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Sample records for emission monitoring system

  1. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  2. Select a continuous emissions monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, K.

    1996-02-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is incorporating flexibility in the new regulations it is writing to implement the monitoring requirements of Title VII of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. These requirements are commonly known as compliance assurance monitoring (CAM), which is the new name for enhanced monitoring. The new flexibility being written into the CAM regulations is likely to result in reduced costs for industry and additional headaches for the engineer or manager responsible for implementing CAM. Continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) were once the only choice available for continuous compliance monitoring. The primary monitoring strategies expected to be allowed under the CAM rules include not only CEMS, but also predictive emissions monitoring systems, parametric monitoring, and operation and maintenance recordkeeping. These four methods are discussed and compared.

  3. Acoustic emission monitoring of composite containment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, John R.

    2011-07-01

    This paper considers two different types of composite containment system, and two different types of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring approach. The first system is a composite reinforced pressure vessel (CRPV) which is monitored both during construction and in-service using a broadband modal acoustic emission (MAE) technique. The second system is a membrane cargo containment system which is monitored using both a global as well as a local AE technique. For the CRPV, the damage assessment is concerned mainly with the integrity of the composite outer layer at the construction stage, and possible fatigue cracking of the inner steel liner at the in-service stage. For the membrane tank, the damage assessment is concerned with locating and quantifying any abnormal porosities that might develop in-service. By comparing and contrasting the different types of structural system and different monitoring approaches inferences are drawn as to what role AE monitoring could take in the damage assessment of other types of composite containment system. (Detailed technical data have not been included, due to client confidentiality constraints.)

  4. Extractive sampling systems for continuous emissions monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John R.

    1991-04-01

    Continuous Emissions Monitoring systems (CEMs) have become an important part of the industrial, municipal, and infectious waste incineration industry. With the promulgation of stringent emissions limits and source emissions monitoring requirements, and with permit approvals and operating penalties dependent upon the accuracy and dependability of the CEM, most new and existing incineration facilities now recognize that the CEM system can often mean the difference between success and failure. Since the early 1980's, extractive sampling systems have been the technology of choice, due to the inherent difficulties in sampling from a typical incineration process. Some of these difficulties include: high temperatures, high particulate levels (dependent on the type of waste fuel being fired), the presence of acid-gases in the sample stream, high moisture levels, and wide fluctuations in the incineration process resulting in significant variations in emissions levels and sampling conditions. In addition, the requirement for lower emissions levels has resulted in the use of new control technologies which can often negatively affect the performance of a CEM system. A good example is the use of ammonia injection (either Selective Catalytic Reduction or Thermal DeNOx processes) for the control of NOx emissions, which results in an ammonia slip which can potentially interfere with the CEM measurement of either NOx or SO2 emissions. Extractive sampling systems, when designed to meet the specific application requirements and when assembled of reliable components constructed of the proper materials, have been proven in most difficult incineration installations. Extractive sampling systems offer the flexibility to overcome even the inherent difficulties usually encountered with industrial, municipal and infectious waste incinerators.

  5. Architectural design of flue gas continuous emission monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongfu; Jiang, Liangzhong; Tang, Yong; Yao, Xifan

    2008-10-01

    The paper presents the architectural design of flue gas continuous emission monitoring system, which uses computer, acquisition card and serial port communication card as hardware in the flue gas continuous emission monitoring system. In the CEMS, continuous emission monitoring system, it monitors dust in the flue gas, SO2, NOX, and some parameter on the flue gas emission, which includes mass flow, pressure, and temperature. For the software in the monitoring system, the research designs monitoring program in VC++, and realizes flue gas monitor with the architecture.

  6. HYDROCARBON CONTINUOUS MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR EMISSIONS MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored an extended laboratory and field evaluation of continuous emission monitoring systems available to measure hydrocarbon emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. erformance tests of calibration drift, calibration error, res...

  7. Continuous emission monitoring and accounting automated systems at an HPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Ionkin, I. L.; Kondrateva, O. E.; Borovkova, A. M.; Seregin, V. A.; Morozov, I. V.

    2015-03-01

    Environmental and industrial emission monitoring at HPP's is a very urgent task today. Industrial monitoring assumes monitoring of emissions of harmful pollutants and optimization of fuel combustion technological processes at HPP's. Environmental monitoring is a system to assess ambient air quality with respect to a number of separate sources of harmful substances in pollution of atmospheric air of the area. Works on creating an industrial monitoring system are carried out at the National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI) on the basis of the MPEI combined heat and power plant, and environmental monitoring stations are installed in Lefortovo raion, where the CHPP is located.

  8. ETV TEST OF PCDD/F EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and furan (PCDD/F) emission monitors were tested under the EPA Environmental Technology and Verification (ETV) program. Two long-term sampling devices, the DioxinMonitoringSystem and Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans, and two sem...

  9. EVALUATION OF DIOXIN EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous samplers and real or semi-real-time continuous monitors for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans provide significant advantages relative to conventional methods of extractive sampling. Continuous samplers collect long term samples over a time period of days to wee...

  10. Smart acoustic emission system for wireless monitoring of concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Dong-Jin; Kim, Young-Gil; Kim, Chi-Yeop; Seo, Dae-Cheol

    2008-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) has emerged as a powerful nondestructive tool to detect preexisting defects or to characterize failure mechanisms. Recently, this technique or this kind of principle, that is an in-situ monitoring of inside damages of materials or structures, becomes increasingly popular for monitoring the integrity of large structures. Concrete is one of the most widely used materials for constructing civil structures. In the nondestructive evaluation point of view, a lot of AE signals are generated in concrete structures under loading whether the crack development is active or not. Also, it was required to find a symptom of damage propagation before catastrophic failure through a continuous monitoring. Therefore we have done a practical study in this work to fabricate compact wireless AE sensor and to develop diagnosis system. First, this study aims to identify the differences of AE event patterns caused by both real damage sources and the other normal sources. Secondly, it was focused to develop acoustic emission diagnosis system for assessing the deterioration of concrete structures such as a bridge, dame, building slab, tunnel etc. Thirdly, the wireless acoustic emission system was developed for the application of monitoring concrete structures. From the previous laboratory study such as AE event patterns analysis under various loading conditions, we confirmed that AE analysis provided a promising approach for estimating the condition of damage and distress in concrete structures. In this work, the algorithm for determining the damage status of concrete structures was developed and typical criteria for decision making was also suggested. For the future application of wireless monitoring, a low energy consumable, compact, and robust wireless acoustic emission sensor module was developed and applied to the concrete beam for performance test. Finally, based on the self-developed diagnosis algorithm and compact wireless AE sensor, new AE system for practical

  11. How to select a continuous emission monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Radigan, M.J. )

    1994-02-01

    Selecting a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) involves more than picking an analyzer. Successful CEMS interface sampling and data-management systems to produce accurate, reliable reports required by regulatory agencies. Following objective guidelines removes some of the misery from CEMS shopping. However, prospective CEMS buyers should do their homework and develop well-thought-out, detailed specification for the processes' sampling criteria. Fine tuning the analyzer/data management system can eliminate maintenance costs and keep the facility operating within its permit restrictions.

  12. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide to demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits specified...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide to demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits specified...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide to demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits specified...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT ANR PIPELINE COMPANY PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of a gaseous-emissions monitoring system for large, natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines. The device tested is the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR ...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7747 - How do I apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? 63.7747 Section 63.7747 Protection of... apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? (a) You may....7690(a)(10) for automated pallet cooling lines or automated shakeout lines at a new iron and...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class..., nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems, as appropriate, and...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class..., nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems, as appropriate, and...

  19. Mass-spectrometer-based continuous emissions monitoring system for acid-gas emissions and DRE demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartman, Candace D.; Connolly, Erin; Renfroe, Jim; Harlow, George

    1993-03-01

    The objective of the work presented here was to develop a technology for continuous measurement of stack gas emissions for compounds such as HCl, SO2, and NOx that was also capable of monitoring toxic hydrocarbons. The goal was to assure operators and local communities that the emission source is routinely operating in compliance with and well within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. A mass spectrometer-based continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) and its sample extraction system developed as a result of this work are described. Results of calibration drift, linearity, and accuracy tests for HCl, SO2, and NOx are presented. Results of CEMS tests are described that show the system has the performance capabilities necessary for a relatively inexpensive and frequent DRE demonstration.

  20. COMPUTER-CONTROLLED, REAL-TIME AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A minicomputer controlled automotive emissions sampling and analysis system (the Real-Time System) was developed to determine vehicular modal emissions over various test cycles. This data acquisition system can sample real-time emissions at a rate of 10 samples/s. A buffer utiliz...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... part 60. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where you monitor sulfur dioxide and...

  8. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... part 60. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where you monitor sulfur dioxide and...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where you monitor sulfur dioxide and...

  11. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... part 60. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where...

