Science.gov

Sample records for emission fromthe bullet

  1. Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission fromthe Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56), the Most Distant Cluster of Galaxies Observed by the RXTE

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosian, Vahe; Madejski, Greg; Luli, Kevin; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2006-08-16

    Evidence for non-thermal activity in clusters of galaxies is well established from radio observations of synchrotron emission by relativistic electrons. New windows in the Extreme Ultraviolet and Hard X-ray ranges have provided for more powerful tools for the investigation of this phenomenon. Detection of hard X-rays in the 20 to 100 keV range have been reported from several clusters of galaxies, notably from Coma and others. Based on these earlier observations we identified the relatively high redshift cluster 1E0657-56 (also known as RX J0658-5557) as a good candidate for hard X-ray observations. This cluster, also known as the bullet cluster, has many other interesting and unusual features, most notably that it is undergoing a merger, clearly visible in the X-ray images. Here we present results from a successful RXTE observations of this cluster. We summarize past observations and their theoretical interpretation which guided us in the selection process. We describe the new observations and present the constraints we can set on the flux and spectrum of the hard X-rays. Finally we discuss the constraints one can set on the characteristics of accelerated electrons which produce the hard X-rays and the radio radiation.

  2. NuSTAR observations of the bullet cluster: constraints on inverse Compton emission

    SciTech Connect

    Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, W. W.; Molendi, S.; Gastaldello, F.; Madejski, G.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Zoglauer, A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Kitaguchi, T.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D.

    2014-09-01

    The search for diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been undertaken with many instruments, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. Because all prior telescopes sensitive at E > 10 keV do not focus light and have degree-scale fields of view, their backgrounds are both high and difficult to characterize. The associated uncertainties result in lower sensitivity to IC emission and a greater chance of false detection. In this work, we present 266 ks NuSTAR observations of the Bullet cluster, which is detected in the energy range 3-30 keV. NuSTAR's unprecedented hard X-ray focusing capability largely eliminates confusion between diffuse IC and point sources; however, at the highest energies, the background still dominates and must be well understood. To this end, we have developed a complete background model constructed of physically inspired components constrained by extragalactic survey field observations, the specific parameters of which are derived locally from data in non-source regions of target observations. Applying the background model to the Bullet cluster data, we find that the spectrum is well—but not perfectly—described as an isothermal plasma with kT = 14.2 ± 0.2 keV. To slightly improve the fit, a second temperature component is added, which appears to account for lower temperature emission from the cool core, pushing the primary component to kT ∼ 15.3 keV. We see no convincing need to invoke an IC component to describe the spectrum of the Bullet cluster, and instead argue that it is dominated at all energies by emission from purely thermal gas. The conservatively derived 90% upper limit on the IC flux of 1.1 × 10{sup –12} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} (50-100 keV), implying a lower limit on B ≳ 0.2 μG, is barely consistent with detected fluxes previously reported. In addition to discussing the possible origin of this discrepancy, we remark on the

  3. Bullet on bullet fragmentation profile in soils.

    PubMed

    Martin, W Andy; Nestler, Catherine C; Wynter, Michelle; Larson, Steven L

    2014-12-15

    Lead-antimony alloy slugs encased in a brass jackets are common small arms caliber ammunition used for training and target practice. When small caliber ammunition is fired at testing and training ranges, these metals--some of which are toxic--are introduced into the environment. Research was conducted on the effects of bullet on bullet impacts and the resulting bullet fragmentation. The extent of bullet fragmentation, among other factors, affects the formation of mobile metal species from small arms firing ranges. Bullet on bullet impact can increase the surface area to mass ratio of the bullet metal alloys in the soil. The solubility of a metal is typically associated with the specific corrosion rate in the berm environment which is dependent on the surface area of the fragments. The purpose of the study was to analyze the bullet on bullet impact effects in six soil types. Changes in the metal distribution as a result of bullet impact was evaluated through sieve analysis and changes in the particle size distribution. The bullet on bullet impact observed in this study demonstrated a significant and observable shift in the fragmentation profiles for the lead, antimony, and copper in soils after shooting an average of 1050 tungsten-nylon bullets into the legacy lead soils. This study provides new information to assist with determining the potential environmental fate, transport, and environmental availability associated with constant bullet on bullet impact at testing and training ranges. PMID:25201767

  4. The Silver Bullet Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehne, George C.

    1995-01-01

    Many colleges address complex problems with a single "silver bullet" strategy. Because value shifts according to the consumer's situation or goal, private colleges should become more aware of their "situational value" and exploit it. This requires an understanding of how students choose colleges. In contrast, popular silver bullets target…

  5. Differences in the element contents between gunshot entry wounds with full-jacketed bullet and lead bullet.

    PubMed

    Wunnapuk, Klintean; Durongkadech, Piya; Minami, Takeshi; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Tohno, Setsuko; Vichairat, Karnda; Azuma, Cho; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Tohno, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    To elucidate characteristics of gunshot residues in gunshot entry wounds with full-jacketed and lead bullets, element contents in entry gunshot wounds and control skins were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was found that a high content of Fe and Zn was deposited in the gunshot entry wounds with full-jacketed bullet, whereas a high content of Pb was deposited in the gunshot entry wounds with lead (unjacked) bullet. It should be noted that the content of Pb was significantly higher in the gunshot entry wounds with lead bullet than in those with full-jacketed bullet. Regarding the relationships among elements, it was found that there were significant direct correlations between Pb and either Sb or Ba contents in both gunshot entry wounds with full-jacketed and lead bullets. As Pb increased in both gunshot entry wounds, Sb and Ba also increased in the wounds. PMID:17916957

  6. Cosmic bullets as particle accelerators and radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. W.; Kang, Hyesung; Tregillis, I. L.

    1994-01-01

    We have simulated in two dimensions the dynamical evolution of dense gas clouds(`cosmic bullets') moving supersonically through a uniform low-density medium. The diffusive shock acceleration of relativistic protons (cosmic rays) and their dynamical feedback on the background flow are included by the two-fluid model for this process. The acceleration of relativistic electrons is approximated by a test-particle model, and a passive magnetic field is followed by a simple advection scheme. Strong bow shocks, with Mach numbers similar to that of a bullet's motion, are the most important particle accelerators in the flow, while tail shocks and shocks inside the bullets do not play generally significant roles in this regard. For our simulation parameters, approximately greater than 10% of the initial bullet kinetic energy is converted to a combination of internal energy of gas and cosmic-ray protons by the time the bullets begin to be disrupted. Characteristically, the cosmic rays gain several percent of the available kinetic energy. Bullet destruction on timescales only a little larger than the ram pressure bullet crushing time begins in response to Kelvin-Helmholtz and especially to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities along the forward bullet surface. For dense bullets this happens before the bullet is stopped by ram pressure. According to our simple model for synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons accelerated and transported within the flows, that emission increases rapidly as the bullet begins to fragment, when it is strongly dominated by field enhancement in sheared flows. Synchrotron emission from the acceleration region within the bow shock is, by contrast, much weaker.

  7. The sinking bullet.

    PubMed

    Rengachary, S S; Carey, M; Templer, J

    1992-02-01

    We report a case of a missile injury to the brain with an unusual complication. The bullet migrated by its mere weight to a distant location through the brain parenchyma after it initially lodged in a superficial site. Instances of similar phenomena reported in the literature are reviewed. PMID:1545906

  8. Multiple (eight) plasma bullets in helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet and the role of nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sanghoo; Youn Moon, Se; Choe, Wonho

    2013-11-01

    As many as eight multiple plasma bullets produced at atmospheric pressure were observed in one voltage period in a capillary helium dielectric barrier plasma jet. We found that the number of the bullets strongly depends on the nitrogen fraction added to the helium supply gas. Using optical emission spectroscopy and ionization rate calculation, this study demonstrates that nitrogen gas plays an important role in the generation and dynamics of multiple plasma bullets through Penning ionization of nitrogen by helium metastables.

  9. Bullet-itis (or What's Wrong with a Quick Fix?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servage, Laura

    2008-01-01

    "Bullet-itis" (or perhaps what could be called Power Point Disease) is the tendency, in seemingly all facets of life, to seek out knowledge in its most abbreviated and rapidly consumable form. Presumably this abbreviated format is a pragmatic response to the notoriously busy lives of teachers and administrators. Given so many practical and…

  10. Retiring the Silver Bullet

    SciTech Connect

    Lasure, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few decades, advances in biology and electronics have resulted in an enormous increase in the screening rate of new compounds and in the capacity to synthesize vast numbers of new compounds. The understanding of disease has greatly improved. At the same time, the number of targets (or diseases) for the silver bullets has also increased. Yet, the belief that we have to screen enormous numbers of compounds to find the next new drug continues. Today, disease is understood to be a complex interaction of many systems. This ought to cause us to change our paradigm, but it has not. The fundamental reason for the apparent failure of our drug discovery and development research is that we are operating under the constraints of an out-of-date paradigm. The silver-bullet paradigm has always been a myth. Now is the time to debunk the myth and change the paradigm. Our other option is to continue on as we are and accept that the United States will become obsolete on the playing field of drug discovery.

  11. Endoscopic removal of bullet from orbital apex.

    PubMed

    Muhammad Khyani, Iqbal A; Hafeez, Atif; Farooq, Muhammad Umer; Alam, Jawaid

    2008-10-01

    Penetrating injuries of face are not uncommon. Bullets or pallets may be lodged anywhere in the cavities of skull as a result of firearm injury. Lodgment of a bullet within the orbit through nose is uncommon. An eighteen 18 years old married woman sustained a bullet injury, which entered through lateral wall of the nose and lodged at left orbital apex area. The bullet was removed endoscopically via left nostril without any damage to the eye or disturbance in vision. PMID:18940126

  12. Homicidal tandem bullet wound of the chest.

    PubMed

    Bentley, A J; Busuttil, A; Clifton, B; Sibbald, P

    1997-03-01

    An unusual case of a homicidal gunshot wound to the chest is reported in which two bullets were fired in unison as tandem bullets from a handgun. At autopsy, two intact bullets were retrieved from the body of the victim, yet there was only one entrance wound and a single bullet track across the chest wall and thoracic organs. An examination of the weapon and ammunition supported the likelihood of tandem bullets and suggested the probable mechanism for this event. Very few similar cases have been documented. PMID:9095302

  13. Wound production by ricocheted and destabilized bullets.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lucien C

    2007-03-01

    Bullets destabilized by ricochet or as the result of an impact with some intervening object experience a yawing to tumbling motion in flight. As a result, they often produce atypical entry wounds, but, as will be demonstrated in this article, this is not a certainty and such bullets can produce normal-appearing entry wounds. It is these wounds that are more difficult to recognize as the consequence of a ricocheted or deflected bullet at the time of autopsy. With few exceptions, ricocheted or deflected bullets also acquire characteristic damage and trace evidence inclusions that often survive the wound production process. A careful inspection of such bullets at the time of recovery will usually reveal such ricochet damage. Moreover, the instability of ricocheted bullets alters their soft-tissue penetration behavior in 2 possible ways. Destabilized full-metal-jacketed bullets will typically penetrate less than direct strikes by the same bullet. Destabilized jacketed hollow-point bullets will often fail to expand and subsequently penetrate more deeply than direct shots with the same bullet. PMID:17325456

  14. A hypersonic plasma bullet train traveling in an atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Jianjun; Zhong Fangchun; Zhang Jing; Liu, D. W.; Kong, M. G.

    2008-01-15

    An experimental observation of fast-moving plasma bullets produced in an atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet is reported in this paper. Nanosecond imaging suggests that the atmospheric discharge jet consists of a plasma bullet train traveling at a hypersonic speed from 7.0 km/s to 43.1 km/s. Yet on a millisecond scale, the bullet train appears as a plasma jet of several centimeters long. The plasma bullets are produced through several possible mechanisms, the most likely of which is related to the ionization wave. Time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy show that reactive plasma species can be delivered to different spatial sites with varying quantities.

  15. The Magnetohydrodynamics of Supersonic Gas Clouds: MHD Cosmic Bullets and Wind-swept Clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T. W.; Ryu, Dongsu; Tregillis, I. L.

    1996-12-01

    them (leading to reconnection) or that keeps them unidirectional one each side of the bullet. In the second instance, behaviors should resemble those of the transverse field cases. We estimate that this quasi-transverse behavior is appropriate whenever the angle, 0, between the motion and the field satisfies tan θ ≥ 1/M, where M is the bullet Mach number. From these simulations, we find support in either field geometry for the conclusions reached in previous studies that nonthermal radio emission associated with supersonic clumps is likely to be controlled largely by the generation of strong magnetic fields around the perimeters of the clumps, rather than local particle acceleration and field compression within the bow shock. In addition, since the magnetic pressure on the nose of the bullet likely becomes comparable to the ram pressure and hence the total pressure behind the bow shock, the gas pressure there could be substantially lower than that in a gasdynamical bullet That means, as well, that the temperature in the region on the nose of the bullet would be lower than that predicted in the gasdynamical case. That detail could alter expectations of the thermal emission, including X-rays and UV-IR lines.

  16. The Math Emporium: Higher Education's Silver Bullet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twigg, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the 1990's, many people saw information technology as a silver bullet that could solve many of higher education's problems, among them the need to improve learning outcomes and control the ever-upward trajectory of higher education costs. The term "silver bullet" connotes a direct and effortless solution to a problem. Unsurprisingly,…

  17. NIST bullet signature measurement system for RM (Reference Material) 8240 standard bullets.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Song, John; Whitenton, Eric; Zheng, Alan; Vorburger, Theodore; Zhou, Jack

    2004-07-01

    A bullet signature measurement system based on a stylus instrument was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the signature measurements of NIST RM (Reference Material) 8240 standard bullets. The standard bullets are developed as a reference standard for bullet signature measurements and are aimed to support the recently established National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The RM bullets are designed as both a virtual and a physical bullet signature standard. The virtual standard is a set of six digitized bullet signatures originally profiled from six master bullets fired at ATF and FBI using six different guns. By using the virtual signature standard to control the tool path on a numerically controlled diamond turning machine at NIST, 40 RM bullets were produced. In this paper, a comparison parameter and an algorithm using auto-and cross-correlation functions are described for qualifying the bullet signature differences between the RM bullets and the virtual bullet signature standard. When two compared signatures are exactly the same (point by point), their cross-correlation function (CCF) value will be equal to 100%. The measurement system setup, measurement program, and initial measurement results are discussed. Initial measurement results for the 40 standard bullets, each measured at six land impressions, show that the CCF values for the 240 signature measurements are higher than 95%, with most of them even higher than 99%. These results demonstrate the high reproducibility for both the manufacturing process and the measurement system for the NIST RM 8240 standard bullets. PMID:15317178

  18. Shocked Molecular Hydrogen in the Orion ``Bullets''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedds, Jonathan A.

    1997-03-01

    fit a single C shock absorber model to individual H2 profiles implies a magnetic field strength far in excess of observed estimates and is not consistent with the bow-shaped wake morphology. Alternatively, we may still not be resolving multiple H2 shock fronts along the line-of-sight. For example, multiple overlapping bullet wakes could give rise to merged sets of doubly-peaked profiles resulting in approximately Gaussian shaped profiles. However, given the appearance of single bow shaped wakes at many observed positions, the accuracy of single Gaussian line-fits, the velocity resolution of our observations (FWHM = 23.1 +/- 0.3kms-1) and that we see this phenomenon in two differe nt wakes, this explanation is expected to be excluded. If we cannot fit the profiles in Orion with steady state molecular shocks it may be necessary to model the effects of instabilities and turbulence. This will have important consequences. Not only will line profiles be broadened but level populations of shocked species will be altered and hence the observed column densities over a range of transitions. Observations of a range of H2 column densities in the K band have confirmed the existence of a near-constant background excitation mechanism pervading the entire Orion ``bullets'' region. The background H2 emission can be modelled by a combination o f fluorescent and shock excited mechanisms, in agreement with the broad H2 line profiles observed. It is thermalized in the v = 1 levels but higher levels are dominated by fluorescence. Measurement of the H2 excitation in the ``bullet'' wakes M42 HH 126-053 and M42 HH120-114 shows a near constant emission spectrum, within each wake, that may be modelled by a combination of shocked and fluorescent excitation, now more strongly dominated by collisional processes but also containing an intrinsic wake-on ly fluorescent component. The column density ratios clearly show a range of gas temperatures as expected for cooling, post-shock gas. Furthermore

  19. The Shaping of the Multipolar Pre-planetary Nebula CRL 618 by Multidirectional Bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po-Sheng; Lee, Chin-Fei; Moraghan, Anthony; Smith, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In order to understand the formation of the multipolar structures of the pre-planetary nebula CRL 618, we perform 3D simulations using a multidirectional bullet model. The optical lobes of CRL 618 and fast molecular outflows at the tips of the lobes have been found to have similar expansion ages of ˜100 yr. Additional fast molecular outflows were found near the source along the outflow axes with ages of ˜45 yr, suggesting a second episode of bullet ejections. Thus, in our simulations, two episodes of bullet ejections are assumed. The shaping process is simulated using the ZEUS-3D hydrodynamics code that includes molecular and atomic cooling. In addition, molecular chemistry is also included to calculate the CO intensity maps. Our results show the following: (1) Multiepoch bullets interacting with the toroidal dense core can produce the collimated multiple lobes as seen in CRL 618. The total mass of the bullets is ˜0.034 M⊙, consistent with the observed high-velocity (HV) CO emission in fast molecular outflows. (2) The simulated CO J = 3-2 intensity maps show that the low-velocity cavity wall and the HV outflows along the lobes are reasonably consistent with the observations. The position-velocity diagram of the outflows along the outflow axes shows a linear increase of velocity with distance, similar to the observations. The ejections of these bullets could be due to magnetorotational explosions or nova-like explosions around a binary companion.

  20. Constraints on the physical properties of optical bullets in SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John C.; Cassinelli, Joseph P.; Collins, George W., II

    1991-01-01

    The present study discusses possible mechanisms for continuously heating the H-alpha emitting bullets of SS 433 out to distances of 5 x 10 to the 14th cm and for turning off this emission at 10 to the 15th. Various observational contraints are used to establish bounds on permissible solutions in terms of the two key bullet parameters, mass, and angular radius seen from the central source. The analysis is carried out for the mathematically simplest case of uniform spherical bullets. For radiative heat of such bullets by starlight, solutions are found to exist only for the very massive bullets with about 0.03 radians, which are highly implausible on the grounds of the large implied mean kinetic luminosity of about 10 to the 41st ergs/s. It is concluded that collisional interaction is the most likely mechanism for heating the optical bullets of SS 433. The effects of these constraints being fragmented rather than uniform, and being elongated rather than spherical are discussed.

  1. Ballistics reviews: mechanisms of bullet wound trauma.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The location of an entrance wound (bullet placement) and the projectile path are the most important factors in causing significant injury or death following a shooting. The head followed by the torso are the most vulnerable areas, with incapacitation resulting from central nervous system (brain or cord) disruption, or massive organ destruction with hemorrhage. Tissue and organ trauma result from the permanent wound cavity caused by direct destruction by the bullet, and also from radial stretching of surrounding tissues causing a temporary wound cavity. The extent of tissue damage is influenced by the type of bullet, its velocity and mass, as well as the physical characteristics of the tissues. The latter includes resistance to strain, physical dimensions of an organ, and the presence or absence of surrounding anatomical constraints. Bullet shape and construction will also affect tissue damage and bullets which display greater yaw will be associated with increased temporary cavitation. Military bullet designs do not include bullets that will expand or flatten as these cause greater wound trauma and are regulated by convention. PMID:19644779

  2. Rotating Bullets from A Variable Protostar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuepeng; Arce, Héctor G.; Zhang, Qizhou; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) CO (2–1) observations toward the protostellar jet driven by SVS 13 A, a variable protostar in the NGC 1333 star-forming region. The SMA CO (2–1) images show an extremely high-velocity jet composed of a series of molecular “bullets.” Based on the SMA CO observations, we discover clear and large systematic velocity gradients, perpendicular to the jet axis, in the blueshifted and redshifted bullets. After discussing several alternative interpretations, such as twin-jets, jet precession, warped disk, and internal helical shock, we suggest that the systematic velocity gradients observed in the bullets result from the rotation of the SVS 13 A jet. From the SMA CO images, the measured rotation velocities are 11.7–13.7 km s‑1 for the blueshifted bullet and 4.7 ± 0.5 km s‑1 for the redshifted bullet. The estimated specific angular momenta of the two bullets are comparable to those of dense cores, about 10 times larger than those of protostellar envelopes, and about 20 times larger than those of circumstellar disks. If the velocity gradients are due to the rotation of the SVS 13 A jet, the significant amount of specific angular momenta of the bullets indicates that the rotation of jets/outflows is a key mechanism to resolve the so-called “angular momentum problem” in the field of star formation. The kinematics of the bullets suggests that the jet launching footprint on the disk has a radius of ∼7.2–7.7 au, which appears to support the extended disk-wind model. We note that further observations are needed to comprehensively understand the kinematics of the SVS 13 A jet, in order to confirm the rotation nature of the bullets.

  3. [Frangible bullets: wounding capability and clinical aspects of their use].

    PubMed

    Komenda, J; Hejna, P; Rydlo, M; Novak, M; Krajsa, J; Racek, F

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with basic characteristics of the frangible bullets and it documents a very specific behaviour of chosen types of these bullets in testing blocks as a substitute materials of alive tissues. The frangible bullets have several important advantages compared to the classical sorts of firearms bullets. The highest benefit could be seen especially in the limited penetrating capability and very low ricochet hazard connected with the use of these bullets. The absence of poisonous elements in the material of frangible bullets (for instance lead) is highly appreciated from the ecology reasons nowadays as well. The cartridges assembled with frangible bullets are used most of all for the practise reasons by law enforcement units, but can be used very effectively also in combat situations. Results of own shooting experiments confirm that the wound potential of bullet can be changed in a very large extent with the change of the manufacturing technology and the bullets geometry. Newly developed frangible bullets and the already manufactured bullets available on the market are characterized by very specific terminal ballistic features. Some frangible bullets behave in a comparable way to full metal jacketed bullets while penetrating soft tissues. Another frangible bullets of different designs fragment to the pieces in soft tissues and cause very serious wounds with persistent effects. The usage of frangible bullets and a potential risk of misuse of this specific sort of ammunition require also new approaches in the medicine for the treatment of the gunshot wounds. PMID:22724652

  4. The effect of the THV bullet in animal tissue.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, P J

    1988-01-01

    The Très Haute Vitesse (THV) bullet was introduced to meet the requirements of law enforcement officers, as an alternative to larger calibre fully jacketed bullets, since expanding or exploding bullets are not relevant in Europe. To examine the effect of the THV bullet in tissue, especially the size of the lesion and the degree of overpenetration, 11 recently killed pigs were shot with the weapons used by the Danish Police Force and a 9-mm pistol for reference. The ammunition was THV in the calibres 7.65 mm, 0.38, and 9 mm, using conventional fully jacketed bullets for comparison. The lesions were considerably larger when the THV bullet was used, the entry wound in particular, being roughly twice the diameter in the case of the THV bullet as compared to the fully jacketed bullet of similar calibre. Only one 7.65-mm THV bullet overpenetrated the target when fired against the thorax or abdomen of the pigs and then with only minimal residual energy. All fully jacketed 7.65-mm bullets, all 0.38 bullets, with the exception of one THV bullet, and all 9-mm bullets overpenetrated the target. The 7.65-mm THV bullet produced a lesion which in its extent resembled that of the fully jacketed 9-mm bullet, and should be a suitable alternative for the Danish Police Force. PMID:3239259

  5. Interaction of bullets with intermediate targets: material transfer and damage.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Rijnders, Marco; Pieper, Pascal; Hermsen, Rob

    2012-11-30

    In complex shooting incidents, it is not always clear which bullet hit or eventually killed the victim and who fired it. The examination of traces of foreign material embedded in or adhered to bullets provides critical information in the trajectory reconstruction of spent bullets. Such a reconstruction can have considerable legal implications because it can prove that it was not someone's intention to kill. However, the microtraces that remain on spent bullets are often ignored. Microtraces on bullets, around bullet-holes and on ricochet marks were investigated using SEM/EDX for two different types of bullets: a relatively hard, full metal jacket (FMJ) bullet and a relatively soft, lead round-nose (LRN) bullet. A total of 179 bullets were fired into intermediate targets, sheets of 5 different materials (MDF, greenboard, gypsum fibreboard, glass and steel), at approximate incident angles of 90°, 10° and 5°. Of the 144 bullets fired at incident angles of 90°, 130 bullets perforated one of the materials, and 14 bullets perforated two of the materials. The 35 bullets fired at incident angles of 10° and 5° ricocheted off the intermediate targets, producing ricochet marks. In the majority of cases, traces from the target materials were found on the bullet, both after perforation and ricochet. The only exceptions were (1) the perforation of 9-mm sheets of MDF by FMJ bullets and (2) ricochet off glass when the glass did not break. Steel targets transfer small, but still detectable traces of iron to the bullet. The order in which targets are hit was reflected in the traces found on the bullets, i.e., materials from a secondary target were deposited on top of deposits from the primary target. This result implies that it is possible to determine the order of impact from the stratification of the material analysed. Traces from the bullets were found around all the bullet holes. Wipe-off from lead bullets is sometimes visible by the naked eye. Ricocheting bullets produce

  6. 73X Faster Than a Speeding Bullet

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 17, 2011, a NASA camera in Tullahoma, Tenn., saw a Leonid meteor -- moving 73 times faster than a bullet fired from an M-16 rifle -- as it burned up 71 miles above Nolensville, Tenn., at an...

  7. Ames Lab 101: osgBullet

    SciTech Connect

    McCorkle, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory scientist Doug McCorkle explains osgBullet, a 3-D virtual simulation software, and how it helps engineers design complex products and systems in a realistic, real-time virtual environment.

  8. Ames Lab 101: osgBullet

    ScienceCinema

    McCorkle, Doug

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory scientist Doug McCorkle explains osgBullet, a 3-D virtual simulation software, and how it helps engineers design complex products and systems in a realistic, real-time virtual environment.

  9. Traces of ricocheted action safety bullets.

    PubMed

    Schyma, C; Placidi, P

    1997-03-01

    Experimental gunshots were made with Action-1 and -3 ammunition (9 mm Luger) using a part dummy made of textile, pig skin, and gelatine as the target. After ricocheting off a concrete floor tile with impact angles of 15 degrees or 20 degrees, the deformed projectiles penetrated the gelatine block to a depth of between 21 and 37 cm. The ricochet angles varied between 5 degrees and 11 degrees. None of the bullets mushroomed after ricochet; a few bullets even overpenetrated. The ricocheted projectiles sprayed a substantial amount of copper particles onto the textile, and metallic fragments were also deposited along the bullet path. These traces were detected by high-resolution radiography. The Action-3 brass bullet was more resistant, had more kinetic energy, and was less deformed than the Action-1 copper bullet. The morphology of the wounds presented a very varied spectrum; round lesions were also observed. The results of the experimental study prove that ricocheted Action bullets present a serious risk of injury. PMID:9095295

  10. Bullet trajectory reconstruction - Methods, accuracy and precision.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, Erwin J A T; Kerkhoff, Wim

    2016-05-01

    Based on the spatial relation between a primary and secondary bullet defect or on the shape and dimensions of the primary bullet defect, a bullet's trajectory prior to impact can be estimated for a shooting scene reconstruction. The accuracy and precision of the estimated trajectories will vary depending on variables such as, the applied method of reconstruction, the (true) angle of incidence, the properties of the target material and the properties of the bullet upon impact. This study focused on the accuracy and precision of estimated bullet trajectories when different variants of the probing method, ellipse method, and lead-in method are applied on bullet defects resulting from shots at various angles of incidence on drywall, MDF and sheet metal. The results show that in most situations the best performance (accuracy and precision) is seen when the probing method is applied. Only for the lowest angles of incidence the performance was better when either the ellipse or lead-in method was applied. The data provided in this paper can be used to select the appropriate method(s) for reconstruction and to correct for systematic errors (accuracy) and to provide a value of the precision, by means of a confidence interval of the specific measurement. PMID:27044032

  11. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    -mentioned early studies has witnessed a considerable and exciting growth in terms of new phenomena observed, new physics and chemistry uncovered, new plasma jet sources conceived, and new applications developed. Examples include the observations of plasma bullets on a nanosecond scale [16], the similarity of plasma bullets to streamers [17], arrays of plasma jets as metamaterials [18], and a rapid increase of applications in biomedicine [19]. However the considerable growth in the research of plasma jets has not been adequately supported, so far, by a sound fundamental underpinning, partly resulting from a somewhat underdevelopment of effective diagnostics and modelling tools. Recognizing the critical importance of basic science for future growth of low-temperature plasma jet technology, this special issue on plasma jets and bullets aims to address some of the most important fundamental questions. Many of the special issue papers continue the established line of investigation to characterize the formation of plasma bullets, using typically ultrafast imaging, electrical detection including electric field and plasma conductivity measurement, and optical emission spectrometry [20]-[26]. These offer strong experimental evidence for the well-known hypothesis that a plasma jet is a form of streamer, and that the ionization wave plays a critical role in their formation. The interaction of two parallel plasma jets [27] and manipulation of plasma jet characteristics [28, 29] are also reported using a similar combination of experimental techniques. Some of the common characteristics of plasma jets are summarized in a review paper in this special issue [30]. A somewhat different line of investigation is employed in a detailed experimental characterization of deterministic chaos in atmospheric plasma jets [31], one of the few non-bullet modes of plasma jets. Although chaos in ionized gases have been observed in other types of discharge plasmas, their applications have not so far been linked

  12. Constrained simulation of the Bullet Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Lage, Craig; Farrar, Glennys

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we report on a detailed simulation of the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56) merger, including magnetohydrodynamics, plasma cooling, and adaptive mesh refinement. We constrain the simulation with data from gravitational lensing reconstructions and the 0.5-2 keV Chandra X-ray flux map, then compare the resulting model to higher energy X-ray fluxes, the extracted plasma temperature map, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect measurements, and cluster halo radio emission. We constrain the initial conditions by minimizing the chi-squared figure of merit between the full two-dimensional (2D) observational data sets and the simulation, rather than comparing only a few features such as the location of subcluster centroids, as in previous studies. A simple initial configuration of two triaxial clusters with Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter profiles and physically reasonable plasma profiles gives a good fit to the current observational morphology and X-ray emissions of the merging clusters. There is no need for unconventional physics or extreme infall velocities. The study gives insight into the astrophysical processes at play during a galaxy cluster merger, and constrains the strength and coherence length of the magnetic fields. The techniques developed here to create realistic, stable, triaxial clusters, and to utilize the totality of the 2D image data, will be applicable to future simulation studies of other merging clusters. This approach of constrained simulation, when applied to well-measured systems, should be a powerful complement to present tools for understanding X-ray clusters and their magnetic fields, and the processes governing their formation.

  13. Photonic Switching Devices Using Light Bullets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a unique ultra-fast, all-optical switching device or switch made with readily available, relatively inexpensive, highly nonlinear photonic glasses. These photonic glasses have a sufficiently negative group velocity dispersion and high nonlinear index of refraction to support stable light bullets. The light bullets counterpropagate through, and interact within the waveguide to selectively change each others' directions of propagation into predetermined channels. In one embodiment, the switch utilizes a rectangularly planar slab waveguide, and further includes two central channels and a plurality of lateral channels for guiding the light bullets into and out of the waveguide. One advantage presented by the present all-optical switching device lies in its practical use of light bullets, thus preventing the degeneration of the pulses due to dispersion and diffraction at the front and back of the pulses. Another feature of the switching device is the relative insensitivity of the collision process to the time difference in which the counter-propagating pulses enter the waveguide. since. contrary to conventional co-propagating spatial solitons, the relative phase of the colliding pulses does not affect the interaction of these pulses. Yet another feature of the present all-optical switching device is the selection of the light pulse parameters which enables the generation of light bullets in highly nonlinear glasses.

  14. Automatic comparison of striation information on firearm bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente Leon, Fernando; Beyerer, Juergen

    1999-08-01

    This paper deals with an important task within forensic science - the automatic comparison of bullets for the purpose of firearm identification. Bullets bear groove- shaped marks that can be though of as a kind of 'fingerprint' of the firearm on their circumferential surface. To accomplish the comparison task, mainly the fine grooves on the bullet surface are of interests.

  15. Ballistic Reconstruction of a Migrating Bullet in the Parapharyngeal Space

    PubMed Central

    Bächinger, David; Bolliger, Stephan; Huber, Gerhard F.; Laske, Roman D.

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old male suffering from severe throat pain after being hit by a bullet in Syria claimed that he was shot through his eye and that the bullet subsequently descended behind his throat. Even though the first medical report stated that this course is implausible, meticulous workup provided evidence that the bullet might have entered the parapharyngeal space in a more cranial position than the one it was found eight months later. Our case highlights that bullets are able to move within the body, rendering ballistic reconstruction difficult. However, after removal of the bullet the patient's symptoms completely resolved. PMID:26770857

  16. Photonic Switching Devices Using Light Bullets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A unique ultra-fast, all-optical switching device or switch is made with readily available, relatively inexpensive, highly nonlinear optical materials. which includes highly nonlinear optical glasses, semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials. At the specified wavelengths. these optical materials have a sufficiently negative group velocity dispersion and high nonlinear index of refraction to support stable light bullets. The light bullets counter-propagate through, and interact within the waveguide to selectively change each others' directions of propagation into predetermined channels. In one embodiment, the switch utilizes a rectangularly planar slab waveguide. and further includes two central channels and a plurality of lateral channels for guiding the light bullets into and out of the waveguide. An advantage of the present all-optical switching device lies in its practical use of light bullets, thus preventing the degeneration of the pulses due to dispersion and diffraction at the front and back of the pulses. Another advantage of the switching device is the relative insensitivity of the collision process to the time difference in which the counter-propagating pulses enter the waveguide. since. contrary to conventional co-propagating spatial solitons, the relative phase of the colliding pulses does not affect the interaction of these pulses. Yet another feature of the present all-optical switching device is the selection of the light pulse parameters which enables the generation of light bullets in nonlinear optical materials. including highly nonlinear optical glasses and semiconductor materials such as semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials.

  17. SRM 2460/2461 Standard Bullets and Casings Project

    PubMed Central

    Song, J.; Whitenton, E.; Kelley, D.; Clary, R.; Ma, L.; Ballou, S.; Ols, M.

    2004-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460/2461 standard bullets and casings project will provide support to firearms examiners and to the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) in the United States. The SRM bullet is designed as both a virtual and a physical bullet profile signature standard. The virtual standard is a set of six digitized bullet profile signatures originally traced from six master bullets fired at the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). By using the virtual signature standard to control the tool path on a numerically controlled diamond turning machine, 40 SRM bullets were produced. A profile signature measurement system was established for the SRM bullets. The profile signature differences are quantified by the maximum of the cross correlation function and by the signature difference between pairs of compared profile signatures measured on different SRM bullets. Initial measurement results showed high reproducibility for both the measurement system and production process of the SRM bullets. A traceability scheme has been proposed to establish the measurement traceability for nationwide bullet signature measurements to NIST, ATF and FBI. Prototype SRM casings have also been developed. PMID:27366632

  18. Immunoconjugates: Magic Bullets for Cancer Therapy?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passeri, Daniel R.; Spiegel, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Conjugating cytotoxic agents to antibodies allows for site-specific delivery of the agent to tumor cells and should provide increased efficacy and reduced non-specific toxicity. These site-specific cytotoxic agents are known as immunoconjugates or 'magic bullets' and have demonstrated great promise as therapeutic agents for cancer and other diseases. The historical developments and future potential of this new approach to cancer therapy are reviewed.

  19. Bullet Image Classification using Support Vector Machine (SVM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratna S, Dwi; Setyono, Budi; Herdha, Tyara

    2016-02-01

    All Quality control of the bullet is usually done manually. Manual inspection process has some disadvantages for instance human error factor and the time inspection are relatively longer. In this study, defect detection and classification of bullets by using Support Vector Machine (SVM)has been done. The stages of classification of scheme bullets in this study include pre-processing, feature extraction with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classification of bullets by using SVM normalized. Performance of the proposed classification of scheme was tested using 80 images of bullets in which 40 images free of defects and 40 images with defect. The results show that the scheme can classify images of bullets with a 90% accuracy rate with test data in the form of 10 images free-defect and 10 image defects.

  20. A case of "boomerang" bullet ricochet.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Joosten, U

    2001-10-01

    A .375 Holland & Holland Magnum Winchester Fail Safe bullet was fired against a steel plate. The big-game hunting bullet (17.4 g, approx. 810 m/s) has a solid copper-alloy hollow point design including a lead core limited to the rear portion. The range of firing was 20 m and the angle of impact was 90 degrees. A large fragment (10.9 g) consisting of the main part of the copper portion was deformed in a peculiar manner similar to a tube or ring and wounded the left hand of the person shooting. The unique fragment trajectory strictly against the line of fire and the velocity sufficient to shatter bone after a distance of 20 m can be explained by an extraordinary deformation mechanism. Unlike in tissue, the high resistance of the steel plate caused the lead core in the rear of the bullet to move forward perforating the central copper barrier behind the hollow point cavity. Thus, the peculiar fragment was created. The subsequent backwards acceleration of the ring-like fragment was probably caused by the partly elastic impact of the copper-alloy portion against the hard steel plate. Due to the perpendicular impact resulting in a centric and symmetrical deformation, the fragment moved in a direction exactly backwards along the original line of fire. PMID:11724432

  1. ORNL's magic bullets: On target for health

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, J.

    1993-01-01

    Magic bullets. That's how we've come to know a group of chemical compounds that have an uncanny ability to home in on particular targets within the body. Their [open quotes]magic[close quotes] is provided by chemically attached radioactive isotopes, labels made of small quantities or radioactive material that enable physicians to obtain detailed images of internal organs, deliver doses of radiation to specific destinations, and trace the movement of medications - all without picking up a scalpel. In recent years, a barrage of magic bullets has been fired from laboratories around the country, but because of their long and involved development process, relatively few have been tested in human patients, - fewer still have found commercial applications. Despite these odds, the researchers of ORNL's Nuclear Medicine Group have gained reputations as sharpshooters, thanks to four new magic bullets now in clinical testing - a radiolabeled antibody that targets colon cancer cells, a test agent for pancreas problems, and imaging agents for monitoring blood flow in the heart and detecting early signs of heart disease. A fifth agent that promises to help track the changes in brain chemistry resulting from Alzheimer's and related diseases is undergoing preclinical studies.

  2. [Lodged bullet or bullet penetration? Re-entry of a projectile and pseudo-shot].

    PubMed

    Grimm, U; Zollinger, U

    1996-01-01

    In an extended suicide an 11-year-old boy was killed by two shots into the back. In spite of corresponding entry and exit points one of the projectiles was found inside the body. By laying open the respective bullet track, examination of the deformations of the bullet, on which a total of three ricochet points were identified, and a second visit to the scene both the order in which the shots were fired and the reason why one of the projectiles was lodged inside the body, although there was an exit point, could be clarified: On firing the second shot the victim had been lying on the wooden threshold of a door, from which the projectile ricochetted. The terms "reentry" and "pseudo exit point" are discussed. The retention of the bullet in the depth of an alleged exit wound emphasizes the importance of post-mortal X-ray examinations. PMID:8687277

  3. Radiculopathy as Delayed Presentations of Retained Spinal Bullet

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Bang; Choi, Man Kyu; Kim, Kee D

    2015-01-01

    Bullet injuries to the spine may cause injury to the anatomical structures with or without neurologic deterioration. Most bullet injuries are acute, resulting from direct injury. However, in rare cases, delayed injury may occur, resulting in claudication. We report a case of intradural bullet at the L3-4 level with radiculopathy in a 30-year-old male. After surgical removal, radicular and claudicating pain were improved significantly, and motor power of the right leg also improved. We report the case of intradural bullet, which resulted in delayed radiculopathy. PMID:26587197

  4. On the mechanism of acceleration behavior of plasma bullet

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.; Lu, X. Pan, Y.

    2014-07-15

    Two special experiments are designed to study the mechanism of the acceleration behavior of a plasma bullet when it exits a nozzle. First, a T-shape device is used to simulate the air diffusion when a plasma plume exits the nozzle. It is found that adding just 1% of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, or air to the main working gas He results in the acceleration of the plasma bullet. Second, materials of different permittivity are added to the left part of the outside of the tube. The experimental results show that the plasma bullet accelerates at the moment when it enters into the right part of the tube where there is no extra material on the outside of the tube. These two experiments confirm that the acceleration behavior of the plasma bullet when it exits the nozzle is due to the air diffusion, hence Penning ionization, and the permittivity change when the bullet exits the nozzle, for example, from a tube with high permittivity to air with low permittivity. Besides, electric field measurements show that the electric field in the bullet head increases when the plasma bullet accelerates. This confirms the electric field driven nature of the plasma bullet propagation.

  5. Non-lead hollow point bullet

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Norman L.; Lowden, Richard A.

    2003-04-15

    The non-lead hollow point bullet of the instant invention comprises a mixed construction slug further comprising, a monolithic metal insert having a tapered (preferred conical) hollow point tip and a tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion, and an unsintered powdered metal composite core in tandem alignment with the insert. The core has a hollow tapered (preferred conical) cavity tip portion coupled with the tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion on the insert. An open tip jacket envelops at least a portion of the insert and the core. The jacket is swaged at the open tip.

  6. Complete endoscopic management of a retained bullet in the bladder.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ariella A; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Kaul, Sanjeev; Bhandari, Akshay

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old male gunshot victim presented at our institution with gross hematuria following Foley catheter insertion. Computed tomography and cystogram did not show a bladder perforation, but were notable for a left ischial fracture and the presence of a bullet within the bladder. After failed attempts at retrieving the bullet with a resectoscope and loop, as well as a cystoscope and stone crusher, a 26 French nephroscope was inserted transurethrally, and the bullet was successfully engaged and removed using a Perc NCircle (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) grasper. The extra-peritoneal injury was managed conservatively with catheter drainage. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of successful transurethral management of a retained intravesical bullet. Such an approach may benefit patients with retained intravesical bullets or other challenging intravesical foreign bodies and may be helpful in select circumstances to spare patients from more extensive surgeries. PMID:23671506

  7. Complete endoscopic management of a retained bullet in the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Ariella A.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Kaul, Sanjeev; Bhandari, Akshay

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old male gunshot victim presented at our institution with gross hematuria following Foley catheter insertion. Computed tomography and cystogram did not show a bladder perforation, but were notable for a left ischial fracture and the presence of a bullet within the bladder. After failed attempts at retrieving the bullet with a resectoscope and loop, as well as a cystoscope and stone crusher, a 26 French nephroscope was inserted transurethrally, and the bullet was successfully engaged and removed using a Perc NCircle (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) grasper. The extra-peritoneal injury was managed conservatively with catheter drainage. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of successful transurethral management of a retained intravesical bullet. Such an approach may benefit patients with retained intravesical bullets or other challenging intravesical foreign bodies and may be helpful in select circumstances to spare patients from more extensive surgeries. PMID:23671506

  8. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. PMID:27261363

  9. Performance analysis of bullet trajectory estimation: Approach, simulation, and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L.C.; Karr, T.J.

    1994-11-08

    This paper describes an approach to estimate a bullet`s trajectory from a time sequence of angles-only observations from a high-speed camera, and analyzes its performance. The technique is based on fitting a ballistic model of a bullet in flight along with unknown source location parameters to a time series of angular observations. The theory is developed to precisely reconstruct, from firing range geometry, the actual bullet trajectory as it appeared on the focal plane array and in real space. A metric for measuring the effective trajectory track error is also presented. Detailed Monte-Carlo simulations assuming different bullet ranges, shot-angles, camera frame rates, and angular noise show that angular track error can be as small as 100 {mu}rad for a 2 mrad/pixel sensor. It is also shown that if actual values of bullet ballistic parameters were available, the bullet s source location variables, and the angles of flight information could also be determined.

  10. Firearms, bullets, and wound ballistics: an imaging primer.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Tarek N; Shuaib, Waqas; Han, Tatiana; Mehta, Ajeet; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-07-01

    Based on its intrinsic mass and velocity, a bullet has an upper limit of wounding potential. Actual wound severity is a function of the bullet construction and trajectory, as well as the properties of the tissues traversed. Interpreting physicians must evaluate the bullet trajectory and describe patterns of injury resulting from the effect of energy transfer from the projectile into living tissue. A basic understanding of firearms, projectiles, and wound ballistics can help the interpreting physicians in conceptualizing these injuries and interpreting these cases. PMID:25724396

  11. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOEpatents

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-01-21

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile. 9 figs.

  12. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  13. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  14. [Gunshot injury caused by a training bullet].

