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Sample records for emission monitoring system

  1. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  2. Select a continuous emissions monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, K.

    1996-02-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is incorporating flexibility in the new regulations it is writing to implement the monitoring requirements of Title VII of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. These requirements are commonly known as compliance assurance monitoring (CAM), which is the new name for enhanced monitoring. The new flexibility being written into the CAM regulations is likely to result in reduced costs for industry and additional headaches for the engineer or manager responsible for implementing CAM. Continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) were once the only choice available for continuous compliance monitoring. The primary monitoring strategies expected to be allowed under the CAM rules include not only CEMS, but also predictive emissions monitoring systems, parametric monitoring, and operation and maintenance recordkeeping. These four methods are discussed and compared.

  3. Acoustic emission monitoring of composite containment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, John R.

    2011-07-01

    This paper considers two different types of composite containment system, and two different types of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring approach. The first system is a composite reinforced pressure vessel (CRPV) which is monitored both during construction and in-service using a broadband modal acoustic emission (MAE) technique. The second system is a membrane cargo containment system which is monitored using both a global as well as a local AE technique. For the CRPV, the damage assessment is concerned mainly with the integrity of the composite outer layer at the construction stage, and possible fatigue cracking of the inner steel liner at the in-service stage. For the membrane tank, the damage assessment is concerned with locating and quantifying any abnormal porosities that might develop in-service. By comparing and contrasting the different types of structural system and different monitoring approaches inferences are drawn as to what role AE monitoring could take in the damage assessment of other types of composite containment system. (Detailed technical data have not been included, due to client confidentiality constraints.)

  4. Extractive sampling systems for continuous emissions monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John R.

    1991-04-01

    Continuous Emissions Monitoring systems (CEMs) have become an important part of the industrial, municipal, and infectious waste incineration industry. With the promulgation of stringent emissions limits and source emissions monitoring requirements, and with permit approvals and operating penalties dependent upon the accuracy and dependability of the CEM, most new and existing incineration facilities now recognize that the CEM system can often mean the difference between success and failure. Since the early 1980's, extractive sampling systems have been the technology of choice, due to the inherent difficulties in sampling from a typical incineration process. Some of these difficulties include: high temperatures, high particulate levels (dependent on the type of waste fuel being fired), the presence of acid-gases in the sample stream, high moisture levels, and wide fluctuations in the incineration process resulting in significant variations in emissions levels and sampling conditions. In addition, the requirement for lower emissions levels has resulted in the use of new control technologies which can often negatively affect the performance of a CEM system. A good example is the use of ammonia injection (either Selective Catalytic Reduction or Thermal DeNOx processes) for the control of NOx emissions, which results in an ammonia slip which can potentially interfere with the CEM measurement of either NOx or SO2 emissions. Extractive sampling systems, when designed to meet the specific application requirements and when assembled of reliable components constructed of the proper materials, have been proven in most difficult incineration installations. Extractive sampling systems offer the flexibility to overcome even the inherent difficulties usually encountered with industrial, municipal and infectious waste incinerators.

  5. Architectural design of flue gas continuous emission monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongfu; Jiang, Liangzhong; Tang, Yong; Yao, Xifan

    2008-10-01

    The paper presents the architectural design of flue gas continuous emission monitoring system, which uses computer, acquisition card and serial port communication card as hardware in the flue gas continuous emission monitoring system. In the CEMS, continuous emission monitoring system, it monitors dust in the flue gas, SO2, NOX, and some parameter on the flue gas emission, which includes mass flow, pressure, and temperature. For the software in the monitoring system, the research designs monitoring program in VC++, and realizes flue gas monitor with the architecture.

  6. HYDROCARBON CONTINUOUS MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR EMISSIONS MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored an extended laboratory and field evaluation of continuous emission monitoring systems available to measure hydrocarbon emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. erformance tests of calibration drift, calibration error, res...

  7. Continuous emission monitoring and accounting automated systems at an HPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Ionkin, I. L.; Kondrateva, O. E.; Borovkova, A. M.; Seregin, V. A.; Morozov, I. V.

    2015-03-01

    Environmental and industrial emission monitoring at HPP's is a very urgent task today. Industrial monitoring assumes monitoring of emissions of harmful pollutants and optimization of fuel combustion technological processes at HPP's. Environmental monitoring is a system to assess ambient air quality with respect to a number of separate sources of harmful substances in pollution of atmospheric air of the area. Works on creating an industrial monitoring system are carried out at the National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI) on the basis of the MPEI combined heat and power plant, and environmental monitoring stations are installed in Lefortovo raion, where the CHPP is located.

  8. ETV TEST OF PCDD/F EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and furan (PCDD/F) emission monitors were tested under the EPA Environmental Technology and Verification (ETV) program. Two long-term sampling devices, the DioxinMonitoringSystem and Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans, and two sem...

  9. EVALUATION OF DIOXIN EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous samplers and real or semi-real-time continuous monitors for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans provide significant advantages relative to conventional methods of extractive sampling. Continuous samplers collect long term samples over a time period of days to wee...

  10. Smart acoustic emission system for wireless monitoring of concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Dong-Jin; Kim, Young-Gil; Kim, Chi-Yeop; Seo, Dae-Cheol

    2008-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) has emerged as a powerful nondestructive tool to detect preexisting defects or to characterize failure mechanisms. Recently, this technique or this kind of principle, that is an in-situ monitoring of inside damages of materials or structures, becomes increasingly popular for monitoring the integrity of large structures. Concrete is one of the most widely used materials for constructing civil structures. In the nondestructive evaluation point of view, a lot of AE signals are generated in concrete structures under loading whether the crack development is active or not. Also, it was required to find a symptom of damage propagation before catastrophic failure through a continuous monitoring. Therefore we have done a practical study in this work to fabricate compact wireless AE sensor and to develop diagnosis system. First, this study aims to identify the differences of AE event patterns caused by both real damage sources and the other normal sources. Secondly, it was focused to develop acoustic emission diagnosis system for assessing the deterioration of concrete structures such as a bridge, dame, building slab, tunnel etc. Thirdly, the wireless acoustic emission system was developed for the application of monitoring concrete structures. From the previous laboratory study such as AE event patterns analysis under various loading conditions, we confirmed that AE analysis provided a promising approach for estimating the condition of damage and distress in concrete structures. In this work, the algorithm for determining the damage status of concrete structures was developed and typical criteria for decision making was also suggested. For the future application of wireless monitoring, a low energy consumable, compact, and robust wireless acoustic emission sensor module was developed and applied to the concrete beam for performance test. Finally, based on the self-developed diagnosis algorithm and compact wireless AE sensor, new AE system for practical

  11. How to select a continuous emission monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Radigan, M.J. )

    1994-02-01

    Selecting a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) involves more than picking an analyzer. Successful CEMS interface sampling and data-management systems to produce accurate, reliable reports required by regulatory agencies. Following objective guidelines removes some of the misery from CEMS shopping. However, prospective CEMS buyers should do their homework and develop well-thought-out, detailed specification for the processes' sampling criteria. Fine tuning the analyzer/data management system can eliminate maintenance costs and keep the facility operating within its permit restrictions.

  12. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide to demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits specified...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide to demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits specified...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide to demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits specified...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT ANR PIPELINE COMPANY PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of a gaseous-emissions monitoring system for large, natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines. The device tested is the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR ...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7747 - How do I apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? 63.7747 Section 63.7747 Protection of... apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? (a) You may....7690(a)(10) for automated pallet cooling lines or automated shakeout lines at a new iron and...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class..., nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems, as appropriate, and...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class..., nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems, as appropriate, and...

  19. Mass-spectrometer-based continuous emissions monitoring system for acid-gas emissions and DRE demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartman, Candace D.; Connolly, Erin; Renfroe, Jim; Harlow, George

    1993-03-01

    The objective of the work presented here was to develop a technology for continuous measurement of stack gas emissions for compounds such as HCl, SO2, and NOx that was also capable of monitoring toxic hydrocarbons. The goal was to assure operators and local communities that the emission source is routinely operating in compliance with and well within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. A mass spectrometer-based continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) and its sample extraction system developed as a result of this work are described. Results of calibration drift, linearity, and accuracy tests for HCl, SO2, and NOx are presented. Results of CEMS tests are described that show the system has the performance capabilities necessary for a relatively inexpensive and frequent DRE demonstration.

  20. COMPUTER-CONTROLLED, REAL-TIME AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A minicomputer controlled automotive emissions sampling and analysis system (the Real-Time System) was developed to determine vehicular modal emissions over various test cycles. This data acquisition system can sample real-time emissions at a rate of 10 samples/s. A buffer utiliz...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... part 60. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where you monitor sulfur dioxide and...

  8. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... part 60. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where you monitor sulfur dioxide and...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where you monitor sulfur dioxide and...

  11. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... part 60. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where...

  12. Continuous Emissions Monitoring System Monitoring Plan for the Y-12 Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12), managed by BWXT, is submitting this Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) Monitoring Plan in conformance with the requirements of Title 40 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 75. The state of Tennessee identified the Y-12 Steam Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as a non-electrical generation unit (EGU) nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) budget source as a result of the NO{sub x} State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-3-27. Following this introduction, the monitoring plan contains the following sections: CEMS details, NO{sub x} emissions, and quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC). The following information is included in the attachments: fuel and flue gas diagram, system layout, data flow diagrams, Electronic Monitoring Plan printouts, vendor information on coal and natural gas feed systems, and the Certification Test Protocol. The Y-12 Steam Plant consists of four Wickes boilers. Each is rated at a maximum heat input capacity of 296.8 MMBtu/hour or 250,000 lb/hour of 250-psig steam. Although pulverized coal is the principal fuel, each of the units can fire natural gas or a combination of coal and gas. Each unit is equipped with a Joy Manufacturing Company reverse air baghouse to control particulate emissions. Flue gases travel out of the baghouse, through an induced draft fan, then to one of two stacks. Boilers 1 and 2 exhaust through Stack 1. Boilers 3 and 4 exhaust through Stack 2. A dedicated CEMS will be installed in the ductwork of each boiler, downstream of the baghouse. The CEMS will be designed, built, installed, and started up by URS Group, Inc. (URS). Data acquisition and handling will be accomplished using a data acquisition and handling system (DAHS) designed, built, and programmed by Environmental Systems Corporation (ESC). The installed CEMS will continuously monitor NO{sub x}, flue gas flowrate, and carbon

  13. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? 60.1720 Section 60.1720 Protection of Environment... emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? (a) You must install,...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission monitoring system according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13 of subpart A of 40 CFR... subpart A of 40 CFR part 60. ... to use an alternative sulfur dioxide monitoring method, such as parametric monitoring, or...

  15. HANDBOOK: CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Handbook provides a description of the methods used to continuously monitor non-criteria pollutants emitted from stationary sources. The Handbook contains a review of current regulatory programs, the state-of-the-art sampling system design, analytical techniques, and the use...

  16. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 60.103. Not applicable Continuous emission monitoring system to measure and record the... NSPS for CO in 40 CFR 60.103 a. Thermal incinerator Continuous emission monitoring system to measure... introduced into the flame zone. Continuous emission monitoring system to measure and record the...

  17. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monoxide (CO) in 40 CFR 60.103. Not applicable Continuous emission monitoring system to measure and record... subject to the NSPS for CO in 40 CFR 60.103 a. Thermal incinerator Continuous emission monitoring system... detect the presence of a pilot flame. d. No control device Continuous emission monitoring system...

  18. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monoxide (CO) in 40 CFR 60.103. Not applicable Continuous emission monitoring system to measure and record... subject to the NSPS for CO in 40 CFR 60.103 a. Thermal incinerator Continuous emission monitoring system... detect the presence of a pilot flame. d. No control device Continuous emission monitoring system...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring system according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13 of subpart A of 40 CFR... subpart A of 40 CFR part 60. ... systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? 62.15175 Section 62.15175 Protection of...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? 60.1230 Section 60.1230 Protection of Environment... gaseous pollutants? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission...

  1. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1740 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.1740 Section 60.1740 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1725 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? 60.1725 Section 60.1725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1725 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? 60.1725 Section 60.1725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times...

  5. Fugitive emissions monitoring trends

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.H.

    1997-02-01

    New Clean Air Act requirements are pushing facilities to reevaluate their monitoring programs. A description of the fugitive emission guidelines is included in this article, along with ideas about monitoring.

  6. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b... sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems,...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b... sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems,...

  8. Multichannel fiber optic pressure sensor system for parametric emission monitoring in combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorman, Thomas J.; Kalashnikov, Sergey P.; Wlodarczyk, Marek T.; Daire, Adam; Goeke, Wayne; Kropp, Richard; Kamat, Pradip

    1995-09-01

    A multichannel fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor system is described dedicated to parametric emission monitoring systems (PEMS) for use in natural gas-fueled, stationary, and reciprocating engines. In view of the emerging 1995 emission regulations for large stationary engines, the natural gas pipeline operators have turned their attention to PEMS' for predicting and controlling the amount of polluting emissions such as NOx and HC. We present design considerations and performance data of a 8-channel pressure monitoring system employing fiber-optic combustion pressure sensors. The control/monitoring unit offers capabilities of sensor calibration, health monitoring, and real-time data acquisition. Using an engine position sensor trigger, the monitoring unit can calculate peak pressure, indicative mean pressure, and location of peak pressure. The system allows for 50 kHz, burst mode transfer of multisensor data to a host PC. We demonstrated performance data collected on three large-bore engines and long-term endurance test data. While initially intended for stationary engines, the system can be used in applications requiring portability including moving vehicles.

  9. 40 CFR 62.15180 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? 62.15180 Section 62.15180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? 60.1235 Section 60.1235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? 60.1230 Section 60.1230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants? 60.1720 Section 60.1720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  13. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart...

  14. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart...

  15. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  16. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart...

  18. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  19. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart...

  20. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  1. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part...

  2. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a... measuring emissions with the continuous monitoring system concurrent with measuring emissions with...

  4. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 60.103. Not applicable Continuous emission monitoring system to measure and record the... NSPS for CO in 40 CFR 60.103 a. Thermal incinerator Continuous emission monitoring system to measure... a thermocouple, an ultraviolet beam sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your initial evaluation... initial and annual evaluations, collect data concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b... to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system,...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your initial evaluation... initial and annual evaluations, collect data concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b) Complete your initial evaluation... minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b... to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system,...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b) Complete your initial evaluation... minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your...) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon... or 3A to measure oxygen. Collect the data during each initial and annual evaluation of...

  14. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b) Complete your initial evaluation... minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your...) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon... or 3A to measure oxygen. Collect the data during each initial and annual evaluation of...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon monoxide concentration levels, use EPA Method 10, 10A, or 10B of appendix A...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and carbon monoxide. (b... to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system,...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your...) using your carbon monoxide and oxygen continuous emission monitoring systems. To validate carbon... or 3A to measure oxygen. Collect the data during each initial and annual evaluation of...

  20. Field evaluation of Fourier transform infrared continuous emissions monitoring (FTIR CEM) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunder, Thomas A.; Geyer, Thomas J.; Kinner, Laura L.; Plummer, Grant M.

    1995-02-01

    Recent environmental regulations, including the Clean Air Act and the Enhanced Monitoring Regulations, may require continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). A promising technique for this application is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FTIR spectroscopy can, in principle, be used to monitor virtually any gas phase species. Two evaluations of FTIR CEM systems are discussed. The first study, performed in 1993 - 94, compared two FTIR CEM systems on a side-by-side basis in an extended field test at two coal-fired electric power plants. The FTIR CEM systems monitored the legally mandated criteria pollutants and diluents (CO, CO2, NO, NO2, and SO2) as well as H2O. In addition, one system monitored two HAPs (HCl and HF) and NH3. The FTIR CEM measurements were compared with those from the compliance CEM systems at the facilities. Several relative accuracy test audits were also performed to verify the FTIR CEM accuracy. The second evaluation was recently commenced on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, FTIR CEM systems are evaluated specifically for the monitoring of HAP species by conducting laboratory and field tests. The evaluation culminates in the development of proposed performance specifications and protocols for FTIR CEM systems.

  1. Continuous emission monitoring system based on a PbSe detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujadas, Manuel; Oche, A.; Barcala, J. M.; Teres, J.

    1995-09-01

    PbSe is a very important photoconductive material extensively used as IR detector for military applications and may be considered one of the most useful materials for detection in the MIR range. In the last years the opening of its production for wide civil use has allowed the conception of new detection systems based on this semiconductor. Considering some possible applications of it in environmental control, PbSe can provide, for instance, good response band to monitor several gases of major importance (SO2, NO, CO, etc.), especially when their concentrations are high. In this paper, we present applications of this semiconductor for this purpose: the developemnt of a new continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) using a PbSe detector array in a nondispersive configuration. The basics of this prototype and some experimental results related to the detection of different typical emission gases with this system are presented here.

  2. Experiences in long-term evaluation of mercury emission monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Hung-Ta Lin; Qiang Wang; Chien-Wei Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Ming-Chung Liu; Chi-Kuan Chen; Wei-Ping Pan

    2008-09-15

    Six mercury continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems provided by two leading mercury (Hg) CEM system manufacturers were tested at five coal combustion utilities. The linearity, response time, day-to-day stability, efficiency of the Hg speciation modules, and ease of use were evaluated by following procedures specified in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 40 Part 75 (40 CFR Part 75). Mercury monitoring results from Hg CEM systems were compared to an EPA-recognized reference method. A sorbent trap sampling system was also evaluated in this study to compare the relative accuracy to the reference method as well as to Hg CEM systems. A conceptual protocol proposed by U.S. EPA (Method 30A) for using an Hg CEM system as the reference method for the Hg relative accuracy (RA) test was also followed to evaluate the workability of the protocol. This paper discusses the operational experience obtained from these field studies and the remaining challenges to overcome while using Hg CEM systems and the sorbent trap method for continuous Hg emission monitoring. 3 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on a... ducted in § 61.65 (b)(1)(ii), and (b)(2), (b)(5), (b)(6) (ii), and (b)(9)(ii). (b) The vinyl...

  4. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on a... ducted in § 61.65 (b)(1)(ii), and (b)(2), (b)(5), (b)(6) (ii), and (b)(9)(ii). (b) The vinyl...

  5. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on a... ducted in § 61.65 (b)(1)(ii), and (b)(2), (b)(5), (b)(6) (ii), and (b)(9)(ii). (b) The vinyl...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must monitor the oxygen concentration at each location where you monitor carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission...

  11. Results of a survey of natural gas transmission companies operating continuous emission monitoring systems. Topical report, January-June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    A summary is presented to the results of a survey of continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems operating on reciprocating engines and turbines of gas transmission companies. For this survey, three natural gas transmission companies were visited. Information on various aspects of CEM systems within the industry was gathered. It included characteristics of emission sources with emission reduction techniques where applied; CEM system outdoor shelters; monitoring techniques; costs; installation and startup; personnel training; operations and maintenance; performance evaluations and quality assurance; and data acquisition systems. The survey finds that the industry`s experience with CEM systems remains limited. Some recommendations are presented for the future, when the use of CEM systems may increase.

  12. Crack propagation analysis using acoustic emission sensors for structural health monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Kral, Zachary; Horn, Walter; Steck, James

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN). Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems. PMID:24023536

  13. Crack Propagation Analysis Using Acoustic Emission Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kral, Zachary; Horn, Walter; Steck, James

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN).more » Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems.« less

  14. Crack Propagation Analysis Using Acoustic Emission Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Walter; Steck, James

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN). Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems. PMID:24023536

  15. MONITORING OF INCINERATOR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring of Incinerator Emissions is a chapter to be included in a book entitled Hazardous Waste Incineration, edited by A. Sarofim and D. Pershing, and published by John Wiley and Sons. he chapter describes stack sampling and analysis procedures in use on hazardous waste incin...

  16. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) VERIFICATION GUIDELINE SERIES: ANR Pipeline Company PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS) VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Coastal Corporation, now El Paso Corporation. The PEMS predicts carbon doixide (CO2...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7747 - How do I apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... request an alternative monitoring method to demonstrate compliance with the VOHAP emissions limits in § 63.7690(a)(10) for automated pallet cooling lines or automated shakeout lines at a new iron and steel... monitoring method in the notification of construction or reconstruction for new sources, or at any time....

  18. Novel microelectrode-based online system for monitoring N2O gas emissions during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Oehmen, Adrian; Pijuan, Maite

    2014-11-01

    Clark-type nitrous oxide (N2O) microelectrodes are commonly used for measuring dissolved N2O levels, but have not previously been tested for gas-phase applications, where the N2O emitted from wastewater systems can be directly quantified. In this study, N2O microelectrodes were tested and validated for online gas measurements, and assessed with respect to their temperature, gas flow, composition dependence, gas pressure, and humidity. An exponential correlation between temperature and sensor signal was found, whereas gas flow, composition, pressure, and humidity did not have any influence on the signal. Two of the sensors were tested at different N2O concentration ranges (0-422.3, 0-50, 0-10, and 0-2 ppmv N2O) and exhibited a linear response over each range. The N2O emission dynamics from two laboratory scale sequencing batch reactors performing ammonia or nitrite oxidation were also monitored using one of the microsensors and results were compared with two other analytical methods. Results show that N2O emissions were accurately described with these microelectrodes and support their application for assessing gaseous N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems. Advantages of the sensors as compared to conventional measurement techniques include a wider quantification range of N2O fluxes, and a single measurement system that can assess both liquid and gas-phase N2O dynamics. PMID:25317738

  19. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jonietz, Karl K; Dimotakis, Paul E; Walker, Bruce C

    2011-09-26

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a

  20. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 10 Table 10 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  1. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission...

  2. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission...

  3. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.3039 Section 60.3039 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines...

  5. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission...

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ffff of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 4 Table 4 to Subpart FFFF of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines...

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ffff of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 4 Table 4 to Subpart FFFF of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines...

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ffff of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 4 Table 4 to Subpart FFFF of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines...

  9. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  10. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  11. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  12. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring....

  13. Software solutions for emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    DeFriez, H.; Schillinger, S.; Seraji, H.

    1996-12-31

    Industry and state and federal environmental regulatory agencies are becoming ever more conciliatory due to the high cost of implementing the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) for the operation of Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS). In many cases the modifications do nothing to reduce emissions or even to measure the pollution, but simply let the source owner or operator and the permitting authority agree on a monitoring method and/or program. The EPA methods and standards developed under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) have proven to be extremely costly and burdensome. Now, the USEPA and state agencies are making efforts to assure that emissions data has a strong technical basis to demonstrate compliance with regulations such as Title V.

  14. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and... system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems... the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. Table 7 of this...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and... system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems... the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. Table 7 of this...

  16. CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous emissions monitoring of hazardous and mixed waste thermal treatment processes is desired for verification of emission compliance, process control, and public safety perception. pecies of particular interest include trace metals and organic compounds resulting from inco...