  12. Continuous Emissions Monitoring System Monitoring Plan for the Y-12 Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12), managed by BWXT, is submitting this Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) Monitoring Plan in conformance with the requirements of Title 40 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 75. The state of Tennessee identified the Y-12 Steam Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as a non-electrical generation unit (EGU) nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) budget source as a result of the NO{sub x} State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-3-27. Following this introduction, the monitoring plan contains the following sections: CEMS details, NO{sub x} emissions, and quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC). The following information is included in the attachments: fuel and flue gas diagram, system layout, data flow diagrams, Electronic Monitoring Plan printouts, vendor information on coal and natural gas feed systems, and the Certification Test Protocol. The Y-12 Steam Plant consists of four Wickes boilers. Each is rated at a maximum heat input capacity of 296.8 MMBtu/hour or 250,000 lb/hour of 250-psig steam. Although pulverized coal is the principal fuel, each of the units can fire natural gas or a combination of coal and gas. Each unit is equipped with a Joy Manufacturing Company reverse air baghouse to control particulate emissions. Flue gases travel out of the baghouse, through an induced draft fan, then to one of two stacks. Boilers 1 and 2 exhaust through Stack 1. Boilers 3 and 4 exhaust through Stack 2. A dedicated CEMS will be installed in the ductwork of each boiler, downstream of the baghouse. The CEMS will be designed, built, installed, and started up by URS Group, Inc. (URS). Data acquisition and handling will be accomplished using a data acquisition and handling system (DAHS) designed, built, and programmed by Environmental Systems Corporation (ESC). The installed CEMS will continuously monitor NO{sub x}, flue gas flowrate, and carbon

  13. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? 60.1720 Section 60.1720 Protection of Environment... emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? (a) You must install,...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission monitoring system according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13 of subpart A of 40 CFR... subpart A of 40 CFR part 60. ... to use an alternative sulfur dioxide monitoring method, such as parametric monitoring, or...

  15. HANDBOOK: CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Handbook provides a description of the methods used to continuously monitor non-criteria pollutants emitted from stationary sources. The Handbook contains a review of current regulatory programs, the state-of-the-art sampling system design, analytical techniques, and the use...

  16. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 60.103. Not applicable Continuous emission monitoring system to measure and record the... NSPS for CO in 40 CFR 60.103 a. Thermal incinerator Continuous emission monitoring system to measure... introduced into the flame zone. Continuous emission monitoring system to measure and record the...

  17. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monoxide (CO) in 40 CFR 60.103. Not applicable Continuous emission monitoring system to measure and record... subject to the NSPS for CO in 40 CFR 60.103 a. Thermal incinerator Continuous emission monitoring system... detect the presence of a pilot flame. d. No control device Continuous emission monitoring system...

  18. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monoxide (CO) in 40 CFR 60.103. Not applicable Continuous emission monitoring system to measure and record... subject to the NSPS for CO in 40 CFR 60.103 a. Thermal incinerator Continuous emission monitoring system... detect the presence of a pilot flame. d. No control device Continuous emission monitoring system...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring system according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13 of subpart A of 40 CFR... subpart A of 40 CFR part 60. ... systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? 62.15175 Section 62.15175 Protection of...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? 60.1230 Section 60.1230 Protection of Environment... gaseous pollutants? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1725 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? 60.1725 Section 60.1725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1725 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? 60.1725 Section 60.1725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1740 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.1740 Section 60.1740 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance...

  5. Fugitive emissions monitoring trends

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.H.

    1997-02-01

    New Clean Air Act requirements are pushing facilities to reevaluate their monitoring programs. A description of the fugitive emission guidelines is included in this article, along with ideas about monitoring.

  6. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b... sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems,...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b... sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems,...

  8. Multichannel fiber optic pressure sensor system for parametric emission monitoring in combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorman, Thomas J.; Kalashnikov, Sergey P.; Wlodarczyk, Marek T.; Daire, Adam; Goeke, Wayne; Kropp, Richard; Kamat, Pradip

    1995-09-01

    A multichannel fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor system is described dedicated to parametric emission monitoring systems (PEMS) for use in natural gas-fueled, stationary, and reciprocating engines. In view of the emerging 1995 emission regulations for large stationary engines, the natural gas pipeline operators have turned their attention to PEMS' for predicting and controlling the amount of polluting emissions such as NOx and HC. We present design considerations and performance data of a 8-channel pressure monitoring system employing fiber-optic combustion pressure sensors. The control/monitoring unit offers capabilities of sensor calibration, health monitoring, and real-time data acquisition. Using an engine position sensor trigger, the monitoring unit can calculate peak pressure, indicative mean pressure, and location of peak pressure. The system allows for 50 kHz, burst mode transfer of multisensor data to a host PC. We demonstrated performance data collected on three large-bore engines and long-term endurance test data. While initially intended for stationary engines, the system can be used in applications requiring portability including moving vehicles.

  9. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart...

  10. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart...

  11. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  13. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart...

  14. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart...

  16. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  17. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  18. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15180 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? 62.15180 Section 62.15180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? 60.1235 Section 60.1235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? 60.1230 Section 60.1230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? 60.1720 Section 60.1720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  3. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a... measuring emissions with the continuous monitoring system concurrent with measuring emissions with...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your initial evaluation... initial and annual evaluations, collect data concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b... to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system,...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your initial evaluation... initial and annual evaluations, collect data concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b) Complete your initial evaluation... minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b... to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system,...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b) Complete your initial evaluation... minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your...) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon... or 3A to measure oxygen. Collect the data during each initial and annual evaluation of...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A...

  14. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 60.103. Not applicable Continuous emission monitoring system to measure and record the... NSPS for CO in 40 CFR 60.103 a. Thermal incinerator Continuous emission monitoring system to measure... a thermocouple, an ultraviolet beam sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b) Complete your initial evaluation... minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your...) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon... or 3A to measure oxygen. Collect the data during each initial and annual evaluation of...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b... to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system,...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your...) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon... or 3A to measure oxygen. Collect the data during each initial and annual evaluation of...

  20. Field evaluation of Fourier transform infrared continuous emissions monitoring (FTIR CEM) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunder, Thomas A.; Geyer, Thomas J.; Kinner, Laura L.; Plummer, Grant M.

    1995-02-01

    Recent environmental regulations, including the Clean Air Act and the Enhanced Monitoring Regulations, may require continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). A promising technique for this application is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FTIR spectroscopy can, in principle, be used to monitor virtually any gas phase species. Two evaluations of FTIR CEM systems are discussed. The first study, performed in 1993 - 94, compared two FTIR CEM systems on a side-by-side basis in an extended field test at two coal-fired electric power plants. The FTIR CEM systems monitored the legally mandated criteria pollutants and diluents (CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2) as well as H2O. In addition, one system monitored two HAPs (HCl and HF) and NH3. The FTIR CEM measurements were compared with those from the compliance CEM systems at the facilities. Several relative accuracy test audits were also performed to verify the FTIR CEM accuracy. The second evaluation was recently commenced on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, FTIR CEM systems are evaluated specifically for the monitoring of HAP species by conducting laboratory and field tests. The evaluation culminates in the development of proposed performance specifications and protocols for FTIR CEM systems.

  1. Continuous emission monitoring system based on a PbSe detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujadas, Manuel; Oche, A.; Barcala, J. M.; Teres, J.

    1995-09-01

    PbSe is a very important photoconductive material extensively used as IR detector for military applications and may be considered one of the most useful materials for detection in the MIR range. In the last years the opening of its production for wide civil use has allowed the conception of new detection systems based on this semiconductor. Considering some possible applications of it in environmental control, PbSe can provide, for instance, good response band to monitor several gases of major importance (SO2, NO, CO, etc.), especially when their concentrations are high. In this paper, we present applications of this semiconductor for this purpose: the developemnt of a new continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) using a PbSe detector array in a nondispersive configuration. The basics of this prototype and some experimental results related to the detection of different typical emission gases with this system are presented here.

  2. Experiences in long-term evaluation of mercury emission monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Hung-Ta Lin; Qiang Wang; Chien-Wei Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Ming-Chung Liu; Chi-Kuan Chen; Wei-Ping Pan

    2008-09-15

    Six mercury continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems provided by two leading mercury (Hg) CEM system manufacturers were tested at five coal combustion utilities. The linearity, response time, day-to-day stability, efficiency of the Hg speciation modules, and ease of use were evaluated by following procedures specified in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 40 Part 75 (40 CFR Part 75). Mercury monitoring results from Hg CEM systems were compared to an EPA-recognized reference method. A sorbent trap sampling system was also evaluated in this study to compare the relative accuracy to the reference method as well as to Hg CEM systems. A conceptual protocol proposed by U.S. EPA (Method 30A) for using an Hg CEM system as the reference method for the Hg relative accuracy (RA) test was also followed to evaluate the workability of the protocol. This paper discusses the operational experience obtained from these field studies and the remaining challenges to overcome while using Hg CEM systems and the sorbent trap method for continuous Hg emission monitoring. 3 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on a... ducted in § 61.65 (b)(1)(ii), and (b)(2), (b)(5), (b)(6) (ii), and (b)(9)(ii). (b) The vinyl...

  4. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on a... ducted in § 61.65 (b)(1)(ii), and (b)(2), (b)(5), (b)(6) (ii), and (b)(9)(ii). (b) The vinyl...

  5. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on a... ducted in § 61.65 (b)(1)(ii), and (b)(2), (b)(5), (b)(6) (ii), and (b)(9)(ii). (b) The vinyl...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...

  11. Results of a survey of natural gas transmission companies operating continuous emission monitoring systems. Topical report, January-June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    A summary is presented to the results of a survey of continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems operating on reciprocating engines and turbines of gas transmission companies. For this survey, three natural gas transmission companies were visited. Information on various aspects of CEM systems within the industry was gathered. It included characteristics of emission sources with emission reduction techniques where applied; CEM system outdoor shelters; monitoring techniques; costs; installation and startup; personnel training; operations and maintenance; performance evaluations and quality assurance; and data acquisition systems. The survey finds that the industry`s experience with CEM systems remains limited. Some recommendations are presented for the future, when the use of CEM systems may increase.