    PubMed

    Rabl, W; Markwalder, C

    1992-01-01

    In the course of a scuffle a 50-year old man has been shot by a revolver. The culprit and witnesses state, there has been only one shot, whereas the victim declared having been shot twice. The medico-legal investigation revealed a gunshot wound that passed through the left thigh, a grazing shot of the right hand and a superficial lesion of the skin at the forehead with sprinkled gunshot residue in the epidermis. The investigation confirmed the statement of the victim: the first shot to the forehead was caused by a plastic training cartridge, the second to the right hand and thigh by a cartridge loaded with an ordinary bullet. PMID:1444710

  15. Beyond magic bullets: true innovation in health care.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Vaibhav A; Mohwinckel, Marco; Pisano, Gary; Yang, Michael; Manji, Husseini K

    2013-02-01

    The time has come to move beyond product-focused 'magic bullet' therapeutic development strategies towards models that can also incorporate devices, tools and services to provide integrated health-care solutions. PMID:23370233

  16. Clinical and legal significance of fragmentation of bullets in relation to size of wounds: retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between fragmentation of bullets and size of wounds clinically and in the context of the Hague Declaration of 1899. Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on hospital admissions. Setting Hospitals of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Subjects 5215 people wounded by bullets in armed conflicts (5933 wounds). Main outcome measures Grade of wound computed from the Red Cross wound classification and presence of bullet fragments on radiography. Results Of the 347 wounds with fragmentation of bullets, 251 (72%) were large wounds (grade 2 or 3)—that is, those with a clinically detectable cavity. Of the 5586 wounds without fragmentation of bullets, 2915 (52.1%) were large wounds. Only 7.9% (251/3166) of large wounds were associated with fragmentation of bullets. Conclusions Fragmentation of bullets is associated with large wounds, but most large wounds do not contain bullet fragments. In addition, bullet fragments may occur in wounds that are not defined as large. Fragmentation of bullets is neither a necessary nor sufficient cause of large wounds, and surgeons should not diagnose extensive tissue damage because of the presence of fragments on radiography. Such findings also do not necessarily represent the use of bullets which contravene the law of war. Future legislation should take into account not only the construction of bullets but also their potential to transfer energy to the human body. Key messagesThe use of certain bullets has been prohibited in warWounds from bullets are caused by transfer of kinetic energy from the bullet to the tissuesThe relation between size of wound and fragmentation of bullets can be examined using the Red Cross wound classification system Fragments of bullets seen on radiographs of wounds sustained in wars do not necessarily represent large wounds or the use of illegal bulletsExisting legislation on the construction of bullets should be supplemented by legislation on

  17. The forensic aspects of contemporary disintegrating rifle bullets.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lucien C

    2013-03-01

    A relatively new type of rifle bullet has appeared in the last few years that contains no lead and rapidly disintegrates into very small particles and jacket fragments immediately upon entry into soft tissue. These bullets are intended for use by 'varmint' hunters in high-velocity centerfire rifles where the effect on such animals as prairie dogs, gophers, ground hogs, and other similarly sized animals is nothing short of explosive. The shooting of much larger animals to include human beings will typically result in nonperforating wounds with short wound paths. X-ray views of a decedent or gunshot victim will lack any recognizable bullet or projectile. Only 1 jacket fragment among the many present in the wound tract is suitable for subsequent firearms identification purposes, namely, the small copper disc that represents the base or heel of the bullet jacket. This small circular fragment bears vestiges of the rifling marks of the responsible firearm.This article will aid the forensic pathologist in recognizing gunshot wounds produced by these atypical bullets and the importance of recovering the base portion of the disintegrated bullet jacket. PMID:23361072

  18. The destabilizing effect of body armour on military rifle bullets.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, P J; Sørensen, O H

    1997-01-01

    Soft body armour is designed to give protection against fragments and some low velocity bullets but is not designed to stop high velocity rifle bullets. Reports have claimed that soft body armour might disturb the stability of bullets that penetrate it, and that this might increase the size of the lesions. The reason for such an effect might be early yaw of the bullet, so we studied the behaviour of bullets which had passed through soft body armour. A 7.62 x 39 mm AK-47 rifle was fired from a permanent stand using full metal jacketed lead core bullets at a range of 30 m. Soft body armour composed for 14 and 28 layers of aramid fibres (Kevlar) was placed at 90 degrees and 60 degrees to the line of fire. Yaw was measured by the shadowgraph technique and a TERMA Doppler radar. A total of ten shots without body armour, and ten shots with each of the two types of body armour at the two angles were used. The results of the shadowgraph and Doppler radar measurements showed a proportional correlation between the two methods of determining the bullet yaw. The semiquantitative approach of the Doppler radar measurement was in agreement with the more concise measurement using the photographic technique. Velocity loss and loss of spin rate from penetrating 14 or 28 ply Kevlar was negligible. We observed induced instability after penetration of 14 and particularly 28 ply Kevlar, dependence of yaw with respect to the number of layers of Kevlar as well as to the angle of the body armour with respect to the line of fire. PMID:9168325

  19. Aerial Firing and Stray Bullet Injuries: A Rising Tide

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Asad; Tahir, Syed Mohammad; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Shaikh, Abdul Razaque; Siddique, Akmal Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aerial firing is shooting, using fire arm, into the air usually during a celebration. Objectives: This observational study aimed to quantify magnitude and impact of stray bullet injuries by aerial firing at surgical emergencies of the Liaquat University Hospital (a university hospital), Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from January 2009 to December 2010 (2 years). Patients and Methods: During the study period, 144 firearm injuries due to stray bullet reported to the A and E departments of the university hospital. All patients referred to surgical unit providing emergency cover on that day irrespective of the severity of the injury for medico-legal reasons. For this study, the cases were divided into those having trivial injury and do not require any active surgical intervention and those having serious injury mandating surgical intervention. One hundred and two cases of stray bullet injury sustained trivial injury and followed as outpatients after an overnight period of indoor hospitalization; however, 42 patients with stray bullet injuries requiring surgical intervention were hospitalized. Results: The most common events leading to aerial firing and stray bullet injuries were marriage ceremonies, followed by a political rallies and New Year celebrations. Stray bullet injury also reported after aerial firing on cricket/hockey team victories, Pakistan Independence Day (14th August), cultural day in Sindh and Basant (Kite) festival in Punjab. The most frequent sites with serious stray bullet injury were chest (15), head and neck (10), abdomen (9) and limbs (8), respectively. Surgical interventions performed included chest intubation, exploration of wound tract to retrieve bullet if lodged superficially and was palpable, laparotomy to managed intra-abdominal injury, reduction of fracture site followed by reconstruction, flap reconstruction and graft for nonhealing wound. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19 days. No mortality was observed in this series of

  20. Non-lethal? Penetrating chest injury due to beanbag bullet

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sanjay; Teloken, Patrick Ely; Gilfillan, Ian; Sharma, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of serious lung injury from beanbag bullet. A 46-year-old gentleman, shot with beanbag bullets was brought to the emergency department. Upon arrival he was in obvious respiratory distress and complained of severe pain in the right chest. A 3.0×3.5 cm entry wound on the right parasternal area was identified. Chest x-ray revealed a right haemopneumothorax, parenchymal changes at the right lung base and a radiopaque foreign body. A right-sided intercostal chest tube was inserted, draining air and 750 ml of blood. After stabilisation patient underwent a right thoracotomy. A beanbag bullet was found in the oblique fissure of the right lung, with extensive haematoma of the middle lobe. The bullet and skin fragments overlying the lung and along the bullet track were extracted. The pleural cavity was washed with normal saline and haemostasis was confirmed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery. PMID:23513018

  1. Atypical gunshot wound: Bullet trajectory analyzed by computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Tae; Murray, Richard; Galvan, Dan; Nazim, Muhammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gunshot injuries are a result of a bullet or projectile fired from a weapon that penetrates the body. Homicide, suicide, and occasionally, accidental events are a significant cause of firearm-related injuries. In rare cases, the damage from the gunshot injury can be masked due to an atypical bullet trajectory. Presentation of case A 63-year-old male was found with a gunshot wound to the anterior left knee. Computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a bullet track extending from the anterior aspect of the left knee that traveled cephalad subcutaneously and entered into the peritoneal cavity, perforating the distal descending colon. The bullet was found to be at rest adjacent to the spleen and posterior chest wall, with no injury to the lungs, kidneys or the spleen. The patient required a sigmoid colectomy with descending colostomy and was subsequently discharged home without any complications. Discussion Intra-abdominal organ damage from a gunshot wound to the distal limb is a rare occurrence. Atypical gun shot wounds, such as this case, have the potential for multiple issues including: delayed diagnostic tests, inaccurate radiological readings, and inappropriate medical management. Conclusion If an abnormal trajectory is maintained, it is possible for a bullet to traverse half the length of the body without the patient realizing it. Accurate CT analysis and quick decisions in surgical and medical management are critical takeaways to provide quality care to patients with these injuries. PMID:26263447

  2. Estimating the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum bullet via ballistic experiment.

    PubMed

    Bresson, F; Franck, O

    2009-11-20

    We demonstrate here how the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum FMJ bullet (115gr) has been estimated via shooting experiments. Such a bullet was found by investigators near a concrete wall, fairly distorted at its tip. The bullet carries no evidence of multiple impact and no evidence of ballistic impact on the wall has been reported. We estimated the impact velocity by comparing the questioned bullet with a set of comparison bullets hitting a wall (rigid target) with different velocities. The shooting distance was recovered from the impact velocity by studying the typical behavior of a manufactured 9 mm bullet weighting 115g (7.45g), shot in pistol or a sub-machine gun. The results demonstrated that the questioned bullet was a lost bullet. The shooting distance also helped the investigators, narrowing the range of the estimated positions of the shooter. PMID:19733457

  3. [The determination of the ballistics of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet].

    PubMed

    Svetlakov, A V; Sotin, A V; Nagornov, M N

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are considered to determine the shooting range of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet from the specific features of gunshot injuries inflicted by container-type Poleba-3 bullets for hunting rifles. PMID:25275187

  4. The Influence of Wood Grain on the Bullet's Ricochet Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, Erwin J A T; Alberink, Ivo; Brouwer, Suzanne D; Kerkhoff, Wim

    2016-05-01

    When a bullet ricochets from wood, various parameters will influence its behavior. In this study, the influence of the wood grain on the ricochet angle (β) and deflection angle (γ) is assessed. Series of five .32 Auto bullets were fired at different angles of incidence (α) on boards of six wood types. The results confirm the previously shown effect that the mean β-angles usually exceed α and increase when α increases. Overall, the maximum mean γ occurs when the angle of wood grain (ζ), in relation to the plane of impact, lies between 30° and 75° but differs per combination of wood and α. The results show the inclination of γ toward the left or right, depending on the bullets left or right rotation while also showing that the direction of ζ can enhance or counteract this effect considerably, especially when α is close to the critical ricochet angle. PMID:27122417

  5. Pathophysiology of free-bullet slaughter of horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Bedford, Elisabeth M; Chancellor, Natalie M; Limon, Georgina

    2015-10-01

    Forty-six equines were observed during routine commercial slaughter in an abattoir. The animals were shot once with a .22 calibre long rifle with hollow point rounds. Indicators of sensibility/insensibility were evaluated immediately after the shot (prior to exsanguination) and the resulting pathophysiology of free-bullet injury was assessed. All animals were rendered immediately insensible, with only one pony showing signs of a shallow depth of concussion, with an intermittently positive palpebral reflex but no other signs of brainstem function. All animals (100%) had some degree of damage to the structures of the brainstem or lobes of the cerebrums, while 41 (89%) had damage to the thalamus/hypothalamus. The bullet in one pony missed the brain but still caused mild damage to the thalamus, midbrain, pons and cerebellum, this animal had no signs of sensibility. The findings confirm that free-bullet shooting is an effective dispatch method for horses and ponies. PMID:26093383

  6. TANGENTIAL VELOCITY OF THE DARK MATTER IN THE BULLET CLUSTER FROM PRECISE LENSED IMAGE REDSHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Sandor M.; Broadhurst, Tom; Zitrin, Adi; Rephaeli, Yoel; Shimon, Meir

    2013-09-01

    We show that the fast-moving component of the ''Bullet Cluster'' (1E0657-56) can induce potentially resolvable redshift differences between multiply lensed images of background galaxies. This moving cluster effect, due to the tangential peculiar velocity of the lens, can be expressed as the scalar product of the lensing deflection angle with the tangential velocity of the mass components; the effect is maximal for clusters colliding in the plane of the sky with velocities boosted by their mutual gravity. The Bullet Cluster is likely to be the best candidate for the first measurement of this effect due to the large collision velocity and because the lensing deflection and the cluster fields can be calculated in advance. We derive the deflection field using multiply lensed background galaxies detected with the Hubble Space Telescope. The velocity field is modeled using self-consistent N-body/hydrodynamical simulations constrained by the observed X-ray and gravitational lensing features of this system. We predict that the triply lensed images of systems ''G'' and ''H'' straddling the critical curve of the bullet component will show the largest frequency shifts up to {approx}0.5 km s{sup -1}. These shifts are within the range of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array for molecular emission, and are near the resolution limit of the new generation high-throughput optical-IR spectrographs. The detection of this effect measures the tangential motion of the subclusters directly, thereby clarifying the tension with {Lambda}CDM, which is inferred from the gas motion less directly. This method may be extended to smaller redshift differences using the Ly{alpha} forest toward QSOs lensed by more typical clusters of galaxies. More generally, the tangential component of the peculiar velocities of clusters derived by our method complements the radial component determined by the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, providing a full three-dimensional description of

  7. Endoscopic Removal of a Bullet in Rosenmuller Fossa: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Joshua D.; Glenn, Chad A.; Conner, Andrew K.; Bonney, Phillip A.; Sanclement, Jose A.; Sughrue, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Fractures of the anterior skull base may occur in gunshot victims and can result in traumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Less commonly, CSF leaks occur days or even weeks after the trauma occurred. Here, we present the case of a 21-year-old man with a delayed-onset, traumatic CSF leak secondary to a missile injury that left a bullet fragment in the Rosenmuller fossa. The patient was treated successfully with endoscopic, endonasal extraction of the bullet, and repair with a nasal septal flap. Foreign bodies lodged in Rosenmuller fossa can be successfully treated with endoscopic skull base surgery. PMID:27330924

  8. RX-26-AY/AF rifle bullet tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    A series of rifle bullet tests was performed on two explosives, RX-26-AY and RX-26-AF, using the Pantex version of the Picatinny Arsenal Test (PA-2). With the exception of one test, both explosives displayed a relatively low sensitivity to bullet impact. However, a marked difference was noted in the average burn time duration between the two types of explosives being tested. A minor modification was made on the rifle barrel used at the test site in order to improve the sighting procedure.

  9. RX-26-AW/AX rifle bullet tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    A series of rifle bullet tests was performed at the request of LLL for two explosives, RX-26-AW and RX-26-AX, using the Pantex version of the Picatinny Arsenal test (PA-2). Both exposives tested displayed essentially the same low sensitivity to bullet impact. Slow burning of the explosive was the highest order of reaction observed. Also, in a continuing effort to improve the capability of the test facility, different rifle sighting and shot alignment procedures were implemented during this test series.

  10. An Elusive Bullet in the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Rare Case of Bullet Embolism in the Gastrointestinal Tract and a Review of Relevant Literature

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Saptarshi

    2014-01-01

    Bullet embolism within the gastrointestinal system is extremely rare. Such bullet injuries are infrequently covered in the general literature, but the surgeon should be aware of the phenomenon. Smaller caliber bullets are more common in civilian gunshot wound (GSW) events. These bullets are able to tumble through the gastrointestinal tract and cause perforation of the intestinal lumen which is small enough to be easily missed. Bullets retained in the abdominal cavity should not be dismissed as fixed and should be carefully monitored to ensure that they do not embolize within the bowel and cause occult lesions during their migration. We present a unique case wherein a bullet caused a minute perforation in the small bowel, before migrating to the distal colon, which resulted in late presentation of sepsis secondary to peritonitis. PMID:24829839

  11. Elemental analysis of gunshot residue to differentiate bullet type and firing distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Christine Ella

    Gunshot residue (GSR) was deposited on porcine tissue with hand loaded non-jacketed (NJ) and full-jacketed (FJ) ammunition at two different firing distances. Fresh tissue samples, as well as samples collected throughout decomposition were microwave digested in nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the elemental composition of the GSR. Element concentrations for lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were statistically compared in order to investigate differentiation of bullet type and firing distance based on chemical concentrations in the GSR. Control (unshot) samples were collected in order to assess for environmental contaminants. Results of this study demonstrated that ICP-OES was adequate to detect the characteristic elements of GSR in fresh tissue, but was not sensitive enough to detect all elements throughout decomposition. Lead and Sb were significantly greater in NJ samples. Barium was useful in differentiating firing distance for both bullet types, while Cu was used to differentiate firing distance in FJ ammunition only. Analysis using ICP-MS, which has detection limits up to three orders of magnitude lower compared to ICP-OES, demonstrated the persistence of Pb, Sb, and Ba on porcine tissue throughout decomposition at a firing distance of 5 cm for both NJ and FJ ammunition.

  12. Ten Years of Silver Bullets: Dissenting Thoughts on Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Wade A.

    2000-01-01

    Countless good ideas, research, and reforms (silver bullets) have yielded only modest improvement, suggesting problems of research (dogma, design, duration, and domain) and problems of distribution--expanded teacher responsibility. This article recommends revamping teacher education, remediating or firing incompetent teachers, and reducing class…

  13. The silver bullet myth of sustainable energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualetti, Martin J.; Tabbert, Michael K.; Boscamp, Robert L.

    2010-10-15

    Especially in the U.S., people like to think that solving problems just requires finding the proper ''silver bullet.'' Such fixes are not sustainable. Any utility company wanting sustainable long-term savings in personal energy demand requires a more thorough commitment that might be referred to as ''head'' (education), ''heart'' (motivation), and ''hands'' (action). (author)

  14. 7. BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOW AT GROUND LEVEL ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOW AT GROUND LEVEL ON WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. U. S. bites greenhouse bullet and gags

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1991-02-22

    Delegates from more than 100 countries gathered in Chantilly, VA for the first meeting of the UN-sponsored Intergovernmental Convention on Climate Change and reached an agreement on their organizational structure for negotiating how to reduce global warming. However, the commitment of the US to reduce the release of CO{sub 2} emission was very disappointing. The US attitude toward CO{sub 2} emission is totally unchanged, and US policy includes no provision other than those already in place to reduce the greenhouse gases. The plan of the administration to take action now to reduce climate changes really includes only the administrations already announced intentions to stabilize the greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. The administration is not yet fully convinced that there is substantial scientific evidence supporting greenhouse warming, and there is general concern that the economic costs of moderating the greenhouse effect might be excessive. There is a good measure of free market ideology involved in the US policy of opposition to reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. In fact, CO{sub 2} emissions in the US are predicted to rise by 15% by the year 2000.

  16. Death following rubber bullet wounds to the chest: case report.

    PubMed

    Kalebi, A; Olumbe, A K O

    2005-07-01

    The rubber bullet has been portrayed as a non-lethal weapon and has gained preference in riot-control over live ammunition. Despite the fact that it was designed to be safer than live ammunition, several cases of fatalities have been reported from its use. Most of these fatalities were because of abuse of the weapon in terms of range of fire and anatomical area of the body targeted. This is a case report of such a fatality following shotgun rubber bullet injury, including the circumstance surrounding this unusual occurrence, the autopsy findings and reports of the ballistic analysis. Four projectiles penetrated the right chest lodging in the right lung and injuring the right pulmonary artery, causing death. The mechanism of death in this case is rapid massive pulmonary haemorrhage. PMID:16167715

  17. Lead poisoning from retained bullets. Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed Central

    Linden, M A; Manton, W I; Stewart, R M; Thal, E R; Feit, H

    1982-01-01

    Lead intoxication (plumbism) from retained bullets has rarely been reported but may be fatal if unrecognized. Bullets lodged within joint spaces or pseudocysts are more likely to develop this complication, although patients with retained missiles in other locations may also be at risk. Subtle findings such as the occurrence of unexplained anemia, abdominal colic, nephropathy, or neurologic deterioration in patients with retained missiles may suggest consideration of plumbism. An intercurrent metabolic stress such as infection, endocrinopathy, or alcoholism may be a precipitating factor. Among the various diagnostic studies available, mass spectrometric stable isotope dilution analysis may be the most reliable. It is important to employ chelation therapy prior to any operative intervention. This will reduce the mobilization of lead from bone during or following the surgical procedure. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:6800314

  18. Deep observation of A2163: studying a new bullet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Herve

    2011-10-01

    Exhibiting a clear spatial separation between the gas and dark matter component of a fastly accreted subcluster, the `bullet cluster', 1E 0657-56, has provided us a unique laboratory to investigate the impact of violent cluster mergers on the Intra-Cluster Medium, galaxies and dark matter properties. In recent analyses of X-ray, optical and weak-lensing data, we show that the massive cluster A2163 also exhibits a crossing gas bullet separated from a galaxy and dark matter over-density, and suggest that both A2163 and 1E 0657-56 share a common merging scenario possibly just differing in the time elapsed after the closest cluster encounters. With this deeper XMM observation of A2163, we propose to refine our knowledge of the dynamics and geometry of the on-going subcluster accretion.

  19. Deep observation of A2163: studying a new "bullet cluster"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Herve

    2010-10-01

    Exhibiting a clear spatial spatial separation between the gas and dark matter component of a fastly accreted sub-cluster, the bullet cluster , 1E 0657-56, has provided us a unique laboratory to investigate the impact of violent cluster mergers on the Intra-Cluster Medium, galaxies and dark matter properties. In recent analyses of X-ray, optical and weak-lensing data, we show that the massive cluster A2163 also exhibits a crossing gas bullet separated from a galaxy and dark matter over-density, and suggest that both A2163 and 1E 0657-56 share a common merging scenario possibly just differing in the time elapsed after the closest cluster encounters. With this deeper XMM observation of A2163, we propose to refine our knowledge of the dynamics and geometry of the on-going sub-cluster accretion.

  20. Laparoscopic Bullet Removal in a Penetrating Abdominal Gunshot.

    PubMed

    Stefanou, Christos; Zikos, Nicolaos; Pappas-Gogos, George; Koulas, Spyridon; Tsimoyiannis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal trauma has been traditionally treated by exploratory laparotomy. Nowadays laparoscopy has become an accepted practice in hemodynamically stable patient without signs of peritonitis. We report a case of a lower anterior abdominal gunshot patient treated laparoscopically. A 32-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with complaint of gunshot penetrating injury at left lower anterior abdominal wall. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination we identified 1 cm diameter entry wound at the left lower abdominal wall. The imaging studies showed the bullet in the peritoneal cavity but no injured intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera. We decided to remove the bullet laparoscopically. Twenty-four hours after the intervention the patient was discharged. The decision for managing gunshot patients should be based on clinical and diagnostic findings. Anterior abdominal injuries in a stable patient without other health problems can be managed laparoscopically. PMID:27525150

  1. Laparoscopic Bullet Removal in a Penetrating Abdominal Gunshot

    PubMed Central

    Koulas, Spyridon; Tsimoyiannis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal trauma has been traditionally treated by exploratory laparotomy. Nowadays laparoscopy has become an accepted practice in hemodynamically stable patient without signs of peritonitis. We report a case of a lower anterior abdominal gunshot patient treated laparoscopically. A 32-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with complaint of gunshot penetrating injury at left lower anterior abdominal wall. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination we identified 1 cm diameter entry wound at the left lower abdominal wall. The imaging studies showed the bullet in the peritoneal cavity but no injured intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera. We decided to remove the bullet laparoscopically. Twenty-four hours after the intervention the patient was discharged. The decision for managing gunshot patients should be based on clinical and diagnostic findings. Anterior abdominal injuries in a stable patient without other health problems can be managed laparoscopically. PMID:27525150

  2. Delayed migration of a bullet from loin to scrotum

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Gouranga; Das, Nandini; Bain, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a rare case of migration of a foreign body has occurred from loin to scrotum. A 35-year-old male patient presented with right sided scrotal mass, on exploration it was found to be a metallic bullet. The patient had a history of gunshot injury in his loin 8 years back and was treated conservatively that time. The probable explanation to this mysterious incident may be that, the bullet might have entered the peritoneal cavity through the loin, but did not cause any extensive damage, so the patient well responded to the initial conservative management. With time, due to changes in abdominal pressure or may be due to gravitational force, it had migrated to the dependent scrotum through the patent processus vaginalis. So, this case signifies that a foreign body can migrate through the body planes and get settled far from the primary place. PMID:26958528

  3. Method of making a non-lead hollow point bullet

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Norman L.; Lowden, Richard A.

    2003-10-07

    The method of making a non-lead hollow point bullet has the steps of a) compressing an unsintered powdered metal composite core into a jacket, b) punching a hollow cavity tip portion into the core, c) seating an insert, the insert having a hollow point tip and a tail protrusion, on top of the core such that the tail protrusion couples with the hollow cavity tip portion, and d) swaging the open tip of the jacket.

  4. Coal-Gen attendees hear there's no magic bullet

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-15

    Those attending COAL-GEN 2007 in August heard that there is no magic bullet for meeting the energy and infrastructure needs facing the USA. The article reports on the conference which addressed topics including development of supercritical circulating fluidized bed coal unit; IGCC projects, the importance of including carbon capture and sequestration, and the need to attract and train personnel to work in the power industry. 3 photos.

  5. Janus "nano-bullets" for magnetic targeting liver cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dan; Li, Jing; Zheng, Xiao; Pan, Yue; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Qi-Xian; Dong, Wen-Fei; Chen, Li

    2016-09-01

    Tumor-targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs with controlled drug release function has been recognized as a promising strategy for pursuit of increased chemotherapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects. Development of magnetic nanoparticulates as delivery carriers to accommodate cytotoxic drugs for liver cancer treatment has evoked immense interest with respect to their convenience in biomedical application. Herein, we engineered multifunctional Janus nanocomposites, characterized by a head of magnetic Fe3O4 and a body of mesoporous SiO2 containing doxorubicin (DOX) as "nano-bullets" (M-MSNs-DOX). This nanodrug formulation possessed nanosize with controlled aspect-ratio, defined abundance in pore structures, and superior magnetic properties. M-MSN-DOX was determined to induce selective growth inhibition to the cancer cell under magnetic field rather than human normal cells due to its preferable endocytosis by the tumor cells and pH-promoted DOX release in the interior of cancer cells. Ultimately, both subcutaneous and orthotropic liver tumor models in mice have demonstrated that the proposed Janus nano-bullets imposed remarkable suppression of the tumor growth and significantly reduced systematic toxicity. Taken together, this study demonstrates an intriguing targeting strategy for liver cancer treatment based on a novel Janus nano-bullet, aiming for utilization of nanotechnology to obtain safe and efficient treatment of liver cancer. PMID:27258482

  6. Estimation of bullet striation similarity using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Banno, Atsuhiko

    2004-05-01

    A new method that searches for similar striation patterns using neural networks is described. Neural networks have been developed based on the human brain, which is good at pattern recognition. Therefore, neural networks would be expected to be effective in identifying striated toolmarks on bullets. The neural networks used in this study deal with binary signals derived from striation images. This signal plays a significant role in identification, because this signal is the key to the individually of the striations. The neural network searches a database for similar striations by means of these binary signals. The neural network used here is a multilayer network consisting of 96 neurons in the input layer, 15 neurons in the middle, and one neuron in the output layer. Two signals are inputted into the network and a score is estimated based on the similarity of these signals. For this purpose, the network is assigned to a previous learning. To initially test the validity of the procedure, the network identifies artificial patterns that are randomly produced on a personal computer. The results were acceptable and showed robustness for the deformation of patterns. Moreover, with ten unidentified bullets and ten database bullets, the network consistently was able to select the correct pair. PMID:15171166

  7. Ricochet of a bullet in the spinal canal: a case report and review of the literature on bullet migration.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Audrey; Raul, Jean-sébastien; Géraut, Annie; Ludes, Bertrand

    2010-09-01

    Ricochet of a bullet in the spinal canal is well known by neurosurgeons but relatively not a common event in usual medico-legal autopsy practice. This article presents a homicide case of a penetrating gunshot injury of the lumbar spine through the T12-L1 intervertebral foramen with active movement of the projectile within the spinal canal to the L5-S1 level. This case illustrates a bullet intradural and intramedullary active movement because of a ricochet of the body of T12 with active redirection of the path. In the current literature, different types of migration in caudal or cranial direction, intradural, or intramedullary are reported. If spontaneous migration of T10 to S1 seems to be more frequent, some authors reported a C1 to S2 migration. Such migration could be asymptomatic or induce neurological impairment. The medico-legal consequences of these migrations within the spinal canal are described. PMID:20456577

  8. [Wounding capacity of bullets after ricochet from sand or concrete (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sellier, K

    1976-08-26

    Investigation is made upon the ricochet of different bullets (full jacketed and soft nosed) from concrete or sand. The deformation resp. disintegration of the bullets depends on the target material, on the design of the bullet and on the striking velocity. The major resulting bullet fragments are classified following their depth of penetration into pinewood, thus giving an approximate measure of their danger to man. The relation between angle of impact, angle of ricochet and the criteria mentioned above is shown in graphs. PMID:961073

  9. Trajectory reconstruction from trace evidence on spent bullets. I. Deposits from intermediate targets.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Hoekstra, A; Schmidt, P F

    2001-08-01

    Contact of a fired bullet with an intermediate target of sufficient resistance commonly causes the bullet to ricochet, fragment or perforate together with a deviation in trajectory. The transfer of intermediate target material to bullets and subsequent detection on the bullet surface after recovery from a bullet collector, were examined using a scanning electron microscope and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS). A total of 76 gunshots (9 mm Luger FMJ RN bullets) were fired at various intermediate targets and at combinations of intermediate targets and tissue located in line. Elements already present on unfired bullets and elements from the bullet collector, the jacket, the charge and primer could be consistently detected as a "background". Abundant deposits of "fragile" (brittle) materials such as concrete, flat glass, asphalt and gypsum board could be visualised on every bullet by SEM. The transfer dynamics involved a direct imprint of target material on the bullet surface and thus preferential locations at the tip but also indirect deposition over the entire surface ("powder effect"). X-ray microanalysis demonstrated matching spectra of the elemental composition of these deposits and of the targets contacted. After perforation of "ductile" (flexible) materials such as wood and car body parts, the deposits on the bullets did not show characteristic spectra. If multi-layered car metal targets were hit, few and uncharacteristic fragments were scattered over the bullet surface and titanium indicative of paint-work could be determined on only a minority of bullets. The elemental composition of wood itself was heterogeneous but the fibrous morphology of the deposits was typical. The SEM/EDS findings in gunshots including subsequent perforation of tissue were similar. In particular, the trace evidence primarily transferred to the bullets was not eliminated by secondary contact and the determination of the fragile target materials was not affected. So when

  10. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Longfei; Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Niu, Jinhai; Liu, Dongping

    2015-08-01

    This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC), peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.

  11. Viability of Bismuth as a Green Substitute for Lead in Jacketed .357 Magnum Revolver Bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Joel

    In seeking to develop environmentally friendly lead-free non-toxic bullets, the research ballistically evaluated the performance of copper-jacketed handgun bullets containing a pure bismuth core. The lead was first removed from 140 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM bullets of 38 caliber (.357 diameter) by melting. The empty jackets were then refilled with pure bismuth, including the forming of a correctly sized hollow-point cavity. Due to the lower density of bismuth as compared to lead, the bismuth-cored bullets consistently weighed 125 gains. Conveniently this allowed direct comparison to commercially available 125 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM lead-cored bullets of 38 caliber. Both bismuth-cored and lead-cored versions of the 125 grain bullets had identical nose dimensions and jacket material, the only dimensional difference being the bullet length below the cannelure. Shooting took place at an outdoor range using a 357 Magnum Ruger(TM) SP101RTM revolver with 3" barrel as the test weapon. FBI protocols were followed when firing through clothing, wallboard, plywood, steel plates and laminated glass. Wound paths and bullets were captured in ballistic gelatin, with data collected for velocity, penetration, expansion, and weight retention. Bismuth compared favorably with lead in all but the laminated glass test, where it under penetrated due to jacket separation.

  12. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Longfei; Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Niu, Jinhai; Liu, Dongping

    2015-08-15

    This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC), peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.

  13. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    PubMed

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetiuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials. PMID:26036066

  14. The experimental and numerical investigation of pistol bullet penetrating soft tissue simulant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjuan; Shi, Xiaoning; Chen, Aijun; Xu, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Gelatin, a representative simulant for soft tissue of the human body, was used to study the effects of 9 mm pistol bullet's penetration. The behavior of a bullet penetrating gelatin was quantified by the temporary cavity sizes in ballistic gelatin and the pressure values of bullet's impact. A numerical simulation model of a bullet penetrating the soft tissue simulant gelatin was built using the finite element method (FEM). The model was validated by the comparison between the numerical results and the experimental results. During a bullet penetrating ballistic gelatin, four stages were clearly observed in both the experiment and the numerical simulation: a smooth attenuation stage, a rolling stage, a full penetration stage, and a stage of expansion and contraction. The cavity evolution, equivalent stress field and the strain field in gelatin were analyzed by numerical simulation. Moreover, the effects of the bullet's impact velocities and angles of incidence on the temporary cavity in gelatin, its velocity attenuation, and its rolling angle were investigated, as well as the bullet's resistance and energy variation. The physical process and the interactive mechanism during a pistol bullet penetrating gelatin were comprehensively revealed. This may be significant for research in wound ballistics. PMID:25747327

  15. Endoscopic Removal of a Bullet Penetrating the Middle Cranial Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Neal U.; Riley, Kristen O.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of intracranial retained foreign bodies are relatively rare in the literature. Such objects can cause numerous complications requiring removal, such as infection, persistent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, or new-onset seizures. The transnasal endoscopic approach provides an excellent alternative to craniotomy for repairing middle cranial fossa (MCF) defects. We describe a case of a 57-year-old woman with a self-inflicted bullet piercing the MCF, creating a persistent CSF leak. The details regarding the removal of this penetrating foreign body from the MCF, including the unique management in the setting of a contralateral spontaneous CSF leak, are discussed. PMID:23984202

  16. Minimum cause--maximum effect: the travelogue of a bullet.

    PubMed

    Hartert, Marc; Dahm, Manfred; Neufang, Achim; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich

    2010-11-01

    This case report involves a 57-year-old male, accidentally shot in the chest with a small bore firearm. The bullet entered the left hemithorax, disrupting the left internal mammarian artery. It then penetrated the anterior wall of the right ventricle causing a pericardial tamponade. After leaving the base of the right heart it perforated the diaphragm, the liver, the spleen and the pancreas. Finally, it penetrated the abdominal aorta 3 cm proximally to the coeliac trunk and reached its final position paravertebrally. This case report illustrates that the management of even minimum gunshot wounds requires a maximum variety of surgical skills. PMID:20709697

  17. Late arthroscopic retrieval of a bullet from hip joint

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi K; Aggarwal, Varun

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of arthroscopic retrieval of a bullet from the hip joint of an 18-year-old boy, who sustained the injury four months back, accidentally, while bird hunting with a country made shotgun. The surgery was performed with the standard ordinary instrumentation of knee arthroscopy. The patient became pain-free the same evening and started partial weight bearing on the next day of surgery. At 13 months follow-up, the patient had returned to normal activity without any functional limitations. PMID:19838396

  18. Evolution of live training by the implementation of an electronic bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, David; Mann, John; Sherrill, Todd; Kraus, Matt; Lyons, Jeff; York, Allen

    2007-04-01

    In live force-on-force direct fire training, simulated munitions are used instead of live munitions. Simulated munitions are typically modeled using laser systems such as the Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES). Replacing the laser with an electronic message (also known as an electronic bullet or e-bullet) sent over a network is becoming feasible due to advances in sensors, communications, and computing. The e-bullet engagement methodology uses weapon location, orientation, and adjudication algorithms. Technical challenges in implementation include having accurate weapon and target location and orientation, network bandwidth, and terrain database resolution. This paper discusses issues and challenges using an e-bullet and laser/e-bullet hybrids for delivery accuracy and damage assessment. We will also present an engagement methodology robust enough to evolve with advances in technology.

  19. The Critical Angle for Perforation versus Ricochet of a .38 CAL. LRN Bullet on a Windshield.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Shunsuke; Saimoto, Akihide; Ishimatsu, Takakazu

    2016-07-01

    From forensic point of view, it is important to clarify the condition whether ricochet or perforate for a bullet fired toward the automobile windshield. The purpose of this study was to specify the critical angle at which the ricochet of the fired bullet takes place. To estimate the result of firing, a rigid-body dynamics simulation of the bullet together with the test-firing using .38 CAL. LRN bullet was examined. It was found both from numerical simulation and firing test that when the incidence angle is <45°, a complete perforation of the windshield was observed, whereas the bullet ricocheted remaining a characteristic damage on the windshield when the incidence angle is >60°. To measure the static failure resistance of various windshields, static indentation test was also examined. PMID:27364291

  20. Pilot study of automated bullet signature identification based on topography measurements and correlations.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wei; Song, John; Vorburger, Theodore; Yen, James; Ballou, Susan; Bachrach, Benjamin

    2010-03-01

    A procedure for automated bullet signature identification is described based on topography measurements using confocal microscopy and correlation calculation. Automated search and retrieval systems are widely used for comparison of firearms evidence. In this study, 48 bullets fired from six different barrel manufacturers are classified into different groups based on the width class characteristic for each land engraved area of the bullets. Then the cross-correlation function is applied both for automatic selection of the effective correlation area, and for the extraction of a 2D bullet profile signature. Based on the cross-correlation maximum values, a list of top ranking candidates against a ballistics signature database of bullets fired from the same model firearm is developed. The correlation results show a 9.3% higher accuracy rate compared with a currently used commercial system based on optical reflection. This suggests that correlation results can be improved using the sequence of methods described here. PMID:20102451

  1. Guiding ultraslow weak-light bullets with Airy beams in a coherent atomic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of guiding stable ultraslow weak-light bullets by using Airy beams in a cold, lifetime-broadened four-level atomic system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We show that under EIT condition the light bullet with ultraslow propagating velocity and extremely low generation power formed by the balance between diffraction and nonlinearity in the probe field can be not only stabilized but also steered by the assisted field. In particular, when the assisted field is taken to be an Airy beam, the light bullet can be trapped into the main lobe of the Airy beam, propagate ultraslowly in longitudinal direction, accelerate in transverse directions, and move along a parabolic trajectory. We further show that the light bullet can bypass an obstacle when guided by two sequential Airy beams. A technique for generating ultraslow helical weak-light bullets is also proposed.

  2. Three dimensional visualization and comparison of impressions on fired bullets.

    PubMed

    Banno, Atsuhiko; Masuda, Tomohito; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    2004-03-10

    Currently, optical devices, such as microscopes and CCD cameras, are utilized for identification of bullets and tool marks in the field of forensic science. While these optical methods are easily manageable and effective, they are under great influence of illumination condition. In other words, appearances of striations through these optical devices have possibility to be changed by lighting condition. Besides these appearance-based approaches, we can utilize three dimensional (3D) geometric data of tool marks that are free from lighting condition. In this study, we focused on 3D geometric data of landmark impressions on fired bullets for identification. We obtained the 3D surface data of tool marks by a confocal microscope and reconstructed virtual impressions on a PC monitor from the geometric data. Furthermore, the 3D data are exploited to numerical matching of two surface shapes. We also visualized the difference of two shapes. In order to do this, two surface models are aligned automatically. In this process, pairings of correspondent points on both surfaces are determined. Distance analysis between these pairs leads to a shape comparison. Since comparison results are visualized, they are intuitive and easily perceptive. PMID:15036444

  3. Evaluating The Gray Scale Response Difference Associated With Bullet Comparisons Using Optical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Victoria J.

    Firearms examiners have long been interested in a method that would image the striae of a bullet so that it could be entered into a database for subsequent comparison to other bullets. As the development, use, and application of these databases grew so did the problems associated with them. The algorithms were breaking down and the software was not functioning at the level of precision expected by firearms examiners, thus analysts stopped using the databases and returned to the traditional laborious methods of bullet analysis using the comparison microscope. However, the use of the comparison microscope is not without its own set of limits. When using a comparison microscope two separate stages with two separate light sources are necessary, because the determination of the distribution of striae on a bullet is sensitive to bullet position and orientation. It is suggested that many of the problems associated with bullet based database systems are directly related to methods in which images are captured, along with the number and type of images. The goal of this research was to ultimately determine if bullet comparisons using optical microscopic imaging were possible, rather than live bullet-to-bullet comparisons. Once that was determined, we set out to identify which microscope would produce the best results for bullet comparison utilizing captured images, and the minimum number of images that should be taken of a single land impression to account for all potential variations in bullet profiles. To identify profile measurement error inherent in orientation, rotational and translational miss-orientation, we measured the profile of an NIST SRM 2460 standard bullet miss- oriented in systematic ways using a light microscope. We then repeated these measurements with a Zeta 3D-20 optical microscope and a Leica FSC comparison microscope; to determine which microscope produced the greatest correspondence for miss-oriented NIST bullet profiles. The method applied utilized

  4. Magnetic Remanence Recorded in the Bullet and Its Relation to Meteorite Entry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takac, M.; Kletetschka, G.

    2014-12-01

    The direction in which the bullet was fired and by analogy a movement in which meteorite deccelerated during its atmosphere entry is often a mystery. We are solving this topic using guns and magnetic properties of projectiles. We use magnetic remanence as a tool to reconstruct at least part of the history of moving bodies. We are trying to characterize magnetic acquisition/loss of the bullets and than use acquired knowledge for bullet and meteorite tracing. The bullet is heated to high temperature by hot gases during firing. As it cools it gets its unique remanent magnetization signature. A unique signature is made out of multiple magnetic vectors, which are related to both direction of the geomagnetic field and direction of the trajectory of the projectile. The information provided by remanent magnetization can be used to retrieve at least some characteristics of the trajectory of the projectile. A similar process applies to meteorites, which are heated after entry into the atmosphere. Measurement results from bullets are being used for understanding the final history of meteorite descend. Our research is carried out experimentally. We made system for bullet magnetic modification that we use to track specific process of magnetic acquisition/loss. We have found significant potential in their magnetic remanence acquisition by choosing specific magnetic carriers and their grain size as part of the bullet composition.

  5. Meteorite Movement during deceleration Studied Analogically with Magnetic Remanence in the Bullet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takac, M.; Kletetschka, G.

    2015-12-01

    A movement in which meteorite deccelerated during its atmosphere entry is often a mystery. We are solving this topic using guns and magnetic properties of projectiles. Meteorite is experimentally replaced by bullet.We use magnetic remanence as a tool to reconstruct at least part of the history of moving bodies. We are trying to characterize magnetic acquisition/loss of the bullets and than use acquired knowledge for bullet and meteorite tracing. The bullet is heated to high temperature by hot gases during firing. As it cools it gets its unique remanent magnetization signature. A similar process applies to meteorites, which are heated after entry into the atmosphere. A unique signature is made out of multiple magnetic vectors, which are related to both direction of the geomagnetic field and direction of the trajectory of the projectile. Measurement results from bullets are being used for understanding the final history of meteorite descend. The information provided by remanent magnetization can be used to retrieve at least some characteristics of the trajectory of the projectile. Our research is carried out experimentally. We made system for bullet magnetic modification that we use to track specific process of magnetic acquisition/loss. We have found significant potential in their magnetic remanence acquisition by choosing specific magnetic carriers and their grain size as part of the bullet composition.

  6. Quantitative/Statistical Approach to Bullet-to-Firearm Identification with Consecutively Manufactured Barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Striupaitis; R.E. Gaensslen

    2005-01-30

    Efforts to use objective image comparison and bullet scanning technologies to distinguish bullets from consecutively manufactured handgun barrels from two manufacturers gave mixed results. The ability of a technology to reliably distinguish between matching and non-matching bullets, where the non-matching bullets were as close in pattern to the matching ones as is probably possible, would provide evidence that the distinctions could be made ''objectively'', and independently of human eyes. That evidence is identical or very close to what seems to be needed to satisfy Daubert standards. It is fair to say that the FTI IBIS image comparison technology correctly distinguished between all the Springfield barrel bullets, and between most but not all of the HiPoint barrel bullets. In the HiPoint cases that were not distinguished 100% of the time, they would he distinguished correctly at least 83% of the time. These results, although obviously limited to the materials used in the comparisons, provide strong evidence that barrel-to-bullet matching is objectively reliable. The results with SciClops were less compelling. The results do not mean that bullet-to-barrel matching is not objectively reliable--rather, they mean that this version of the particular technology could not quite distinguish between these extremely similar yet different bullets as well as the image comparison technology did. In a number of cases, the numerical results made the correct distinctions, although they were close to one another. It is hard to say from this data that this technology differs in its ability to make distinctions between the manufacturers, because the results are very similar with both. The human examiner results were as expected. We did not expect any misidentifications, and there were not any. It would have been preferable to have a higher return rate, and thus more comparisons in the overall sample. As noted, the ''consecutively manufactured barrel exercise'' has been done before

  7. Terminal ballistics of 7.62 mm NATO bullets: experiments in ordnance gelatin.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, P J; Vigsnaes, J S; Rasmussen, R; Nissen, P S

    1995-01-01

    Military rifle bullets are assumed to tumble 180 degrees in the target and end up facing backwards, but intact. It has been claimed, however, that a German version of the 7.62 mm x 51 (7.62 mm NATO) bullet may fragment at ranges up to 100 m. A lack of strength in the jacket, causing it to break at the cannelure when hitting the target at high impact velocity, has been held responsible for this behaviour. The Danish Armed Forces use a 7.62 mm x 51 bullet, produced by Ammunitionsarsenalet (AMA), which is similar in design. Since the legality of this and similar bullets may be questioned in view of the Hague Declaration of 1899, we decided to supplement an investigation of actual fatal cases with an investigation using ordnance gelatin. In order to compare various makes of bullets on an equal basis, they were fired into ordnance gelatin at various ranges and, consequently with various impact velocities. Bullets manufactured by the US Government, Bofors (Sweden), Raufoss (Norway) and AMA were used. The AMA bullet M/75 used previously was found to fragment at ranges up to approx. 100 m, corresponding to impact velocities of approx. 715 m/sec, while all the other 3 types of bullets were intact at ranges down to 2.5 m, corresponding to impact velocities of approx. 810 m/sec. The final prototype of an AMA bullet to answer this criticism proved capable of withstanding fragmentation as well as the foreign makes previously tested. It will enter series production in late 1995. PMID:8547160

  8. A metallurgical review of the interpretation of bullet lead compositional analysis.

    PubMed

    Randich, Erik; Duerfeldt, Wayne; McLendon, Wade; Tobin, William

    2002-07-17

    Comparison of the minor and trace element compositions of bullet lead alloys has been used by some forensic examiners to make definitive positive associations between bullets or lead fragments at a crime scene and samples of bullets linked to a suspect(s). Such conclusions have been based on the elemental analysis of isolated groups of bullets with no consideration of the metallurgical processes involved in the production and refining of the bullet lead alloys. An understanding of the metallurgy of lead refining reveals that the elements quantified in the forensic analysis are carefully controlled in the refining process and that there are logical reasons why some elements are more discriminatory than others. Data for lead alloys supplied to two major ammunition manufacturers confirm that multiple indistinguishable shipments of lead alloys from secondary lead refiners to the ammunition manufacturers are made each year and over a period of many years. The data also demonstrate that distinguishable compositions can come from the same melt or "source" of lead alloy. These results clearly indicate that bullets with indistinguishable compositions could have come from different lead "sources" produced in the same or different years. Furthermore, the observation that two bullets have a distinguishable composition does not necessarily mean that they came from a different "source". Our results show that the forensic examiner using a method of bullet lead alloy elemental analysis, which quantifies up to six elements is restricted to concluding only that indistinguishable bullets might have come from the same "source," not that they did come from the same "source". In addition, it is quite possible that multiple bullets with similar but distinguishable compositions could have come from the same "source". The authors therefore feel that there is no scientific validity to any conclusions more positive than attributing the possible association as to molten source among bullets

  9. [A singular bullet run in a firearm wound in the neck. A case report].