  17. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  18. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  19. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  20. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  1. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  2. Integration of acoustic emission systems within Integri-TechTM analysis system for structural health monitoring of pressurised engineering plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouri, A. A.; Rafferty, Steven; Pickwell, Andy; Galbraith, Walter; Pierce, S. Gareth; Gachagan, Anthony

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this Acoustic Emission (AE) based Structural Health Monitoring project is to enable accurate location of AE sources in pressurised engineering plant and to use AE source location data to establish defect locations for use within Integri-TechTM; a finite element based analysis, monitoring and fitness for service assessment system. Integri-TechTM is a windows based system which carries out combined analysis and assessment providing fatigue life and remnant life calculations and inspection priorities presenting the results in an accessible web portal format. The software uses finite element stress models created in the companion software Model Wizard. The AE monitoring system that has been developed can be used with an array of up to four AE broad band sensor channels with associated signal processing. Using a flexible approach in MATLAB, the authors have developed algorithms which were used for analysing the received AE signals to extract information about the nature and location of the source. The ability to carry out source location and possibly perform real time monitoring (detecting cracking as it occurs) is attractive feature of the AE system developed for this project. The time of arrival (TOA) data was used by Integri-TechTM software to calculate source location using its own built-in algorithm, and this was verified independently using a MATLAB approach.

  3. Low-resolution FTIR continuous monitoring/process control system to minimize HCl emissions in aluminum casting operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunder, Thomas A.

    1999-12-01

    In a Department of Energy funded project, a low resolution Fourier Transform IR Continuous Emissions Monitoring (FTIR CEM) and Process Control system was developed and evaluated for use in minimizing HCl emissions during aluminum casting operations. In the casting process, molten aluminum is treated by fluxing with chlorine to remove alkali and hydrogen impurities. The industry has traditionally used a stoichiometric excess of chlorine to ensure metal quality, with resulting atmospheric emissions of HCl. The FTIR system can potentially be used to reduce emission when employed as a closed-loop process control device to monitor the HCl concentration and thereby reduce chlorine usage while maintaining product quality. In the initial project phase, tests were conducted under varying process conditions at a pilot-scale casting facility. The goals of these test included demonstrating that the FTIR monitor could provide closed-loop control of chlorine use, correlating HCl emission with metal quality, and verifying that the instrumentation could operate under harsh casting facility conditions. The system will subsequently be tested at two aluminum production facilities. This paper summarizes the results from the initial evaluation of the FTIR CEM/Process Control system.

  4. Gold nanospikes based microsensor as a highly accurate mercury emission monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Ylias M.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Tardio, James; Bansal, Vipul; O'Mullane, Anthony P.; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic elemental mercury (Hg0) emission is a serious worldwide environmental problem due to the extreme toxicity of the heavy metal to humans, plants and wildlife. Development of an accurate and cheap microsensor based online monitoring system which can be integrated as part of Hg0 removal and control processes in industry is still a major challenge. Here, we demonstrate that forming Au nanospike structures directly onto the electrodes of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) using a novel electrochemical route results in a self-regenerating, highly robust, stable, sensitive and selective Hg0 vapor sensor. The data from a 127 day continuous test performed in the presence of volatile organic compounds and high humidity levels, showed that the sensor with an electrodeposted sensitive layer had 260% higher response magnitude, 3.4 times lower detection limit (~22 μg/m3 or ~2.46 ppbv) and higher accuracy (98% Vs 35%) over a Au control based QCM (unmodified) when exposed to a Hg0 vapor concentration of 10.55 mg/m3 at 101°C. Statistical analysis of the long term data showed that the nano-engineered Hg0 sorption sites on the developed Au nanospikes sensitive layer play a critical role in the enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of the developed sensor towards Hg0 vapor.

  5. Gold nanospikes based microsensor as a highly accurate mercury emission monitoring system

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Ylias M.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Tardio, James; Bansal, Vipul; O'Mullane, Anthony P.; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic elemental mercury (Hg0) emission is a serious worldwide environmental problem due to the extreme toxicity of the heavy metal to humans, plants and wildlife. Development of an accurate and cheap microsensor based online monitoring system which can be integrated as part of Hg0 removal and control processes in industry is still a major challenge. Here, we demonstrate that forming Au nanospike structures directly onto the electrodes of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) using a novel electrochemical route results in a self-regenerating, highly robust, stable, sensitive and selective Hg0 vapor sensor. The data from a 127 day continuous test performed in the presence of volatile organic compounds and high humidity levels, showed that the sensor with an electrodeposted sensitive layer had 260% higher response magnitude, 3.4 times lower detection limit (~22 μg/m3 or ~2.46 ppbv) and higher accuracy (98% Vs 35%) over a Au control based QCM (unmodified) when exposed to a Hg0 vapor concentration of 10.55 mg/m3 at 101°C. Statistical analysis of the long term data showed that the nano-engineered Hg0 sorption sites on the developed Au nanospikes sensitive layer play a critical role in the enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of the developed sensor towards Hg0 vapor. PMID:25338965

  6. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock-walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, L.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Hunziker, J.; Lim, R.; Weber, S.

    2012-06-01

    We present a custom acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock-walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node) integrated into a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock-wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock-wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock-wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock-fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  7. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, L.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Hunziker, J.; Lim, R.; Weber, S.

    2012-11-01

    We present a custom acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node) integrated into a wireless sensor network (WSN) customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  8. Broadband UV spectroscopy system used for monitoring of SO 2 and NO emissions from thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. G.; Wang, H. S.; Somesfalean, G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Lou, X. T.; Wu, S. H.; Zhang, Z. G.; Qin, Y. K.

    2010-11-01

    A gas monitoring system based on broadband absorption spectroscopic techniques in the ultraviolet region is described and tested. The system was employed in real-time continuous concentration measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitric oxide (NO) from a 220-ton h -1 circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler in Shandong province, China. The emission coefficients (per kg of coal and per kWh of electricity) and the total emission of the two pollutant gases were evaluated. The measurement results showed that the emission concentrations of SO 2 and NO from the CFB boiler fluctuated in the range of 750-1300 mg m -3 and 100-220 mg m -3, respectively. Compared with the specified emission standards of air pollutants from thermal power plants in China, the values were generally higher for SO 2 and lower for NO. The relatively high emission concentrations of SO 2 were found to mainly depend on the sulfur content of the fuel and the poor desulfurization efficiency. This study indicates that the broadband UV spectroscopy system is suitable for industrial emission monitoring and pollution control.

  9. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide. If you operate a Class I... sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the outlet of the air pollution... according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide. If you operate a Class I... sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the outlet of the air pollution... according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1230 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide. If you operate a Class I... sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the outlet of the air pollution... according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon...

  12. Comparison of passive-remote and conventional Fourier transform infrared systems for continuously monitoring incinerator emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L.; Kroutil, R.T.

    1992-07-01

    Significant improvements in detection technology are needed to comply with the requirements in the Clean Air Act of 1990, Title 3, which requires the monitoring of air toxics. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can satisfy these requirements in two different modes. Conventional FTIR spectrometers can be installed on-stream so that a vapor stream enters an infrared cell for analysis. Other types of FTIR spectrometers can detect chemical plumes remotely, measure the natural emissions of the molecules in the plume. The samples do not come to the instrument, and the instrument has neither source nor reflector mirrors. We will discuss the applications of FTIR spectrometry for both conventional and passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy. Some applications of conventional FTIR include a continuous emission monitor for measuring incinerator emissions and determining indoor air quality. Passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy can be used to identify and track a chemical plume. It can also be used to detect fugitive emissions. Hence, it can be used as an independent means to assure compliance with environmental regulations in real-time. Because of the relatively simple instrumentation, passive-remote instruments can be helicopter- or vehicle-mounted for mobile detection of plumes.

  13. Comparison of passive-remote and conventional Fourier transform infrared systems for continuously monitoring incinerator emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L. ); Kroutil, R.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Significant improvements in detection technology are needed to comply with the requirements in the Clean Air Act of 1990, Title 3, which requires the monitoring of air toxics. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can satisfy these requirements in two different modes. Conventional FTIR spectrometers can be installed on-stream so that a vapor stream enters an infrared cell for analysis. Other types of FTIR spectrometers can detect chemical plumes remotely, measure the natural emissions of the molecules in the plume. The samples do not come to the instrument, and the instrument has neither source nor reflector mirrors. We will discuss the applications of FTIR spectrometry for both conventional and passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy. Some applications of conventional FTIR include a continuous emission monitor for measuring incinerator emissions and determining indoor air quality. Passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy can be used to identify and track a chemical plume. It can also be used to detect fugitive emissions. Hence, it can be used as an independent means to assure compliance with environmental regulations in real-time. Because of the relatively simple instrumentation, passive-remote instruments can be helicopter- or vehicle-mounted for mobile detection of plumes.

  14. Continuous particulate monitoring for emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, A.H. )

    1993-08-01

    An optical continuous particle monitoring system has been developed to overcome common problems associated with emissions monitoring equipment. Opacity monitors generally use a single- or double-pass system to analyze the presence of dust particles in the flue gas stream. The particles scatter and absorb light as it passes through the stack. As the particle content in the gas stream increases due to bag failure or some other problem, the amount of light that is blocked also increases. The opacity monitor compares the amount of lost light energy to the total energy of the light available and translates the signal to percentage of opacity. Opacity monitors are typically installed to meet the requirements set forth by pollution control agencies. Most opacity monitors are designed to meet all of the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 40 CFR, Part 60, Appendix B, Performance Specification. The new continuous particle monitor (CPM) increases the accuracy of emission monitoring and overcomes typical problems found in conventional emission monitoring devices. The CPM is an optically based, calibratible, continuous dust monitor that uses a microprocessor, transmitter head, and receiver head. When calibrated with an isokinetic sample, a continuous readout of particulate concentration (in mg/m[sup 3]) in the exhaust gas is provided. The system can be used as a filter bag failure system or a long-term emission trend analyzer. Formal testing was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the optically based CPM. The monitor was calibrated using particles of a range of compositions, size distributions, and concentrations. The feasibility of using the instrument to measure particle concentration as low as 10 mg/m[sup 3] was examined.

  15. Self-emission glucose monitoring system with single chip guided-mode resonance filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Yen-Chun; Yang, Sheng; Schmidt, Dominik

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we designed and simulated an array of bandpass filters as a spectral separator for mid-infrared self-emission noninvasive glucose monitoring, using the human body as the background radiation emitter. The filters were based on the guided-mode resonance (GMR) effect. The human body is a good black body radiator that provides a stable temperature and continuous radiation energy in the mid-infrared range. We can thus use self-emission from the human body to measure certain fingerprint peaks of glucose spectrum between 8 μm to 10 μm, which allows estimation of glucose concentration. The GMR filter set includes at least four filters on one chip fabricated at the same time. By using fixed thicknesses and the same thin-film material for all the filters on the chip, a structure period adjustment alone can theoretically achieve multiple bandpass filters between the glucose fingerprint ranges - and achieve these coplanar filters on a single chip. By using all CMOS-compatible materials, COMSOL simulations show that a series of peaks with transmittances up to 70% and bandwidths of around 200nm can be achieved. This filter set can be fabricated with just a few thin layers that can simplify the typical thin-film deposition process. The proposed GMR filter array can then be combined with a thermometer array to achieve the non-invasive glucose monitoring. We compare the results obtained with the first version of the fabricated filter set with the measurements of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE EQUIVALENCY OF THREE-RUN RELATIVE ACCURACY AUDITS VERSUS SIX-RUN RELATIVE ACCURACY AUDITS FOR CHARACTERIZING CEMS (CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS) PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 14, 1984, 'Appendix F, Quality Assurance Procedures: Procedure 1 Quality Assurance Requirements for Gas Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) for Compliance' was proposed for inclusion in 40 CFR 60. Several commenters on the proposal package requested that three-...

  17. ANALYSIS OF EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROTOCOL GASES USED FOR CALIBRATION AND AUDITS OF CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS AND AMBIENT AIR ANALYZERS - RESULTS OF AUDIT 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    A performance audit was conducted on EPA Protocol Gases used for calibration and audits of continuous emission monitoring systems and ambient air analyzers. Fifty gaseous pollutant calibraton standards were purchased from eleven specialty gas producers. These standards contained ...

  18. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  19. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  20. A Greenhouse-Gas Information System: Monitoring and Validating Emissions Reporting and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jonietz, Karl K.; Dimotakis, Paul E.; Walker, Bruce C.

    2011-09-26

    This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS.

  1. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... continuous monitoring system for measuring nitrogen oxides (NOX). The pollutant gas mixtures under Performance Specification 2 and for calibration checks under § 60.13(d) of this part shall be nitrogen dioxide... defined as any 3-hour period during which the average nitrogen oxides emissions (arithmetic average...

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE ADEQUACY OF THE APPENDIX F QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES FOR MAINTAINING CEMS (CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS) DATA ACCURACY: STATUS REPORT 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is involved in the development of 'Appendix F - Quality Assurance Procedure 1 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Gas Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) for Compliance.' According to Procedure 1, each emission source owner or o...

  3. Monitoring ethylene emissions from plants cultured for a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Emission of hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds by materials and organisms in closed environments will be a major concern in the design and management of advanced life support systems with a bioregenerative component. Ethylene, a simple hydrocarbon synthesized by plants, is involved in the elicitation of a wide range of physiological responses. In closed environments, ethylene may build up to levels which become physiologically active. In several growouts of 'Yecora Rojo' wheat in Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), it was observed that leaf flecking and rolling occurred in the sealed environment and was virtually eliminated when potassium permanganate was used to scrub the atmospheric environment. It was suggested that ethylene, which accumulated to about 60 ppb in the chamber and which was effectively absorbed by potassium permanganate, was responsible for the symptoms. The objectives of this work were to: (1) determine rates of ethylene evolution from lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar Waldemann's Green) and wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Yecora Rojo) plants during growth and development; (2) determine the effects of exposure of whole, vegetative stage plants to exogenous ethylene concentrations in the range of what would develop in closed environment growth chambers; and (3) develop predictive functions for changes in ethylene concentration that would develop under different cropping and closed environment configurations. Results will lead to the development of management strategies for ethylene in bioregenerative life support systems.

  4. 40 CFR 60.1725 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or... compliance for dioxins/furans, cadmium, lead, mercury, particulate matter, opacity, hydrogen chloride,...

  5. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl...

  6. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; Zimmerman, Patrick R.; Harper, Michael T.; Hristova, Rada A.; Zimmerman, R. Scott; Branco, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but with variable accuracy). The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas method is commonly used to measure enteric CH4 production by animal scientists and more recently, application of an Automated Head-Chamber System (AHCS) (GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD), which is the focus of this experiment, has been growing. AHCS is an automated system to monitor CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mass fluxes from the breath of ruminant animals. In a typical AHCS operation, small quantities of baiting feed are dispensed to individual animals to lure them to AHCS multiple times daily. As the animal visits AHCS, a fan system pulls air past the animal’s muzzle into an intake manifold, and through an air collection pipe where continuous airflow rates are measured. A sub-sample of air is pumped out of the pipe into non-dispersive infra-red sensors for continuous measurement of CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Field comparisons of AHCS to respiration chambers or SF6 have demonstrated that AHCS produces repeatable and accurate CH4 emission results, provided that animal visits to AHCS are sufficient so emission estimates are representative of the diurnal rhythm of rumen gas production. Here, we demonstrate the use of AHCS to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes from dairy cows given a control diet or a diet supplemented with technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid. PMID:26383886

  7. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Alexander N; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; Zimmerman, Patrick R; Harper, Michael T; Hristova, Rada A; Zimmerman, R Scott; Branco, Antonio F

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but with variable accuracy). The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas method is commonly used to measure enteric CH4 production by animal scientists and more recently, application of an Automated Head-Chamber System (AHCS) (GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD), which is the focus of this experiment, has been growing. AHCS is an automated system to monitor CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mass fluxes from the breath of ruminant animals. In a typical AHCS operation, small quantities of baiting feed are dispensed to individual animals to lure them to AHCS multiple times daily. As the animal visits AHCS, a fan system pulls air past the animal's muzzle into an intake manifold, and through an air collection pipe where continuous airflow rates are measured. A sub-sample of air is pumped out of the pipe into non-dispersive infra-red sensors for continuous measurement of CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Field comparisons of AHCS to respiration chambers or SF6 have demonstrated that AHCS produces repeatable and accurate CH4 emission results, provided that animal visits to AHCS are sufficient so emission estimates are representative of the diurnal rhythm of rumen gas production. Here, we demonstrate the use of AHCS to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes from dairy cows given a control diet or a diet supplemented with technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid. PMID:26383886

  8. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... opacity. (2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a... continuous monitoring system(s) shall be set: (i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous... the following: (1) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for...

  9. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... opacity. (2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a... continuous monitoring system(s) shall be set: (i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous... the following: (1) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for...

  10. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... opacity. (2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a... continuous monitoring system(s) shall be set: (i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous... the following: (1) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for...

  11. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... opacity. (2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a... continuous monitoring system(s) shall be set: (i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous... the following: (1) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for...

  12. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... opacity. (2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a... continuous monitoring system(s) shall be set: (i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous... the following: (1) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for...

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Aaaa to... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A... combustion unit P.S. 2 Method 7E. 3. Sulfur Dioxide Inlet to control device: 125 percent of the maximum expected sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit. Control device outlet: 50...

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Aaaa to... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A... combustion unit P.S. 2 Method 7E. 3. Sulfur Dioxide Inlet to control device: 125 percent of the maximum expected sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit. Control device outlet: 50...

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Aaaa of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit P.S. 2 Method 6C. 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent... combustion unit P.S. 4A Method 10 alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A or 3B. a Class I units mean small municipal...

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Aaaa of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit P.S. 2 Method 6C. 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent... combustion unit P.S. 4A Method 10 alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A or 3B. a Class I units mean small municipal...

  17. Turbomachine monitoring system and method

    DOEpatents

    Delvaux, John McConnell

    2016-02-23

    In an embodiment, a system includes a turbomachine having a first turbomachine component including a first mechanoluminescent material. The first turbomachine component is configured to produce a first light emission upon exposure to a mechanical stimulus sufficient to cause mechanoluminescence by the first mechanoluminescent material. The system also includes a turbomachine monitoring system configured to monitor the structural health of the first component based on detection of the first light emission.

  18. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring CO2... monitoring CO2 emissions. (a) CO 2 continuous emission monitoring system. If the owner or operator chooses to... operating requirements in § 75.10 for a CO2 continuous emission monitoring system and flow monitoring...

  19. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring CO2... monitoring CO2 emissions. (a) CO 2 continuous emission monitoring system. If the owner or operator chooses to... operating requirements in § 75.10 for a CO2 continuous emission monitoring system and flow monitoring...

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alternate methods in appendix A of this part to collect data 1. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the waste combustion unit P.S.4A Method 10. 2. Oxygen 25 percent oxygen P.S.3 Method 3A or 3B, or ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981 (IBR, see § 60.17(h)) in lieu of...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alternate methods in appendix A of this part to collect data 1. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the waste combustion unit P.S.4A Method 10. 2. Oxygen 25 percent oxygen P.S.3 Method 3A or 3B, or ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981 (IBR, see § 60.17(h)) in lieu of...

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alternate methods in appendix A of this part to collect data 1. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the waste combustion unit P.S.4A Method 10. 2. Oxygen 25 percent oxygen P.S.3 Method 3A or 3B, or ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981 (IBR, see § 60.17(h)) in lieu of...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alternate methods in appendix A of this part to collect data 1. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the waste combustion unit P.S.4A Method 10. 2. Oxygen 25 percent oxygen P.S.3 Method 3A or 3B, or ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981 (IBR, see § 60.17(h)) in lieu of...

  4. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart... opacity of emissions discharged into the atmosphere from the control device(s). (b) For the purpose...

  5. Radiated Emission of Breath Monitoring System Based on UWB Pulses in Spacecraft Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Mariani Primiani, V.; De Leo, A.; Cerri, G.

    2012-05-01

    The paper describes some EMC aspects related to a UWB radar for monitoring astronauts breathing activity. Compliance to EMC space standards forces some design aspects, in particular the peak voltage and the pulse waveform. Moreover some simulations were carried out to consider realistic operating condition. In the first case the interference towards a victim wifi circuit was analyzed, in the second case the effect of the environment on the radiated pulse was studied.

  6. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring... the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. Table 7 of this subpart...) Follow the quality assurance procedures in Procedure 1 of appendix F of 40 CFR part 60 for...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concurrently (or within 30 to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring... the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. Table 7 of this subpart...) Follow the quality assurance procedures in Procedure 1 of appendix F of 40 CFR part 60 for...

  8. Survey your options: Continuous emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    In the US the public`s growing concern for air quality over the last twenty-five years has led to a complex patchwork of federal, state and local regulations aimed at controlling the emissions of pollutants from manufacturing facilities, power plants and municipal waste-incineration facilities. Like a shadow on the heels of a sprinter, the continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) industry has developed as a direct result of these regulations. In just two and a half decades, the CEM market has grown from a few specialized instrument firms to a billion-dollar business today--a remarkable feat considering there were few true CEM systems in existence prior to the enactment of the original US Clean Air Act of 1970. Despite the emergence of so many vendors offering so many different monitoring techniques, operators still face a host of complex issues when trying to select the right CEM. For facilities operating in today`s competitive, highly regulated environment, cost and performance pressures are stronger than ever. These pressures have forced CEM developers toward innovation to improve performance while containing capital and plant operating costs. This article provides an overview of the current status of CEM systems, and provides a glimpse at some of the new developments that will affect future monitoring configurations. Noteworthy new techniques include continuous emissions monitoring using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyzers, laser-based opacity monitors, and the growing use of software-based, predictive CEMs. Also discussed is a new approach that overcomes the problems associated with measuring SO{sub 2} in fluegas streams downstream of NOx-reduction systems that use ammonia or urea injection.

