the consequences of impairment in children and youth. Our study is one of the first to explore participation in a cohort of boys with DMD. It was not surprising that activities of choice for boys with DMD were less physical in nature than unaffected boys their age, but the consequences of less social engagement as the boys with DMD age is of great concern. Results from our study underscore the need to further evaluate activities that children elect to participate in, with special emphasis on facilitators and barriers to participation and how participation changes throughout the course of a disease. PMID:22545870

2012-01-01

295

Results of a two-year pilot study of clinical outcome measures in collagen VI- and laminin alpha2-related congenital muscular dystrophies.  

PubMed

Potential therapies are currently under development for two congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) subtypes: collagen VI-related muscular dystrophy (COL6-RD) and laminin alpha 2-related dystrophy (LAMA2-RD). However, appropriate clinical outcome measures to be used in clinical trials have not been validated in CMDs. We conducted a two-year pilot study to evaluate feasibility, reliability, and validity of various outcome measures, particularly the Motor Function Measure 32, in 33 subjects with COL6-RD and LAMA2-RD. In the first year, outcome measures tested included: Motor Function Measure 32 (MFM32), forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted sitting, myometry, goniometry, 10-meter walk, Egen Klassification 2, and PedsQL(TM) Generic and Neuromuscular Cores. In the second year, we added the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA), Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMS), timed functional tests, Measure of Activity Limitations (ACTIVLIM), Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST), and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) fatigue subscale. The MFM32 showed strong inter-rater (0.92) and internal consistency (0.96) reliabilities. Concurrent validity for the MFM32 was supported by large correlations (range 0.623-0.936) with the following: FVC, NSAA, HFMS, timed functional tests, ACTIVLIM, and QUEST. Significant correlations of the MFM32 were also found with select myometry measurements, mainly of the proximal extremities and domains of the PedsQL(TM) scales focusing on physical health and neuromuscular disease. Goniometry measurements were less reliable. The Motor Function Measure is reliable and valid in the two specific subtypes of CMD evaluated, COL6-RD and LAMA2-RD. The NSAA is useful as a complementary outcome measure in ambulatory individuals. Preliminary concurrent validity of several other clinical outcome measures was also demonstrated for these subtypes. PMID:25307854

Meilleur, Katherine G; Jain, Minal S; Hynan, Linda S; Shieh, Ching-Yi; Kim, Eunice; Waite, Melissa; McGuire, Michelle; Fiorini, Courtney; Glanzman, Allan M; Main, Marion; Rose, Kristy; Duong, Tina; Bendixen, Roxanna; Linton, Melody M; Arveson, Irene C; Nichols, Carmel; Yang, Kelly; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Wagner, Kathryn R; North, Kathryn; Mankodi, Ami; Grunseich, Christopher; Hartnett, Elizabeth J; Smith, Michaele; Donkervoort, Sandra; Schindler, Alice; Kokkinis, Angela; Leach, Meganne; Foley, A Reghan; Collins, James; Muntoni, Francesco; Rutkowski, Anne; Bönnemann, Carsten G

2015-01-01

296

"The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

2015-01-01

297

Muscular Dystrophy Association  

MedlinePLUS

... Become an MDA Advocate MDA in Your Community MDA News and Updates PTC Begins Submission of New ... Gifts MDA Programs Matching Gifts National Sponsors About MDA Art Collection Contact MDA Become a Volunteer Careers ...

298

Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... from the history and physical exam to a DNA test to confirm a diagnosis of MMD. The DNA test involves only a blood sample and, in ... what is now called MMD1 an area of DNA (the basic genetic material that makes up our ...

299

'Laminopathies': A wide spectrum of human diseases  

SciTech Connect

Mutations in genes encoding the intermediate filament nuclear lamins and associated proteins cause a wide spectrum of diseases sometimes called 'laminopathies.' Diseases caused by mutations in LMNA encoding A-type lamins include autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and related myopathies, Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2B1 and developmental and accelerated aging disorders. Duplication in LMNB1 encoding lamin B1 causes autosomal dominant leukodystrophy and mutations in LMNB2 encoding lamin B2 are associated with acquired partial lipodystrophy. Disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding lamin-associated integral inner nuclear membrane proteins include X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, sclerosing bone dysplasias, HEM/Greenberg skeletal dysplasia and Pelger-Huet anomaly. While mutations and clinical phenotypes of 'laminopathies' have been carefully described, data explaining pathogenic mechanisms are only emerging. Future investigations will likely identify new 'laminopathies' and a combination of basic and clinical research will lead to a better understanding of pathophysiology and the development of therapies.

Worman, Howard J. [Department of Medicine and Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032 (United States)]. E-mail: hjw14@columbia.edu; Bonne, Gisele [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, U582, Institut de Myologie, Paris F-75013 (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Faculte de medecine, Paris F-75013 (France); AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, U.F. Myogenetique et Cardiogenetique, service de Biochimie Metabolique, Paris F-75013 (France)

2007-06-10

300

Alternative isoform regulation in myotonic dystrophy  

E-print Network

Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of adult onset muscular dystrophy, affecting more than 1 in 8000 individuals globally. The symptoms of DM are multi-systemic and include myotonia, severe muscle wasting, ...

Wang, Eric T. (Eric Tzy-shi)

2012-01-01

301

Optical coherence tomography can assess skeletal muscle tissue from mouse models of muscular dystrophy by parametric imaging of the attenuation coefficient  

PubMed Central

We present the assessment of ex vivo mouse muscle tissue by quantitative parametric imaging of the near-infrared attenuation coefficient µt using optical coherence tomography. The resulting values of the local total attenuation coefficient µt (mean ± standard error) from necrotic lesions in the dystrophic skeletal muscle tissue of mdx mice are higher (9.6 ± 0.3 mm?1) than regions from the same tissue containing only necrotic myofibers (7.0 ± 0.6 mm?1), and significantly higher than values from intact myofibers, whether from an adjacent region of the same sample (4.8 ± 0.3 mm?1) or from healthy tissue of the wild-type C57 mouse (3.9 ± 0.2 mm?1) used as a control. Our results suggest that the attenuation coefficient could be used as a quantitative means to identify necrotic lesions and assess skeletal muscle tissue in mouse models of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:24761302

Klyen, Blake R.; Scolaro, Loretta; Shavlakadze, Tea; Grounds, Miranda D.; Sampson, David D.

2014-01-01

302

The NIH Office of Rare Diseases Research Patient Registry Standard: A Report from the University of New Mexico’s Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy Patient Registry  

PubMed Central

Patient registries remove barriers to performing research by assembling patient cohorts and data in a systematic, efficient, and proactive manner. Consequently, registries are a valuable strategy for facilitating research and scientific discovery. Registries for rare diseases are arguably even more valuable since there is difficulty in assembling cohorts of adequate size for study. Recently, the NIH Office of Rare Diseases Research created a rare disease registry Standard to facilitate research across multiple registries. We implemented the Standard for the Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy patient registry created at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center. We performed a data element analysis for each Common Data Element defined in the Standard. Problems included the use of previous HL7 versions, non-structured data types, and a recent update to the Standard. Overall, the Standard is an excellent first step toward standardizing patient registries to facilitate work on broader questions and promote novel interdisciplinary collaborations. PMID:24551336

Daneshvari, Shamsi; Youssof, Sarah; Kroth, Philip J.

2013-01-01

303

Muscular dystrophy with large mitochondria associated with mutations in the CHKB gene in three British patients: extending the clinical and pathological phenotype.  

PubMed

Three patients with CHKB deficient muscular dystrophy are described which broadens the previously described phenotype. Blood smear in one patient showed Jordans anomaly (vacuolated leukocytes). Gastrointestinal features occurred in two patients and there appeared to be acute deterioration with infection/general anaesthesia. Brain imaging showed no structural changes but brain magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy (MRS) demonstrated significant reduction in choline:N-acetyl aspartate and choline:creatine ratios in keeping with a general decrease in the amount of choline and phosphocholine-based substrate. Muscle pathology showed either myopathic or dystrophic features, uneven oxidative enzyme staining, COX deficient fibres and peripherally located large mitochondria. CHKB activity was reduced in all three patients and complex 1 activity was significantly reduced in one patient. PMID:23692895

Quinlivan, Ros; Mitsuahashi, Satomi; Sewry, Caroline; Cirak, Sebahattin; Aoyama, Chieko; Mooore, David; Abbs, Stephen; Robb, Stephanie; Newton, Tina; Moss, Celia; Birchall, Daniel; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Bushby, Kate; Guglieri, Michela; Muntoni, Francesco; Nishino, Ichizo; Straub, Volker

2013-07-01

304

Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2H Associated with Mutation in TRIM32, a Putative E3-Ubiquitin–Ligase Gene  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) is a mild autosomal recessive myopathy that was first described in the Manitoba Hutterite population. Previous studies in our laboratory mapped the causative gene for this disease to a 6.5-Mb region in chromosomal region 9q31-33, flanked by D9S302 and D9S1850. We have now used additional families and a panel of 26 microsatellite markers to construct haplotypes. Twelve recombination events that reduced the size of the candidate region to 560 kb were identified or inferred. This region is flanked by D9S1126 and D9S737 and contains at least four genes. Exons of these genes were sequenced in one affected individual, and four sequence variations were identified. The families included in our study and 100 control individuals were tested for these variations. On the basis of our results, the mutation in the tripartite-motif–containing gene (TRIM32) that replaces aspartate with asparagine at position 487 appears to be the causative mutation of LGMD2H. All affected individuals were found to be homozygous for D487N, and this mutation was not found in any of the controls. This mutation occurs in an NHL (named after the proteins NCL1, HT2A, and LIN-41) domain at a position that is highly conserved. NHL domains are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Although the function of TRIM32 is unknown, current knowledge of the domain structure of this protein suggests that it may be an E3-ubiquitin ligase. If proven, this represents a new pathogenic mechanism leading to muscular dystrophy. PMID:11822024

Frosk, Patrick; Weiler, Tracey; Nylen, Edward; Sudha, Thangirala; Greenberg, Cheryl R.; Morgan, Kenneth; Fujiwara, T. Mary; Wrogemann, Klaus

2002-01-01

305

Filamin C interacts with the muscular dystrophy KY protein and is abnormally distributed in mouse KY deficient muscle fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The KY protein has been implicated in a neuromuscular dystrophy in the mouse, but its role in muscle func- tion remains unclear. Here, we show that KY interacts with several sarcomeric cytoskeletal proteins includ- ing, amongst others, filamin C and the slow isoform of the myosin-binding protein C. These interactions were confirmed in vitro and because of its central role

Jane Beatham; Rosario Romero; Stuart K. M. Townsend; Terry Hacker; Gonzalo Blanco

2004-01-01

306

Learning about Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... by Families of SMA. Muscular Dystrophy Association - USA [mda.org] A national voluntary health agency dedicated to ... all ages. Facts About Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) [mda.org] Questions and answers about SMA from the ...

307

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists alleviate muscle pathology in the mouse model for laminin-?2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A)  

PubMed Central

Background Laminin-?2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) is a severe muscle-wasting disease for which no curative treatment is available. Antagonists of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1), including the anti-hypertensive drug losartan, have been shown to block also the profibrotic action of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? and thereby ameliorate disease progression in mouse models of Marfan syndrome. Because fibrosis and failure of muscle regeneration are the main reasons for the severe disease course of MDC1A, we tested whether L-158809, an analog derivative of losartan, could ameliorate the dystrophy in dyW/dyW mice, the best-characterized model of MDC1A. Methods L-158809 was given in food to dyW/dyW mice at the age of 3?weeks, and the mice were analyzed at the age of 6 to 7?weeks. We examined the effect of L-158809 on muscle histology and on muscle regeneration after injury as well as the locomotor activity and muscle strength of the mice. Results We found that TGF-? signaling in the muscles of the dyW/dyW mice was strongly increased, and that L-158809 treatment suppressed this signaling. Consequently, L-158809 reduced fibrosis and inflammation in skeletal muscle of dyW/dyW mice, and largely restored muscle regeneration after toxin-induced injury. Mice showed improvement in their locomotor activity and grip strength, and their body weight was significantly increased. Conclusion These data provide evidence that AT1 antagonists ameliorate several hallmarks of MDC1A in dyW/dyW mice, the best-characterized mouse model for this disease. Because AT1 antagonists are well tolerated in humans and widely used in clinical practice, these results suggest that losartan may offer a potential future treatment of patients with MDC1A. PMID:22943509

2012-01-01

308

Physical map, marker order, and YAC contig of an 11 cM region of 5q31 involved in myeloid leukemia and limb girdle muscular dystrophy  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome band 5q31 contains a large number of disease genes including those for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1 (LGM1), an autosomal dominant form of hereditary deafness, corneal dystrophies, as well as a putative tumor suppressor gene involved in myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia. To facilitate the identification of these genes, we prepared a YAC contig spanning the region from IL9 to D5S434. This was done with reference to a composite map consisting of markers which had been ordered physically by FISH, which was integrated with CEPH and CHLC markers that had been ordered genetically. These markers were used to screen the CEPH megaYAC library, and also to extract YACs from the CEPH-genethon physical map data base. YAC overlaps were used to confirm marker order and localize additional markers to the region. This YAC contig spans approximately 11 cM and contains 24 polymorphic microsatellite markers, 12 non-polymorphic STS markers and 6 known genes (including IL9, CDC25, EGR1, CD14, FGF1, GRL). A total of 51 YACs were isolated using these markers. YAC overlaps were identified by STS content and Alu-PCR hybridization. Thirty nine YACs fall within the minimum deleted region involved in acute myeloid leukemia (IL9 to D5S166 interval); these YACs were further used to order 10 microsatellite and 8 STS markers that had been regionally localized. This map and the new markers will be used to facilitate the search for candidate genes for the myeloid leukemia tumor suppressor and for LGM1.