  12. Crack Propagation Analysis Using Acoustic Emission Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kral, Zachary; Horn, Walter; Steck, James

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN).more » Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems.« less

  13. Crack Propagation Analysis Using Acoustic Emission Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Walter; Steck, James

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN). Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems. PMID:24023536

  14. Crack propagation analysis using acoustic emission sensors for structural health monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Kral, Zachary; Horn, Walter; Steck, James

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN). Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems. PMID:24023536

  15. MONITORING OF INCINERATOR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring of Incinerator Emissions is a chapter to be included in a book entitled Hazardous Waste Incineration, edited by A. Sarofim and D. Pershing, and published by John Wiley and Sons. he chapter describes stack sampling and analysis procedures in use on hazardous waste incin...

  16. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) VERIFICATION GUIDELINE SERIES: ANR Pipeline Company PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS) VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Coastal Corporation, now El Paso Corporation. The PEMS predicts carbon doixide (CO2...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7747 - How do I apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... request an alternative monitoring method to demonstrate compliance with the VOHAP emissions limits in § 63.7690(a)(10) for automated pallet cooling lines or automated shakeout lines at a new iron and steel... monitoring method in the notification of construction or reconstruction for new sources, or at any time....

  18. Novel microelectrode-based online system for monitoring N2O gas emissions during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Oehmen, Adrian; Pijuan, Maite

    2014-11-01

    Clark-type nitrous oxide (N2O) microelectrodes are commonly used for measuring dissolved N2O levels, but have not previously been tested for gas-phase applications, where the N2O emitted from wastewater systems can be directly quantified. In this study, N2O microelectrodes were tested and validated for online gas measurements, and assessed with respect to their temperature, gas flow, composition dependence, gas pressure, and humidity. An exponential correlation between temperature and sensor signal was found, whereas gas flow, composition, pressure, and humidity did not have any influence on the signal. Two of the sensors were tested at different N2O concentration ranges (0-422.3, 0-50, 0-10, and 0-2 ppmv N2O) and exhibited a linear response over each range. The N2O emission dynamics from two laboratory scale sequencing batch reactors performing ammonia or nitrite oxidation were also monitored using one of the microsensors and results were compared with two other analytical methods. Results show that N2O emissions were accurately described with these microelectrodes and support their application for assessing gaseous N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems. Advantages of the sensors as compared to conventional measurement techniques include a wider quantification range of N2O fluxes, and a single measurement system that can assess both liquid and gas-phase N2O dynamics. PMID:25317738

  19. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jonietz, Karl K; Dimotakis, Paul E; Walker, Bruce C

    2011-09-26

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a

  20. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission...

  1. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission...

  2. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission...

  3. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 10 Table 10 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ffff of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 4 Table 4 to Subpart FFFF of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines...

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ffff of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 4 Table 4 to Subpart FFFF of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines...

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ffff of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 4 Table 4 to Subpart FFFF of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines...

  7. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.3039 Section 60.3039 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines...

  9. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  10. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  11. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  12. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  13. Software solutions for emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    DeFriez, H.; Schillinger, S.; Seraji, H.

    1996-12-31

    Industry and state and federal environmental regulatory agencies are becoming ever more conciliatory due to the high cost of implementing the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) for the operation of Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS). In many cases the modifications do nothing to reduce emissions or even to measure the pollution, but simply let the source owner or operator and the permitting authority agree on a monitoring method and/or program. The EPA methods and standards developed under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) have proven to be extremely costly and burdensome. Now, the USEPA and state agencies are making efforts to assure that emissions data has a strong technical basis to demonstrate compliance with regulations such as Title V.

  14. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and... system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems... the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. Table 7 of this...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and... system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems... the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. Table 7 of this...

  16. CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous emissions monitoring of hazardous and mixed waste thermal treatment processes is desired for verification of emission compliance, process control, and public safety perception. pecies of particular interest include trace metals and organic compounds resulting from inco...

  17. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  18. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  19. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  20. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  1. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  2. Integration of acoustic emission systems within Integri-TechTM analysis system for structural health monitoring of pressurised engineering plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouri, A. A.; Rafferty, Steven; Pickwell, Andy; Galbraith, Walter; Pierce, S. Gareth; Gachagan, Anthony

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this Acoustic Emission (AE) based Structural Health Monitoring project is to enable accurate location of AE sources in pressurised engineering plant and to use AE source location data to establish defect locations for use within Integri-TechTM; a finite element based analysis, monitoring and fitness for service assessment system. Integri-TechTM is a windows based system which carries out combined analysis and assessment providing fatigue life and remnant life calculations and inspection priorities presenting the results in an accessible web portal format. The software uses finite element stress models created in the companion software Model Wizard. The AE monitoring system that has been developed can be used with an array of up to four AE broad band sensor channels with associated signal processing. Using a flexible approach in MATLAB, the authors have developed algorithms which were used for analysing the received AE signals to extract information about the nature and location of the source. The ability to carry out source location and possibly perform real time monitoring (detecting cracking as it occurs) is attractive feature of the AE system developed for this project. The time of arrival (TOA) data was used by Integri-TechTM software to calculate source location using its own built-in algorithm, and this was verified independently using a MATLAB approach.

  3. Low-resolution FTIR continuous monitoring/process control system to minimize HCl emissions in aluminum casting operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunder, Thomas A.

    1999-12-01

    In a Department of Energy funded project, a low resolution Fourier Transform IR Continuous Emissions Monitoring (FTIR CEM) and Process Control system was developed and evaluated for use in minimizing HCl emissions during aluminum casting operations. In the casting process, molten aluminum is treated by fluxing with chlorine to remove alkali and hydrogen impurities. The industry has traditionally used a stoichiometric excess of chlorine to ensure metal quality, with resulting atmospheric emissions of HCl. The FTIR system can potentially be used to reduce emission when employed as a closed-loop process control device to monitor the HCl concentration and thereby reduce chlorine usage while maintaining product quality. In the initial project phase, tests were conducted under varying process conditions at a pilot-scale casting facility. The goals of these test included demonstrating that the FTIR monitor could provide closed-loop control of chlorine use, correlating HCl emission with metal quality, and verifying that the instrumentation could operate under harsh casting facility conditions. The system will subsequently be tested at two aluminum production facilities. This paper summarizes the results from the initial evaluation of the FTIR CEM/Process Control system.

  4. Gold nanospikes based microsensor as a highly accurate mercury emission monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Ylias M.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Tardio, James; Bansal, Vipul; O'Mullane, Anthony P.; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic elemental mercury (Hg0) emission is a serious worldwide environmental problem due to the extreme toxicity of the heavy metal to humans, plants and wildlife. Development of an accurate and cheap microsensor based online monitoring system which can be integrated as part of Hg0 removal and control processes in industry is still a major challenge. Here, we demonstrate that forming Au nanospike structures directly onto the electrodes of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) using a novel electrochemical route results in a self-regenerating, highly robust, stable, sensitive and selective Hg0 vapor sensor. The data from a 127 day continuous test performed in the presence of volatile organic compounds and high humidity levels, showed that the sensor with an electrodeposted sensitive layer had 260% higher response magnitude, 3.4 times lower detection limit (~22 μg/m3 or ~2.46 ppbv) and higher accuracy (98% Vs 35%) over a Au control based QCM (unmodified) when exposed to a Hg0 vapor concentration of 10.55 mg/m3 at 101°C. Statistical analysis of the long term data showed that the nano-engineered Hg0 sorption sites on the developed Au nanospikes sensitive layer play a critical role in the enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of the developed sensor towards Hg0 vapor.

  5. Gold nanospikes based microsensor as a highly accurate mercury emission monitoring system

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Ylias M.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Tardio, James; Bansal, Vipul; O'Mullane, Anthony P.; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic elemental mercury (Hg0) emission is a serious worldwide environmental problem due to the extreme toxicity of the heavy metal to humans, plants and wildlife. Development of an accurate and cheap microsensor based online monitoring system which can be integrated as part of Hg0 removal and control processes in industry is still a major challenge. Here, we demonstrate that forming Au nanospike structures directly onto the electrodes of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) using a novel electrochemical route results in a self-regenerating, highly robust, stable, sensitive and selective Hg0 vapor sensor. The data from a 127 day continuous test performed in the presence of volatile organic compounds and high humidity levels, showed that the sensor with an electrodeposted sensitive layer had 260% higher response magnitude, 3.4 times lower detection limit (~22 μg/m3 or ~2.46 ppbv) and higher accuracy (98% Vs 35%) over a Au control based QCM (unmodified) when exposed to a Hg0 vapor concentration of 10.55 mg/m3 at 101°C. Statistical analysis of the long term data showed that the nano-engineered Hg0 sorption sites on the developed Au nanospikes sensitive layer play a critical role in the enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of the developed sensor towards Hg0 vapor. PMID:25338965

  6. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock-walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, L.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Hunziker, J.; Lim, R.; Weber, S.

    2012-06-01

    We present a custom acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock-walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node) integrated into a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock-wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock-wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock-wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock-fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  7. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, L.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Hunziker, J.; Lim, R.; Weber, S.

    2012-11-01

    We present a custom acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node) integrated into a wireless sensor network (WSN) customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  8. Broadband UV spectroscopy system used for monitoring of SO 2 and NO emissions from thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. G.; Wang, H. S.; Somesfalean, G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Lou, X. T.; Wu, S. H.; Zhang, Z. G.; Qin, Y. K.