  9. Diffuse H_{2} emission: a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity at El Hierro volcano system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; González-Santana, Judit; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of interfering processes affecting reactive gases as CO2 during its ascent from magmatic bodies or hydrothermal systems toward the surface environment hinders the interpretation of their enrichments in the soil atmosphere and fluxes for volcano monitoring purposes (Marini and Gambardella, 2005). These processes include gas scrubbing by ground-waters and interaction with rocks, decarbonatation processes, biogenic production, etc. Within the rest of the soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to light and highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. H2 is one of the most abundant trace species in volcano-hydrothermal systems and is a key participant in many redox reactions occurring in the hydrothermal reservoir gas (Giggenbach, 1987). Although H2 can be produced in soils by N2-fixing and fertilizing bacteria, soils are considered nowadays as sinks of molecular hydrogen (Smith-Downey et al., 2006). Because of its chemical and physical characteristics, H2 generated within the crust moves rapidly and escapes to the atmosphere. These characteristics make H2 one of the best geochemical indicators of magmatic and geothermal activity at depth. El Hierro is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands and the scenario of the last volcanic eruption of the archipelago, a submarine eruption that took place 2 km off the southern coast of the island from October 2011 to March 2012. Since at El Hierro Island there are not any surface geothermal manifestations (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Here we show the results of soil H2 emission surveys that have been carried out regularly since mid-2012. Soil gas samples were collected in ˜600 sites selected based on their accessibility and geological criteria. Soil gases were sampled at ˜40

  10. Satellite monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions within the Volcano Fast Response System (Exupéry)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rix, Meike; Maerker, Cordelia; Valks, Pieter; Erbertseder, Thilo

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions are a major hazard to the local population near large volcanoes and to aviation. They also play an important role in global climate change. Atmospheric SO2 is an important indicator for volcanic eruptions and volcanic activity like passive degassing. Space based atmospheric sensors such as GOME-2 on MetOp and OMI on EOS-Aura make it possible to detect the emissions of volcanic SO2 in near-real time (NRT) and monitor volcanic activity and eruptions on a global scale. The GOME-2 instrument provides operational measurements of the SO2 columns with a spatial resolution of 80x40 km² and a global coverage within about one day. Volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions are determined from solar backscatter measurements in the ultra-violet spectral range between 315 - 326 nm, applying the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. This retrieval technique uses the high spectral resolution of the instrument to determine the total column density of SO2. The ability to monitor changes in volcanic degassing behavior is of great importance for early warning of volcanic activity, as large increases in SO2 fluxes are often an indicator for new episodes of volcanic unrest. Ensembles of backward trajectories using the FLEXTRA model are applied to relate exceptional SO2 values to particular sources or regions and hence attribute them to a volcanic or anthropogenic origin. Trajectory density maps give an overview of the most probable location of the emission source. Additionally, the moment of the eruption as well as the emission and the plume height can be estimated. Hypothetical forward trajectories starting at potentially active volcanoes allow forecasting the dispersion of volcanic SO2 and ash depending on the emission height in case of an eruption. For validation purposes the dispersion model FLEXPART provides a three dimensional forecast of the plume motion and the transport of SO2 for several days. The GOME-2 observations of volcanic SO2 are used

  11. COMPACT NEPHELOMETER SYSTEM FOR ON-LINE MONITORING OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our concept would eliminate the camera and optical fibers by using photodiodes, yielding a more robust system that would be faster, more sensitive, and much less expensive. Due to the simplicity of the system it could be adapted to make in-situ measurements, not ju...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE ADEQUACY OF THE APPENDIX F QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES FOR MAINTAINING CEMS (CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS) DATA ACCURACY (STATUS REPORT NO. 1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the first year's audit results of Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) installed at scrubber-equipped power plants. The audits were conducted to support a draft quality assurance appendix for 40 CFR 60 entitled 'Quality Assurance Procedures for Gas...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1770 - What must I do if any of my continuous emission monitoring systems are temporarily unavailable to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if any of my continuous emission monitoring systems are temporarily unavailable to meet the data collection requirements? 60.1770... temporarily unavailable to meet the data collection requirements? Refer to table 8 of this subpart. It...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15225 - What must I do if my continuous emission monitoring system is temporarily unavailable to meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if my continuous emission monitoring system is temporarily unavailable to meet the data collection requirements? 62.15225... unavailable to meet the data collection requirements? Refer to table 8 of this subpart. It shows...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1280 - What must I do if any of my continuous emission monitoring systems are temporarily unavailable to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do if any of my continuous emission monitoring systems are temporarily unavailable to meet the data collection requirements? 60.1280... data collection requirements? Refer to table 4 of this subpart. It shows alternate methods...

  16. Question No. 5: What Role Can Satellites Take, as a Complement to Ground Based Measurement Systems, to Provide Sustained Observations to Monitor GHG Emissions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Moustafa; Olsen, Edward

    2011-01-01

    What role can satellites take, as a complement to ground based measurement systems, to provide sustained observations to monitor GHG emissions (e.g., CO2, CH4, O3, N2O, CFC s, NH3, and NF3) that contribute to global warming?

  17. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Particulate Emissions on Major Highways in Southern California: Lagrangian Approach Using Mobile Monitoring System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Grady, M.; Pham, L.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010 CARB reported 9,000 people in California die prematurely each year as a result of exposure to particulate emissions. Public's exposure to particulate emissions is known to be highest on highway during daily commute. Total particle concentrations vary temporarily and spatially due to many reasons including particle nucleation, traffic, and meteorological conditions. The stationary ambient monitoring sites are too sparsely located to measure these variations on highway. Also, emissions from highways can be included in the emission inventory which can improve modeler capability to predict at much finer scale. Emissions from highways are vary temporally and spatially. This study used a mobile platform to measure total particle number, total particle surface area and average particle diameter in Lagrangian approach. The study will report occurrence and frequency of hot spots for particle nucleation on highway and temporal/ spatial variations of particle concentrations on highway. This will enable better assessment of public's exposure to particulate emissions on highway by transportation and propose a methodology how to obtain emission inventory for major highways.

  18. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  19. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CO continuous monitoring system under § 60.105(a)(2) exceeds 500 ppm. (3) Sulfur dioxide from fuel.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Refineries § 60.105 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Continuous monitoring...

  20. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CO continuous monitoring system under § 60.105(a)(2) exceeds 500 ppm. (3) Sulfur dioxide from fuel.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Refineries § 60.105 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Continuous monitoring...

  1. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CO continuous monitoring system under § 60.105(a)(2) exceeds 500 ppm. (3) Sulfur dioxide from fuel.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Refineries § 60.105 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Continuous monitoring...

  2. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CO continuous monitoring system under § 60.105(a)(2) exceeds 500 ppm. (3) Sulfur dioxide from fuel.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Refineries § 60.105 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Continuous monitoring...

  3. 40 CFR 60.105 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CO continuous monitoring system under § 60.105(a)(2) exceeds 500 ppm. (3) Sulfur dioxide from fuel.... 60.105 Section 60.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Petroleum Refineries § 60.105 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Continuous monitoring...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TEST OF DIOXIN EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of four dioxin emission monitors including two long-term sampling devices, the DMS (DioxinMonitoringSystem) and AMESA (Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans), and two semi-real-time continuous monitors, RIMMPA-TOFMS (Resonance Ionization with Multi-Mir...

  5. 76 FR 18415 - Continuous Emission Monitoring

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 75 Continuous Emission Monitoring CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal... read as follows: Sec. 75.11 Specific provisions for monitoring SO 2 emissions. * * * * * (f)...

  6. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60.264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this...

  7. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate...

  8. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60.264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this...

  9. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate...

  10. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60.264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this...

  11. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60.264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this...

  12. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate...

  13. Acoustic emission monitoring of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jeremy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Damage to wind turbine blades can, if left uncorrected, evolve into catastrophic failures resulting in high costs and significant losses for the operator. Detection of damage, especially in real time, has the potential to mitigate the losses associated with such catastrophic failure. To address this need various forms of online monitoring are being investigated, including acoustic emission detection. In this paper, pencil lead breaks are used as a standard reference source and tests are performed on unidirectional glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer plates. The mechanical pencil break is used to simulate an acoustic emission (AE) that generates elastic waves in the plate. Piezoelectric sensors and a data acquisition system are used to detect and record the signals. The expected dispersion curves generated for Lamb waves in plates are calculated, and the Gabor wavelet transform is used to provide dispersion curves based on experimental data. AE sources using an aluminum plate are used as a reference case for the experimental system and data processing validation. The analysis of the composite material provides information concerning the wave speed, modes, and attenuation of the waveform, which can be used to estimate maximum AE event - receiver separation, in a particular geometry and materials combination. The foundational data provided in this paper help to guide improvements in online structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades using acoustic emission.

  14. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the presence of a pilot flame. 2. Option 2: percent... flame zone Continuous parameter monitoring systems to measure and record the combustion zone temperature....

  15. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the presence of a pilot flame. 2. Option 2: percent... flame zone Continuous parameter monitoring systems to measure and record the combustion zone temperature....

  16. A CAVITY RINGDOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The first quarter of this project to develop a Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy mercury continuous emission monitor involved acquisition and verification of the laser system to be used, initial cavity design, and initial software development for signal processing and data acquisition.

  17. Continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Gerard P.; Bentley, G. E.; Crain, J. S.; Fry, Herbert A.; Funk, David J.; Moore, David S.; Oldenborg, Richard C.; Palmer, Byron A.; Swanson, Basil I.

    1993-03-01

    A system for the real-time monitoring of emissions from incinerators must be developed which can address the needs of the DOE community and others involved in mixed waste incineration. These needs are an outgrowth of the ever-increasing waste storage problems and the growing concern of the public, as witnessed by the stricter compliance requirements of federal and state agencies, that the products of incineration are hazardous to their health and injurious to the environment. This paper focuses on the technologies being developed here at Los Alamos and other laboratories which address the detection of a broad spectrum of toxic and hazardous chemicals.

  18. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow; G.P. Miller; S. Tao; C.A. Waggoner

    2001-03-15

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL.

  19. Milliwave melter monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Daniel, William E.; Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, Shanmugavelayutham K.

    2011-08-16

    A milliwave melter monitoring system is presented that has a waveguide with a portion capable of contacting a molten material in a melter for use in measuring one or more properties of the molten material in a furnace under extreme environments. A receiver is configured for use in obtaining signals from the melt/material transmitted to appropriate electronics through the waveguide. The receiver is configured for receiving signals from the waveguide when contacting the molten material for use in determining the viscosity of the molten material. Other embodiments exist in which the temperature, emissivity, viscosity and other properties of the molten material are measured.

  20. A feasibility study of a predictive emissions monitoring system applied to taipower's nanpu and hsinta power plants.

    PubMed

    Chien, Tsung-Wen; Hsueh, Hsin-Ta; Chu, Hsin; Hsu, Wei-Chieh; Tu, Yueh-Yuan; Tsai, Hsien-Shiou; Chen, Kuo-Yi

    2010-08-01

    The Hsinta and Nanpu Power Stations are located in southern Taiwan. The Hsinta Power Station consists of five combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT), whereas the Nanpu Power Station consists of four. A project was undertaken to develop and deploy a predictive emissions monitoring system (PEMS) on CCGT unit 3 of Hsinta Power Station (HT-3) and CCGT unit 1 of Nanpu Power Station (NP-1) with the long-term goal of developing a universal model for this kind of power plant. After the first-year PEMS project at the Hsinta power plant, one goal of the second-year PEMS project was to set up a second PEMS at the Nanpu power plant and compare the PEM models applied the to two gas-fired combined cycle power generation units. Consequently, the second and third PEMS of Taiwan at CCGT HT-3 and NP-1 were finished. After comparing the differences among HT-1, HT-3, and NP-1 PEMS models, the pattern of model functionality indicated that this model could be applied to the other units of the same type and size. However, the PEMS function constant or parameter coefficients must be modified on a case-by-case basis. With regard to the PEMS model developed for HT-3, the relative accuracy (RA) of the 15-variable model with start-up mode is only 7.43% and met the criteria of draft PS-16. With regard to the PEMS model developed for NP-1, the RA of the 10-variable model with start-up mode was only 7.76% and also met the criteria of draft PS-16. PMID:20842930

  1. Acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardenheier, R.

    1981-01-01

    The techniques of acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials is described. It is highly sensitive, quasi-nondestructive testing method that indicates the origin and behavior of flaws in such materials when submitted to different load exposures. With the use of sophisticated signal analysis methods it is possible the distinguish between different types of failure mechanisms, such as fiber fracture delamination or fiber pull-out. Imperfections can be detected while monitoring complex composite structures by acoustic emission measurements.

  2. Assessment of online monitoring strategies for measuring N2O emissions from full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Oehmen, Adrian; Pijuan, Maite

    2016-08-01

    Clark-Type nitrous oxide (N2O) sensors are routinely used to measure dissolved N2O concentrations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), but have never before been applied to assess gas-phase N2O emissions in full-scale WWTPs. In this study, a full-scale N2O gas sensor was tested and validated for online gas measurements, and assessed with respect to its linearity, temperature dependence, signal saturation and drift prior to full-scale application. The sensor was linear at the concentrations tested (0-422.3, 0-50 and 0-10 ppmv N2O) and had a linear response up to 2750 ppmv N2O. An exponential correlation between temperature and sensor signal was described and predicted using a double exponential equation while the drift did not have a significant influence on the signal. The N2O gas sensor was used for online N2O monitoring in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating domestic wastewater and results were compared with those obtained by a commercial online gas analyser. Emissions were successfully described by the sensor, being even more accurate than the values given by the commercial analyser at N2O concentrations above 500 ppmv. Data from this gas N2O sensor was also used to validate two models to predict N2O emissions from dissolved N2O measurements, one based on oxygen transfer rate and the other based on superficial velocity of the gas bubble. Using the first model, predictions for N2O emissions agreed by 98.7% with the measured by the gas sensor, while 87.0% similarity was obtained with the second model. This is the first study showing a reliable estimation of gas emissions based on dissolved N2O online data in a full-scale wastewater treatment facility. PMID:27155989

  3. Monitoring hydraulic fracturing with seismic emission volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F.; Tang, Y.; Chen, H.; TAO, K.; Levander, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made it possible to access the reservoirs that are not available for massive production in the past. Hydraulic fracturing is designed to enhance rock permeability and reservoir drainage through the creation of fracture networks. Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. Based on data acquisition, seismic monitoring techniques have been divided into two categories: downhole and surface monitoring. Surface monitoring is challenging because of the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio of the raw data. We applied the techniques used in earthquake seismology and developed an integrated monitoring system for mapping hydraulic fractures. The system consists of 20 to 30 state-of-the-art broadband seismographs, which are generally about hundreds times more sensible than regular geophones. We have conducted two experiments in two basins with very different geology and formation mechanism in China. In each case, we observed clear microseismic events, which may correspond to the induced seismicity directly associated with fracturing and the triggered ones at pre-existing faults. However, the magnitude of these events is generally larger than magnitude -1, approximately one to two magnitudes larger than those detected by downhole instruments. Spectrum-frequency analysis of the continuous surface recordings indicated high seismic energy associated with injection stages. The seismic energy can be back-projected to a volume that surrounds each injection stage. Imaging seismic emission volume (SEV) appears to be an effective way to map the stimulated reservior volume, as well as natural fractures.

  4. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... entering the scrubber during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation; and continuous parameter monitoring system to measure and record gas flow rate entering or exiting the scrubber during coke burn-off and... alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid) exiting the scrubber during coke burn-off and...

  5. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid) flow rate entering the scrubber during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation; and... during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation 1; and continuous parameter monitoring system to measure and record the pH or alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid) exiting the scrubber during...

  6. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid) flow rate entering the scrubber during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation; and... during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation 1; and continuous parameter monitoring system to measure and record the pH or alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid) exiting the scrubber during...

  7. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... entering the scrubber during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation; and continuous parameter monitoring system to measure and record gas flow rate entering or exiting the scrubber during coke burn-off and... alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid) exiting the scrubber during coke burn-off and...

  8. 40 CFR Table 24 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Inorganic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquid) flow rate entering the scrubber during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation; and... during coke burn-off and catalyst rejuvenation 1; and continuous parameter monitoring system to measure and record the pH or alkalinity of the water (or scrubbing liquid) exiting the scrubber during...

  9. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... thermocouple, an ultraviolet beam sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the presence of a pilot flame. 2. Option 2: percent reduction or concentration limit. Thermal incinerator, process heater or... streams are not introduced into the flame zone Continuous parameter monitoring systems to measure...

  10. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... thermocouple, an ultraviolet beam sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the presence of a pilot flame. 2. Option 2: percent reduction or concentration limit. Thermal incinerator, process heater or... streams are not introduced into the flame zone Continuous parameter monitoring systems to measure...

  11. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... thermocouple, an ultraviolet beam sensor, or infrared sensor to continuously detect the presence of a pilot flame. 2. Option 2: percent reduction or concentration limit. Thermal incinerator, process heater or... streams are not introduced into the flame zone Continuous parameter monitoring systems to measure...

  12. An automated SO2 camera system for continuous, real-time monitoring of gas emissions from Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Christoph; Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Lee, Lopaka; Kamibayashi, Kevan; Antolik, Loren; Werner, Cynthia

    2015-07-01

    SO2 camera systems allow rapid two-dimensional imaging of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from volcanic vents. Here, we describe the development of an SO2 camera system specifically designed for semi-permanent field installation and continuous use. The integration of innovative but largely "off-the-shelf" components allowed us to assemble a robust and highly customizable instrument capable of continuous, long-term deployment at Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater. Recorded imagery is telemetered to the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) where a novel automatic retrieval algorithm derives SO2 column densities and emission rates in real-time. Imagery and corresponding emission rates displayed in the HVO operations center and on the internal observatory website provide HVO staff with useful information for assessing the volcano's current activity. The ever-growing archive of continuous imagery and high-resolution emission rates in combination with continuous data from other monitoring techniques provides insight into shallow volcanic processes occurring at the Overlook Crater. An exemplary dataset from September 2013 is discussed in which a variation in the efficiency of shallow circulation and convection, the processes that transport volatile-rich magma to the surface of the summit lava lake, appears to have caused two distinctly different phases of lake activity and degassing. This first successful deployment of an SO2 camera for continuous, real-time volcano monitoring shows how this versatile technique might soon be adapted and applied to monitor SO2 degassing at other volcanoes around the world.

  13. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  14. Continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, David P.; Zamzow, Daniel S.; Eckels, David E.; Miller, George P.

    1999-12-01

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  15. Is predictive emission monitoring an acceptable low cost alternative to continuous emission monitoring for complying with enhanced monitoring requirements?

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    Title VII of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (the {open_quotes}Act{close_quotes}) expanded and clarified the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) enforcement capabilities under the Act. Section 702 of the 1990 Amendments clarified EPA`s ability to require sources to provide information. Additionally, Section 702(b) required EPA to promulgate rules on enhanced monitoring and compliance certifications by adding a new section 114(a)(3) of the Act which states in part: {open_quotes}The Administrator shall in the case of any person which is the owner or operator of a major stationary source, and any in the case of any other person, require enhanced monitoring and submission of compliance certifications. Compliance certifications shall include (A) identification of the applicable requirement that is the basis of the certification, (B) the method used for determining the compliance status of the source, (C) the compliance status, (D) whether compliance is continuous or intermittent, (E) such other facts as the Administrator may require...{close_quotes} The 1990 Amendments contained several other changes that either relate directly to section 114(a)(3) or provide additional indications of the intent behind the new section. First, section 504(b) of the Amendments permits the Administrator to promulgate appropriate tests methods and monitoring requirements for determining compliance. That section states that {open_quotes}continuous emissions monitoring need not be required if alternative methods are available that provide sufficiently reliable and timely information for determining compliance.{close_quotes} This paper will describe Predictive Emission Systems (PEMS) and how the applications of PEMS may be a low cost, accurate, and acceptable alternative to Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) for complying with Enhanced Monitoring requirements.

  16. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-07-25

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide.

  17. EVALUATION OF HCL CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the findings obtained from the field evaluation of commercially available HCl monitoring equipment at a municipal waste-fired boiler which was not equipped with HCl emission control equipment. The analyzers were operated continuously during a two-month test p...

  18. An automated SO2 camera system for continuous, real-time monitoring of gas emissions from Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Christoph; Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Lee, Robert Lopaka; Kamibayashi, Kevan P.; Antolik, Loren; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    SO2 camera systems allow rapid two-dimensional imaging of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from volcanic vents. Here, we describe the development of an SO2 camera system specifically designed for semi-permanent field installation and continuous use. The integration of innovative but largely “off-the-shelf” components allowed us to assemble a robust and highly customizable instrument capable of continuous, long-term deployment at Kīlauea Volcano's summit Overlook Crater. Recorded imagery is telemetered to the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) where a novel automatic retrieval algorithm derives SO2 column densities and emission rates in real-time. Imagery and corresponding emission rates displayed in the HVO operations center and on the internal observatory website provide HVO staff with useful information for assessing the volcano's current activity. The ever-growing archive of continuous imagery and high-resolution emission rates in combination with continuous data from other monitoring techniques provides insight into shallow volcanic processes occurring at the Overlook Crater. An exemplary dataset from September 2013 is discussed in which a variation in the efficiency of shallow circulation and convection, the processes that transport volatile-rich magma to the surface of the summit lava lake, appears to have caused two distinctly different phases of lake activity and degassing. This first successful deployment of an SO2 camera for continuous, real-time volcano monitoring shows how this versatile technique might soon be adapted and applied to monitor SO2 degassing at other volcanoes around the world.

  19. Mobile health monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Walker, William; Aroul, A L Praveen; Bhatia, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    Advancements are being made towards a cheap and effective means for health monitoring. A mobile monitoring system is proposed for monitoring a bicycle rider using light weight, low power wireless sensors. Biometric and environmental information pertaining to the bicycle rider is captured, transmitted to, and stored in a remote database with little user interaction required. Remote users have real time access to the captured information through a web application. Possible applications for this system include the monitoring of a soldier in the battlefield and the monitoring of a patient during an ambulance ride. PMID:19965041

  20. Operational real-time monitoring of volcanic SO2 emission rates using an innovative SO2 camera system and sophisticated retrieval techniques (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, C.; Burton, M. R.; Elias, T.; Luebcke, P.; Mori, T.; Esposti Ongaro, T.; Prata, F.; Sutton, A. J.; Tamburello, G.; Werner, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    With the advent of SO2 camera systems some years ago, it became possible to image volcanic SO2 plumes at high temporal and spatial resolutions. Systems operating in the ultra-violet region measure the absorption of scattered solar radiation by SO2 in a narrow wavelength channel centered around 310 nm. A first-order correction for the effect of aerosol scattering is obtained by recording coincident images in at least one additional, off-band channel, typically centered around 330 nm. The promise of measuring SO2 emission rates at time resolutions comparable to geophysical techniques has led to increasingly widespread application of such systems. Until recently, however, a number of issues made SO2 camera systems difficult to use quantitatively for continuous monitoring. For one, UV-sensitive CCD camera technology lacked the durability required for continuous use. Also, because these camera systems collect very limited spectral information the potentially complex radiative transfer of a given scene, which can significantly impact SO2 retrievals, was not quantifiable. System calibrations were typically performed using gas cell measurements, but this approach is not valid for distant or optically thick plumes, or for plumes containing ash. Finally, the use of simple correlation techniques to derive plume velocity usually required manual input and did not take into account that the velocity typically varies throughout the plume. Together, these effects could easily lead to absolute errors of 100% or more in retrieved SO2 emission rates. Here we present solutions to these major challenges. First, we describe an SO2 camera system that uses two modern UV-sensitive CCD cameras with electronic shutters that are integrated with a moderate resolution UV spectrometer. The system software retrieves plume velocity fields in two dimensions, thus improving the accuracy of the derived SO2 emission rates while at the same time providing purposeful data for the study of plume dynamics

  1. 40 CFR 60.3041 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems, and is the data collection... collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems, and is the data collection requirement enforceable... deviated from the data collection requirement regardless of the emission level monitored. (e) If you do...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1750 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems and is the data collection... I must collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems and is the data collection requirement... the data collection requirement regardless of the emission level monitored, and you must notify...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1260 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems and is the data collection... monitoring systems and is the data collection requirement enforceable? (a) Where continuous emission... the data collection requirement regardless of the emission level monitored, and you must notify...