Horrigan, S.K.; Ramesar, R.S. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Yamaoka, L.H. [Duke Univ. Medical School, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

309

A GCG expansion (GCG)11 in polyadenylate-binding protein nuclear 1 gene caused oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy in a Chinese family  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the mutation in polyadenylate-binding protein nuclear 1 gene (PABPN1, previously termed PABP2) in a Chinese family with autosomal, dominantly inherited oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Methods Clinical and ophthalmologic examinations were conducted on available living family members from three generations. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of every available family member, and the fragment flanking the (GCG)n of the PABPN1 gene was amplified by PCR. Mutations were screened by DNA sequencing. Photographs of deceased family members were examined for signs of OPMD. Results Clinical features of OPMD were found in all patients in generation II except the youngest sister, and no clinical manifestations were found in generation III. Mutation sequencing demonstrated that (GCG)6 in the wild PABPN1 gene was expanded to heterozygous (GCG)11 in all affected family members and in some but not all unaffected members. Conclusions In a Chinese family with autosomal dominantly inherited OPMD, a heterozygous (GCG)11 expansion was identified in all affected family members and in several young unaffected members. PMID:21647273

Zhang, Huina; Zhou, Yandan; Wu, Han; Wang, Changjun; Shi, Xin

2011-01-01

310

Implantation of a left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients with end stage cardiac failure: Management and lessons learned.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder, characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, loss of ambulation, and death secondary to cardiac or respiratory failure. End-stage dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a frequent finding in DMD patients, they are rarely candidates for cardiac transplantation. Recently, the use of ventricular assist devices as a destination therapy (DT) as an alternative to cardiac transplantation in DMD patients has been described. Preoperative planning and patient selection play a significant role in the successful postoperative course of these patients. We describe the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative management of Jarvik 2000 implantation in 4 DMD pediatric (age range 12-17 years) patients. We also describe the complications that may occur. The most frequent were bleeding and difficulty in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Our standard protocol includes: 1) preoperative multidisciplinary evaluation and selection, 2) preoperative and postoperative non-invasive ventilation and cough machine cycles, 3) intraoperative use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transesophageal echocardiography, 4) attention on surgical blood loss, use of tranexamic acid and prothrombin complexes, 5) early extubation and 6) avoiding the use of nasogastric feeding tubes and nasal temperature probes. Our case reports describe the use of Jarvik 2000 as a destination therapy in young patients emphasizing the use of ventricular assist devices as a new therapeutic option in DMD. PMID:25444433

Iodice, Francesca; Testa, Giuseppina; Averardi, Marco; Brancaccio, Gianluca; Amodeo, Antonio; Cogo, Paola

2015-01-01

311

THE 6-MINUTE WALK TEST AND OTHER ENDPOINTS IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: LONGITUDINAL NATURAL HISTORY OBSERVATIONS OVER 48 WEEKS FROM A MULTICENTER STUDY  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) subjects ?5 years with nonsense mutations were followed for 48 weeks in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ataluren. Placebo arm data (N = 57) provided insight into the natural history of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints. Methods: Evaluations performed every 6 weeks included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), and quantitative strength using hand-held myometry. Results: Baseline age (?7 years), 6MWD, and selected TFT performance are strong predictors of decline in ambulation (?6MWD) and time to 10% worsening in 6MWD. A baseline 6MWD of <350 meters was associated with greater functional decline, and loss of ambulation was only seen in those with baseline 6MWD <325 meters. Only 1 of 42 (2.3%) subjects able to stand from supine lost ambulation. Conclusion: Findings confirm the clinical meaningfulness of the 6MWD as the most accepted primary clinical endpoint in ambulatory DMD trials. PMID:23681930

Mcdonald, Craig M; Henricson, Erik K; Abresch, R Ted; Florence, Julaine M; Eagle, Michelle; Gappmaier, Eduard; Glanzman, Allan M; Spiegel, Robert; Barth, Jay; Elfring, Gary; Reha, Allen; Peltz, Stuart

2013-01-01

312

Correction of Dystrophin Expression in Cells from Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patients through Genomic Excision of Exon 51 by Zinc Finger Nucleases.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by genetic mutations that result in the absence of dystrophin protein expression. Oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping can restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein production. However, this requires continuous drug administration and may not generate complete skipping of the targeted exon. In this study, we apply genome editing with zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to permanently remove essential splicing sequences in exon 51 of the dystrophin gene and thereby exclude exon 51 from the resulting dystrophin transcript. This approach can restore the dystrophin reading frame in approximately 13% of DMD patient mutations. Transfection of two ZFNs targeted to sites flanking the exon 51 splice acceptor into DMD patient myoblasts led to deletion of this genomic sequence. A clonal population was isolated with this deletion and following differentiation we confirmed loss of exon 51 from the dystrophin mRNA transcript and restoration of dystrophin protein expression. Furthermore, transplantation of corrected cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in human dystrophin expression localized to the sarcolemmal membrane. Finally, we quantified ZFN toxicity in human cells and mutagenesis at predicted off-target sites. This study demonstrates a powerful method to restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein expression by permanently deleting exons.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.234. PMID:25492562

Ousterout, David G; Kabadi, Ami M; Thakore, Pratiksha I; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Brown, Matthew T; Majoros, William H; Reddy, Timothy E; Gersbach, Charles A

2014-12-10

313

Implantation of the HeartMate II and HeartWare left ventricular assist devices in patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy: lessons learned from the first applications.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder affecting 1 in 3,500 males, characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and death secondary to cardiac or respiratory failure in the 2nd or 3rd decade. Being a progressive disease, patients are rarely candidates for cardiac transplantation and death from dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is common. Implantation of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) offers the potential to alter clinical trajectory by alleviating heart failure symptoms. We report implantation of HeartMate II device in a 29-year-old male patient and HeartWare device in a 23-year-old female patient, each with DMD and end-stage DCM. By improving cardiac output, we were able to achieve resolution of the symptoms of heart failure and improve their quality of life. Preoperative planning and patient selection played a significant role in the postoperative course for these patients. These cases represent the first use for each device in this patient population and the first reported LVAD implantations in patients with DMD in North America. PMID:24577373

Ryan, Thomas D; Jefferies, John L; Sawnani, Hemant; Wong, Brenda L; Gardner, Aimee; Del Corral, Megan; Lorts, Angela; Morales, David L S

2014-01-01

314

Bi-specific splice-switching PMO oligonucleotides conjugated via a single peptide active in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

The potential for therapeutic application of splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) to modulate pre-mRNA splicing is increasingly evident in a number of diseases. However, the primary drawback of this approach is poor cell and in vivo oligonucleotide uptake efficacy. Biological activities can be significantly enhanced through the use of synthetically conjugated cationic cell penetrating peptides (CPPs). Studies to date have focused on the delivery of a single SSO conjugated to a CPP, but here we describe the conjugation of two phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO) SSOs to a single CPP for simultaneous delivery and pre-mRNA targeting of two separate genes, exon 23 of the Dmd gene and exon 5 of the Acvr2b gene, in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Conjugations of PMOs to a single CPP were carried out through an amide bond in one case and through a triazole linkage (‘click chemistry’) in the other. The most active bi-specific CPP–PMOs demonstrated comparable exon skipping levels for both pre-mRNA targets when compared to individual CPP–PMO conjugates both in cell culture and in vivo in the mdx mouse model. Thus, two SSOs with different target sequences conjugated to a single CPP are biologically effective and potentially suitable for future therapeutic exploitation. PMID:25468897

Shabanpoor, Fazel; McClorey, Graham; Saleh, Amer F.; Järver, Peter; Wood, Matthew J.A.; Gait, Michael J.

2015-01-01

315

Systemic Delivery of Allogenic Muscle Stem Cells Induces Long-Term Muscle Repair and Clinical Efficacy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Dogs  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic progressive muscle disease resulting from the lack of dystrophin and without effective treatment. Adult stem cell populations have given new impetus to cell-based therapy of neuromuscular diseases. One of them, muscle-derived stem cells, isolated based on delayed adhesion properties, contributes to injured muscle repair. However, these data were collected in dystrophic mice that exhibit a relatively mild tissue phenotype and clinical features of DMD patients. Here, we characterized canine delayed adherent stem cells and investigated the efficacy of their systemic delivery in the clinically relevant DMD animal model to assess potential therapeutic application in humans. Delayed adherent stem cells, named MuStem cells (muscle stem cells), were isolated from healthy dog muscle using a preplating technique. In vitro, MuStem cells displayed a large expansion capacity, an ability to proliferate in suspension, and a multilineage differentiation potential. Phenotypically, they corresponded to early myogenic progenitors and uncommitted cells. When injected in immunosuppressed dystrophic dogs, they contributed to myofiber regeneration, satellite cell replenishment, and dystrophin expression. Importantly, their systemic delivery resulted in long-term dystrophin expression, muscle damage course limitation with an increased regeneration activity and an interstitial expansion restriction, and persisting stabilization of the dog's clinical status. These results demonstrate that MuStem cells could provide an attractive therapeutic avenue for DMD patients. PMID:21924229

Rouger, Karl; Larcher, Thibaut; Dubreil, Laurence; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Le Guiner, Caroline; Jouvion, Gregory; Delorme, Bruno; Lieubeau, Blandine; Carlus, Marine; Fornasari, Benoît; Theret, Marine; Orlando, Priscilla; Ledevin, Mireille; Zuber, Céline; Leroux, Isabelle; Deleau, Stéphane; Guigand, Lydie; Testault, Isabelle; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Fiszman, Marc; Chérel, Yan

2011-01-01

316

Muscle force, balance and falls in muscular impaired individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1: A five-year prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) have progressive muscle weakness with gait and balance impairments. We explored prospectively the natural history of muscle force, gait, balance, balance confidence and walking ability in muscular affected individuals with DM1. After five years data from 43 individuals (m/f:18/25) were analysed. All measures of balance showed statistically significant deterioration (p?