    PubMed

    Martino, Antonio; De Rienzo, Dino; Evangelista, Marco; La Rocca, Francesco; Maharajan, Gautam; Martino, Giovanni; Sacco, Maria Lucia; Scaglione, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the peculiarities of a firearm wound regarding the dynamic of the accident and particularly considering the path followed by the bullet. The patient's firearm wound is described on the basis of the instrumental examinations done. These last give us a precious help to confirm the thesis, already guessed on the clinical examination of an introduction and path followed through the digestive tract, and to show the dynamics and the still positions of the bullet inside the patient's body. The bullet was expelled spontaneously by defecation. After control of no internal damages this firearm wound has been treated simply as a normal tip wound. PMID:19681298

  10. Type Ia supernova remnants: shaping by iron bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsebrenko, Danny; Soker, Noam

    2015-10-01

    Using 2D numerical hydrodynamical simulations of Type Ia supernova remnants (SNR Ia) we show that iron clumps few times denser than the rest of the SN ejecta might form protrusions in an otherwise spherical SNR. Such protrusions exist in some SNR Ia, e.g. SNR 1885 and Tycho. Iron clumps are expected to form in the deflagration to detonation explosion model. In SNR Ia where there are two opposite protrusions, termed `ears', such as Kepler's SNR and SNR G1.9+0.3, our scenario implies that the dense clumps, or iron bullets, were formed along an axis. Such a preferred axis can result from a rotating white dwarf progenitor. If our claim holds, this offers an important clue to the SN Ia explosion scenario.

  11. Modeling of Bullet Penetration in Explosively Welded Composite Armor Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Carney, Theodore C.

    2006-07-01

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of impact during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant microstructural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combinations were modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive impact.

  12. Modeling of bullet penetration in explosively welded composite armor plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vasant; Carney, Theodore

    2005-07-01

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of multiple hits during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant micro-structural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combination had to be modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive multiple hits.

  13. Bullet fragment within the appendix: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mincheff, Thomas V

    2004-10-01

    A 9-year-old Caucasian male presented initially to his pediatrician with abdominal pain. The child underwent a UGI, which showed mild gastric erosions, however the scout film revealed a metal fragment lodged near the right sacroiliac joint on the AP view. The child was referred to a general surgeon who conducted a series of other diagnostic tests, which ultimately revealed and verified that the metal fragment was lodged in the distal appendix. Careful family history obtained showed that the family eats a great deal of wild game, including deer meat. It was felt that this metal fragment was a portion of a consumed bullet, which was retained in the appendix. The child's blood lead (Pb) level was elevated at 16ug/dl. An elective prophylactic appendectomy was performed due to the potential for developing appendicitis and possible lead toxicity. PMID:15690919

  14. Modeling of Bullet Penetration in Explosively Welded Composite Armor Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Carney, Theodore C.

    2006-07-28

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of impact during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant microstructural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combinations were modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive impact.

  15. Does the prior application of the field kit bullet hole testing kit 3 on a suspected bullet hole bias the analysis of atomic absorption spectrophotometry?

    PubMed

    Seltenhammer, Monika H; Fitzl, Christine; Wieser, Ingo; Binder, Reinhard; Paula, Pia; Risser, Daniele U

    2014-09-01

    Forensic ballistics is the study of bullet trajectory and consists of determining gunshot residue (GSR) to identify bullet holes. Among several highly sensitive methods, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is employed to analyze GSR in the laboratory. However, it is sometimes necessary to identify bullet holes immediately at a crime scene. The purpose of this examination was to determine whether the use of the field test Bullet Hole Testing Kit 3 (BTK3) on a suspected bullet hole would influence the outcome of AAS-analysis: Three commonly encountered firearms (Glock17, Tokarev, and Colt) were fired at skin, wood, and cloth. AAS-analysis was performed with and without previous BTK3 application. The results clearly indicate that there is no significant interaction on the grounds of BTK3 use (BTK3 vs. no-BTK3 [kit_nokit] [Pb: p = 0.1309; Sb: p = 0.9111], material*kit_nokit [Pb: p = 0.5960; Sb: p = 0.9930], distance*kit_nokit [Pb: p = 0.4014; Sb: p = 0.9184], and firearm type*kit_nokit [Pb: p = 0.9662; Sb: p = 0.9885]); hence, applying this field kit does not falsify later AAS outcomes. PMID:25040851

  16. High-velocity Interstellar Bullets in IRAS 05506+2414: A Very Young Protostar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Claussen, Mark; Sanchez Contreras, Carmen; Morris, Mark; Sarkar, Geetanjali

    2008-01-01

    We have made a serendipitous discovery of an enigmatic outflow source, IRAS 05506+2414 (hereafter IRAS 05506), as part of a multiwavelength survey of pre-planetary nebulae (PPNs). The HST optical and near-infrared images show a bright compact central source with a jet-like extension, and a fan-like spray of high-velocity (with radial velocities up to 350 km/s) elongated knots which appear to emanate from it. These structures are possibly analogous to the near-IR bullets'' seen in the Orion Nebula. Interferometric observations at 2.6 mm show the presence of a continuum source and a high-velocity CO outflow, which is aligned with the optical jet structure. IRAS 05506 is most likely not a PPN. We find extended NH3 (1,1) emission toward IRAS 05506; these data, together with the combined presence of far-IR emission, H2O and OH masers, and CO and CS J=2-1 emission, strongly argue for a dense, dusty star-forming core associated with IRAS 05506. IRAS 05506 is probably an intermediate-mass or massive protostar, and the very short timescale (200 yr) of its outflows indicates that it is very young. If IRAS 05506 is a massive star, then the lack of radio continuum and the late G to early K spectral type we find from our optical spectra imply that in this object we are witnessing the earliest stages of its life, while its temperature is still too low to provide sufficient UV flux for ionization.

  17. A Retained Bullet in Pericardial Sac: Penetrating Gunshot Injury of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Adnan; Caliskan, Emine; Tatlisu, Mustafa Adem; Hayiroglu, Mert Ilker; Tekessin, Ahmet Ilker; Cakilli, Yasin; Avsar, Sahin; Oz, Ahmet; Uzman, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Penetrating cardiac trauma is rarely seen but when present there is a short time lag to keep the patients alive. Cardiac gunshot injuries are exceptional and it occurs mostly during interpersonal disagreements casualties or a mistakenly fired gun nowadays. Here we present a case of cardiac gunshot injury from the war of Kobani, Syria. The patient was mistakenly diagnosed to have a sole bullet in the left shoulder while he had a penetrating cardiac trauma with a bullet in the heart and pericardial effusion possibly giving rise to pericardial tamponade. Luckily the cardiac gunshot injury was noticed one day later and the patient was referred to a tertiary hospital. Intrapericardial bullet was conservatively followed up. The patient was discharged one week later after resection of the bullet in the shoulder. PMID:26977324

  18. Home-made gun injury: spontaneous version and anterior migration of bullet.

    PubMed

    Alessi, G; Aiyer, S; Nathoo, N

    2002-08-01

    We report a unique case of a self-inflicted brain injury using an ingenious home-made gun with spontaneous anterior migration of the intact bullet. On admission, the patient was fully conscious with no neurological deficits. Computed tomography (CT) confirmed a penetrating missile injury with transventricular across midline trajectory and multi-lobe injury with the bullet lodged in the occipital lobe. Serial CT revealed spontaneous version with anterior migration of the bullet from the occipital lobe to finally come to rest in the ipsilateral frontobasal region. The bullet was removed via a left supra-orbital craniotomy. The patient experienced good outcome. Home-made gun injuries, although uncommon today, represent a special form of missile injury with unique low velocity terminal ballistics. As these weapons are seen infrequently today, surgeons should be alerted to their existence as patients with this form of injury usually have a good prognosis if vital brain structures are spared. PMID:12389893

  19. Migrating bullet in the thecal sac at the level of the conus medullaris without neurological deficit.

    PubMed

    Koban, Orkun; Çal, Hasan; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Özcan-Ekşi, Emel Ece; Öğrenci, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    Bullets can lodge in the organs, blood vessels or thecal sac. To our knowledge, a migrating bullet at the level of the conus medullaris without neurological deficit has never been reported. We present our patient along with a discussion of bullet migration in the spinal canal and its mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment. A 29-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department due to a gunshot wound in the right upper quadrant of his abdomen. He had no neurological deficit. Spinal CT scan and plain radiography showed the bullet had passed through the L2 vertebral body and had migrated downwards until it had lost its energy and come to rest in the spinal canal at the L3 vertebra level. There was a grade 5 injury to the pancreas head concomitant with mesenteric injury of the transverse colon, harboring a 0.5 cm hole. He had an emergent laparotomy to have a Roux-en-Y reconstruction and repair of the transverse colon. After his general status stabilized, he was taken back to the operating room to extract the bullet from the spinal canal. L3 and partial L2 laminectomy were performed. The dura was opened and the bullet was observed intrathecally. No cerebrospinal fluid fistula was observed. The surgeries and post-operative period were uneventful. PMID:26921138

  20. Rubber bullet injury: case report with autopsy observation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Mellen, Paul F

    2009-09-01

    Rubber bullets are one of the less-lethal (nonlethal) weapons, which are increasingly used to incapacitate dangerous individuals, avoiding use of firearms. An autopsy examination of a man who was shot with improved rubber bullets revealed that the bullet caused pulmonary contusion. The bullet was 30 g in weight and consisted of a sponge foam nose with 40-mm diameter and a plastic body. He was not incapacitated and died of suicidal gunshot wound. The case raised a question as to how severe an injury is necessary to deter a person without causing death. A variety of rubber bullets have been used in the world, and they have occasionally produced severe or lethal injuries. A review of the literature demonstrated that the feature of injuries appeared to be related to the type of missile. It becomes more important for a forensic pathologist to be familiar with rubber bullets and injuries caused by them as the use of less-lethal weapon increases. PMID:19696582

  1. Terminal ballistics of the 7.62 mm NATO bullet. Autopsy findings.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, P J; Theilade, P

    1993-01-01

    The 7.62 mm x 51 military rifle bullet (7.62 mm NATO) as manufactured in Denmark, and in some other countries as well, has been claimed to fragment when fired at ranges encountered in forensic practice. All autopsied cases of death due to this bullet in Denmark since 1975 were investigated by studying autopsy reports and the bullets retrieved by the police. With one exception, all bullets that were found in, or known to have passed through the body, had fragmented. This behaviour is assumed to be due to a lack of strength in the jacket causing it to break at the cannelure when hitting the target at high velocity. The fragments will increase the already sizeable lesions and may leave the body through several separate exit wounds, presenting problems both for the surgeon treating survivors and for the forensic scientists when defining the direction of the shot. The legality of this and similar bullets in view of the Hague Declaration of 1899 may be questioned, and we feel that the bullet should be redesigned. A programme to this end has been initiated by the Danish state owned ammunition factory. PMID:8217867

  2. Plasma bullets behavior in a tube covered by a conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Xian, Y. B.; Xu, H. T.; Lu, X. P. Pei, X. K.; Gong, W. W.; Lu, Y.; Liu, D. W.; Yang, Y.

    2015-06-15

    In this work, for better applications of atmospheric pressure plasma jets, the physics of plasma streamers in a glass tube with a part of it covered by a conductor is investigated. To better understand the propagation mechanism of plasma bullets in capillary tubes passing through a curved or narrow passage for some biomedical or material applications, the propagation of plasma streamers in a tube covered by a floating conductor is investigated. For a plasma streamer propagating in a tube covered by a conductor, the plasma streamer is suppressed and becomes shorter, and a secondary streamer is generated in the tube at the downstream end of the conductor. The larger the area covered by the conductor, or the thinner the tube, the stronger the plasma streamer is inhibited. The electric potential of the conductor is measured to be as high as 6 kV. On the other hand, a higher voltage applied on the HV electrode, or a higher gas flow rate will make the secondary plasma streamer longer. It is found that the capacitor formed by the conductor outside the tube and the wall of the tube plays an important role in inhibiting the original plasma streamer and generating the secondary streamer. Moreover, the active species generated by the original plasma play important role in generating a secondary plasma streamer.

  3. Magic bullets in cardiac anesthesia and intensive care.

    PubMed

    Landoni, Giovanni; Ruggeri, Laura; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    Even if the first quasi-randomized study in history was published in 1747, there is still a need for evidence-based medicine. In the specific field of cardiac anesthesia, there are few magic bullets (ie, drugs/techniques/strategies that might reduce perioperative mortality), and a recent international consensus conference attempted to list them all. In the absence of evidence-based medicine, medical decisions are made by eminence, experience, or physiopathologic reasoning. Even if increased or decreased mortality could be observed when administering almost every drug used in the current clinical context, if correctly studied, research is slowed by bureaucracy, which, together with ignorance, is indirectly killing thousands of patients per year. Patients should be fully aware of the reduced complication rates and the improved outcomes that occur in patients involved in randomized "researcher-driven" clinical trials, the so-called "Hawthorne effect." In conclusion, physicians have to do their best although they sometimes have little information. Their ability must counteract the lack of scientific evidences. Caring for critical patients involves making decisions based on realistic tradeoffs of clinical benefit and side effects, but too often these choices are made on the basis of extrapolations and educated guesses. PMID:22459929

  4. Fractures Due to Gunshot Wounds: Do Retained Bullet Fragments Affect Union?

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, John T.; Connolly, Keith; Haidukewych, George; Koval, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background Many types of projectiles, including modern hollow point bullets, fragment into smaller pieces upon impact, particularly when striking bone. This study was performed to examine the effect on time to union with retained bullet material near a fracture site in cases of gunshot injury. Methods All gunshot injuries operatively treated with internal fixation at a Level 1 Trauma Center between March 2008 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Retained bullet load near the fracture site was calculated based on percentage of material retained compared to the cortical diameter of the involved bone. Analyses were performed to assess the effect of the lead-cortical ratio and amount of comminution on time to fracture union. Results Thirty-two patients (34 fractures) met the inclusion criteria, with an equal number of comminuted (17) and non-comminuted fractures (17). Seventeen of 34 fractures (50%) united within 4 months, 16/34 (47%) developed a delayed union, and 1/34 (3%) developed a nonunion requiring revision surgery. Sixteen of 17 fractures (94%) that united by 4 months had a cumulative amount of bullet fragmentation retained near the fracture site of less than 20% of the cortical diameter. Nine out of 10 fractures (90%) with retained fragments near the fracture site was equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical diameter had delayed or nonunion. Fracture comminution had no effect on time to union. Conclusions The quantity of retained bullet material near the fracture site was more predictive of the rate of fracture union than was comminution. Fractures with bullet fragmentation equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical width demonstrated a significantly higher rate of delayed union/nonunion compared to those fractures with less retained bullet material, which may indicate a local cytotoxic effect from lead on bone healing. These findings may influence decisions on timing of secondary surgeries. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26361445

  5. The rise and fall of a challenger: the Bullet Cluster in Λ cold darkmatter simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert; Dave, Romeel; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    The Bullet Cluster has provided some of the best evidence for the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model via direct empirical proof of the existence of collisionless dark matter, while posing a serious challenge owing to the unusually high inferred pairwise velocities of its progenitor clusters. Here we investigate the probability of finding such a high-velocity pair in large-volume N-body simulations, particularly focusing on differences between halo finding algorithms. We find that algorithms that do not account for the kinematics of infalling groups yield vastly different statistics and probabilities. When employing the Rockstar (RS) halo finder that considers particle velocities, we find numerous Bullet-like pair candidates that closely match not only the high pairwise velocity, but also the mass, mass ratio, separation distance, and collision angle of the initial conditions that have been shown to produce the Bullet Cluster in non-cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The probability of finding a high pairwise velocity pair among haloes with Mhalo≥1014 M⊙ is 4.6×10-4 using RS, while it is ≈34× lower using a friends-of-friends (FOF) based approach as in previous studies. This is because the typical spatial extent of Bullet progenitors is such that FOF tends to group them into a single halo despite clearly distinct kinematics. Further requiring an appropriately high average mass among the two progenitors, we find the comoving number density of potential Bullet-like candidates to be on the order of ≈10-10 Mpc-3. Our findings suggest that ΛCDM straightforwardly produces massive, high relative velocity halo pairs analogous to Bullet Cluster progenitors, and hence the Bullet Cluster does not present a challenge to the ΛCDM model.

  6. Cranio-thoracic bullet migration over a period of 27 years: case report.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rangel, C; Reyes-Soto, G; Mendizábal-Guerra, R

    2010-08-01

    We report the case of a 36 year old woman that was hurt in the head with a lost bullet while walking through the street when she was 9 years old. On admission, the patient was fully conscious with no neurological deficits. Skull radiography showed the intracranial bullet but she was dispatched after 24 hours of observation without neurological deterioration. Six months later she suddenly presented quadriplegia and after one year of rehabilitation she recovered the mobility and strength in all her limbs. 25 years latter she began with thoracic pain (dermatomal sensory changes), constipation, paresthesias and weakness in the lower extremities; the X-Ray showed a bullet caliber 9 mm in the thoracic canal at T4 level. The bullet was removed via posterior laminectomy and dorsal midline mielotomy. 12 hours after surgery, the patient presented signs of medullar shock. The post-operatory MRI showed the trajectory of the bullet through the brain to the spinal cord in FLAIR, and spinal cord edema as well. The patient received steroids as treatment for the spinal cord edema, and with the help of rehabilitation she recovered movement in the lower extremities 30 days after the surgery. PMID:20725703

  7. Proper assessment of the JFK assassination bullet lead evidence from metallurgical and statistical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Randich, Erik; Grant, Patrick M

    2006-07-01

    The bullet evidence in the JFK assassination investigation was reexamined from metallurgical and statistical standpoints. The questioned specimens are comprised of soft lead, possibly from full-metal-jacketed Mannlicher-Carcano (MC), 6.5-mm ammunition. During lead refining, contaminant elements are removed to specified levels for a desired alloy or composition. Microsegregation of trace and minor elements during lead casting and processing can account for the experimental variabilities measured in various evidentiary and comparison samples by laboratory analysts. Thus, elevated concentrations of antimony and copper at crystallographic grain boundaries, the widely varying sizes of grains in MC bullet lead, and the 5-60 mg bullet samples analyzed for assassination intelligence effectively resulted in operational sampling error for the analyses. This deficiency was not considered in the original data interpretation and resulted in an invalid conclusion in favor of the single-bullet theory of the assassination. Alternate statistical calculations, based on the historic analytical data, incorporating weighted averaging and propagation of experimental uncertainties also considerably weaken support for the single-bullet theory. In effect, this assessment of the material composition of the lead specimens from the assassination concludes that the extant evidence is consistent with any number between two and five rounds fired in Dealey Plaza during the shooting. PMID:16882211

  8. Proper Assessment of the JFK Assassination Bullet Lead Evidence from Metallurgical and Statistical Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Randich, E; Grant, P M

    2006-08-29

    The bullet evidence in the JFK assassination investigation was reexamined from metallurgical and statistical standpoints. The questioned specimens are comprised of soft lead, possibly from full-metal-jacketed Mannlicher-Carcano, 6.5-mm ammunition. During lead refining, contaminant elements are removed to specified levels for a desired alloy or composition. Microsegregation of trace and minor elements during lead casting and processing can account for the experimental variabilities measured in various evidentiary and comparison samples by laboratory analysts. Thus, elevated concentrations of antimony and copper at crystallographic grain boundaries, the widely varying sizes of grains in Mannlicher-Carcano bullet lead, and the 5-60 mg bullet samples analyzed for assassination intelligence effectively resulted in operational sampling error for the analyses. This deficiency was not considered in the original data interpretation and resulted in an invalid conclusion in favor of the single-bullet theory of the assassination. Alternate statistical calculations, based on the historic analytical data, incorporating weighted averaging and propagation of experimental uncertainties also considerably weaken support for the single-bullet theory. In effect, this assessment of the material composition of the lead specimens from the assassination concludes that the extant evidence is consistent with any number between two and five rounds fired in Dealey Plaza during the shooting.

  9. Effects of multiple. 30-caliber bullet impacts on steel-encased explosives: Experimental Report I

    SciTech Connect

    Honodel, C A

    1984-12-01

    Thirty-one experiments have been performed in a series where typical explosive formulations for weapons were encased in steel vessels and impacted by up to six .30-caliber bullets fired at 1.2-s intervals. We have observed that detonation can occur on the second bullet impact if the high-explosive configuration (detonator, booster, and main charge) is complete and tested at an elevated temperature. So far, shots with some mock parts have exploded (no detonation) after several bullet impacts, where the response to preceeding bullets ranged from no reaction to violent deflagration. When RX-26-AF was substituted for the booster explosive LX-10, there was reduced violence. Conversely, when we completely replaced all the high-explosive components with a solid filling of LX-10, we discovered a charge-size limitation where detonation occurred on the first bullet impact. To help quantify the violence exhibited by these detonations, we purposely detonated one shot and compared the high-speed camera records and recovery samples.

  10. China's bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Siqi; Kahn, Matthew E

    2013-04-01

    Megacity growth in the developing world is fueled by a desire to access their large local labor markets. Growing megacities suffer from high levels of traffic congestion and pollution, which degrade local quality of life. Transportation technology that allows individuals to access the megacity without living within its boundaries offers potentially large social benefits, because individuals can enjoy the benefits of urban agglomeration while not paying megacity real estate rents and suffering from the city's social costs. This paper presents evidence supporting the claim that China's bullet trains are playing this role. The bullet train is regarded as one of the most significant technological breakthroughs in passenger transportation developed in the second half of the 20th century. Starting in 2007, China has introduced several new bullet trains that connect megacities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou with nearby cities. Through facilitating market integration, bullet trains will stimulate the development of second- and third-tier cities. By offering households and firms a larger menu of location alternatives, bullet trains help to protect the quality of life of the growing urban population. We document that this transport innovation is associated with rising real estate prices in the nearby secondary cities. PMID:23509264

  11. The effect of bullet removal and vegetation on mobility of Pb in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Fayiga, Abioye O; Saha, Uttam

    2016-10-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination at shooting ranges is a public health concern because Pb is a toxic metal. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of two best management practices; bullet removal and vegetation, on bioavailability and leachability of Pb in three shooting range (SR) soils. St. Augustine grass was grown in sieved (2 mm) and un-sieved SR soils for 8 weeks after which leachates, soil and plant samples were analyzed. Bullet removal reduced total soil Pb, increased Mehlich-3 Pb in unvegetated soils and increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in all soils. Bullet removal increased leaching in two SR soils while grasses reduced leaching but increased water soluble Pb in two SR soils. The roots of the grasses were able to accumulate more Pb in the root (1893-5021 mg kg(-1)) than the aboveground biomass (252-880 mg kg(-1)) due to mobilization of Pb in the rhizosphere. Grasses had a higher plant biomass in unsieved soils suggesting tolerance to the presence of bullets in the unsieved soils. Results suggest that bullet removal probably increased microbial activity and Pb bioavailability in the soil. The leaching and bioavailability of Pb in shooting range soils depends on biological activities and chemical processes in the soil. PMID:27391048

  12. The Balsa bullet: A high speed, low-cost general aviation aircraft for Aeroworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastland, Kevin; Greenwood, Sean; Kelly, Dan; Leonard, Chuck; Rooff, John; Scherock, Jeff

    1994-01-01

    The Balsa Bullet is a high speed, low cost six passenger general aviation aircraft. It will cruise at a speed of 55 ft/s with a maximum speed of 75 ft/s for distances in excess of 27000 feet. This range and speed combination provide The Balsa Bullet with the capability to service any two existing airports in Aeroworld in an efficient and timely manner. Overall, three major design drivers have been identified by the design team. The first is to provide a low cost airplane to the Aeroworld market. Maintaining the low cost objective will not simply meet the mission objective, but will also make the Bullet an economically viable option for a wide number of consumers. The Balsa Bullet has a total manufacturing cost of $1000 with a price to the consumer of only $2562. The second major driver is high speed performance. Once again this driver exists not only to meet the mission objective given Long Shot Aeronautics but it provides a desirable feature to the consumer, pride in owning the fastest aircraft in Aeroworld. The third design driver identified is the capability to service any runway in Aeroworld necessitating the ability to takeoff within 28 ft, the length of the shortest runways in Aeroworld. These design drivers provide three great reasons for the general public to purchase a Bullet.

  13. Cancer targeted magic bullets for effective treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Preeti; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Beg, Sarwar; Aneja, Shivali; Dhingra, Vishal; Chugh, Rupali

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a multifaceted disorder with serious threat across the globe. The vision for accomplishing an effective treatment strategy for cancer has always been a major concern worldwide. Although conventional drug therapy, esp. the chemotherapeutics provide benefits upto certain extent for treatment and management of cancers, yet it possesses umpteen challenges in terms of the associated side effects and adverse effects, lack of targeting ability, multi-drug resistance, poor patient acceptance and compliance, etc. at the desired site. To overcome these problems, the nanomedicines have been evolved as an effective and cost-effectual alternative for treatment of cancer. Inspiring from the concept of magic bullet, the world is moving towards developing the surface modified nanocarriers, which not only provide effective drug delivery but also allows site-specific monitoring of the cancer cells through in vivo diagnostic imaging. The present review endeavors to provide an explicit account on various drug targeting strategies employed for nanomedicines like active targeting, passive targeting, magnetic targeting, physical targeting and ultrasound targeting, etc, followed by their utility in the treatment of a particular type of cancer. According to the recent market survey, many nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems have been approved by USFDA, EMEA, MHRA and other global regulatory agencies, testify the high degrees of acceptance of the nanomedicines for treatment of cancer, while many products are under the preclinical and clinical development phases. Thus, for the translation of such technologies into the clinic, the pharma industry needs to be metamorphosing for a change in its culture of developing the traditional therapeutics. PMID:25876849

  14. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A z = 6.740 GALAXY BEHIND THE BULLET CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Bradac, Marusa; Hall, Nicholas; Vanzella, Eros; Treu, Tommaso; Fontana, Adriano; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Zaritsky, Dennis; Clement, Benjamin; Stiavelli, Massimo

    2012-08-10

    We present the first results of our spectroscopic follow-up of 6.5 < z < 10 candidate galaxies behind clusters of galaxies. We report the spectroscopic confirmation of an intrinsically faint Lyman break galaxy (LBG) identified as a z{sub 850LP}-band dropout behind the Bullet Cluster. We detect an emission line at {lambda} = 9412 A at >5{sigma} significance using a 16 hr long exposure with FORS2 VLT. Based on the absence of flux in bluer broadband filters, the blue color of the source, and the absence of additional lines, we identify the line as Ly{alpha} at z = 6.740 {+-} 0.003. The integrated line flux is f = (0.7 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (the uncertainties are due to random and flux calibration errors, respectively) making it the faintest Ly{alpha} flux detected at these redshifts. Given the magnification of {mu} = 3.0 {+-} 0.2 the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) flux is f {sup int} = (0.23 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.02) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (additional uncertainty due to magnification), which is {approx}2-3 times fainter than other such measurements in z {approx} 7 galaxies. The intrinsic H{sub 160W}-band magnitude of the object is m{sup int}{sub H{sub 1{sub 6{sub 0{sub W}}}}}=27.57{+-}0.17, corresponding to 0.5 L* for LBGs at these redshifts. The galaxy is one of the two sub-L* LBG galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at these high redshifts (the other is also a lensed z = 7.045 galaxy), making it a valuable probe for the neutral hydrogen fraction in the early universe.

  15. Gunshot Wound in Lumbar Spine with Intradural Location of a Bullet

    PubMed Central

    Bordon, G.; Burguet Girona, S.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a migratory bullet in the spinal canal after a gunshot injury is a rare finding, specially without causing permanent neurologic damage. We present the case of a patient who suffered a gunshot wound with an entry point in the posterior arc of L2-L3 and a migratory bullet detected at the level of L5-S1 in the CT scan. The patient complained about intense headache, dizziness, and variable sensitive impairment in lower legs apparently depending on the patient's position in bed. We decided to remove the bullet in order to prevent the delayed neurological damage and lead toxicity. We discuss technical details of this surgery. PMID:24991440

  16. Gunshot wound in lumbar spine with intradural location of a bullet.

    PubMed

    Bordon, G; Burguet Girona, S

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a migratory bullet in the spinal canal after a gunshot injury is a rare finding, specially without causing permanent neurologic damage. We present the case of a patient who suffered a gunshot wound with an entry point in the posterior arc of L2-L3 and a migratory bullet detected at the level of L5-S1 in the CT scan. The patient complained about intense headache, dizziness, and variable sensitive impairment in lower legs apparently depending on the patient's position in bed. We decided to remove the bullet in order to prevent the delayed neurological damage and lead toxicity. We discuss technical details of this surgery. PMID:24991440

  17. The experimental and numerical study of indirect effect of a rifle bullet on the bone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Xu, Cheng; Wen, Yaoke; Luo, Shaomin

    2015-12-01

    We study the transient indirect effect of a rifle bullet on bone in the gelatin-bone composite target experimentally and computationally. The process of a 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet penetrating the composite target has been simulated using numerical method. The experiment provided the criteria for verifying the correctness of the numerical model. We have obtained tomographic data of bone by CT scans, and also defined the bone as different layers by the gray scale to simulate its heterogeneity. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Effects of the impact velocity and bone location on damage caused to the composite target have also been studied. The numerical results imply the follows: When the velocity of bullet increases, the stress on bone also increases with the earlier pressure peak; When the bone is located in a certain distance from the trajectory, it will not be fractured, although it is affected by the stress wave. PMID:26615390

  18. Pseudo-gunpowder stippling caused by fragmentation of a plated bullet.

    PubMed

    Prahlow, Joseph A; Allen, Susan B; Spinder, Travis; Poole, Robert A

    2003-09-01

    In this report we present a case of pseudo-gunpowder stippling caused by fragmentation of a plated bullet. Investigation of the incident revealed absence of an interposed target, no evidence of ricochet, and a normally functioning, undamaged weapon. Electroplated ("plated" or "coated") bullets are relatively uncommon. They look similar to jacketed bullets in that the lead core is covered by a copper-colored jacketlike material. However, the copper-colored plating material is thinner than the typical jacket material. In certain instances, the plating may strip away from the lead core during transit through the barrel of the weapon and can produce injuries that mimic gunpowder stippling. Forensic pathologists are advised to be aware of this phenomenon. Misinterpretation of such wounds could result in improper classification of range of fire or improper conclusions about the presence or absence of an interposed target or ricochet. PMID:12960660

  19. Bullet Fragment of the Lumbar Spine: The Decision Is More Important Than the Incision

    PubMed Central

    Moisi, Marc D.; Page, Jeni; Gahramanov, Seymour; Oskouian, Rod J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Treatment of gunshot wounds to the spine is a topic of continued discussion and controversy. The following case study provides a description of a patient with a gunshot wound to the lumbar spine with a retained bullet in the intrathecal space. Methods Immediately after gunshot injury, a patient developed lumbar and radicular pain, as well as neurologic deficits. He was taken for surgery to remove the retained bullet. Results Following surgery, pain and neurologic function improved. The operative techniques and the postoperative clinical management are discussed in this report. Conclusion In our opinion, it was necessary to remove the bullet to avoid migration and possible worsening of neurologic function. However, surgical intervention is not appropriate in every case, and ultimately decisions should be based on patient presentation, symptomology, and imaging. PMID:26682104

  20. Pain from a Bullet Lingers on: An Uncommon Case of Lead Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Albin; Singh, Jaspreet; Mustacchia, Paul; Rizvon, Kaleem

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity from a retained bullet as a cause for abdominal pain is rarely considered. Given its unpredictable latent period and nonspecific clinical symptoms, such cases are difficult to diagnose but may be fatal if unrecognized. We present the case of a 48-year-old man who presented with complaints of abdominal pain, weight loss and constipation. His past history was significant for a gunshot wound to the left hip about 20 years before. Radiographic studies confirmed the same with the presence of numerous intra-articular bullet fragments and a calcified hemarthrosis surrounding the left femoral head. Blood lead levels were elevated following which the patient was started on chelation therapy with succimer which resulted in symptomatic improvement. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of considering lead toxicity from a retained bullet as a cause of abdominal pain and to review the relevant literature. PMID:22679412

  1. Selecting Valid Correlation Areas for Automated Bullet Identification System Based on Striation Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wei; Song, John; Vorburger, Theodore V.; Thompson, Robert; Silver, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Some automated bullet identification systems calculate a correlation score between two land impressions to measure their similarity. When extracting a compressed profile from the land impression of a fired bullet, inclusion of areas that do not contain valid individual striation information may lead to sub-optimal extraction and therefore may deteriorate the correlation result. In this paper, an edge detection algorithm and selection process are used together to locate the edge points of all tool-mark features and filter out those not corresponding to striation marks. Edge points of the resulting striation marks are reserved and expanded to generate a mask image. By imposing the mask image on the topography image, the weakly striated area(s) are removed from the expressed profile extraction. Using this method, 48 bullets fired from 12 gun barrels of six manufacturers resulted in a higher matching rate than previous studies. PMID:26989589

  2. Striation and plasma bullet propagation in an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Bae, S. H.

    2010-05-15

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet source driven by pulsed wave of several tens of kilohertz and by sinusoidal wave was designed and characterized. A newly designed jet consists of a sharpened tungsten pin electrode covered with a cone type Teflon layer confined in a Pyrex tube. This structure provides an efficient ignition since the electric field is concentrated on the end of electrode. Using the electrical and optical characterization, the properties of plasma bullet were explored. For the Ar plasma jet driven by a pulsed wave at low duty cycles, the volume, the speed, and the luminosity of the plasma bullet became larger, and the striation behavior was observed.

  3. Extreme events in resonant radiation from three-dimensional light bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, T.; Majus, D.; Tamosauskas, G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Kolesik, M.; Genty, G.; GražulevičiÅ«tÄ--, I.; Dubietis, A.; Faccio, D.

    2014-09-01

    We report measurements that show extreme events in the statistics of resonant radiation emitted from spatiotemporal light bullets. We trace the origin of these extreme events back to instabilities leading to steep gradients in the temporal profile of the intense light bullet that occur during the initial collapse dynamics. Numerical simulations reproduce the extreme valued statistics of the resonant radiation which are found to be intrinsically linked to the simultaneous occurrence of both temporal and spatial self-focusing dynamics. Small fluctuations in both the input energy and in the spatial phase curvature explain the observed extreme behavior.

  4. Rocket motor vulnerability considerations in relation to bullet impact and fuel fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, A. C.

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports on the work undertaken by Royal Ordnance in relation to the assessment of solid propellant rocket motor vulnerability. A general overview of the RO IM Database is included with specific details being given on the results of 183 half inch bullet impact and 43 fast cook-off tests. The large number of trials conducted allows some statistical conclusions to be drawn and these can be used to design motors having a high probability of meeting the bullet impact and fast cook-off requirement of MIL-STD-2105 and STANAG 4241/STANAG 4240.

  5. Strong emission of terahertz radiation from nanostructured Ge surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Chul; Maeng, Inhee; Kee, Chul-Sik; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su; Kim, Tae Heon; Lee, Jong Seok

    2015-06-29

    Indirect band gap semiconductors are not efficient emitters of terahertz radiation. Here, we report strong emission of terahertz radiation from germanium wafers with nanostructured surfaces. The amplitude of THz radiation from an array of nano-bullets (nano-cones) is more than five (three) times larger than that from a bare-Ge wafer. The power of the terahertz radiation from a Ge wafer with an array of nano-bullets is comparable to that from n-GaAs wafers, which have been widely used as a terahertz source. We find that the THz radiation from Ge wafers with the nano-bullets is even more powerful than that from n-GaAs for frequencies below 0.6 THz. Our results suggest that introducing properly designed nanostructures on indirect band gap semiconductor wafers is a simple and cheap method to improve the terahertz emission efficiency of the wafers significantly.

  6. BULLET CLUSTER: A CHALLENGE TO {Lambda}CDM COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2010-07-20

    To quantify how rare the bullet-cluster-like high-velocity merging systems are in the standard {Lambda} cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology, we use a large-volume (27 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}) cosmological N-body MICE simulation to calculate the distribution of infall velocities of subclusters around massive main clusters. The infall velocity distribution is given at (1-3)R{sub 200} of the main cluster (where R{sub 200} is similar to the virial radius), and thus it gives the distribution of realistic initial velocities of subclusters just before collision. These velocities can be compared with the initial velocities used by the non-cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of 1E0657-56 in the literature. The latest parameter search carried out by Mastropietro and Burkert has shown that an initial velocity of 3000 km s{sup -1} at about 2R{sub 200} is required to explain the observed shock velocity, X-ray brightness ratio of the main and subcluster, X-ray morphology of the main cluster, and displacement of the X-ray peaks from the mass peaks. We show that such a high infall velocity at 2R{sub 200} is incompatible with the prediction of a {Lambda}CDM model: the probability of finding 3000 km s{sup -1} in (2-3)R{sub 200} is between 3.3 x 10{sup -11} and 3.6 x 10{sup -9}. A lower velocity, 2000 km s{sup -1} at 2R{sub 200}, is also rare, and moreover, Mastropietro and Burkert have shown that such a low initial velocity does not reproduce the X-ray brightness ratio of the main and subcluster or morphology of the main cluster. Therefore, we conclude that the existence of 1E0657-56 is incompatible with the prediction of a {Lambda}CDM model, unless a lower infall velocity solution for 1E0657-56 with {approx}<1800 km s{sup -1} at 2R{sub 200} is found.

  7. Application of proton-induced X-ray emission technique to gunshot residue analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, P.; Panigrahi, N.; Rao, M.S.; Varier, K.M.; Sen, S.; Mehta, G.K.

    1982-04-01

    The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was applied to the identification and analysis of gunshot residues. Studies were made of the type of bullet and bullet hole identification, firearm discharge element profiles, the effect of various target backings, and hand swabbings. The discussion of the results reviews the sensitivity of the PIXE technique, its nondestructive nature, and its role in determining the distance from the gun to the victim and identifying the type of bullet used and whether a wound was made by a bullet or not. The high sensitivity of the PIXE technique, which is able to analyze samples as small as 0.1 to 1 ng, and its usefulness for detecting a variety of elements should make it particularly useful in firearms residue investigations.

  8. Application of proton-induced X-ray emission technique to gunshot residue analyses.

    PubMed

    Sen, P; Panigrahi, N; Rao, M S; Varier, K M; Sen, S; Mehta, G K

    1982-04-01

    The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was applied to the identification and analysis of gunshot residues. Studies were made of the type of bullet and bullet hole identification, firearm discharge element profiles, the effect of various target backings, and hand swabbings. The discussion of the results reviews the sensitivity of the PIXE technique, its nondestructive nature, and its role in determining the distance from the gun to the victim and identifying the type of bullet used and whether a wound was made by a bullet or not. The high sensitivity of the PIXE technique, which is able to analyze samples as small as 0.1 to 1 ng, and its usefulness for detecting a variety of elements should make it particularly useful in firearms residue investigations. PMID:7097204

  9. Facile green fabrication of nanostructure ZnO plates, bullets, flower, prismatic tip, closed pine cone: Their antibacterial, antioxidant, photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, H. R.; Sharma, S. C.; Udayabhanu; Suresh, D.; Vidya, Y. S.; Nagabhushana, H.; Rajanaik, H.; Anantharaju, K. S.; Prashantha, S. C.; Sadananda Maiya, P.

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of multifunctional Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with a variety of morphologies were achieved by low temperature solution combustion route employing neem (Azadirachta indica) extract as fuel. The nanoparticles were characterized by PXRD, FTIR, XPS, Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopic studies. The Morphologies were studied by SEM and TEM analysis. The NPs were subjected for photoluminescence, photocatalytic, antibacterial and antioxidant activity studies. PXRD pattern confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the product. SEM images indicated the transformation of mushroom like hexagonal disks to bullets, buds, cones, bundles and closed pine cone structured NPs with increase in the concentration of neem extract in reaction mixture. The NPs exhibited prominent green emission due to the presence of intrinsic defect centers. The as-formed bullet shaped ZnO with 4 ml of neem extract was found to decolorize Methylene blue (MB) under Sunlight and UV light irradiation. The antibacterial studies indicated that ZnO NPs of concentration 500, 750 and 1000 μg resulted in significant antibacterial activity on Klebsiella aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus but not against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agar well diffusion method. Further, ZnO NPs exhibited significant antioxidant activity against scavenging DPPH free radicals. The current investigation demonstrated green engineering method for the synthesis of multifunctional ZnO NPs with interesting morphologies using neem extract.

  10. Facile green fabrication of nanostructure ZnO plates, bullets, flower, prismatic tip, closed pine cone: Their antibacterial, antioxidant, photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Madan, H R; Sharma, S C; Udayabhanu; Suresh, D; Vidya, Y S; Nagabhushana, H; Rajanaik, H; Anantharaju, K S; Prashantha, S C; Sadananda Maiya, P

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of multifunctional Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with a variety of morphologies were achieved by low temperature solution combustion route employing neem (Azadirachta indica) extract as fuel. The nanoparticles were characterized by PXRD, FTIR, XPS, Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopic studies. The Morphologies were studied by SEM and TEM analysis. The NPs were subjected for photoluminescence, photocatalytic, antibacterial and antioxidant activity studies. PXRD pattern confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the product. SEM images indicated the transformation of mushroom like hexagonal disks to bullets, buds, cones, bundles and closed pine cone structured NPs with increase in the concentration of neem extract in reaction mixture. The NPs exhibited prominent green emission due to the presence of intrinsic defect centers. The as-formed bullet shaped ZnO with 4ml of neem extract was found to decolorize Methylene blue (MB) under Sunlight and UV light irradiation. The antibacterial studies indicated that ZnO NPs of concentration 500, 750 and 1000μg resulted in significant antibacterial activity on Klebsiella aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus but not against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agar well diffusion method. Further, ZnO NPs exhibited significant antioxidant activity against scavenging DPPH free radicals. The current investigation demonstrated green engineering method for the synthesis of multifunctional ZnO NPs with interesting morphologies using neem extract. PMID:26241826

  11. Space Science Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet No. TB-89-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    This publication aims to assist elementary and secondary school students and teachers in planning, preparing and executing projects in the space sciences. Sources in other areas of science and on science fairs themselves are listed in "Science Fair Projects" (LC Science Tracer Bullet 88-4). This compilation is not intended to be a comprehensive…

  12. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 07-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Joyce, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Selected sources in this bibliography provide guidance to students, parents, and teachers throughout the process of planning, developing, implementing and competing in science fair activities. Sources range in suitability from elementary to high school levels. This guide updates "Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet" 01-4. More specialized…

  13. Full-Scale Schlieren Imaging of Firearms Discharge and Bullets in Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumstrup, Torben; Settles, Gary; Dodson-Dreibelbis, Lori

    2003-11-01

    A lens-and-grid-type schlieren system using a very large grid as a light source, thus having a 2x3m field-of-view, was described at previous APS/DFD meetings. The implementation of high-speed still imaging and cinematography of shock waves with this system has also been described. Schlieren methods and external ballistics have been closely related since Mach and Salcher first photographed shock waves about a bullet in 1887. The reason to revisit the topic here is that a large field of view allows imaging not only of the bullet and muzzle blast, but also of shock wave interactions with the surroundings and with the person firing the gun. Microsecond still images reveal various stages of these phenomena for both transonic and supersonic (pistol and rifle) bullets. High-speed movies at 30,000 frames/s are also presented. Some implications of these results for hearing protection while using firearms, the improvement of gun and ammunition design and safety, and forensic investigations of close-range bullet wounds are discussed.

  14. Data Association and Bullet Tracking Algorithms for the Fight Sight Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Breitfeller, E; Roberts, R

    2005-10-07

    Previous LLNL investigators developed a bullet and projectile tracking system over a decade ago. Renewed interest in the technology has spawned research that culminated in a live-fire experiment, called Fight Sight, in September 2005. The experiment was more complex than previous LLNL bullet tracking experiments in that it included multiple shooters with simultaneous fire, new sensor-shooter geometries, large amounts of optical clutter, and greatly increased sensor-shooter distances. This presentation describes the data association and tracking algorithms for the Fight Sight experiment. Image processing applied to the imagery yields a sequence of bullet features which are input to a data association routine. The data association routine matches features with existing tracks, or initializes new tracks as needed. A Kalman filter is used to smooth and extrapolate existing tracks. The Kalman filter is also used to back-track bullets to their point of origin, thereby revealing the location of the shooter. It also provides an error ellipse for each shooter, quantifying the uncertainty of shooter location. In addition to describing the data association and tracking algorithms, several examples from the Fight Sight experiment are also presented.