  4. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  5. BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (BEIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) is a computer algorithm used to generate emissions for air quality simulation models, such as EPAs Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM). Emission sources that are modeled include volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegeta...

  6. Inductive System Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.

  7. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, William L.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    1998-07-07

    The instant invention discloses method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, and sampling probes, in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream.

  8. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, W.L.; Renzi, R.F.

    1998-07-07

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, sampling probes, and in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream. 6 figs.

  9. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Don E; Ezell, Matthew A; Becklehimer, Jeff; Donovan, Matthew J; Layton, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  10. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.403 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Any owner or operator subject to... of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any phosphate rock dryer, calciner, or grinder. The span of this system shall be set at 40-percent opacity. (b) For ground phosphate rock storage...

  11. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.403 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Any owner or operator subject to... of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any phosphate rock dryer, calciner, or grinder. The span of this system shall be set at 40-percent opacity. (b) For ground phosphate rock storage...

  12. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Phosphate Rock Plants § 60.403 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Any owner or operator subject to... of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any phosphate rock dryer, calciner, or grinder. The span of this system shall be set at 40-percent opacity. (b) For ground phosphate rock storage...

  13. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  14. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum expected hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit P.S. 4A Method 10 with alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25...

  15. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit, gas-fired... moisture content is needed to properly calculate the NOX emission rate in lb/mmBtu, e.g., if the...

  16. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit,...

  17. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX... provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. (a) Coal-fired units, gas-fired nonpeaking units or oil-fired... for a NOX continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) for each affected coal-fired unit,...

  18. Emissions of NOx, SO2 and CO2 From Power Plants: Evaluating Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) Data Using Airborne Field Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicks, D.; Ryerson, T.; Holloway, J.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D.; Frost, G.; Hubler, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Sueper, D.; Fehsenfeld, F.

    2002-12-01

    Airborne studies of power plant emissions were conducted during the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) in 1999, the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) in 2000 and the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) study in 2002. Measurements of NOy, CO2 and SO2 were made in near-field transects of power plant plumes aboard the NOAA WP-3D and NCAR L-188 Electra aircraft. Ratios of the primary emissions NOy, SO2 and CO2, and/or fluxes of those gases determined by integration of plume mixing ratios, were compared to data from CEMS equipment installed to directly measure plant emissions from power generation units. This study presents field measurements from over 180 transects of plumes from 20 separate power plants in the Eastern and Western United States and Texas. Estimates of accuracy for the CEMS equipment are presented and probable impacts to annual point source emissions inventories are discussed.

  19. Predictive NO x emission monitoring on board a passenger ferry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. A.; Andreasson, K.

    NO x emissions from a medium speed diesel engine on board a servicing passenger ferry have been indirectly measured using a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) over a 1-yr period. Conventional NO x measurements were carried out with a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) at the start of the study to provide historical data for the empirical PEMS function. On three other occasions during the year the CEMS was also used to verify the PEMS and follow any changes in emission signature of the engine. The PEMS consisted of monitoring exhaust O 2 concentrations (in situ electrochemical probe), engine load, combustion air temperature and humidity, and barometric pressure. Practical experiences with the PEMS equipment were positive and measurement data were transferred to a land-based office by using a modem data communication system. The initial PEMS function (PEMS1) gave systematic differences of 1.1-6.9% of the calibration domain (0-1725 ppm) and a relative accuracy of 6.7% when compared with CEMS for whole journeys and varying load situations. Further improvements on the performance could be obtained by updating this function. The calculated yearly emission for a total engine running time of 4618 h was 316 t NO x±38 t and the average NO x emission corrected for ambient conditions 14.3 g kWh corr-1. The exhaust profile of the engine in terms of NO x, CO and CO 2 emissions as determined by CEMS was similar for most of the year. Towards the end of the study period, a significantly lower NO x emission was detected which was probably caused by replacement of fuel injector nozzles. The study suggests that PEMS can be a viable option for continuous, long-term NO x measurements on board ships.

  20. Remote maintenance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G. (Inventor); Owens, Richard C. (Inventor); Rochette, Donn A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A remote maintenance monitoring system retrofits to a given hardware device with a sensor implant which gathers and captures failure data from the hardware device, without interfering with its operation. Failure data is continuously obtained from predetermined critical points within the hardware device, and is analyzed with a diagnostic expert system, which isolates failure origin to a particular component within the hardware device. For example, monitoring of a computer-based device may include monitoring of parity error data therefrom, as well as monitoring power supply fluctuations therein, so that parity error and power supply anomaly data may be used to trace the failure origin to a particular plane or power supply within the computer-based device. A plurality of sensor implants may be rerofit to corresponding plural devices comprising a distributed large-scale system. Transparent interface of the sensors to the devices precludes operative interference with the distributed network. Retrofit capability of the sensors permits monitoring of even older devices having no built-in testing technology. Continuous real time monitoring of a distributed network of such devices, coupled with diagnostic expert system analysis thereof, permits capture and analysis of even intermittent failures, thereby facilitating maintenance of the monitored large-scale system.

  1. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are performed on the CEMS, a minimum of two valid data points (one in each of two quadrants) are... least one valid data point must be obtained with each monitor for each quadrant of the hour in which...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are performed on the CEMS, a minimum of two valid data points (one in each of two quadrants) are... least one valid data point must be obtained with each monitor for each quadrant of the hour in which...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are performed on the CEMS, a minimum of two valid data points (one in each of two quadrants) are... least one valid data point must be obtained with each monitor for each quadrant of the hour in which...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are performed on the CEMS, a minimum of two valid data points (one in each of two quadrants) are... least one valid data point must be obtained with each monitor for each quadrant of the hour in which...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2942 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems, and is the data collection... with my continuous emission monitoring systems, and is the data collection requirement enforceable? (a... monitoring systems are temporarily unavailable to meet the data collection requirements, refer to table 3...

  6. Biogenic Emissions Inventory System

    EPA Science Inventory

    ***BEIS3 is now embedded in the CMAQ model***

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System, Version 3 (BEIS3) is being developed to support the needs of regional and urban-scale air quality simulation models. BEIS3 is designed to be incorporated into the Sparse Matrix Op...

  7. Vital signs monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ffff of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to collect data 1. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the waste combustion unit P.S.4A Method 10. 2. Oxygen 25 percent oxygen P.S.3 Method 3A or...

  9. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the... Method 10 with alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A or 3B....

  10. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the... Method 10 with alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A or 3B....

  11. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the... Method 10 with alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A or 3B....

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide emissions of the municipal waste combustion unit 4. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the... Method 10 with alternative interference trap. 5. Oxygen or Carbon Dioxide 25 percent oxygen or 25 percent carbon dioxide P.S. 3 Method 3A or 3B....

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ffff of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to collect data 1. Carbon Monoxide 125 percent of the maximum hourly potential carbon monoxide emissions of the waste combustion unit P.S.4A Method 10. 2. Oxygen 25 percent oxygen P.S.3 Method 3A or...

  14. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  15. Copilot: Monitoring Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee; Wegmann, Nis; Niller, Sebastian; Goodloe, Alwyn

    2012-01-01

    Runtime verification (RV) is a natural fit for ultra-critical systems, where correctness is imperative. In ultra-critical systems, even if the software is fault-free, because of the inherent unreliability of commodity hardware and the adversity of operational environments, processing units (and their hosted software) are replicated, and fault-tolerant algorithms are used to compare the outputs. We investigate both software monitoring in distributed fault-tolerant systems, as well as implementing fault-tolerance mechanisms using RV techniques. We describe the Copilot language and compiler, specifically designed for generating monitors for distributed, hard real-time systems. We also describe two case-studies in which we generated Copilot monitors in avionics systems.

  16. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  17. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  18. The NASA Carbon Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emission inventories, forest carbon sequestration programs (e.g., Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD and REDD+), cap-and-trade systems, self-reporting programs, and their associated monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) frameworks depend upon data that are accurate, systematic, practical, and transparent. A sustained, observationally-driven carbon monitoring system using remote sensing data has the potential to significantly improve the relevant carbon cycle information base for the U.S. and world. Initiated in 2010, NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) project is prototyping and conducting pilot studies to evaluate technological approaches and methodologies to meet carbon monitoring and reporting requirements for multiple users and over multiple scales of interest. NASA's approach emphasizes exploitation of the satellite remote sensing resources, computational capabilities, scientific knowledge, airborne science capabilities, and end-to-end system expertise that are major strengths of the NASA Earth Science program. Through user engagement activities, the NASA CMS project is taking specific actions to be responsive to the needs of stakeholders working to improve carbon MRV frameworks. The first phase of NASA CMS projects focused on developing products for U.S. biomass/carbon stocks and global carbon fluxes, and on scoping studies to identify stakeholders and explore other potential carbon products. The second phase built upon these initial efforts, with a large expansion in prototyping activities across a diversity of systems, scales, and regions, including research focused on prototype MRV systems and utilization of COTS technologies. Priorities for the future include: 1) utilizing future satellite sensors, 2) prototyping with commercial off-the-shelf technology, 3) expanding the range of prototyping activities, 4) rigorous evaluation, uncertainty quantification, and error characterization, 5) stakeholder

  19. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Goff, D.R.; Notestein, J.E.

    1985-01-04

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interfering blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  20. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Goff, David R.; Notestein, John E.

    1986-01-01

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interferring blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  1. VME system monitor board

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Much of the machinery throughout the APS will be controlled by VME based computers. In order to increase the reliability of the system, it is necessary to be able to monitor the status of each VME crate. In order to do this, a VME System Monitor was created. In addition to being able to monitor and report the status (watchdog timer, temperature, CPU (Motorola MVME 167) state (status, run, fail), and the power supply), it includes provisions to remotely reset the CPU and VME crate, digital I/O, and parts of the transition module (serial port and ethernet connector) so that the Motorla MVME 712 is not needed. The standard VME interface was modified on the System Monitor so that in conjunction with the Motorola MVME 167 a message based VXI interrupt handler could is implemented. The System Monitor is a single VME card (6U). It utilizes both the front panel and the P2 connector for I/O. The front panel contains a temperature monitor, watchdog status LED, 4 general status LEDs, input for a TTL interrupt, 8 binary inputs (24 volt, 5 volt, and dry contact sense), 4 binary outputs (dry contact, TTL, and 100 mA), serial port (electrical RS-232 or fiber optic), ethernet transceiver (10 BASE-FO or AUI), and a status link to neighbor crates. The P2 connector is used to provide the serial port and ethernet to the processor. In order to abort and read the status of the CPU, a jumper cable must be connected between the CPU and the System Monitor.

  2. System health monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Reneke, J.A.; Fryer, M.O.

    1995-08-01

    Well designed large systems include many instrument taking data. These data are used in a variety of ways. They are used to control the system and its components, to monitor system and component health, and often for historical or financial purposes. This paper discusses a new method of using data from low level instrumentation to monitor system and component health. The method uses the covariance of instrument outputs to calculate a measure of system change. The method involves no complicated modeling since it is not a parameter estimation algorithm. The method is iterative and can be implemented on a computer in real time. Examples are presented for a metal lathe and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. It is shown that the proposed method is quite sensitive to system changes such as wear out and failure. The method is useful for low level system diagnostics and fault detection.

  3. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  4. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  5. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  6. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  7. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  8. Multizone infiltration monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, D.N.; Burch, J.; Judkoff, R.

    1982-06-01

    A multizone infiltration monitoring system (MIMS) using a single tracer gas has been developed. MIMS measures zonal infiltration and exfiltration as well as interzonal air movement rates. The system has been used at the 4-zone test house at the SERI interim field site, and this paper presents preliminary results. The present system can determine zonal infiltration rates, and the results show significant differences in infiltration rates for the various zones.

  9. Environmental Monitoring Data System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-21

    A set of database management tools, data processing tools, and auxiliary support functionality for processing and handling semi-structured environmental monitoring data. The system provides a flexible description language for describing the data, allowing the database to store disparate data from many different sources without changes to the configuration. The system employs XML to support unlimited named allribute/value pairs for each object defined in the system.

  10. Continuous monitoring of particle emissions during showering.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Kenneth A; Ollison, Will M

    2006-12-01

    Particle formation from showering may be attributed to dissolved mineral aerosols remaining after evaporation of micron-sized satellite droplets produced by the showerhead or from splashing of larger shower water droplets on surfaces. Duplicate continuous particle monitors measured particle size distributions in a ventilated residential bathroom under various showering conditions, using a full-size mannequin in the shower to simulate splashing effects during showering. Particle mass concentrations were estimated from measured shower particle number densities and used to develop emission factors for inhalable particles. Emission source strengths of 2.7-41.3 microg/ m3/min were estimated under the various test conditions using residential tap water in Columbus, OH. Calculated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in the bathroom reached several hundred micrograms per cubic meter; calculated coarse particulate matter (PM10) levels approached 1000 microg/m3. Rates of particle formation tended to be highest for coarse shower spray settings with direct impact on the mannequin. No consistent effects of water temperature, water pressure, or spray setting on overall emission rates were apparent, although water temperature and spray setting did have an effect when varied within a single shower sampling run. Salt solutions were injected into the source water during some tests to assess the effects of total dissolved solids on particle emission rates. Injection of salts was shown to increase the PM2.5 particle formation rate by approximately one third, on average, for a doubling in tap water-dissolved solids content; PM10 source strengths approximately doubled under these conditions, because very few particles >10 microm were formed. PMID:17195485

  11. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14

    Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90

  12. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, John

    2015-01-01

    The shrinking size and weight of electronic circuitry has given rise to a new generation of smart clothing that enables biological data to be measured and transmitted. As the variation in the number and type of deployable devices and sensors increases, technology must allow their seamless integration so they can be electrically powered, operated, and recharged over a digital pathway. Nyx Illuminated Clothing Company has developed a lightweight health monitoring system that integrates medical sensors, electrodes, electrical connections, circuits, and a power supply into a single wearable assembly. The system is comfortable, bendable in three dimensions, durable, waterproof, and washable. The innovation will allow astronaut health monitoring in a variety of real-time scenarios, with data stored in digital memory for later use in a medical database. Potential commercial uses are numerous, as the technology enables medical personnel to noninvasively monitor patient vital signs in a multitude of health care settings and applications.

  13. 40 CFR 61.93 - Emission monitoring and test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring and test procedures. 61.93 Section 61.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than...

  14. Benzene Monitor System report

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R.R.

    1992-10-12

    Two systems for monitoring benzene in aqueous streams have been designed and assembled by the Savannah River Technology Center, Analytical Development Section (ADS). These systems were used at TNX to support sampling studies of the full-scale {open_quotes}SRAT/SME/PR{close_quotes} and to provide real-time measurements of benzene in Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) simulant. This report describes the two ADS Benzene Monitor System (BMS) configurations, provides data on system operation, and reviews the results of scoping tests conducted at TNX. These scoping tests will allow comparison with other benzene measurement options being considered for use in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) laboratory. A report detailing the preferred BMS configuration statistical performance during recent tests has been issued under separate title: Statistical Analyses of the At-line Benzene Monitor Study, SCS-ASG-92-066. The current BMS design, called the At-line Benzene Monitor (ALBM), allows remote measurement of benzene in PHA solutions. The authors have demonstrated the ability to calibrate and operate this system using peanut vials from a standard Hydragard{trademark} sampler. The equipment and materials used to construct the ALBM are similar to those already used in other applications by the DWPF lab. The precision of this system ({+-}0.5% Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) at 1 sigma) is better than the purge & trap-gas chromatograpy reference method currently in use. Both BMSs provide a direct measurement of the benzene that can be purged from a solution with no sample pretreatment. Each analysis requires about five minutes per sample, and the system operation requires no special skills or training. The analyzer`s computer software can be tailored to provide desired outputs. Use of this system produces no waste stream other than the samples themselves (i.e. no organic extractants).

  15. The Chandra Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolk, S. J.; Petreshock, J. G.; Allen, P.; Bartholowmew, R. T.; Isobe, T.; Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; Dewey, D.

    The NASA Great Observatory Chandra was launched July 23, 1999 aboard the space shuttle Columbia. The Chandra Science Center (CXC) runs a monitoring and trends analysis program to maximize the science return from this mission. At the time of the launch, the monitoring portion of this system was in place. The system is a collection of multiple threads and programming methodologies acting cohesively. Real-time data are passed to the CXC. Our real-time tool, ACORN (A Comprehensive object-ORiented Necessity), performs limit checking of performance related hardware. Chandra is in ground contact less than 3 hours a day, so the bulk of the monitoring must take place on data dumped by the spacecraft. To do this, we have written several tools which run off of the CXC data system pipelines. MTA_MONITOR_STATIC, limit checks FITS files containing hardware data. MTA_EVENT_MON and MTA_GRAT_MON create quick look data for the focal place instruments and the transmission gratings. When instruments violate their operational limits, the responsible scientists are notified by email and problem tracking is initiated. Output from all these codes is distributed to CXC scientists via HTML interface.

  16. Vendors unveil one-step fugitive emissions monitoring, management

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.

    1995-04-01

    An alliance of manufacturers has developed a ``single-source solution`` for fugitive emissions monitoring. The LeakTracker{trademark} system combines barcode scans, and vapor detection and data collection capabilities to help companies comply with leak detection and repair requirements as mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency`s Method 21 guidelines. LeakTracker doubles productivity and helps eliminate human-error factors associated with fugitive emissions monitoring. Two-person teams, clipboard-and-pencil data entry, and manual data transcription are eliminated. By automating the process and integrating all components, a technician can monitor 500 points daily following Method 21 guidelines, compared to about 250 readings per day using other systems. LeakTracker includes a handheld workstation, sampling probe and laser-scan barcode reader that fit in a vest worn by a field technician. The technician points the workstation toward a barcode tag and pulls the trigger, which initiates a barcode read and automatically records the time, date and location. While the detachable probe ``sniffs`` for emissions, an analyzer interface module converts the gas detection signal from analog to digital format, allowing data to be recorded by the workstation. LeakTracker has an accuracy rate of 1 part per million.

  17. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx, SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of NOx, SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid and nitric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals.

  18. Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Russ Braunling

    2004-10-31

    The Corrosion Monitoring System (CMS) program developed and demonstrated a continuously on-line system that provides real-time corrosion information. The program focused on detecting pitting corrosion in its early stages. A new invention called the Intelligent Ultrasonic Probe (IUP) was patented on the program. The IUP uses ultrasonic guided waves to detect small defects and a Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) algorithm to provide an image of the pits. Testing of the CMS demonstrated the capability to detect pits with dimensionality in the sub-millimeter range. The CMS was tested in both the laboratory and in a pulp and paper industrial plant. The system is capable of monitoring the plant from a remote location using the internet.

  19. Inductive System Monitors Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software developed at Ames Research Center uses artificial intelligence and data mining techniques to build system-monitoring knowledge bases from archived or simulated sensor data. This information is then used to detect unusual or anomalous behavior that may indicate an impending system failure. Currently helping analyze data from systems that help fly and maintain the space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), the IMS has also been employed by data classes are then used to build a monitoring knowledge base. In real time, IMS performs monitoring functions: determining and displaying the degree of deviation from nominal performance. IMS trend analyses can detect conditions that may indicate a failure or required system maintenance. The development of IMS was motivated by the difficulty of producing detailed diagnostic models of some system components due to complexity or unavailability of design information. Successful applications have ranged from real-time monitoring of aircraft engine and control systems to anomaly detection in space shuttle and ISS data. IMS was used on shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and STS-116 to search the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) data for signs of possible damaging impacts during launch. It independently verified findings of the WLEIDS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) analysts and indicated additional points of interest that were subsequently investigated by the MER team. In support of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, IMS is being deployed as an anomaly detection tool on ISS mission control consoles in the Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate. IMS has been trained to detect faults in the ISS Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) systems. In laboratory tests, it has already detected several minor anomalies in real-time CMG data. When tested on archived data, IMS was able to detect precursors of the CMG1 failure nearly 15 hours in advance of

  20. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David E.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Janz, Scott J.

    2014-06-01

    TEMPO, selected by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest-cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50 %. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well-proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary data set. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement

  1. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Janz, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    TEMPO is a proposed concept to measure pollution for greater North America using ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar/oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (9 km2). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary data set. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007

  2. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.; Tempo Science Team

    2013-05-01

    TEMPO has been selected by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar/oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (Mexico City is measured at 1.6 km N/S by 4.5 km E/W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary

  3. [Monitoring gas concentration from carbon emissions by remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Wen; Wei, Ya-Xing

    2012-06-01

    Global climate warming has become the focus question of international global climate change research, and is an important factor influencing world economy, political situation, and ecological environment. Produced carbon emission gases such as CO2, CH4, N2O, etc. caused by human activity are the main reason for global warming. In order to forecast future climate change and construct accurate carbon cycle model, monitoring accuracy of gas concentration from carbon emission must be improved. In the present paper, the newest progress in the international research results about monitoring gas concentration from carbon emissions by remote sensing was considered, monitoring method for carbon emissions was introduced, and remotely sensed monitoring technology about gas concentration from carbon emissions (including thermal infrared, sun spectrum, active remote sensing monitoring technology) was stated. In detail, several present and future satellite sensors were introduced (including TOVS, AIRS, IASI, SCIAMACHY, GOSAT, OCO, A-SCOPE and ASCENDS), and monitoring results achieved by these sensors were analyzed. PMID:22870656

  4. Monitoring damage growth in titanium matrix composites using acoustic emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Prosser, W. H.; Johnson, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the acoustic emission (AE) technique to locate and monitor damage growth in titanium matrix composites (TMC) was investigated. Damage growth was studied using several optical techniques including a long focal length, high magnification microscope system with image acquisition capabilities. Fracture surface examinations were conducted using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The AE technique was used to locate damage based on the arrival times of AE events between two sensors. Using model specimens exhibiting a dominant failure mechanism, correlations were established between the observed damage growth mechanisms and the AE results in terms of the events amplitude. These correlations were used to monitor the damage growth process in laminates exhibiting multiple modes of damage. Results revealed that the AE technique is a viable and effective tool to monitor damage growth in TMC.

  5. Specifications Physiological Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The operation of a physiological monitoring system (PMS) is described. Specifications were established for performance, design, interface, and test requirements. The PMS is a compact, microprocessor-based system, which can be worn in a pack on the body or may be mounted on a Spacelab rack or other appropriate structure. It consists of two modules, the Data Control Unit (DCU) and the Remote Control/Display Unit (RCDU). Its purpose is to collect and distribute data from physiological experiments in the Spacelab and in the Orbiter.