    2010-11-01

    A gas monitoring system based on broadband absorption spectroscopic techniques in the ultraviolet region is described and tested. The system was employed in real-time continuous concentration measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitric oxide (NO) from a 220-ton h -1 circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler in Shandong province, China. The emission coefficients (per kg of coal and per kWh of electricity) and the total emission of the two pollutant gases were evaluated. The measurement results showed that the emission concentrations of SO 2 and NO from the CFB boiler fluctuated in the range of 750-1300 mg m -3 and 100-220 mg m -3, respectively. Compared with the specified emission standards of air pollutants from thermal power plants in China, the values were generally higher for SO 2 and lower for NO. The relatively high emission concentrations of SO 2 were found to mainly depend on the sulfur content of the fuel and the poor desulfurization efficiency. This study indicates that the broadband UV spectroscopy system is suitable for industrial emission monitoring and pollution control.

  9. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide. If you operate a Class I... sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the outlet of the air pollution... according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide. If you operate a Class I... sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the outlet of the air pollution... according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide. If you operate a Class I... sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the outlet of the air pollution... according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon...

  12. Comparison of passive-remote and conventional Fourier transform infrared systems for continuously monitoring incinerator emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L.; Kroutil, R.T.

    1992-07-01

    Significant improvements in detection technology are needed to comply with the requirements in the Clean Air Act of 1990, Title 3, which requires the monitoring of air toxics. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can satisfy these requirements in two different modes. Conventional FTIR spectrometers can be installed on-stream so that a vapor stream enters an infrared cell for analysis. Other types of FTIR spectrometers can detect chemical plumes remotely, measure the natural emissions of the molecules in the plume. The samples do not come to the instrument, and the instrument has neither source nor reflector mirrors. We will discuss the applications of FTIR spectrometry for both conventional and passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy. Some applications of conventional FTIR include a continuous emission monitor for measuring incinerator emissions and determining indoor air quality. Passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy can be used to identify and track a chemical plume. It can also be used to detect fugitive emissions. Hence, it can be used as an independent means to assure compliance with environmental regulations in real-time. Because of the relatively simple instrumentation, passive-remote instruments can be helicopter- or vehicle-mounted for mobile detection of plumes.

  13. Comparison of passive-remote and conventional Fourier transform infrared systems for continuously monitoring incinerator emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L. ); Kroutil, R.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Significant improvements in detection technology are needed to comply with the requirements in the Clean Air Act of 1990, Title 3, which requires the monitoring of air toxics. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can satisfy these requirements in two different modes. Conventional FTIR spectrometers can be installed on-stream so that a vapor stream enters an infrared cell for analysis. Other types of FTIR spectrometers can detect chemical plumes remotely, measure the natural emissions of the molecules in the plume. The samples do not come to the instrument, and the instrument has neither source nor reflector mirrors. We will discuss the applications of FTIR spectrometry for both conventional and passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy. Some applications of conventional FTIR include a continuous emission monitor for measuring incinerator emissions and determining indoor air quality. Passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy can be used to identify and track a chemical plume. It can also be used to detect fugitive emissions. Hence, it can be used as an independent means to assure compliance with environmental regulations in real-time. Because of the relatively simple instrumentation, passive-remote instruments can be helicopter- or vehicle-mounted for mobile detection of plumes.

  14. Continuous particulate monitoring for emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, A.H. )

    1993-08-01

    An optical continuous particle monitoring system has been developed to overcome common problems associated with emissions monitoring equipment. Opacity monitors generally use a single- or double-pass system to analyze the presence of dust particles in the flue gas stream. The particles scatter and absorb light as it passes through the stack. As the particle content in the gas stream increases due to bag failure or some other problem, the amount of light that is blocked also increases. The opacity monitor compares the amount of lost light energy to the total energy of the light available and translates the signal to percentage of opacity. Opacity monitors are typically installed to meet the requirements set forth by pollution control agencies. Most opacity monitors are designed to meet all of the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 40 CFR, Part 60, Appendix B, Performance Specification. The new continuous particle monitor (CPM) increases the accuracy of emission monitoring and overcomes typical problems found in conventional emission monitoring devices. The CPM is an optically based, calibratible, continuous dust monitor that uses a microprocessor, transmitter head, and receiver head. When calibrated with an isokinetic sample, a continuous readout of particulate concentration (in mg/m[sup 3]) in the exhaust gas is provided. The system can be used as a filter bag failure system or a long-term emission trend analyzer. Formal testing was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the optically based CPM. The monitor was calibrated using particles of a range of compositions, size distributions, and concentrations. The feasibility of using the instrument to measure particle concentration as low as 10 mg/m[sup 3] was examined.

  15. Self-emission glucose monitoring system with single chip guided-mode resonance filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Yen-Chun; Yang, Sheng; Schmidt, Dominik

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we designed and simulated an array of bandpass filters as a spectral separator for mid-infrared self-emission noninvasive glucose monitoring, using the human body as the background radiation emitter. The filters were based on the guided-mode resonance (GMR) effect. The human body is a good black body radiator that provides a stable temperature and continuous radiation energy in the mid-infrared range. We can thus use self-emission from the human body to measure certain fingerprint peaks of glucose spectrum between 8 μm to 10 μm, which allows estimation of glucose concentration. The GMR filter set includes at least four filters on one chip fabricated at the same time. By using fixed thicknesses and the same thin-film material for all the filters on the chip, a structure period adjustment alone can theoretically achieve multiple bandpass filters between the glucose fingerprint ranges - and achieve these coplanar filters on a single chip. By using all CMOS-compatible materials, COMSOL simulations show that a series of peaks with transmittances up to 70% and bandwidths of around 200nm can be achieved. This filter set can be fabricated with just a few thin layers that can simplify the typical thin-film deposition process. The proposed GMR filter array can then be combined with a thermometer array to achieve the non-invasive glucose monitoring. We compare the results obtained with the first version of the fabricated filter set with the measurements of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE EQUIVALENCY OF THREE-RUN RELATIVE ACCURACY AUDITS VERSUS SIX-RUN RELATIVE ACCURACY AUDITS FOR CHARACTERIZING CEMS (CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS) PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 14, 1984, 'Appendix F, Quality Assurance Procedures: Procedure 1 Quality Assurance Requirements for Gas Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) for Compliance' was proposed for inclusion in 40 CFR 60. Several commenters on the proposal package requested that three-...

  17. ANALYSIS OF EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROTOCOL GASES USED FOR CALIBRATION AND AUDITS OF CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS AND AMBIENT AIR ANALYZERS - RESULTS OF AUDIT 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    A performance audit was conducted on EPA Protocol Gases used for calibration and audits of continuous emission monitoring systems and ambient air analyzers. Fifty gaseous pollutant calibraton standards were purchased from eleven specialty gas producers. These standards contained ...

  18. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  19. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  20. A Greenhouse-Gas Information System: Monitoring and Validating Emissions Reporting and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jonietz, Karl K.; Dimotakis, Paul E.; Walker, Bruce C.

    2011-09-26

    This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS.

  1. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... continuous monitoring system for measuring nitrogen oxides (NOX). The pollutant gas mixtures under Performance Specification 2 and for calibration checks under § 60.13(d) of this part shall be nitrogen dioxide... defined as any 3-hour period during which the average nitrogen oxides emissions (arithmetic average...

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE ADEQUACY OF THE APPENDIX F QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES FOR MAINTAINING CEMS (CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS) DATA ACCURACY: STATUS REPORT 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is involved in the development of 'Appendix F - Quality Assurance Procedure 1 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Gas Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) for Compliance.' According to Procedure 1, each emission source owner or o...

  3. Monitoring ethylene emissions from plants cultured for a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Emission of hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds by materials and organisms in closed environments will be a major concern in the design and management of advanced life support systems with a bioregenerative component. Ethylene, a simple hydrocarbon synthesized by plants, is involved in the elicitation of a wide range of physiological responses. In closed environments, ethylene may build up to levels which become physiologically active. In several growouts of 'Yecora Rojo' wheat in Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), it was observed that leaf flecking and rolling occurred in the sealed environment and was virtually eliminated when potassium permanganate was used to scrub the atmospheric environment. It was suggested that ethylene, which accumulated to about 60 ppb in the chamber and which was effectively absorbed by potassium permanganate, was responsible for the symptoms. The objectives of this work were to: (1) determine rates of ethylene evolution from lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar Waldemann's Green) and wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Yecora Rojo) plants during growth and development; (2) determine the effects of exposure of whole, vegetative stage plants to exogenous ethylene concentrations in the range of what would develop in closed environment growth chambers; and (3) develop predictive functions for changes in ethylene concentration that would develop under different cropping and closed environment configurations. Results will lead to the development of management strategies for ethylene in bioregenerative life support systems.

  4. 40 CFR 60.1725 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or... compliance for dioxins/furans, cadmium, lead, mercury, particulate matter, opacity, hydrogen chloride,...

  5. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl...