  15. Lead Bullet Fragments in Venison from Rifle-Killed Deer: Potential for Human Dietary Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, W. Grainger; Watson, Richard T.; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Parish, Chris N.; Burnham, Kurt K.; Tucker, Russell L.; Belthoff, James R.; Hart, Garret

    2009-01-01

    Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15–409) and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80%) of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 µg/dL (maximum 3.8 µg/dL) 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 µg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low-income beneficiaries of

  16. Three-Centimeter Bullet in the Orbita of a 2.5-Year-Old Syrian Boy.

    PubMed

    Solmaz, İskender A; Tekerekoğlu, Bülent

    2015-06-01

    Aim of this report is to present a patient who has had a retrobulbar bullet in his left orbit after gunshot injury and had full recovery after surgery. A Syrian boy aged 2.5 years was referred to our emergency after a gunshot injury from left temple. First examination showed stable vital functions; the boy was conscious but had marked proptosis and edema on the left eye. Left intraorbital bullet was observed in X-ray and computed tomography. The exact localization of the bullet and the integrity of the left eye cannot be determined because of shining in computed tomography. Under general anesthesia, lateral and inferior orbitotomy was performed and 3-cm long bullet was excised, which was obliquely localized in the retrobulbar, intraconal area. Ten days later, the patient was sent to his homeland with almost full recovery and minimum sequela. PMID:26080186

  17. A Fortunate Story of an Unusual AK-47 Bullet Trajectory: Always Keep a Smartphone in Your Pocket.

    PubMed

    Thabouillot, Oscar; Perrier, Pierre; Roche, Nicolas-Charles; Agard, David; Barbier, Olivier; Martin, Guillaume; Viant, Eric; Leclere, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-06-01

    This is a report of a fortunate story of an unusual AK-47 bullet trajectory which took place during the Paris (France) attack of November 13th, 2015. A young man, trying to protect his girlfriend, interfered between her and a shooter. He had been wounded in the posterior compartment of the thigh. The bullet penetrated him and, instead of exiting, rebound against his Smartphone, which was in the front pocket of his pants. Thanks to that, the missile bullet did not injure his girlfriend but ended its trajectory in the fat tissue of his thigh. Thabouillot O , Perrier P , Roche NC , Agard D , Barbier O , Martin G , Viant E , Leclere JB . A fortunate story of an unusual AK-47 bullet trajectory: always keep a Smartphone in your pocket. Prehosp Disaster Med, 2016;31(3):343-345. PMID:27086713

  18. First detection at 5.5 and 9 GHz of the radio relics in bullet cluster with ATCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malu, Siddharth; Datta, Abhirup; Sandhu, Pritpal

    2016-08-01

    We present here results from observations at 5.5 and 9 GHz of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Our results show detection of diffuse emission in the cluster. Our findings are consistent with the previous observations by Shimwell et al. (2014, 2015) at 1.1-3.1 GHz. Morphology of diffuse structures (relic regions A and B and the radio halo) are consistent with those reported by the previous study. Our results indicate steepening in the spectral index at higher frequencies (≳5.0~GHz) for region A. The spectrum can be fit well by a broken power law. We discuss the possibility of a few recent theoretical models explaining this break in the power law spectrum, and find that a modified Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA) model or a turbulent reacceleration model may be relevant. Deep radio observations at high frequencies (≳5~GHz) are required for a detailed comparison with this model.

  19. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries. PMID:26493298

  20. Damage to apparel layers and underlying tissue due to hand-gun bullets.

    PubMed

    Carr, Debra; Kieser, Jules; Mabbott, Alexander; Mott, Charlotte; Champion, Stephen; Girvan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic damage to the clothing of victims of gunshot wounds to the chest can provide useful forensic evidence. Anyone shot in the torso will usually be wearing clothing which will be damaged by the penetrating impact event and can reportedly be the source of some of the debris in the wound. Minimal research has previously been reported regarding the effect of bullets on apparel fabrics and underlying tissue. This paper examines the effect of ammunition (9 mm full metal jacket [FMJ] DM11 A1B2, 8.0 g; and soft point flat nose Remington R357M3, 10.2 g) on clothing layers that cover the torso (T-shirt, T-shirt plus hoodie, T-shirt plus denim jacket) and underlying structures represented by porcine thoracic wall (skin, underlying tissue, ribs). Impacts were recorded using a Phantom V12 high speed camera. Ejected bone debris was collected before wound tracts were dissected and measured; any debris found was recovered for further analysis. Size and mass of bony debris was recorded; fibre debris recovered from the wound and impact damage to fabrics were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Remington R357M3 ammunition was characteristically associated with stellate fabric damage; individual fibres were less likely to show mushrooming. In contrast, 9 mm FMJ ammunition resulted in punch-out damage to fabric layers, with mushrooming of individual fibres being more common. Entry wound sizes were similar for both types of ammunition and smaller than the diameter of the bullet that caused them. In this work, the Remington R357M3 ammunition resulted in larger exit wounds due to the bullet construction which mushroomed. That fabric coverings did not affect the amount of bony debris produced is interesting, particularly given there was some evidence that apparel layers affected the size of the wound. Recent work has suggested that denim (representative of jeans) can exacerbate wounding caused by high-velocity bullet impacts to the thigh when the bullet does not

  1. STAR FORMATION IN THE BULLET CLUSTER. I. THE INFRARED LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND STAR FORMATION RATE ,

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Mi Chung; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Markevitch, Maxim; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2010-12-20

    The Bullet Cluster is a massive galaxy cluster at z = 0.297 undergoing a major supersonic (Mach 3) merger event. Using data from Spitzer MIPS and the Infrared Array Camera, optical imaging, and optical spectroscopy, we present the global star formation rate (SFR) of this unique cluster. Using a 90% spectroscopically complete sample of 37 star-forming MIPS confirmed cluster members out to R < 1.7 Mpc, and the Rieke et al. relation to convert from 24 {mu}m flux to SFR, we calculate an integrated obscured SFR of 267 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and a specific SFR of 28 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} per 10{sup 14} M{sub sun}. The cluster mass normalized integrated SFR of the Bullet Cluster is among the highest in a sample of eight other clusters and cluster mergers from the literature. Five LIRGs and one ULIRG contribute 30% and 40% of the total SFR of the cluster, respectively. To investigate the origin of the elevated specific SFR, we compare the infrared luminosity function (IR LF) of the Bullet Cluster to those of Coma (evolved to z = 0.297) and CL1358+62. The Bullet Cluster IR LF exhibits an excess of sources compared to the IR LFs of the other massive clusters. A Schechter function fit of the Bullet Cluster IR LF yields L* = 44.68 {+-} 0.11 erg s{sup -1}, which is {approx}0.25 and 0.35 dex brighter than L* of evolved Coma and CL1358+62, respectively. The elevated IR LF of the Bullet Cluster relative to other clusters can be explained if we attribute the 'excess' star-forming IR galaxies to a population associated with the infalling group that has not yet been transformed into quiescent galaxies. In this case, the timescale required for quenching star formation in the cluster environment must be longer than the timescale since the group's accretion-a few hundred million years. We suggest that 'strangulation' is likely to be an important process in the evolution of star formation in clusters.

  2. Firearm bullet settling into the lumbar spinal canal without causing neurological deficit: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Hakan, Tayfun; Çerçi, Ajlan; Gürcan, Serkan; Akçay, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uncertainty still exists regarding the treatment of the patients presenting with gunshot wounds to the spine. Neurological insults, cerebrospinal fluid fistula, infection, lead or copper toxicity, migration of bullets, and spinal instability are included among the common challenging issues. Case Description: An 18-year-old woman was admitted with low back pain following a gunshot injury five days ago. She was neurologically intact. Radiological examinations showed that a bullet was settled in L4-5 disc space. The bullet was removed with a unilateral L4-5 partial hemilaminectomy and discectomy from the left side. The second case was of a 29-year-old man admitted with radiating leg pain on the right side following a gunshot injury from his left side of lower back four months ago. He had only positive straight leg raising test. Radiological studies showed two bullets, one was in the psoas muscle on the left side and the other was in spinal canal that had caused a burst fracture of the L5 vertebra. Following L5 laminectomy and bilateral L5-S1 facetectomy, the bullet was removed from the spinal canal and L5-S1 transpedicular posterior stabilization was performed. The postoperative period of both patients was unremarkable. Conclusion: Bullet settling into the lumbar spinal canal without causing neurological deficit may require surgical intervention. Removal of bullets provided not only pain relief in both the cases but also prevented future complications such as migration of the bullets, plumbism, and neuropathic pain and instability. PMID:27213110

  3. Light bullets and supercontinuum spectrum during femtosecond pulse filamentation under conditions of anomalous group-velocity dispersion in fused silicalicati

    SciTech Connect

    Chekalin, Sergei V; Kompanets, V O; Smetanina, E O; Kandidov, V P

    2013-04-30

    We report the results of theoretical and experimental research on spectrum transformation and spatiotemporal distribution of the femtosecond laser radiation intensity during filamentation in fused silica. The formation of light bullets with a high power density is first observed in a femtosecond laser pulse in the anomalous group velocity dispersion regime at a wavelength of 1800 nm. The minimum duration of the light bullet is about two oscillation cycles of the light field. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  4. Terminal ballistics of the 9mm with Action Safety bullet or Blitz-Action-Trauma (BAT) ammunition.

    PubMed

    Lantz, P E; Stone, R S; Broudy, D; Morgan, T M

    1994-05-01

    Specialty ammunition creating atypical gunshot wounds of entrance can create confusion and may be misinterpreted by pathologists unfamiliar with the terminal ballistics of these projectiles. The previously unreported wound ballistics caused by the 9mm with Action Safety bullet described in a homicide highlights the atypical entrance wound(s) and wounding capacity of this novel ammunition. Manufactured by Geco division of Dynamit Nobel, the bullet consists of a nonjacketed solid copper alloy bullet body without a conventional lead core. The large deformation well and part of the smaller central channel is filled with a hard plastic core and post that creates a round nose bullet. The internal ballistics and unique design allow the plastic nose cap and post to separate from the copper alloy base while still in the barrel. The radiolucent nose cap leaves the bullet's path but can still penetrate tissue giving the appearance of a separate but smaller entrance wound. The sharp leading edge of the deformation well and relative high velocity of the bullet body creates a punched out entrance wound with minimal marginal abrasion. When the plastic nose cap or fragments of the plastic post impact the subject, test firings may allow an inference to the muzzle-target distance even in the absence of soot deposition or stippling. PMID:8006608

  5. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire. PMID:25594572

  6. Fatal wounds sustained from "falling bullets": maintaining a high index of suspicion in a forensic setting.

    PubMed

    Rapkiewicz, Amy V; Shuman, Mark J; Hutchins, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    Celebratory gunfire injuries from "falling bullets" occur when guns are fired into the air during celebrations without realizing that this can cause serious injuries or even fatalities. Fatal celebratory gunfire injury is an uncommonly reported event in the continental United States. Our electronic database was queried for homicides occurring within days of July 4th and December 31st over a 14-year period. We describe two cases of fatal gunfire injury due to celebratory gunfire occurring during New Year's Eve in Southern Florida. The relevant literature is reviewed. These case reports illustrate that fatal gunfire injuries sustained from "falling bullets" may pose as an unexpected mimic to sudden natural deaths especially in patients with prior medical history. A high index of suspicion to recognize such injury is required particularly during holidays. PMID:23980530

  7. Arthroscopic Bullet Removal From the Central and Peripheral Compartments of the Hip Joint.

    PubMed

    Howse, Elizabeth A; Rogers, Jason P; Stone, Austin V; Mannava, Sandeep; Stubbs, Allston J

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in hip arthroscopy offer an approach for treating an uncommon but highly disabling injury from intra-articular missile injury to the hip. Hip arthroscopy affords the patient the benefit of minimally invasive surgery while allowing for the diagnosis and treatment of concomitant pathology, which may be either acute, from the trauma of the missile, or chronic. We present a technique for the removal of projectiles from the central and peripheral compartments of the hip joint. Through a surgical series of a variety of gunshot wounds, we detail the unique aspects of retrieval for the various missile endpoints. We describe this technique for bullets or pieces of bullets lodged within the hip joint space, bone of the acetabulum, or femoral head. Furthermore, we provide an example in which hip arthroscopy is not a suitable option for treatment because of the resulting fracture pattern, which necessitates open reduction along with internal fixation. PMID:27489755

  8. USING THE BULLET CLUSTER AS A GRAVITATIONAL TELESCOPE TO STUDY z {approx}> 7 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Nicholas; Bradac, Marusa; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Treu, Tommaso; Clowe, Douglas; Jones, Christine; Stiavelli, Massimo; Zaritsky, Dennis; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Clement, Benjamin

    2012-02-01

    We use imaging obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to search for z{sub 850} dropouts at z {approx} 7 and J{sub 110} dropouts at z {approx} 9 lensed by the Bullet Cluster. In total we find 10 z{sub 850} dropouts in our 8.27 arcmin{sup 2} field. Using magnification maps from a combined weak- and strong-lensing mass reconstruction of the Bullet Cluster and correcting for estimated completeness levels, we calculate the surface density and luminosity function of our z{sub 850} dropouts as a function of intrinsic (accounting for magnification) magnitude. We find results consistent with published blank field surveys, despite using much shallower data, and demonstrate the effectiveness of cluster surveys in the search for z {approx} 7 galaxies.

  9. Preparation of Gene Gun Bullets and Biolistic Transfection of Neurons in Slice Culture

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Georgia; Zito, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Biolistic transfection is a physical means of transfecting cells by bombarding tissue with high velocity DNA coated particles. We provide a detailed protocol for biolistic transfection of rat hippocampal slices, from the initial preparation of DNA coated bullets to the final shooting of the organotypic slice cultures using a gene gun. Gene gun transfection is an efficient and easy means of transfecting neurons and is especially useful for fluorescently labeling a small subset of cells in tissue slice. In this video, we first outline the steps required to coat gold particles with DNA. We next demonstrate how to line the inside of plastic tubing with the gold/DNA bullets, and how to cut this tubing to obtain the plastic cartridges for loading into the gene gun. Finally, we perform biolistic transfection of rat hippocampal slice cultures, demonstrating handling of the Bio-Rad Helios gene gun, and offering trouble shooting advice to obtain healthy and optimally transfected tissue slices. PMID:19066564

  10. Explosive reaction of cased charges generated by impacts of. 30 calibre bullets

    SciTech Connect

    Honodel, C A

    1981-07-22

    Several high explosive formulations have recently been compared in a series of impact tests where samples of each composition were encased in a test fixture designed in flat geometry mocking an HE loaded artillery projectile. The purpose of the ongoing test series is to determine the relative rate of chemical energy release or explosiveness of several standard and research insensitive high explosive (IHE) main charge compositions. The triggering stimulus is the impact of .30 calibre ball bullets fired at normal muzzle velocity.

  11. [Bullet and shrapnel injuries in the face and neck regions. Current aspects of wound ballistics].

    PubMed

    Hauer, T; Huschitt, N; Kulla, M; Kneubuehl, B; Willy, C

    2011-08-01

    A basic understanding of the ballistic behaviour of projectiles or fragments after entering the human body is essential for the head and neck surgeon in the military environment in order to anticipate the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences of this type of injury. Although a large number of factors influence the missile in flight and after penetration of the body, the most important factor is the amount of energy transmitted to the tissue. Long guns (rifles or shotguns) have a much higher muzzle energy compared to handguns, explaining why the remote effects beyond the bullet track play a major role. While most full metal jacket bullets release their energy after 12-20 cm (depending on the calibre), soft point bullets release their energy immediately after entry into the human body. This results in a major difference in extremity wounds, but not so much in injuries with long bullet paths (e.g. diagonal shots). Shrapnel wounds are usually produced with similarly high kinetic energy to those caused by hand- and long guns. However, fragments tend to dissipate the entire amount of energy within the body, which increases the degree of tissue disruption. Of all relevant injuries in the head and neck region, soft tissue injuries make up the largest proportion (60%), while injuries to the face are seen three times more often than injuries to the neck. Concomitant intracranial or spinal injury is seen in 30% of cases. Due to high levels of wound contamination, the infection rate is approximately 15%, often associated with a complicated and/or multiresistant spectrum of germs. PMID:21833833

  12. Flattening mountains: micro-fabrication of planar replicas for bullet lateral striae analysis.

    PubMed

    Cominato, Laura; Valle, Francesco; Pierini, Giovanni; Bonini, Paolo; Biscarini, Fabio; D'Elia, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    The application of replica molding has proven to be a valuable tool in the analysis of different forensic evidences in particular for its ability to extract the toolmarks from complex sample surfaces. A well known problem in the analysis of ballistic evidences is the accurate characterization of the lateral striae of real bullets seized on crime scenes after shots, due primarily to impact deformations and to unpredictable issues related to laboratory illumination setup. To overcome these problems a possible way is to confine over a flat surface all the features still preserving their three dimensionality. This can be achieved by a novel application of replica molding performed onto the relevant lateral portion of the bullet surface. A quasi-two-dimensional negative copy of the original tridimensional indented surface has been thus fabricated. It combines the real tridimensional topography of class characteristics (land and groove impressions) and of individual caracteristics (striae) impressed by rifled barrels on projectiles, moreover with the possibility of quantitative characterization of these features in a planar configuration, that will allow one-shot comparison of the "whole striae landscape" without the typical artifacts arising from the bullet shape and the illumination issue. A detailed analysis has been carried on at the morphological level by standard optical and scanning electron microscopy, while the 3D topography has been characterized by white light optical profilometry. A quantitative characterization of toolmarks of bullets derived from ammunitions shot by guns of large diffusion, as the Beretta 98 FS cal. 9×21 mm, has been performed and will be presented ranging between the whole landscape and the sub-μm resolution. To investigate the real potentiality of this technique, the experiment has been extended to highly impact-deformed projectiles. PMID:25555234

  13. GSR deposition along the bullet path in contact shots to composite models.

    PubMed

    Grosse Perdekamp, Markus; Arnold, Max; Merkel, Joachim; Mierdel, Katrin; Braunwarth, Roland; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2011-01-01

    In contact shots, all the materials emerging from the muzzle (combustion gases, soot, powder grains, and metals from the primer) will be driven into the depth of the entrance wound and the following sections of the bullet track. The so-called "pocket" ("powder cavity") under the skin containing soot and gunpowder particles is regarded as a significant indicator of a contact entrance wound since one would expect that the quantity of GSR deposited along the bullet's path rapidly declines towards the exit hole. Nevertheless, experience has shown that soot, powder particles, and carboxyhemoglobin may be found not only in the initial part of the wound channel, but also far away from the entrance and even at the exit. In order to investigate the propagation of GSRs under standardized conditions, contact test shots were fired against composite models of pig skin and 25-cm-long gelatin blocks using 9-mm Luger pistol cartridges with two different primers (Sinoxid® and Sintox®). Subsequently, 1-cm-thick layers of the gelatin blocks were examined as to their primer element contents (lead, barium, and antimony as discharge residues of Sinoxid® as well as zinc and titanium from Sintox®) by means of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As expected, the highest element concentrations were found in the initial parts of the bullet tracks, but also the distal sections contained detectable amounts of the respective primer elements. The same was true for amorphous soot and unburned/partly burned powder particles, which could be demonstrated even at the exit site. With the help of a high-speed motion camera it was shown that for a short time the temporary cavitation extends from the entrance to the exit thus facilitating the unlimited spread of discharge residues along the whole bullet path. PMID:21088971

  14. Witnessing a merging bullet being stripped in the galaxy cluster RXCJ2359.3-6042

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans

    2015-02-01

    We report the discovery of the merging cluster, RXCJ2359.3-6042, from the REFLEX II cluster survey and present our results from all three detectors combined in the imaging and spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data. Also known as Abell 4067, this is a unique system, where a compact bullet penetrates an extended, low density cluster at redshift z = 0.0992 clearly seen from our follow-up XMM-Newton observation. The bullet goes right through the central region of the cluster without being disrupted and we can clearly see how the bullet component is stripped of its layers outside the core. There is an indication of a shock heated region in the east of the cluster with a higher temperature. The bulk temperature of the cluster is about 3.12(±0.13) keV implying a lower mass system. Spearheading the bullet is a cool core centred by a massive early type galaxy. The temperatures and metallicities of a few regions in the cluster derived from the spectral analysis supports our conjecture based on the surface brightness image that a much colder compact component at 1.55(±0.10) keV with large metallicity (0.75 Z⊙) penetrates the main cluster, where the core of the infalling component survived the merger and left stripped gas behind at the centre of the main cluster. We also give an estimate of the total mass within r500, which is about 2 × 1014 M⊙ from the deprojected spherical β modelling of the cluster in good agreement with other mass estimates from the M - TX and M - σv relations.

  15. {open_quotes}Heavy light bullets{close_quotes} in electron-positron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    The nonlinear propagation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves with relativistically strong amplitudes in an unmagnetized hot electron-positron plasma with a small fraction of ions is investigated. The possibility of finding localized solutions in such a plasma is explored. It is shown that these plasmas support the propagation of {open_quotes}heavy light bullets{close_quotes}; nondiffracting and nondispersive electromagnetic (EM) pulses with large density bunching.

  16. A case in which a bone fragment caused by a bullet made a second channel in addition to the bullet channel.

    PubMed

    Bessho, Marie; Unuma, Kana; Nara, Akina; Uemura, Koichi

    2012-07-01

    A 64-year-old male was found dead in his house with his face covered with blood and a 38-caliber revolver between his legs. He had been suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus and aftereffects of cerebral infarction. Autopsy revealed a normal round contact wound in the left lateral cervical region. A bullet from the firearm had entered through the left lateral cervical region and traveled to the outer right sternocleidomastoid muscle. This also triggered another wound from the fifth cervical vertebra to the muscle tissue near the right cartilage thyroid. At the end of this channel, there were three bone fragments. Here, we report this interesting case with two channels caused by a bullet and by a resulting bone fragment. We also discuss the characteristics of an ear lobe injury found on the victim and show how this injury and blood and skin on the revolver were used as clues to determine the posture at the time of the shot. PMID:22498233

  17. A deceptive case of gunshot entry wounds -- beware of frangible bullets.

    PubMed

    Martrille, Laurent; Artuso, Alain; Cattaneo, Cristina; Baccino, Eric

    2007-04-01

    In December 2003, two young men decided to go shooting in the countryside near Montpellier, France. One accidentally shot the other. Upon crime scene examination and autopsy of the victim experts observed, at the right thorax, two round wounds, distanced 5mm from each other, presenting typical characteristics of entry wounds of bullets shot from a distance. Because of the presence of two clear cut round wounds, the Procurator suspected voluntary homicide. However, thanks to the balistics expertise, the authors concluded that all fragments belonged to a unique projectile, 22 Short caliber (Remington cartouche) of the frangible type. The barrel of the rifle infact presented an imperfection where the screw was fixed on the frontsite. The screw had obviously been changed, and the new screw was longer and therefore extended into the barrel, causing a small obstacle to the bullet when exiting the barrel. Shooting tests were performed, allowing the authors to conclude that a single bullet had fragmented before entering the body into two fragments. This lead the Procurator to consider the lesions consistent with an accident. PMID:17079183

  18. Gunshot wounds to the spine: literature review and report on a migratory intrathecal bullet.

    PubMed

    Moon, Edward; Kondrashov, Dimitriy; Hannibal, Matthew; Hsu, Ken; Zucherman, Jim

    2008-03-01

    Treatment of the complex injury to the spine produced by a gunshot wound remains controversial. Treatment depends on the physician's ability to understand mechanism of injury, principles of medical management, diagnostic imaging, and surgical options. Antibiotics are an important component of treatment and should be continued for a minimum of 7 days in cases of wounds that both perforate the colon and injure the spine. Corticosteroids do not affect neurologic outcome and therefore should not be used. Decompression and removal of intracanal bullets at T12 and below may improve motor function. In select cases of cervical injuries, removal of intracanal bullet fragments may be justified, particularly with incomplete lesions. Regardless of injury level, new-onset or progressive neurologic deterioration is an indication for urgent decompression. Optimal surgical timing remains a controversial issue, and more study is needed to develop treatment guidelines. Intrathecal migratory missiles represent a very rare subset of the gunshot wounds to the spine, and their treatment should be individualized. In this article, we review the literature and then describe the case of a migratory intrathecal bullet in the lumbar spine of a patient who presented with cauda equina-type symptoms. PMID:18438477

  19. Interrami intraoral fixation technique for severe mandibular rifle fragmented bullet injury management.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2013-07-01

    Interrami intraoral Kirschner wire fixation technique is presented for the reduction, stabilization, and immobilization of a pulverized and avulsed lower jaw caused by rifle fragmented bullet injuries. This indirect mandibular war injury fixation technique was tolerated by the patients and tissue more than any indirect external fixation. In addition, it is easier than open reduction using large bone plates for disrupted ballistics mandibular injury defects. An interrami intraoral fixation is appropriate for severely disrupted mandibular hard and soft tissues, and has been adapted in cases of mass casualties and limited resources. Benefits of use include limited hospital beds and fewer follow-up visits. Rifle fragmented bullet injuries need more attention for several reasons: not only because of the higher mortality and devastating nature of the injuries, but also because these injuries are responsible for an unreported type of bullet biomechanism wounding in the craniofacial region. In turn, this necessitates specialized victim management. The survival rates depend on immediate proper execution of airway, breathing, and circulation, which become more complicated as it relates to airway compromise and oropharyngeal hemorrhage resuscitation. Survival is predicated on the implementation of feasible, sensible, life-saving techniques that are applied at the appropriate time. PMID:23851763

  20. Characterizing the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human and surrogate targets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weixin; Niu, Yuqing; Bykanova, Lucy; Laurence, Peter; Link, Norman

    2010-12-01

    This study used a combined experimental and modeling approach to characterize and quantify the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human surrogate targets during the 10-1000 μs range that is crucial to evaluating the protective effectiveness of body armor against blunt injuries. Ballistic tests incorporating high-speed flash X-ray measurements were performed to acquire the deformations of bullets and body armor samples placed against ballistic clay and gelatin targets with images taken between 10 μs and 1 ms of the initial impact. Finite element models (FEMs) of bullet, armor, and gelatin and clay targets were developed with material parameters selected to best fit model calculations to the test measurements. FEMs of bullet and armor interactions were then assembled with a FEM of a human torso and FEMs of clay and gelatin blocks in the shape of a human torso to examine the effects of target material and geometry on the interaction. Test and simulation results revealed three distinct loading phases during the interaction. In the first phase, the bullet was significantly slowed in about 60 μs as it transferred a major portion of its energy into the body armor. In the second phase, fibers inside the armor were pulled toward the point of impact and kept on absorbing energy until about 100 μs after the initial impact when energy absorption reached its peak. In the third phase, the deformation on the armor's back face continued to grow and energies inside both armor and targets redistributed through wave propagation. The results indicated that armor deformation and energy absorption in the second and third phases were significantly affected by the material properties (density and stiffness) and geometrical characteristics (curvature and gap at the armor-target interface) of the targets. Valid surrogate targets for testing the ballistic resistance of the armor need to account for these factors and produce the same armor deformation and energy absorption as on a

  1. Investigation of effective forensic cleaning methods for bullet and cartridge case samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuherk, Cassie Marie

    Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult

  2. Three rounds as "tandem bullets": unusual findings in a case of a suicidal gunshot to the head.

    PubMed

    Tattoli, Lucia; Schmid, Simone; Tsokos, Michael

    2014-12-01

    We report an unusual case of suicide in which three 7.65 caliber projectiles were found in the single gunshot wound to the head of a 53-year-old man. Based on data collected at the death scene, CT scan, autopsy findings, and ballistics analysis, the events were reconstructed as follows: two 7.65 mm rounds had already been fired from the 9 mm Makarov pistol the subject was using but, being a smaller caliber, the cartridges had slipped forward and lodged within the barrel. When a third 7.65 mm cartridge was chambered and the gun fired for the third time, the nose of the last bullet hit the lodged bullets and all three rounds were propelled out of the muzzle in tandem as a single shot. Ballistic investigations confirmed that the kinetic energy of the three tandem bullets would have been sufficient to perforate the skull. In cases of gunshot wounds where the manner of death is unclear, a number of well-described circumstantial parameters, such as an atypical anatomical location of the gunshot, unusual firearm, or ammunition, as well as ambiguous autopsy findings, can raise doubts about the manner of death. In very rare cases, despite a single entrance wound, two or more bullets are recovered from the body, fired by the same weapon at the same time (the so-called "tandem bullet" phenomenon). Injuries by "tandem bullets" have crucial implications in gunshot deaths because of the mismatch between the number of entrance and exit wounds and the number of bullets found in or near the body. PMID:25091600

  3. On-line matrix removal of lead for the determination of trace elements in forensic bullet samples by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yourd, Emily R.; Tyson, Julian F.; Koons, Robert D.

    2001-09-01

    The determination of trace elements in lead by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source mass spectrometry (MS) is not possible without the removal of a substantial proportion of the lead matrix. This was achieved by the retention of lead from a 130-μl sample solution (100 mg l -1 lead in 2% v/v nitric acid) injected into a single-line (3% v/v nitric acid) flow injection manifold, on 100 mg of Pb-Spec® packed into a cylindrical column (6 cm×4 mm internal diameter). The analytes, Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Sb and Sn, passed through the column and were quantified against matrix-matched standards. Only Ag showed significant retention, but could still be measured in an 8-min run. The column was rinsed by flushing with 0.1 M ammonium citrate solution. Lead was monitored by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in preliminary experiments concerning column capacity and breakthrough. Although the capacity of the material in the dynamic, flow-through mode was less than the literature value based on equilibrium studies, the lead from up to 13 successive injections was sufficiently retained to allow accurate determination of the analytes without intermediate rinsing of the column. The precision [percentage relative standard deviation (%R.S.D.), n=5] of the procedure ranged from 1.7% (100 ng ml -1 copper) to 2.8% (5 ng ml -1 cadmium), and detection limits were in the range 0.2-10 ng ml -1. The accuracy of the procedure was assessed by the analysis of three National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials (SRM 2416 bullet lead, SRM 2415 battery lead, and SRM 2417 lead base alloy). For each SRM, duplicate determinations of seven analytes were made. Of the 42 determinations, 36 fell within the confidence interval around the accepted value. Three real bullets were analyzed for seven elements by both the flow injection solid-phase extraction ICP-MS method and by aspiration of the bullet solutions (10 000 mg l -1 lead) directly into an ICP emission spectrometer

  4. High-speed Bullet Ejections during the AGB-to-Planetary Nebula Transition: HST Observations of the Carbon Star, V Hydrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.; Scibelli, S.; Morris, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    The well-studied carbon star, V Hya, showing evidence for high-speed, collimated outflows and dense equatorial structures, is a key object in the study of the poorly understood transition of AGB stars into aspherical planetary nebulae. Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained high spatial-resolution long-slit optical spectra of V Hya that show high-velocity emission in [S ii] and [Fe ii] lines. Our data set, spanning three epochs spaced apart by a year during each of two periods (in 2002–2004 and 2011–2013), shows that V Hya ejects high-speed (˜200–250 {km} {{{s}}}-1) bullets once every ˜8.5 years. The ejection axis flip–flops around a roughly eastern direction, both in and perpendicular to the sky-plane, and the radial velocities of the ejecta also vary in concert between low and high values. We propose a model in which the bullet ejection is associated with the periastron passage of a binary companion in an eccentric orbit around V Hya with an orbital period of ˜8.5 years. The flip–flop phenomenon is likely the result of collimated ejection from an accretion disk (produced by gravitational capture of material from the primary) that is warped and precessing, and/or that has a magnetic field that is misaligned with that of the companion or the primary star. We show how a previously observed 17 year period in V Hya’s light-cycle can also be explained in our model. Additionally, we describe how the model proposed here can be extended to account for multipolar nebulae.

  5. High-speed Bullet Ejections during the AGB-to-Planetary Nebula Transition: HST Observations of the Carbon Star, V Hydrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.; Scibelli, S.; Morris, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    The well-studied carbon star, V Hya, showing evidence for high-speed, collimated outflows and dense equatorial structures, is a key object in the study of the poorly understood transition of AGB stars into aspherical planetary nebulae. Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained high spatial-resolution long-slit optical spectra of V Hya that show high-velocity emission in [S ii] and [Fe ii] lines. Our data set, spanning three epochs spaced apart by a year during each of two periods (in 2002–2004 and 2011–2013), shows that V Hya ejects high-speed (∼200–250 {km} {{{s}}}-1) bullets once every ∼8.5 years. The ejection axis flip–flops around a roughly eastern direction, both in and perpendicular to the sky-plane, and the radial velocities of the ejecta also vary in concert between low and high values. We propose a model in which the bullet ejection is associated with the periastron passage of a binary companion in an eccentric orbit around V Hya with an orbital period of ∼8.5 years. The flip–flop phenomenon is likely the result of collimated ejection from an accretion disk (produced by gravitational capture of material from the primary) that is warped and precessing, and/or that has a magnetic field that is misaligned with that of the companion or the primary star. We show how a previously observed 17 year period in V Hya’s light-cycle can also be explained in our model. Additionally, we describe how the model proposed here can be extended to account for multipolar nebulae.

  6. An empirical study on the relation between the critical angle for bullet ricochet and the properties of wood.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoff, Wim; Alberink, Ivo; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2015-05-01

    The properties of a bullet, an object, and the incidence angle determine whether the bullet will penetrate, perforate, or ricochet. In this study, the critical angle for ricochet was established for .32 Auto and 9 mm Luger bullets on Abachi, Southern Yellow Pine, Beech, and Ipe wooden boards. Results show that the critical angle differs depending on caliber and wood type. The critical angle is higher for .32 Auto bullets than for 9 mm Luger bullets and increases with increasing wood density and Janka hardness. The established critical angles for ricochet on the lightest and softest wood (Abachi) are 10.4° and 10.3° for .32 Auto and 9 mm Luger, respectively. For the heaviest and hardest wood (Ipe), the angles were 45.0° and 33.4°, respectively. The combined results on the four tested woods show a strong linear relationship between both the density and the hardness and the critical angle for both calibers. PMID:25675942

  7. Popliteal artery bullet embolism in a case of homicide: a case report and review of the tangible literature.

    PubMed

    Slobodan, Savic; Slobodan, Nikolic; Djordje, Alempijevic

    2004-01-01

    Bullet embolism is a well known but a relatively rare phenomenon in common medicolegal autopsy practice. We present a homicide case of a bullet embolism to the left popliteal artery with interesting trajectory of projectile through the chest wall and right heart ventricle into the aortic lumen. Since in our presented case obvious homicidal manner of death was in question, discovery of bullet was an obligatory part of investigation in order to positively identify the responsible firearm. Detection of the missile transported through the circulation requires very thorough autopsy examination, especially if X-ray equipment is not available. As in all other cases in which initial bullet trajectory is changed in the body, the very important part of the medicolegal autopsy in cases accompanied with missile embolism, is to determine direction of the first part of the bullet's trajectory, because this indicates the position of the axis of the weapon barrel in the moment of firing (if there was no external ricochet), taking into consideration the posture of the victim and the location of the shooting person in the same moment. A review of the tangible literature is given. PMID:14687770

  8. Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect observations of the bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) with APEX-SZ

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N.W.; Lanting, T.; Ade, P.A.R.; Basu, K.; Bender, A.N.; Benson, B.A.; Bertoldi, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Chon, G.; Clarke, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ferrusca, D.; Gusten, R.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Kovacs, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kermish, Z.; Kneissl, R.; Lee, A.T.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K.M.; Muders, D.; Nord, M.; Pacaud, F.; Plagge, T.; Reichardt, C.; Richards, P.L.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Schuller, F.; Schwan, D.; Spieler, H.; Tucker, C.; Weiss, A.; Zahn, O.

    2008-07-25

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1'. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23 sigma significance within the central 1' radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical beta model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray derived prior on the power-law index, beta = 1.04+0.16-0.10, we find a core radius rc = 142" +- 18", an axial ratio of 0.889 +- 0.072, and a central temperature decrement of -771 +- 71 muKCMB, including a +-5.5percent flux calibration uncertainty. Combining the APEX-SZ map with a map of projected electron surface density from Chandra X-ray observations, we determine the mass-weighted temperature of the cluster gas to be Tmg = 10.8 +- 0.9 keV, significantly lower than some previously reported X-ray spectroscopic temperatures. Under the assumption of an isothermal cluster gas distribution in hydrostatic equilibrium, we compute the gas mass fraction for prolate and oblate spheroidal geometries and find it to be consistent with previous results from X-ray and weak-lensing observations. This work is the first result from the APEX-SZ experiment and represents the first reported scientific result from observations with a large array of multiplexed superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers.

  9. Forensic value of gunpowder tattooing in identification of multiple entrance wounds from one bullet.

    PubMed

    Tokdemir, Mehmet; Kafadar, Huseyin; Turkoglu, Abdurrahim; Bork, Turgay

    2007-05-01

    Multiple entrance gunshot wounds can give useful information in forensic evaluation of deaths from homicide and suicide. Although the presence of multiple entrance gunshot wounds does not absolutely exclude the possibility of suicide, they are important to the forensic investigators and pathologists in cases of assault, attempted homicide and suicide as they provide important clues for determination of number of shots fired and direction of firing. We present a case of 16 years of young woman who was shot to death by her husband. External examination revealed an entrance wound with semi-lunar shot residue at the dorsal side of her left hand at 5th metacarpus, and exit wound on the hypothenar muscle. There was also a second wound entrance located on her left zygoma. Direction of the bullet was downward traveling from left-to-right. Initially it was thought that there were two close shots, but when her left hand was placed over the malar area her face, it was determined that the gunshot powder tattoos were completing the nature of a single shot from a close distance. Crime scene investigation revealed only one cartridge casing. The autopsy and radiography findings showed that the bullet was entered from dorsal site of the left hand exiting from the palm and re-entering from the zygomatic region, hit the base of the skull, and remained in the soft tissue of the right mandible after passing the soft palate. The bullet was caused an incomplete laceration of the right internal arteria carotid and she died of internal and external bleeding. Detailed investigation of gunshot residues can provide important information for clarification of close distance gunshot wounding. We present this case due to its interesting nature, and to highlight the importance of detailed investigation of the gun powder residues in cases with multiple entry wounds. PMID:17196870

  10. Regular ‘breathing’ of a near-single-cycle light bullet in mid-IR filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekalin, S. V.; Kompanets, V. O.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Dormidonov, A. E.; Kandidov, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    Experimental and numerical studies of a temporal evolution of a light bullet formed in isotropic LiF by mid-IR femtosecond pulse (2600–3350 nm) of power, slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing, are presented. For the first time regular oscillations of the light bullet field peak amplitude during its propagation in a filament were registered by investigation of induced color centers in LiF. It was revealed that color centers in a single laser pulse filament have the strictly periodic structure with a length of separate sections about 30 μm, which increases with a laser pulse wavelength decreasing. It was shown that the origin of a light bullet modulation is a periodical change of the light field amplitude of a near single-cycle wave packet in a filament, due to a difference of the wave packet group velocity and the carrier wave phase velocity.

  11. The incidence, pattern and outcome of stray bullet injuries. A growing challenge for surgeons

    PubMed Central

    M. Malik, Arshad; Alkadi, Azzam; Talpur, K.Altaf Hussain; Naeem Qureshi, Jawaid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the incidence, pattern of injuries, presentation and management of stray bullet injuries. Methods: All patients presented and admitted with stray bullet injuries during a period of 4 years from January 2006 to December 2010 were included in this prospective study which was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital Hyderabad/Jamshoro. All of the study subjects were admitted through casualty and were initially thoroughly examined and resuscitated. The pattern of injuries was noted and requisite investigations performed. Patients who sustained injuries demanding surgery were prepared accordingly and were submitted for laparotomy or other procedures depending upon the severity of injuries. The data collected on individual basis and variables studied including demographics, pattern of injuries, time since injury occurred and management. Results: A total number of 165 patients with a mean age of 17.1 years, SD 13.807 and range of 74(2-76) presented with stray bullet injuries during study period. The study population comprised 117(70.90%) males and 48(29.09%) females. Majority of the patients were brought late because of delay in diagnosis or delay in transportation. The commonest victims were young children in their teens and comprised 78% of the study population. Haemothorax/ pneumothorax or peritonitis was the common presentations occurring in 11% and 61.81% of the study population respectively. Of the total number, 92 (55.75%) patients underwent laparotomy while remaining patients either had chest intubation or some other procedures done accordingly. Nine (5.45%) patients developed permanent disabilities while 13(7.87%) patients died either immediately after arrival or later on in the hospital during or after the operative treatment. Mortality was related to the time of arrival in hospital since the injury and thus was highest among those brought 4 or more hours after the shot (P<0.001). Patients who did not sustain

  12. From ion channels to complex networks: magic bullet versus magic shotgun approaches to anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Matt T; Pathmanathan, Jay; Cash, Sydney S

    2009-03-01

    Medical management and drug development for epilepsy emphasizes increasing pharmacological specificity to improve efficacy while minimizing side effects. However, growing evidence supports potential benefits of "magic shotgun" over "magic bullet" approaches to treatment of complex disease processes. We discuss experimental and theoretical evidence suggesting that seizures may be more amenable to a multi-target rather than a high-specificity approach, including evidence that individual anticonvulsants directly modulate a variety ion channel targets, the most direct determinants of neuronal excitability. Although the relevance of this promiscuity remains untested, it may contribute to anticonvulsant efficacy and should therefore be considered in drug development strategies and in therapeutic decision making. PMID:19046822

  13. Generation and control of sound bullets with a nonlinear acoustic lens.

    PubMed

    Spadoni, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara

    2010-04-20

    Acoustic lenses are employed in a variety of applications, from biomedical imaging and surgery to defense systems and damage detection in materials. Focused acoustic signals, for example, enable ultrasonic transducers to image the interior of the human body. Currently however the performance of acoustic devices is limited by their linear operational envelope, which implies relatively inaccurate focusing and low focal power. Here we show a dramatic focusing effect and the generation of compact acoustic pulses (sound bullets) in solid and fluid media, with energies orders of magnitude greater than previously achievable. This focusing is made possible by a tunable, nonlinear acoustic lens, which consists of ordered arrays of granular chains. The amplitude, size, and location of the sound bullets can be controlled by varying the static precompression of the chains. Theory and numerical simulations demonstrate the focusing effect, and photoelasticity experiments corroborate it. Our nonlinear lens permits a qualitatively new way of generating high-energy acoustic pulses, which may improve imaging capabilities through increased accuracy and signal-to-noise ratios and may lead to more effective nonintrusive scalpels, for example, for cancer treatment. PMID:20368461

  14. Finslerian MOND versus observations of Bullet Cluster 1E 0657-558

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Li, Ming-Hua; Lin, Hai-Nan; Chang, Zhe

    2013-02-01

    It is known that theory of MOND (Modification of Newtonian Dynamics) with spherical symmetry cannot account for the convergence κ-map of Bullet Cluster 1E 0657-558. In this paper, we try to set up a Finslerian MOND, a generalization of MOND in Finsler space-time. We use Ric = 0 to obtain the gravitational vacuum field equation in a 4D Finsler space-time. To leading order in the post-Newtonian approximation, we obtain the explicit form of the Finslerian line element. It is simply the Schwarzschild's metric except for the Finslerian rescaling coefficient f(v) of the radial coordinate r, i.e. R = f(v)r. By setting f(v)=sqrt{1-(GMa_0/v^4)}, we obtain the famous MOND in a Finslerian framework. Taking a dipole and a quadrupole term into consideration, we give the convergence κ in gravitational lensing astrophysics in our model. Numerical analysis shows that our prediction is to a certain extent in agreement with the observations of Bullet Cluster 1E 0657-558. With the theoretical temperature T taking the observed value 14.8 keV, the mass density profile of the main cluster obtained in our model is of the same order as that given by the best-fitting King β-model.

  15. Generation and control of sound bullets with a nonlinear acoustic lens

    PubMed Central

    Spadoni, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic lenses are employed in a variety of applications, from biomedical imaging and surgery to defense systems and damage detection in materials. Focused acoustic signals, for example, enable ultrasonic transducers to image the interior of the human body. Currently however the performance of acoustic devices is limited by their linear operational envelope, which implies relatively inaccurate focusing and low focal power. Here we show a dramatic focusing effect and the generation of compact acoustic pulses (sound bullets) in solid and fluid media, with energies orders of magnitude greater than previously achievable. This focusing is made possible by a tunable, nonlinear acoustic lens, which consists of ordered arrays of granular chains. The amplitude, size, and location of the sound bullets can be controlled by varying the static precompression of the chains. Theory and numerical simulations demonstrate the focusing effect, and photoelasticity experiments corroborate it. Our nonlinear lens permits a qualitatively new way of generating high-energy acoustic pulses, which may improve imaging capabilities through increased accuracy and signal-to-noise ratios and may lead to more effective nonintrusive scalpels, for example, for cancer treatment. PMID:20368461

  16. 3D soliton-like bullets in nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaeva, T. L.; Hasegawa, Akira; Kovachev, L. M.; Serkin, V. N.

    2010-10-01

    Mathematical similarities and parallels between two different physical objects, optical solitons and matter-wave solitons, both described by similar mathematical models: the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) model, open the possibility to study both systems in parallel and because of the obvious complexity of experiments with matter-wave solitons, offer outstanding possibilities in studies of BEC system by performing experiments in the nonlinear optical system and vise versa. In this report we briefly overview recent theoretical studies of the existence and stability of 3D solitons. With contributions from major groups who have pioneered research in this field, the report describes the historical development of the subject, provides a background to the associated nonlinear optical processes, the generation mechanisms of soliton bullets. The main features of nonautonomous matter-wave solitons near the Feshbach resonance with continuously tuned scattering length are investigated. We focus on the most physically important situations where the applied magnetic field is varying in time linearly and periodically. In nonlinear optical applications, this kind of periodic graded-index nonlinear structure with alternating waveguiding and antiwaveguiding segments can be used to simulate different and complicated processes in the total scenario of matterwave soliton bullets generation.

  17. To drink or grasp? How bullet ants ( Paraponera clavata) differentiate between sugars and proteins in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandt, Jennifer; Larson, Hannah K.; Tellez, Peter; McGlynn, Terrence P.