  6. Modular biowaste monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the Modular Biowaste Monitoring System Program was to generate and evaluate hardware for supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs. An initial conceptual design effort established requirements and defined an overall modular system for the collection, measurement, sampling and storage of urine and feces biowastes. This conceptual design effort was followed by the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a flight prototype model urine collection, volume measurement and sampling capability. No operational or performance deficiencies were uncovered as a result of the performance evaluation tests.

  7. Acoustic emission monitoring of HFIR vessel during hydrostatic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the results and conclusions reached from applying acoustic emission monitoring to surveillance of the High Flux Isotope Reactor vessel during pressure testing. The objective of the monitoring was to detect crack growth and/or fluid leakage should it occur during the pressure test. The report addresses the approach, acoustic emission instrumentation, installation, calibration, and test results.

  8. Effluent emissions monitoring at the DOE Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, L.W.

    1993-05-01

    There are numerous regulatory requirements controlling the effluent emissions monitoring at a U.S. Department of Energy site. This paper defines how these regulatory effluent emissions monitoring requirements and the Quality Assurance oversight of these requirements were implemented by Westinghouse Hanford Company, the operations contractor, at the DOE Hanford Site.

  9. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  10. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  11. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  12. Rocket engine condition monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Hagar, S.K.; Alcock, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    It is expected that the Rocket Engine Condition Monitoring System (RECMS) program will define engine monitoring technologies and an integration approach which can be applied to engine development in support of advanced launch system objectives. The RECMS program approaches engine monitoring as a system which is fully integrated with the engine controller, vehicle monitoring system, and ground processing systems to ensure mission success in addition to engine reliability. The system components are monitored through health and performance sensors; they are analyzed with the diagnostic and prognostic algorithms and demonstrated by system testing with hardware from other advanced development programs.

  13. Welding monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, Stephen G. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor); Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to systems for remotely monitoring automatic welding operations, and more particularly to a system wherein the welder is readily positionable, while components of the optical system remain fixed. A welder having an electrode is mounted in an enclosure containing a pair of mirrors. The electrode passes through an opening in the first mirror and a gas cup. The mirror reflects an image of a welding operation taken through the opening of the gas cup to the second mirror. The second mirror then reflects the image through a rotary coupling to a third mirror which, in turn, reflects the image to a receiving lense mounted to a second rotatable coupling. The image is then projected via a fiber optic bundle to a filter unit where selected wavelengths of light are filtered from the welding image. The filter unit is coupled to an enlarger which enlarges the image and passes it to a camera. The camera is connected to an electronic eclipser which selectively darkens the brightest portions of the image. Finally, the image is recorded by a video tape recorder and displayed by a monitor.

  14. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  15. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  16. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  17. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements and procedures contained in Performance Specification 1 of appendix B of 40 CFR part 60. (c...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  18. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  19. Groundwater monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Ames, Kenneth R.; Doesburg, James M.; Eschbach, Eugene A.; Kelley, Roy C.; Myers, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A groundwater monitoring system includes a bore, a well casing within and spaced from the bore, and a pump within the casing. A water impermeable seal between the bore and the well casing prevents surface contamination from entering the pump. Above the ground surface is a removable operating means which is connected to the pump piston by a flexible cord. A protective casing extends above ground and has a removable cover. After a groundwater sample has been taken, the cord is disconnected from the operating means. The operating means is removed for taking away, the cord is placed within the protective casing, and the cover closed and locked. The system is thus protected from contamination, as well as from damage by accident or vandalism.

  20. Remote water monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Haynes, D. P. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A remote water monitoring system is described that integrates the functions of sampling, sample preservation, sample analysis, data transmission and remote operation. The system employs a floating buoy carrying an antenna connected by lines to one or more sampling units containing several sample chambers. Receipt of a command signal actuates a solenoid to open an intake valve outward from the sampling unit and communicates the water sample to an identifiable sample chamber. Such response to each signal receipt is repeated until all sample chambers are filled in a sample unit. Each sample taken is analyzed by an electrochemical sensor for a specific property and the data obtained is transmitted to a remote sending and receiving station. Thereafter, the samples remain isolated in the sample chambers until the sampling unit is recovered and the samples removed for further laboratory analysis.

  1. 40 CFR 75.11 - Specific provisions for monitoring SO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... achieve the performance specifications of this part. (d) Gas-fired and oil-fired units. The owner or... requirements in § 75.10 for an SO2 continuous emission monitoring system and a flow monitoring system for each affected coal-fired unit while the unit is combusting coal and/or any other fuel, except as provided...

  2. Multiplexing Technology for Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William; Percy, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of damage mechanisms such as cracks and delaminations generate acoustic waves, which propagate through a structure. These waves can be detected and analyzed to provide the location and severity of damage as part of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. This methodology of damage detection is commonly known as acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, and is widely used on a variety of applications on civil structures. AE has been widely considered for SHM of aerospace vehicles. Numerous successful ground and flight test demonstrations have been performed, which show the viability of the technology for damage monitoring in aerospace structures. However, one significant current limitation for application of AE techniques on aerospace vehicles is the large size, mass, and power requirements for the necessary monitoring instrumentation. To address this issue, a prototype multiplexing approach has been developed and demonstrated in this study, which reduces the amount of AE monitoring instrumentation required. Typical time division multiplexing techniques that are commonly used to monitor strain, pressure and temperature sensors are not applicable to AE monitoring because of the asynchronous and widely varying rates of AE signal occurrence. Thus, an event based multiplexing technique was developed. In the initial prototype circuit, inputs from eight sensors in a linear array were multiplexed into two data acquisition channels. The multiplexer rapidly switches, in less than one microsecond, allowing the signals from two sensors to be acquired by a digitizer. The two acquired signals are from the sensors on either side of the trigger sensor. This enables the capture of the first arrival of the waves, which cannot be accomplished with the signal from the trigger sensor. The propagation delay to the slightly more distant neighboring sensors makes this possible. The arrival time from this first arrival provides a more accurate source location

  3. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system.

  4. Monitoring the progress of emission inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.A. Jr.; Solomon, D.; Husk, M.; Irving, B.; Kruger, D.; Levin. L.

    2006-12-15

    This issue of EM contains three articles which focus on the latest improvements on the emissions inventory process. The first, 'Building the national emissions inventory: challenges and plans for improvements' by Doug Solomon and Martin Husk (pages 8-11), looks at the US national emissions inventory. The next, 'Greenhouse gas inventories - a historical perspective and assessment of improvements since 1990' by Bill Irving and Dina Kruger (pages 12-19) assesses improvements in national and international greenhouse gas emissions inventories over the last 15 years. The third article, 'The global mercury emissions inventory' by Leonard Levin (pages 20-25) gives an overview of the challenges associated with conducting a worldwide inventory of mercury emissions.

  5. Ignition system monitoring assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brushwood, John Samuel

    2003-11-04

    An ignition system monitoring assembly for use in a combustion engine is disclosed. The assembly includes an igniter having at least one positioning guide with at least one transmittal member being maintained in a preferred orientation by one of the positioning guides. The transmittal member is in optical communication with a corresponding target region, and optical information about the target region is conveyed to the reception member via the transmittal member. The device allows real-time observation of optical characteristics of the target region. The target region may be the spark gap between the igniter electrodes, or other predetermined locations in optical communication with the transmittal member. The reception member may send an output signal to a processing member which, in turn, may produce a response to the output signal.

  6. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be used to meet the requirements of this section. (c) A daily span check is to be conducted for each... section, except the one for which an emission limit is prescribed in § 61.62(b), the daily span check is... which an emission limit is prescribed in § 61.62(b), the daily span check is to be conducted with...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A MONITOR FOR HCN IN MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three real-time monitors for measurement of HCN concentrations in mobile source emissions have been designed, built, tested, and delivered to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The important design parameters for these identical instruments were determined during the firs...

  8. The ABB transformer monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Claiborne, C.; Gorman, M.; Petrie, E.M.

    1996-03-01

    ABB is currently developing a transformer monitoring system that will continuously perform multiple gas-in-oil and partial discharge analyses. The new monitoring system is designed to be simple and reliable. It can be applied to new units or easily retrofitted to existing transformers. The parameters that are monitored are those that are most commonly evaluated when diagnosing the condition of a power transformer. A multiple gas monitor can selectively detect and measure hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and the combination of methane and ethane. The partial discharge monitor employs an electrical method to detect partial discharges that originate from sources only within the transformer. Prototype systems will be field tested in 1995.

  9. Comparison of tunnel ventilation emissions monitoring data against predicted modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Kasprak, A.; Schattanek, G.

    1997-12-31

    On December 15, 1995, the new Ted Williams Tunnel (TWT) opened for commercial and taxi traffic between South and East Boston. This opening of the TWT constitutes the Early Opening Phase which will extend until the completion of the Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) Project, when the connection between the TWT, the Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90), and the Central Artery (I-93) will be completed and fully opened for general public use. The ventilation system for the TWT is a fully transverse ventilation system that is comprised of numerous supply and exhaust fans and ancillary equipment housed in two separate ventilation buildings. Emissions from vehicles are ventilated to the outside atmosphere through a series of exhaust stacks, housed on each ventilation building. During the Early Opening Phase of the TWT, a monitoring program is being conducted to determine if the emissions from each ventilation building are within the ranges of the projected emissions used in the design of the tunnel`s ventilation system. This paper presents the results of the emissions monitoring program and compares projected emissions data with the actual emissions data recorded during the monitoring program. In addition, a comparison is made regarding monitoring emissions data within the tunnel with predicted emission data using the current Mobile 5a Emission Factor Model.

  10. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section 60... Generating Units § 60.49Da Emission monitoring. (a) An owner or operator of an affected facility subject...

  11. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section 60... Generating Units § 60.49Da Emission monitoring. (a) An owner or operator of an affected facility subject...

  12. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  13. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  14. Owl: Next Generation System Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M; White, B S; McKee, S A; Lee, H S; Jeitner, J

    2005-02-16

    As microarchitectural and system complexity grows, comprehending system behavior becomes increasingly difficult, and often requires obtaining and sifting through voluminous event traces or coordinating results from multiple, non-localized sources. Owl is a proposed framework that overcomes limitations faced by traditional performance counters and monitoring facilities in dealing with such complexity by pervasively deploying programmable monitoring elements throughout a system. The design exploits reconfigurable or programmable logic to realize hardware monitors located at event sources, such as memory buses. These monitors run and writeback results autonomously with respect to the CPU, mitigating the system impact of interrupt-driven monitoring or the need to communicate irrelevant events to higher levels of the system. The monitors are designed to snoop any kind of system transaction, e.g., within the core, on a bus, across the wire, or within I/O devices.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MERCURY CEMS FOR COMBUSTION EMISSIONS MONITORING: SYMPOSIUM/CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-P-625 Ryan*, J.V. Development and Evaluation of Mercury CEMS for Combustion Emissions Monitoring. 17th Annual Waste and Quality Assurance Symp., Arlington, VA, 08/12/01. 2001. EPA/600/A-01/079 (NTIS PB2002-100290). 08/06/2001 Continuous emission montiroing systems (C...

  16. 40 CFR 60.45 - Emissions and fuel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions and fuel monitoring. 60.45 Section 60.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...-Fired Steam Generators for Which Construction Is Commenced After August 17, 1971 § 60.45 Emissions...

  17. 40 CFR 60.45 - Emissions and fuel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emissions and fuel monitoring. 60.45 Section 60.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...-Fired Steam Generators for Which Construction Is Commenced After August 17, 1971 § 60.45 Emissions...

  18. 40 CFR 60.464 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coil Surface Coating § 60.464 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Where compliance with the numerical limit specified in § 60.462(a) (1) or (2) is achieved through the use of low VOC-content coatings without the use of emission control devices or through the use of higher VOC-content coatings...

  19. 40 CFR 63.848 - Emission monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and POM emissions from anode bake furnaces. Using the procedures in § 63.847 and in the approved test plan, the owner or operator shall monitor TF and POM emissions from each anode bake furnace on an... owner or operator of a new or existing potline or anode bake furnace shall install, operate,...

  20. 40 CFR 60.703 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring of emissions and operations. 60.703 Section 60.703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Compound Emissions From...

  1. 40 CFR 60.613 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring of emissions and operations. 60.613 Section 60.613 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions From...

  2. 40 CFR 60.663 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring of emissions and operations. 60.663 Section 60.663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions...

  3. Mobile station for monitoring atmospheric emissions from industrial enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Arshinov, Yu.F.; Belan, B.D.; Bobrovnikov, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    At present different types of mobile stations for ecological monitoring of the environment has been created at various environmental protection agencies. Mostly, such stations differ from each other by the set of equipment employed though they use, as a rule, the same measurement and sampling techniques. Basically, such mobile stations use sampling of air, water, and soil. The collected samples are then analyzed with the laboratory instrumentation. The mobile station we are going to discuss in this paper presents a new type of such systems. The matter is that it enables, in addition to traditional sampling, remote determination of the composition and intensity of the emissions at the mouth of a stack. To do this the station is equipped with a Raman lidar. This station has been tested in a number of field experiments at the territories of different plants and now it is presented for meteorological certification at the Scientific and Production Association {open_quotes}Dal`standart{close_quotes} in Khabarovsk. Thus, the mobile station discussed is capable of monitoring air quality near the ground surface using standard techniques of analysis and of performing air quality police functions, that is to control the emissions from industrial enterprises.

  4. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measurement of the pressure loss of the gas stream through the scrubber. The monitoring device must be... device. The monitoring device must be accurate within ±5 percent of design scrubbing liquid supply... operator of any affected phosphate rock facility using a wet scrubbing emission control device shall not...

  5. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measurement of the pressure loss of the gas stream through the scrubber. The monitoring device must be... device. The monitoring device must be accurate within ±5 percent of design scrubbing liquid supply... operator of any affected phosphate rock facility using a wet scrubbing emission control device shall not...

  6. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, D.

    1997-03-18

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system. 6 figs.

  7. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, David

    1997-01-01

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system.

  8. Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, W.J.; French, N.B.; Brown, C.H.; Burns, D.B.; Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V.; Priebe, S.J.; Waterland, L.R.

    1997-11-17

    Three prototype multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in April 1996 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The CEM instruments were: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES); Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (LIBS); and Laser Spark Spectrometry, another LIBS instrument. The three CEMs were tested simultaneously during test periods in which low, medium, and high concentration levels of seven toxic metals -- antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury -- were maintained under carefully controlled conditions. Two methods were used to introduce the test metals into the flue gas: (1) solution atomization, introducing metal-containing aerosol directly into the secondary combustion burner, and (2) injection of fly ash particulates. The testing addressed four measures of CEM performance: relative accuracy (RA), calibration drift, zero drift, and response time. These were accomplished by comparing the toxic metal analyte concentrations reported by the CEMs to the concentrations measured using the EPA reference method (RM) for the same analytes. Overall, the test results showed the prototype nature of the test CEMs and the clear need for further development. None of the CEMs tested consistently achieved RA values of 20% or less as required by the EPA draft performance specification. Instrument size reduction and automation will also likely need additional attention before multi-metal CEMs systems become commercially available for service as envisioned by regulators and citizens.

  9. 40 CFR 63.848 - Emission monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary control system to determine compliance with the applicable emission limit. The owner or operator... operating cycle. The primary control system must be sampled over an 8-hour period, unless site-specific... demonstrates that their structure, operability, type of emissions, volume of emissions, and concentration...

  10. 40 CFR 63.848 - Emission monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary control system to determine compliance with the applicable emission limit. The owner or operator... operating cycle. The primary control system must be sampled over an 8-hour period, unless site-specific... demonstrates that their structure, operability, type of emissions, volume of emissions, and concentration...

  11. Real-time polarization mode dispersion monitoring system for a multiple-erbium-doped fiber amplifier, dense wavelength division multiplexing optical fiber transmission by amplified spontaneous emission modulation and acousto-optic tunable fiber scanning techniques.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Bao-Jang; Tarn, Chen-Wen

    2009-03-01

    Without interruption or affecting the transmission of ordinary payload channels, we propose a real time polarization mode dispersion (PMD) monitoring system for long-haul, multiple erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber transmission using modulated amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of one of the EDFAs as the supervisory (SV) signal source. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) at the receiver side is adopted to scan the spectrum of the transmitted ASE SV signal. Using the fixed-analyzer method, PMDs of different wavelength bands that range from 1545 to 1580 nm of a DWDM fiber-optic communication system can be found by adaptively changing the radio frequency of the AOTF. The resolution and the measuring range of the proposed monitoring system can be significantly improved by cascading the AOTFs at the receiver side. PMID:19252622

  12. Real-time atomic absorption mercury continuous emission monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamzow, Daniel S.; Bajic, Stanley J.; Eckels, David E.; Baldwin, David P.; Winterrowd, Chris; Keeney, Robert

    2003-08-01

    A continuous emission monitor (CEM) for mercury (Hg) in combustor flue gas streams has been designed and tested for the detection of Hg by optical absorption. A sampling system that allows continuous introduction of stack gas is incorporated into the CEM, for the sequential analysis of elemental and total Hg. A heated pyrolysis tube is used in the system to convert oxidized Hg compounds to elemental Hg for analysis of total Hg; the pyrolysis tube is bypassed to determine the elemental Hg concentration in the gas stream. A key component of the CEM is a laboratory-designed and -assembled echelle spectrometer that provides simultaneous detection of all of the emission lines from a Hg pen lamp, which is used as the light source for the optical absorption measurement. This feature allows for on-line spectroscopic correction for interferent gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, typically present in combustion stack gas streams, that also absorb at the Hg detection wavelength (253.65 nm). This article provides a detailed description of the CEM system, the characteristics and performance of the CEM, and the results of field tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency-Rotary Kiln at Research Triangle Park, NC.

  13. Serial Monitoring of Otoacoustic Emissions in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Poling, Gayla L; Dreisbach, Laura E; Reavis, Kelly M; McMillan, Garnett P; Lapsley Miller, Judi A; Marshall, Lynne

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidance on the use of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) as a clinical trial outcome measure for pharmaceutical interventions developed to prevent acquired hearing loss secondary to cochlear insult. OAEs are a rapid, noninvasive measure that can be used to monitor cochlear outer hair cell function. Serial monitoring of OAEs is most clearly established for use in hearing conservation and ototoxicity monitoring programs in which they exhibit more frequent and earlier changes compared with pure-tone audiometry. They also show promise in recent human trials of otoprotectants. Questions remain, however, concerning the most appropriate OAE protocols to use and what constitutes a "significant" OAE response change. Measurement system capabilities are expanding and test efficacy will vary across locations and patient populations. Yet, standardizing minimal measurement criteria and reporting of results is needed including documentation of test-retest variability so that useful comparisons can be made across trials. It is also clear that protocols must be theoretically sound based on known patterns of damage, generate valid results in most individuals tested, be accurate, repeatable, and involve minimal time. Based on the potential value added, OAEs should be included in clinical trials when measurement conditions and time permit. PMID:27518137

  14. Evaluation of implement monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Rakhra, A K; Mann, D D

    2013-01-01

    During monitoring of rear-mounted equipment, frequent rearward turning of tractor drivers causes awkward postures that can cause musculoskeletal disorders related to the back, neck, and shoulders. The objective of this study was to compare three implement monitoring strategies (direct viewing via physical turning, indirect viewing via rear-view mirrors, and indirect viewing via a camera-monitor system) in a lab environment using a tractor and air seeder driving simulator Comparison was based on monitoring performance of the operator (i.e., response error), physical impact on the operator (i.e., head/neck acceleration and increase in neck muscle temperature), and operator preference. Indirect viewing via a camera-monitor system caused the least physical impact on subjects and was the preferred implement monitoring strategy. No significant differences (alpha = 0.05) in monitoring performance were observed. PMID:23600169

  15. Neutron Monitoring Systems for NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roquemore, A. L.; Darrow, D.; Kugel, H.; Nazikian, R.

    2000-10-01

    The national Spherical Tokamak is entering an operating phase where high power auxiliary heating will be employed. The high harmonic fast wave system will inject up to 6MW of RF power and a deuterium neutral beam will inject up to 5 MW into the deuterium plasma. The neutron emission will be measured by three different systems. To monitor the yield of D-D neutrons for each discharge, a fission chamber operating in the pulse-counting mode was installed at the midplane level of the vessel 50 cm outside the vessel. A preliminary 14-position calibration was made using a Cf-252 source. Three fast plastic hydrocarbon scintillator detectors are also being installed at the midplane with respective angular spacing around the vessel perimeter of 30* and 180*. These detectors will be operated in the current mode and measure neutron fluctuations from MHD. Their spacing was chosen to aid in the identification of toroidal mode numbers. The total neutron fluence will be determined from activation techniques using a selection of foils secured to the outside walls of the vessel. Available data from high power operation will be presented.

  16. OpenSM Monitoring System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-04-17

    The OpenSM Monitoring System includes a collection of diagnostic and monitoring tools for use on Infiniband networks. The information this system gathers is obtained from a service, which in turn is obtained directly from the OpenSM subnet manager.

  17. In-process acoustic emission monitoring of dissimilar metal welding: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    A system to provide real-time, in-process acoustic emission monitoring to detect and locate flaws in bimetallic welds has been demonstrated. This system could provide reliable inspection of critical welds in cases where conventional NDE would be costly or impossible to apply. Tests were completed on four sample welds to determine the sensitivity of the system. Artificial flaws were introduced into two test samples and the acoustic emission results were verified by radiography and visual inspection techniques.

  18. Television Monitoring System for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallow, K.; Gordon, S.

    1986-01-01

    Welding process in visually inaccessible spots viewed and recorded. Television system enables monitoring of welding in visually inaccessible locations. System assists welding operations and provide video record, used for weld analysis and welder training.

  19. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  20. Acoustic emission monitoring of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Timothy J.; Yepez, Luis O.; Barnes, Charles A.

    1998-03-01

    Acoustic emission is an important global nondestructive test method widely used to evaluate the structural integrity of metals and fiber reinforced plastic structures. However, in concrete, application of the technology is still at the experimental stage. Microcracking and crack growth are the principal sources of emission in concrete. Bond failure, anchor slippage, and crack rubbing are also sources of emission. Tension zone cracking in reinforced concrete is a significant source of emission and has made application of the technique to concrete structures difficult. The paper describes acoustic emission monitoring of full-scale prestressed concrete girders and a reinforced concrete frame during loading. The tests on the prestressed concrete girders showed three sources of emission: shear-induced cracking in the web, flexural cracking at the region of maximum moment, and strand slippage at the anchorage zone. The reinforced concrete frame was monitored with and without concrete shear panels. The research was directed to early detection of the cracks, signature analysis, source location, moment tensor analysis, and development of criteria for acoustic emission inspection of concrete structures. Cracking of concrete in the tension areas of the reinforced concrete sections was an early source of emission. More severe emission was detected as damage levels in the structure increased.

  1. Acoustic emission monitoring of a fatigue crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granata, D. M.; Scott, W. R.; Davis, J.; Lee, E. U.; Boodey, J. B.; Kulowitch, P.