  6. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Alexander N; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; Zimmerman, Patrick R; Harper, Michael T; Hristova, Rada A; Zimmerman, R Scott; Branco, Antonio F

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but with variable accuracy). The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas method is commonly used to measure enteric CH4 production by animal scientists and more recently, application of an Automated Head-Chamber System (AHCS) (GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD), which is the focus of this experiment, has been growing. AHCS is an automated system to monitor CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mass fluxes from the breath of ruminant animals. In a typical AHCS operation, small quantities of baiting feed are dispensed to individual animals to lure them to AHCS multiple times daily. As the animal visits AHCS, a fan system pulls air past the animal's muzzle into an intake manifold, and through an air collection pipe where continuous airflow rates are measured. A sub-sample of air is pumped out of the pipe into non-dispersive infra-red sensors for continuous measurement of CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Field comparisons of AHCS to respiration chambers or SF6 have demonstrated that AHCS produces repeatable and accurate CH4 emission results, provided that animal visits to AHCS are sufficient so emission estimates are representative of the diurnal rhythm of rumen gas production. Here, we demonstrate the use of AHCS to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes from dairy cows given a control diet or a diet supplemented with technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid. PMID:26383886

  7. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; Zimmerman, Patrick R.; Harper, Michael T.; Hristova, Rada A.; Zimmerman, R. Scott; Branco, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but with variable accuracy). The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas method is commonly used to measure enteric CH4 production by animal scientists and more recently, application of an Automated Head-Chamber System (AHCS) (GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD), which is the focus of this experiment, has been growing. AHCS is an automated system to monitor CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mass fluxes from the breath of ruminant animals. In a typical AHCS operation, small quantities of baiting feed are dispensed to individual animals to lure them to AHCS multiple times daily. As the animal visits AHCS, a fan system pulls air past the animal’s muzzle into an intake manifold, and through an air collection pipe where continuous airflow rates are measured. A sub-sample of air is pumped out of the pipe into non-dispersive infra-red sensors for continuous measurement of CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Field comparisons of AHCS to respiration chambers or SF6 have demonstrated that AHCS produces repeatable and accurate CH4 emission results, provided that animal visits to AHCS are sufficient so emission estimates are representative of the diurnal rhythm of rumen gas production. Here, we demonstrate the use of AHCS to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes from dairy cows given a control diet or a diet supplemented with technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid. PMID:26383886

  8. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... opacity. (2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a... continuous monitoring system(s) shall be set: (i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous... the following: (1) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for...

  9. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... opacity. (2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a... continuous monitoring system(s) shall be set: (i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous... the following: (1) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for...

  10. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... opacity. (2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a... continuous monitoring system(s) shall be set: (i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous... the following: (1) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for...

  11. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... opacity. (2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a... continuous monitoring system(s) shall be set: (i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous... the following: (1) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for...

  12. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... opacity. (2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a... continuous monitoring system(s) shall be set: (i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous... the following: (1) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for...

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Aaaa to... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A... combustion unit P.S. 2 Method 7E. 3. Sulfur Dioxide Inlet to control device: 125 percent of the maximum expected sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit. Control device outlet: 50...

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Aaaa to... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A... combustion unit P.S. 2 Method 7E. 3. Sulfur Dioxide Inlet to control device: 125 percent of the maximum expected sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit. Control device outlet: 50...

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Aaaa of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit P.S. 2 Method 6C. 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent... combustion unit P.S. 4A Method 10 alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A or 3B. a Class I units mean small municipal...

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Aaaa of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit P.S. 2 Method 6C. 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent... combustion unit P.S. 4A Method 10 alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A or 3B. a Class I units mean small municipal...

  17. Turbomachine monitoring system and method

    DOEpatents

    Delvaux, John McConnell

    2016-02-23

    In an embodiment, a system includes a turbomachine having a first turbomachine component including a first mechanoluminescent material. The first turbomachine component is configured to produce a first light emission upon exposure to a mechanical stimulus sufficient to cause mechanoluminescence by the first mechanoluminescent material. The system also includes a turbomachine monitoring system configured to monitor the structural health of the first component based on detection of the first light emission.

  18. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring CO2... monitoring CO2 emissions. (a) CO 2 continuous emission monitoring system. If the owner or operator chooses to... operating requirements in § 75.10 for a CO2 continuous emission monitoring system and flow monitoring...

  19. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring CO2... monitoring CO2 emissions. (a) CO 2 continuous emission monitoring system. If the owner or operator chooses to... operating requirements in § 75.10 for a CO2 continuous emission monitoring system and flow monitoring...

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alternate methods in appendix A of this part to collect data 1. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the waste combustion unit P.S.4A Method 10. 2. Oxygen 25 percent oxygen P.S.3 Method 3A or 3B, or ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981 (IBR, see § 60.17(h)) in lieu of...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alternate methods in appendix A of this part to collect data 1. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the waste combustion unit P.S.4A Method 10. 2. Oxygen 25 percent oxygen P.S.3 Method 3A or 3B, or ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981 (IBR, see § 60.17(h)) in lieu of...

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alternate methods in appendix A of this part to collect data 1. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the waste combustion unit P.S.4A Method 10. 2. Oxygen 25 percent oxygen P.S.3 Method 3A or 3B, or ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981 (IBR, see § 60.17(h)) in lieu of...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alternate methods in appendix A of this part to collect data 1. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the waste combustion unit P.S.4A Method 10. 2. Oxygen 25 percent oxygen P.S.3 Method 3A or 3B, or ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981 (IBR, see § 60.17(h)) in lieu of...

  4. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart... opacity of emissions discharged into the atmosphere from the control device(s). (b) For the purpose...

  5. Radiated Emission of Breath Monitoring System Based on UWB Pulses in Spacecraft Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Mariani Primiani, V.; De Leo, A.; Cerri, G.

    2012-05-01

    The paper describes some EMC aspects related to a UWB radar for monitoring astronauts breathing activity. Compliance to EMC space standards forces some design aspects, in particular the peak voltage and the pulse waveform. Moreover some simulations were carried out to consider realistic operating condition. In the first case the interference towards a victim wifi circuit was analyzed, in the second case the effect of the environment on the radiated pulse was studied.

  6. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring... the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. Table 7 of this subpart...) Follow the quality assurance procedures in Procedure 1 of appendix F of 40 CFR part 60 for...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring... the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. Table 7 of this subpart...) Follow the quality assurance procedures in Procedure 1 of appendix F of 40 CFR part 60 for...

  8. Survey your options: Continuous emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    In the US the public`s growing concern for air quality over the last twenty-five years has led to a complex patchwork of federal, state and local regulations aimed at controlling the emissions of pollutants from manufacturing facilities, power plants and municipal waste-incineration facilities. Like a shadow on the heels of a sprinter, the continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) industry has developed as a direct result of these regulations. In just two and a half decades, the CEM market has grown from a few specialized instrument firms to a billion-dollar business today--a remarkable feat considering there were few true CEM systems in existence prior to the enactment of the original US Clean Air Act of 1970. Despite the emergence of so many vendors offering so many different monitoring techniques, operators still face a host of complex issues when trying to select the right CEM. For facilities operating in today`s competitive, highly regulated environment, cost and performance pressures are stronger than ever. These pressures have forced CEM developers toward innovation to improve performance while containing capital and plant operating costs. This article provides an overview of the current status of CEM systems, and provides a glimpse at some of the new developments that will affect future monitoring configurations. Noteworthy new techniques include continuous emissions monitoring using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyzers, laser-based opacity monitors, and the growing use of software-based, predictive CEMs. Also discussed is a new approach that overcomes the problems associated with measuring SO{sub 2} in fluegas streams downstream of NOx-reduction systems that use ammonia or urea injection.

  9. Diffuse H_{2} emission: a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity at El Hierro volcano system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; González-Santana, Judit; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of interfering processes affecting reactive gases as CO2 during its ascent from magmatic bodies or hydrothermal systems toward the surface environment hinders the interpretation of their enrichments in the soil atmosphere and fluxes for volcano monitoring purposes (Marini and Gambardella, 2005). These processes include gas scrubbing by ground-waters and interaction with rocks, decarbonatation processes, biogenic production, etc. Within the rest of the soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to light and highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. H2 is one of the most abundant trace species in volcano-hydrothermal systems and is a key participant in many redox reactions occurring in the hydrothermal reservoir gas (Giggenbach, 1987). Although H2 can be produced in soils by N2-fixing and fertilizing bacteria, soils are considered nowadays as sinks of molecular hydrogen (Smith-Downey et al., 2006). Because of its chemical and physical characteristics, H2 generated within the crust moves rapidly and escapes to the atmosphere. These characteristics make H2 one of the best geochemical indicators of magmatic and geothermal activity at depth. El Hierro is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands and the scenario of the last volcanic eruption of the archipelago, a submarine eruption that took place 2 km off the southern coast of the island from October 2011 to March 2012. Since at El Hierro Island there are not any surface geothermal manifestations (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Here we show the results of soil H2 emission surveys that have been carried out regularly since mid-2012. Soil gas samples were collected in ˜600 sites selected based on their accessibility and geological criteria. Soil gases were sampled at ˜40

  10. Satellite monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions within the Volcano Fast Response System (Exupéry)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rix, Meike; Maerker, Cordelia; Valks, Pieter; Erbertseder, Thilo