    2013-12-01

    Flexibility in behavior can increase the likelihood that a forager may respond optimally in a fluctuating environment. Nevertheless, physiological or neuronal constraints may result in suboptimal responses to stimuli. We observed foraging workers of the giant tropical ant (also referred to as the "bullet ant"), Paraponera clavata, as they reacted to liquid solutions with varying concentrations of sugar and protein. We show that when protein/sucrose concentration is high, many bullet ants will often try to grasp at the droplet, rather than gather it by drinking. Because P. clavata actively hunt for prey, fixed action patterns and rapid responses to protein may be adaptively important, regardless of the medium in which it is presented. We conclude that, in P. clavata, food-handling decisions are made in response to the nutrient content of the food rather than the texture of the food. Further, we suggest that colonies that maintain a mixture of individuals with consistent fixed or flexible behavioral responses to food-handling decisions may be better adapted to fluctuating environmental conditions, and we propose future studies that could address this.

  18. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  19. Less-lethal hybrid ammunition wounds: a forensic assessment introducing bullet-skin-bone entity.

    PubMed

    de Freminville, Humbert; Prat, Nicolas; Rongieras, Frederic; Voiglio, Eric J

    2010-09-01

    Agencies all around the world now use less-lethal weapons with homogeneous missiles such as bean bag or rubber bullets. Contusions and sometimes significant morbidity have been reported. This study focuses on wounds caused by hybrid ammunition with the pathologists' flap-by-flap procedure. Twenty-four postmortem human subjects were used, and lesions caused on frontal, temporal, sternal, and left tibial regions by a 40-mm hybrid ammunition (33 g weight) were evaluated on various distance range. The 50% risk of fractures occurred at 79.2 m/sec on the forehead, 72.9 m/sec on the temporal, 72.5 m/sec on the sternum, and 76.7 m/sec on the tibia. Skin lesions were not predictors of bone fracture. There was no correlation between soft and bone tissue observed lesions and impact velocity (correlated to distance range). Lesions observed with hybrid ammunition were the result of bullet-skin-bone entity as the interaction of the projectile on skin and bone tissues. PMID:20487150

  20. A firearm bullet lodged into the thoracic spinal canal without vertebral bone destruction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Firearm injuries account for 13% to 17% of all spinal cord injuries, and are generally caused during warfare or assault with intent to kill. Spinal cord injuries caused by firearms are usually observed in patients aged 15 to 34 years old, and are especially common among men. Case presentation We report the case of a 28-year-old Iraqi man who was referred to our radiology department with lower limb paraplegia secondary to a gunshot wound. We performed 64-slice computerized tomography with two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine. On the two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructed axial images of the thoracolumbar spine, an intra-canalicular bullet nucleus was found at the mid-spinal cord at the T8 level, with no evidence of vertebral bone destruction. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, there is only one previous report in the literature describing a case of a bullet nucleus lodged into the inferior epidural spinal canal without destruction of the vertebral bone. With the rise of violence worldwide the incidence of gunshot injuries continues to increase, and, thus, it is essential for radiologists to have a clear understanding of gunshot injuries and the findings on radiographic images. PMID:21733154

  1. Preserving lung after traumatic transection of left lower lobe bronchus from bullet injury.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad Shoaib; Mishwani, A H; Oparka, J; Buchan, K

    2015-06-01

    A 22-year-old soldier was shot in the left chest by a bullet from close range. He was found to have a left haemothorax and remained shocked despite aggressive resuscitation. Due to difficult terrain and night time movement restrictions, there were limitations to the transfer of patient. So he was attended at a peripheral hospital. At emergency thoracotomy, three segmental arteries to left upper lobe were ligated and haemostasis was secured. The level of transection of left lower lobe bronchus was identified to be below the origin of the apical segmental bronchus. The lower lobe bronchus was successfully re-attached and followed up with a daily bronchoscopic clearance of distal airway. The patient made a full recovery. Anastomosis of left lower lobe bronchus after traumatic transection is a viable option for preserving an amputated lobe, in trauma settings, provided haemostatic control has been adequately achieved. PMID:24515083

  2. OPTICAL WAVEPACKETS (OPTICAL BULLETS): A NEW DIFFRACTION FREE FORM OF LIGHT TRAVEL

    SciTech Connect

    D. FUNK; J. NICHOLSON; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We conducted studies of the propagation of self-confined packets of light or ''Optical Bullets'' through air. These packets are self-forming and require no active optics. At the present time, theoretical explanations provide an incomplete description of this process. Generation of these pulses requires a light source of sufficient energy and with a short enough pulse-width that the intensity exceeds a critical wavelength dependent value. We used a Ti:Sapphire based system to generate the pulses and we observed pulse-splitting and chirp-dependent control of the formation of these filaments. In addition, we developed a novel algorithm for extracting the phase and electric field of these pulses using Frequency Resolved Optical Gating coupled to genetic algorithms for pulse retrieval.

  3. A Validation Study of Bullet and Cartridge Case Comparisons Using Samples Representative of Actual Casework.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tasha P; Andrew Smith, G; Snipes, Jeffrey B

    2016-07-01

    The foundation of firearm and tool mark identification is that no two tools should produce the same microscopic marks on two separate objects that they would be inaccurately or wrongly identified. Studies addressing the validity of identification infrequently employ tests that mirror realistic casework scenarios. This study attempted to do so using a double-blind process, reducing test-taking bias. Test kits including bullets and cartridge cases but not the associated firearms were completed by 31 analysts from 22 agencies. Analysis of the results demonstrated an overall error rate of 0.303%, sensitivity of 85.2%, and specificity of 86.8%. Variability in performance across examiners is addressed, and the effect of examiners' years of experience on identification accuracy is explored. Finally, the article discusses the importance of studies using realistic case work scenarios when validating the field's performance and in providing courts with usable indicators of the accuracy of firearm and tool mark identification. PMID:27135174

  4. General-purpose heat source development: Safety verification test program. Titanium bullet/fragment test series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.

    1986-06-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four 238PuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of launch-pad or postlaunch explosion exists and because any explosion would generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must be able to survive fragment impact. In this test series we investigated the response of bare, simulant-fueled (UO2) clads to the impact of high-energy titanium alloy fragments. We determined that 425m/s is the threshold impact velocity of a 3.25-g titanium bullet that will cause direct mechanical failure of a bare fueled clad.

  5. Video camera system for locating bullet holes in targets at a ballistics tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Rummler, D. R.; Goad, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    A system consisting of a single charge coupled device (CCD) video camera, computer controlled video digitizer, and software to automate the measurement was developed to measure the location of bullet holes in targets at the International Shooters Development Fund (ISDF)/NASA Ballistics Tunnel. The camera/digitizer system is a crucial component of a highly instrumented indoor 50 meter rifle range which is being constructed to support development of wind resistant, ultra match ammunition. The system was designed to take data rapidly (10 sec between shoots) and automatically with little operator intervention. The system description, measurement concept, and procedure are presented along with laboratory tests of repeatability and bias error. The long term (1 hour) repeatability of the system was found to be 4 microns (one standard deviation) at the target and the bias error was found to be less than 50 microns. An analysis of potential errors and a technique for calibration of the system are presented.

  6. General-purpose heat source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Titanium bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1986-06-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of launch-pad or postlaunch explosion exists and because any explosion would generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must be able to survive fragment impact. In this test series we investigated the response of bare, simulant-fueled (UO/sub 2/) clads to the impact of high-energy titanium alloy fragments. We determined that 425m/s is the threshold impact velocity of a 3.25-g titanium bullet that will cause direct mechanical failure of a bare fueled clad. 40 figs.

  7. The Silver Bullet Skunk Works: Holistic design of the answering system 1300

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Silver Bullet Skunk Works, and experimental product realization team at AT T Consumer Products, designed and shipped a new telephone answering system to market in eight months, approximately one year faster than previous AT T products of similar complexity. This paper outlines the Design for X'' (DFX) philosophies and the team structure that enabled the group to accelerate the Product Realization Process. The Answering System 1300, developed in record time, was a successful product that met its schedule and cost objectives, and sold out its entire high-volume manufacturing run. Lessons learned from the Skunk Works experience have since been applied to other development activities in AT T Consumer Products. 3 figs.

  8. Large Spin-Wave Bullet in a Ferrimagnetic Insulator Driven by the Spin Hall Effect.

    PubMed

    Jungfleisch, M B; Zhang, W; Sklenar, J; Ding, J; Jiang, W; Chang, H; Fradin, F Y; Pearson, J E; Ketterson, J B; Novosad, V; Wu, M; Hoffmann, A

    2016-02-01

    Because of its transverse nature, spin Hall effects (SHE) provide the possibility to excite and detect spin currents and magnetization dynamics even in magnetic insulators. Magnetic insulators are outstanding materials for the investigation of nonlinear phenomena and for novel low power spintronics applications because of their extremely low Gilbert damping. Here, we report on the direct imaging of electrically driven spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in the ferrimagnetic insulator Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} based on the excitation and detection by SHEs. The driven spin dynamics in Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} is directly imaged by spatially resolved microfocused Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. Previously, ST-FMR experiments assumed a uniform precession across the sample, which is not valid in our measurements. A strong spin-wave localization in the center of the sample is observed indicating the formation of a nonlinear, self-localized spin-wave "bullet". PMID:26894733

  9. Traumatic right coronary artery-right ventricular fistula with retained intramyocardial bullet.

    PubMed

    Alter, B R; Whelling, J R; Martin, H A; Murgo, J P; Treasure, R L; McGranahan, G M

    1977-11-01

    A case of traumatic right coronary artery-right ventricular fistula secondary to a gunshot wound is presented. In addition, the bullet was retained within the interventricular septum. The diagnostic approach, surgical findings and operative procedure of this and other reported cases are discussed. Several key points are emphasized. First, extended follow-up is necessary after trauma to the heart since fistulas may develop years after the initial injury. Second, surgery is generally indicated for fistulas although some data are presented suggesting that small to moderate fistulas may be treated medically. Third, if surgery is undertaken, very careful operative technique must be utilized to locate and close the fistula. Surgical treatment of choice may be coronary arterial ligation with a distal bypass graft if necessary. Postoperative evaluation is mandatory because fistulas may recur. Indications for removal of a foreign body within the myocardium are also discussed. PMID:920619

  10. Large Spin-Wave Bullet in a Ferrimagnetic Insulator Driven by the Spin Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungfleisch, M. B.; Zhang, W.; Sklenar, J.; Ding, J.; Jiang, W.; Chang, H.; Fradin, F. Y.; Pearson, J. E.; Ketterson, J. B.; Novosad, V.; Wu, M.; Hoffmann, A.

    2016-02-01

    Because of its transverse nature, spin Hall effects (SHE) provide the possibility to excite and detect spin currents and magnetization dynamics even in magnetic insulators. Magnetic insulators are outstanding materials for the investigation of nonlinear phenomena and for novel low power spintronics applications because of their extremely low Gilbert damping. Here, we report on the direct imaging of electrically driven spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in the ferrimagnetic insulator Y3 Fe5 O12 based on the excitation and detection by SHEs. The driven spin dynamics in Y3 Fe5 O12 is directly imaged by spatially resolved microfocused Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. Previously, ST-FMR experiments assumed a uniform precession across the sample, which is not valid in our measurements. A strong spin-wave localization in the center of the sample is observed indicating the formation of a nonlinear, self-localized spin-wave "bullet".

  11. Numerical Simulations of Light Bullets, Using The Full Vector, Time Dependent, Nonlinear Maxwell Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Silberberg, Yaron; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that solves the full vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations exactly without the approximations that we currently made. Present methods solve a reduced scalar wave equation, namely the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and neglect the optical carrier. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of 'light bullet' like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and can take into account such quantum effects as Karr and Raman interactions. The present approach is robust and should permit modeling 2-D and 3-D optical soliton propagation, scattering, and switching directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  12. Numerical Simulations of Light Bullets, Using the Full Vector, Time Dependent, Nonlinear Maxwell Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Silberberg, Yaron; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that solves the full vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations exactly without the approximations that are currently made. Present methods solve a reduced scalar wave equation, namely the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and neglect the optical carrier. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of 'light bullet' like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and can take into account such quantum effects as Kerr and Raman interactions. The present approach is robust and should permit modeling 2-D and 3-D optical soliton propagation, scattering, and switching directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  13. Numerical Simulations of Light Bullets, Using The Full Vector, Time Dependent, Nonlinear Maxwell Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Silberberg, Yaron; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that solves the full vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations exactly without the approximations that are currently made. Present methods solve a reduced scalar wave equation, namely the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and neglect the optical carrier. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of 'light bullet' like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and can take into account such quantum effects as Kerr and Raman interactions. The present approach is robust and should permit modeling 2-D and 3-D optical soliton propagation, scattering, and switching directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  14. How rare is the Bullet Cluster (in a ΛCDM universe)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraljic, David; Sarkar, Subir

    2015-04-01

    The Bullet Cluster (1E 0657-56) is well-known as providing visual evidence of dark matter but it is potentially incompatible with the standard ΛCDM cosmology due to the high relative velocity of the two colliding clusters. Previous studies have focussed on the probability of such a high relative velocity amongst selected candidate systems. This notion of `probability' is however difficult to interpret and can lead to paradoxical results. Instead, we consider the expected number of Bullet-like systems on the sky up to a specified redshift, which allows for direct comparison with observations. Using a Hubble volume N-body simulation with high resolution we investigate how the number of such systems depends on the masses of the halo pairs, their separation, and collisional angle. This enables us to extract an approximate formula for the expected number of halo-halo collisions given specific collisional parameters. We use extreme value statistics to analyse the tail of the pairwise velocity distribution and demonstrate that it is fatter than the previously assumed Gaussian form. We estimate that the number of dark matter halo pairs as or more extreme than 1E 0657-56 in mass, separation and relative velocity is 1.3+2.0-0.6 up to redshift z=0.3. However requiring the halos to have collided and passed through each other as is observed decreases this number to only 0.1. The discovery of more such systems would thus indeed present a challenge to the standard cosmology.

  15. "You are our only hope": trading metaphorical "magic bullets" for stem cell "superheroes".

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of two recent developments in stem cell research, it is a fitting time to reassess the claim that stem cells will radically transform the concept and function of medicine. The first is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's decision in January 2009 to approve Geron Corporation's Phase I clinical trial using human embryonic stem cells for patients with spinal cord injuries. The second is the National Institutes of Health's decision to permit federal funding of research using donated IVF human embryos in their July 2009 Guidelines on Human Stem Cell Research. We are now poised to see whether stem cell research can deliver on what it promises. However, what exactly does it promise and how? Moreover, who is doing the promising? Turning to the use of metaphor can help us to answer these questions and enable us to develop a better appreciation of the unique features of promised stem cell therapies. Indeed, metaphors have exerted profound influence in medicine, and it is fitting that we seek new metaphors for new therapies where appropriate. In this case, other metaphors such as magic bullets or the Holy Grail cannot capture what is unique about stem cells. Accordingly, I propose a new metaphor: the stem cell superhero. Stem cell superheroes are characterized by the following traits: they are seemingly capable of fighting the evil of virtually all disease (unlike "magic bullets") and they seem to be our only hope of doing so, although to summon them we must make difficult moral choices. In the course of assessing the merits of three recent yet covert references to the superhero metaphor, I conclude that this powerful new paradigm employs a problematic logic (i.e., we cannot know that something is "our only hope"), but that the aspiration as such is a good one. PMID:20035405

  16. Microencapsulated BioBullets for the control of biofouling zebra mussels.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, David C; Elliott, Paul; Moggridge, Geoff D

    2006-02-01

    The widespread invasion of freshwaters by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, during the last 2 decades has made it one of the world's most economically and ecologically important pests. Since arriving in the North American Great Lakes in the 1980s, zebra mussels have become a major biofouler, blocking the raw water cooling systems of power stations and water treatment works and costing U.S. dollars 1-5 billion per year. Despite the development of numerous control methods, chlorination remains the only widespread and licensed technique. Zebra mussels are able to sense chlorine and othertoxins in their surrounding environment and respond by closing their valves, thus enabling them to avoid toxic effects for up to 3 weeks. Furthermore, prolonged dosing of chlorine in raw water produces ecotoxic trihalomethanes (THMs) by reaction with organic material in the water. We have developed a novel, environmentally safe, and effective method for controlling the zebra mussel: the BioBullet. Our method uses the encapsulation of an active ingredient (KCI) in microscopic particles of edible material. The mussels' natural filtering ability then removes and concentrates the particles from the water, without stimulating the valve-closing response. By using the mussels' filtering behavior to concentrate BioBullets the absolute quantity of active ingredient added to the water can be reduced substantially. Our approach allows us to engineer the particles to break up and dissolve completely within a few hours, thus eliminating the risk of polluting the wider ecosystem. We demonstrate that the effectiveness of a toxin in the control of biofouling filter-feeders can be enhanced greatly by using our technique. This paves the way for a new approach to the control of some of the world's most important economic pests. PMID:16509345

  17. A Death Involving a Fired and Deflected Bullet: A Case Report from Lyon University Institute of Forensic Science, France.

    PubMed

    Maujean, Géraldine; Guinet, Tiphaine; Malicier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In case of gunshot deaths, atypical wounds can make the distinction between entrance and exit wounds harder. They may be due either to anatomical reasons or to diverse cogent ballistic arguments. The reported case pertains to a fatal hunting accident involving an expanded conical point bullet against the neck with both atypical entrance and exit wounds. Ballistic analyses including test firings allowed a better understanding of the external and internal findings. Upon premature impact with an intermediary target, the bullet experienced expansion in the formation of sharp brass petals responsible for a star-shaped entry wound. The trajectory of the deformed high energy projectile through the victim's body was then deviated by the cervical column, causing it to be tangential to the skin when exiting the body. The description of such atypical cases may benefit other experts and may assist in their investigation into similar cases. PMID:26211785

  18. Spatiotemporal light bullets and supercontinuum generation in β-BBO crystal with competing quadratic and cubic nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Šuminas, R; Tamošauskas, G; Valiulis, G; Dubietis, A

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally study filamentation and supercontinuum generation in a birefringent medium [beta-barium borate (β-BBO) crystal] pumped by intense 90 fs, 1.8 μm laser pulses whose carrier wavelength falls in the range of anomalous group velocity dispersion of the crystal. We demonstrate that the competition between the intrinsic cubic and cascaded-quadratic nonlinearities may serve as a useful tool for controlling the self-action effects via phase matching condition. In particular, we found that spectral superbroadening of the ordinary polarization is linked to three-dimensional self-focusing and formation of self-compressed spatiotemporal light bullets that could be accessed within a certain range of either positive or negative phase mismatch. In the extraordinary polarization, we detect giant spectral shifts of the second harmonic radiation, which are attributed to a light bullet-induced self-phase matching. PMID:27128083

  19. Two bullets to the head and an early winter: fate permits Kutuzov to defeat Napoleon at Moscow.

    PubMed

    Kushchayev, Sergiy V; Belykh, Evgenii; Fishchenko, Yakiv; Salei, Aliaksei; Teytelboym, Oleg M; Shabaturov, Leonid; Cruse, Mark; Preul, Mark C

    2015-07-01

    General Mikhail Kutuzov (circa 1745-1813) brilliantly repelled Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Honored as a national hero and a savior of Russia, Kutuzov has a unique medical story. He was shot in the head twice while fighting the Turks (1774 and 1788) and survived the serious injuries seemingly against all odds. The first bullet "ran through the head from one temple to the other behind both eyes." The second bullet entered the cheek, destroyed upper teeth, traveled through the head, and exited the occiput. Massot, a French surgeon with the Russian army, wrote after treating Kutuzov's seemingly two mortal wounds: "It must be believed that fate appoints Kutuzov to something great, because he was still alive after two injuries, a death sentence by all the rules of medical science." Aided by Massot's expert surgical technique, Kutuzov lived to become intimately engaged in events that altered world history. His health did, however, suffer significant effects due to the bullet wounds. In 1812, as Napoleon's Grande Armée approached, Kutuzov realized he could not confront Napoleon and he strategically retreated from Moscow, submitting the French to the harsh winter and Russian cavalry. Napoleon's devastated army retreated to Paris, and Kutuzov became the personification of Russian spirit and character. Kutuzov's survival of two nearly mortal head wounds created the legends, additional mystery, and drama surrounding him, not the least astonishing of which was the skilled neurosurgical care that probably saved his life. PMID:26126402

  20. Spatial scale, means and gradients of hydrographic variables define pelagic seascapes of bluefin and bullet tuna spawning distribution.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Berastegui, Diego; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Aparicio-Gonzalez, Alberto; Reglero, Patricia; Hidalgo, Manuel; López-Jurado, Jose Luis; Tintoré, Joaquín; Alemany, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Seascape ecology is an emerging discipline focused on understanding how features of the marine habitat influence the spatial distribution of marine species. However, there is still a gap in the development of concepts and techniques for its application in the marine pelagic realm, where there are no clear boundaries delimitating habitats. Here we demonstrate that pelagic seascape metrics defined as a combination of hydrographic variables and their spatial gradients calculated at an appropriate spatial scale, improve our ability to model pelagic fish distribution. We apply the analysis to study the spawning locations of two tuna species: Atlantic bluefin and bullet tuna. These two species represent a gradient in life history strategies. Bluefin tuna has a large body size and is a long-distant migrant, while bullet tuna has a small body size and lives year-round in coastal waters within the Mediterranean Sea. The results show that the models performance incorporating the proposed seascape metrics increases significantly when compared with models that do not consider these metrics. This improvement is more important for Atlantic bluefin, whose spawning ecology is dependent on the local oceanographic scenario, than it is for bullet tuna, which is less influenced by the hydrographic conditions. Our study advances our understanding of how species perceive their habitat and confirms that the spatial scale at which the seascape metrics provide information is related to the spawning ecology and life history strategy of each species. PMID:25347411

  1. Decreased subject contrast and summation artifact: an explanation for a nearly imperceptible bullet by X-ray examination.

    PubMed

    Graham, Eric W; Tawadros, Alexander M; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    X-ray examination is used to detect foreign bodies during forensic autopsy of a suspected gunshot wound case. There are several previously described situations in which a projectile is not immediately localized by radiography. In this report, we present a case of a metal bullet lodged near the atlanto-occipital junction, where it was present but not readily apparent on radiograph. Although computed tomography is ideal for detecting such objects, many forensic pathologists must still rely on x-ray only. To our knowledge, the forensics literature does not contain a case where a lead bullet was rendered nearly imperceptible by x-ray examination. We describe 2 concepts of radiation physics-poor x-ray penetration and summation artifact-which can cause a radiopaque object such as a bullet to seem much less so. The difference between best practices in hospital and forensic radiology may explain how this occurred. This case serves to caution the pathologist that forensic radiographs may not completely depict the type or quantity of projectiles present in a gunshot wound case. PMID:25361062

  2. Spatial Scale, Means and Gradients of Hydrographic Variables Define Pelagic Seascapes of Bluefin and Bullet Tuna Spawning Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Berastegui, Diego; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Aparicio-Gonzalez, Alberto; Reglero, Patricia; Hidalgo, Manuel; López-Jurado, Jose Luis; Tintoré, Joaquín; Alemany, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Seascape ecology is an emerging discipline focused on understanding how features of the marine habitat influence the spatial distribution of marine species. However, there is still a gap in the development of concepts and techniques for its application in the marine pelagic realm, where there are no clear boundaries delimitating habitats. Here we demonstrate that pelagic seascape metrics defined as a combination of hydrographic variables and their spatial gradients calculated at an appropriate spatial scale, improve our ability to model pelagic fish distribution. We apply the analysis to study the spawning locations of two tuna species: Atlantic bluefin and bullet tuna. These two species represent a gradient in life history strategies. Bluefin tuna has a large body size and is a long-distant migrant, while bullet tuna has a small body size and lives year-round in coastal waters within the Mediterranean Sea. The results show that the models performance incorporating the proposed seascape metrics increases significantly when compared with models that do not consider these metrics. This improvement is more important for Atlantic bluefin, whose spawning ecology is dependent on the local oceanographic scenario, than it is for bullet tuna, which is less influenced by the hydrographic conditions. Our study advances our understanding of how species perceive their habitat and confirms that the spatial scale at which the seascape metrics provide information is related to the spawning ecology and life history strategy of each species. PMID:25347411

  3. Anisotropy of Bullet-Shaped Magnetite Nanoparticles in the Magnetotactic Bacteria Desulfovibrio magneticus sp. Strain RS-1

    PubMed Central

    Chariaou, Michalis; Rahn-Lee, Lilah; Kind, Jessica; García-Rubio, Inés; Komeili, Arash; Gehring, Andreas U.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) build magnetic nanoparticles in chain configuration to generate a permanent dipole in their cells as a tool to sense the Earth’s magnetic field for navigation toward favorable habitats. The majority of known MTB align their nanoparticles along the magnetic easy axes so that the directions of the uniaxial symmetry and of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy coincide. Desulfovibrio magneticus sp. strain RS-1 forms bullet-shaped magnetite nanoparticles aligned along their (100) magnetocrystalline hard axis, a configuration energetically unfavorable for formation of strong dipoles. We used ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantitatively determine the magnetocrystalline and uniaxial anisotropy fields of the magnetic assemblies as indicators for a cellular dipole with stable direction in strain RS-1. Experimental and simulated ferromagnetic resonance spectral data indicate that the negative effect of the configuration is balanced by the bullet-shaped morphology of the nanoparticles, which generates a pronounced uniaxial anisotropy field in each magnetosome. The quantitative comparison with anisotropy fields of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, a model MTB with equidimensional magnetite particles aligned along their (111) magnetic easy axes in well-organized chain assemblies, shows that the effectiveness of the dipole is similar to that in RS-1. From a physical perspective, this could be a reason for the persistency of bullet-shaped magnetosomes during the evolutionary development of magnetotaxis in MTB. PMID:25762338

  4. Weathering of lead bullets and their environmental effects at outdoor shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Ma, Lena Q; Chen, Ming; Hardison, Donald W; Harris, Willie G

    2003-01-01

    Lead contamination at shooting range soils is of great environmental concern. This study focused on weathering of lead bullets and its effect on the environment at five outdoor shooting ranges in Florida, USA. Soil, plant, and water samples were collected from the ranges and analyzed for total Pb and/or toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) Pb. Selected bullet and berm soil samples were mineralogically analyzed with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrocerussite [Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2] was found in both the weathered crusts and berm soils in the shooting ranges with alkaline soil pH. For those shooting ranges with acidic soil pH, hydrocerussite, cerussite (PbCO3), and small amount of massicot (PbO) were predominantly present in the weathered crusts, but no lead carbonate mineral was found in the soils. However, hydroxypyromorphite [(Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2] was formed in a P-rich acidic soil, indicating that hydroxypyromorphite can be a stable mineral in P-rich shooting range soil. Total Pb and TCLP Pb in the soils from all five shooting ranges were significantly elevated with the highest total Pb concentration of 1.27 to 4.84% (w/w) in berm soils. Lead concentrations in most sampled soils exceeded the USEPA's critical level of 400 mg Pb kg(-1) soil. Lead was not detected in subsurface soils in most ranges except for one, where elevated Pb up to 522 mg kg(-1) was observed in the subsurface, possibly due to enhanced solubilization of organic Pb complexes at alkaline soil pH. Elevated total Pb concentrations in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] (up to 806 mg kg(-1) in the aboveground parts) and in surface water (up to 289 microg L(-1)) were observed in some ranges. Ranges with high P content or high cation exchange capacity showed lower Pb mobility. Our research clearly demonstrates the importance of properly managing shooting ranges to minimize adverse effects of Pb on the environment. PMID:12708676

  5. Demonstration of a low-frequency three-dimensional terahertz bullet with extreme brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, Mostafa; Hauri, Christoph P.

    2015-01-01

    The brightness of a light source defines its applicability to nonlinear phenomena in science. Bright low-frequency terahertz (<5 THz) radiation confined to a diffraction-limited spot size is a present hurdle because of the broad bandwidth and long wavelengths associated with terahertz (THz) pulses and because of the lack of THz wavefront correctors. Here using a present-technology system, we employ a wavefront manipulation concept with focusing optimization leading to spatio-temporal confinement of THz energy at its physical limits to the least possible three-dimensional light bullet volume of wavelength-cubic. Our scheme relies on finding the optimum settings of pump wavefront curvature and post generation beam divergence. This leads to a regime of extremely bright PW m-2 level THz radiation with peak fields up to 8.3 GV m-1 and 27.7 T surpassing by far any other system. The presented results are foreseen to have a great impact on nonlinear THz applications in different science disciplines.

  6. Demonstration of a low-frequency three-dimensional terahertz bullet with extreme brightness.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Mostafa; Hauri, Christoph P

    2015-01-01

    The brightness of a light source defines its applicability to nonlinear phenomena in science. Bright low-frequency terahertz (<5 THz) radiation confined to a diffraction-limited spot size is a present hurdle because of the broad bandwidth and long wavelengths associated with terahertz (THz) pulses and because of the lack of THz wavefront correctors. Here using a present-technology system, we employ a wavefront manipulation concept with focusing optimization leading to spatio-temporal confinement of THz energy at its physical limits to the least possible three-dimensional light bullet volume of wavelength-cubic. Our scheme relies on finding the optimum settings of pump wavefront curvature and post generation beam divergence. This leads to a regime of extremely bright PW m(-2) level THz radiation with peak fields up to 8.3 GV m(-1) and 27.7 T surpassing by far any other system. The presented results are foreseen to have a great impact on nonlinear THz applications in different science disciplines. PMID:25591665

  7. Crystal growth of bullet-shaped magnetite in magnetotactic bacteria of the Nitrospirae phylum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Menguy, Nicolas; Gatel, Christophe; Boureau, Victor; Snoeck, Etienne; Patriarche, Gilles; Leroy, Eric; Pan, Yongxin

    2015-02-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to produce single-domain magnetite or greigite crystals within intracellular membrane organelles and to navigate along the Earth's magnetic field lines. MTB have been suggested as being one of the most ancient biomineralizing metabolisms on the Earth and they represent a fundamental model of intracellular biomineralization. Moreover, the determination of their specific crystallographic signature (e.g. structure and morphology) is essential for palaeoenvironmental and ancient-life studies. Yet, the mechanisms of MTB biomineralization remain poorly understood, although this process has been extensively studied in several cultured MTB strains in the Proteobacteria phylum. Here, we show a comprehensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of magnetic and structural properties down to atomic scales on bullet-shaped magnetites produced by the uncultured strain MYR-1 belonging to the Nitrospirae phylum, a deeply branching phylogenetic MTB group. We observed a multiple-step crystal growth of MYR-1 magnetite: initial isotropic growth forming cubo-octahedral particles (less than approx. 40 nm), subsequent anisotropic growth and a systematic final elongation along [001] direction. During the crystal growth, one major {111} face is well developed and preserved at the larger basal end of the crystal. The basal {111} face appears to be terminated by a tetrahedral-octahedral-mixed iron surface, suggesting dimensional advantages for binding protein(s), which may template the crystallization of magnetite. This study offers new insights for understanding magnetite biomineralization within the Nitrospirae phylum. PMID:25566884

  8. Crystal growth of bullet-shaped magnetite in magnetotactic bacteria of the Nitrospirae phylum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Menguy, Nicolas; Gatel, Christophe; Boureau, Victor; Snoeck, Etienne; Patriarche, Gilles; Leroy, Eric; Pan, Yongxin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to produce single-domain magnetite or greigite crystals within intracellular membrane organelles and to navigate along the Earth's magnetic field lines. MTB have been suggested as being one of the most ancient biomineralizing metabolisms on the Earth and they represent a fundamental model of intracellular biomineralization. Moreover, the determination of their specific crystallographic signature (e.g. structure and morphology) is essential for palaeoenvironmental and ancient-life studies. Yet, the mechanisms of MTB biomineralization remain poorly understood, although this process has been extensively studied in several cultured MTB strains in the Proteobacteria phylum. Here, we show a comprehensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of magnetic and structural properties down to atomic scales on bullet-shaped magnetites produced by the uncultured strain MYR-1 belonging to the Nitrospirae phylum, a deeply branching phylogenetic MTB group. We observed a multiple-step crystal growth of MYR-1 magnetite: initial isotropic growth forming cubo-octahedral particles (less than approx. 40 nm), subsequent anisotropic growth and a systematic final elongation along [001] direction. During the crystal growth, one major {111} face is well developed and preserved at the larger basal end of the crystal. The basal {111} face appears to be terminated by a tetrahedral–octahedral-mixed iron surface, suggesting dimensional advantages for binding protein(s), which may template the crystallization of magnetite. This study offers new insights for understanding magnetite biomineralization within the Nitrospirae phylum. PMID:25566884

  9. Numerical Modelling of a Low-Energy Rockfall Barrier: New Insight into the Bullet Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentani, A.; Giacomini, A.; Buzzi, O.; Govoni, L.; Gottardi, G.; Fityus, S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic response of low energy, semi-rigid rockfall barriers. The study is based on a FE model that reproduces the geometry, components and connections of the existing systems that were previously tested at The University of Newcastle. The mechanical behaviour of the relevant barrier components was calibrated from simple mechanical tests and the response of the assembled system, i.e. 2 m high, 15 m long rockfall barrier, was validated against of full-scale tests results. Following a satisfactory validation of the model, further dynamic non-linear analyses were conducted to investigate the dependence of the full system performance to the size of impacting blocks. Interestingly, the total failure energy was found to evolve non-monotonically with block size because of dynamic effects that seem to prevail for impact speeds in the range of 15-20 m/s. The study also highlights the complex effects of adding intermediate longitudinal cables to the system. An improvement of the barrier performance is observed for the large blocks but the bullet effect is exacerbated for small blocks.

  10. Bioresorbable scaffold - A magic bullet for the treatment of coronary artery disease?

    PubMed

    Brie, Daniel; Penson, Peter; Serban, Maria-Corina; Toth, Peter P; Simonton, Charles; Serruys, Patrick W; Banach, Maciej

    2016-07-15

    Today, drug-eluting metal stents are considered the gold standard for interventional treatment of coronary artery disease. While providing inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia, drug-eluting metal stents have many limitations such as the risk of late and very late stent thrombosis, restriction of vascular vasomotion and chronic local inflammatory reaction due to permanent implantation of a 'metallic cage', recognized as a foreign body. Bioresorbable scaffold stents (BRS) are a new solution, which is trying to overcome the limitation of the 'metallic cage'. This structure provides short-term scaffolding of the vessel and then disappears, leaving nothing behind. The purpose of this review is to present the theoretical rationale for the use of BRS and to outline the clinical outcomes associated with their use in terms of data obtained from RCTs, clinical trials, registries and real life use. We have also tried to answer all questions on this intervention based on available data, with a focus on ABSORB BVS (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, USA). We consider that this new technology can be the "magic bullet" to treat coronary artery disease. PMID:27111160

  11. Gravitational lenses in generalized Einstein-aether theory: The bullet cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, D.-C.; Matsuo, Reijiro; Starkman, Glenn

    2008-11-15

    We study the lensing properties of an asymmetric mass distribution and vector field in generalized Einstein-aether (GEA) theory. As vector-field fluctuations are responsible in GEA for seeding baryonic structure formation, vector-field concentrations can exist independently of baryonic matter. Such concentrations would not be expected to be tied to baryonic matter except gravitationally, and so, like dark matter halos, would become separated from baryonic matter in interacting systems such as the bullet cluster. These vector-field concentrations cause metric deviations that affect weak lensing. Therefore, the distribution of weak lensing deviates from that which would be inferred from the luminous mass distribution, in a way that numerical calculations demonstrate can be consistent with observations. This suggests that MOND-inspired theories can reproduce weak lensing observations, but makes clear the price: the existence of a coherent large-scale fluctuation of a field(s) weakly tied to the baryonic matter, not completely dissimilar to a dark matter halo.

  12. Cathode pressure modeling of the Buckeye Bullet II 500kW PEM fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillstrom, Edward T.

    This dissertation details the development of a model that simulates the pressure dynamics of the cathode supply system for the Buckeye Bullet 2, the worlds fastest hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. Due to the extreme power levels of the BB2 system, and the unique use of heliox as the oxidant supply, it is shown that existing system level models for predicting the fuel cell pressure dynamics do not adequately capture the dynamics of the BB2 system. Several modeling attempts are evaluated, and eventually the most robust model is a model which is derived from a rational system decomposition of the cathode system. By separating the major losses of the cathode system into an upstream and downstream resistance, the performance of the model is significantly improved. It is shown that the rate at which water exits the cathode plays a significant role accurately capturing the pressure dynamics. With this in mind, a distributed parameter model is developed to provide estimates of how the rate of liquid water removal from cathode changes with time. The results of this model are validated through physical testing. The resulting model relies on five empirically tunable parameters to tune the model performance to match that of the system. The method of calibrating these parameters is outlined, and the resulting model developed with stationary test data is compared to data from the actual BB2 race data. Only a few parameters need to be recalibrated, which is due to physical system differences between the data from the stationary tests and the race data.

  13. Another shock for the Bullet cluster, and the source of seed electrons for radio relics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimwell, Timothy W.; Markevitch, Maxim; Brown, Shea; Feretti, Luigina; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Lage, Craig; Srinivasan, Raghav

    2015-05-01

    With Australia Telescope Compact Array observations, we detect a highly elongated Mpc-scale diffuse radio source on the eastern periphery of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8, which we argue has the positional, spectral and polarimetric characteristics of a radio relic. This powerful relic (2.3 ± 0.1 × 1025 W Hz-1) consists of a bright northern bulb and a faint linear tail. The bulb emits 94 per cent of the observed radio flux and has the highest surface brightness of any known relic. Exactly coincident with the linear tail, we find a sharp X-ray surface brightness edge in the deep Chandra image of the cluster - a signature of a shock front in the hot intracluster medium (ICM), located on the opposite side of the cluster to the famous bow shock. This new example of an X-ray shock coincident with a relic further supports the hypothesis that shocks in the outer regions of clusters can form relics via diffusive shock (re-)acceleration. Intriguingly, our new relic suggests that seed electrons for reacceleration are coming from a local remnant of a radio galaxy, which we are lucky to catch before its complete disruption. If this scenario, in which a relic forms when a shock crosses a well-defined region of the ICM polluted with aged relativistic plasma - as opposed to the usual assumption that seeds are uniformly mixed in the ICM - is also the case for other relics, this may explain a number of peculiar properties of peripheral relics.

  14. Laminar flow past a spinning bullet-shaped body at moderate angular velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-González, J. I.; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E.; Sevilla, A.; Martínez-Bazán, C.

    2013-11-01

    We present a numerical study of the flow past a spinning bullet-shaped body of length-to-diameter ratio L/D=2, focusing on the evolution of the forces and flow regimes that appear depending on the values of the two governing parameters, namely the Reynolds number, Re=ρw∞D/μ, and the dimensionless angular velocity, Ω=ωD/(2w∞), where ρ, μ and w∞ are the free-stream density, viscosity and velocity, respectively, and ω is the angular velocity of the body. The parametric study covers the range 0≤Ω≤0.4 for Re<450, corresponding to laminar flow and moderate rotation velocities. It is shown that the (Re,Ω) parameter plane can be divided into four regions, corresponding to the destabilization of several instability modes. In the range 0≤Ω≲0.2, three different flow regimes take place as Re increases keeping constant Ω: axisymmetric, frozen and spiral flow regimes respectively; the latter leading to a swirling configuration of vortices curling up around the axis, caused by a combination of the frozen mode and the vortex shedding. However, at Ω≃0.2, a new frozen spiral mode takes place for large enough values of Re, where two counter-rotating vortices spiral around the axis, as a result of a lock-in process of the vortex shedding associated to the unsteady spiral regime, being this mode the single unstable one existent for Ω≥0.225. An exhaustive study of the dependence of the drag and lift forces on Ω and Re is also presented.

  15. On non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets and plasma bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinpei

    2012-10-01

    Because of the enhanced plasma chemistry, atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas (APNPs) have been widely studied for several emerging applications such as biomedical applications. For the biomedical applications, plasma jet devices, which generate plasma in open space (surrounding air) rather than in confined discharge gaps only, have lots of advantages over the traditional dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices. For example, it can be used for root canal disinfection, which can't be realized by the traditional plasma device. On the other hand, currently, the working gases of most of the plasma jet devices are noble gases or the mixtures of the noble gases with small amount of O2, or air. If ambient air is used as the working gas, several serious difficulties are encountered in the plasma generation process. Amongst these are high gas temperatures and disrupting instabilities. In this presentation, firstly, a brief review of the different cold plasma jets developed to date is presented. Secondly, several different plasma jet devices developed in our lab are reported. The effects of various parameters on the plasma jets are discussed. Finally, one of the most interesting phenomena of APNP-Js, the plasma bullet is discussed and its behavior is described. References: [1] X. Lu, M. Laroussi, V. Puech, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21, 034005 (2012); [2] Y. Xian, X. Lu, S. Wu, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 123702 (2012); [3] X. Pei, X. Lu, J. Liu, D. Liu, Y. Yang, K. Ostrikov, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, J. Phys. D 45, 165205 (2012).

  16. Combat-Related Intradural Gunshot Wound to the Thoracic Spine: Significant Improvement and Neurologic Recovery Following Bullet Removal

    PubMed Central

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury. PMID:25705346

  17. Superoxide anion radical (O sub 2 sup sm bullet minus ) mediated base-catalyzed autoxidation of. alpha. -keto enols

    SciTech Connect

    Frimer, A.A.; Gilinsky-Sharon, P.; Aljadeff, G.; Marks, V.; Rosental, Z. )

    1989-09-29

    Eight 4,4-disubstituted 2-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ones were prepared by the base-catalyzed autoxidation (BCA) of the corresponding 4,4- or 5,5-disubstituted cyclohex-2-en-1-ones. Upon reaction with superoxide anion radical (O{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}, generated from KO{sub 2}/18-crown-6) in inert nonpolar aprotic media at room temperature, {alpha}-keto enols 3a-g undergo initial deprotonation of the enol hydrogen followed by BCA at C{sub 3} of the resulting enolate. Aqueous acid workshop of the reaction mixture yields lactols 4, while methyl iodide quenching generated methoxy lactones 5. Lactols 4 can be readily converted to their acetoxy analogues 8, opened to aldehydo methyl esters 6, or reduced to the related lactones 7. The latter suggests a convenient one-pot synthesis of 2,3-unsaturated {delta}-valerolactones from the corresponding cyclohex-2-en-1-ones. 4,4-Diphenyl enol 3h, by contrast, resists BCA (whether mediated by O{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} or t-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}O{sup {minus}}) to the corresponding lactol yielding instead a variety of oxidative cleavage products 13-18. 2-Hydroxyspiro(4.5)dec-1-en-3-one (21) also underwent O{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}-mediated BCA, yielding diacids 22 and 26 as well as lactol 30. The synthetic applications of these results are also discussed.

  18. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    PubMed Central

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  19. Buckshot colic: utilizing holmium:yag laser for ureteroscopic removal of a bullet fragment within the proximal ureter.

    PubMed

    Ziegelmann, Matthew; Carrasco, Alonso; Knoedler, John; Krambeck, Amy E

    2016-06-01

    Buckshot colic is a rare phenomenon, presenting as firearm-induced urinary tract obstruction. We present a case of gunshot-induced ureteral obstruction in a 49-year-old male, treated endoscopically with the holmium:YAG (holmium) laser. CT revealed a 1 cm bullet fragment within the left proximal ureter. A percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed utilizing the holmium laser to fragment the metal into basket-retrievable pieces. At 4 month follow up the patient is without evidence of stricture. To our knowledge, this is the first reported utilization of the holmium laser to treat "buckshot colic". Endoscopy with holmium laser appears a feasible and safe treatment option. PMID:27347630

  20. Utilization of the safe surgical dislocation approach of the hip to retrieve a bullet from the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Ruth; Albright, Maurice; Rebello, Gleeson

    2011-01-01

    Retained intra-articular missiles from low-velocity handguns can lead to mechanical arthritis, synovitis, and lead toxicity. Various surgical approaches have been described to extract such foreign bodies from the hip joint. We present the case of a 17-year-old male in which the surgical dislocation approach was utilized to retrieve a bullet from the femoral head with a good short-term outcome. This case represents a rare application of the surgical hip dislocation approach for an unusual trauma. PMID:23198205

  1. Light bullets in three-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with modulated Kummer-Gauss photonic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Si-Liu; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the existence of spatiotemporal necklace vortex solitons or light bullets in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with the modulated Kummer-Gauss (KG) external lattice potential and the spiraling phase of vorticities S=0,1 , and 2. We find localized vortex necklaces in a three-dimensional nonlinear medium, trapped by the KG external potential with different orders of vorticity. Stable and quasi-stable solitons form from input pulses with embedded vorticity. The stability is established by calculating growth rates of the perturbed eigenmodes. We establish that spatiotemporal necklace solitons may coexist in a large domain of the parameter space.