Hammarén, Elisabet; Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla; Lindberg, Christopher

2015-02-01

317

Precise Correction of the Dystrophin Gene in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patient Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-degenerative disease caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Genetic correction of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by TALENs or CRISPR-Cas9 holds promise for DMD gene therapy; however, the safety of such nuclease treatment must be determined. Using a unique k-mer database, we systematically identified a unique target region that reduces off-target sites. To restore the dystrophin protein, we performed three correction methods (exon skipping, frameshifting, and exon knockin) in DMD-patient-derived iPSCs, and found that exon knockin was the most effective approach. We further investigated the genomic integrity by karyotyping, copy number variation array, and exome sequencing to identify clones with a minimal mutation load. Finally, we differentiated the corrected iPSCs toward skeletal muscle cells and successfully detected the expression of full-length dystrophin protein. These results provide an important framework for developing iPSC-based gene therapy for genetic disorders using programmable nucleases. PMID:25434822

Li, Hongmei Lisa; Fujimoto, Naoko; Sasakawa, Noriko; Shirai, Saya; Ohkame, Tokiko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Michihiro; Amano, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Sakurai, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Hotta, Akitsu

2014-11-25

318

Brain dystrophin-glycoprotein complex: Persistent expression of beta-dystroglycan, impaired oligomerization of Dp71 and up-regulation of utrophins in animal models of muscular dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Aside from muscle, brain is also a major expression site for dystrophin, the protein whose abnormal expression is responsible for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Cognitive impairments are frequently associated with this genetic disease, we therefore studied the fate of brain and skeletal muscle dystrophins and dystroglycans in dystrophic animal models. Results All dystrophin-associated glycoproteins investigated were reduced in dystrophic muscle fibres. In Dp427-deficient mdx brain and Dp71-deficient mdx-3cv brain, the expression of ?-dystroglycan and laminin was reduced, utrophin isoforms were up-regulated and ?-dystroglycan was not affected. Immunofluorescence localization of ?-dystroglycan in comparison with glial, endothelial and neuronal cell markers revealed co-localization of von Willebrand factor with ?-dystroglycan. Its expression at the endothelial-glial interface was preserved in dystrophin isoform-deficient brain from mdx and mdx-3cv mice. In addition, chemical crosslinking revealed that the Dp71 isoform exists in mdx brain predominantly as a monomer. Conclusions This suggests an association of ?-dystroglycan with membranes at the vascular-glial interface in the forebrain. In contrast to dystrophic skeletal muscle fibres, dystrophin deficiency does not trigger a reduction of all dystroglycans in the brain, and utrophins may partially compensate for the lack of brain dystrophins. Abnormal oligomerization of the dystrophin isoform Dp71 might be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying abnormal brain functions. PMID:11178104

Culligan, Kevin; Glover, Louise; Dowling, Paul; Ohlendieck, Kay

2001-01-01

319

Dissecting the Molecular Basis of the Role of the O-Mannosylation Pathway in Disease: ?-Dystroglycan and Forms of Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Dystroglycanopathies are a subgroup of muscular dystrophies that arise from defects in the enzymes implicated in the recently elucidated O-mannosylation pathway, resulting in underglycosylation of ?-dystroglycan. The emerging identification of additional brain proteins modified by O-mannosylation provides a broader context for interpreting the range of neurological consequences associated with dystroglycanopathies. This form of glycosylation is associated with protein mucin-like domains which present numerous serine and threonine residues as possible sites for modification. Further, the O-Man glycans coexist in this region with O-GalNAc glycans, conventionally associated with such protein sequences, resulting in a complex glycoconjugate landscape. Sorting out the relationships between the various molecular defects in glycosylation and the modes of disease presentation, as well as the regulatory interplay among the O-Man glycans, and the effects on other modes of glycosylation in the same domain is challenging. Here we provide a perspective on chemical biology approaches employing synthetic and analytical methods to address these questions. PMID:24318691

Live, David; Wells, Lance

2014-01-01

320

Precise Correction of the Dystrophin Gene in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patient Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9  

PubMed Central

Summary Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-degenerative disease caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Genetic correction of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by TALENs or CRISPR-Cas9 holds promise for DMD gene therapy; however, the safety of such nuclease treatment must be determined. Using a unique k-mer database, we systematically identified a unique target region that reduces off-target sites. To restore the dystrophin protein, we performed three correction methods (exon skipping, frameshifting, and exon knockin) in DMD-patient-derived iPSCs, and found that exon knockin was the most effective approach. We further investigated the genomic integrity by karyotyping, copy number variation array, and exome sequencing to identify clones with a minimal mutation load. Finally, we differentiated the corrected iPSCs toward skeletal muscle cells and successfully detected the expression of full-length dystrophin protein. These results provide an important framework for developing iPSC-based gene therapy for genetic disorders using programmable nucleases. PMID:25434822

Li, Hongmei Lisa; Fujimoto, Naoko; Sasakawa, Noriko; Shirai, Saya; Ohkame, Tokiko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Michihiro; Amano, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Sakurai, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Hotta, Akitsu

2014-01-01

321

Left ventricular hypertrophy caused by a novel nonsense mutation in FHL1.  

PubMed

Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a hereditary muscular disorder, characterized by contractures, progressive muscular wasting and cardiac involvement. The majority of EDMD patients harbor mutations in the lamin A/C (LMNA) and emerin (STA) genes. Emerging data implicate mutations in FHL1 (four and a half LIM protein 1) gene, located in chromosome Xq26, in EDMD pathogenesis. FHL1 is mainly expressed in striated and cardiac muscle, and plays an important role in sarcomeric protein synthesis, maintenance of cellular integrity, intracellular signaling and genetic transcription pathways. We report the identification of a novel nonsense mutation in FHL1 gene, associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and a family history of stroke and sudden cardiac death. The management implications of this diagnosis are also discussed. PMID:23500067

Gossios, Thomas D; Lopes, Luis R; Elliott, Perry M

2013-05-01

322

Incidence and risk factors for post-operative complications after scoliosis surgery in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy : a comparison with other neuromuscular conditions.  

PubMed

We report the incidence of and risk factors for complications after scoliosis surgery in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and compare them with those of other neuromuscular conditions. We identified 110 (64 males, 46 females) consecutive patients with a neuromuscular disorder who underwent correction of the scoliosis at a mean age of 14 years (7 to 19) and had a minimum two-year follow-up. We recorded demographic and peri-operative data, including complications and re-operations. There were 60 patients with cerebral palsy (54.5%) and 26 with DMD (23.6%). The overall complication rate was 22% (24 patients), the most common of which were deep wound infection (9, 8.1%), gastrointestinal complications (5, 4.5%) and hepatotoxicity (4, 3.6%). The complication rate was higher in patients with DMD (10/26, 38.5%) than in those with other neuromuscular conditions (14/84, 16.7% (p = 0.019). All hepatotoxicity occurred in patients with DMD (p = 0.003), who also had an increased rate of deep wound infection (19% vs 5%) (p = 0.033). In the DMD group, no peri-operative factors were significantly associated with the rate of overall complications or deep wound infection. Increased intra-operative blood loss was associated with hepatotoxicity (p = 0.036). In our series, correction of a neuromuscular scoliosis had an acceptable rate of complications: patients with DMD had an increased overall rate compared with those with other neuromuscular conditions. These included deep wound infection and hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was unique to DMD patients, and we recommend peri-operative vigilance after correction of a scoliosis in this group. PMID:24986949

Duckworth, A D; Mitchell, M J; Tsirikos, A I

2014-07-01

323

Prednisolone Attenuates Improvement of Cardiac and Skeletal Contractile Function and Histopathology by Lisinopril and Spironolactone in the mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited disease that causes striated muscle weakness. Recently, we showed therapeutic effects of the combination of lisinopril (L), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, and spironolactone (S), an aldosterone antagonist, in mice lacking dystrophin and haploinsufficient for utrophin (utrn+/?;mdx, het mice); both cardiac and skeletal muscle function and histology were improved when these mice were treated early with LS. It was unknown to what extent LS treatment is effective in the most commonly used DMD murine model, the mdx mouse. In addition, current standard-of-care treatment for DMD is limited to corticosteroids. Therefore, potentially useful alternative or additive drugs need to be both compared directly to corticosteroids and tested in presence of corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of this LS combination in the mdx mouse model both compared with corticosteroid treatment (prednisolone, P) or in combination (LSP). We tested the additional combinatorial treatment containing the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan (T), which is widely used to halt and treat the developing cardiac dysfunction in DMD patients as an alternative to an ACE inhibitor. Peak myocardial strain rate, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, showed a negative impact of P, whereas in both diaphragm and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle contractile function was not significantly impaired by P. Histologically, P generally increased cardiac damage, estimated by percentage area infiltrated by IgG as well as by collagen staining. In general, groups that only differed in the presence or absence of P (i.e. mdx vs. P, LS vs. LSP, and TS vs. TSP) demonstrated a significant detrimental impact of P on many assessed parameters, with the most profound impact on cardiac pathology. PMID:24551095

Murray, Jason D.; Schill, Kevin E.; Rastogi, Neha; Schultz, Eric J.; Tran, Tam; Raman, Subha V.

2014-01-01

324

Primary Role of Functional Ischemia, Quantitative Evidence for the Two-Hit Mechanism, and Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor Therapy in Mouse Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by increased muscle damage and an abnormal blood flow after muscle contraction: the state of functional ischemia. Until now, however, the cause-effect relationship between the pathogenesis of DMD and functional ischemia was unclear. We examined (i) whether functional ischemia is necessary to cause contraction-induced myofiber damage and (ii) whether functional ischemia alone is sufficient to induce the damage. Methodology/Principal Findings In vivo microscopy was used to document assays developed to measure intramuscular red blood cell flux, to quantify the amount of vasodilatory molecules produced from myofibers, and to determine the extent of myofiber damage. Reversal of functional ischemia via pharmacological manipulation prevented contraction-induced myofiber damage in mdx mice, the murine equivalent of DMD. This result indicates that functional ischemia is required for, and thus an essential cause of, muscle damage in mdx mice. Next, to determine whether functional ischemia alone is enough to explain the disease, the extent of ischemia and the amount of myofiber damage were compared both in control and mdx mice. In control mice, functional ischemia alone was found insufficient to cause a similar degree of myofiber damage observed in mdx mice. Additional mechanisms are likely contributing to cause more severe myofiber damage in mdx mice, suggestive of the existence of a “two-hit” mechanism in the pathogenesis of this disease. Conclusions/Significance Evidence was provided supporting the essential role of functional ischemia in contraction-induced myofiber damage in mdx mice. Furthermore, the first quantitative evidence for the “two-hit” mechanism in this disease was documented. Significantly, the vasoactive drug tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, administered to mdx mice ameliorated muscle damage. PMID:17726536

Asai, Akihiro; Sahani, Nita; Kaneki, Masao; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra; Yasuhara, Shingo Egusa

2007-01-01

325

Distinct roles of TRAF6 at early and late stages of muscle pathology in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal genetic disorder caused by loss of functional dystrophin protein. Accumulating evidence suggests that the deficiency of dystrophin leads to aberrant activation of many signaling pathways which contribute to disease progression. However, the proximal signaling events leading to the activation of various pathological cascades in dystrophic muscle remain less clear. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adaptor protein which acts as a signaling intermediate for several receptor-mediated signaling events leading to the context-dependent activation of a number of signaling pathways. TRAF6 is also an E3 ubiquitin ligase and an important regulator of autophagy. However, the role of TRAF6 in pathogenesis of DMD remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the levels and activity of TRAF6 are increased in skeletal muscle of mdx (a mouse model of DMD) mice. Targeted deletion of TRAF6 improves muscle strength and reduces fiber necrosis, infiltration of macrophages and the activation of proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) in 7-week-old mdx mice. Ablation of TRAF6 also increases satellite cells proliferation and myofiber regeneration in young mdx mice. Intriguingly, ablation of TRAF6 exacerbates muscle injury and increases fibrosis in 9-month-old mdx mice. TRAF6 inhibition reduces the markers of autophagy and Akt signaling in dystrophic muscle of mdx mice. Collectively, our study suggests that while the inhibition of TRAF6 improves muscle structure and function in young mdx mice, its continued inhibition causes more severe myopathy at later stages of disease progression potentially through repressing autophagy. PMID:24163132

Hindi, Sajedah M; Sato, Shuichi; Choi, Yongwon; Kumar, Ashok

2014-03-15

326

Coronary adventitial cells are linked to perivascular cardiac fibrosis via TGF?1 signaling in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), progressive accumulation of cardiac fibrosis promotes heart failure. While the cellular origins of fibrosis in DMD hearts remain enigmatic, fibrotic tissue conspicuously forms near the coronary adventitia. Therefore, we sought to characterize the role of coronary adventitial cells in the formation of perivascular fibrosis. Utilizing the mdx model of DMD, we have identified a population of Sca1+, PDGFR?+, CD31?, CD45? coronary adventitial cells responsible for perivascular fibrosis. Histopathology of dystrophic hearts revealed Sca1+ cells extend from the adventitia and occupy regions of perivascular fibrosis. The number of Sca1+ adventitial cells increased two-fold in fibrotic mdx hearts vs. age matched wild-type hearts. Moreover, relative to Sca1?, PDGFR?+, CD31?, CD45? cells and endothelial cells, Sca1+ adventitial cells FACS-sorted from mdx hearts expressed the highest level of Collagen1?1 and 3?1, Connective tissue growth factor, and Tgf?r1 transcripts. Surprisingly, mdx endothelial cells expressed the greatest level of the Tgf?1 ligand. Utilizing Collagen1?1-GFP reporter mice, we confirmed that the majority of Sca1+ adventitial cells expressed type I collagen, an abundant component of cardiac fibrosis, in both wt (71% ±4.1) and mdx (77% ±3.5) hearts. In contrast, GFP+ interstitial fibroblasts were PDGFR?+ but negative for Sca1. Treatment of cultured Collagen1?1-GFP+ adventitial cells with TGF?1 resulted in increased collagen synthesis, whereas pharmacological inhibition of TGF?R1 signaling reduced the fibrotic response. Therefore, perivascular cardiac fibrosis by coronary adventitial cells may be mediated by TGF?1 signaling. Our results implicate coronary endothelial cells in mediating cardiac fibrosis via transmural TGF? signaling, and suggest that the coronary adventitia is a promising target for developing novel anti-fibrotic therapies. PMID:23911435

Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Hays, Aislinn L.; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Mahoney, William M.; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Majesky, Mark W.; Reyes, Morayma

2013-01-01

327

Prednisolone attenuates improvement of cardiac and skeletal contractile function and histopathology by lisinopril and spironolactone in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited disease that causes striated muscle weakness. Recently, we showed therapeutic effects of the combination of lisinopril (L), an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, and spironolactone (S), an aldosterone antagonist, in mice lacking dystrophin and haploinsufficient for utrophin (utrn(+/-);mdx, het mice); both cardiac and skeletal muscle function and histology were improved when these mice were treated early with LS. It was unknown to what extent LS treatment is effective in the most commonly used DMD murine model, the mdx mouse. In addition, current standard-of-care treatment for DMD is limited to corticosteroids. Therefore, potentially useful alternative or additive drugs need to be both compared directly to corticosteroids and tested in presence of corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of this LS combination in the mdx mouse model both compared with corticosteroid treatment (prednisolone, P) or in combination (LSP). We tested the additional combinatorial treatment containing the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan (T), which is widely used to halt and treat the developing cardiac dysfunction in DMD patients as an alternative to an ACE inhibitor. Peak myocardial strain rate, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, showed a negative impact of P, whereas in both diaphragm and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle contractile function was not significantly impaired by P. Histologically, P generally increased cardiac damage, estimated by percentage area infiltrated by IgG as well as by collagen staining. In general, groups that only differed in the presence or absence of P (i.e. mdx vs. P, LS vs. LSP, and TS vs. TSP) demonstrated a significant detrimental impact of P on many assessed parameters, with the most profound impact on cardiac pathology. PMID:24551095

Janssen, Paul M L; Murray, Jason D; Schill, Kevin E; Rastogi, Neha; Schultz, Eric J; Tran, Tam; Raman, Subha V; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A

2014-01-01

328

Recessive TRAPPC11 Mutations Cause a Disease Spectrum of Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy and Myopathy with Movement Disorder and Intellectual Disability  

PubMed Central

Myopathies are a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous group of disorders that can range from limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) to syndromic forms with associated features including intellectual disability. Here, we report the identification of mutations in transport protein particle complex 11 (TRAPPC11) in three individuals of a consanguineous Syrian family presenting with LGMD and in five individuals of Hutterite descent presenting with myopathy, infantile hyperkinetic movements, ataxia, and intellectual disability. By using a combination of whole-exome or genome sequencing with homozygosity mapping, we identified the homozygous c.2938G>A (p.Gly980Arg) missense mutation within the gryzun domain of TRAPPC11 in the Syrian LGMD family and the homozygous c.1287+5G>A splice-site mutation resulting in a 58 amino acid in-frame deletion (p.Ala372_Ser429del) in the foie gras domain of TRAPPC11 in the Hutterite families. TRAPPC11 encodes a component of the multiprotein TRAPP complex involved in membrane trafficking. We demonstrate that both mutations impair the binding ability of TRAPPC11 to other TRAPP complex components and disrupt the Golgi apparatus architecture. Marker trafficking experiments for the p.Ala372_Ser429del deletion indicated normal ER-to-Golgi trafficking but dramatically delayed exit from the Golgi to the cell surface. Moreover, we observed alterations of the lysosomal membrane glycoproteins lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) and LAMP2 as a consequence of TRAPPC11 dysfunction supporting a defect in the transport of secretory proteins as the underlying pathomechanism. PMID:23830518

Bögershausen, Nina; Shahrzad, Nassim; Chong, Jessica X.; von Kleist-Retzow, Jürgen-Christoph; Stanga, Daniela; Li, Yun; Bernier, Francois P.; Loucks, Catrina M.; Wirth, Radu; Puffenberger, Eric G.; Hegele, Robert A.; Schreml, Julia; Lapointe, Gabriel; Keupp, Katharina; Brett, Christopher L.; Anderson, Rebecca; Hahn, Andreas; Innes, A. Micheil; Suchowersky, Oksana; Mets, Marilyn B.; Nürnberg, Gudrun; McLeod, D. Ross; Thiele, Holger; Waggoner, Darrel; Altmüller, Janine; Boycott, Kym M.; Schoser, Benedikt; Nürnberg, Peter; Ober, Carole; Heller, Raoul; Parboosingh, Jillian S.; Wollnik, Bernd; Sacher, Michael; Lamont, Ryan E.

2013-01-01

329

Online Self-Report Data for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Confirms Natural History and Can Be Used to Assess for Therapeutic Benefits  

PubMed Central

To assess the utility of online patient self-report outcomes in a rare disease, we attempted to observe the effects of corticosteroids in delaying age at fulltime wheelchair use in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using data from 1,057 males from DuchenneConnect, an online registry. Data collected were compared to prior natural history data in regard to age at diagnosis, mutation spectrum, and age at loss of ambulation. Because registrants reported differences in steroid and other medication usage, as well as age and ambulation status, we could explore these data for correlations with age at loss of ambulation. Using multivariate analysis, current steroid usage was the most significant and largest independent predictor of improved wheelchair-free survival. Thus, these online self-report data were sufficient to retrospectively observe that current steroid use by patients with DMD is associated with a delay in loss of ambulation. Comparing commonly used steroid drugs, deflazacort prolonged ambulation longer than prednisone (median 14 years and 13 years, respectively). Further, use of Vitamin D and Coenzyme Q10, insurance status, and age at diagnosis after 4 years were also significant, but smaller, independent predictors of longer wheelchair-free survival. Nine other common supplements were also individually tested but had lower study power. This study demonstrates the utility of DuchenneConnect data to observe therapeutic differences, and highlights needs for improvement in quality and quantity of patient-report data, which may allow exploration of drug/therapeutic practice combinations impractical to study in clinical trial settings. Further, with the low barrier to participation, we anticipate substantial growth in the dataset in the coming years.

Wang, Richard T.; Silverstein Fadlon, Cheri A.; Ulm, J. Wes; Jankovic, Ivana; Eskin, Ascia; Lu, Ake; Rangel Miller, Vanessa; Cantor, Rita M.; Li, Ning; Elashoff, Robert; Martin, Anne S.; Peay, Holly L.; Halnon, Nancy; Nelson, Stanley F.

2014-01-01

330

Online self-report data for duchenne muscular dystrophy confirms natural history and can be used to assess for therapeutic benefits.  

PubMed

To assess the utility of online patient self-report outcomes in a rare disease, we attempted to observe the effects of corticosteroids in delaying age at fulltime wheelchair use in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using data from 1,057 males from DuchenneConnect, an online registry. Data collected were compared to prior natural history data in regard to age at diagnosis, mutation spectrum, and age at loss of ambulation. Because registrants reported differences in steroid and other medication usage, as well as age and ambulation status, we could explore these data for correlations with age at loss of ambulation. Using multivariate analysis, current steroid usage was the most significant and largest independent predictor of improved wheelchair-free survival. Thus, these online self-report data were sufficient to retrospectively observe that current steroid use by patients with DMD is associated with a delay in loss of ambulation. Comparing commonly used steroid drugs, deflazacort prolonged ambulation longer than prednisone (median 14 years and 13 years, respectively). Further, use of Vitamin D and Coenzyme Q10, insurance status, and age at diagnosis after 4 years were also significant, but smaller, independent predictors of longer wheelchair-free survival. Nine other common supplements were also individually tested but had lower study power. This study demonstrates the utility of DuchenneConnect data to observe therapeutic differences, and highlights needs for improvement in quality and quantity of patient-report data, which may allow exploration of drug/therapeutic practice combinations impractical to study in clinical trial settings. Further, with the low barrier to participation, we anticipate substantial growth in the dataset in the coming years. PMID:25635234

Wang, Richard T; Silverstein Fadlon, Cheri A; Ulm, J Wes; Jankovic, Ivana; Eskin, Ascia; Lu, Ake; Rangel Miller, Vanessa; Cantor, Rita M; Li, Ning; Elashoff, Robert; Martin, Anne S; Peay, Holly L; Halnon, Nancy; Nelson, Stanley F

2014-01-01

331

Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Pnn CCD domain functions as a dominant negative mutant regulating Pnn expression and function. •Pnn CCD mutant Tg mice have a muscle wasting phenotype during development and show dystrophic histological features. •Pnn mutant muscles are susceptible to slow fiber type gene transition and NEB reduction. •The Tg mouse generated by overexpression of the Pnn CCD domain displays many characteristics resembling NEB{sup +/?} mice. -- Abstract: Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity.

Wu, Hsu-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Yuan [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Ai; Hu, Ji-Wei [Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)] [Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Ouyang, Pin, E-mail: ouyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China) [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)

2014-01-03

332

Controlling the Specificity of Modularly Assembled Small Molecules for RNA via Ligand Module Spacing: Targeting the RNAs that Cause Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Myotonic muscular dystrophy types 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2, respectively) are caused by expansions of repeating nucleotides in non-coding regions of RNA. In DM1, the expansion is an rCUG triplet repeat whereas the DM2 expansion is an rCCUG quadruplet repeat, both of which fold into hairpin structures with periodically repeating internal loops separated by two 5?GC/3?CG base pairs. The sizes of the loops, however, are different: the DM1 repeat forms 1 × 1 nucleotide UU loops while the DM2 repeat forms 2 × 2 nucleotide 5?CU/3?UC loops. DM is caused when the expanded repeats bind the RNA splicing regulator Muscleblind-like 1 protein (MBNL1), thus compromising its function. Therefore, one potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases is to prevent MBNL1 from binding the toxic RNA repeats. Previously, we designed nanomolar inhibitors of the DM2-MBNL1 interaction by modularly assembling 6?-N-5-hexyonate kanamycin A (K) onto a peptoid backbone. The K ligand binds the 2 × 2 pyrimidine-rich internal loops found in the DM2 RNA with high affinity. The best compound identified from that study contains three K modules separated by four propylamine spacing modules and is 20-fold selective over the DM1 RNA. Because the modularly assembled K-containing compounds also bound the DM1 RNA, albeit with lower affinity, and because the loop size is different, we hypothesized that the optimal DM1 RNA binder may display K modules separated by shorter distance between ligand modules. Indeed, the ideal DM1 RNA binder has only two propylamine spacing modules separating the K ligands. Peptoids displaying three and four K modules on a peptoid scaffold bind the DM1 RNA with Kd's of 20 (3-fold selective for DM1 over DM2) and 4 nM (6-fold selective for DM1 over DM2) and inhibit the RNA-protein interaction with IC50's of 40 and 7 nM, respectively. Importantly, by coupling the two studies together, we have determined that appropriate spacing can affect binding selectivity by 60-fold (20- × 3-fold). The trimer and tetramer also bind ?13- and ?63-fold more tightly to DM1 RNAs than does MBNL1. The modularly assembled compounds are cell permeable and non-toxic as determined by flow cytometry. The results establish that for these two systems: (i) a programmable modular assembly approach can provide synthetic ligands for RNA with affinities and specificities that exceed those of natural proteins; and (ii) the spacing of ligand modules can be used to tune specificity for one RNA target over another. PMID:19904940

Lee, Melissa M.; Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Pushechnikov, Alexei; French, Jonathan M.; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Thornton, Charles A.; Disney, Matthew D.