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions are a major hazard to the local population near large volcanoes and to aviation. They also play an important role in global climate change. Atmospheric SO2 is an important indicator for volcanic eruptions and volcanic activity like passive degassing. Space based atmospheric sensors such as GOME-2 on MetOp and OMI on EOS-Aura make it possible to detect the emissions of volcanic SO2 in near-real time (NRT) and monitor volcanic activity and eruptions on a global scale. The GOME-2 instrument provides operational measurements of the SO2 columns with a spatial resolution of 80x40 km² and a global coverage within about one day. Volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions are determined from solar backscatter measurements in the ultra-violet spectral range between 315 - 326 nm, applying the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. This retrieval technique uses the high spectral resolution of the instrument to determine the total column density of SO2. The ability to monitor changes in volcanic degassing behavior is of great importance for early warning of volcanic activity, as large increases in SO2 fluxes are often an indicator for new episodes of volcanic unrest. Ensembles of backward trajectories using the FLEXTRA model are applied to relate exceptional SO2 values to particular sources or regions and hence attribute them to a volcanic or anthropogenic origin. Trajectory density maps give an overview of the most probable location of the emission source. Additionally, the moment of the eruption as well as the emission and the plume height can be estimated. Hypothetical forward trajectories starting at potentially active volcanoes allow forecasting the dispersion of volcanic SO2 and ash depending on the emission height in case of an eruption. For validation purposes the dispersion model FLEXPART provides a three dimensional forecast of the plume motion and the transport of SO2 for several days. The GOME-2 observations of volcanic SO2 are used

  11. COMPACT NEPHELOMETER SYSTEM FOR ON-LINE MONITORING OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our concept would eliminate the camera and optical fibers by using photodiodes, yielding a more robust system that would be faster, more sensitive, and much less expensive. Due to the simplicity of the system it could be adapted to make in-situ measurements, not ju...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE ADEQUACY OF THE APPENDIX F QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES FOR MAINTAINING CEMS (CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS) DATA ACCURACY (STATUS REPORT NO. 1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the first year's audit results of Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) installed at scrubber-equipped power plants. The audits were conducted to support a draft quality assurance appendix for 40 CFR 60 entitled 'Quality Assurance Procedures for Gas...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1770 - What must I do if any of my continuous emission monitoring systems are temporarily unavailable to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if any of my continuous emission monitoring systems are temporarily unavailable to meet the data collection requirements? 60.1770... temporarily unavailable to meet the data collection requirements? Refer to table 8 of this subpart. It...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15225 - What must I do if my continuous emission monitoring system is temporarily unavailable to meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if my continuous emission monitoring system is temporarily unavailable to meet the data collection requirements? 62.15225... unavailable to meet the data collection requirements? Refer to table 8 of this subpart. It shows...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1280 - What must I do if any of my continuous emission monitoring systems are temporarily unavailable to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if any of my continuous emission monitoring systems are temporarily unavailable to meet the data collection requirements? 60.1280... data collection requirements? Refer to table 4 of this subpart. It shows alternate methods...

  16. Question No. 5: What Role Can Satellites Take, as a Complement to Ground Based Measurement Systems, to Provide Sustained Observations to Monitor GHG Emissions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Moustafa; Olsen, Edward

    2011-01-01

    What role can satellites take, as a complement to ground based measurement systems, to provide sustained observations to monitor GHG emissions (e.g., CO2, CH4, O3, N2O, CFC s, NH3, and NF3) that contribute to global warming?

  17. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Particulate Emissions on Major Highways in Southern California: Lagrangian Approach Using Mobile Monitoring System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Grady, M.; Pham, L.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010 CARB reported 9,000 people in California die prematurely each year as a result of exposure to particulate emissions. Public's exposure to particulate emissions is known to be highest on highway during daily commute. Total particle concentrations vary temporarily and spatially due to many reasons including particle nucleation, traffic, and meteorological conditions. The stationary ambient monitoring sites are too sparsely located to measure these variations on highway. Also, emissions from highways can be included in the emission inventory which can improve modeler capability to predict at much finer scale. Emissions from highways are vary temporally and spatially. This study used a mobile platform to measure total particle number, total particle surface area and average particle diameter in Lagrangian approach. The study will report occurrence and frequency of hot spots for particle nucleation on highway and temporal/ spatial variations of particle concentrations on highway. This will enable better assessment of public's exposure to particulate emissions on highway by transportation and propose a methodology how to obtain emission inventory for major highways.

  18. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  19. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CO continuous monitoring system under § 60.105(a)(2) exceeds 500 ppm. (3) Sulfur dioxide from fuel.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Refineries § 60.105 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Continuous monitoring...

  20. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CO continuous monitoring system under § 60.105(a)(2) exceeds 500 ppm. (3) Sulfur dioxide from fuel.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Refineries § 60.105 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Continuous monitoring...

  1. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CO continuous monitoring system under § 60.105(a)(2) exceeds 500 ppm. (3) Sulfur dioxide from fuel.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Refineries § 60.105 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Continuous monitoring...

  2. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CO continuous monitoring system under § 60.105(a)(2) exceeds 500 ppm. (3) Sulfur dioxide from fuel.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Refineries § 60.105 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Continuous monitoring...

  3. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CO continuous monitoring system under § 60.105(a)(2) exceeds 500 ppm. (3) Sulfur dioxide from fuel.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Refineries § 60.105 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Continuous monitoring...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TEST OF DIOXIN EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of four dioxin emission monitors including two long-term sampling devices, the DMS (DioxinMonitoringSystem) and AMESA (Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans), and two semi-real-time continuous monitors, RIMMPA-TOFMS (Resonance Ionization with Multi-Mir...

  5. 76 FR 18415 - Continuous Emission Monitoring

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 75 Continuous Emission Monitoring CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal... read as follows: Sec. 75.11 Specific provisions for monitoring SO 2 emissions. * * * * * (f)...

  6. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60.264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this...

  7. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate...

  8. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60.264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this...

  9. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate...

  10. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60.264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this...

  11. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60.264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this...

  12. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate...

  13. Acoustic emission monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jeremy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Damage to wind turbine blades can, if left uncorrected, evolve into catastrophic failures resulting in high costs and significant losses for the operator. Detection of damage, especially in real time, has the potential to mitigate the losses associated with such catastrophic failure. To address this need various forms of online monitoring are being investigated, including acoustic emission detection. In this paper, pencil lead breaks are used as a standard reference source and tests are performed on unidirectional glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer plates. The mechanical pencil break is used to simulate an acoustic emission (AE) that generates elastic waves in the plate. Piezoelectric sensors and a data acquisition system are used to detect and record the signals. The expected dispersion curves generated for Lamb waves in plates are calculated, and the Gabor wavelet transform is used to provide dispersion curves based on experimental data. AE sources using an aluminum plate are used as a reference case for the experimental system and data processing validation. The analysis of the composite material provides information concerning the wave speed, modes, and attenuation of the waveform, which can be used to estimate maximum AE event - receiver separation, in a particular geometry and materials combination. The foundational data provided in this paper help to guide improvements in online structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades using acoustic emission.

  14. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the presence of a pilot flame. 2. Option 2: percent... flame zone Continuous parameter monitoring systems to measure and record the combustion zone temperature....

  15. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the presence of a pilot flame. 2. Option 2: percent... flame zone Continuous parameter monitoring systems to measure and record the combustion zone temperature....

  16. A CAVITY RINGDOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The first quarter of this project to develop a Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy mercury continuous emission monitor involved acquisition and verification of the laser system to be used, initial cavity design, and initial software development for signal processing and data acquisition.

  17. Continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Gerard P.; Bentley, G. E.; Crain, J. S.; Fry, Herbert A.; Funk, David J.; Moore, David S.; Oldenborg, Richard C.; Palmer, Byron A.; Swanson, Basil I.

    1993-03-01

    A system for the real-time monitoring of emissions from incinerators must be developed which can address the needs of the DOE community and others involved in mixed waste incineration. These needs are an outgrowth of the ever-increasing waste storage problems and the growing concern of the public, as witnessed by the stricter compliance requirements of federal and state agencies, that the products of incineration are hazardous to their health and injurious to the environment. This paper focuses on the technologies being developed here at Los Alamos and other laboratories which address the detection of a broad spectrum of toxic and hazardous chemicals.

  18. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow; G.P. Miller; S. Tao; C.A. Waggoner

    2001-03-15

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL.

  19. Milliwave melter monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Daniel, William E.; Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, Shanmugavelayutham K.

    2011-08-16

    A milliwave melter monitoring system is presented that has a waveguide with a portion capable of contacting a molten material in a melter for use in measuring one or more properties of the molten material in a furnace under extreme environments. A receiver is configured for use in obtaining signals from the melt/material transmitted to appropriate electronics through the waveguide. The receiver is configured for receiving signals from the waveguide when contacting the molten material for use in determining the viscosity of the molten material. Other embodiments exist in which the temperature, emissivity, viscosity and other properties of the molten material are measured.

  20. A feasibility study of a predictive emissions monitoring system applied to taipower's nanpu and hsinta power plants.

    PubMed

    Chien, Tsung-Wen; Hsueh, Hsin-Ta; Chu, Hsin; Hsu, Wei-Chieh; Tu, Yueh-Yuan; Tsai, Hsien-Shiou; Chen, Kuo-Yi

    2010-08-01

    The Hsinta and Nanpu Power Stations are located in southern Taiwan. The Hsinta Power Station consists of five combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT), whereas the Nanpu Power Station consists of four. A project was undertaken to develop and deploy a predictive emissions monitoring system (PEMS) on CCGT unit 3 of Hsinta Power Station (HT-3) and CCGT unit 1 of Nanpu Power Station (NP-1) with the long-term goal of developing a universal model for this kind of power plant. After the first-year PEMS project at the Hsinta power plant, one goal of the second-year PEMS project was to set up a second PEMS at the Nanpu power plant and compare the PEM models applied the to two gas-fired combined cycle power generation units. Consequently, the second and third PEMS of Taiwan at CCGT HT-3 and NP-1 were finished. After comparing the differences among HT-1, HT-3, and NP-1 PEMS models, the pattern of model functionality indicated that this model could be applied to the other units of the same type and size. However, the PEMS function constant or parameter coefficients must be modified on a case-by-case basis. With regard to the PEMS model developed for HT-3, the relative accuracy (RA) of the 15-variable model with start-up mode is only 7.43% and met the criteria of draft PS-16. With regard to the PEMS model developed for NP-1, the RA of the 10-variable model with start-up mode was only 7.76% and also met the criteria of draft PS-16. PMID:20842930

  1. Acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardenheier, R.

    1981-01-01

    The techniques of acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials is described. It is highly sensitive, quasi-nondestructive testing method that indicates the origin and behavior of flaws in such materials when submitted to different load exposures. With the use of sophisticated signal analysis methods it is possible the distinguish between different types of failure mechanisms, such as fiber fracture delamination or fiber pull-out. Imperfections can be detected while monitoring complex composite structures by acoustic emission measurements.