  2. Detection of bone and bone-plus-bullet particles in backspatter from close-range shots to heads.

    PubMed

    Burnett, B R

    1991-11-01

    A victim was shot in the head with a 9-mm Smith & Wesson pistol using Winchester Silvertip hollow-point ammunition. Of interest in this case was the distance from the muzzle of the weapon to the victim's head, since the wound characteristics were equivocal for firing distance. Two other handguns (revolvers) were involved in this shooting, in addition to a revolver owned by the victim. The handguns were sampled using tape lifts, and the casings were sampled by washing them in distilled water, followed by vacuum filtration of the washing water through 0.2-microns-pore Nuclepore filters. These materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Calcium-phosphorous (bone) particles were detected on the 9-mm Smith & Wesson pistol, on two casings found at the scene, and on one of the revolvers. Two of the calcium-phosphorous particles on the casings had associated bullet fragments. Test shots on live pigs destined for slaughter showed that bone particles are a feature of backspatter from close-range shots to heads. Contamination of nearby surfaces by bone fragments and bone-plus-bullet fragments, as well as other organic debris, appears to be quite heavy. PMID:1770342

  3. Dissecting firearm injury to the head and neck with non-linear bullet trajectory: a case report.

    PubMed

    Can, Muhammet; Yildirim, Nadir; Ataç, Gökçe Kaan

    2010-04-15

    Firearm injuries to the head and neck have a potential for fatal complications caused by damage to neurovascular structures in the region. We herewith present a case of a missile injury to the face, caused by a bullet from a rifle with high muzzle energy that slackened while penetrating a vehicle before hitting the victim. The bullet advanced through the retrofacial spaces following a non-linear course and was retained within the opposite parapharyngeal region without injuring any vital structure. The resultant damage was a 'low-velocity injury'. However, it is noteworthy that the missile had still retained enough energy to penetrate the tissue and travel in a 'dissecting' fashion. It is likely that the blunting of the missile during vehicle penetration and the compactness of the anatomical structures bordering the head and neck spaces, such as fascia and tendons, forced the projectile to follow a non-linear inter-structural path. This case yet again demonstrates that the magnitude of firearm-related tissue damage may also depend upon the shape of the projectile and confirms that the head and neck spaces have anatomical integrity rather than just being arbitrarily designated topographical areas. It has also been confirmed that non-surgical approach with regular follow-ups is a viable option for uncomplicated head and neck injuries. PMID:20106613

  4. A FT-NIR spectroscopy methodology to estimate firing distance based on the direct analysis of the bullet impact surface.

    PubMed

    Sarraguça, Jorge M G; Lima, Catarina; Machado, Filipe; Lopes, João A; Almeida, Agostinho; Fernandes, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa; Santos, Agostinho

    2016-07-01

    A new methodology to estimate firing distance based on the direct analysis of organic components of gunshot residues (GSRs) on the bullet impact surface using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy is proposed. Mathematical models relating firing distance with spectral information were developed using data obtained from a series of shots performed with a Glock model 17C (114 mm barrel length and 9 × 19 mm cartridges) at different distances, from 20 to 90 cm, against a white 40 × 40 cm square cloth (70% polyester/30% cotton) target. The study was repeated with two different types of ammunition. Spectra were obtained around the bullet entrance hole at 4 perpendicular directions and at 5 radial distances in diffuse reflectance mode with the assistance of a fiber optic probe. Principal component analysis showed that FT-NIRS displayed sensitivity in the recognition of the differences between the GSRs from the two different types of ammunition. Partial least squares regression models allowed the estimation of firing distance for both types of ammunition. Prediction errors lower than 11 cm were obtained for shots up to 90 cm. PMID:27214352

  5. Compartment Syndrome Following Arthroscopic Removal of a Bullet in the Knee Joint after a Low-Velocity Gunshot Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yalçin, Sercan; Oltulu, İsmail; Erdil, Mehmet Emin; Örmeci, Tuğrul

    2016-01-01

    Gunshot injuries are getting more frequently reported while the civilian (nongovernmental) armament increases in the world. A 42-year-old male patient presented to emergency room of Istanbul Medipol University Hospital due to a low-velocity gunshot injury. We detected one entry point on the posterior aspect of the thigh, just superior to the popliteal groove. No exit wound was detected on his physical examination. There was swelling around the knee and range of motion was limited due to pain and swelling. Neurological and vascular examinations were intact. Following the initial assessment, the vascular examination was confirmed by doppler ultrasonography of the related extremity. There were no signs of compartment syndrome in the preoperative physical examination. A bullet was detected in the knee joint on the initial X-rays. Immediately after releasing the tourniquet, swelling of the anterolateral compartment of the leg and pulse deficiency was detected on foot in the dorsalis pedis artery. Although the arthroscopic removal of intra-articular bullets following gunshot injuries seems to have low morbidity rates, it should always be considered that the articular capsule may have been ruptured and the fluids used during the operation may leak into surrounding tissues and result in compartment syndrome. PMID:26929809

  6. Experimental research on the penetration of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullet into steel target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. W.; Chen, G.

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the penetration experiments of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullets into 45# steel targets are conducted by employing H25 artillery. In which, an experimental technique of sub-caliber penetration is constructed. The quasi static and dynamic behaviours of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are also experimental investigated. The self-sharpening phenomenon of composite material is observed. Integrated with metallographic analysis, the failure modes of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are identified systemically and compared with the quasi-static and dynamic material tests. It includes four failure modes, i.e., shear fracture of tungsten fiber, brittle fracture of tungsten fiber and shear fracture of metallic glass matrix as well as melting of tungsten fiber and metallic glass matrix. Comparatively, three failure mechanisms of tungsten fiber in the bullet nose are also identified, i.e., shear fracture, splitting fracture and bending or/and buckling. Finally, the mechanism of self-sharpening behaviour of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material is discussed.

  7. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-12-01

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier's most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user's chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg).

  8. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    SciTech Connect

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-12-29

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  9. Optical bullet-tracking algorithms for weapon localization in urban environments

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R S; Breitfeller, E F

    2006-03-31

    -temporal filter developed to suppress scene clutter. The filtered image sequence is further processed to produce a set of parameterized regions, which are classified using several discriminate functions. Regions that are classified as projectiles are passed to a data association algorithm that matches features from these regions with existing tracks, or initializes new tracks as needed. A Kalman filter is used to smooth and extrapolate existing tracks. Shooter locations are determined by solving a combinatorial least-squares solution for all bullet tracks. It also provides an error ellipse for each shooter, quantifying the uncertainty of shooter location. The paper concludes with examples from the live-fire exercise at the Aberdeen Test Center.

  10. N2 Mole Fraction Dependence of Plasma Bullet Propagation in Premixed He/N2 Plasma Needle Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Gengsong; Qian, Muyang; Yang, Congying; Liu, Sanqiu; Wang, Dezhen

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a computational modeling study on the mechanism of the acceleration behavior of a plasma bullet in needle-plane configuration is presented. Above all, in our model, two sub-models of time-dependent plasma dynamics and laminar flow are connected using a oneway coupled method, and both the working gas and the surrounding gas around the plasma jet are assumed to be the same, which are premixed He/N2 gas. The mole fractions of the N2 (NMF) ingredient are set to be 0.01%, 0.1% and 1% in three cases, respectively. It is found that in each case, the plasma bullet accelerates with time to a peak velocity after it exits the nozzle and then decreases until getting to the treated surface, and that the velocity of the plasma bullet increases at each time moment with the peak value changing from 0.72×106 m/s to 0.80×106 m/s but then drops more sharply when the NMF varies from 0.01% to 1%. Besides, the electron impact ionizations of helium neutrals and nitrogen molecules are found to have key influences on the propagation of a plasma bullet instead of the penning ionization. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11465013), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (No. 20151BAB212012), and in part by the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2015DFA61800)

  11. Biographical Sources in the Sciences--Life, Earth and Physical Sciences (1989-2006). LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 06-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Ruth, Comp.; Bradley, Michelle Cadoree, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This guide offers a systematic approach to the wide variety of published biographical information on men and women of science in the life, earth and physical sciences, primarily from 1989 to 2006, and complements Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet "TB88-3" ("Biographical Sources in the Sciences," compiled 1988 [ED306074]) and "TB06-7"…

  12. Focusing Cosmic Telescopes: Exploring Redshift z ~ 5-6 Galaxies with the Bullet Cluster 1E0657 - 56

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradač, Maruša; Treu, Tommaso; Applegate, Douglas; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Forman, William; Jones, Christine; Marshall, Phil; Schneider, Peter; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The gravitational potential of clusters of galaxies acts as a cosmic telescope allowing us to find and study galaxies at fainter limits than otherwise possible and thus probe closer to the epoch of formation of the first galaxies. We use the Bullet cluster 1E0657 - 56 (z = 0.296) as a case study, because its high mass and merging configuration makes it one of the most efficient cosmic telescopes we know. We develop a new algorithm to reconstruct the gravitational potential of the Bullet cluster based on a non-uniform adaptive grid, combining strong and weak gravitational lensing data derived from deep Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys F606W-F775W-F850LP and ground-based imaging. We exploit this improved mass map to study z ~ 5-6 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), which we detect as dropouts. One of the LBGs is multiply imaged, providing a geometric confirmation of its high redshift, and is used to further improve our mass model. We quantify the uncertainties in the magnification map reconstruction in the intrinsic source luminosity, and in the volume surveyed, and show that they are negligible compared to sample variance when determining the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies. With shallower and comparable magnitude limits to Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), the Bullet cluster observations, after correcting for magnification, probe deeper into the luminosity function of the high-redshift galaxies than GOODS and only slightly shallower than HUDF. We conclude that accurately focused cosmic telescopes are the most efficient way to sample the bright end of the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies and—in case they are multiply imaged—confirm their redshifts. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5

  13. Spatial distribution and speciation of lead around corroding bullets in a shooting range soil studied by micro-X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vantelon, Delphine; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Scheinost, Andreas C; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution and speciation of Pb in the weathering crust and soil surrounding corroding metallic Pb bullets in a shooting range soil. The soil had a neutral pH, loamy texture, and was highly contaminated with Pb, with total Pb concentrations in the surface soil up to 68 000 mg kg(-1). Undisturbed soil samples containing corroding bullets were collected and embedded in resin, and polished sections were prepared for micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) elemental mapping and micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy. Bullet weathering crust material was separated from the metallic Pb cores and analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Our results show a steep decrease in total Pb concentrations from the bullet weathering crust into the surrounding soil matrix. The weathering crust consisted of a mixture of litharge [alpha-PbO], hydrocerussite [Pb3(CO3)2-(OH)2], and cerussite [PbCO3], with litharge dominating near the metallic Pb core and cerussite dominating in the outer crust, which is in contact with the soil matrix. On the basis of these results and thermodynamic considerations, we propose that the transition of Pb species after oxidation of Pb(O) to Pb(II) follows the sequence litharge --> hydrocerussite --> cerussite. Consequently, the solubility of cerussite limits the activity of Pb2+ in the soil solution in contact with weathering bullets to < or =1.28 x 10(-6) at pH 7, assuming that the CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) in the soil is equal or larger than in the atmosphere (PCO2 > or = 0.000 35 atm). PMID:16053078

  14. Temporal and spatial resolved optical emission behaviors of a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Q.; Lu, X.; Liu, J.; Xian, Y.; Xiong, Z.; Zou, F.; Zou, C.; Gong, W.; Hu, J.; Chen, K.; Pei, X.; Jiang, Z.; Pan, Y.

    2009-10-01

    The propagation behavior of cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets has recently attracted lots of attention. In this paper, a cold He plasma jet generated by a single plasma electrode jet device is studied. The spatial-temporal resolved optical emission spectroscopy measurements are presented. It is found that the emission intensity of the He 706.5 nm line of the plasma behaves similarly both inside the syringe and in the surrounding air (plasma plume). It decreases monotonously, which is different from the emission lines, such as N2 337.1 nm line, N2+ 391.4 nm line, and O 777.3 nm line. For the discharge inside the syringe, the emission intensity of the He 706.5 nm line decays more rapidly than that of the other three spectral lines mentioned above. The N2 337.1 nm line behaves a similar time evolution with the discharge current. For the N2+ 391.4 nm line and the atomic O 777.3 nm line, both of them decay slower than that of the He 706.5 nm and the N2 337.1 nm. When the plasma plume propagates further away from the nozzle, the temporal behaviors of the emission intensities of the four lines tend to be similar gradually. Besides, it is found that, when the size of the plasma bullet appears biggest, the propagation velocity of the bullet achieves its highest value while the emission intensity of the N2+ 391.4 nm line reaches its maximum. Detailed analysis shows that the Penning effect between the metastable state Hem and the air molecules may play a significant role in the propagation of the plasma bullet in the open air.

  15. Top class images help ESA's Rosetta prepare to ride on a cosmic bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    to the end of the mission in July 2013, at which time the comet is at its closest approach to the Sun, at about 160 million km from it. VLT observations have also provided Rosetta mission planners with an accurate measurement of their target's size: Wirtanen is only 1.2 km in diameter, a true cosmic bullet. "Rosetta is certainly a very challenging space mission. No one has ever tried to land on a comet before," says Gerhard Schwehm, Rosetta's Project Scientist. "We need to learn as much as possible about our target. The new data will allow us to improve our models and make decisions once we get there." Note to editors Rosetta's prime scientific goal is to unravel the origin of the Solar System. The chemical composition of comets is known to reflect that of the primordial nebula that gave birth to the Solar System - in the planets, that primeval material has gone through complex processing, but not in the comets. Therefore, Rosetta will allow scientists to look back 4.6 billion years, to an epoch when the Solar System formed. Previous studies by ESA's Giotto spacecraft and by ground-based observatories have shown that comets contain complex organic molecules - compounds that are rich in carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Intriguingly, these are the elements which make up nucleic acids and amino acids, essential ingredients for life as we know it. Did life on Earth begin with the help of comet seeding? Rosetta may help us to find the answer to this fundamental question. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total . These are provided by scientific consortia from institutes across Europe and the United States. The Wirtanen observations by the VLT fall into a tradition of fruitful collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The two organizations are already combining their efforts in several strategic areas, in order to facilitate the synergy between space and ground facilities, where mutual sharing of technology and

  16. Atmospheric chemistry of CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH{sub 2}CF{sub 3}: UV spectra and kinetic data for CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH({sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} and CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(OO{sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} radicals, and atmospheric fate of CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, T.N.N.; Christensen, L.K.; Platz, J.; Sehested, J.; Nielsen, O.J.; Wallington, T.J.

    1999-07-22

    Recognition of the adverse effect of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) release into the atmosphere has led to an international effort to replace CFCs with environmentally acceptable alternatives. Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) are fluids designed to replace CFCs in applications such as the cleaning of electronic equipment, heat transfer agents in refrigeration systems, and carrier fluids for lubricant deposition. HFEs are volatile compounds and will be released into the atmosphere during its use. In the atmosphere, photochemical oxidation of HFEs will lead to the formation of fluorinated esters and fluorinated formates. The atmospheric fate of these products is unknown at the present. To improve their understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of esters the authors have studied the atmospheric chemistry of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyltrifluoroacetate CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH{sub 2}CF{sub 3} (bp = 55.0 C). This compound provides insight into the behavior of alkyl, alkyl peroxy, and alkoxy radicals formed {alpha} to the ester functionality. The atmospheric fate of CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sup {sm_bullet}})CF{sub 3} radicals was investigated in a FTIR smog chamber. Three loss processes for the CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sup {sm_bullet}})CF{sub 3} radicals were identified at 296 K and 700 Torr total pressure, reaction with O{sub 2} to form CF{sub 3}C(O)OC(O)CF{sub 3}, {alpha}-rearrangement to form CF{sub 3}C(O){sm_bullet} radicals and CF{sub 3}C(O)OH, and decomposition via a mechanism which is unclear. In 760 Torr of air at 296 K, 65% of the CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} radicals react with oxygen, 18% undergo {alpha}-rearrangement, while the fate of the remaining 17% is unclear.

  17. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, M.; Gilioli, A.; Manes, A.; Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.

    2012-08-01

    In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy) of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors). Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature) and new material data (with strain rate effect) obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass) with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  18. ESO's VLT Helps ESA's Rosetta Spacecraft Prepare to Ride on a Cosmic Bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    (about 6 million times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye). These observations have now confirmed that - at the same distance from the Sun at which the landing will take place (about 450 million km from the Sun) - the activity on Wirtanen is very low, cf. PR Photo 06a/02 . This is very good news for the mission, because it means that there will not be so much dust near the nucleus as to make the landing dramatically difficult . Landing on a 1-km snowball Cometary nuclei are small frozen bodies made of ice and dust ('dirty snowballs'). When they get close to the Sun the heat causes ices on the surface to 'evaporate'. Gas and dust grains are ejected into the surrounding space forming the comet's atmosphere (coma) and the tail. In addition to dropping a lander on Wirtanen's nucleus for detailed in-situ observations, Rosetta's task is to investigate the evolution of the comet on its way to the Sun: in fact, Rosetta will keep orbiting around Wirtanen up to the end of the mission in July 2013, at which time the comet is at its closest approach to the Sun, at about 160 million km from it. These and earlier VLT observations have also provided Rosetta mission planners with an accurate measurement of their target's size: Wirtanen's nucleus is only 1.2 km in diameter, a true cosmic bullet . "Rosetta is certainly a very challenging space mission. No one has ever tried to land on a comet before," says Gerhard Schwehm , Rosetta's Project Scientist. "We need to learn as much as possible about our target. The new VLT data will allow us to improve our models and make decisions once we get there." "It is a pleasure to help our colleagues at ESA", says ESO astronomer and comet specialist Hermann Boehnhardt . "We will continue to keep an eye on this comet, in particular when Rosetta is approaching its target. We can then provide the spacecraft controllers and the astronomers with very useful, regular updates, e.g., about the 'cometary weather' at the time of arrival

  19. Muzzle-loading weapons discharging spherical lead bullets: two case studies and experimental simulation using a skin-soap composite model.

    PubMed

    Große Perdekamp, Markus; Braunwarth, Roland; Kromeier, Jan; Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2013-07-01

    In current forensic practice, fatal injuries from black powder guns are rare events. In contact and close-range shots, the intensity of GSR deposition (soot, powder particles) is much greater than that in shots with smokeless powder ammunition. The same applies to any burning effects from the combustion gases. Besides, a wad of felt interposed between the propellant and the lead bullet may enter the wound channel. Apart from these findings seen in close-range shots, another characteristic feature results from the mostly spherical shape of the missiles causing maximum tissue damage at the entrance site. Two fatal injuries inflicted with muzzle-loading weapons are reported. In the first case, suicide was committed with a cal. 11.6 mm miniature cannon by firing a contact shot to the back of the neck. In test shots using black powder (1 and 2 g) as propellant, the mean bullet velocity measured 1 m away from the weapon was 87.11 and 146.85 m/s, respectively, corresponding to a kinetic energy of 32.49 and 92.95 J, respectively. Contact test shots to composite models consisting of ballistic soap covered by pig skin at the entrance site were evaluated by CT and revealed cone-like cavitations along the bullet path as known from spherical missiles and penetration depths up to 25 cm. The second case presented deals with a homicidal close-range shot discharged from a muzzle-loading percussion pistol cal. .44. The skin around the entrance site (root of the nose) was densely covered with blackish soot and powder particles, whereas the eyebrows and eyelashes showed singeing of the hairs. The flattened bullet and the wad had got stuck under the scalp of the occipital region. In both cases, there was a disproportionally large zone of tissue destruction in the initial parts of the wound tracks. PMID:23250385

  20. Comparison of Gunshot Entrance Morphologies Caused by .40-Caliber Smith & Wesson, .380-Caliber, and 9-mm Luger Bullets: A Finite Element Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Matoso, Rodrigo Ivo; Freire, Alexandre Rodrigues; Santos, Leonardo Soriano de Mello; Daruge Junior, Eduardo; Rossi, Ana Claudia; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua

    2014-01-01

    Firearms can cause fatal wounds, which can be identified by traces on or around the body. However, there are cases where neither the bullet nor gun is found at the crime scene. Ballistic research involving finite element models can reproduce computational biomechanical conditions, without compromising bioethics, as they involve no direct tests on animals or humans. This study aims to compare the morphologies of gunshot entrance holes caused by.40-caliber Smith & Wesson (S&W), .380-caliber, and 9×19-mm Luger bullets. A fully metal-jacketed.40 S&W projectile, a fully metal-jacketed.380 projectile, and a fully metal-jacketed 9×19-mm Luger projectile were computationally fired at the glabellar region of the finite element model from a distance of 10 cm, at perpendicular incidence. The results show different morphologies in the entrance holes produced by the three bullets, using the same skull at the same shot distance. The results and traits of the entrance holes are discussed. Finite element models allow feasible computational ballistic research, which may be useful to forensic experts when comparing and analyzing data related to gunshot wounds in the forehead. PMID:25343337

  1. Is estimated bullet trajectory a reliable predictor of severe injury? Case report of a thoraco-abdominal gunshot with a protracted trajectory managed nonoperatively

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Operative management of all gunshot’s traumas carries a high rate of unwarranted interventions that are known to cause serious complications. Selective nonoperative management is thus being increasingly practiced which has reduced these avoidable interventions. Physical examination and computed tomography scans are most sensitive in assessing need of laparotomy. Assessment of internal injuries on the basis of an estimated bullet trajectory is often practiced but has seldom been studied. We report a case of conservative management of a thoraco abdominal gun shot patient where an estimated bullet trajectory was indicative of serious injuries. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a thoraco abdominal gunshot that, despite of a protracted trajectory, had no sequelae and was thus managed nonoperatively. Case presentation A 30 year old male patient having height of 180 cm and weight of 70 kg (Body Mass Index 21.6) presented with complaint of a penetrating injury at left side of upper torso. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination a 1 cm × 1 cm entry wound at the left 3rd intercostal space in the mid clavicular line was identified. The chest and abdomen were otherwise unremarkable on examination. The chest radiograph displayed clear lung fields. The abdominal radiographs displayed a bullet in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen lateral to the spine. The bullets estimated trajectory from 3rd intercostal space and its lodgment in the abdomen lateral to the spine indicated severe visceral injury. The computed tomography scan showed that the bullet was lodged postero-medially to the left kidney. All thoracic, intra peritoneal and retroperitoneal visceral structures were identified to be normal. The patient remained clinically and vitally stable, hence was managed nonoperatively being discharged after 48 h of observation. Conclusion From this case we conclude that decision for managing gun

  2. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets: Effect of gas flow, active species, and snake-like bullet propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Huang, Q.; Tan, X.; Lu, X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2013-02-15

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets have recently attracted enormous interest owing to numerous applications in plasma biology, health care, medicine, and nanotechnology. A dedicated study of the interaction between the upstream and downstream plasma plumes revealed that the active species (electrons, ions, excited OH, metastable Ar, and nitrogen-related species) generated by the upstream plasma plume enhance the propagation of the downstream plasma plume. At gas flows exceeding 2 l/min, the downstream plasma plume is longer than the upstream plasma plume. Detailed plasma diagnostics and discharge species analysis suggest that this effect is due to the electrons and ions that are generated by the upstream plasma and flow into the downstream plume. This in turn leads to the relatively higher electron density in the downstream plasma. Moreover, high-speed photography reveals a highly unusual behavior of the plasma bullets, which propagate in snake-like motions, very differently from the previous reports. This behavior is related to the hydrodynamic instability of the gas flow, which results in non-uniform distributions of long-lifetime active species in the discharge tube and of surface charges on the inner surface of the tube.

  3. Desulfovibrio magneticus RS-1 contains an iron- and phosphorus-rich organelle distinct from its bullet-shaped magnetosomes

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Meghan E.; Ball, David A.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Rouiller, Isabelle; Wu, Ting-Di; Downing, Kenneth H.; Vali, Hojatollah; Komeili, Arash

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular magnetite crystal formation by magnetotactic bacteria has emerged as a powerful model for investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of biomineralization, a process common to all branches of life. Although magnetotactic bacteria are phylogenetically diverse and their crystals morphologically diverse, studies to date have focused on a few, closely related species with similar crystal habits. Here, we investigate the process of magnetite biomineralization in Desulfovibrio magneticus sp. RS-1, the only reported species of cultured magnetotactic bacteria that is outside of the α-Proteobacteria and that forms bullet-shaped crystals. Using a variety of high-resolution imaging and analytical tools, we show that RS-1 cells form amorphous, noncrystalline granules containing iron and phosphorus before forming magnetite crystals. Using NanoSIMS (dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy), we show that the iron-phosphorus granules and the magnetite crystals are likely formed through separate cellular processes. Analysis of the cellular ultrastructure of RS-1 using cryo-ultramicrotomy, cryo-electron tomography, and tomography of ultrathin sections reveals that the magnetite crystals are not surrounded by membranes but that the iron-phosphorus granules are surrounded by membranous compartments. The varied cellular paths for the formation of these two minerals lead us to suggest that the iron-phosphorus granules constitute a distinct bacterial organelle. PMID:20566879

  4. Modeling the cathode pressure dynamics in the Buckeye Bullet II 540 kW hydrogen PEM fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillstrom, Edward T.; Canova, Marcello; Guezennec, Yann; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    The Buckeye Bullet 2 (BB2) is the world's fastest hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, with an international speed record of 302.9 mph. In order to achieve the power levels necessary for reaching the top speed, a unique gas supply system was designed to feed the PEM fuel cell modules. Stored Heliox with 40% oxygen content was used as the oxidizer and supplied to the cathode at high pressure. The high oxygen concentration at the cathode leads to a high rate of water formation in the GDL, with considerable influence on the pressure dynamics. For this reason, a precise monitoring of the pressure and water formation is required so that the cathode can operate at the maximum allowable pressure. This paper presents a novel control-oriented modeling approach to predict the cathode pressure dynamics of the BB2 PEM fuel cell system, developed for system optimization, monitoring and control. A distributed-parameter model was designed to characterize the liquid water formation and transport in the cathode channels, starting from the conservation laws for viscous fluid flow. The model was validated against a set of laboratory tests and actual race data. In this context, the proposed model is compared to a well known control-oriented PEM fuel cell model, to illustrate how the ability to predict the water transport at high reaction rates allows for an improved prediction of the pressure dynamics.

  5. THE DYNAMICS OF MERGING CLUSTERS: A MONTE CARLO SOLUTION APPLIED TO THE BULLET AND MUSKET BALL CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, William A.

    2013-08-01

    Merging galaxy clusters have become one of the most important probes of dark matter, providing evidence for dark matter over modified gravity and even constraints on the dark matter self-interaction cross-section. To properly constrain the dark matter cross-section it is necessary to understand the dynamics of the merger, as the inferred cross-section is a function of both the velocity of the collision and the observed time since collision. While the best understanding of merging system dynamics comes from N-body simulations, these are computationally intensive and often explore only a limited volume of the merger phase space allowed by observed parameter uncertainty. Simple analytic models exist but the assumptions of these methods invalidate their results near the collision time, plus error propagation of the highly correlated merger parameters is unfeasible. To address these weaknesses I develop a Monte Carlo method to discern the properties of dissociative mergers and propagate the uncertainty of the measured cluster parameters in an accurate and Bayesian manner. I introduce this method, verify it against an existing hydrodynamic N-body simulation, and apply it to two known dissociative mergers: 1ES 0657-558 (Bullet Cluster) and DLSCL J0916.2+2951 (Musket Ball Cluster). I find that this method surpasses existing analytic models-providing accurate (10% level) dynamic parameter and uncertainty estimates throughout the merger history. This, coupled with minimal required a priori information (subcluster mass, redshift, and projected separation) and relatively fast computation ({approx}6 CPU hours), makes this method ideal for large samples of dissociative merging clusters.

  6. On moving targets and magic bullets: Can the UK lead the way with responsible data linkage for health research?

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, G.; Ainsworth, J.; Cunningham, J.; Dobbs, C.; Jones, K.H.; Kalra, D.; Lea, N.C.; Sethi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of essential elements of good governance of data linkage for health-related research, to consider lessons learned so far and to examine key factors currently impeding the delivery of good governance in this area. Given the considerable hurdles which must be overcome and the changing landscape of health research and data linkage, a principled, proportionate, risk-based approach to governance is advocated. Discussion In light of the considerable value of data linkage to health and well-being, the United Kingdom aspires to design and deliver good governance in health-related research. A string of projects have been asking: what does good governance look like in data linkage for health research? It is argued here that considerable progress can and must be made in order to develop the UK’s contribution to future health and wealth economies, particularly in light of mis-start initiatives such as care.data in NHS England. Discussion centres around lessons learned from previous successful health research initiatives, identifying those governance mechanisms which are essential to achieving good governance. Conclusion This article suggests that a crucial element in any step-increase of research capability will be the adoption of adaptive governance models. These must recognise a range of approaches to delivering safe and effective data linkage, while remaining responsive to public and research user expectations and needs as these shift and change with time and experience. The targets are multiple and constantly moving. There is not – nor should we seek – a single magic bullet in delivering good governance in health research. PMID:26342668

  7. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ideal system,'' could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  8. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ``ideal system,`` could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  9. Are Salps A Silver Bullet Against Global Warming And Ocean Acidification?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kithil, P. W.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic uptake of 25 billion tons CO2 annually introduced into the atmosphere from carbon fuels must be mitigated to prevent further widespread changes in ocean biochemistry and potentially severe anthropogenic climate change. Larry Madin of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute and his colleagues have measured the carbon sequestration in the excretia produced by dense swarms of Salps of up to 4,000 tons per day over a 100,000 km2 ocean region, equivalent to over 14 thousand tons of CO2 per day. This poses several questions: 1. Given the ocean surface of 372 million km2, does the Madin report imply a potential removal of 20 billion tons of CO2 per year 80% of emissions? 2. What might be the natural limitations on widespread propagation of Salps, and how would these effect the carbon sequestration actually achieved? 3. What mechanism could encourage the propagation of Salps throughout the oceans? Since Salps feast on phytoplankton which require sunlight and sufficient nutrients, we must first reduce the available ocean by perhaps 60% as a seasonal limit on phytoplankton growth and allow 60% further limit for poor nutrient availability and assuming some ocean regions are an unfavorable environment for Salps. Combined, the net ocean area over which Salps could sequester carbon is thus 36%, or 134 million km2. Assuming Madin's values for carbon sequestration are achievable over this ocean region, about 7.2 billion tons of CO2 could be sequestered annually, equal to 29% of mankind's current fossil-fuel CO2 output. This converts to a carbon equivalent of 1.96 billion tons per year. The mechanism we propose to encourage widespread propagation of Salps is forced upwelling using Atmocean's arrays of wave-driven deep ocean pumps to bring up large volumes of cold, nutrient-rich deep ocean to enhance the ocean's primary production, absorbing CO2 and producing oxygen. The pump simply comprises a buoy, flexible tube, cylinder with valve, cable to connect the buoy and cylinder, and

  10. Mechanical properties at high strain-rate of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Fichera, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations are now an actual option in order to try to reproduce and understand the mechanical response in components subjected to extreme loading conditions, like in a ballistic impact. A correct materials calibration is therefore necessary in order to extract the materials parameters. In this work the simple and widely used Johnson-Cook model was used to analyse the experimental data obtained for the characterization of the bullet materials. The bullet under investigation is a full metal jacket ball, with a lead-antimony alloy core and a brass jacket. The experimental tests cover a wide range in strain-rate, starting from quasi-static tests up to high dynamic tests performed on a standard Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar setup. In general, there is a great lack in strain-rate sensitivity and failure data. Pure lead is very soft and ductile, so antimony is used to give greater hardness and strength. The results of this study show a significant strain-rate influence for this alloy that can be associated with the presence of the lead-antimony phases and their structures. Also in case of the brass the results showed significant strain-rate sensitivity in the material response.

  11. Bullet-proof warehouses.

    PubMed

    Marietti, C

    1998-09-01

    Organizational transformation, complex reporting requirements and growing respect for evidence-based medicine are driving data warehousing implementations. But the current dearth of health-care-specific applications and turnkey systems still makes the data warehouse a custom project. PMID:10185041

  12. The silver bullet.

    PubMed

    Sinn, L E

    1993-06-01

    A case of autoerotic asphyxiation is presented. The incident demonstrates 12 of the 13 characteristics particular to autoerotic asphyxias. The elements of attire and bondage used are unique in comparison with previously reported cases. The addictive nature of this behavior is well demonstrated in the victim's sexual history. Interestingly, his spouse was aware of his autoerotic activity. PMID:8328435

  13. Bone-patch type secondary projectiles: A report on two shots fired at point-blank range using hollow point bullets.

    PubMed

    Malbranque, S; Jousset, N; Nedelcu, C; Rougé-Maillart, C

    2014-12-01

    The number of head wounds due to firearms remains low in France because these cases are primarily linked to suicide (or attempted suicide) and, to a lesser extent, to attacks or hunting accidents [1]. Characterized by the impact of a projectile, which in most cases is made of metal, at high levels of kinetic energy, such acts generally result in severe trans-cerebral lesions with significant levels of morbidity/mortality [2]. Seldom are cases reported in the literature that give a detailed study of intracranial foreign bodies made of bone in such situations [3]. Here we report on the case of two suicides resulting from a transcranial gunshot wounds caused by weapons and ammunition issued by the French police force. Each case helped distinguish a characteristic bone fragment, in the form of a "patch", equivalent in size to the caliber of the bullet. PMID:25450511

  14. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific). PMID:25629476

  15. In Situ Observation of Modulated Light Emission of Fiber Fuse Synchronized with Void Train over Hetero-Core Splice Point

    PubMed Central

    Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Fiber fuse is a process of optical fiber destruction under the action of laser radiation, found 20 years ago. Once initiated, opical discharge runs along the fiber core region to the light source and leaves periodic voids whose shape looks like a bullet pointing the direction of laser beam. The relation between damage pattern and propagation mode of optical discharge is still unclear even after the first in situ observation three years ago. Methodology/Principal Findings Fiber fuse propagation over hetero-core splice point (Corning SMF-28e and HI 1060) was observed in situ. Sequential photographs obtained at intervals of 2.78 µs recorded a periodic emission at the tail of an optical discharge pumped by 1070 nm and 9 W light. The signal stopped when the discharge ran over the splice point. The corresponding damage pattern left in the fiber core region included a segment free of periodicity. Conclusions The spatial modulation pattern of the light emission agreed with the void train formed over the hetero-core splice point. Some segments included a bullet-shaped void pointing in the opposite direction to the laser beam propagation although the sequential photographs did not reveal any directional change in the optical discharge propagation. PMID:18815621

  16. Three-dimensional frameworks of cubic (NH{sub 4}){sub 5}Ga{sub 4}SbS{sub 10}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SbS{sub 9}(OH) {small _bullet} H{sub 2}O, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}Ga{sub 4}SbS{sub 9}(OH{sub 2}) {small_bullet} 2H{sub 2}O.

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, J. L.; Ding, N.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2009-11-11

    Three new isostructural open-framework sulfides, (NH{sub 4}){sub 5}Ga{sub 4}SbS{sub 10} (1), (NH{sub 4}){sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SbS{sub 9}(OH) {sm_bullet} H{sub 2}O (2a), and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}Ga{sub 4}SbS{sub 9}(H{sub 2}O) {sm_bullet} 2H{sub 2}O (2b), were synthesized under basic hydrothermal conditions using ammonium hydroxide as the structure-directing agent. The structures feature a three-dimensional open framework comprised of adamantane [Ga{sub 4}Q{sub 10}]{sup 8-} clusters linked with Sb{sup 3+} centers. The compounds are wide gap semiconductors, crystallize in the chiral space group P2{sub 1}3, and represent a new structure type. They exhibit nonlinear optical properties.

  17. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef. PMID:26005913

  18. Thermodynamic modeling of solid solutions between monosulfate and monochromate 3CaO Bullet Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Bullet Ca[(CrO{sub 4}){sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 1-x}] Bullet nH{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Leisinger, Sabine M.; Lothenbach, Barbara; Le Saout, Gwenn; Johnson, C. Annette

    2012-01-15

    In hydrated cement paste AFm-phases are regarded to play an important role in the binding of the toxic contaminant chromate through isomorphic substitution with sulfate. Solid solutions formation can lower the solubility of the solids, thus reducing chromate leaching concentrations. Solid solutions between monosulfate and monochromate were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Based on the measured ion concentrations in solution total solubility products of the solid solution series were determined. For pure monochromate a logK = - 28.4 {+-} 0.7 was determined. Results from solid and solution analysis showed that limited solid solutions exist. Based on XRD diffractograms a solid solution with a miscibility gap 0.15 < Crx < 0.85 with a dimensionless Guggenheim parameter of 2.43 was proposed.

  19. Emissions Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, John

    2001-01-01

    The Emissions Reduction Project is working in close partnership with the U.S. aircraft engine manufacturers and academia to develop technologies to reduce NO, emissions by 70 percent over the LTO cycle from 1996 ICAO standards with no increase in other emission constituents (carbon monoxide, smoke, and unburned hydrocarbons) and with comparable NO, reduction during cruise operations. These technologies cannot impact the overall combustor and fuel delivery system operability, affordability or maintainability. These new combustion concepts and technologies will include lean burning combustors with higher operating gas temperatures and pressures, fuel staging, ceramic matrix composite material liners with reduced cooling air and possibly advanced controls. Improved physics-based analysis tool will be developed and validated and some longer term technologies that are more revolutionary will be assessed. These improved computational codes will provide improved design tools to increase design confidence and cut the development time to achieve major reductions in NO, emissions. Longer term, revolutionary technologies like active combustion controls, combustion from a large array of micro-injectors, electrostatic fuel injectors, fuel additives and others will be investigated and assessed through proof-of-concept testing.

  20. COMPLIANCE FOR HANFORD WASTE RETRIEVAL RADIOACTIVE AIR EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    FM SIMMONS

    2009-06-30

    {sm_bullet} Since 1970, approximately 38,000 suspect transuranic (TRU) and TRU waste cont{approx}iners have been placed in retrievable storage on the Hanford Site in the 200Area's burial grounds. {sm_bullet} TRU waste is defined as waste containing greater than 100 nanocuries/gram of alpha emitting transuranic isotopes with half lives greater than 20 years. {sm_bullet} The United States currentl{approx}permanently disposes of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  1. The kinetic energy interceptor: Shooting a bullet with a bullet

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, the threat of proliferation with chemical, biological, and nuclear warheads continues. Two factors further increase the threat from these weapons of mass destruction: knowledge of missile technology has spread extensively, and, in recent years, many countries - some of them unfriendly to the US and its allies - have obtained short- and intermediate-range missiles. The threat posed by such missiles was amply demonstrated during the Gulf War. Thus, the need to protect US and allied forces from these weapons has never been greater. When nuclear-tipped defensive missiles, such as Sprint and Spartan, were phased out years ago, the US turned for its defense to kinetic-energy {open_quotes}kill{close_quotes} interceptors - missiles that destroy an enemy missile by striking it with lethal force and accuracy at some point in its trajectory. The Patriot missile is probably the best-known kinetic-energy (KE) interceptor in the US defensive arsenal. To counter the spreading threat of proliferation, LLNL and other laboratories have been participating in a joint program funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), within the Department of Defense, to develop defensive missile systems. Participants are designing, testing, and certifying KE interceptors to defend against current and future missile threats. These research efforts are described.

  2. Dolphins. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The family Delphinidae is the largest family of toothed whales. It includes not only those mammals commonly referred to as dolphins, such as the bottlenosed dolphin often seen in captivity, but also the killer whale. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on dolphins; the guide is designed--as the…

  3. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  4. Tribology. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, George D., Comp.

    Tribology is the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It incorporates a number of scientific fields, including friction, wear, lubrication, materials science, and various branches of surface physics and surface chemistry. Tribology forms a vital part of engineering science. The interacting surfaces may be on machinery…

  5. Asbestos. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joanna, Comp.

    Asbestos is a generic term that refers to several silicate materials occurring naturally as fibrous rocks. Insignificant amounts of asbestos fiber can be found in ambient air, but this, and materials containing hard asbestos, usually do not create problems. Soft materials, however, can release high amounts of asbestos fibers into the air, and…

  6. Bullet injuries of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Crockard, H Alan

    1974-01-01

    Experience gained with a wide variety of missile injuries of the brain is presented. Clinical signs and intracranial pressure (ICP) studied in the early post-injury period have been correlated with survival and treatment. Stress is laid on fluid requirements and the importance of controlled ventilation in the management of the labile clinical condition of such patients. Coughing and struggling caused extrusion of blood and brain from the wound, and this was reduced considerably with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Post-operatively high ICP could be controlled in potential survivors with continued ventilation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 7 PMID:4608115

  7. Desalination. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    This guide provides a review of the relevant literature on desalination within the collections of the Library of Congress. While not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed as a quick and ready reference source for the reader, and includes the following sections: (1) articles that provide introductions to the topic of…

  8. Plagiarism Software: No Magic Bullet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warn, James

    2006-01-01

    The ready availability of Internet resources has made it easier than ever for students to plagiarize and many higher education institutions have resorted to checking essays with plagiarism detection software. Student behaviour is likely to change in response to this increased scrutiny but not necessarily in the desired direction. Internet…

  9. Stabilization xLi{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}(1-x)LiMO{sub 2} electrode surfaces (M=Mn, Ni, Co) with mildly acidic, fluorinated solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.-H.; Thackeray, M. M.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2008-01-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}-stabilized LiMO{sub 2} electrodes [xLi{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} {sm_bullet} (1?x)LiMO{sub 2}, M=Mn, Ni, Co] can provide anomalously high electrochemical capacities ({approx}250 mAh/g) if charged to high potentials (>4.6 V). High-voltage charging results in an irreversible capacity loss on the initial charge/discharge cycle; it also damages the electrode surface, leading to a high cell impedance. In this paper, we report that preconditioning 0.1Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} {sm_bullet} 0.9LiMn{sub 0.256}Ni{sub 0.372}Co{sub 0.372}O{sub 2} electrode powders [alternatively Li{sub 1.048}(Mn{sub 0.333}Ni{sub 0.333}Co{sub 0.333}){sub 0.952}O{sub 2} in Li{sub 1+x}M{sub 1?x}O{sub 2} notation] with extremely mild acidic solutions of NH{sub 4}PF{sub 6}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}AlF{sub 6}, and NH{sub 4}BF{sub 4} salts in water and methanol (pH 6-6.5) leads to remarkable cycling stability of both lithium half-cells and full lithium-ion cells when repeatedly charged to high voltages ({ge} 4.5 V). The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to stabilized electrode surfaces that are etched and passivated by fluorinated species. The low-temperature behavior of unconditioned and preconditioned electrodes is presented.

  10. Fatal contact shot to the chest caused by the gas jet from a muzzle-loading pistol discharging only black powder and no bullet: case study and experimental simulation of the wounding effect.

    PubMed

    Große Perdekamp, Markus; Glardon, Matthieu; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Bielefeld, Lena; Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan; Pircher, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In modern medico-legal literature, only a small number of publications deal with fatal injuries from black powder guns. Most of them focus on the morphological features such as intense soot soiling, blast tattooing and burn effects in close-range shots or describe the wound ballistics of spherical lead bullets. Another kind of "unusual" and potentially lethal weapons are handguns destined for firing only blank cartridges such as starter and alarm pistols. The dangerousness of these guns is restricted to very close and contact range shots and results from the gas jet produced by the deflagration of the propellant. The present paper reports on a suicide committed with a muzzle-loading percussion pistol cal. 45. An unusually large stellate entrance wound was located in the precordial region, accompanied by an imprint mark from the ramrod and a faint greenish discoloration (apparently due to the formation of sulfhemoglobin). Autopsy revealed an oversized powder cavity, multiple fractures of the anterior thoracic wall as well as ruptures of the heart, the aorta, the left hepatic lobe and the diaphragm. In total, the zone of mechanical destruction had a diameter of approx. 15 cm. As there was no exit wound and no bullet lodged in the body, the injury was caused exclusively by the inrushing combustion gases of the propellant (black powder) comparable with the gas jet of a blank cartridge gun. In contact shots to ballistic gelatine using the suicide's pistol loaded with black powder but no projectile, the formation of a nearly spherical cavity could be demonstrated by means of a high-speed camera. The extent of the temporary cavity after firing with 5 g of black powder roughly corresponded to the zone of destruction found in the suicide's body. PMID:25119685

  11. The Temperature of the Cosmic Background Radiation: Results fromthe 1987 and 1988 Measurements at 3.8 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    De Amici, Giovanni; Bensadoun, M.; Bersanelli, M.; Kogut, A.; Levine, S.; Smoot, George F.; Witebsky, C.

    1989-11-10

    We have measured the temperature of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at a frequency of 3.8 GHz (7.9 cm wavelength), during two consecutive summers, obtaining a brightness temperature, T{sub CBR}, of 2.56 {+-} 0.08 K in 1987 and 2.71 {+-} 0.07 K in 1988 (68% confidence level). The new results are in agreement with our previous measurement at 3.7 GHz obtained in 1986, and have smaller error bars. Combining measurements from all three years we obtain T{sub CBR} = 2.64 {+-} 0.07 K.

  12. Therapeutic identification of depression in young people: lessons fromthe introduction of a new technique in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Iliffe, Steve; Gallant, Ceri; Kramer, Tami; Gledhill, Julia; Bye, Amanda; Fernandez, Victoria; Vila, Mar; Miller, Lisa; Garralda, M Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background Mild-to-moderate depression in young people is associated with impaired social functioning and high rates of affective disorder in adult life. Earlier recognition of depression in young people has the potential to reduce the burden of depression in adulthood. However, depression in teenagers is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Aim To assess the usability and usefulness of a cognitive-behavioural-therapy-based technique for Therapeutic Identification of Depression in Young people (TIDY). Design and setting A qualitative study of four group practices in northwest London. Method Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with practitioners who had been trained in the use of the TIDY technique. Results Twenty-five GPs and six nurses were interviewed. The key themes that emerged from the interviews were: practitioners were ‘making sense of teenage depression’ when interpreting signs and symptoms; the training in the technique was variable in its impact on practitioners' attitudes and practice; and time factors constrained practitioners in the application of the technique. Conclusion The TIDY technique is usable in routine practice, but only if practitioners are allowed to use it selectively. This need for selectivity arises partly from concerns about time management, and partly to avoid medicalisation of psychological distress in young people. The perceived usefulness of the TIDY technique depends on the practitioner's prior knowledge, experience, and awareness. PMID:22429434

  13. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  14. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  15. Control of Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  16. Triggered Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Jovian radio emissions seem to be triggered from outside, by much weaker radio waves from the sun. Recently found in the Voyager observations near Jupiter, such triggering occurs at hectometric wavelengths during the arrival of solar radio bursts, with the triggered emissions lasting sometimes more than an hour as they slowly drifted toward higher frequencies. Like the previous discovery of similar triggered emissions at the earth, this suggests that Jupiter's emissions might also originate from natural radio lasers.