2009-01-01

333

Skeletal Muscles of Ambulant Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Validation of Multicenter Study of Evaluation with MR Imaging and MR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To validate a multicenter protocol that examines lower extremity skeletal muscles of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy in terms of reproducibility of these measurements within and across centers. Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review boards of all participating centers, and informed consent was obtained from each participant or a guardian. Standardized procedures with MR operator training and quality assurance assessments were implemented, and data were acquired at three centers by using different 3-T MR imaging instruments. Measures of maximal cross-sectional area (CSAmax), transverse relaxation time constant (T2), and lipid fraction were compared among centers in two-compartment coaxial phantoms and in two unaffected adult subjects who visited each center. Also, repeat MR measures were acquired twice on separate days in 30 boys with DMD (10 per center) and 10 unaffected boys. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were computed to examine the repeated-measure variabilities within and across centers. Results: CSAmax, T2 from MR imaging and MR spectroscopy, and lipid fraction were consistent across centers in the phantom (CV, <3%) and in the adult subjects who traveled to each site (CV, 2%–7%). High day-to-day reproducibility in MR measures was observed in boys with DMD (CSAmax, CV = 3.7% [25th percentile, 1.3%; 75th percentile, 5.1%]; contractile area, CV = 4.2% [25th percentile, 0.8%; 75th percentile, 4.9%]; MR imaging T2, CV = 3.1% [25th percentile, 1.2%; 75th percentile, 4.7%]; MR spectroscopy T2, CV = 3.9% [25th percentile, 1.5%; 75th percentile, 5.1%]; and lipid fraction, CV = 4.7% [25th percentile, 1.0%; 75th percentile, 5.3%]). Conclusion: The MR protocol implemented in this multicenter study achieved highly reproducible measures of lower extremity muscles across centers and from day to day in ambulatory boys with DMD. © RSNA, 2013 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13121948/-/DC1 PMID:23696684

Forbes, Sean C.; Walter, Glenn A.; Rooney, William D.; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; DeVos, Soren; Pollaro, Jim; Triplett, William; Lott, Donovan J.; Willcocks, Rebecca J.; Senesac, Claudia; Daniels, Michael J.; Byrne, Barry J.; Russman, Barry; Finkel, Richard S.; Meyer, James S.; Sweeney, H. Lee

2013-01-01

334

Clinical Heterogeneity of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD): Definition of Sub-Phenotypes and Predictive Criteria by Long-Term Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Background To explore clinical heterogeneity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), viewed as a major obstacle to the interpretation of therapeutic trials Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective single institution long-term follow-up study was carried out in DMD patients with both complete lack of muscle dystrophin and genotyping. An exploratory series (series 1) was used to assess phenotypic heterogeneity and to identify early criteria predicting future outcome; it included 75 consecutive steroid-free patients, longitudinally evaluated for motor, respiratory, cardiac and cognitive functions (median follow-up: 10.5 yrs). A validation series (series 2) was used to test robustness of the selected predictive criteria; it included 34 more routinely evaluated patients (age>12 yrs). Multivariate analysis of series 1 classified 70/75 patients into 4 clusters with distinctive intellectual and motor outcomes: A (early infantile DMD, 20%): severe intellectual and motor outcomes; B (classical DMD, 28%): intermediate intellectual and poor motor outcome; C (moderate pure motor DMD, 22%): normal intelligence and delayed motor impairment; and D (severe pure motor DMD, 30%): normal intelligence and poor motor outcome. Group A patients had the most severe respiratory and cardiac involvement. Frequency of mutations upstream to exon 30 increased from group A to D, but genotype/phenotype correlations were restricted to cognition (IQ>71: OR 7.7, 95%CI 1.6–20.4, p<0.003). Diagnostic accuracy tests showed that combination of “clinical onset <2 yrs” with “mental retardation” reliably assigned patients to group A (sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.98). Combination of “lower limb MMT score>6 at 8 yrs” with “normal or borderline mental status” reliably assigned patients to group C (sensitivity: 1, specificity: 0.94). These criteria were also predictive of “early infantile DMD” and “moderate pure motor DMD” in series 2. Conclusions/Significance DMD can be divided into 4 sub-phenotypes differing by severity of muscle and brain dysfunction. Simple early criteria can be used to include patients with similar outcomes in future therapeutic trials. PMID:19194511

Desguerre, Isabelle; Christov, Christo; Mayer, Michele; Zeller, Reinhard; Becane, Henri-Marc; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Leturcq, France; Chiron, Catherine; Chelly, Jamel; Gherardi, Romain K.

2009-01-01

335

Prevalence and distribution of late gadolinium enhancement in a large population of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: effect of age and left ventricular systolic function  

PubMed Central

Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked disorder affects approximately 1 in 5000 males, is universally associated with heart disease. We previously identified myocardial disease by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in DMD subjects at various stages of disease, but the true prevalence is unclear. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is well established for both assessment of ventricular function and myocardial fibrosis by LGE. We sought to establish i) prevalence and distribution of LGE in a large DMD population and ii) relationship among LGE, age, LVEF by CMR and current living status. Methods Current living status, demographic and CMR data including ventricular volumes, LVEF and LGE from 314 DMD patients undergoing evaluation at a single large tertiary referral center were analyzed. Results 113 of 314 (36%) of DMD subjects showed LGE positivity with prevalence increasing from 17% of patients <10 years to 34% of those aged 10–15 years and 59% of those >15 years-old. Patients with LVEF ?55% were LGE positive in 30% of cases; this increased to 84% for LVEF <55%. LGE was more prevalent in the free wall (531/1243, 42.7%) vs. septal segments (30/565, 5.3%). Patients with septal involvement were significantly older and had lower LVEF than those with isolated free wall LGE. Ten percent (11/113) patients who had LGE died 10.8 months after CMR. Only one patient from the LGE negative group died. Patients who died had higher heart rate, larger left ventricular volume and mass, greater number of positive LGE segment and increase incident of septal LGE compared to those who remained alive. Conclusion In DMD patients, LGE occurs early, is progressive and increases with both age and decreasing LVEF. Segmentally, the incidence of the number of positive LGE segments increase with age and lower LVEF. Older patients and those who died during the study period had more septal LGE involvement. The current studies suggest that the time course and distribution of LGE-positivity may be an important clinical biomarker to aid in the management of DMD-associated cardiac disease. PMID:24359596

2013-01-01

336

Remodeling of the chromatin structure of the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) locus and upregulation of FSHD-related gene 1 (FRG1) expression during human myogenic differentiation  

PubMed Central

Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder associated with the partial deletion of integral numbers of 3.3 kb D4Z4 DNA repeats within the subtelomere of chromosome 4q. A number of candidate FSHD genes, adenine nucleotide translocator 1 gene (ANT1), FSHD-related gene 1 (FRG1), FRG2 and DUX4c, upstream of the D4Z4 array (FSHD locus), and double homeobox chromosome 4 (DUX4) within the repeat itself, are upregulated in some patients, thus suggesting an underlying perturbation of the chromatin structure. Furthermore, a mouse model overexpressing FRG1 has been generated, displaying skeletal muscle defects. Results In the context of myogenic differentiation, we compared the chromatin structure and tridimensional interaction of the D4Z4 array and FRG1 gene promoter, and FRG1 expression, in control and FSHD cells. The FRG1 gene was prematurely expressed during FSHD myoblast differentiation, thus suggesting that the number of D4Z4 repeats in the array may affect the correct timing of FRG1 expression. Using chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, we revealed that the FRG1 promoter and D4Z4 array physically interacted. Furthermore, this chromatin structure underwent dynamic changes during myogenic differentiation that led to the loosening of the FRG1/4q-D4Z4 array loop in myotubes. The FRG1 promoter in both normal and FSHD myoblasts was characterized by H3K27 trimethylation and Polycomb repressor complex binding, but these repression signs were replaced by H3K4 trimethylation during differentiation. The D4Z4 sequences behaved similarly, with H3K27 trimethylation and Polycomb binding being lost upon myogenic differentiation. Conclusion We propose a model in which the D4Z4 array may play a critical chromatin function as an orchestrator of in cis chromatin loops, thus suggesting that this repeat may play a role in coordinating gene expression. PMID:19607661

Bodega, Beatrice; Ramirez, Gabriella Di Capua; Grasser, Florian; Cheli, Stefania; Brunelli, Silvia; Mora, Marina; Meneveri, Raffaella; Marozzi, Anna; Mueller, Stefan; Battaglioli, Elena; Ginelli, Enrico

2009-01-01

337

Muscular Dystrophy: Hope Through Research  

MedlinePLUS

... are under consideration for multiple types of MD. Moving forward with research in MD Until recently, most ... NIAMS-supported projects are identifying novel therapy development targets that are attracting interest from biotechnology and pharmaceutical ...

338

Christianson syndrome in a patient with an interstitial Xq26.3 deletion.  

PubMed

Interstitial deletions of chromosome band Xq26.3 are rare. We report on a 2-year-old boy in whom array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed an interstitial 314 kb deletion in Xq26.3 affecting SLC9A6 and FHL1. Mutations in SLC9A6 are associated with Christianson syndrome (OMIM 300243), a syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) characterized by microcephaly, severe global developmental delay, ataxia and seizures. FHL1 mutations cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (OMIM 310300), X-linked myopathy with postural muscle atrophy (XMPMA, OMIM 300696), scapuloperoneal myopathy (OMIM 300695), or reducing body myopathy (OMIM 300717, 300718). The clinical problems of the patient reported here comprised severe intellectual disability, absent speech, ataxia, epilepsy, and gastroesophageal reflux, and could mostly be attributed to SLC9A6 insufficiency. In contrast to the majority of reported Christianson syndrome patients who were microcephalic, this patient was normocephalic, but his head circumference had decelerated from the 50th centile at birth to the 25th centile at the age of 2 ²/¹² years. Muscle problems due to the FHL1 deletion are not to be expected before late childhood, which is the earliest age of onset for FHL1 associated Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. This patient broadens the spectrum of SLC9A6 mutations and contributes to the clinical delineation of Christianson syndrome. This is also the first patient with a deletion affecting both SLC9A6 and the complete FHL1 gene. PMID:21932316

Tzschach, Andreas; Ullmann, Reinhard; Ahmed, Alischo; Martin, Thomas; Weber, Georg; Decker-Schwering, Oliver; Pauly, Fernand; Shamdeen, Mohammed Ghiath; Reith, Wolfgang; Oehl-Jaschkowitz, Barbara

2011-11-01

339

Genome-wide analysis links emerin to neuromuscular junction activity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Background Laminopathies are diseases characterized by defects in nuclear envelope structure. A well-known example is Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, which is caused by mutations in the human lamin A/C and emerin genes. While most nuclear envelope proteins are ubiquitously expressed, laminopathies often affect only a subset of tissues. The molecular mechanisms underlying these tissue-specific manifestations remain elusive. We hypothesize that different functional subclasses of genes might be differentially affected by defects in specific nuclear envelope components. Results Here we determine genome-wide DNA association profiles of two nuclear envelope components, lamin/LMN-1 and emerin/EMR-1 in adult Caenorhabditis elegans. Although both proteins bind to transcriptionally inactive regions of the genome, EMR-1 is enriched at genes involved in muscle and neuronal function. Deletion of either EMR-1 or LEM-2, another integral envelope protein, causes local changes in nuclear architecture as evidenced by altered association between DNA and LMN-1. Transcriptome analyses reveal that EMR-1 and LEM-2 are associated with gene repression, particularly of genes implicated in muscle and nervous system function. We demonstrate that emr-1, but not lem-2, mutants are sensitive to the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, indicating altered activity at neuromuscular junctions. Conclusions We identify a class of elements that bind EMR-1 but do not associate with LMN-1, and these are enriched for muscle and neuronal genes. Our data support a redundant function of EMR-1 and LEM-2 in chromatin anchoring to the nuclear envelope and gene repression. We demonstrate a specific role of EMR-1 in neuromuscular junction activity that may contribute to Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy in humans. PMID:24490688

2014-01-01

340

Age and causes of death in adult-onset myotonic dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Myotonic dystrophy is a relatively common type of muscular dystrophy, associated with a variety of systemic complications. Long term follow-up is difficult because of the slow progression. The objective of this study was to determine survival, age at death and causes of death in patients with the adult-onset type of myotonic dystrophy. A register of myotonic dystrophy patients was

C. E. M. de Die-Smulders; C. J. Howeler; C. Thijs; J. F. Mirandolle; H. B. Anten; H. J. M. Smeets; K. E. Chandler; J. P. M. Geraedts

1998-01-01

341

A first missense mutation in the delta sarcoglycan gene associated with a severe phenotype and frequency of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F (LGMD2F) in Brazilian sarcoglycanopathies.  