    AE monitoring is applied to crack detection in materials containing intermetallic compounds that have very small critical flaw sizes. The tests performed are simpler than structural monitoring since the source location is well defined and extraneous sources are limited. A correlation was found between defect propagation and AE events in the two titanium aluminide alloys studied. Because events that are apparently not crack related can occur, and because the number of events detected is threshold and gain-sensitive, the AE count alone is not an absolute measure of crack length. Parameters denoting the portion of the load cycle where events occur are valuable for identifying AE sources and cracking mechanisms. Pattern recognition algorithms can be developed on the basis of stored waveforms and load level parameters.

  2. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  3. Flow cytometer jet monitor system

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger

    1997-01-01

    A direct jet monitor illuminates the jet of a flow cytometer in a monitor wavelength band which is substantially separate from the substance wavelength band. When a laser is used to cause fluorescence of the substance, it may be appropriate to use an infrared source to illuminate the jet and thus optically monitor the conditions within the jet through a CCD camera or the like. This optical monitoring may be provided to some type of controller or feedback system which automatically changes either the horizontal location of the jet, the point at which droplet separation occurs, or some other condition within the jet in order to maintain optimum conditions. The direct jet monitor may be operated simultaneously with the substance property sensing and analysis system so that continuous monitoring may be achieved without interfering with the substance data gathering and may be configured so as to allow the front of the analysis or free fall area to be unobstructed during processing.

  4. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2003-04-01

    Accurate reporting of mercury concentration requires a detailed model that includes experimental parameters that vary, such as: pressure, temperature, concentration, absorption cross-section, and isotopic structure etc. During this quarter a theoretical model has been developed to model the 253.7 nm mercury transition. In addition, while testing the interferent species SO{sub 2}, SRD was able to determine the absorption cross-section experimentally and add this to the theoretical model. Assuming that the baseline losses are due to the mirror reflectivity and SO{sub 2}, SRD can now determine the concentrations of both mercury and SO{sub 2} from the data taken. For the CRD instrument to perform as a continuous emission monitor it will be required to monitor mercury concentrations over extended periods of time. The stability of monitoring mercury concentrations over time with the CRD apparatus was tested during the past quarter. During a test which monitored the mercury concentration every 2 seconds it was found that the standard deviation, of a signal from about 1.25 ppb Hg, was only 30 ppt. SRD continued interferent gas testing during this past quarter. This included creating a simulated flue gas composed of the gases tested individually by SRD. The detection limits for mercury, although dependent on the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the simulated gas matrix, remained well below the ppb range. It was determined that for the gases tested the only measurable changes in the baseline level occurred for SO{sub 2} and mercury. Speciation studies continued with mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}). This included checking for spectral speciation with both Hg and HgCl{sub 2} present in the CRD cavity. There was no observable spectral shift. Also a pyrolysis oven was incorporated into the gas delivery system both for tests with HgCl{sub 2} as well as atomization of the entire gas stream. The pyrolysis tests conducted have been inconclusive thus far.

  5. 40 CFR 62.15205 - What minimum amount of monitoring data must I collect with my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... calculate a valid 1-hour arithmetic average. Section 60.13(e)(2) of subpart A of 40 CFR part 60 requires your continuous emission monitoring systems to complete at least one cycle of operation (sampling... averages for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15205 - What minimum amount of monitoring data must I collect with my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... calculate a valid 1-hour arithmetic average. Section 60.13(e)(2) of subpart A of 40 CFR part 60 requires your continuous emission monitoring systems to complete at least one cycle of operation (sampling... averages for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units only), and...

  7. Continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon emissions from sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bostian, H.E.; Crumpler, E.P.; Koch, P.D.; Chehaske, J.T.; Hagele, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water (OW) drafted risk-based sludge regulations (for incineration and a variety of other options) under Section 405d of the Clean Water Act. Under consideration for the final regulation is a provision for continuously monitoring total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions as a method of controlling organic emissions from sludge incineration. The monitoring would have to demonstrate that the THC stack emissions were not exceeding a concentration limit. Continuous analyzers for THC, CO, and oxygen (O2) were installed and operated at two facilities, both of which employed multiple-hearth furnaces (MHFs) to incinerate wastewater sludge. In addition, EPA requested an evaluation of the use of these monitors to assist with incinerator operation.

  8. Initial Development of a Continuous Emission Monitor for Dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Coggiola; Harald Oser; Gregory W. Faris; David R. Crosley

    2002-03-30

    Under contract DE-AC26-98FT-40370, SRI International has completed the third phase of a planned three-phase effort to develop a laboratory prototype continuous emission monitor (CEM) for dioxins and furans generated during the incineration of waste materials at DOE remediation sites. The project was initiated on July 29, 1998 with the technical effort completed in October 2001. During this research effort, SRI has made numerous improvements in our jet-REMPI instrument. These improvements have involved characterization and optimization of the molecular cooling in the gas jet, implementation of a custom-fabricated, four pulsed valve assembly, new data acquisition and display software, and preliminary development of a wavelength and mass calibration approach. We have also measured the REMPI excitation spectra of numerous organic compounds that are likely to be present in the exhaust stream of a waste incinerator. These spectra must be well characterized in the laboratory to understand any potential interferences that might arise when monitoring for dioxin and furan congeners. Our results to date continue to validate the original concept of using jet-REMPI as the detection method in a dioxin CEM. Using only commercial components with minor modifications, we have already demonstrated a detection sensitivity in the low ppt range with sufficient chemical specificity to separately detect two closely related congeners of dichlorodibenzodioxin present in a mixture. To demonstrate the utility of this methodology outside of the controlled conditions of the laboratory, we performed a series of pseudo-field experiments at the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC. The instrument used for those studies was built by SRI under contract with US EPA, and was an exact duplicate of the SRI system. This duplication allowed the experiments to be conducted without transporting the SRI system to the EPA site. Using the

  9. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  10. 40 CFR 62.15220 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Continuous Emission Monitoring § 62.15220 What additional requirements must I meet for... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity...

  11. 40 CFR 62.15220 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Continuous Emission Monitoring § 62.15220 What additional requirements must I meet for... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15220 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Continuous Emission Monitoring § 62.15220 What additional requirements must I meet for... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15220 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Continuous Emission Monitoring § 62.15220 What additional requirements must I meet for... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity...

  14. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an alternative to the requirements specified in either paragraph (l... § 60.58b(i)(3) of subpart Eb of this part. (ii) Each 1-hour CO emissions average is calculated using... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section...

  15. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... § 60.58b(i)(3) of subpart Eb of this part. (ii) Each 1-hour CO emissions average is calculated using... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section...

  16. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section 60... Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.49Da Emission...

  17. [Investigation of emission characteristics for light duty vehicles with a portable emission measurement system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Kun; Fu, Li-Xin; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Xin; Chen, Ai-Zhong; Ge, Wei-hu; Du, Xuan

    2008-10-01

    Emission from 7 typical light-duty vehicles under actual driving conditions was monitored using a portable emission measurement system to gather data for characterization of the real world vehicle emission in Shenzhen, including the effects of driving modes on vehicle emission, comparison of fuel consumption based emission factors (g x L(-1) with mileage based emission factors (g x km(-1)), and the average emission factors of the monitored vehicles. The acceleration and deceleration modes accounted for 66.7% of total travel time, 80.3% of traveling distance and 74.6%-79.2% of vehicle emission; the acceleration mode contributed more than other driving modes. The fuel based emission factors were less dependent on the driving speed; they may be utilized in building macro-scale vehicle emission inventory with smaller sensitivity to the vehicle driving conditions. The effect of vehicle technology on vehicle emission was significant; the emission factors of CO, HC and NO(x) of carbureted vehicles were 19.9-20.5, 5.6-26.1 and 1.8-2.0 times the more advanced vehicles of Euro II, respectively. Using the ECE + EUDC driving cycle would not produce the desired real-world emission rates of light duty vehicles in a typical Chinese city. PMID:19143403

  18. A software system for emission spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auping, J. V.; Megargle, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A computer system was developed for an emission spectrometry facility consisting of a direct current (DC) argon arc spectrograph optically coupled to an inductively coupled plasma multichannel spectrometer. Custom hardware and software were designed to control analytical functions and perform data acquisition. The software system was designed to make operation of the facility simple for routine operation and flexible for research and development. Special software was written to collect data under controlled conditions to characterize and monitor system response. One sequence collects intensity versus time data on all channels and displays the data graphically. These profiles are useful in studying the effects of operating parameters on measurement precision. Another special sequence performs calibration using a spline curve fit procedure. Routines were also written to measure dark currents and signals from a standard tungsten halogen lamp mounted in place of the DC arc. For quality control purposes, histories of these values are kept and monitored for excess scatter or drift.

  19. Early corrosion monitoring of prestressed concrete piles using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, William; Matta, Fabio; Ziehl, Paul H.

    2013-04-01

    The depassivation and corrosion of bonded prestressing steel strands in concrete bridge members may lead to major damage or collapse before visual inspections uncover evident signs of damage, and well before the end of the design life. Recognizing corrosion in its early stage is desirable to plan and prioritize remediation strategies. The Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is a rational means to develop structural health monitoring and prognosis systems for the early detection and location of corrosion in concrete. Compelling features are the sensitivity to events related to micro- and macrodamage, non-intrusiveness, and suitability for remote and wireless applications. There is little understanding of the correlation between AE and the morphology and extent of early damage on the steel surface. In this paper, the evidence collected from prestressed concrete (PC) specimens that are exposed to salt water is discussed vis-à-vis AE data from continuous monitoring. The specimens consist of PC strips that are subjected to wet/dry salt water cycles, representing portions of bridge piles that are exposed to tidal action. Evidence collected from the specimens includes: (a) values of half-cell potential and linear polarization resistance to recognize active corrosion in its early stage; and (b) scanning electron microscopy micrographs of steel areas from two specimens that were decommissioned once the electrochemical measurements indicated a high probability of active corrosion. These results are used to evaluate the AE activity resulting from early corrosion.

  20. Monitoring of volcanic emissions of SO2 and ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, Nicolas; Clarisse, Lieven; Brenot, Hugues; van Gent, Jeroen; Campion, Robin; van der A, Ronald; Valks, Pieter; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Van Roozendael, Michel; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Tait, Steve; Ferrucci, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions can emit large quantities of fine particles (ash) into the atmosphere as well as several trace gases, such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, sulphur species (SO2, H2S) and halogens (HCl, HBr, HF). These volcanic ejecta can have a considerable impact on the atmosphere, human health and society. Volcanic ash in particular is known to be a major threat for aviation, especially after dispersion over long distances (>1000 km) from the erupting volcano. In this respect, the continuous monitoring of volcanic ash from space is playing an essential role for the mitigation of aviation hazards. Compared to ash, SO2 is less critical for aviation safety, but is much easier to measure. Therefore, SO2 observations are often use as a marker of volcanic ash in the atmosphere. Moreover, SO2 yields information on the processes occurring in the magmatic system and is used as a proxy for the eruptive rate. In this presentation we give an overview of recent developments of the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The focus is on the near-real time detection and monitoring of volcanic plumes of ash and SO2 using polar-orbiting instruments GOME-2, OMI, IASI and AIRS. The second part of the talk is dedicated to the determination of volcanic SO2 fluxes from satellite measurements. We review different techniques and investigate the temporal evolution of the total emissions of SO2 for recent volcanic events.

  1. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Irrigated Cropping Systems in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information is available on the effects of irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions were monitored from irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 246 kg N ha-1 during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Cro...

  2. CONTINUOUS AIR POLLUTION SOURCE MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook provides the eetailed information necessary to develop a continuous emissions monitoring program at a stationary source facility. Federal and State EPA requirements are given, including design and performance specifications and monitoring and date reporting requirem...

  3. Continuous emission monitoring technologies applicable to the natural gas transmission industry. Topical report, September 1993-September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    All major sources of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions must obtain operating permits under Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Each permit application must contain a plan for monitoring emissions that will demonstrate the source`s compliance with its permitted emission limits. Several established methods for demonstrating compliance are available, including the use of continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems--sampling and analytical equipment that allows gaseous emissions to be measured directly and continuously. In response to pending regulations, the Gas Research Institute recently sponsored a study on the types of CEM systems currently available to the natural gas industry for continuously monitoring NOx and CO emissions. The report describes various advantages and disadvantages of using particular types of continuous monitoring equipment for reciprocating engines and gas turbines.

  4. A systolic radiation monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Shpancer, I.; Kinsner, W.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes a data acquisition system for radiation monitoring which significantly improves performance over conventional systems by providing higher throughput, elimination of data skew, easier and inexpensive isolation, improved system accuracy, and compact implementation. The novel systolic data acquisition system, including systolic converter, processor and networking was developed to alleviate drawbacks of various conventional data acquisition systems used in radiation monitoring. The system is based on a systolic conversion, processing and networking method amenable to highly integrated vector architecture. The method employs systolic rules which can be developed for a selected problem. The rules for the radiation monitoring problem have been developed so as to apply not only locally but also globally to the systolic network. A form of the network has been implemented and is operational in a nuclear reactor site. Other forms are being implemented and tested for other data skew sensitive problems.

  5. Application research on hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dong; Tong, Xinglin

    2014-06-01

    With the development of the optical fiber sensing technology, the acoustic emission sensor has become one of the focal research topics. On the basis of studying the traditional hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system, the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor has been applied in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system for the first time, researching the monitoring signal of the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor in the system. The actual test results show that using the acoustic emission sensor in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system can get the real-time and accurate hydraulic coke cutting state and the effective realization of hydraulic coke cutting automatic monitoring in the Wuhan Branch of Sinopec.

  6. 40 CFR 60.45 - Emissions and fuel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The CO CEMS must be installed, certified, maintained, and operated according to the provisions in § 60... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emissions and fuel monitoring. 60.45 Section 60.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  7. 40 CFR 60.45 - Emissions and fuel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The CO CEMS must be installed, certified, maintained, and operated according to the provisions in § 60... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emissions and fuel monitoring. 60.45 Section 60.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  8. 40 CFR 60.45 - Emissions and fuel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The CO CEMS must be installed, certified, maintained, and operated according to the provisions in § 60... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions and fuel monitoring. 60.45 Section 60.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  9. 40 CFR 52.796 - Industrial continuous emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. (b)(1) The requirements of 40 CFR 51, Appendix P 3.3 are hereby... promulgation of continuous emission monitoring requirements for that source category in 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Industrial continuous...

  10. 40 CFR 52.796 - Industrial continuous emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. (b)(1) The requirements of 40 CFR 51, Appendix P 3.3 are hereby... promulgation of continuous emission monitoring requirements for that source category in 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industrial continuous...

  11. 40 CFR 52.796 - Industrial continuous emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. (b)(1) The requirements of 40 CFR 51, Appendix P 3.3 are hereby... promulgation of continuous emission monitoring requirements for that source category in 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Industrial continuous...

  12. 40 CFR 52.796 - Industrial continuous emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. (b)(1) The requirements of 40 CFR 51, Appendix P 3.3 are hereby... promulgation of continuous emission monitoring requirements for that source category in 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Industrial continuous...

  13. 40 CFR 52.796 - Industrial continuous emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet the requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. (b)(1) The requirements of 40 CFR 51, Appendix P 3.3 are hereby... promulgation of continuous emission monitoring requirements for that source category in 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Industrial continuous...

  14. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  15. 40 CFR 60.464 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coil Surface Coating § 60.464 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Where compliance with the... also record all periods (during actual coating operations) in excess of 3 hours during which the... degrees Celsius, whichever is greater. During coating operations, the owner or operator shall record...

  16. 40 CFR 60.464 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coil Surface Coating § 60.464 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Where compliance with the... also record all periods (during actual coating operations) in excess of 3 hours during which the... degrees Celsius, whichever is greater. During coating operations, the owner or operator shall record...

  17. 40 CFR 60.273a - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.273a Emission... conducted at least once per day for at least three 6-minute periods when the furnace is operating in the... specified in § 60.272a(a). (d) A furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any...

  18. 40 CFR 60.273a - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.273a Emission... conducted at least once per day for at least three 6-minute periods when the furnace is operating in the... specified in § 60.272a(a). (d) A furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any...

  19. 40 CFR 60.273a - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.273a Emission... conducted at least once per day for at least three 6-minute periods when the furnace is operating in the... specified in § 60.272a(a). (d) A furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any...

  20. 40 CFR 60.273a - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.273a Emission... conducted at least once per day for at least three 6-minute periods when the furnace is operating in the... specified in § 60.272a(a). (d) A furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any...

  1. 40 CFR 60.273a - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.273a Emission... conducted at least once per day for at least three 6-minute periods when the furnace is operating in the... specified in § 60.272a(a). (d) A furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any...

  2. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Emission monitoring equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Picazo, A.G.

    1992-10-01

    The market survey covers the emission monitoring equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to US products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  3. 40 CFR 60.373 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.373 Monitoring of emissions and operations. The owner or operator of any lead-acid battery manufacturing facility subject to the provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 60.373 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.373 Monitoring of emissions and operations. The owner or operator of any lead-acid battery manufacturing facility subject to the provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 60.373 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.373 Monitoring of emissions and operations. The owner or operator of any lead-acid battery manufacturing facility subject to the provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 60.373 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.373 Monitoring of emissions and operations. The owner or operator of any lead-acid battery manufacturing facility subject to the provisions of this subpart...

  7. Standoff Stack Emissions Monitoring Using Short Range Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravel, Jean-Francois Y.; Babin, Francois; Allard, Martin

    2016-06-01

    There are well documented methods for stack emissions monitoring. These are all based on stack sampling through sampling ports in well defined conditions. Once sampled, the molecules are quantified in instruments that often use optical techniques. Unfortunately sampling ports are not found on all stacks/ducts or the use of the sampling ports cannot be planned efficiently because of operational constraints or the emissions monitoring equipment cannot be driven to a remote stack/duct. Emissions monitoring using many of the same optical techniques, but at a standoff distance, through the atmosphere, using short range high spatial resolution lidar techniques was thus attempted. Standoff absorption and Raman will be discussed and results from a field campaign will be presented along with short descriptions of the apparatus. In the first phase of these tests, the molecules that were targeted were NO and O2. Spatially resolved optical measurements allow for standoff identification and quantification of molecules, much like the standardized methods, except for the fact that it is not done in the stack, but in the plume formed by the emissions from the stack. The pros and cons will also be discussed, and in particular the problem of mass emission estimates that require the knowledge of the flow rate and the distribution of molecular concentration in the plane of measurement.

  8. Status of Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    TEMPO is now well into its implementation phase, having passed both its Key Decision Point C and the Critical Design Review (CDR) for the instrument. The CDR for the ground systems will occur in March 2016 and the CDR for the Mission component at a later date, after the host spacecraft has been selected. TEMPO is on schedule to measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies.TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available.TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. Instruments from Europe (Sentinel 4) and Asia (GEMS) will form

  9. On predicting monitoring system effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappello, Carlo; Sigurdardottir, Dorotea; Glisic, Branko; Zonta, Daniele; Pozzi, Matteo

    2015-03-01

    While the objective of structural design is to achieve stability with an appropriate level of reliability, the design of systems for structural health monitoring is performed to identify a configuration that enables acquisition of data with an appropriate level of accuracy in order to understand the performance of a structure or its condition state. However, a rational standardized approach for monitoring system design is not fully available. Hence, when engineers design a monitoring system, their approach is often heuristic with performance evaluation based on experience, rather than on quantitative analysis. In this contribution, we propose a probabilistic model for the estimation of monitoring system effectiveness based on information available in prior condition, i.e. before acquiring empirical data. The presented model is developed considering the analogy between structural design and monitoring system design. We assume that the effectiveness can be evaluated based on the prediction of the posterior variance or covariance matrix of the state parameters, which we assume to be defined in a continuous space. Since the empirical measurements are not available in prior condition, the estimation of the posterior variance or covariance matrix is performed considering the measurements as a stochastic variable. Moreover, the model takes into account the effects of nuisance parameters, which are stochastic parameters that affect the observations but cannot be estimated using monitoring data. Finally, we present an application of the proposed model to a real structure. The results show how the model enables engineers to predict whether a sensor configuration satisfies the required performance.

  10. A grid job monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitrescu, Catalin; Nowack, Andreas; Padhi, Sanjay; Sarkar, Subir; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a web-based Job Monitoring framework for individual Grid sites that allows users to follow in detail their jobs in quasi-real time. The framework consists of several independent components: (a) a set of sensors that run on the site CE and worker nodes and update a database, (b) a simple yet extensible web services framework and (c) an Ajax powered web interface having a look-and-feel and control similar to a desktop application. The monitoring framework supports LSF, Condor and PBS-like batch systems. This is one of the first monitoring systems where an X.509 authenticated web interface can be seamlessly accessed by both end-users and site administrators. While a site administrator has access to all the possible information, a user can only view the jobs for the Virtual Organizations (VO) he/she is a part of. The monitoring framework design supports several possible deployment scenarios. For a site running a supported batch system, the system may be deployed as a whole, or existing site sensors can be adapted and reused with the web services components. A site may even prefer to build the web server independently and choose to use only the Ajax powered web interface. Finally, the system is being used to monitor a glideinWMS instance. This broadens the scope significantly, allowing it to monitor jobs over multiple sites.

  11. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 60. (2) Comply with the provisions of § 60.13(d) of 40 CFR part 60. (3) Except for system breakdowns, repairs, calibration checks, and zero and span adjustments required under § 60.13(d), ensure that... breakdowns, repairs, calibration checks, and zero and span adjustments shall not be included in the...

  12. Monitoring Surface Climate With its Emissivity Derived From Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Satellite thermal infrared (IR) spectral emissivity data have been shown to be significant for atmospheric research and monitoring the Earth fs environment. Long-term and large-scale observations needed for global monitoring and research can be supplied by satellite-based remote sensing. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity data retrieved from the last 5 years of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements observed from the MetOp-A satellite. Monthly mean surface properties (i.e., skin temperature T(sub s) and emissivity spectra epsilon(sub v) with a spatial resolution of 0.5x0.5-degrees latitude-longitude are produced to monitor seasonal and inter-annual variations. We demonstrate that surface epsilon(sub v) and T(sub s) retrieved with IASI measurements can be used to assist in monitoring surface weather and surface climate change. Surface epsilon(sub v) together with T(sub s) from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term and large-scale monitoring of Earth 's surface weather environment and associated changes.

  13. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry as a Multimetal Continuous-Emission Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hansheng; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    1999-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) has been used to detect atomic and molecular species in various environments. LIBS has the capability to be used as a continuous-emission monitor to monitor toxic-metal concentrations in stack emissions. Recently a mobile LIBS system was calibrated in our laboratory and tested as a multimetal continuous-emission monitor during a joint U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test. LIBS measurements were performed with three sets of metal concentrations at the EPA Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator. The LIBS system successfully measured concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cd, and Be in near real time in this test. Real-time LIBS data were averaged and compared with data obtained from an EPA reference method that was conducted concurrently with LIBS. The details of the LIBS calibration and results of these LIBS measurements are described.