  17. Acoustic emission frequency discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.

  18. Galactic Diffuse Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Digel, Seth W.; /SLAC

    2007-10-25

    Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar nucleons and photons make the Milky Way a bright, diffuse source of high-energy {gamma}-rays. Observationally, the results from EGRET, COMPTEL, and OSSE have now been extended to higher energies by ground-based experiments, with detections of diffuse emission in the Galactic center reported by H.E.S.S. in the range above 100 GeV and of diffuse emission in Cygnus by MILAGRO in the TeV range. In the range above 100 keV, INTEGRAL SPI has found that diffuse emission remains after point sources are accounted for. I will summarize current knowledge of diffuse {gamma}-ray emission from the Milky Way and review some open issues related to the diffuse emission -- some old, like the distribution of cosmic-ray sources and the origin of the 'excess' of GeV emission observed by EGRET, and some recently recognized, like the amount and distribution of molecular hydrogen not traced by CO emission -- and anticipate some of the advances that will be possible with the Large Area Telescope on GLAST. We plan to develop an accurate physical model for the diffuse emission, which will be useful for detecting and accurately characterizing emission from Galactic point sources as well as any Galactic diffuse emission from exotic processes, and for studying the unresolved extragalactic emission.

  19. Gaussian-type light bullet solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional Schrödinger equation with cubic and power-law nonlinearities in PT-symmetric potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hai-Ping; Dai, Chao-Qing

    2014-12-15

    Two kinds of Gaussian-type light bullet (LB) solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional Schrödinger equation with cubic and power-law nonlinearities in PT-symmetric potentials are analytically obtained. The phase switches, powers and transverse power-flow densities of these solutions in homogeneous media are studied. The linear stability analysis of these LB solutions and the direct numerical simulation indicate that LB solutions are stable below some thresholds for the imaginary part of PT-symmetric potentials in the defocusing cubic and focusing power-law nonlinear medium, while they are always unstable for all parameters in other media. Moreover, the broadened and compressed behaviors of LBs in the exponential periodic amplification system and diffraction decreasing system are discussed. Results indicate that LB is more stable for the sign-changing nonlinearity in the exponential periodic amplification system than for the non-sign-changing nonlinearity in the diffraction decreasing system at the same propagation distances.

  20. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  1. Decimetric radio dot emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészárosová, H.; Karlický, M.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.; de Andrade, M. C.

    2008-11-01

    Context: We study a rare type of solar radio bursts called decimetric dot emissions. Aims: In the period 1999-2001, 20 events of decimetric dot emissions observed by the Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS) in the frequency range 950-2640 MHz are investigated statistically and compared with radio fine structures of zebras and fibers. Methods: For the study of the spectral characteristics of the dot emissions we use specially developed Interactive Data Language (IDL) software called BSSView and basic statistical methods. Results: We have found that the dm dot emissions, contrary to the fine structures of the type IV bursts (i.e. zebras, fibers, lace bursts, spikes), are not superimposed on any background burst emission. In the radio spectrum, in most cases the dot emissions form chains that appear to be arranged in zebra patterns or fibers. Because some zebras and fibers, especially those observed with high time and high spectral resolutions, also show emission dots (but superimposed on the background burst emission), we compared the spectral parameters of the dot emissions with the dots being the fine structure of zebras and fibers. For both these dots, similar spectral characteristics were found. Some similarities of the dot emissions can be found also with the lace bursts and spikes. For some events the dot emissions show structural evolution from patterns resembling fibers to patterns resembling zebras and vice versa, or they evolve into fully chaotic patterns. Conclusions: For the first time, we present decimetric dot emissions that appear to be arranged in zebra patterns or fibers. We propose that these emissions are generated by the plasma emission mechanism at the locations in the solar atmosphere where the double resonance condition is fulfilled.

  2. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature

  3. BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (BEIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) is a computer algorithm used to generate emissions for air quality simulation models, such as EPAs Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM). Emission sources that are modeled include volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegeta...

  4. Mid-J CO emission from the Orion BN/KL explosive outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, T.-C.; Zapata, L. A.; Wyrowski, F.; Güsten, R.; Menten, K. M.

    2012-08-01

    High spatial resolution low-J12CO observations have shown that the wide-angle outflow seen in the Orion BN/KL region correlates with the famous H2 fingers. Recently, high-resolution large-scale mappings of mid- and higher-J CO emissions have been reported toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 core region using the APEX telescope. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate this outflow in the higher-J12CO emission, which is likely excited by shocks. The observations were carried out using the dual-color heterodyne array CHAMP+ on the APEX telescope. The images of the Orion BN/KL region were obtained in the 12CO J = 6-5 and J = 7-6 transitions with angular resolutions of 8.6 arcsec and 7.4 arcsec, respectively. The results show a good agreement between our higher-J12CO emission and SMA low-J12CO data, which indicates that this wide-angle outflow in Orion BN/KL is likely the result of an explosive event that is related to the runaway objects from a dynamically decayed multiple system. From our observations, we estimate that the kinetic energy of this explosive outflow is about 1-2 × 1047 erg. In addition, a scenario has been proposed where part of the outflow is decelerated and absorbed in the cloud to explain the lack of CO bullets in the southern part of BN/KL, which in turn induces the methanol masers seen in this region.

  5. High Altitude Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonics Project is presented. The overview includes project objectives, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Technical challenges include: 1) Environmental impact of supersonic cruise emissions is greater due to higher flight altitudes which makes emissions reduction increasingly important. 2) Accurate prediction tools to enable combustor designs that reduce emissions at supersonic cruise are needed as well as intelligent systems to minimize emissions. 3) Combustor operating conditions at supersonic cruise are different than at subsonic cruise since inlet fuel and air temperatures are considerably increased.

  6. Molecular hydrogen emission in L1448 associated with a highly collimated molecular outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan

    1991-01-01

    A near-infrared camera was used to search for jets around low-luminosity embedded infrared sources in nearby molecular clouds. The near-infrared offers the advantage that the extinction is very low compared with the optical. A jet is detected in molecular hydrogen at 2.12 microns toward a source in L1448. Given the sample size this indicates a detection rate of no more than a couple percent. The average visual extinction in L1448 is roughly 5 mag. The properties of the molecular hydrogen emission are similar to those measured for known Herbig-Haro objects, suggesting the jet is a buried Herbig-Haro object/jet that would be visible in the optical if the extinction were lower. The L1448 jet coincides with the unusual CO outflow that is highly collimated and contains high-velocity CO 'bullets'. The properties of the L1448 source suggest it defines a transition case between molecular outflows and Herbig-Haro jets, combining the characteristics of both.

  7. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  8. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  9. Toluene emissions from plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiden, A. C.; Kobel, K.; Komenda, M.; Koppmann, R.; Shao, M.; Wildt, J.

    The emission of toluene from different plants was observed in continuously stirred tank reactors and in field measurements. For plants growing without stress, emission rates were low and ranged from the detection limit up to 2·10-16 mol·cm-2·s-1. Under conditions of stress, the emission rates exceeded 10-14 mol·cm-2·s-1. Exposure of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Gigantheus) to 13CO2 resulted in 13C-labeling of the emitted toluene on a time scale of hours. Although no biochemical pathway for the production of toluene is known, these results indicate that toluene is synthesized by the plants. The emission rates of toluene from sunflower are dependent on nutrient supply and wounding. Since α-pinene emission rates are also influenced by these factors, toluene and α-pinene emissions show a high correlation. During pathogen attack on Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) significant toluene emissions were observed. In this case emissions of toluene and α-pinene also show a good correlation. Toluene emissions were also found in field experiments with pines using branch enclosures.

  10. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  11. 47 CFR 78.103 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 78.103... CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.103 Emissions and emission limitations. (a) A CARS station may be authorized to employ any type of emission, for which there are technical...

  12. Emission properties of explosive field emission cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava; Patel, Ankur; Menon, Rakhee; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D. P.; Patil, D. S.

    2011-10-15

    The research results of the explosive field emission cathode plasma expansion velocity and the initial emission area in the planar diode configuration with cathodes made of graphite, stainless steel, polymer velvet, carbon coated, and carbon fiber (needle type) cathodes are presented. The experiments have been performed at the electron accelerator LIA-200 (200 kV, 100 ns, and 4 kA). The diode voltage has been varied from 28-225 kV, whereas the current density has been varied from 86-928 A/cm{sup 2} with 100 ns pulse duration. The experimentally obtained electron beam diode perveance has been compared with the 1 dimensional Child-Langmuir- law. It was found that initially only a part of the cathode take part in the emission process. The plasma expands at 1.7-5.2 cm/{mu}s for 4 mm anode-cathode gap for various cathode materials. It was found that the plasma expansion velocity increases with the decrease in the cathode diameter. At the beginning of the accelerating pulse, the entire cathode area participates in the electron emission process only for the multiple needle type carbon fiber cathode.

  13. Air emissions testing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The article presents a brief overview of air emission sampling methods and analysis procedures related to stationary sources such as incinerators, power plants, and industrial boilers. It is intended primarily for the laboratory chemist or manager who is familiar with samples and methods associated with water or waste sources, but not with those associated with air and stack gas emissions.

  14. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Emission Inventory Committee has been pursuing enhancement of the emission inventory program for North American countries--Canada, Mexico, and the United States. With the completion of the NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments, it was recognized that emissio...

  15. Hourly marginal emissions tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hourly marginal emissions tool is an excel workbook that estimates the hourly NOx, SO2 and CO2 emission reductions of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies and programs in the electric power sector. It will be based on EPA's proposed "Road map for Incorporating ene...

  16. Poultry housing emissions perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns for climate change are expanding interest in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from all agricultural sectors; animal production systems are no exception. The focus of this overview is to compare emission factors among egg and meat bird poultry operations, specifically layer and broiler chicke...

  17. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  18. Database of emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  19. Stellar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookbinder, Jay A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the various radiation mechanisms believed to play a role in stellar radio emission. The radio emission from most stars is nonthermal and is generally due to mildly relativistic electrons with energies from a few keV to over 10 MeV. Magnetic fields play a crucial role both in accelerating the electrons to the requisite energies and in mediating the emission mechanism. They also play a fundamental role in creating the velocity anisotropies that are necessary for the operation of some of the coherent emission mechanisms. Coherent emission is seen most commonly on the M dwarfs, rarely on the RS CVns, and has yet to be detected for any other class of star. These coherent processes are best studied by means of their dynamic spectra; such studies are now just getting underway.

  20. Graphene field emission devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S. Raghavan, S.; Duesberg, G. S.; Pratap, R.

    2014-09-08

    Graphene field emission devices are fabricated using a scalable process. The field enhancement factors, determined from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, are within few hundreds and match the theoretical predictions. The devices show high emission current density of ∼10 nA μm{sup −1} at modest voltages of tens of volts. The emission is stable with time and repeatable over long term, whereas the noise in the emission current is comparable to that from individual carbon nanotubes emitting under similar conditions. We demonstrate a power law dependence of emission current on pressure which can be utilized for sensing. The excellent characteristics and relative ease of making the devices promise their great potential for sensing and electronic applications.

  1. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  2. Auto Emission Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The photos show automobile engines being tested for nitrous oxide emissions, as required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), at the Research and Engineering Division of Ford Motor Company, Dearborn. Michigan. NASA technical information helped the company develop a means of calculating emissions test results. Nitrous oxide emission readings vary with relative humidity in the test facility. EPA uses a standard humidity measurement, but the agency allows manufacturers to test under different humidity conditions, then apply a correction factor to adjust the results to the EPA standard. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center developed analytic equations which provide a simple, computer-programmable method of correcting for humidity variations. A Ford engineer read a NASA Tech Brief describing the Dryden development and requested more detailed information in the form of a technical support package, which NASA routinely supplies to industry on request. Ford's Emissions Test Laboratory now uses the Dryden equations for humidity-adjusted emissions data reported to EPA.

  3. Chandra measurements of non-thermal-like X-ray emission from massive, merging, radio-halo clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Million, Evan; Allen, Steve

    2009-09-01

    We report the discovery of spatially-extended, non-thermal-like emission components in Chandra X-ray spectra for five of a sample of seven massive, merging galaxy clusters with powerful radio halos. The emission components can be fitted by power-law models with mean photon indices in the range 1.5 < Γ < 2.0. A control sample of regular, dynamically relaxed clusters, without radio halos but with comparable mean thermal temperatures and luminosities, shows no compelling evidence for similar components. Detailed X-ray spectral mapping reveals the complex thermodynamic states of the radio halo clusters. Our deepest observations, of the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-56, demonstrate a spatial correlation between the strongest power-law X-ray emission, highest thermal pressure, and brightest 1.34GHz radio halo emission in this cluster. We confirm the presence of a shock front in the 1E0657-56 and report the discovery of a clear, large-scale shock front in Abell 2219. We explore possible origins for the power-law X-ray components. One explanation of particular interest is that the power-law signatures may be due to complex temperature and/or metallicity structure in clusters particularly in the presence of metallicity gradients. In this case, an important distinguishing characteristic between the radio halo clusters and control sample of predominantly cool-core clusters is the relatively low central X-ray surface brightness of the former. Our results highlight the importance of further deep X-ray and radio mapping, coupled with new hard X-ray, γ-ray and TeV observations, for improving our understanding of the non-thermal particle populations in these systems.

  4. Methane emissions from vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, E K; Jensen, T E; Wallington, T J

    2004-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted by vehicles. We report results of a laboratory study of methane emissions using a standard driving cycle for 30 different cars and trucks (1995-1999 model years) from four different manufacturers. We recommend the use of an average emission factor for the U.S. on-road vehicle fleet of (g of CH/g of CO2) = (15 +/- 4) x 10(-5) and estimate that the global vehicle fleet emits 0.45 +/- 0.12 Tg of CH4 yr(-1) (0.34 +/- 0.09 Tg of C yr(-1)), which represents < 0.2% of anthropogenic CH4 emissions. This estimate includes the effects of vehicle aging, cold start, and hot running emissions. The contribution of CH4 emissions from vehicles to radiative forcing of climate change is 0.3-0.4% of that of CO2 emissions from vehicles. The environmental impact of CH4 emissions from vehicles is negligible and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. PMID:15112800

  5. Combustion and emissions technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Anderson, D. N.; Diehl, L. A.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor development is discussed as it relates to emissions reduction. The nature of the aircraft pollution problem is examined along with the aircraft pollution standards that have been established by the Environmental Protection Agency. The effect of engine operating conditions on pollutant formation levels is shown, as well as how close present-day engines are to meeting the established standards. The magnitude of the emissions reductions required to meet these standards is indicated. The progress that has been made in evolving the needed emissions reduction technology is the main topic.

  6. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  7. MOVES2014: Evaporative Emissions Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle evaporative emissions are now modeled in EPA’s MOVES according to physical processes, permeation, tank vapor venting, liquid leaks, and refueling emissions. With this update, the following improvements are being incorporated into MOVES evaporative emissions methodology, a...

  8. Gaseous Emissions from Wastewater Facilities.

    PubMed

    Koh, Sock-Hoon; Shaw, Andrew R

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to gaseous emissions from wastewater facilities is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: odorant emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from WWTPs; gaseous emissions from wastewater collection systems; physiochemical odor/emissions control methods; biological odor/emissions control methods; odor characterization/monitoring; and odor impacts/ risk assessments. PMID:27620089

  9. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  10. Maser pulse emission mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, D. B.

    Polar cap models of coherent radio emission mechanisms in pulsars are reviewed, noting deficiencies present in models with curvature emission due to bunches and the possibilities of descriptions based on maser processes. The lack of a no-velocity dispersion theory of bunching radiation is noted to make assumptions based on uniform particle velocities questionable. Streaming instability-produced bunching is also subject to inaccuracy when the bunching occurs at distances of over one stellar radius, or when the growth velocity is insufficient. Conditions are defined for successful bunching through particle trapping by waves, and it is mentioned that models with this mechanism offer predictions which do not match data from observations. Similar objections are found with self-bunching, plasma emission, and klystron mechanisms. Maser-emission models are concluded to avoid the problems associated with differences between observed and predicted dispersion delays found in other types of models.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Power plants were the largest stationary source of direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States in 2010, according to data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) GHG Reporting Program, the agency announced on 11 January. The GHG data set, which includes reports from more than 6700 facilities, provides information that the public can search to identify local sources of emissions and that businesses can use to track emissions. Gina McCarthy, assistant administrator for EPA's Office of Air and Radiation, said the program is “a transparent, powerful data resource available to the public” and that it provides “a critical tool” for businesses and others to find efficiencies to reduce emissions.

  12. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretti, Ettore

    2011-12-01

    Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission and its use to investigate magnetic fields will be reviewed along with our current understanding of the galactic magnetic field and the data sets available. We will then focus on the future perspective discussing RM-synthesis - the new powerful instrument devised to unlock the information encoded in such an emission - and the surveys currently in progress like S-PASS and GMIMS.

  13. Stellar radio emission (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelezniakov, V. V.

    The current understanding of the radio-emission characteristics of 'ordinary' main sequence stars as well as giants and supergiants is examined. Particular consideration is given to radio emission from supergiants, Young T Tauri stars, magnetic Ap stars, flare stars of UV Ceti type, Alpha Sco, and RS CVn objects. It is noted that the study of stellar radio emission is in its initial stage. Further progress in this area depends on successes in finding new radio sources, associated, for example, with magnetic stars, and on an intensified investigation of the frequency spectra and polarization of already-discovered radio stars. It is also noted that, although the current knowledge of solar physics can help in understanding stellar radio emission, models and ideas developed for solar conditions should not be mechanically transferred to other stars by a simple change in scale.

  14. Fugitive emissions monitoring trends

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.H.

    1997-02-01

    New Clean Air Act requirements are pushing facilities to reevaluate their monitoring programs. A description of the fugitive emission guidelines is included in this article, along with ideas about monitoring.

  15. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    SciTech Connect

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  16. ROANOKE WOODSTOVE EMISSION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project Roanoke study, that characterizes and quantifies emissions generated by burning authentic Roanoke cordwood. The burning occurred in a controlled laboratory setting using two woodstoves, each operated at two...

  17. Electron emission from ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiming

    Ferroelectric emission (FE) was discovered at CERN in 1988. However, a diverse array of results and explanations concerning FE have appeared. This dissertation focused on understanding the influence of material properties and external parameters on this complex process. The sample preparation, pulse generator and other experimental techniques are described. Plasma emission (PE), FE and mixed PE and FE were observed and described. The field enhancement at the electrode-dielectric-vacuum triple point was suggested to be the basis for PE. An apparent delay time, instability, visible light generation and strong electrode erosion are features of PE. Comparatively, FE does not require an extraction field, exhibits no apparent delay time and a relatively stable emission, and generates either no or a very weak light signal. A direct relationship between the switching current and emission current exists for the FE. Different FE characteristics of antiferroelectric PLZT 2/95/5, "normal" ferroelectric PLZT 8/65/35 and nonferroelectric PLZT 15/65/35 were described. The strong relationship between the emission and switching current was demonstrated. Repeatable emission is exhibited by 2/95/5, which can also be pulsed at high frequency due to its fast antiferroelectric <=> ferroelectric phase transition. The strong degradation of FE from 8/65/35 was attributed to decrease in the remanent polarization. While no emission signal was detected from 15/65/35, which can be interpreted as an additional evidence that electron emission from the above two PLZT was indeed FE process. Based on the field and domain switching distribution model, sample geometry effect on FE was predicted, and verified using the results from different groups. Electron emission energy distribution of PLZT 8/65/35 showed a very narrow energy distribution (FWHM ≈ 10 eV to 20 eV), and the emission energy was on the order of the applied pulse potential. The possible application of FE for emissive flat panel

  18. Field emission electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Zettl, A.K.; Cohen, M.L.

    2000-05-02

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm{sup 2} at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  19. Field emission electron source

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  20. Emission Characterization and Emission Inventories for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission inventories are the foundation of cost-effective air quality management strategies. A goal of the emissions community is to develop the ultimate emission inventory which would include all significant emissions from all sources, time periods and areas, with quantified un...

  1. Progress in emission control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Partial contents of this book include: Ozone precursor emissions from alternatively fueled vehicles; Cycle resolved measurements of diesel particulate by optical techniques; A lubricant formulation for lower unburnt hydrocarbon emissions; Chassis test cycles for assessing emissions from heavy duty trucks; A non-intrusive method of measuring PCV blowby constituents; Some problems in the improvement of measurement of transient emissions; and Oxidation catalyst systems for emission control of LPG-powered forklift trucks.

  2. Oceanic emissions of ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulot, F.; Jacob, D. J.; Johnson, M.; Bell, T. G.; Stock, C. A.; Doney, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Half of natural ammonia (NH3) emissions is thought to originate from the oceans. Such large emissions have implications for the global budget of N and the acidity of marine aerosols. We develop two new inventories of oceanic NH3 emissions based on simulated monthly NH3 seawater concentrations from the GFDL-COBALT and the CESM-BEC ocean models. These new inventories explicitly account for the effect of temperature on the water-atmosphere exchange of NH3. We evaluate these inventory using cruise observations of gas-phase ammonia (AMT cruises) and ammonium (NOAA cruises) as well as seawater measurement of NHx. Implications of atmospheric NHx observations for the exchange of N between ocean and land and ocean N/P limitations are discussed.

  3. Emissivity of microstructured silicon.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Patrick G; Smith, Peter; King, Vernon; Billman, Curtis; Winkler, Mark; Mazur, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Infrared transmittance and hemispherical-directional reflectance data from 2.5 to 25 microm on microstructured silicon surfaces have been measured, and spectral emissivity has been calculated for this wavelength range. Hemispherical-total emissivity is calculated for the samples and found to be 0.84 before a measurement-induced annealing and 0.65 after the measurement for the sulfur-doped sample. Secondary samples lack a measurement-induced anneal, and reasons for this discrepancy are presented. Emissivity numbers are plotted and compared with a silicon substrate, and Aeroglaze Z306 black paint. Use of microstructured silicon as a blackbody or microbolometer surface is modeled and presented, respectively. PMID:20197803

  4. Transient infrared emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; McClelland, J.F.

    1989-04-01

    Transient infrared emission spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new method that produces analytically useful emission spectra from optically thick, solid samples by greatly reducing self-absorption of emitted radiation. The method reduces self-absorption by creating a thin, short-lived, heated layer at the sample surface and collecting the transient emission from this layer. The technique requires no sample preparation and may be applied to both moving and stationary samples. The single-ended, noncontact TIRES measurement geometry is ideal for on-line and other remote-sensing applications. TIRES spectra acquired via a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer on moving samples of coal, plastic, and paint are presented and compared to photoacoustic absorption spectra of these materials. The TIRES and photoacoustic results are in close agreement as predicted by Kirchhoff's law.

  5. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  6. Unidentified Infrared Emission Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joblin, Christine

    2015-03-01

    When referring to unidentified infrared emission features, one has in mind the series of aromatic IR bands (AIBs) between 3.3 and 15 μm that are observed in emission in many environments where UV photons irradiate interstellar matter. These bands are now used by astronomers to classify objects and characterize local physical conditions. However, a deep analysis cannot proceed without understanding the properties of the band carriers. Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules are attractive candidates but interstellar species are still poorly characterized. Various studies emphasize the need for tackling the link between molecular aromatic species, aliphatic material and very small carbonaceous grains. Other unidentified emission features such as the 6.9, 21 and 30 μm bands could be involved in the evolutionary scenario.

  7. Ultraviolet atomic emission detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, W.; Peterson, N. C.; Bass, A. M.; Kurylo, M. J., III (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A device and method are provided for performing qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis through the utilization of a vacuum UV chromatographic detector. The method involves the use of a carrier gas at low pressure. The gas carries a sample to a gas chromatograph column; the column output is directed to a microwave cavity. In this cavity, a low pressure microwave discharge produces fragmentation of the compounds present and generates intense atomic emissions in the vacuum ultraviolet. These emissions are isolated by a monochromator and measured by photometer to establish absolute concentration for the elements.

  8. Biogenic Emissions Inventory System

    EPA Science Inventory

    ***BEIS3 is now embedded in the CMAQ model***

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System, Version 3 (BEIS3) is being developed to support the needs of regional and urban-scale air quality simulation models. BEIS3 is designed to be incorporated into the Sparse Matrix Op...

  9. Automotive sulfate emission data.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, J H

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions. PMID:50932

  10. Generalized emissivity inverse problem.

    PubMed

    Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E

    2002-04-01

    Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations. PMID:12005916

  11. NATIONAL EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Emisssions Inventory (NEI) is a data base containing estimates of air pollutant emissions in every US county for the years 1990-2002. National estimates back to 1970 are also part of the NEI. Access to NEI data is available from the following products and services:...

  12. Coke oven emissions

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Coke oven emissions ; CASRN NA Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  13. MONITORING OF INCINERATOR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring of Incinerator Emissions is a chapter to be included in a book entitled Hazardous Waste Incineration, edited by A. Sarofim and D. Pershing, and published by John Wiley and Sons. he chapter describes stack sampling and analysis procedures in use on hazardous waste incin...

  14. 1992 Carbon emissions data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This article reports on the global total of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning and cement manufacture in 1992. The total estimate of 6097 million metric tons of carbon is essentially the same for 1990 and down slightly from 1991, but 7 of 9 geographical regions had increases.

  15. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  16. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  17. Reaching peak emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert B.; Canadell, Josep G.; Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth in global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry ceased in the past two years, despite continued economic growth. Decreased coal use in China was largely responsible, coupled with slower global growth in petroleum and faster growth in renewables.

  18. UNCONTROLLED COMBUSTION EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency has recognized open and uncontrolled burning of waste and biomass as a significant source of poorly documented air toxics. Over the last 3 years, we have documented emissions from woodstoves; barrel burns of domestic waste; forest fires; wheat, grass, and rice straw fi...

  19. Emissions versus climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is likely to offset some of the improvements in air quality expected from reductions in pollutant emissions. A comprehensive analysis of future air quality over North America suggests that, on balance, the air will still be cleaner in coming decades.

  20. Diesel emissions in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, H.; Kreiner, I.; Norek, C.; Preining, O.; Georgi, B.

    The aerosol in a non-industrial town normally is dominated by emissions from vehicles. Whereas gasoline-powered cars normally only emit a small amount of particulates, the emission by diesel-powered cars is considerable. The aerosol particles produced by diesel engines consist of graphitic carbon (GC) with attached hydrocarbons (HCs) including also polyaromatic HCs. Therefore the diesel particles can be carcinogenic. Besides diesel vehicles, all other combustion processes are also a source for GC; thus source apportionment of diesel emissions to the GC in the town is difficult. A direct apportionment of diesel emissions has been made possible by marking all the diesel fuel used by the vehicles in Vienna by a normally not occurring and easily detectable substance. All emitted diesel particles thus were marked with the tracer and by analyzing the atmospheric samples for the marking substance we found that the mass concentrations of diesel particles in the atmosphere varied between 5 and 23 μg m -3. Busy streets and calm residential areas show less difference in mass concentration than expected. The deposition of diesel particles on the ground has been determined by collecting samples from the road surface. The concentration of the marking substance was below the detection limit before the marking period and a year after the period. During the period when marked diesel fuel was used, the concentrations of the diesel particles settling to the ground was 0.012-0.07 g g -1 of collected dust. A positive correlation between the diesel vehicle density and the sampled mass of diesel vehicles exists. In Vienna we have a background diesel particle concentration of 11 μg m -3. This value increases by 5.5 μg m -3 per 500 diesel vehicles h -1 passing near the sampling location. The mass fraction of diesel particles of the total aerosol mass varied between 12.2 and 33%; the higher values were found in more remote areas, since diesel particles apparently diffuse easily

  1. The Berlin Emissivity Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, Jorn

    Remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. TES on Mars Global Surveyor and THEMIS on Mars Odyssey have in many ways changed our views of Mars. The PFS instrument on the ESA Mars Express mission has collected spectra since the beginning of 2004. In spring 2006 the VIRTIS experiment started its operation on the ESA Venus Express mission, allowing for the first time to map the surface of Venus using the 1 µm emission from the surface. The MERTIS spectrometer is included in the payload of the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, scheduled for 2013. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials is needed. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing a realistic basis for interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. The BED contains currently entries for plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulphur, common martian analogues (JSC Mars-1, Salten Skov, palagonites, montmorillonite) and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 3 to 50 µm as a function of particle size. For each sample, the spectra of four well defined particle size separates (¡25 µm , 25-63 µm, 63-125 µm, 125-250 µm) are measured with a 4 cm-1 spectral resolution. These size separates have been selected as typical representations for most of the planetary surfaces. Following an ongoing upgrade of the Planetary Emmissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR in Berlin measurements can be obtained at temperatures up to 500° C - realistic for the dayside conditions

  2. Negative Emissions Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  3. Methane Emission by Camelids

    PubMed Central

    Dittmann, Marie T.; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A.; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg−1 d−1) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg−1 d−1). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg−1 in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg−1 in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  4. Methane emission by camelids.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  5. DFM: magic bullet or marketing hype?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Joseph D.

    2004-05-01

    Over the past year interest in DFM has exploded in the semiconductor industry, and this despite the lack of a uniform working definition. The origin of this surge is shown to be related to three converging trends: increased design cost, shortened product lifetimes, and lower manufacturing yields for 130 nm technologies versus previous generations. A comparison to other industries reveals the distinct challenges attendant to semiconductor DFM and highlights the unique risks, which often necessitate non-intuitive solutions. Finally, the case is made to view DFM as a woven throughout the physical design flow, from cell design to mask data prep.

  6. Soil Erosion. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    Soil erosion is the detachment and movement of topsoil or soil material from the upper part of the soil profile. It may occur in the form of rill, gully, sheet, or wind erosion. Agents of erosion may be water, wind, glacial ice, agricultural implements, machinery, and animals. Soil conservation measures require a thorough understanding of the…

  7. Distance Learning: Silver Bullet or Educational Apartheid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer-Pitt, Sue

    This paper discusses why distance education is not the cure all that political leaders hope it will be, and outlines some of the reasons why distance education sometimes results in education that is separate and unequal. It identifies some of the major categories of distance education: correspondence courses, one-way televised courses (broadcast,…

  8. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  9. Environmental Science Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    This bibliography cites sources to assist middle, junior, and senior high school students and teachers in planning, preparing, and executing science fair projects in the environmental sciences. In addition, a few books with experiments suitable for elementary grade students are included. The listing includes: (1) 5 introductory texts; (2) 31…

  10. Why Magic Bullets Don't Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldon, David F.

    2010-01-01

    There are two threads linking effective lectures and effective technology use. The first is consideration of what students bring to the table in terms of goals, interests, and prior knowledge. The second is the deliberate management of the opportunities for students to engage with content in order to focus their investment of mental effort on key…

  11. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set of resources that…

  12. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  13. Environmental Science Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    Sources to assist junior and senior high school students and teachers in planning, preparing, and executing science fair projects in the environmental sciences are cited in this bibliography that includes a few books with experiments suitable for elementary grade students. Information and/or citations are provided under the following headings: (1)…

  14. Freshwater Ecology. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    Freshwater ecosystems include lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, and certain types of wetlands. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on freshwater ecology; the guide is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader or student "on target." Other literature guides related to freshwater…

  15. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  16. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Joyce, Comp.

    The sources listed in this document are selected to provide guidance to students, parents, and teachers throughout the process of planning, developing, implementing, and competing in science fair activities. While sources range in suitability from elementary to high school levels, the emphasis is on materials for grades 9-12. This guide updates LC…

  17. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    This bibliography assists junior and senior high school students and teachers in planning, preparing, executing, and evaluating science fair projects. A few books with experiments suitable for elementary grade students are listed. This publication is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography but is designed to put the reader "on target."…

  18. Electric Vehicles. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buydos, John E., Comp.

    This document reviews the literature in the collections of the Library of Congress on electric vehicles. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed as the title implies, to put the reader "on target." This is of greatest utility to the beginning student of the topic. (AA)

  19. Artificial Intelligence. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    Desgined to serve as a guide to resources on artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems, this Library of Congress bulletin is divided into 18 sections that contain lists of books, journal articles, periodicals, associations, and other sources of information. A brief statement of the scope of the guide introduces the sections, which are listed…

  20. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog,1 which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video2 shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a majority of the bloggers to claim that the block shot off-center should not go as high as the one shot dead center. Others have claimed that the energy tied up as rotational energy is insignificant and the two blocks should rise to the same height within experimental error.

  1. Asbestos and Asbestosis. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Karen L., Comp.

    Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in several forms and because of its temperature-resisting properties, flexibility, and strength, it was widely used in the construction industry, automobile industry, and textile industry. Asbestos becomes dangerous when it crumbles and breaks releasing fibers that can cause asbestosis and certain…

  2. Inventions and Inventors. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    Invention is the creation of a new device or technique or the use of some particular phenomenon to achieve a given result. Examples of technological invention can be found at all times and in all places of human history. This paper chronicles the history of invention and provides references to materials that discuss the socio-cultural, economic,…

  3. Emissivity measurement for outdoor structures

    SciTech Connect

    Surin, V.G.

    1987-07-01

    The author tests a radiometric method of measuring emissivity for outdoor structures. The method measures emissivity from the functional relationship between the brightness of the emission from a source with a known standard emitter and the temperature which is the same as that for the working surface with its coating. The standard sources were provided by special paint coatings whose emissivities were 0.40-0.95. A portable pyrometer was used for the measurements. The radiation temperature and the brightness in relation to the emissivity are shown, as are the coating temperatures as functions of emissivity.

  4. Review of jet engine emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A review of the emission characteristics of jet engines is presented. The sources and concentrations of the various constituents in the engine exhaust and the influence of engine operating conditions on emissions are discussed. Cruise emissions to be expected from supersonic engines are compared with emissions from subsonic engines. The basic operating principles of the gas turbine combustor are reviewed together with the effects of combustor operating conditions on emissions. The performance criteria that determine the design of gas turbine combustors are discussed. Combustor design techniques are considered that may be used to reduce emissions.

  5. Anthropogenic mercury emission inventory with emission factors and total emission in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Pudasainee, Deepak; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-07-01

    Mercury emissions concentrations, emission factors, and the total national emission from major anthropogenic sources in Korea for the year 2007 were estimated. Uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission factors and the total emission from each source types are presented. The annual national mercury emission from major anthropogenic sources for the year 2007, on average was 12.8 ton which ranged from 6.5 to 20.2 ton. Averaged emissions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were estimated at 8.25 ton, 3.69 ton, and 0.87 ton, respectively. Due to the removal of a major portion of particulate and oxidized mercury species, elemental mercury was dominant in stack emission. About 54.8% of mercury emission was contributed by industrial sources, 45.0% by stationary combustion sources and 0.02% by mobile sources. Thermal power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and incinerators (municipal, industrial, medical, sewage sludge) were the major mercury emitters, contributing about 26%, 25%, 21% and 20%, respectively to the total mercury emission. Other sources (crematory, pulp and paper manufacturing, nonferrous metals manufacturing, glass manufacturing) contributed about 8% of the total emission. Priority should be given in controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and waste incinerators. More measurements including natural and re-emission sources are to be carried out in the future in order to have a clear scenario of mercury emission from the country and to apply effective control measures.

  6. Zero Emission Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziock, H.; Guthrie, G. D.; Lackner, K. S.; Harrison, D. P.; Johnson, A. A.

    2002-05-01

    Unless the economic development of the majority of the world's population is prohibited, thereby forcing thereby forcing them to remain in poverty, world energy consumption and therefore carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emission rates could easily increase by an order of magnitude during this century. Given that we have already increased global atmospheric concentrations by 30% compared to their pre-industrial age level, without massive intervention, we will completely overwhelm Nature's ability to cope. In order to stabilize atmospheric CO2 levels, while allowing desired world economic development, the future allowable US per capita CO2 emissions are only 3 % of today's value. This is effectively zero, and thus what is required is the development of technologies that aim for emission of zero CO2 as well as other pollutants. If we continue to rely on our lowest cost, readily available, and dominant energy source, this will involve both a separation of the energy from the fossil fuel carbon followed by a permanent disposal of the CO2. To set the scale, today's yearly global emissions are approaching 25 cubic kilometers of CO2 at liquid densities, and these could grow by an order of magnitude by the end of the century. We describe a zero emission coal technology that would be able to deal with both the scope of the problem and the emission goal. The energy production process is a chemical conversion of coal to electricity or hydrogen, which involves no combustion and thus no smoke stack. The process provides a pure stream of CO2 for disposal while simultaneously achieving fuel to electricity conversion efficiencies that are two times better than today's value. This high efficiency by itself extends cuts pollutant production by a factor of two while also extending the lifetime of our fossil fuel reserves by a factor of two to many hundreds of years. By concentrating on coal, we also lay the groundwork for energy security and complete independence for the US, given the

  7. Chandra measurements of non-thermal-like X-ray emission from massive, merging, radio halo clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Million, E. T.; Allen, S. W.

    2009-11-01

    We report the discovery of spatially extended, non-thermal-like emission components in Chandra X-ray spectra for five of a sample of seven massive, merging galaxy clusters with powerful radio haloes. The emission components can be fitted by power-law models with mean photon indices in the range 1.5 < Γ < 2.0. A control sample of regular, dynamically relaxed clusters, without radio haloes but with comparable mean thermal temperatures and luminosities, shows no compelling evidence for similar components. Detailed X-ray spectral mapping reveals the complex thermodynamic states of the radio halo clusters. Our deepest observations, of the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-56, demonstrate a spatial correlation between the strongest power-law X-ray emission, highest thermal pressure and brightest 1.34 GHz radio halo emission in this cluster. We confirm the presence of a shock front in the 1E0657-56 and report the discovery of a new, large-scale shock front in Abell 2219. We explore possible origins for the power-law X-ray components. These include inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by relativistic electrons in the clusters; bremsstrahlung from suprathermal electrons energized by Coulomb collisions with an energetic, non-thermal proton population; and synchrotron emission associated with ultrarelativistic electrons. Interestingly, we show that the power-law signatures may also be due to complex temperature and/or metallicity structure in clusters particularly in the presence of metallicity gradients. In this case, an important distinguishing characteristic between the radio halo clusters and control sample of predominantly cool-core clusters is the relatively low central X-ray surface brightness of the former. Our results have implications for previous discussions of soft excess X-ray emission from clusters and highlight the importance of further deep X-ray and radio mapping, coupled with new hard X-ray, γ-ray and TeV observations, for improving our

  8. Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.

  9. EMPIRICAL MODEL OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An empirical model that characterizes the relationship between equilibrium vehicle emission distributions and malfunction, repair, and replacement rates by splitting vehicles into two emission categories has been developed. ross emitters and clean vehicles are defined by the magn...

  10. MOBILE EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION TEAM (HANDOUT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The handout describes the Mobile Emissions Characterization Team of EPA's Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division. The team conducts research to characterize and evaluate emissions of volatile...

  11. CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous emissions monitoring of hazardous and mixed waste thermal treatment processes is desired for verification of emission compliance, process control, and public safety perception. pecies of particular interest include trace metals and organic compounds resulting from inco...

  12. EMISSION AND SURFACE EXCHANGE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task supports the development, evaluation, and application of emission and dry deposition algorithms in air quality simulation models, such as the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Emission estimates influence greatly the accuracy of air qual...

  13. Global emissions inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Dignon, J.

    1995-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions.

  14. Emissions from queuing aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, H.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the FAA (U.S. Federal Aviation Administration) Simplex mathematical model, which employs a simple point-source algorithm with provisions for selecting a particular plume height and initial box size for each aircraft being analyzed, to predict air quality through modeling emissions released from queuing aircraft was verified by measurements of carbon monoxide emissions from such aircraft during a five-day period at Los Angeles International Airport. The model predicted carbon monoxide concentrations of 4 ppm (National Ambient Air Quality Standard limit value is 35 ppm) at expected populated locations during the highest activity hour monitored. This study should also apply to other engine exhaust gases such as NO/sub x/.

  15. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.; Dorsey, George F.; West, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  16. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  17. ELECTRON EMISSION REGULATING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Brenholdt, I.R.

    1957-11-19

    >An electronic regulating system is described for controlling the electron emission of a cathode, for example, the cathode in a mass spectrometer. The system incorporates a transformer having a first secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding load by grid controlled vacuum tubes. A portion of the electron current emitted by the cathode is passed through a network which develops a feedback signal. The system arrangement is completed by using the feedback signal to control the vacuum tubes in the second secondary winding through a regulator tube. When a change in cathode emission occurs, the feedback signal acts to correct this change by adjusting the load on the transformer.

  18. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy. PMID:26081307

  19. Positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y. Lucas; Thompson, Christopher J.; Diksic, Mirko; Meyer, Ernest; Feindel, William H.

    One of the most exciting new technologies introduced in the last 10 yr is positron emission tomography (PET). PET provides quantitative, three-dimensional images for the study of specific biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. This approach is analogous to quantitative in-vivo autoradiography but has the added advantage of permitting non-invasive in vivo studies. PET scanning requires a small cyclotron to produce short-lived positron emitting isotopes such as oxygen-15, carbon-11, nitrogen-13 and fluorine-18. Proper radiochemical facilities and advanced computer equipment are also needed. Most important, PET requires a multidisciplinary scientific team of physicists, radiochemists, mathematicians, biochemists and physicians. This review analyzes the most recent trends in the imaging technology, radiochemistry, methodology and clinical applications of positron emission tomography.

  20. Positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, E J; Phelps, M E

    1979-01-01

    Conventional nuclear imaging techniques utilizing lead collimation rely on radioactive tracers with little role in human physiology. The principles of imaging based on coincidence detection of the annihilation radiation produced in positron decay indicate that this mode of detection is uniquely suited for use in emission computed tomography. The only gamma-ray-emitting isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are positron emitters, which yield energies too high for conventional imaging techniques. Thus development of positron emitters in nuclear medicine imaging would make possible the use of a new class of physiologically active, positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The application of these principles is described in the use of a physiologically active compound labeled with a positron emitter and positron-emission computed tomography to measure the local cerebral metabolic rate in humans. PMID:440173

  1. Radio emission from supernovae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, K. W.; Panagia, N.; Sramek, R. A.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Stockdale, C. J.; Williams, C. L.

    Study of radio supernovae over the past 30 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. Along with reviewing these general properties of the radio emission from supernovae, we present our extensive observations of the radio emission from supernova (SN) 1993J in M 81 (NGC 3031) made with the Very Large Array and other radio telescopes. The SN 1993J radio emission evolves regularly in both time and frequency, and the usual interpretation in terms of shock interaction with a circumstellar medium (CSM) formed by a pre-supernova stellar wind describes the observations rather well considering the complexity of the phenomenon. However: 1) The highest frequency measurements at 85 - 110 GHz at early times (<40 days) are not well fitted by the parameterization which describes the cm wavelength measurements. 2) At a time ˜3100 days after shock breakout, the decline rate of the radio emission steepens from (t+beta ) beta ˜ -0.7 to beta ˜ -2.7 without change in the spectral index (nu +alpha ; alpha ˜ -0.81). This decline is best described not as a power-law, but as an exponential decay with an e-folding time of ˜ 1100 days. 3) The best overall fit to all of the data is a model including both non-thermal synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) and a thermal free-free absorbing (FFA) components at early times, evolving to a constant spectral index, optically thin decline rate, until a break in that decline rate at day ˜3100, as mentioned above.

  2. Power plant emissions reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  3. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  4. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  5. Microgravity Emissions Laboratory Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodnight, Thomas W.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2001-01-01

    The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) was developed for the support, simulation, and verification of the International Space Station microgravity environment. The MEL utilizes an inertial measurement system using acceleration emissions generated by various operating components of the space station. These emissions, if too large, could hinder the science performed on the space station by disturbing the microgravity environment. Typical test components are disk drives, pumps, motors, solenoids, fans, and cameras. These components will produce inertial forces, which disturb the microgravity on-orbit station environment. These components, usually housed within a station rack, must meet acceleration limits imposed at the rack interface for minimizing the onboard station-operating environment. The NASA Glenn Research Center developed this one-of-a-kind laboratory for testing components and, eventually, rack-level configurations. The MEL approach is to measure the component's generated inertial forces. This force is a product of the full diagonal mass matrix including the test setup (the center of gravity, mass moment of inertia, and weight) and the resolved diagonal rigid-body acceleration determined from measurements using the 10 apparatus accelerometers. The mass matrix can be test derived. The bifilar torsional pendulum method is used to measure the moment of inertia for the test component.

  6. CORONAL EMISSION LINES AS THERMOMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Philip G.

    2010-01-10

    Coronal emission-line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

  7. Quantification of Emission Factor Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions factors are important for estimating and characterizing emissions from sources of air pollution. There is no quantitative indication of uncertainty for these emission factors, most factors do not have an adequate data set to compute uncertainty, and it is very difficult...

  8. Radio Emission from Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Panagia, Nino; Sramek, Richard A.; van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Williams, Christopher L.; Stockdale, Christopher J.; Kelley, Matthew T.