PubMed Central

Among the heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (AR LGMDs), the sarcoglycanopathies (LGMD2C-2F) represent a subgroup characterised by defects in the gamma, alpha, beta, and delta sarcoglycan genes, respectively. Genotype-phenotype correlations in these forms of AR LGMD are important to enhance our understanding of protein function. Regarding LGMD2F, only two homozygous frameshift mutations have been reported to date in patients with a severe phenotype. In the present report, through screening 23 unrelated AR LGMD patients, we identified three subjects with LGMD2F, two with a previously reported frameshift mutation and the other homozygous for a new missense mutation in the delta sarcoglycan gene. Interestingly, this new mutation is also associated with a severe clinical course. In addition, our results suggest that this form of severe AR LGMD is not very rare in our population. Images PMID:9832045

Moreira, E S; Vainzof, M; Marie, S K; Nigro, V; Zatz, M; Passos-Bueno, M R

1998-01-01

342

Injection of Vessel-Derived Stem Cells Prevents Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Promotes Angiogenesis and Endogenous Cardiac Stem Cell Proliferation in mdx/utrn?/? but Not Aged mdx Mouse Models for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy. DMD patients lack dystrophin protein and develop skeletal muscle pathology and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Approximately 20% succumb to cardiac involvement. We hypothesized that mesoangioblast stem cells (aorta-derived mesoangioblasts [ADMs]) would restore dystrophin and alleviate or prevent DCM in animal models of DMD. ADMs can be induced to express cardiac markers, including Nkx2.5, cardiac tropomyosin, cardiac troponin I, and ?-actinin, and adopt cardiomyocyte morphology. Transplantation of ADMs into the heart of mdx/utrn?/? mice prior to development of DCM prevented onset of cardiomyopathy, as measured by echocardiography, and resulted in significantly higher CD31 expression, consistent with new vessel formation. Dystrophin-positive cardiomyocytes and increased proliferation of endogenous Nestin+ cardiac stem cells were detected in ADM-injected heart. Nestin+ striated cells were also detected in four of five mdx/utrn?/? hearts injected with ADMs. In contrast, when ADMs were injected into the heart of aged mdx mice with advanced fibrosis, no functional improvement was detected by echocardiography. Instead, ADMs exacerbated some features of DCM. No dystrophin protein, increase in CD31 expression, or increase in Nestin+ cell proliferation was detected following ADM injection in aged mdx heart. Dystrophin was observed following transplantation of ADMs into the hearts of young mdx mice, however, suggesting that pathology in aged mdx heart may alter the fate of donor stem cells. In summary, ADMs delay or prevent development of DCM in dystrophin-deficient heart, but timing of stem cell transplantation may be critical for achieving benefit with cell therapy in DMD cardiac muscle. PMID:23283493

Chun, Ju Lan; O'Brien, Robert; Song, Min Ho; Wondrasch, Blake F.

2013-01-01

343

Hearing loss in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral sloping high frequency hearing loss of 20–90 dB was found in six out of ten patients with infantile or adolescent onset FSHD. In all cases the basic defect could be traced to the cochlea. The outer hair cells of the basal turn are predominantly affected. In 20 patients with various other forms of muscular dystrophy or neuromuscular disorders with

T. Voit; A. Lamprecht; H.-G. Lenard; H. H. Goebel

1986-01-01

344

Dystrophin deficiency in canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan (CXMDJ) alters myosin heavy chain expression profiles in the diaphragm more markedly than in the tibialis cranialis muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletal muscles are composed of heterogeneous collections of muscle fiber types, the arrangement of which contributes to a variety of functional capabilities in many muscle types. Furthermore, skeletal muscles can adapt individual myofibers under various circumstances, such as disease and exercise, by changing fiber types. This study was performed to examine the influence of dystrophin deficiency on fiber type composition of skeletal muscles in canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan (CXMDJ), a large animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Methods We used tibialis cranialis (TC) muscles and diaphragms of normal dogs and those with CXMDJ at various ages from 1 month to 3 years old. For classification of fiber types, muscle sections were immunostained with antibodies against fast, slow, or developmental myosin heavy chain (MHC), and the number and size of these fibers were analyzed. In addition, MHC isoforms were detected by gel electrophoresis. Results In comparison with TC muscles of CXMDJ, the number of fibers expressing slow MHC increased markedly and the number of fibers expressing fast MHC decreased with growth in the affected diaphragm. In populations of muscle fibers expressing fast and/or slow MHC(s) but not developmental MHC of CXMDJ muscles, slow MHC fibers were predominant in number and showed selective enlargement. Especially, in CXMDJ diaphragms, the proportions of slow MHC fibers were significantly larger in populations of myofibers with non-expression of developmental MHC. Analyses of MHC isoforms also indicated a marked increase of type I and decrease of type IIA isoforms in the affected diaphragm at ages over 6 months. In addition, expression of developmental (embryonic and/or neonatal) MHC decreased in the CXMDJ diaphragm in adults, in contrast to continuous high-level expression in affected TC muscle. Conclusion The CXMDJ diaphragm showed marked changes in fiber type composition unlike TC muscles, suggesting that the affected diaphragm may be effectively adapted toward dystrophic stress by switching to predominantly slow fibers. Furthermore, the MHC expression profile in the CXMDJ diaphragm was markedly different from that in mdx mice, indicating that the dystrophic dog is a more appropriate model than a murine one, to investigate the mechanisms of respiratory failure in DMD. PMID:18182116

Yuasa, Katsutoshi; Nakamura, Akinori; Hijikata, Takao; Takeda, Shinichi

2008-01-01

345

Preferential Localization of the Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2A Gene in the Proximal Part of a 1-cM 15q15.1-q15.3 Interval  

PubMed Central

A gene for a recessive form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2A) has been localized to chromosome 15. A physical map of the 7-cM candidate 15q15.1-q21.1 region has been constructed by means of a 10–12-Mb continuum of overlapping YAC clones. New microsatellite markers developed from these YACs were genotyped on large, consanguineous LGMD2A pedigrees from different origins. The identification of recombination events in these families allowed the restriction of the LGMD2A region to an estimated 1-cM interval, equivalent to ?3–4 Mb. Linkage disequilibrium data on genetic isolates from the island of Réunion and from the Amish community suggest a preferential location of the LGMD2A gene in the proximal part of this region. Analysis of the interrelated pedigrees from Réunion revealed the existence of at least six different carrier haplotypes. This allelic heterogeneity is incompatible with the presumed existence of a founder effect and suggests that multiple LGMD2A mutations may segregate in this population. PMID:7762565

Allamand, V.; Broux, O.; Richard, I.; Fougerousse, F.; Chiannilkulchai, N.; Bourg, N.; Brenguier, L.; Devaud, C.; Pasturaud, P.; de Souza, A. Pereira; Roudaut, C.; Tischfield, J. A; Conneally, P. M.; Fardeau, M.; Cohen, D.; Jackson, C. E.; Beckmann, J. S.

1995-01-01

346

Integrated study of 100 patients with Xp21 linked muscular dystrophy using clinical, genetic, immunochemical, and histopathological data. Part 1. Trends across the clinical groups.  

PubMed Central

This multidisciplinary study was undertaken to record the variation in gene and protein expression in a large cohort of patients with well defined clinical phenotypes. The patients, whose ages ranged from 4 years to 66 years, spanned a wide range of disease severity. They represented the first 100 patients who had been examined in Newcastle, had undergone a muscle biopsy, and provided a blood sample for DNA analysis. The study had three aims: to observe any trends in the analyses across the clinical groups, to correlate gene and protein expression in individual patients, and to use the data collected to assess the relative usefulness of different techniques in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with Duchenne and Becker dystrophy (DMD/BMD). In part 1, we describe the clinical assessment of the patients and the trends that were observed across the cohort. The patients were divided into seven groups. Group 1 had severe DMD (n = 21), group 2 had milder DMD (n = 20), group 3 were intermediate D/BMD patients (n = 9), group 4 had severe BMD (n = 5), and group 5 were more typical BMD patients (n = 31). Some patients were too young to be classified (n = 7) and a group of all the female patients were also classified separately (n = 7). The number of DMD and BMD patients was about equal, in accord with disease prevalence in the north of England, but an unusually high proportion were sporadic cases. Dystrophin labelling (performed with up to three antibodies) on both blots and sections increased gradually across the clinical groups. All histopathological indices, except the proportion of fat in biopsy sections, showed clear trends across the groups. Images PMID:8411067

Nicholson, L V; Johnson, M A; Bushby, K M; Gardner-Medwin, D; Curtis, A; Ginjaar, I B; den Dunnen, J T; Welch, J L; Butler, T J; Bakker, E

1993-01-01

347

Fuchs' dystrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... 40s. Fuchs' dystrophy affects the thin layer of cells that line the back part of the cornea. These cells ... doctor to look at the thin layer of cells that line the back part of the cornea Visual acuity ...

348

Local restoration of dystrophin expression with the morpholino oligomer AVI-4658 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, proof-of-concept study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Mutations that disrupt the open reading frame and prevent full translation of DMD, the gene that encodes dystrophin, underlie the fatal X-linked disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Oligonucleotides targeted to splicing elements (splice switching oligonucleotides) in DMD pre-mRNA can lead to exon skipping, restoration of the open reading frame, and the production of functional dystrophin in vitro and in vivo, which could benefit patients with this disorder. Methods We did a single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study in patients with DMD recruited nationally, to assess the safety and biochemical efficacy of an intramuscular morpholino splice-switching oligonucleotide (AVI-4658) that skips exon 51 in dystrophin mRNA. Seven patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with deletions in the open reading frame of DMD that are responsive to exon 51 skipping were selected on the basis of the preservation of their extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) muscle seen on MRI and the response of cultured fibroblasts from a skin biopsy to AVI-4658. AVI-4658 was injected into the EDB muscle; the contralateral muscle received saline. Muscles were biopsied between 3 and 4 weeks after injection. The primary endpoint was the safety of AVI-4658 and the secondary endpoint was its biochemical efficacy. This trial is registered, number NCT00159250. Findings Two patients received 0·09 mg AVI-4658 in 900 ?L (0·9%) saline and five patients received 0·9 mg AVI-4658 in 900 ?L saline. No adverse events related to AVI-4658 administration were reported. Intramuscular injection of the higher-dose of AVI-4658 resulted in increased dystrophin expression in all treated EDB muscles, although the results of the immunostaining of EDB-treated muscle for dystrophin were not uniform. In the areas of the immunostained sections that were adjacent to the needle track through which AVI-4658 was given, 44–79% of myofibres had increased expression of dystrophin. In randomly chosen sections of treated EDB muscles, the mean intensity of dystrophin staining ranged from 22% to 32% of the mean intensity of dystrophin in healthy control muscles (mean 26·4%), and the mean intensity was 17% (range 11–21%) greater than the intensity in the contralateral saline-treated muscle (one-sample paired t test p=0·002). In the dystrophin-positive fibres, the intensity of dystrophin staining was up to 42% of that in healthy muscle. We showed expression of dystrophin at the expected molecular weight in the AVI-4658-treated muscle by immunoblot. Interpretation Intramuscular AVI-4658 was safe and induced the expression of dystrophin locally within treated muscles. This proof-of-concept study has led to an ongoing systemic clinical trial of AVI-4658 in patients with DMD. Funding UK Department of Health. PMID:19713152

Kinali, Maria; Arechavala-Gomeza, Virginia; Feng, Lucy; Cirak, Sebahattin; Hunt, David; Adkin, Carl; Guglieri, Michela; Ashton, Emma; Abbs, Stephen; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Garralda, Maria Elena; Rutherford, Mary; Mcculley, Caroline; Popplewell, Linda; Graham, Ian R; Dickson, George; Wood, Matthew JA; Wells, Dominic J; Wilton, Steve D; Kole, Ryszard; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Sewry, Caroline; Morgan, Jennifer E; Muntoni, Francesco

2009-01-01

349

Blood glutathione decrease in subjects carrying lamin A/C gene mutations is an early marker of cardiac involvement.  