  14. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Buoni, C; Coutant, R; Barnes, R; Slivon, L

    1988-05-01

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs. PMID:11542838

  15. Space Station atmospheric monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, C.; Coutant, R.; Barnes, R.; Slivon, L.

    1988-01-01

    A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS 10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

  16. 40 CFR 75.12 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate. 75.12 Section 75.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Monitoring Provisions § 75.12 Specific provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate....

  17. Heater drain system transient monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Voll, B.J.; Farsaci, C.D.

    1995-12-01

    Feedwater heater drain systems are susceptible to unstable, two phase flow conditions. These instabilities are difficult to predict and are dependent on plant-specific system designs and operating conditions. Therefore, significant vibrations and transient events can occur that the systems are not specifically designed for. This paper describes how heater drain system responses due to unanticipated transient events at a nuclear plant were captured and quantified using a digital data acquisition system. The setup of the data acquisition system, including the determination of what parameters to monitor and how to effectively capture potential transient events, is discussed. This paper also discusses the monitoring results and their relevance to system modification evaluations and root cause evaluations.

  18. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports.

  19. Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors. Appendix Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, W.J. Jr.; French, N.B.; Brown, C.H.; Burns, D.B.; Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V.; Priebe, S.J.; Waterland, L.R.

    1997-11-17

    This report contains appendices to the study of three prototype multi-metal continuous emission monitors (CEMs). The appendices are: Final report of the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analytical Laboratory (DIAL) CEM developer team; Final report of Navy/Thermo Jarrell Ash Corp. CEM developer team; Final report of Sandia National Laboratories CEM developer team; Developer team comments; and Performance specification 10 -- Specifications and test procedures for multi-metals continuous monitoring systems in stationary sources.

  20. National Satellite Forest Monitoring systems for REDD+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop national satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost- effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the support to UN-REDD pilot countries in this capacity building effort is the training of technical forest people and IT persons from interested REDD+ countries, and to set- up the national satellite forest monitoring systems. The Brazilian forest monitoring system, TerraAmazon, which is used as a basis for this initiative, allows

  1. Monitoring soil greenhouse gas emissions from managed grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Lu, Haiyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Grasslands in Central Europe are of enormous social, ecological and economical importance. They are intensively managed, but the influence of different common practices (i.e. fertilization, harvesting) on the total greenhouse gas budget of grasslands is not fully understood, yet. In addition, it is unknown how these ecosystems will react due to climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing precipitation will likely have an effect on productivity of grasslands and on bio-geo-chemical processes responsible for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In the frame of the TERENO Project (www.tereno.net), a long-term observatory has been implemented in the Ammer catchment, southern Germany. Acting as an in situ global change experiment, 36 big lysimeters (1 m2 section, 150 cm height) have been translocated along an altitudinal gradient, including three sites ranging from 600 to 860 meters above sea level. In addition, two treatments have been considered, corresponding to different management intensities. The overall aim of the pre-alpine TERENO observatory is improving our understanding of the consequences of climate change and management on productivity, greenhouse gas balance, soil nutritional status, nutrient leaching and hydrology of grasslands. Two of the sites are equipped with a fully automated measurement system in order to continuously and accurately monitor the soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange. Thus, a stainless steel chamber (1 m2 section, 80 cm height) is controlled by a robotized system. The chamber is hanging on a metal structure which can move both vertically and horizontally, so that the chamber is able to be set onto each of the lysimeters placed on the field. Furthermore, the headspace of the chamber is connected with a gas tube to a Quantum Cascade Laser, which continuously measures CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O mixing ratios. The chamber acts as a static chamber and sets for 15 minutes onto each lysimeter

  2. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to use the All-Sky Monitor on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in combination with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to simultaneously measure the x-ray (2-12 keV) and hard x-ray (20-100 keV) emission from x-ray bursters. The investigation was successful. We made the first simultaneous measurement of hard and soft x-ray emission and found a strong anticorrelation of hard and soft x-ray emission from the X-Ray Burster 4U 0614+091. The monitoring performed under this investigation was also important in triggering target of opportunity observations of x-ray bursters made under the investigation hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters approved for RXTE cycles 1 and 2. These observations lead to a number of papers on high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations and on hard x-ray emission from the x-ray bursters 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1705-44.

  3. Continuous emission monitoring of metal aerosol concentrations in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Anne-Marie; Sarrette, Jean-Philippe; Madon, Lydie; Almi, Abdenbi

    1996-11-01

    Improvements of an apparatus for continuous emission monitoring (CEM) by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) of metal aerosols in air are described. The method simultaneously offers low operating costs, large volume of tested air for valuable sampling and avoids supplementary contamination or keeping of the air pollutant concentrations. Questions related to detection and calibration are discussed. The detection limits (DL) obtained for the eight pollutants studied are lower than the recommended threshold limit values (TLV) and as satisfactory as the results obtained with other CEM methods involving air-argon plasmas.

  4. GIS based assessment of the spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations using pollutant emissions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righini, G.; Cappelletti, A.; Ciucci, A.; Cremona, G.; Piersanti, A.; Vitali, L.; Ciancarella, L.

    2014-11-01

    Spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations is a critical parameter when choosing location of sites and assessing effects on population to long term exposure to air pollution. According to literature, the spatial representativeness of a monitoring site is related to the variability of pollutants concentrations around the site. As the spatial distribution of primary pollutants concentration is strongly correlated to the allocation of corresponding emissions, in this work a methodology is presented to preliminarily assess spatial representativeness of a monitoring site by analysing the spatial variation of emissions around it. An analysis of horizontal variability of several pollutants emissions was carried out by means of Geographic Information System using a neighbourhood statistic function; the rationale is that if the variability of emissions around a site is low, the spatial representativeness of this site is high consequently. The methodology was applied to detect spatial representativeness of selected Italian monitoring stations, located in Northern and Central Italy and classified as urban background or rural background. Spatialized emission data produced by the national air quality model MINNI, covering entire Italian territory at spatial resolution of 4 × 4 km2, were processed and analysed. The methodology has shown significant capability for quick detection of areas with highest emission variability. This approach could be useful to plan new monitoring networks and to approximately estimate horizontal spatial representativeness of existing monitoring sites. Major constraints arise from the limited spatial resolution of the analysis, controlled by the resolution of the emission input data, cell size of 4 × 4 km2, and from the applicability to primary pollutants only.

  5. Definition, Capabilities, and Components of a Terrestrial Carbon Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Tristram O.; Brown, Molly E.; Duren, Riley M.; Ogle, Stephen M.; Moss, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Research efforts for effectively and consistently monitoring terrestrial carbon are increasing in number. As such, there is a need to define carbon monitoring and how it relates to carbon cycle science and carbon management. There is also a need to identify capabilities of a carbon monitoring system and the system components needed to develop the capabilities. Capabilities that enable the effective application of a carbon monitoring system for monitoring and management purposes may include: reconciling carbon stocks and fluxes, developing consistency across spatial and temporal scales, tracking horizontal movement of carbon, attribution of emissions to originating sources, cross-sectoral accounting, uncertainty quantification, redundancy and policy relevance. Focused research is needed to integrate these capabilities for sustained estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes. Additionally, if monitoring is intended to inform management decisions, management priorities should be considered prior to development of a monitoring system.

  6. GTA Beamloss-Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C.R.; Fortgang, C.M.; Power, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The GTA Beamless-Monitor System at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been designed to detect high-energy particle loss in the accelerator beamline and shut down the accelerator before any damage can occur. To do this, the Beamless-Monitor System measures the induced gamma radiation, from (p, {gamma}) reactions, at 15 selected points along the beamline, converts this measured radiation to electrical signals integrates and compares them to preset limits, and, in the event of an over-limit condition causes the Fast-Protect System to shut down the entire accelerator. The system dynamic range exceeds 70 dB which will enable experimenters to use the Beamless-Monitor System to help steer the beam as well as provide signals for a Fast-Protect System. The system response time is less than 7 {mu}s assuming a step-function, worst-case beam spill of 50 mA. The system resolution, based on the noise floor of the electronics is about 1.3 mRads/s. Production units have been built and meet the above specifications. The remainder of the system will be installed and tested later in 1992/1993 with the GTA accelerator. The ionization chamber sensitivity and response time are described in the paper.

  7. GTA Beamloss-Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C.R.; Fortgang, C.M.; Power, J.P.

    1992-09-01

    The GTA Beamless-Monitor System at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been designed to detect high-energy particle loss in the accelerator beamline and shut down the accelerator before any damage can occur. To do this, the Beamless-Monitor System measures the induced gamma radiation, from (p, {gamma}) reactions, at 15 selected points along the beamline, converts this measured radiation to electrical signals integrates and compares them to preset limits, and, in the event of an over-limit condition causes the Fast-Protect System to shut down the entire accelerator. The system dynamic range exceeds 70 dB which will enable experimenters to use the Beamless-Monitor System to help steer the beam as well as provide signals for a Fast-Protect System. The system response time is less than 7 {mu}s assuming a step-function, worst-case beam spill of 50 mA. The system resolution, based on the noise floor of the electronics is about 1.3 mRads/s. Production units have been built and meet the above specifications. The remainder of the system will be installed and tested later in 1992/1993 with the GTA accelerator. The ionization chamber sensitivity and response time are described in the paper.

  8. 40 CFR 60.1260 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide are in parts per million by dry volume at 7 percent oxygen (or the...) requires your continuous emission monitoring systems to complete at least one cycle of operation...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1260 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide are in parts per million by dry volume at 7 percent oxygen (or the...) requires your continuous emission monitoring systems to complete at least one cycle of operation...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1750 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Make sure the averages for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units...) requires your continuous emission monitoring systems to complete at least one cycle of operation...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1750 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Make sure the averages for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units...) requires your continuous emission monitoring systems to complete at least one cycle of operation...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1260 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide are in parts per million by dry volume at 7 percent oxygen (or the...) requires your continuous emission monitoring systems to complete at least one cycle of operation...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1260 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide are in parts per million by dry volume at 7 percent oxygen (or the...) requires your continuous emission monitoring systems to complete at least one cycle of operation...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1750 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Make sure the averages for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units...) requires your continuous emission monitoring systems to complete at least one cycle of operation...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1750 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Make sure the averages for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class I municipal waste combustion units...) requires your continuous emission monitoring systems to complete at least one cycle of operation...

  16. Proposed rule highlights need for effective emissions monitoring, control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    While the regulated community for the last year or so has found comfort in reports that EPA has failed to meet its mandated schedule for issuing new CAA regulations and setting compliance deadlines, the Agency has not been idle. The Agency in October proposed a major rule that would, in effect, abandon traditional methods of monitoring and enforcing compliance with CAA's air pollution control regulations. Instead of relying on plant inspections or citizens' complaints to uncover regulatory infractions, the proposed regulations would require most emissions sources to demonstrate--not during a single test or inspection, but continuously--compliance with emissions regulations. This proposed continuous, or enhanced,'' monitoring rule would be tied to CAA's Title 5 operating permit program.

  17. Acoustic emission monitoring for assessment of steel bridge details

    SciTech Connect

    Kosnik, D. E.; Corr, D. J.; Hopwood, T.

    2011-06-23

    Acoustic emission (AE) testing was deployed on details of two large steel Interstate Highway bridges: one cantilever through-truss and one trapezoidal box girder bridge. Quantitative measurements of activity levels at known and suspected crack locations were made by monitoring AE under normal service loads (e.g., live traffic and wind). AE indications were used to direct application of radiography, resulting in identification of a previously unknown flaw, and to inform selection of a retrofit detail.

  18. Supplemental Report: Application of Emission Spectroscopy to Monitoring Technetium

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W.A.

    2000-07-27

    This report provides supplemental information to an earlier report BNF-98-003-0199, ''Evaluation of Emission Spectroscopy for the On-Line Analysis of Technetium''. In this report data is included from real Hanford samples as well as for solutions spiked with technetium. This supplemental work confirms the ability of ICP-ES to monitor technetium as it breaks through an ion exchange process.

  19. Remote Arrhythmia Monitoring System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, David W.; Mackin, Michael A.; Liszka, Kathy J.; Lichter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Telemedicine is taking a step forward with the efforts of team members from the NASA Glenn Research Center, the MetroHealth campus of Case Western University, and the University of Akron. The Arrhythmia Monitoring System is a completed, working test bed developed at Glenn that collects real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from a mobile or homebound patient, combines these signals with global positioning system (GPS) location data, and transmits them to a remote station for display and monitoring. Approximately 300,000 Americans die every year from sudden heart attacks, which are arrhythmia cases. However, not all patients identified at risk for arrhythmias can be monitored continuously because of technological and economical limitations. Such patients, who are at moderate risk of arrhythmias, would benefit from technology that would permit long-term continuous monitoring of electrical cardiac rhythms outside the hospital environment. Embedded Web Technology developed at Glenn to remotely command and collect data from embedded systems using Web technology is the catalyst for this new telemetry system (ref. 1). In the end-to-end system architecture, ECG signals are collected from a patient using an event recorder and are transmitted to a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA) using Bluetooth, a short-range wireless technology. The PDA concurrently tracks the patient's location via a connection to a GPS receiver. A long distance link is established via a standard Internet connection over a 2.5-generation Global System for Mobile Communications/General Packet Radio Service (GSM/GPRS)1 cellular, wireless infrastructure. Then, the digital signal is transmitted to a call center for monitoring by medical professionals.

  20. Acoustic Emission and Guided Wave Monitoring of Fatigue Crack Growth on a Full Pipe Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Watson, Bruce E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-05-06

    Continuous on-line monitoring of active and passive systems, structures and components in nuclear power plants will be critical to extending the lifetimes of nuclear power plants in the US beyond 60 years. Acoustic emission and guided ultrasonic waves are two tools for continuously monitoring passive systems, structures and components within nuclear power plants and are the focus of this study. These tools are used to monitor fatigue damage induced in a SA 312 TP304 stainless steel pipe specimen. The results of acoustic emission monitoring indicate that crack propagation signals were not directly detected. However, acoustic emission monitoring exposed crack formation prior to visual confirmation through the detection of signals caused by crack closure friction. The results of guided ultrasonic wave monitoring indicate that this technology is sensitive to the presence and size of cracks. The sensitivity and complexity of GUW signals is observed to vary with respect to signal frequency and path traveled by the guided ultrasonic wave relative to the crack orientation.

  1. A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Zhou, Yuyu; Kyle, G. Page; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-04-21

    Historical emission estimates for anthropogenic aerosol and precursor compounds are key data needed for Earth system models, climate models, and atmospheric chemistry and transport models; both for general analysis and assessment and also for model validation through comparisons with observations. Current global emission data sets have a number of shortcomings, including timeliness and transparency. Satellite and other earth-system data are increasingly available in near real-time, but global emission estimates lag by 5-10 years. The CEDS project will construct a data-driven, open source framework to produce annually updated emission estimates. The basic methodologies to be used for this system have been used for SO2 (Smith et al. 2011, Klimont, Smith and Cofala 2013), and are designed to complement existing inventory efforts. The goal of this system is to consistently extend current emission estimates both forward in time to recent years and also back over the entire industrial era. The project will produce improved datasets for global and (potentially) regional model, allow analysis of trends across time, countries, and sectors of emissions and emission factors, and facilitate improved scientific analysis in general. Consistent estimation of uncertainty will be an integral part of this system. This effort will facilitate community evaluation of emissions and further emission-related research more generally.

  2. A Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Mercury Continuous Emission Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2004-12-15

    The Sensor Research & Development Corporation (SRD) has undertaken the development of a Continuous Emissions Monitor (CEM) for mercury based on the technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRD). The project involved building an instrument for the detection of trace levels of mercury in the flue gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. The project has occurred over two phases. The first phase concentrated on the development of the ringdown cavity and the actual detection of mercury. The second phase dealt with the construction and integration of the sampling system, used to carry the sample from the flue stack to the CRD cavity, into the overall CRD instrument. The project incorporated a Pulsed Alexandrite Laser (PAL) system from Light Age Incorporated as the source to produce the desired narrow band 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) radiation. This laser system was seeded with a diode laser to bring the linewidth of the output beam from about 150 GHz to less than 60 MHz for the fundamental beam. Through a variety of non-linear optics the 761 nm fundamental beam is converted into the 254 nm beam needed for mercury detection. Detection of the mercury transition was verified by the identification of the characteristic natural isotopic structure observed at lower cavity pressures. The five characteristic peaks, due to both natural isotopic abundance and hyperfine splitting, provided a unique identifier for mercury. SRD scientists were able to detect mercury in air down below 10 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptr). This value is dependent on the pressure and temperature within the CRD cavity at the time of detection. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) absorbs UV radiation in the same spectral region as mercury, which is a significant problem for most mercury detection equipment. However, SRD has not only been able to determine accurate mercury concentrations in the presence of SO{sub 2}, but the CRD instrument can in fact determine the SO{sub 2} concentration as well. Detection of

  3. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, dioxin like-PCBs and PAHs from a cement plant using a long-term monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Juan A; Ortuño, Nuria; Abad, Esteban; Rivera-Austrui, Joan

    2016-11-15

    The aim of the present work was to assess the emission of different persistent organic pollutants from a cement plant over a period of one year, under normal operational conditions. Thus, a long-term sampling device was installed in the clinker kiln stack of the cement plant. The factory uses petroleum coke as primary fuel, but also alternative fuels such as solid recovered fuel (SRF), automotive shredder residue (ASR), sewage sludge, waste tires, and meat and bone meal (MBM) wastes, with an energy substitution level of about 40%. Both PCDD/Fs (together with dl-PCBs) and PBDD/Fs were continuously sampled, with a total of ten samples collected in 2-4week periods. Also, PAHs were sampled during one-week periods, in order to evaluate their emissions in three different samples. The emission levels throughout the year were much lower than the set legal limits in all substances, being <10pgI-TEQ/Nm(3) in the case of PCDD/Fs. The data obtained allowed calculation of updated emission factors for the cement sector, which were 8.5ng I-TEQ/ton clinker for PCDD/Fs and 3.2ng WHO-TEQ/ton clinker for PCBs. With respect to the congener distribution, 2,3,7,8-TCDF accounts for 60 to 68% of the total toxicity for PCDD/Fs, and in PBDD/F emissions, a clear predominance of octa-substituted species (both dioxin and furan) was found. PMID:27405517

  4. Wearable vital parameters monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caramaliu, Radu Vadim; Vasile, Alexandru; Bacis, Irina

    2015-02-01

    The system we propose monitors body temperature, heart rate and beside this, it tracks if the person who wears it suffers a faint. It uses a digital temperature sensor, a pulse sensor and a gravitational acceleration sensor to monitor the eventual faint or small heights free falls. The system continuously tracks the GPS position when available and stores the last valid data. So, when measuring abnormal vital parameters the module will send an SMS, using the GSM cellular network , with the person's social security number, the last valid GPS position for that person, the heart rate, the body temperature and, where applicable, a valid fall alert or non-valid fall alert. Even though such systems exist, they contain only faint detection or heart rate detection. Usually there is a strong correlation between low/high heart rate and an eventual faint. Combining both features into one system results in a more reliable detection device.

  5. Estimating National-scale Emissions using Dense Monitoring Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Grant, A.; Young, D.; Oram, D.; Sturges, W. T.; Moncrieff, J. B.; O'Doherty, S.

    2014-12-01

    The UK's DECC (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change) network consists of four greenhouse gas measurement stations that are situated to constrain emissions from the UK and Northwest Europe. These four stations are located in Mace Head (West Coast of Ireland), and on telecommunication towers at Ridge Hill (Western England), Tacolneston (Eastern England) and Angus (Eastern Scotland). With the exception of Angus, which currently only measures carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), the remaining sites are additionally equipped to monitor nitrous oxide (N2O). We present an analysis of the network's CH4 and N2O observations from 2011-2013 and compare derived top-down regional emissions with bottom-up inventories, including a recently produced high-resolution inventory (UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory). As countries are moving toward national-level emissions estimation, we also address some of the considerations that need to be made when designing these national networks. One of the novel aspects of this work is that we use a hierarchical Bayesian inversion framework. This methodology, which has newly been applied to greenhouse gas emissions estimation, is designed to estimate temporally and spatially varying model-measurement uncertainties and correlation scales, in addition to fluxes. Through this analysis, we demonstrate the importance of characterizing these covariance parameters in order to properly use data from high-density monitoring networks. This UK case study highlights the ways in which this new inverse framework can be used to address some of the limitations of traditional Bayesian inverse methods.

  6. Fracture of Human Femur Tissue Monitored by Acoustic Emission Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Aggelis, Dimitrios. G.; Strantza, Maria; Louis, Olivia; Boulpaep, Frans; Polyzos, Demosthenes; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    The study describes the acoustic emission (AE) activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis). The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure. PMID:25763648

  7. Double Chooz Slow Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Pi-Jung; Horton-Smith, Glenn; McKee, David; Shrestha, Deepak; Winslow, Lindley; Conrad, Janet

    2010-02-01

    The Double Chooz experiment aims to measure neutrino flux from two nearly identical detectors with an uncertainty less than 0.6%. The Double Chooz slow monitoring system records conditions of the experiment's environment which can impact the experiment's goals. The slow monitoring system includes temperatures and voltages in electronics, experimental hall environmental conditions, line voltages, liquid temperatures, PMT's magnetic field, radon concentrations, and photo-tube high voltages. This system scans all channels automatically, stores data in a common database, and warns of changes in the two detectors' physical environments. Most functions in this system can be accomplished by 1-Wire products from Dallas Semiconductor. We can use a single master for several functions' controls and operations and the power is derived from a signal bus. Every device has a unique unalterable ID. The sensors monitoring the liquid system, such as liquid thermal meters, are covered by epoxy in order to isolate in the liquid. Their radioactivity can be ignored and will not affect the uncertainty in the system. )

  8. Multipurpose system for ecological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezansky, Vladimir M.

    1997-08-01

    Moscow Research Television Institute has conducted theoretical and experimental researches concerning the integration of image sensors operating in different ranges on board of vehicles. On the base of these researches a prototype of multipurpose system for ecological monitoring is made. The scope of the system: ecological monitoring of each and water surface, control of sources of pollution and zones of ecological disasters; monitoring of oil, gaz and other pipelines; and control of forests and arable land and so on. The combination of technical means operating in visible, IR and SHF bands allows to gather of the information at any time of day, night or season in different meteorological conditions. The use of high resolution image sensors and the large coverage zone of the substrate surface (up to nine altitudes of aircraft) allows to obtain a large volume of information per one sortie of aircraft. The video information is displayed on board of aircraft together with geographical coordinates and auxiliary data. For obtaining the information in real time at the terrestrial site the wideband RF link is provided. The Multipurpose System for Ecological Monitoring may be used in different on-board complexes of various aircraft (manned or unmanned), planes and copters.