    2007-10-01

    Study of radio supernovae over the past 27 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the presupernova stellar system, and to detect clumpiness of the circumstellar material. Along with reviewing these general properties of the radio emission from supernovae, we present our extensive observations of the radio emission from supernova (SN) 1993J in M 81 (NGC 3031) made with the Very Large Array and other radio telescopes. The SN 1993J radio emission evolves regularly in both time and frequency, and the usual interpretation in terms of shock interaction with a circumstellar medium (CSM) formed by a pre-supernova stellar wind describes the observations rather well considering the complexity of the phenomenon. However: 1) The highest frequency measurements at 85-110 GHz at early times (<40 days) are not well fitted by the parameterization which describes the cm wavelength measurements rather well. 2) At mid-cm wavelengths there is often deviation from the fitted radio light curves, particularly near the peak flux density, and considerable shorter term deviations in the declining portion when the emission has become optically thin. 3) At a time ~3100 days after shock breakout, the decline rate of the radio emission steepens from (t+β)β~-0.7 to β~-2.7 without change in the spectral index (ν+αα~-0.81). However, this decline is best described not as a power-law, but as an exponential decay starting at day ~3100 with an e-folding time of ~1100 days. 4) The best overall fit to all of the data is

  9. THz wave emission microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tao

    Sensing and imaging using Terahertz (THz) radiation has attracted more and more interest in the last two decades thanks to the abundant material 'finger prints' in the THz frequency range. The low photon energy also makes THz radiation an attractive tool for nondestructive evaluation of materials and devices, biomedical applications, security checks and explosive screening. Due to the long wavelength, the far-field THz wave optical systems have relatively low spatial resolution. This physical limitation confines THz wave sensing and imaging to mostly macro-size samples. To investigate local material properties or micro-size structures and devices, near-field technology has to be employed. In this dissertation, the Electro-Optical THz wave emission microscope is investigated. The basic principle is to focus the femtosecond laser to a tight spot on a thin THz emitter layer to produce a THz wave source with a similar size as the focus spot. The apparatus provides a method for placing a THz source with sub-wavelength dimension in the near-field range of the investigated sample. Spatial resolution to the order of one tenth of the THz wavelength is demonstrated by this method. The properties of some widely used THz wave emission materials under tight focused pump light are studied. As an important branch of THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), THz wave emission spectroscopy has been widely used as a tool to investigate the material physics, such as energy band structure, carrier dynamics, material nonlinear properties and dynamics. As the main work of this dissertation, we propose to combine the THz wave emission spectroscopy with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to build a tip-assisted THz wave emission microscope (TATEM), which is a valuable extension to current SPM science and technology. Illuminated by a femtosecond laser, the biased SPM tip forms a THz wave source inside the sample beneath the tip. The source size is proportional to the apex size of the tip so

  10. Measurements of Marine Vessel Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from large marine vessels are a significant source of these species to the atmosphere. One estimate indicates that oxidized nitrogen from this source is at least 14% of all combustion emissions globally (1). More importantly, since approximately 70% of all ship emissions occur within 400 km of land (1) marine vessel emissions are of significance regionally in coastal areas and locally in ports. Marine vessel emissions are calculated from marine fuel usage and various emission factors, where sulfur emission factors depend on the sulfur content of fuel and nitrogen emission factors depend on the vessel engine type: slow-speed diesel, medium-speed diesel, and other (generally steam-turbine). Currently, the best available emission factors come from a Lloyd's Register of Shipping sponsored emissions research program. Measurements were made of emissions from engines during bench tests and from in-service marine vessels directly at the stack. While these results are the best available data, the significance of marine vessel emissions suggests that additional evaluation of emission factors be conducted. During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS 2002) the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown was equipped with trace gas and aerosol monitoring instrumentation for the purpose of investigating the factors that affect air quality in coastal New England. As a part of that study, measurements were made of gaseous and particulate emissions from marine vessels, both in port and underway. This talk will present those results and relate them to current inventory estimates of marine vessel emissions. (1) Corbett, J.J., et al., Global nitrogen and sulfur inventories for oceangoing ships, J. Geophy. Res., 104, 3457-3470, 1999.

  11. Preferred emission factor techniques for army emission inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Polyak, L.M.; Robinson, D.L.; Alden, S.A.; Hopp, P.L.; Ruff, T.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA-90) present an unprecedented regulatory challenge to the Department of the Army and the entire US business community. Unlike previous legislation, which focused heavily on the substantive or emission control aspects of air quality management, this round of Amendments focused equal attention on the administrative aspects of air pollution control. Specifically, each new Title of the CAAA-90 is underpinned, either explicitly or implicitly, with the need to perform an emission inventory. The emission inventory is an implied prerequisite for determining the applicability of any of the emission control requirements of the 1990 Amendments, and it is the explicit center piece of the Title 5 operating permit program. Although the emission inventory is little more than a formal accounting of the number and type of emission sources and their associated air emissions, the resource requirements for preparing and maintaining the inventory can be substantial. The average contractor cost for preparing an initial emission inventory at an Army installation was over $100,000. Record keeping to support the inventory, and the annual inventory updates required for the Title 5 permit program will only expand these costs. In an effort to assist the Army community with the ongoing obligation to prepare these emission inventories, the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) has compiled a list of preferred emission inventory techniques for the various emission sources found at Army installations. The USACHPPM guidance identifies emission sources most likely to be found at an Army installation, as well as the most effective and preferred emission factors associated with these sources. This guidance is designed to be widely disseminated, and may have relevant applications in the non-military community.

  12. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  13. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  14. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  15. METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING NATURAL HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An emission inventory system for biogenic sources of hydrocarbons has been developed. It is based on modifications of the classic formula: Emissions = Sigma Biomass Area Emission Factor. It accommodates multiple sources with emission factors dependent on season, temperature and s...

  16. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  17. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Donald W.; Whittaker, Jerry W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  18. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  19. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx, SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of NOx, SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid and nitric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals.

  20. Solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Smith, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    Active areas of both observational and theoretical research in which rapid progress is being made are discussed. These include: (1) the dynamic spectrum or frequency versus time plot; (2) physical mechanisms in the development of various types of bursts; (3) microwave type 1, 2, 3, and moving type 4 bursts; (4) bursts caused by trapped electrons; (5) physics of type 3bursts; (6) the physics of type 2 bursts and their related shocks; (7) the physics of both stationary and moving traps and associated type 1 and moving type 4 bursts; and (8) the status of the field of solar radio emission.

  1. Ion photon emission microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, P.; Doyle, B. L.; Banks, J. C.; Battistella, A.; Gennaro, G.; McDaniel, F. D.; Mellon, M.; Vittone, E.; Vizkelethy, G.; Wing, N. D.

    2003-09-01

    A new ion-induced emission microscopy has been invented and demonstrated, which is called ion photon emission microscopy (IPEM). It employs a low current, broad ion beam impinging on a sample, previously coated or simply covered with a few microns of a fast, highly efficient phosphor layer. The light produced at the single ion impact point is collected with an optical microscope and projected at high magnification onto a single photon position sensitive detector (PSD). This allows maps of the ion strike effects to be produced, effectively removing the need for a microbeam. Irradiation in air and even the use of alpha particle sources with no accelerator are possible. Potential applications include ion beam induced charge collection studies of semiconducting and insulating materials, single event upset studies on microchips and even biological cells in radiobiological effectiveness experiments. We describe the IPEM setup, including a 60× OM-40 microscope with a 1.5 mm hole for the beam transmission and a Quantar PSD with 60 μm pixel. Bicron plastic scintillator blades of 10 μm were chosen as a phosphor for their nanosecond time resolution, homogeneity, utility and commercial availability. The results given in this paper are for a prototype IPEM system. They indicate a resolution of ˜12 μm, the presence of a spatial halo and a He-ion efficiency of ˜20%. This marks the first time that nuclear microscopy has been performed with a radioactive source.

  2. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  3. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  4. Controlling boiler emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1992-10-22

    This paper reports that if you are confused about how to interpret the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, you are not alone. The massive document runs several hundred pages and consists of 11 titles, each addressing a different aspect of air quality. In some cases, specific emissions levels are established; in others, they are left to the discretion of state and local governments. In many ways, the impact of the CAAA right now is no impact. But now is not the time for plant engineers to play any waiting games. The annual cost of complying with the comprehensive environmental legislation is estimated at $4 to $7 billion. Despite the ambiguity and uncertainty, one conclusion appears clear: control of emissions, especially nitrogen oxides, from all types of boilers and process units can be expected to become more stringent. More and more equipment and industries will fall under the regulations as they are implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). An newly available and improved strategies and technologies will make it more and more difficult to circumvent the law. As the general concepts of the legislation are molded into specifics, plant engineers are well advised to take an active role in shaping the attainment and control programs being formed by their state sand in understanding and applying available control technologies.

  5. Emission from ferroelectric cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Holmes, C.L.; Lauer, E.J.; Prosnitz, D.; Trimble, D.O.; Westenskow, G.A.

    1993-05-17

    We have recently initiated an investigation of electron emission from ferroelectric cathodes. Our experimental apparatus consisted of an electron diode and a 250 kV, 12 ohm, 70 ns pulsed high voltage power source. A planar triode modulator driven by a synthesized waveform generator initiates the polarization inversion and allows inversion pulse tailoring. The pulsed high voltage power source is capable of delivering two high voltage pulses within 50 ns of each other and is capable of operating at a sustained repetition rate of 5 Hz. Our initial measurements indicate that emission current densities above the Child-Langmuir Space Charge Limit are possible. We explain this effect to be based on a non-zero initial energy of the emitted electrons. We also determined that this effect is strongly coupled to relative timing between the inversion pulse and application of the main anode-cathode pulse. We also have initiated brightness measurements of the emitted beam. As in our previous measurements at this Laboratory, we performed the measurement using a pepper pot technique. Beam-let profiles are recorded with a fast phosphor and gated cameras. We describe our apparatus and preliminary measurements.

  6. A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Zhou, Yuyu; Kyle, G. Page; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-04-21

    Historical emission estimates for anthropogenic aerosol and precursor compounds are key data needed for Earth system models, climate models, and atmospheric chemistry and transport models; both for general analysis and assessment and also for model validation through comparisons with observations. Current global emission data sets have a number of shortcomings, including timeliness and transparency. Satellite and other earth-system data are increasingly available in near real-time, but global emission estimates lag by 5-10 years. The CEDS project will construct a data-driven, open source framework to produce annually updated emission estimates. The basic methodologies to be used for this system have been used for SO2 (Smith et al. 2011, Klimont, Smith and Cofala 2013), and are designed to complement existing inventory efforts. The goal of this system is to consistently extend current emission estimates both forward in time to recent years and also back over the entire industrial era. The project will produce improved datasets for global and (potentially) regional model, allow analysis of trends across time, countries, and sectors of emissions and emission factors, and facilitate improved scientific analysis in general. Consistent estimation of uncertainty will be an integral part of this system. This effort will facilitate community evaluation of emissions and further emission-related research more generally.

  7. Carbon Emission Flow in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chongqing; Zhou, Tianrui; Chen, Qixin; Xu, Qianyao; Xia, Qing; Ji, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    As the human population increases and production expands, energy demand and anthropogenic carbon emission rates have been growing rapidly, and the need to decrease carbon emission levels has drawn increasing attention. The link between energy production and consumption has required the large-scale transport of energy within energy transmission networks. Within this energy flow, there is a virtual circulation of carbon emissions. To understand this circulation and account for the relationship between energy consumption and carbon emissions, this paper introduces the concept of “carbon emission flow in networks” and establishes a method to calculate carbon emission flow in networks. Using an actual analysis of China's energy pattern, the authors discuss the significance of this new concept, not only as a feasible approach but also as an innovative theoretical perspective. PMID:22761988

  8. Methane emissions from wastewater management.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M

    2001-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions in the form of methane and carbon dioxide are produced when municipal and industrial wastewater and their residual solid by-product (sludge) are handled under or subject to anaerobic conditions, thus contributing to the global warming potential or the greenhouse effect. This paper presents estimation methods used for determining methane emissions from the management of wastewater. Applications for estimating countrywide methane gas emissions from wastewater management are presented with the country of Lebanon as an example. The relative significance of these emissions is assessed in comparison with methane emissions from developing and developed countries. Uncertainty associated with the estimation process and mitigation measures to reduce potential impacts of methane emissions from wastewater management are also discussed. PMID:11504340

  9. Ammonia emissions from seabird colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackall, Trevor D.; Wilson, Linda J.; Theobald, Mark R.; Milford, Celia; Nemitz, Eiko; Bull, Jennifer; Bacon, Philip J.; Hamer, Keith C.; Wanless, Sarah; Sutton, Mark A.

    2007-05-01

    Ammonia emissions were measured from two entire seabird colonies with contrasting species assemblages, to ascertain the ammonia volatilisation potentials among seabird species in relation to their nesting behaviour. Emissions were calculated from downwind plume measurements of ammonia concentration using both inverse dispersion and tracer ratio methods. Measured colony emissions ranged 1-90 kg NH3 hour-1, and equated to 16 and 36% volatilization of excreted nitrogen for colonies dominated by ground/burrow nesting and bare rock nesting birds, respectively. The results were applied in a bioenergetics model with a global seabird database. Seabird colonies are found to represent the largest point sources of ammonia globally (up to ~6 Gg NH3 colony-1 year-1). Moreover the largest emissions occur mainly in remote environments with otherwise low NH3 emissions. These ammonia ``hot spots'' explain significant perturbations of the nitrogen cycle in these regions and add ~20% to oceanic ammonia emissions south of latitude 45°S.

  10. Atomic squeezing under collective emission

    SciTech Connect

    Yukalov, V.I.; Yukalova, E.P.

    2004-11-01

    Atomic squeezing is studied for the case of large systems of radiating atoms, when collective effects are well developed. All temporal stages are analyzed, starting with the quantum stage of spontaneous emission, passing through the coherent stage of superradiant emission, and going to the relaxation stage ending with stationary solutions. A method of governing the temporal behavior of the squeezing factor is suggested. The influence of a squeezed effective vacuum on the characteristics of collective emission is also investigated.

  11. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  12. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  13. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles.

    PubMed

    Fthenakis, Vasilis M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Alsema, Erik

    2008-03-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004-2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and heavy metal emissions from four types of major commercial PV systems: multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride. Life-cycle emissions were determined by employing average electricity mixtures in Europe and the United States during the materials and module production for each PV system. Among the current vintage of PV technologies, thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV emits the least amount of harmful air emissions as it requires the least amount of energy during the module production. However, the differences in the emissions between different PV technologies are very small in comparison to the emissions from conventional energy technologies that PV could displace. As a part of prospective analysis, the effect of PV breeder was investigated. Overall, all PV technologies generate far less life-cycle air emissions per GWh than conventional fossil-fuel-based electricity generation technologies. At least 89% of air emissions associated with electricity generation could be prevented if electricity from photovoltaics displaces electricity from the grid. PMID:18409654

  14. Neutron emission prior to fission

    SciTech Connect

    Gavron, A.; Gayer, A.; Boissevain, J.; Britt, H.C.; Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.; Grange, P.; Hassani, S.; Weidenmueller, H.A.; Beene, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron emission in the /sup 158/Er composite system is studied in order to investigate particle emission with energy spectrum and angular distribution in excess of statistical model predictions. Data are analyzed using a modified statistical model which incorporates effects due to nuclear dissipation, and also calculates neutron emission during the descent from the saddle to the scission point. Calculations consider the Kramers effect and the Transient effect. It is concluded that a detailed interpretation of enhanced neutron emission preceding fission in compound nucleus reactions is possible, and that an upper limit may be set on the reduced nuclear dissipation coefficient. 5 refs., 2 figs. (LEW)

  15. Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop was held on November 18 19, 2003, in Cleveland, Ohio. It was sponsored by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) under the Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) and the Ultra- Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The objectives were to build a sound foundation for a comprehensive particulate research roadmap and to provide a forum for discussion among U.S. stakeholders and researchers. Presentations included perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, and United States airports. There were five interactive technical sessions: sampling methodology, measurement methodology, particle modeling, database, inventory and test venue, and air quality. Each group presented technical issues which generated excellent discussion. The five session leads collaborated with their members to present summaries and conclusions to each content area.

  16. Positron emission mammography imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2003-10-02

    This paper examines current trends in Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) instrumentation and the performance tradeoffs inherent in them. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules. They subtend a larger solid angle around the breast than conventional PET cameras, and so have both higher efficiency and lower cost. Extensions to this geometry include encircling the breast, measuring the depth of interaction (DOI), and dual-modality imaging (PEM and x-ray mammography, as well as PEM and x-ray guided biopsy). The ultimate utility of PEM may not be decided by instrument performance, but by biological and medical factors, such as the patient to patient variation in radiotracer uptake or the as yet undetermined role of PEM in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Cardiac positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.

    1985-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a new technique for noninvasively assessing myocardial metabolism and perfusion. It has provided new insight into the dynamics of myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism in normal subjects, patients with ischemic heart disease and those with cardiomyopathies, documenting regionally depressed fatty acid metabolism during myocardial ischemia and infarction and spatial heterogeneity of fatty acid metabolism in patients with cardiomyopathy. Regional myocardial perfusion has been studied with PET using water, ammonia and rubidium labeled with positron emitters, permitting the noninvasive detection of hypoperfused zones at rest and during vasodilator stress. With these techniques the relationship between perfusion and the metabolism of a variety of substrates has been studied. The great strides that have been made in developing faster high-resolution instruments and producing new labeled intermediates indicate the promise of this technique for facilitating an increase in the understanding of regional metabolism and blood flow under normal and pathophysiologic conditions. 16 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  19. Microbially mediated phosphine emission.

    PubMed

    Roels, Joris; Huyghe, Gwen; Verstraete, Willy

    2005-02-15

    There is still a lot of controversy in literature concerning the question whether a biochemical system exists enabling micro-organisms to reduce phosphate to phosphine gas. The search for so-called 'de novo synthesised' phosphine is complicated by the fact that soils, slurries, sludges, etc., which are often used as inocula, usually contain matrix bound phosphine (MBP). Matrix bound phosphine is a general term used to indicate non-gaseous reduced phosphorus compounds that are transformed into phosphine gas upon reaction with bases or acids. A study was carried out to compare the different digestion methods, used to transform matrix bound phosphine into phosphine gas. It was demonstrated that caustic and acidic digestion methods should be used to measure the matrix bound phosphine of the inoculum prior to inoculation to avoid false positive results concerning de novo synthesis. This is especially true if anthropogenically influenced inocula possibly containing minute steel or aluminium particles are used. The comparative study on different digestion methods also revealed that the fraction of phosphorus in mild steel, converted to phosphine during acid corrosion depended on the temperature. Following these preliminary studies, anaerobic growth experiments were set up using different inocula and media to study the emission of phosphine gas. Phosphine was detected in the headspace gases and its quantity and timeframe of emission depended on the medium composition, suggesting microbially mediated formation of the gas. The amount of phosphine emitted during the growth experiments never exceeded the bound phosphine present in inocula, prior to inoculation. Hence, de novo synthesis of phosphine from phosphate could not be demonstrated. Yet, microbially mediated conversion to phosphine of hitherto unknown reduced phosphorus compounds in the inoculum was evidenced. PMID:15713333

  20. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; Cohen, Seth; Belini, Andrea; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber; Mechtley, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  1. Seismic Resonant Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. A.

    2007-12-01

    There are several classes of underground objects which can produce resonant emission after being hit by incident seismic waves. Those objects include tunnels, pipes, buried containers, ground-filled excavations, unexploded ordinances, fluid-filled fractures, mine shafts, and the like. Being high contrast scatterers, these objects are capable of generating strong scattered waves where primary PP, PS, SS waves carry away most of the energy which was brought by incident waves. For both high- and low- velocity objects the primary scattered waves have the same order of magnitude as incident waves. The main difference between these groups of objects is in later arrivals of multiple scattered waves. While high-velocity objects effectively radiate most of the energy soon after impact, the low-velocity objects trap some fraction of incident wave energy in the form of circumferential waves which propagate rotating along the interface between the object and the embedding medium. Circumferential waves include surface Rayleigh-type waves (propagating mostly in the embedding medium), Stoneley waves (propagating mostly in the fluid, if present), and Frantz waves (body waves trapped in the object because of its curvature). Strong impedance contrast ensures small radiation loss for circumferential waves and they slowly decay in amplitude while rotating inside/around the object. Some circumferential waves exist in the high-velocity objects but their amplitudes decay very fast because of strong radiation in outer medium. Most of the secondary (multiply reflected from an object's boundaries or multiply circled around the object) resonant-scattered energy radiates in the embedding medium as shear waves. The possibility of neglecting P- waves in late scattering arrivals simplifies imaging as is demonstrated for the field and modeled data of the example. Resonant emission phenomenon provides an effective tool for active monitoring for a number of applications such as tunnel detection

  2. 47 CFR 74.637 - Emissions and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emissions and emission limitations. 74.637 Section 74.637 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.637...

  3. Estimation of broadband surface emissivity from narrowband emissivities.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Li, Chuanrong; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2011-01-01

    This work analyzed and addressed the estimate of the broadband emissivities for the spectral domains 3-14μm (ε(3-14)) and 3-∞μm (ε(3-∞). Two linear narrow-to-broadband conversion models were proposed to estimate broadband emissivities ε(3-14) and ε(3-∞) using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived emissivities in three thermal infrared channels 29 (8.4-8.7μm), 31 (10.78-11.28μm) and 32 (11.77-12.27μm). Two independent spectral libraries, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral library and the MODIS UCSB (University of California, Santa Barbara) emissivity library, were used to calibrate and validate the proposed models. Comparisons of the estimated broadband emissivities using the proposed models and the calculated values from the spectral libraries, showed that the proposed method of estimation of broadband emissivity has potential accuracy and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between estimated and calculated broadband emissivities is less than 0.01 for both ε(3-14) and ε(3-∞). PMID:21263556

  4. Anthropogenic mercury emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, David G.; Hao, Jiming; Wu, Ye; Jiang, Jingkun; Chan, Melissa; Tian, Hezhong; Feng, Xinbin

    An inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China is compiled for the year 1999 from official statistical data. We estimate that China's emissions were 536 (±236) t of total mercury. This value includes open biomass burning, but does not include natural sources or re-emission of previously deposited mercury. Approximately 45% of the Hg comes from non-ferrous metals smelting, 38% from coal combustion, and 17% from miscellaneous activities, of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest. Emissions are heaviest in Liaoning and Guangdong Provinces, where extensive smelting occurs, and in Guizhou Province, where there is much small-scale combustion of high-Hg coal without emission control devices. Emissions are gridded at 30×30 min spatial resolution. We estimate that 56% of the Hg in China is released as Hg 0, 32% as Hg 2+, and 12% as Hg p. Particulate mercury emissions are high in China due to heavy burning of coal in residential and small industrial settings without PM controls. Emissions of Hg 2+ from coal-fired power plants are high due to the absence of flue-gas desulfurization units, which tend to dissolve the soluble divalent mercury. Metals smelting operations favor the production of elemental mercury. Much of the Hg is released from small-scale activities in rather remote areas, and therefore the activity levels are quite uncertain. Also, emissions test data for Chinese sources are lacking, causing uncertainties in Hg emission factors and removal efficiencies. Overall, we calculate an uncertainty level of ±44% (95% confidence interval) in the estimate of total emissions. We recommend field testing of coal combustors and smelters in China to improve the accuracy of these estimates.

  5. Climate policy: Reforming emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-08-01

    Courageous steps are required to reform the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. To this end, an independent carbon authority has been proposed -- this is a move in the right direction, but should be part of a much broader discussion about reforming emissions trading.

  6. Polarized Emissivity and Kirchhoff's law.

    PubMed

    Resnick, A; Persons, C; Lindquist, G

    1999-03-10

    An expression for the polarized emissivity of a material is obtained with the Stokes vector-Mueller matrix polarization formalism. The result obtained is that thermally emitted radiance might have a circular polarization component. In addition, the emissivity depends only on the reflectance matrix. PMID:18305757

  7. NATURAL EMISSIONS OF OXIDANT PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides an overview of the sources, the estimation methodology, and the relative amounts of natural hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. he most recent estimate of natural nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions for the United States is 28 teragrams per year (Tg/...

  8. PASSENGER CAR HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission factors for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds were determined for four passenger cars. The cars included a 1963 Chevrolet, a 1977 Mustang, and 1978 Monarch, and 1979 LTD II. The speciation data is reported for both tailpipe and evaporative emissions. The tailpipe ...

  9. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY WORKSHOP & ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes the NARSTO activities related to emission inventories in 2003-2005. The NARSTO Particulate Matter Assessment, issued in 2003, identified emission inventories as one of the critical elements of the air quality program which needs improvement if it i...

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  11. GLOBAL EMISSIONS DATABASE (GLOED) DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the EPA-developed Global Emissions Database (GloED) and how it works. t was prepared to accompany a demonstration of GloED, a powerful software package. loED is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool for storing and retriEving emissions factors and activity data on...

  12. Acoustic Emissions Reveal Combustion Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, D. N. R.; Seshan, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    Turbulent-flame acoustic emissions change with air/fuel ratio variations. Acoustic emissions sensed and processed to detect inefficient operation; control system responds by adjusting fuel/air mixture for greater efficiency. Useful for diagnosis of combustion processes and fuel/air control.

  13. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  14. GLOBAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter discusses several aspects of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation. It begins with a section on emission measurements that includes a brief history of enclosure and above-canopy flux measurements as well as a discussion of existing d...

  15. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter identifies and describes major industrial sources of methane (CH4) emissions. or each source type examined, it identifies CH4 release points and discusses in detail the factors affecting emissions. t also summarizes and discusses available global and country-specific ...

  16. Seals cap rotary kiln emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Gunkle, D.W. )

    1993-09-01

    The possibility of producing fugitive emissions is one of the most critical aspects of an incineration system. Whether such a system processes hazardous, medical, mixed or municipal waste, fugitive emissions are of special concern to system operators and the public alike. Effectively designed rotary-kiln seals can reduce fugitive emissions to acceptable, minimal levels. Modern air monitoring systems track incineration site emissions. Possible emissions sources include excavation and transfer sites, storage areas, material-feed systems, rotary kiln seals, and exhaust stacks. Several options are available for rotary-kiln seals. Six are discussed here: labyrinth; overlapping spring plate; graphite block; pneumatic; shrouded; and overpressure. Kiln seals are used to prevent process gases from escaping or ambient air from entering a rotary kiln uncontrolled. They are not designed to function as material seals, or prevent spills of solids or liquids. Seal design involves considering differential pressure produced by a kiln's internal-to-external temperature, pressure excursions (explosions) and material spills.

  17. Infrared molecular emissions from comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, H. A.; Mumma, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of detecting IR molecular line emission from cometary parent molecules is explored. Due to the non-LTE conditions in the inner coma and the large amount of near IR solar flux, IR fluorescence will be a significant source of cometary emission and, in fact, will dominate the grain radiation in a sufficiently high resolution instrument. The detection of this line emission will be difficult due to absorption in the terrestrial atmosphere, but it appears possible to measure cometary H2O emission from airplane altitudes. As IR molecular line emission represents one of the few promising methods of detecting cometary parent molecules directly, further research on this problem should be vigorously pursued.

  18. Update on CO2 emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedingstein, P.; Houghton, R.A.; Marland, Gregg; Hackler, J.; Boden, Thomas A; Conway, T.J.; Canadell, J.G.; Raupach, Mike; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quere, Corrine

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of CO2 are the main contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Here we present updated information on their present and near-future estimates. We calculate that global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning decreased by 1.3% in 2009 owing to the global financial and economic crisis that started in 2008; this is half the decrease anticipated a year ago1. If economic growth proceeds as expected2, emissions are projected to increase by more than 3% in 2010, approaching the high emissions growth rates that were observed from 2000 to 20081, 3, 4. We estimate that recent CO2 emissions from deforestation and other land-use changes (LUCs) have declined compared with the 1990s, primarily because of reduced rates of deforestation in the tropics5 and a smaller contribution owing to forest regrowth elsewhere.

  19. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Plasma plumes, or plasma jets, belong to a large family of gas discharges whereby the discharge plasma is extended beyond the plasma generation region into the surrounding ambience, either by a field (e.g. electromagnetic, convective gas flow, or shock wave) or a gradient of a directionless physical quantity (e.g. particle density, pressure, or temperature). This physical extension of a plasma plume gives rise to a strong interaction with its surrounding environment, and the interaction alters the properties of both the plasma and the environment, often in a nonlinear and dynamic fashion. The plasma is therefore not confined by defined physical walls, thus extending opportunities for material treatment applications as well as bringing in new challenges in science and technology associated with complex open-boundary problems. Some of the most common examples may be found in dense plasmas with very high dissipation of externally supplied energy (e.g. in electrical, optical or thermal forms) and often in or close to thermal equilibrium. For these dense plasmas, their characteristics are determined predominantly by strong physical forces of different fields, such as electrical, magnetic, thermal, shock wave, and their nonlinear interactions [1]. Common to these dense plasma plumes are significant macroscopic plasma movement and considerable decomposition of solid materials (e.g. vaporization). Their applications are numerous and include detection of elemental traces, synthesis of high-temperature materials and welding, laser--plasma interactions, and relativistic jets in particle accelerators and in space [2]-[4]. Scientific challenges in the understanding of plasma jets are exciting and multidisciplinary, involving interweaving transitions of all four states of matter, and their technological applications are wide-ranging and growing rapidly. Using the Web of Science database, a search for journal papers on non-fusion plasma jets reveals that a long initial phase up to 1990 with only 31 papers per year on average, and a total of some 1300 papers, precedes a considerable growth of some 35-50% in research activity every five years, over the last 20 years or so. As shown in the table, the annual dissemination of the field is more than 1600 papers and the total number of papers is in excess of 20000. This upwards trajectory is typical of a strong and growing subject area in physical science, with considerable capacity in both fundamental science and applications. PeriodNumber of papersPapers per annum 1948-1990130031 1991-19952279456 1996-20003447689 2001-20054571914 2006-201066401328 2011 1658 In many of the dense plasma jets discussed above, strong physical forces generated by the plasma are often desired and this favours plasma generation at elevated gas pressure, including atmospheric pressure, which favours a high level of gas ionization. Historically it has been challenging to reduce and control the strong physical forces in high-pressure plasmas for applications where these are unwanted, for example, surface modification of polymeric sheets [5]. Indeed, there is a real need for a vast range of material processing applications at temperatures below 100oC (or below 400 K) and this favours atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained far from thermal equilibrium with the dissipated electrical energy largely used not in heat generation but in unleashing non-equilibrium chemical reactions. The long-standing difficulty of effectively controlling the level of gas ionization at atmospheric pressure was overcome by the technological breakthrough of achieving atmospheric-pressure glow discharges in the late 1980s [6]. A related challenge stemming from high collisionality of atmospheric-pressure plasmas (v >> ω0) means that large-area plasmas sustained between parallel-plate electrodes are very susceptible to strong plasma instabilities when molecular gases are introduced for processing applications. This led to an effective technological solution in the early to late 1990s of confining atmospheric plasmas in a small volume

  20. AGN coronal emission models - I. The predicted radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raginski, I.; Laor, Ari

    2016-06-01

    Accretion discs in active galactic nucleus (AGN) may be associated with coronal gas, as suggested by their X-ray emission. Stellar coronal emission includes radio emission, and AGN corona may also be a significant source for radio emission in radio quiet (RQ) AGN. We calculate the coronal properties required to produce the observed radio emission in RQ AGN, either from synchrotron emission of power-law (PL) electrons, or from cyclosynchrotron emission of hot mildly relativistic thermal electrons. We find that a flat spectrum, as observed in about half of RQ AGN, can be produced by corona with a disc or a spherical configuration, which extends from the innermost regions out to a pc scale. A spectral break to an optically thin power-law emission is expected around 300-1000 GHz, as the innermost corona becomes optically thin. In the case of thermal electrons, a sharp spectral cut-off is expected above the break. The position of the break can be measured with very long baseline interferometry observations, which exclude the cold dust emission, and it can be used to probe the properties of the innermost corona. Assuming equipartition of the coronal thermal energy density, the PL electrons energy density, and the magnetic field, we find that the energy density in a disc corona should scale as ˜R-1.3, to get a flat spectrum. In the spherical case the energy density scales as ˜R-2, and is ˜4 × 10-4 of the AGN radiation energy density. In Paper II we derive additional constraints on the coronal parameters from the Gudel-Benz relation, Lradio/LX-ray ˜ 10- 5, which RQ AGN follow.

  1. Methane emission from sewers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-08-15

    Recent studies have shown that sewer systems produce and emit a significant amount of methane. Methanogens produce methane under anaerobic conditions in sewer biofilms and sediments, and the stratification of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria may explain the simultaneous production of methane and sulfide in sewers. No significant methane sinks or methanotrophic activities have been identified in sewers to date. Therefore, most of the methane would be emitted at the interface between sewage and atmosphere in gravity sewers, pumping stations, and inlets of wastewater treatment plants, although oxidation of methane in the aeration basin of a wastewater treatment plant has been reported recently. Online measurements have also revealed highly dynamic temporal and spatial variations in methane production caused by factors such as hydraulic retention time, area-to-volume ratio, temperature, and concentration of organic matter in sewage. Both mechanistic and empirical models have been proposed to predict methane production in sewers. Due to the sensitivity of methanogens to environmental conditions, most of the chemicals effective in controlling sulfide in sewers also suppress or diminish methane production. In this paper, we review the recent studies on methane emission from sewers, including the production mechanisms, quantification, modeling, and mitigation. PMID:25889543

  2. Smoothed Emission for IMC

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, N A

    2011-01-24

    Here is a review of the current way we handle source photons in Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC). A source photon is created with a randomly sampled position x{sub p} in the zone, a direction {Omega}{sub p}, a frequency v{sub p} sampled from the appropriate distribution, and a time t{sub p} uniformly sampled from [t{sup n}, t{sup n+1}]. The source photons each have an energy E{sub p}. The sum of E{sub p} over all of the photons equals the energy of the source for that time step. In the case of thermal emission in a zone with Volume V, they would have {Sigma}{sub p=1}{sup N} E{sub p} = {sigma} {sub p}acT{sup 4}V{Delta}t, where N is the number of thermal source photons for that time step, and {sigma}{sub p} is the Planck mean opacity. Census photons do not differ from source photons in any way, except that they all start the time step with t{sub p} = t{sup n}. Then they advance each photon until it reaches the end of the time step. When they are done with all of the photons, they update the matter temperature using the difference between the emitted and absorbed energy, and proceed to the next time step.

  3. Diffuse Microwave Emission Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, R. A.; Mather, J.; Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Seiffert, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Levin, S. M.

    1996-12-01

    The Diffuse Microwave Emission Survey (DIMES) is a mission concept selected by NASA in 1995 to answer fundamental questions about the content and history of the universe. DIMES will use a set of absolutely calibrated cryogenic radiometers from a space platform to measure the frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at wavelengths 15--0.3 cm (frequency 2--100 GHz) to precision 0.1 mK or better. Measurements at centimeter wavelengths probe different physical processes than the COBE-FIRAS spectra at shorter wavelengths, and complement the anisotropy measurements from DMR, balloon and ground-based instruments, and the planned MAP and COBRAS/SAMBA satellites. DIMES will observe the free-free signal from early photoionization to establish the precise epoch of structure formation, and will measure or limit energy release at redshift 10(4) < z < 10(7) by measuring the chemical potential distortion of the CMB spectrum. Both are likely under current cosmological theory and allowed by current measurement limits; even an upper limit at the expected sensitivity 10(-5) MJy/sr will place important constraints on the matter content, structure, and evolution of the universe. Detecting these distortions or showing that they do not exist constitutes the last frontier of CMB observations.

  4. Secondary Electron Emission Yields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, I.; Lundin, W.; Gordon, W. L.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics for a variety of spacecraft materials were determined under UHV conditions using a commercial double pass CMA which permits sequential Auger electron electron spectroscopic analysis of the surface. The transparent conductive coating indium tin oxide (ITO) was examined on Kapton and borosilicate glass and indium oxide on FED Teflon. The total SEE coefficient ranges from 2.5 to 2.6 on as-received surfaces and from 1.5 to 1.6 on Ar(+) sputtered surfaces with 5 nm removed. A cylindrical sample carousel provides normal incidence of the primary beam as well as a multiple Faraday cup measurement of the approximately nA beam currents. Total and true secondary yields are obtained from target current measurements with biasing of the carousel. A primary beam pulsed mode to reduce electron beam dosage and minimize charging of insulating coatings was applied to Mg/F2 coated solar cell covers. Electron beam effects on ITO were found quite important at the current densities necessary to do Auger studies.

  5. Diesel particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Abbass, M.K.; Andrews, G.E.; Williams, P.T.; Bartle, K.D.; Davies, I.L.; Tanui, L.K.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to investigate combustion generated PAH in Diesel engine particulate emissions using a pure single component fuel, hexadecane, in a Perkins 4-236 engine in a single cylinder format. The results were compared with those using a conventional Diesel fuel and with the particulates collected by motoring the engine. To minimise any influence of contamination from the PAH in used lubricating oil, all the tests were carried out with fresh PAH free lubricating oil. The hexadecane particulates were found to contain 6-25% of the PAH and 5-9% of the n-alkanes for Diesel and the motoring tests were found to give 10% of the PAH and 50-200% of the n-alkane for hexadecane. It was concluded that there was an internal source of n-alkane and PAH in the engine and exhaust system, probably absorbed in engine deposits. It was therefore not possible to conclude that the PAH with hexadecane was pyrosynthesised.

  6. Emission Inventories and Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; van Aardenne, John; Battye, Bill; Garivait, Savitri; Grano, D.; Guenther, Alex; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lu, Zifeng; Maenhout, Greet; Ohara, Toshimasa; Parrish, David J.; Smith, Steven J.; Vallack, Harry

    2011-04-21

    When the Executive Body to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution took the decision to establish the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) in December 2004, it was on the basis of a growing understanding of the issues surrounding the hemispheric and intercontinental transport of air pollutants. It was recognised that whilst current regional emissions on their own created pollution levels that exceeded internationally-agreed air quality objectives, hemispheric transport could exacerbate local and regional air quality problems.Two particular pollutants of concern, and the focus of this report, are ozone and particulate matter (PM), known for their detrimental impacts on human health (these impacts and others are described in Chapter 5). There was well-documented evidence for the intercontinental transport of ozone and PM but, at that time, the significance of this intercontinental influence on the design of air pollution control policies was not well understood. The European Union, in drawing up its Thematic Strategy on Clean Air for Europe during 2004, became aware of the significance of intercontinental transport and the importance of sources of pollution beyond its borders and sphere of influence, in meeting its air quality goals.

  7. Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Lameka, Katherine; Farwell, Michael D; Ichise, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a minimally invasive imaging procedure with a wide range of clinical and research applications. PET allows for the three-dimensional mapping of administered positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals such as (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (for imaging glucose metabolism). PET enables the study of biologic function in both health and disease, in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), that are more suited to study a body's morphologic changes, although functional MRI can also be used to study certain brain functions by measuring blood flow changes during task performance. This chapter first provides an overview of the basic physics principles and instrumentation behind PET methodology, with an introduction to the merits of merging functional PET imaging with anatomic CT or MRI imaging. We then focus on clinical neurologic disorders, and reference research on relevant PET radiopharmaceuticals when applicable. We then provide an overview of PET scan interpretation and findings in several specific neurologic disorders such as dementias, epilepsy, movement disorders, infection, cerebrovascular disorders, and brain tumors. PMID:27432667

  8. Thermionic emission cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Misumi, A.; Saito, S.

    1981-07-21

    A thermionic emission cathode comprising a base metal made of nickel-tungsten series alloy, for example an alloy comprising 90 to 70% by weight of nickel and 10 to 30% by weight of tungsten, and an emitter layer, which is formed on the base, made from a mixture of tungsten powder or nickel-tungsten alloy powder comprising 90 to 70% by weight of nickel and 10 to 30% by weight of tungsten, Ba/sub 3/Wo/sub 6/ powder and (C) zirconium powder or ZrH/sub 2/ powder, and if necessary interposing a powder layer between the base and the emitter layer, said powder layer having the same composition as the base metal and a particle size of 1 to 10 ..mu..m sealed on the surface of the base with a distribution density of 0.5 to 5.0 mg/cm/sup 2/, can be applied to both directly and indirectly heated type cathodes. Said cathode has such advantages as being able to be miniaturized and to have high current density.

  9. Generalized local emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Katsevich, Alexander J.

    1998-01-01

    Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

  10. 40 CFR 61.52 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.52 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2.3 kg (5.1 lb) of mercury per 24-hour period. (b) Emissions to...

  11. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard. 61.42 Section 61.42... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  12. 40 CFR 63.483 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards. 63.483 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.483 Emission standards....

  13. 40 CFR 63.1424 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1424 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1424 Emission...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1313 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1313 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1313 Emission standards....

  15. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  16. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  17. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  18. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  19. 40 CFR 61.122 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Elemental Phosphorus Plants § 61.122 Emission standard. Emissions of polonium-210 to the... kilns at the plant, and (d) Total emissions of polonium-210 from the plant do not exceed 4.5 curies per... emissions of polonium-210 which is equal to or greater than the efficiency which would be achieved under...

  20. Detection of Extremely Broad Water Emission from the Molecular Cloud Interacting Supernova Remnant G349.7+0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, J.; Hewitt, J. W.; Boogert, A.; Kaufman, M.; Gusdorf, A.

    2015-10-01

    We performed Herschel HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE observations toward the molecular cloud interacting supernova remnant G349.7+0.2. An extremely broad emission line was detected at 557 GHz from the ground state transition 110-101 of ortho-water. This water line can be separated into three velocity components with widths of 144, 27, and 4 km s-1. The 144 km s-1 component is the broadest water line detected to date in the literature. This extremely broad line width shows the importance of probing shock dynamics. PACS observations revealed three additional ortho-water lines, as well as numerous high-J carbon monoxide (CO) lines. No para-water lines were detected. The extremely broad water line is indicative of a high velocity shock, which is supported by the observed CO rotational diagram that was reproduced with a J-shock model with a density of 104 cm-3 and a shock velocity of 80 km s-1. Two far-infrared fine-structure lines, [O i] at 145 μm and [C ii] line at 157 μm, are also consistent with the high velocity J-shock model. The extremely broad water line could be simply from short-lived molecules that have not been destroyed in high velocity J-shocks; however, it may be from more complicated geometry such as high-velocity water bullets or a shell expanding in high velocity. We estimate the CO and H2O densities, column densities, and temperatures by comparison with RADEX and detailed shock models. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  1. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency. PMID:25624503

  2. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Michael S.; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C.

    2015-01-01

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35× corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼115×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼2,500× spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d2. Unfortunately, at d < 10 nm, antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, Io = qω|xo|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|xo| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency. PMID:25624503

  3. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  4. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  5. Venus - Global surface radio emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, P. G.; Pettengill, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of thermal radio emission from the surface of Venus, made by the Pioneer Venus radar mapper at a wavelength of 17 cm, show variations that are dominated by changes in surface emissivity. The regions of lowest emissivity (0.54 + or - 0.05 for the highland areas of Aphrodite Terra and Theia Mons) correspond closely to regions of high radar reflectivity reported earlier. These results support the inference of inclusions of material with high electrical conductivity in the surface rock of these areas.

  6. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  7. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  8. Aircraft gas turbine emissions challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Koff, B.L. )

    1994-07-01

    The new generation of jet powered aircraft faces a significant challenge to reduce pollutant emissions while increasing fuel efficiency. Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are already very low and continued control of these pollutants is expected as engine temperatures and pressure ratios are increased. In contrast, significant system design improvements are needed to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) emissions because of their harmful effect on the earth's ozone layer. This paper discusses the prospects and technical approaches for significant NO[sub x] reductions in current and future subsonic and supersonic aircraft.

  9. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  10. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  11. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  12. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  13. PAVED ROAD PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of extensive field tests to develop emission factors for particulate emissions generated by traffic entrainment of paved road surface particulate matter. Using roadway surface silt loading as the basis, predictive emission factor equations for each partic...

  14. Thermal Emission from Structured Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Ian Andrew

    This dissertation covers a study of the use of macroscopic structure as a means of controlling thermal emission in the THz and mid-IR frequency regions. Chapter 1 presents a brief introduction to the THz frequency region and to the concept of the photonic crystal, the primary type of geometry used. Chapter 2 compares the two most common methods used to calculate the thermal emission of a structure whose components are all at the same temperature. These methods are compared in terms of the results they give and in terms of how computationally involved the methods are. The first method explored involves using Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission which equates the absorptivity and emissivity of a structure. The second method is to calculate the emission directly from the Green's function using the microscopic thermal currents given by the Fluctuation-Dissipation theorem. A derivation of the second method is given, and the equality between the two methods is proven in 1D. It is shown that the Kirchhoff's law method is much more computationally efficient, and it is therefore used for the parametric studies of the structures which make up the remainder of this document. Chapter 3 covers work done in the THz regime. In the THz frequency regime, where a historic lack of sources has in part impeded full exploration and utilization, a photonic crystal design is proposed to control the thermal emission. It is shown that using a 1D bi-layered photonic crystal, composed of alternating section of silicon wafers and vacuum sections, it is possible to tailor many narrowband emission features over a broadband frequency range. In simulation both spectral and directional thermal emission control is demonstrated, and a parametric study is performed to explore how changes in the geometry of the photonic crystal change its thermal emission signature. A description is then given of how the photonic crystal is constructed and how its thermal emission is measured using Fourier transform

  15. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  16. Emission tomography of the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Teates, C.D.; Croft, B.Y.; Brenbridge, N.A.; Bray, S.T.; Williamson, B.R.

    1983-12-01

    Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) was done on two patients with suspected renal masses. Nuclear scintigraphy was equivocal on two tumors readily identified by SPECT. Single photon tomography is cost effective and increases the reliability of nuclear scintigraphy.

  17. Electrochromic Variable-Emissivity Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David; Cogan, Stuart F.

    1988-01-01

    Temperature controlled by altering infrared radiative properties. Infrared emissivity of electrochromically active layer changed by applying voltage to insert or remove Li atoms electrochemically. Change reversible and continuously variable between specified limits of layered structure.

  18. Controlling air emissions from incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Foisy, M.B.; Li, R.; Chattapadhyay, A.

    1994-04-01

    Last year, EPA published final rules establishing technical standards for the use and disposal of wastewater biosolids (40 CFR, Part 503). Subpart E specifically regulates the operations of and emissions from municipal wastewater biosolids incinerators.

  19. On coherence in spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, F. W.; Dorri, Ali

    1983-05-01

    The case of a single excited two-level atom emitting spontaneously in the presence of N unexcited atoms is solved exactly for emission into a single electromagnetic mode. The two-level atoms are in inequivalent mode positions.

  20. Mobile fiber optic emission spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W.A.; Coleman, C.J.; McCarty, J.E.; Beck, R.S.

    1997-05-01

    Technical Assistance Request HLW/DWPF-TAR-970064 asked SRTC to evaluate the use of a fiber optic coupled emission spectrometer. The spectrometer would provide additional ICP analyses in the DWPF laboratory.