PubMed

Dominant inherited Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B are due to mutations in the LMNA gene encoding lamin A/C and present similar life-threatening cardiac disease, the early diagnosis of which lacks reliable biomarkers. Glutathione depletion characterizes subjects with cardiac diseases of non-genetic aetiology. We examined blood glutathione in 22 LMNA-mutated subjects without altered left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF>40%) measured by conventional echocardiography. Left and right ventricular (LV/RV) contractility was evaluated using echocardiography implemented with tissue-Doppler echography. Blood glutathione was positively correlated with LV and RV contractility (p<0.05), and was decreased by 23% in subjects with reduced LV/RV contractility compared to subjects with normal contractility. ROC analysis showed that blood glutathione reliably detected reduced LV/RV contractility (AUC-95% CI: 0.90 [0.76-1.04]; p=0.01). Blood glutathione decrease may allow the detection of reduced contractility in muscular dystrophic LMNA-mutated patients with still preserved LVEF. PMID:22071332

Meune, Christophe; Khouzami, Lara; Wahbi, Karim; Caramelle, Philippe; Decostre, Valérie; Bonne, Gisèle; Pecker, Françoise

2012-03-01

350

The 6-Minute Walk Test and Person-Reported Outcomes in Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Typically Developing Controls: Longitudinal Comparisons and Clinically-Meaningful Changes Over One Year  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Data is currently lacking anchoring a 30-meter longitudinal change in walking ability by 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy as a minimal clinically important difference and “clinically meaningful” person-reported outcomes (PROs) at differing levels of ambulatory ability. Methods: We describe correlation between measures, 1-year change in measures, and correlation of 1-year changes between measures for the six-minute walk test (6MWT), 10-meter run/walk velocity, PedsQL and POSNA Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) in 24 4-12 year old. ambulatory DMD and 36 typical controls, and determine if minimal clinically important differences (MCID) of PROs contribute to different estimates of 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) change at differing levels of ability. Results: PedsQL total and physical function and PODCI global, transfer/mobility and sports/physical function PROs demonstrated significant differences between DMD and controls (p<0.00001). In DMD, 6MWD and 10-meter run/walk velocity were correlated with PODCI domain scores, with the transfer/mobility scale showing the strongest relationship (r=0.79 and r=0.76). In DMD, 6MWD distance and 10-meter run/walk velocity weakly correlated with PedsQL domain scores. In DMD, 6MWD, 10-meter run/walk velocity, and PODCI global and transfer and basic mobility demonstrated significant one-year change and exceeded the amount of change representing MCID. In DMD, 6MWD change highly correlated with change in PODCI global and PODCI transfer/mobility scores (r=0.76 and r=0.93). PODCI global and PODCI transfer/mobility scales provided the best estimates of 6MWT performance. A “meaningful” 4.5 point change in a low PODCI transfer / basic mobility score of 30 to 34.5 was associated with a 5.6m 6MWD change from 150.3 to 155.9m. At PODCI levels closer to normative levels for healthy controls, the change in 6MWD distance associated with a “meaningful” change in PODCI scores was almost 46m. Discussion: At lower levels of function, smaller increases in 6MWD result in meaningful change in quality of life (QoL) instrument scores. At higher levels of function, larger increases may be necessary to achieve the same QoL change score. PMID:23867975

Henricson, Erik; Abresch, Richard; Han, Jay J.; Nicorici, Alina; Goude Keller, Erica; de Bie, Evan; McDonald, Craig M.

2013-01-01

351

[Arrhythmia follow-up of children and adolescents with neuromuscular diseases].  

PubMed

Much progress has been made over the last few years in understanding and classifying neuromuscular diseases. The heart is frequently affected but often in a dissociated manner with respect to the neuromuscular signs although it has a significant impact on the prognosis. In children and adolescents, the dystrophinopathies, especially Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, are the principal problems but the mild arrhythmic events observed seem to be related to left ventricular dysfunction. On the other hand, in myotonic dystrophies (Steinert's disease), ventricular arrhythmias or conduction defects may appear at an early stage of the disease with serious consequences justifying appropriate follow-up and invasive preventive measures. Emery Dreifuss X-linked dystrophy and other laminopathies are rare conditions but are associated with sudden death and cardiomyopathies of the young adult. Specialised cardiological follow-up is justified in childhood from the time of diagnosis. Medication or implantable electric devices may be justified before the end of the second decade of life. Progressive infra-hisian conduction defects have also been reported in Kearns-Sayre oculo-pharyngeal myopathy. Prospective studies are required at this age to determine the natural history of these pathologies that are probably under diagnosed. The present recommendations, which are based mainly on data from adult series, could then be adapted for younger patients. PMID:17646781

Dulac, Y; Wahbi, K; Latcu, D-G; Maury, P; Cances, C; Cintas, P; Paranon, S; Duboc, D; Acar, P

2007-05-01

352

Muscular Dystrophy Association Programs and Services  

MedlinePLUS

... Gifts MDA Programs Matching Gifts National Sponsors About MDA Art Collection Contact MDA Become a Volunteer Careers FAQ Media MDA’s Annual Report What is MDA? MDA.org Find Support Get Involved Publications Site Map ...

353

Genetics Home Reference: Tibial muscular dystrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... to provide structure, flexibility, and stability to these cell structures. Titin also plays a role in chemical signaling ... sarcomeres. Mutations in the TTN gene alter the structure and ... of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most ...

354

What Are the Types of Muscular Dystrophy?  

MedlinePLUS

... means "present from birth." Congenital MD affects both boys and girls, who often require support to sit or stand ... lordosis (pronounced lawr-DOH-sis ) FSHD affects teen boys and girls typically but may occur as late as age ...

355

Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies (LGMD)  

MedlinePLUS

... by a physical exam. Occasionally, special testing called electromyography is done. In this kind of test, the ... nerves stimulated to see where the problem lies. Electromyography is uncomfortable but not usually very painful. A ...

356

Genetics Home Reference: Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... to walk unassisted. Individuals with this condition develop joint stiffness (contractures) in their knees and elbows that ... They also have an unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) in their wrists and ankles. The ...

357

Symptoms of FSHD (Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy)  

MedlinePLUS

... Make a Recurring Gift Planned Giving Gifts of Stock Matching Gifts Workplace Giving Attend FSH Society Events ... may be mistakenly attributed to strain or a sports injury. Symptoms may manifest early, sometimes years before ...

358

Cardiac involvement in primary myopathies.  

PubMed

Simultaneous or temporarily staggered affection of both the skeletal as well as the cardiac muscle (cardiac involvement, CI) is a frequent finding in primary myopathies (MPs). CI leads to impulse generation defects, impulse conduction defects, thickened myocardium, left ventriculalr hypertrabeculation, dilatation of the cardiac cavities, secondary valve insufficiency, reduction of coronary vasodilative reserve, intracardial thrombus formation, and heart failure with systolic and diastolic dysfunction. CI has been found in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (MD), Becker MD, Emery-Dreifuss MD, facioscapulohumeral MD, sarcoglycanopathies, myotubular congenital MD, myotonic dystrophies type 1 and 2, proximal myotonic myopathy, myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, glycogenosis type II, III, IV, VII and IX, carnitine deficiency, mitochondriopathy, desmin MP, nemaline MP, central core disease, multicore MP, congenital fiber-type disproportion MP, Barth syndrome, McLeod syndrome and Bethlem MP. Patients with any of the above-mentioned myopathies should be cardiologically investigated as soon as their diagnosis is established, since sufficient cardiac therapy improves CI in MPs and since management of these patients is influenced by the degree of CI. PMID:11111138

Finsterer, J; Stöllberger, C

2000-01-01

359

Loss of FHL1 induces an age-dependent skeletal muscle myopathy associated with myofibrillar and intermyofibrillar disorganization in mice  

PubMed Central

Recent human genetic studies have provided evidences that sporadic or inherited missense mutations in four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 1 (FHL1), resulting in alterations in FHL1 protein expression, are associated with rare congenital myopathies, including reducing body myopathy and Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. However, it remains to be clarified whether mutations in FHL1 cause skeletal muscle remodeling owing to gain- or loss of FHL1 function. In this study, we used FHL1-null mice lacking global FHL1 expression to evaluate loss-of-function effects on skeletal muscle homeostasis. Histological and functional analyses of soleus, tibialis anterior and sternohyoideus muscles demonstrated that FHL1-null mice develop an age-dependent myopathy associated with myofibrillar and intermyofibrillar (mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum) disorganization, impaired muscle oxidative capacity and increased autophagic activity. A longitudinal study established decreased survival rates in FHL1-null mice, associated with age-dependent impairment of muscle contractile function and a significantly lower exercise capacity. Analysis of primary myoblasts isolated from FHL1-null muscles demonstrated early muscle fiber differentiation and maturation defects, which could be rescued by re-expression of the FHL1A isoform, highlighting that FHL1A is necessary for proper muscle fiber differentiation and maturation in vitro. Overall, our data show that loss of FHL1 function leads to myopathy in vivo and suggest that loss of function of FHL1 may be one of the mechanisms underlying muscle dystrophy in patients with FHL1 mutations. PMID:23975679

Domenighetti, Andrea A.; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Wu, Tongbin; Sheikh, Farah; Gokhin, David S.; Guo, Ling T.; Cui, Ziyou; Peter, Angela K.; Christodoulou, Danos C.; Parfenov, Michael G.; Gorham, Joshua M.; Li, Daniel Y.; Banerjee, Indroneal; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A.; Seidman, Christine E.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Gomes, Aldrin V.; Shelton, G. Diane; Lieber, Richard L.; Chen, Ju

2014-01-01

360

Biochemical changes in progressive muscular dystrophy. XV. Distribution of radioactive glutamate and proximate composition of various components of skeletal muscle and liver in vitamin E-deficient dystrophic rabbits and 129/ReJ (dy/dy) mice.  

PubMed

The proximate composition of skeletal muscle and liver and the incorporation of radioactive glutamate into their various components were investigated in vitamin E-deficient rabbits and genetically dystrophic (dy/dy) mice during various stages of the disease. Total fat content in skeletal muscle was decreased in the early phase and increased in the terminal stage of both types of dystrophy. This component altered only in the liver of dystrophic mice, showing a reduction in the mild stage but returning later to normal values. Carbohydrate content was diminished in the skeletal muscle of both species at each stage of the disease. In the liver, however, it was elevated considerably in vitamin E-deficient rabbits, but was depressed in dystrophic mice. Protein content was decreased in the skeletal muscle of both dystrophic models. Similar results were obtained for amino acids, except that they were increased in the terminal stages of nutritional dystrophy. Analogous values were recorded for hepatic amino acids in nutritionally-induced and hereditary dystrophy (in rabbits and mice respectively). Incorporation of C14-glutamate into various components of skeletal muscle and liver in both models revealed divergent responses, depending upon the nature of the dystrophy, and the component in which incorporation was measured. These data indicate a rapid turnover of C14-glutamate in the skeletal muscle and liver of vitamin E-deficient and genetically dystrophic animals. Also, it is clear that the changes in the various components of skeletal muscle and liver, as well as the pattern of C14-glutamate incorporation, are different in the two types of dystrophy. PMID:2898381

Srivastava, U S; Goswami, T

1988-01-01

361

Attenuation of Wnt/?-catenin activity reverses enhanced generation of cardiomyocytes and cardiac defects caused by the loss of emerin.  

PubMed

Mutations in EMD, encoding emerin cause skeletal muscle and heart defects in patients with X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (X-EDMD) but the underlying mechanisms leading to cardiac defects are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of emerin in controlling cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac remodeling and explored its function in regulation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. We observed a remarkable increase of cardiomyocytes in emerin-null adult mice accompanied with decreased numbers of multinucleated cells. Depletion of emerin in mouse ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes by shRNA caused hyperactivation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, increased proliferation and abrogated timely cardiac differentiation. Likewise, emerin-null mice exhibited increased Wnt/?-catenin signaling, cardiac dysfunction and perturbed hypertrophic remodeling following pressure overload. Pharmacological inhibition of ?-catenin normalized proliferation and differentiation of ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes while inactivation of a single allele of ?-catenin efficiently rescued cardiac dysfunction in emerin-null mice. We conclude that emerin constrains ?-catenin signaling in the heart providing tight control of cardiomyocyte numbers. Enhanced Wnt/?-catenin signaling seems to contribute to cardiac defects observed in X-EDMD. Hence, therapeutic inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin signaling might be beneficial for X-EDMD patients. PMID:25274778

Stubenvoll, Alexander; Rice, Megan; Wietelmann, Astrid; Wheeler, Matthew; Braun, Thomas

2015-02-01

362

Emerin interacts in vitro with the splicing-associated factor, YT521-B.  