  2. Assessment of online monitoring strategies for measuring N2O emissions from full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Oehmen, Adrian; Pijuan, Maite

    2016-08-01

    Clark-Type nitrous oxide (N2O) sensors are routinely used to measure dissolved N2O concentrations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), but have never before been applied to assess gas-phase N2O emissions in full-scale WWTPs. In this study, a full-scale N2O gas sensor was tested and validated for online gas measurements, and assessed with respect to its linearity, temperature dependence, signal saturation and drift prior to full-scale application. The sensor was linear at the concentrations tested (0-422.3, 0-50 and 0-10 ppmv N2O) and had a linear response up to 2750 ppmv N2O. An exponential correlation between temperature and sensor signal was described and predicted using a double exponential equation while the drift did not have a significant influence on the signal. The N2O gas sensor was used for online N2O monitoring in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating domestic wastewater and results were compared with those obtained by a commercial online gas analyser. Emissions were successfully described by the sensor, being even more accurate than the values given by the commercial analyser at N2O concentrations above 500 ppmv. Data from this gas N2O sensor was also used to validate two models to predict N2O emissions from dissolved N2O measurements, one based on oxygen transfer rate and the other based on superficial velocity of the gas bubble. Using the first model, predictions for N2O emissions agreed by 98.7% with the measured by the gas sensor, while 87.0% similarity was obtained with the second model. This is the first study showing a reliable estimation of gas emissions based on dissolved N2O online data in a full-scale wastewater treatment facility. PMID:27155989

  3. Monitoring hydraulic fracturing with seismic emission volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F.; Tang, Y.; Chen, H.; TAO, K.; Levander, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made it possible to access the reservoirs that are not available for massive production in the past. Hydraulic fracturing is designed to enhance rock permeability and reservoir drainage through the creation of fracture networks. Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. Based on data acquisition, seismic monitoring techniques have been divided into two categories: downhole and surface monitoring. Surface monitoring is challenging because of the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio of the raw data. We applied the techniques used in earthquake seismology and developed an integrated monitoring system for mapping hydraulic fractures. The system consists of 20 to 30 state-of-the-art broadband seismographs, which are generally about hundreds times more sensible than regular geophones. We have conducted two experiments in two basins with very different geology and formation mechanism in China. In each case, we observed clear microseismic events, which may correspond to the induced seismicity directly associated with fracturing and the triggered ones at pre-existing faults. However, the magnitude of these events is generally larger than magnitude -1, approximately one to two magnitudes larger than those detected by downhole instruments. Spectrum-frequency analysis of the continuous surface recordings indicated high seismic energy associated with injection stages. The seismic energy can be back-projected to a volume that surrounds each injection stage. Imaging seismic emission volume (SEV) appears to be an effective way to map the stimulated reservior volume, as well as natural fractures.

  4. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... entering the scrubber during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation; and continuous parameter monitoring system to measure and record gas flow rate entering or exiting the scrubber during coke burn-off and... alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid) exiting the scrubber during coke burn-off and...

  5. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid) flow rate entering the scrubber during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation; and... during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation 1; and continuous parameter monitoring system to measure and record the pH or alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid) exiting the scrubber during...

  6. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid) flow rate entering the scrubber during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation; and... during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation 1; and continuous parameter monitoring system to measure and record the pH or alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid) exiting the scrubber during...

  7. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... entering the scrubber during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation; and continuous parameter monitoring system to measure and record gas flow rate entering or exiting the scrubber during coke burn-off and... alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid) exiting the scrubber during coke burn-off and...

  8. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid) flow rate entering the scrubber during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation; and... during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation 1; and continuous parameter monitoring system to measure and record the pH or alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid) exiting the scrubber during...

  9. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... thermocouple, an ultraviolet beam sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the presence of a pilot flame. 2. Option 2: percent reduction or concentration limit. Thermal incinerator, process heater or... streams are not introduced into the flame zone Continuous parameter monitoring systems to measure...

  10. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... thermocouple, an ultraviolet beam sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the presence of a pilot flame. 2. Option 2: percent reduction or concentration limit. Thermal incinerator, process heater or... streams are not introduced into the flame zone Continuous parameter monitoring systems to measure...

  11. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... thermocouple, an ultraviolet beam sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the presence of a pilot flame. 2. Option 2: percent reduction or concentration limit. Thermal incinerator, process heater or... streams are not introduced into the flame zone Continuous parameter monitoring systems to measure...

  12. An automated SO2 camera system for continuous, real-time monitoring of gas emissions from Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Christoph; Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Lee, Lopaka; Kamibayashi, Kevan; Antolik, Loren; Werner, Cynthia

    2015-07-01

    SO2 camera systems allow rapid two-dimensional imaging of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from volcanic vents. Here, we describe the development of an SO2 camera system specifically designed for semi-permanent field installation and continuous use. The integration of innovative but largely "off-the-shelf" components allowed us to assemble a robust and highly customizable instrument capable of continuous, long-term deployment at Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater. Recorded imagery is telemetered to the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) where a novel automatic retrieval algorithm derives SO2 column densities and emission rates in real-time. Imagery and corresponding emission rates displayed in the HVO operations center and on the internal observatory website provide HVO staff with useful information for assessing the volcano's current activity. The ever-growing archive of continuous imagery and high-resolution emission rates in combination with continuous data from other monitoring techniques provides insight into shallow volcanic processes occurring at the Overlook Crater. An exemplary dataset from September 2013 is discussed in which a variation in the efficiency of shallow circulation and convection, the processes that transport volatile-rich magma to the surface of the summit lava lake, appears to have caused two distinctly different phases of lake activity and degassing. This first successful deployment of an SO2 camera for continuous, real-time volcano monitoring shows how this versatile technique might soon be adapted and applied to monitor SO2 degassing at other volcanoes around the world.

  13. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  14. Continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, David P.; Zamzow, Daniel S.; Eckels, David E.; Miller, George P.

    1999-12-01

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  15. Is predictive emission monitoring an acceptable low cost alternative to continuous emission monitoring for complying with enhanced monitoring requirements?

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    Title VII of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (the {open_quotes}Act{close_quotes}) expanded and clarified the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) enforcement capabilities under the Act. Section 702 of the 1990 Amendments clarified EPA`s ability to require sources to provide information. Additionally, Section 702(b) required EPA to promulgate rules on enhanced monitoring and compliance certifications by adding a new section 114(a)(3) of the Act which states in part: {open_quotes}The Administrator shall in the case of any person which is the owner or operator of a major stationary source, and any in the case of any other person, require enhanced monitoring and submission of compliance certifications. Compliance certifications shall include (A) identification of the applicable requirement that is the basis of the certification, (B) the method used for determining the compliance status of the source, (C) the compliance status, (D) whether compliance is continuous or intermittent, (E) such other facts as the Administrator may require...{close_quotes} The 1990 Amendments contained several other changes that either relate directly to section 114(a)(3) or provide additional indications of the intent behind the new section. First, section 504(b) of the Amendments permits the Administrator to promulgate appropriate tests methods and monitoring requirements for determining compliance. That section states that {open_quotes}continuous emissions monitoring need not be required if alternative methods are available that provide sufficiently reliable and timely information for determining compliance.{close_quotes} This paper will describe Predictive Emission Systems (PEMS) and how the applications of PEMS may be a low cost, accurate, and acceptable alternative to Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) for complying with Enhanced Monitoring requirements.

  16. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-07-25

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide.

  17. EVALUATION OF HCL CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the findings obtained from the field evaluation of commercially available HCl monitoring equipment at a municipal waste-fired boiler which was not equipped with HCl emission control equipment. The analyzers were operated continuously during a two-month test p...

  18. An automated SO2 camera system for continuous, real-time monitoring of gas emissions from Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Christoph; Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Lee, Robert Lopaka; Kamibayashi, Kevan P.; Antolik, Loren; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    SO2 camera systems allow rapid two-dimensional imaging of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from volcanic vents. Here, we describe the development of an SO2 camera system specifically designed for semi-permanent field installation and continuous use. The integration of innovative but largely “off-the-shelf” components allowed us to assemble a robust and highly customizable instrument capable of continuous, long-term deployment at Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater. Recorded imagery is telemetered to the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) where a novel automatic retrieval algorithm derives SO2 column densities and emission rates in real-time. Imagery and corresponding emission rates displayed in the HVO operations center and on the internal observatory website provide HVO staff with useful information for assessing the volcano's current activity. The ever-growing archive of continuous imagery and high-resolution emission rates in combination with continuous data from other monitoring techniques provides insight into shallow volcanic processes occurring at the Overlook Crater. An exemplary dataset from September 2013 is discussed in which a variation in the efficiency of shallow circulation and convection, the processes that transport volatile-rich magma to the surface of the summit lava lake, appears to have caused two distinctly different phases of lake activity and degassing. This first successful deployment of an SO2 camera for continuous, real-time volcano monitoring shows how this versatile technique might soon be adapted and applied to monitor SO2 degassing at other volcanoes around the world.