PubMed

Emerin is a nuclear membrane protein that interacts with lamin A/C at the nuclear envelope. Mutations in either emerin or lamin A/C cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). The functions of emerin are poorly understood, but EDMD affects mainly skeletal and cardiac muscle. We used a high-stringency yeast two-hybrid method to screen a human heart cDNA library, with full-length emerin as bait. Four out of five candidate interactors identified were nuclear proteins: lamin A, splicing factor YT521-B, proteasome subunit PA28 gamma and transcription factor vav-1. Specific binding between emerin and the functional C-terminal domain of YT521-B was confirmed by pull-down assays and biomolecular interaction analysis (BIAcore). Inhibition by emerin of YT521-B-dependent splice site selection in vivo suggests that the interaction is physiologically significant. A 'bipartite' binding site for YT521-B in emerin was identified using alanine substitution or disease-associated mutations in emerin. The transcription factor GCL (germ cell-less) has previously been shown to bind to the same site. The results are consistent with an emerging view that lamins and lamina-associated proteins, like emerin, have a regulatory role, as well as a structural role in the nucleus. YT521-B joins a growing list of candidates for a role in a gene expression model of the pathogenesis of EDMD. PMID:12755701

Wilkinson, Fiona L; Holaska, James M; Zhang, Zhayi; Sharma, Aarti; Manilal, Sushila; Holt, Ian; Stamm, Stefan; Wilson, Katherine L; Morris, Glenn E

2003-06-01

363

Aggresome–Autophagy Involvement in a Sarcopenic Patient with Rigid Spine Syndrome and a p.C150R Mutation in FHL1 Gene  

PubMed Central

The four-and-half LIM domain protein 1 (FHL1) is highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mutations of the FHL1 gene have been associated with diverse chronic myopathies including reducing body myopathy, rigid spine syndrome (RSS), and Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. We investigated a family with a mutation (p.C150R) in the second LIM domain of FHL1. In this family, a brother and a sister were affected by RSS, and their mother had mild lower limbs weakness. The 34-year-old female had an early and progressive rigidity of the cervical spine and severe respiratory insufficiency. Muscle mass evaluated by DXA was markedly reduced, while fat mass was increased to 40%. CT scan showed an almost complete substitution of muscle by fibro-adipose tissue. Muscle biopsy showed accumulation of FHL1 throughout the cytoplasm and around myonuclei into multiprotein aggregates with aggresome/autophagy features as indicated by ubiquitin, p62, and LC3 labeling. DNA deposits, not associated with nuclear lamina components and histones, were also detected in the aggregates, suggesting nuclear degradation. Ultrastructural analysis showed the presence of dysmorphic nuclei, accumulation of tubulofilamentous and granular material, and perinuclear accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. These data point to involvement of the aggresome–autophagy pathway in the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the muscle pathology of FHL1 C150R mutation. PMID:25191266

Sabatelli, Patrizia; Castagnaro, Silvia; Tagliavini, Francesca; Chrisam, Martina; Sardone, Francesca; Demay, Laurence; Richard, Pascale; Santi, Spartaco; Maraldi, Nadir M.; Merlini, Luciano; Sandri, Marco; Bonaldo, Paolo

2014-01-01

364

Drosophila Nesprin-1 controls glutamate receptor density at neuromuscular junctions.  

PubMed

Nesprin-1 is a core component of a protein complex connecting nuclei to cytoskeleton termed LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton). Nesprin-1 is anchored to the nuclear envelope by its C-terminal KASH domain, the disruption of which has been associated with neuronal and neuromuscular pathologies, including autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Here, we describe a new and unexpected role of Drosophila Nesprin-1, Msp-300, in neuromuscular junction. We show that larvae carrying a deletion of Msp-300 KASH domain (Msp-300 (?KASH) ) present a locomotion defect suggestive of a myasthenia, and demonstrate the importance of muscle Msp-300 for this phenotype, using tissue-specific RNAi knock-down. We show that Msp-300 (?KASH) mutants display abnormal neurotransmission at the larval neuromuscular junction, as well as an imbalance in postsynaptic glutamate receptor composition with a decreased percentage of GluRIIA-containing receptors. We could rescue Msp-300 (?KASH) locomotion phenotypes by GluRIIA overexpression, suggesting that the locomotion impairment associated with the KASH domain deletion is due to a reduction in junctional GluRIIA. In summary, we found that Msp-300 controls GluRIIA density at the neuromuscular junction. Our results suggest that Drosophila is a valuable model for further deciphering how Nesprin-1 and LINC disruption may lead to neuronal and neuromuscular pathologies. PMID:24492984

Morel, Véronique; Lepicard, Simon; Rey, Alexandre N; Parmentier, Marie-Laure; Schaeffer, Laurent

2014-09-01

365

A laminopathic mutation disrupting lamin filament assembly causes disease-like phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the human LMNA gene underlie many laminopathic diseases, including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD); however, a mechanistic link between the effect of mutations on lamin filament assembly and disease phenotypes has not been established. We studied the ?K46 Caenorhabditis elegans lamin mutant, corresponding to EDMD-linked ?K32 in human lamins A and C. Cryo-electron tomography of lamin ?K46 filaments in vitro revealed alterations in the lateral assembly of dimeric head-to-tail polymers, which causes abnormal organization of tetrameric protofilaments. Green fluorescent protein (GFP):?K46 lamin expressed in C. elegans was found in nuclear aggregates in postembryonic stages along with LEM-2. GFP:?K46 also caused mislocalization of emerin away from the nuclear periphery, consistent with a decreased ability of purified emerin to associate with lamin ?K46 filaments in vitro. GFP:?K46 animals had motility defects and muscle structure abnormalities. These results show that changes in lamin filament structure can translate into disease-like phenotypes via altering the localization of nuclear lamina proteins, and suggest a model for how the ?K32 lamin mutation may cause EDMD in humans. PMID:21653823

Bank, Erin M.; Ben-Harush, Kfir; Wiesel-Motiuk, Naama; Barkan, Rachel; Feinstein, Naomi; Lotan, Oren; Medalia, Ohad; Gruenbaum, Yosef

2011-01-01

366

Prelamin A is involved in early steps of muscle differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Lamin A is a nuclear lamina constituent implicated in a number of human disorders including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Since increasing evidence suggests a role of the lamin A precursor in nuclear functions, we investigated the processing of prelamin A during differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts. We show that both protein levels and cellular localization of prelamin A are modulated during myoblast activation. Similar changes of lamin A-binding proteins emerin and LAP2{alpha} were observed. Furthermore, prelamin A was found in a complex with LAP2{alpha} in differentiating myoblasts. Prelamin A accumulation in cycling myoblasts by expressing unprocessable mutants affected LAP2{alpha} and PCNA amount and increased caveolin 3 mRNA and protein levels, while accumulation of prelamin A in differentiated muscle cells following treatment with a farnesyl transferase inhibitor appeared to inhibit caveolin 3 expression. Our data provide evidence for a critical role of the lamin A precursor in the early steps of muscle cell differentiation.

Capanni, Cristina; Del Coco, Rosalba; Squarzoni, Stefano; Columbaro, Marta; Mattioli, Elisabetta [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Camozzi, Daria [Laboratory of Cell Biology Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rocchi, Anna; Scotlandi, Katia [Laboratory of Oncological Research, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Maraldi, Nadir [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Laboratory of Cell Biology Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Foisner, Roland [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Lattanzi, Giovanna [IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna, c/o IOR, Via di Barbiano 1/10 I-40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: lattanzi@jolly.bo.cnr.it

2008-12-10

367

Therapeutics Development in Myotonic Dystrophy Type I  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy (DM1), the most common adult muscular dystrophy, is a multi-system, autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by an expanded CTG repeat that leads to nuclear retention of a mutant RNA and subsequent RNA toxicity. Significant insights into the molecular mechanisms of RNA toxicity have led to the surprising possibility that treating DM1 is a viable prospect. In this review, we briefly present the clinical picture in DM1, and describe how the research in understanding the pathogenesis of RNA toxicity in DM1 has led to targeted approaches to therapeutic development at various steps in the pathogenesis of the disease. We discuss the promise and current limitations of each with an emphasis on RNA-based therapeutics and small molecules. We conclude with a discussion of the unmet need for clinical tools and outcome measures that are essential prerequisites to proceed in evaluating these potential therapies in clinical trials. PMID:21607985

Foff, Erin Pennock; Mahadevan, Mani S.

2011-01-01

368

Nuclear matrix proteins and hereditary diseases.  

PubMed

The review summarizes literature data on alterations of structure or expression of different nuclear matrix proteins in hereditary syndromes. From the point of view of involvement of nuclear matrix proteins in etiology and pathogenesis of the disease hereditary pathologies can be classified in pathologies with pathogenesis associated with defects of nuclear matrix proteins and pathologies associated to changes of the nuclear matrix protein spectrum. The first group includes laminopathies, hereditary diseases with abnormal nuclear-matrix associated proteins and triplet extension diseases associated with accumulation of abnormal proteins in the nuclear matrix. Laminopathies are hereditary diseases coupled to structural defects of the nuclear lamina. These diseases include Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, limb girdle muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with conduction system disease, familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder type 2, CMT2), mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD), Hutchison Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGS), Greenberg Skeletal Dysplasia, and Pelger-Huet anomaly (PHA). Most of them are due to mutations in the lamin A/C gene, one - to mutations in emerin gene, some are associated with mutations in Lamin B receptor gene. In Werner's, Bloom's, Cockayne's syndromes, Fanconi anemia, multiple carboxylase deficiency mutations in nuclear matrix protein or enzyme gene lead to deficient DNA repair, abnormal regulation of cell growth and differentiation or other specific metabolic functions. Proteins with a long polyglutamic tract synthesized in the cells of patients with dentato-rubral and pallido-luysian atrophy, myotonic dystrophy and Huntington disease interfere with transcription on the nuclear matrix. Down's syndrome is a representative of the group of diseases with altered nuclear matrix protein spectrum. PMID:15865282

Sjakste, N; Sjakste, T

2005-03-01

369

Carbohydrate composition of erythrocyte membranes and glycosidase activities in serum in patients with myotonic dystrophy, limb-girdle dystrophy and congenital myotonia.  

PubMed

A number of abnormalities in cell membrane function, including cells other than muscle cells, have been described in patients with inherited muscular diseases such as myotonic dystrophy and congenital myotonia. The basic molecular defects are, however, still unknown. The complex carbohydrates of membrane-bound glycoconjugates are of vital importance for the normal performance of the cell membrane. In this study the concentrations of the three major carbohydrates (sialic acid, galactose and hexosamines) of the erythrocyte membrane were therefore determined in patients with myotonic dystrophy, limb-girdle dystrophy and congenital myotonia. The activities of relevant glycosidases in serum were also assayed. In each of the three diseases pertinent changes of the carbohydrate pattern were found. In patients with myotonic dystrophy the sialic acid and in patients with limb-girdle dystrophy the hexosamine concentration was significantly reduced (P less than 0.0005). The sialic acid, galactose and hexosamine concentrations were all significantly increased in patients with congenital myotonia. No increase of the neuraminidase (sialidase) activity was found in sera from patients with myotonic dystrophy. In patients with limb-girdle dystrophy, the activities of serum hexosaminidases were normal. These results support the contention that certain inherited muscular diseases may represent generalized membrane disorders, and suggests that disturbances of membrane-bound glycoproteins and/or glycolipids might be of importance in the pathogenesis of some of these disorders. PMID:6726274

Stibler, H; Sydow, O

1984-03-01

370

Genetics and molecular pathogenesis of the myotonic dystrophies.  

PubMed

Pathogenic repeat expansions were initially identified as causing either a loss of gene product, such as in fragile X mental retardation, or an expansion of a polyglutamine region of a protein, as was first shown in spinobulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease). The pathogenic effect of the repeat expansion in myotonic dystrophy type 1, however, has been controversial because it does not encode a protein but nonetheless results in a highly penetrant dominant disease. Clinical and molecular characterization of myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2 have now demonstrated a novel disease mechanism involving pathogenic effects of repeat expansions that are expressed in RNA but are not translated into protein. PMID:15676109

Day, John W; Ranum, Laura P W

2005-02-01

371

Neonatal neuroimaging findings in congenital myotonic dystrophy.  

PubMed

We report on a preterm neonate of 30 weeks gestational age who presented with marked muscular hypotonia and severe respiratory failure at birth and was diagnosed with congenital myotonic dystrophy. Neuroimaging at 36 gestational weeks demonstrated diffuse T2-hyperintense signal of the supratentorial white matter and a simplified gyration and sulcation pattern. Follow-up imaging showed progressive myelination, brain maturation and decrease in T2-signal of the white matter. We discuss possible pathomechanisms for white matter signal abnormalities in this neonate. PMID:24476662

Bosemani, T; Jasien, J; Johnston, M V; Huisman, T A G M; Poretti, A; Northington, F J

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