  19. Mobile health monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Walker, William; Aroul, A L Praveen; Bhatia, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    Advancements are being made towards a cheap and effective means for health monitoring. A mobile monitoring system is proposed for monitoring a bicycle rider using light weight, low power wireless sensors. Biometric and environmental information pertaining to the bicycle rider is captured, transmitted to, and stored in a remote database with little user interaction required. Remote users have real time access to the captured information through a web application. Possible applications for this system include the monitoring of a soldier in the battlefield and the monitoring of a patient during an ambulance ride. PMID:19965041

  20. 40 CFR 60.3041 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems, and is the data collection... collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems, and is the data collection requirement enforceable... deviated from the data collection requirement regardless of the emission level monitored. (e) If you do...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1750 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems and is the data collection... I must collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems and is the data collection requirement... the data collection requirement regardless of the emission level monitored, and you must notify...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1260 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems and is the data collection... monitoring systems and is the data collection requirement enforceable? (a) Where continuous emission... the data collection requirement regardless of the emission level monitored, and you must notify...

  3. Operational real-time monitoring of volcanic SO2 emission rates using an innovative SO2 camera system and sophisticated retrieval techniques (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, C.; Burton, M. R.; Elias, T.; Luebcke, P.; Mori, T.; Esposti Ongaro, T.; Prata, F.; Sutton, A. J.; Tamburello, G.; Werner, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    With the advent of SO2 camera systems some years ago, it became possible to image volcanic SO2 plumes at high temporal and spatial resolutions. Systems operating in the ultra-violet region measure the absorption of scattered solar radiation by SO2 in a narrow wavelength channel centered around 310 nm. A first-order correction for the effect of aerosol scattering is obtained by recording coincident images in at least one additional, off-band channel, typically centered around 330 nm. The promise of measuring SO2 emission rates at time resolutions comparable to geophysical techniques has led to increasingly widespread application of such systems. Until recently, however, a number of issues made SO2 camera systems difficult to use quantitatively for continuous monitoring. For one, UV-sensitive CCD camera technology lacked the durability required for continuous use. Also, because these camera systems collect very limited spectral information the potentially complex radiative transfer of a given scene, which can significantly impact SO2 retrievals, was not quantifiable. System calibrations were typically performed using gas cell measurements, but this approach is not valid for distant or optically thick plumes, or for plumes containing ash. Finally, the use of simple correlation techniques to derive plume velocity usually required manual input and did not take into account that the velocity typically varies throughout the plume. Together, these effects could easily lead to absolute errors of 100% or more in retrieved SO2 emission rates. Here we present solutions to these major challenges. First, we describe an SO2 camera system that uses two modern UV-sensitive CCD cameras with electronic shutters that are integrated with a moderate resolution UV spectrometer. The system software retrieves plume velocity fields in two dimensions, thus improving the accuracy of the derived SO2 emission rates while at the same time providing purposeful data for the study of plume dynamics

  4. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  5. Inductive System Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.

  6. BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (BEIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) is a computer algorithm used to generate emissions for air quality simulation models, such as EPAs Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM). Emission sources that are modeled include volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegeta...

  7. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, William L.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    1998-07-07

    The instant invention discloses method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, and sampling probes, in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream.

  8. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, W.L.; Renzi, R.F.

    1998-07-07

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, sampling probes, and in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream. 6 figs.

  9. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Don E; Ezell, Matthew A; Becklehimer, Jeff; Donovan, Matthew J; Layton, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  10. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.403 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Any owner or operator subject to... of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any phosphate rock dryer, calciner, or grinder. The span of this system shall be set at 40-percent opacity. (b) For ground phosphate rock storage...

  11. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.403 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Any owner or operator subject to... of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any phosphate rock dryer, calciner, or grinder. The span of this system shall be set at 40-percent opacity. (b) For ground phosphate rock storage...

  12. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.403 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Any owner or operator subject to... of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any phosphate rock dryer, calciner, or grinder. The span of this system shall be set at 40-percent opacity. (b) For ground phosphate rock storage...

  13. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  14. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum expected hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit P.S. 4A Method 10 with alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25...

  15. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit, gas-fired... moisture content is needed to properly calculate the NOX emission rate in lb/mmBtu, e.g., if the...

  16. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit,...

  17. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit,...

  18. Emissions of NOx, SO2 and CO2 From Power Plants: Evaluating Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) Data Using Airborne Field Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicks, D.; Ryerson, T.; Holloway, J.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D.; Frost, G.; Hubler, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Sueper, D.; Fehsenfeld, F.

    2002-12-01

    Airborne studies of power plant emissions were conducted during the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) in 1999, the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) in 2000 and the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) study in 2002. Measurements of NOy, CO2 and SO2 were made in near-field transects of power plant plumes aboard the NOAA WP-3D and NCAR L-188 Electra aircraft. Ratios of the primary emissions NOy, SO2 and CO2, and/or fluxes of those gases determined by integration of plume mixing ratios, were compared to data from CEMS equipment installed to directly measure plant emissions from power generation units. This study presents field measurements from over 180 transects of plumes from 20 separate power plants in the Eastern and Western United States and Texas. Estimates of accuracy for the CEMS equipment are presented and probable impacts to annual point source emissions inventories are discussed.

  19. Predictive NO x emission monitoring on board a passenger ferry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. A.; Andreasson, K.

    NO x emissions from a medium speed diesel engine on board a servicing passenger ferry have been indirectly measured using a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) over a 1-yr period. Conventional NO x measurements were carried out with a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) at the start of the study to provide historical data for the empirical PEMS function. On three other occasions during the year the CEMS was also used to verify the PEMS and follow any changes in emission signature of the engine. The PEMS consisted of monitoring exhaust O 2 concentrations (in situ electrochemical probe), engine load, combustion air temperature and humidity, and barometric pressure. Practical experiences with the PEMS equipment were positive and measurement data were transferred to a land-based office by using a modem data communication system. The initial PEMS function (PEMS1) gave systematic differences of 1.1-6.9% of the calibration domain (0-1725 ppm) and a relative accuracy of 6.7% when compared with CEMS for whole journeys and varying load situations. Further improvements on the performance could be obtained by updating this function. The calculated yearly emission for a total engine running time of 4618 h was 316 t NO x±38 t and the average NO x emission corrected for ambient conditions 14.3 g kWh corr-1. The exhaust profile of the engine in terms of NO x, CO and CO 2 emissions as determined by CEMS was similar for most of the year. Towards the end of the study period, a significantly lower NO x emission was detected which was probably caused by replacement of fuel injector nozzles. The study suggests that PEMS can be a viable option for continuous, long-term NO x measurements on board ships.

  20. Remote maintenance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G. (Inventor); Owens, Richard C. (Inventor); Rochette, Donn A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A remote maintenance monitoring system retrofits to a given hardware device with a sensor implant which gathers and captures failure data from the hardware device, without interfering with its operation. Failure data is continuously obtained from predetermined critical points within the hardware device, and is analyzed with a diagnostic expert system, which isolates failure origin to a particular component within the hardware device. For example, monitoring of a computer-based device may include monitoring of parity error data therefrom, as well as monitoring power supply fluctuations therein, so that parity error and power supply anomaly data may be used to trace the failure origin to a particular plane or power supply within the computer-based device. A plurality of sensor implants may be rerofit to corresponding plural devices comprising a distributed large-scale system. Transparent interface of the sensors to the devices precludes operative interference with the distributed network. Retrofit capability of the sensors permits monitoring of even older devices having no built-in testing technology. Continuous real time monitoring of a distributed network of such devices, coupled with diagnostic expert system analysis thereof, permits capture and analysis of even intermittent failures, thereby facilitating maintenance of the monitored large-scale system.

  1. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are performed on the CEMS, a minimum of two valid data points (one in each of two quadrants) are... least one valid data point must be obtained with each monitor for each quadrant of the hour in which...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are performed on the CEMS, a minimum of two valid data points (one in each of two quadrants) are... least one valid data point must be obtained with each monitor for each quadrant of the hour in which...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are performed on the CEMS, a minimum of two valid data points (one in each of two quadrants) are... least one valid data point must be obtained with each monitor for each quadrant of the hour in which...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are performed on the CEMS, a minimum of two valid data points (one in each of two quadrants) are... least one valid data point must be obtained with each monitor for each quadrant of the hour in which...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2942 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems, and is the data collection... with my continuous emission monitoring systems, and is the data collection requirement enforceable? (a... monitoring systems are temporarily unavailable to meet the data collection requirements, refer to table 3...

  6. Biogenic Emissions Inventory System

    EPA Science Inventory

    ***BEIS3 is now embedded in the CMAQ model***

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System, Version 3 (BEIS3) is being developed to support the needs of regional and urban-scale air quality simulation models. BEIS3 is designed to be incorporated into the Sparse Matrix Op...

  7. Vital signs monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ffff of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to collect data 1. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the waste combustion unit P.S.4A Method 10. 2. Oxygen 25 percent oxygen P.S.3 Method 3A or...

  9. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the... Method 10 with alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A or 3B....

  10. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the... Method 10 with alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A or 3B....