  9. Remote Environmental Monitoring System CRADA

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, R.D.

    2000-03-30

    The goal of the project was to develop a wireless communications system, including communications, command, and control software, to remotely monitor the environmental state of a process or facility. Proof of performance would be tested and evaluated with a prototype demonstration in a functioning facility. AR Designs' participation provided access to software resources and products that enable network communications for real-time embedded systems to access remote workstation services such as Graphical User Interface (GUI), file I/O, Events, Video, Audio, etc. in a standardized manner. This industrial partner further provided knowledge and links with applications and current industry practices. FM and T's responsibility was primarily in hardware development in areas such as advanced sensors, wireless radios, communication interfaces, and monitoring and analysis of sensor data. This role included a capability to design, fabricate, and test prototypes and to provide a demonstration environment to test a proposed remote sensing system. A summary of technical accomplishments is given.

  10. Sensor-based analyzer for continuous emission monitoring in gas pipeline applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, P.F.; Sheridan, D.R.; Cooper, M.D.; Banchieri, A.J.

    1998-04-01

    Continuous emissions monitoring of gas turbine engines in pipeline service have typically been monitored using either laboratory derived instruments (CEMS), or predicted using data from low cost sensors on the engines and algorithms generated by mapping engine performance (PEMS). A new cost-effective system developed under a program sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (Chicago) combines the advantages of both systems to monitor engine emissions in gas transmission service. This hybrid system is a sensor-based analyzer that uses a sensor array, including a newly developed NO{sub x} sensor, to directly monitor NO{sub x}, CO, and O{sub 2} emissions at the stack. The gases are measured hot and wet. The new systems were installed and tested on a gas-fired Rolls Royce Spey turbine engine and on Ingersoll-Rand KVG-410 and Cooper GMVH-10 reciprocating engines in gas transmission service. These systems passed the Relative Accuracy Test (Part B) required under US EPA regulations (40 CFR 60).

  11. Remote monitoring of emissions using on-vehicle sensing and vehicle to roadside communications

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    Recent developments in on-vehicle electronics makes practical remote monitoring of vehicle emissions compliance with CARB and EPA regulations. A system consisting of emission controls malfunction sensors, an on-board computer (OBC), and vehicle-to-roadside communications (VRC) would enable enforcement officials to remotely and automatically detect vehicle out-of-compliance status. Remote sensing could be accomplished at highway speeds as vehicles pass a roadside RF antenna and reader unit which would interrogate the on- vehicle monitoring and recording system. This paper will focus on the hardware system components require to achieve this goal with special attention to the VRC; a key element for remote monitoring. this remote sensing concept piggybacks on the development of inexpensive VRC equipment for automatic vehicle identification for electronic toll collection and intelligent transportation applications. Employing an RF transponder with appropriate interface to the OBC and malfunction sensors, a practical monitoring system can be developed with potentially important impact on air quality and enforcement. With such a system in place, the current -- and costly and ineffective -- emission control strategy of periodic smog checking could be replaced or modified.

  12. Wireless Temperature-Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solano, Wanda; Thurman, Chuck

    2002-01-01

    A relatively inexpensive instrumentation system that includes units that are connected to thermocouples and that are parts of a radio-communication network has been developed to enable monitoring of temperatures at multiple locations. Because there is no need to string wires or cables for communication, the system is well suited for monitoring temperatures at remote locations and for applications in which frequent changes of monitored or monitoring locations are needed. The system can also be adapted to monitoring of slowly varying physical quantities, other than temperature, that can be transduced by solid-state electronic sensors. electronic sensors. The system comprises any number of transmitting units and a single receiving unit. Each transmitting unit includes connections for as many as four external thermocouples, a signal-conditioning module, a control module, and a radio-communication module. The signal-conditioning module acts as an interface between the thermocouples and the rest of the transmitting unit and includes a built-in solid ambient temperature sensor that is in addition to the external thermocouples. The control module is a system-on-chip embedded processor that includes analog-to-digital converters, serial and parallel data ports, and an interface for local connection to an analog meter that is used during installation to verify correct operation. The radio-communication module contains a commercial spread-spectrum transceiver that operates in the 900-MHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) frequency band. This transceiver transmits data to the receiving unit at a rate of 19,200 baud. The receiving unit includes a transceiver like that of a transmitting unit, plus a control module that contains a system-on-chip processor that includes serial data port for output to a computer that runs monitoring and/or control software, a parallel data port for output to a printer, and a seven-segment light-emitting-diode display. Each transmitting unit

  13. Precision Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2010-07-01

    A new precision low-level environmental radiation monitoring system has been developed and tested at Jefferson Lab. This system provides environmental radiation measurements with accuracy and stability of the order of 1 nGy/h in an hour, roughly corresponding to approximately 1% of the natural cosmic background at the sea level. Advanced electronic front-end has been designed and produced for use with the industry-standard High Pressure Ionization Chamber detector hardware. A new highly sensitive readout electronic circuit was designed to measure charge from the virtually suspended ionization chamber ion collecting electrode. New signal processing technique and dedicated data acquisition were tested together with the new readout. The designed system enabled data collection in a remote Linux-operated computer workstation, which was connected to the detectors using a standard telephone cable line. The data acquisition system algorithm is built around the continuously running 24-bit resolution 192 kHz data sampling analog to digital convertor. The major features of the design include: extremely low leakage current in the input circuit, true charge integrating mode operation, and relatively fast response to the intermediate radiation change. These features allow operating of the device as an environmental radiation monitor, at the perimeters of the radiation-generating installations in densely populated areas, like in other monitoring and security applications requiring high precision and long-term stability. Initial system evaluation results are presented.

  14. 29 CFR 1954.2 - Monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring system. 1954.2 Section 1954.2 Labor Regulations...) PROCEDURES FOR THE EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF APPROVED STATE PLANS General § 1954.2 Monitoring system. (a... Act, the Assistant Secretary has established a State Program Performance Monitoring System....

  15. Monitoring of Early-Type Emission Line Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Steven P.; Boettcher, E.; Wilson, S.; Hosek, M.

    2011-05-01

    We have begun a narrowband imaging program to monitoremission in early-type stars in young open clusters and associations. A minority of early-type stars, particularly Be stars, show Hα in emission due to extended atmospheres and non-equilibrium conditions. Emission features commonly vary irregularly over a range of timescales (Porter, J.M. & Rivinus, T., P.A.S.P. 115:1153-1170, 2003). Some of the brightest such stars, e.g. γ Cas, have been spectroscopically monitored for Hα variability to help constrain models of the unstable disk, but there is relatively little ongoing monitoring in samples including fainter stars (Peters, G., Be Star Newsletter 39:3, 2009). Our program uses matched 5nm-wide on-band (656nm) and off-band (645nm) filters, in conjunction with the Hopkins Observatory 0.6-m telescope and CCD camera. Aperture photometry is done on all early-type stars in each frame, and results expressed as on-band to off-band ratios. Though wavelength-dependent information is lost compared with spectroscopy, imaging allows us to observe much fainter (and therefore many more) objects. Observing young clusters, rather than individual target stars, allows us to record multiple known and candidate emission line stars per frame, and provides multiple "normal" reference stars of similar spectral type. Observations began in the summer of 2010. This project has the potential to produce significant amounts of raw data, so a semi-automated data reduction process has been developed, including astrometric and photometric tasks. Early results, including some preliminary light curves and recovery of known Be stars at least as faint as R=13.9, are presented. We gratefully acknowledge support for student research through an REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium from the National Science Foundation, and from the Division III Research Funding Committee of Williams College.

  16. Real-time alkali monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Goff, David R.; Romanosky, Robert R.; Hensel, Peter

    1990-01-01

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium emission line, may be detected in the presence of interfering background radiation. A combustion flame is fed by a diverted portion of a process stream and the common end of a bifurcated or quadfurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted to collect light from the flame. The light is guided through the branches of the fiber optic cable to bandpass filters, one of which is adapted to each of the branches of the fiber optic light guide. The bandpass filters are centered at wavelengths corresponding to the emission lines to be detected and two separate filters are required for each species being detected. The first filter has a bandwidth of about 3 nms and the second filter has a bandwidth of about 10 nms. Light detectors are located to view the light passing through the bandpass filters and amplifiers are connected to receive signals from the light detectors. The amplifier corresponding to the bandpass filter having the narrower bandwidth is preset to scale the signal by a factor equal to the ratio of the wide and narrow bandwidths of the bandpass filters. This scaling produces a scaled signal from which the difference between the scaled signal on the other signal can be calculated to produce a signal having an amplitude directly proportional to the concentration of the species of interest and independent of background radiation.

  17. System for Multiplexing Acoustic Emission (AE) Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Gorman, Michael R. (Inventor); Scales, Edgar F. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic monitoring device has at least two acoustic sensors with a triggering mechanism and a multiplexing circuit. After the occurrence of a triggering event at a sensor, the multiplexing circuit allows a recording component to record acoustic emissions at adjacent sensors. The acoustic monitoring device is attached to a solid medium to detect the occurrence of damage.

  18. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2004-03-31

    The construction of the sampling system was completed during the past quarter. The sampling system has been built on a 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. The laser system, all the associated optics, and the mounts and hardware needed to couple the UV light into the fiber optic have also been condensed and placed on an identical 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. This reduces the footprint of each system for ease of operation at a field test facility. The two systems are only connected with a fiber optic, to bring the UV light to the CRD cavity, and a single coaxial cable used to apply a voltage to the diode seed laser to scan the frequency over the desired mercury transition. SRD software engineers applied a couple of software fixes to correct the problems of the diode seed laser drifting or mode hopping. Upon successful completion of the software fixes another long-term test was conducted. A nearly 3 day long, 24 hours/day, test was run to test out the new subroutines. Everything appeared to work as it should and the mercury concentrations were accurately reported for the entire test, with the exception of a small interval of time when the intensity of the UV light dropped low enough that the program was no longer triggering properly. After adjusting the power of the laser the program returned to proper operation. With the successful completion of a relatively long test SRD software engineer incorporated the new subroutine into an entirely new program. This program operates the CRD instrument automatically as a continuous emissions monitor for mercury. In addition the program also reports the concentration of SO{sub 2} determined in the sample flue gas stream. Various functions, operation of, and a description of the new program have been included with this report. This report concludes the technical work associated with Phase II of the Cavity Ring-Down project for the continuous detection of trace levels of mercury. The project is presently

  19. Corral Monitoring System assessment results

    SciTech Connect

    Filby, E.E.; Haskel, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the results of a functional and operational assessment of the Corral Monitoring Systems (CMS), which was designed to detect and document accountable items entering or leaving a monitored site. Its development was motivated by the possibility that multiple sites in the nuclear weapons states of the former Soviet Union might be opened to such monitoring under the provisions of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The assessment was performed at three levels. One level evaluated how well the planned approach addressed the target application, and which involved tracking sensitive items moving into and around a site being monitored as part of an international treaty or other agreement. The second level examined the overall design and development approach, while the third focused on individual subsystems within the total package. Unfortunately, the system was delivered as disassembled parts and pieces, with very poor documentation. Thus, the assessment was based on fragmentary operating data coupled with an analysis of what documents were provided with the system. The system design seemed to be a reasonable match to the requirements of the target application; however, important questions about site manning and top level administrative control were left unanswered. Four weaknesses in the overall design and development approach were detected: (1) poor configuration control and management, (2) inadequate adherence to a well defined architectural standard, (3) no apparent provision for improving top level error tolerance, and (4) weaknesses in the object oriented programming approach. The individual subsystems were found to offer few features or capabilities that were new or unique, even at the conceptual level. The CMS might possibly have offered a unique combination of features, but this level of integration was never realized, and it had no unique capabilities that could be readily extracted for use in another system.

  20. Monitoring the DIRAC distributed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santinelli, R.; Seco, M.; Nandakumar, R.; LHCb DIRAC Team

    2010-04-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, is intended to reliably run large data mining activities. The DIRAC system consists of various services (which wait to be contacted to perform actions) and agents (which carry out periodic activities) to direct jobs as required. An important part of ensuring the reliability of the infrastructure is the monitoring and logging of these DIRAC distributed systems. The monitoring is done collecting information from two sources - one is from pinging the services or by keeping track of the regular heartbeats of the agents, and the other from the analysis of the error messages generated both by agents and services and collected by a logging system. This allows us to ensure that the components are running properly and to collect useful information regarding their operations. The process status monitoring is displayed using the SLS sensor mechanism that also automatically allows to plot various quantities and keep a history of the system. A dedicated GridMap interface (ServiceMap) allows production shifters and experts to have an immediate, high-impact view of all LHCb critical services status while offering the possibility to refer to details of the SLS and SAM sensors. Error types and statistics provided by the logging service can be accessed via dedicated web interfaces on the DIRAC portal or programmatically via the python based API and CLI.

  1. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project was to monitor a selected sample of x-ray bursters using data from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer together with data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to study the long-term temporal evolution of these sources in the x-ray and hard x-ray bands. The project was closely related to "Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters", NASA project NAG5-3891, and and "Hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters", NASA project NAG5-4633, and shares publications in common with both of these. The project involved preparation of software for use in monitoring and then the actual monitoring itself. These efforts have lead to results directly from the ASM data and also from Target of Opportunity Observations (TOO) made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer based on detection of transient hard x-ray outbursts with the ASM and BATSE.

  2. Semantic remote patient monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Shojanoori, Reza; Juric, Radmila

    2013-02-01

    We propose an automated and personalized remote patient monitoring (RPM) system, which is applied to care homes and is dependent on the manipulation of semantics describing situations during patient monitoring in ontological models. Decision making in RPM is based on reasoning performed upon ontologies, which secures the delivery of appropriate e-health services in care homes. Our working experiment shows an example of preventive e-healthcare, but it can be extended to any situation that requires either urgent action from healthcare professionals or a simple recommendation during RPM. We use Semantic Web technology and OWL/SWRL-enabled ontologies to illustrate the proposal and feasibility of implementing this RPM system as a software solution in pervasive healthcare. It will be of interest to healthcare professionals, who can directly shape and populate the proposed ontological model, and software engineers, who would consider using OWL/SWRL when creating e-health services in general. PMID:23363406

  3. Passive Fetal Heart Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Timothy D. (Inventor); Wynkoop, Mark W. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. H. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A fetal heart monitoring system preferably comprising a backing plate having a generally concave front surface and a generally convex back surface, and at least one sensor element attached to the concave front surface for acquiring acoustic fetal heart signals produced by a fetus within a body. The sensor element has a shape that conforms to the generally concave back surface of the backing plate. In one embodiment, the at least one sensor element comprises an inner sensor, and a plurality of outer sensors surrounding the inner sensor. The fetal heart monitoring system can further comprise a web belt, and a web belt guide movably attached to the web belt. The web belt guide being is to the convex back surface of the backing plate.

  4. Passive Fetal Heart Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Mowrey, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A fetal heart monitoring system and method for detecting and processing acoustic fetal heart signals transmitted by different signal transmission modes. One signal transmission mode, the direct contact mode, occurs in a first frequency band when the fetus is in direct contact with the maternal abdominal wall. Another signal transmission mode, the fluid propagation mode, occurs in a second frequency band when the fetus is in a recessed position with no direct contact with the maternal abdominal wall. The second frequency band is relatively higher than the first frequency band. The fetal heart monitoring system and method detect and process acoustic fetal heart signals that are in the first frequency band and in the second frequency band.

  5. Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices, and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    McCown, Steven H; Derr, Kurt W; Rohde, Kenneth W

    2014-05-27

    Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices include a communications module for receiving wireless communications of a wireless device. Processing circuitry is coupled with the communications module and configured to process the wireless communications to determine whether the wireless device is authorized or unauthorized to be present at the monitored area based on identification information of the wireless device. Methods of monitoring for the presence and identity of wireless devices are also provided.

  6. PIGC™ - A low cost fugitive emissions and methane detection system using advanced gas filter correlation techniques for local and wide area monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachance, R. L.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; Fisher, J.; Paxton, G.; Gubeli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Currently there is no efficient and affordable way to monitor gas releases over small to large areas. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately measure key greenhouse and pollutant gasses with low cost solar observations using the breakthrough sensor technology called the "Pupil Imaging Gas Correlation", PIGC™, which provides size and complexity reduction while providing exceptional resolution and coverage for various gas sensing applications. It is a practical implementation of the well-known Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry (GFCR) technique used for the HALOE and MOPITT satellite instruments that were flown on successful NASA missions in the early 2000s. This strong space heritage brings performance and reliability to the ground instrument design. A methane (CH4) abundance sensitivity of 0.5% or better of ambient column with uncooled microbolometers has been demonstrated with 1 second direct solar observations. These under $10 k sensors can be deployed in precisely balanced autonomous grids to monitor the flow of chosen gasses, and infer their source locations. Measureable gases include CH4, 13CO2, N2O, NO, NH3, CO, H2S, HCN, HCl, HF, HDO and others. A single instrument operates in a dual operation mode, at no additional cost, for continuous (real-time 24/7) local area perimeter monitoring for the detection of leaks for safety & security needs, looking at an artificial light source (for example a simple 60 W light bulb placed 100 m away), while simultaneously allowing solar observation for quasi-continuous wide area total atmospheric column scanning (3-D) for environmental monitoring (fixed and mobile configurations). The second mode of operation continuously quantifies the concentration and flux of specific gases over different ground locations, determined the amount of targeted gas being released from the area or getting into the area from outside locations, allowing better tracking of plumes and identification of sources. This paper reviews the

  7. Roadside automobile emission monitoring with Peltier-cooled diode laser spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joachim F.; Sassenscheid, Karsten; Halford, B.; Lambrecht, Armin; Tacke, Maurus

    1997-05-01

    The use of catalytic converters in cars with gasoline engine results in a tremendous reduction of the emission of pollutant gases. The optimal operation of the exhaust treatment systems is being checked and maintained periodically, but there is always a significant percentage of cars with a malfunction of the catalytic converter causing a substantial percentage of the total emission. Roadside emission monitoring of individual cars in the running traffic could be used to indicate these gross polluters, arrange maintenance of their vehicles and thus reduce total emission. Present monitoring systems use non- dispersive IR spectroscopy. Other systems are based on mid- IR diode laser spectroscopy offering a higher signal to noise ratio, higher selectivity for detection of specific compounds and better optical quality for long open path measurements, but these systems depend on liquid nitrogen cooling. In this work a compact mid-IR (MIR) laser diode system for roadside measurements will be presented, that is cooled thermoelectrically using a Peltier element. Sensitivity and time resolution of the system have been determined and found to be suitable for detection of single gross polluters in the running traffic. The presented system demonstrates the feasibility of high sensitive, selective and fast field MIR laser diode spectroscopy together with ruggedness and low maintenance expense.

  8. 40 CFR 60.3041 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Make sure the averages for carbon monoxide are in parts per million by dry volume at 7 percent oxygen. Use the 1-hour averages of oxygen data from your continuous emission monitoring system to determine the actual oxygen level and to calculate emissions at 7 percent oxygen. (b) Obtain at least two...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2942 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the averages for carbon monoxide are in parts per million by dry volume at 7 percent oxygen. Use the 1-hour averages of oxygen data from your continuous emission monitoring system to determine the actual oxygen level and to calculate emissions at 7 percent oxygen. (b) Obtain at least two data points per...

  10. 40 CFR 75.16 - Special provisions for monitoring emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for SO2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SO2 mass emissions measured in the common stack to each of the Phase I and Phase II affected units... submitted under § 75.66. The Administrator may approve such substitute methods for apportioning SO2 mass... monitoring system in the duct from each nonaffected unit; determine SO2 mass emissions from the...

  11. 40 CFR 75.16 - Special provisions for monitoring emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for SO 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SO2 mass emissions measured in the common stack to each of the Phase I and Phase II affected units... submitted under § 75.66. The Administrator may approve such substitute methods for apportioning SO2 mass... monitoring system in the duct from each nonaffected unit; determine SO2 mass emissions from the...

  12. 40 CFR 75.16 - Special provisions for monitoring emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for SO 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SO2 mass emissions measured in the common stack to each of the Phase I and Phase II affected units... submitted under § 75.66. The Administrator may approve such substitute methods for apportioning SO2 mass... monitoring system in the duct from each nonaffected unit; determine SO2 mass emissions from the...

  13. 40 CFR 75.16 - Special provisions for monitoring emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for SO2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SO2 mass emissions measured in the common stack to each of the Phase I and Phase II affected units... submitted under § 75.66. The Administrator may approve such substitute methods for apportioning SO2 mass... monitoring system in the duct from each nonaffected unit; determine SO2 mass emissions from the...

  14. 40 CFR 75.16 - Special provisions for monitoring emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for SO2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SO2 mass emissions measured in the common stack to each of the Phase I and Phase II affected units... submitted under § 75.66. The Administrator may approve such substitute methods for apportioning SO2 mass... monitoring system in the duct from each nonaffected unit; determine SO2 mass emissions from the...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2942 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monoxide are in parts per million by dry volume at 7 percent oxygen. Use the 1-hour averages of oxygen data from your continuous emission monitoring system to determine the actual oxygen level and to calculate emissions at 7 percent oxygen. (b) Obtain at least two data points per hour in order to calculate a valid...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2942 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monoxide are in parts per million by dry volume at 7 percent oxygen. Use the 1-hour averages of oxygen data from your continuous emission monitoring system to determine the actual oxygen level and to calculate emissions at 7 percent oxygen. (b) Obtain at least two data points per hour in order to calculate a valid...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2942 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the averages for carbon monoxide are in parts per million by dry volume at 7 percent oxygen. Use the 1-hour averages of oxygen data from your continuous emission monitoring system to determine the actual oxygen level and to calculate emissions at 7 percent oxygen. (b) Obtain at least two data points per...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3041 - What is the minimum amount of monitoring data I must collect with my continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Make sure the averages for carbon monoxide are in parts per million by dry volume at 7 percent oxygen. Use the 1-hour averages of oxygen data from your continuous emission monitoring system to determine the actual oxygen level and to calculate emissions at 7 percent oxygen. (b) Obtain at least two...

  19. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) in response to growing awareness of a land loss crisis in Louisiana. Projects funded by CWPPRA require monitoring and evaluation of project effectiveness, and there is also a need to assess the cumulative effects of all projects to achieve a sustainable coastal environment. In 2003, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration (OCPR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received approval from the CWPPRA Task Force to implement the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of CWPPRA projects at the project, region, and coastwide levels. The CRMS design implements a multiple reference approach by using aspects of hydrogeomorphic functional assessments and probabilistic sampling. The CRMS program is as dynamic as the coastal habitats it monitors. The program is currently funded through CWPPRA and provides data for a variety of user groups, including resource managers, academics, landowners, and researchers.

  20. An assessment of monitoring requirements and costs of 'Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Hannes; Eisbrenner, Katja; Fritz, Steffen; Kindermann, Georg; Kraxner, Florian; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Negotiations on a future climate policy framework addressing Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) are ongoing. Regardless of how such a framework will be designed, many technical solutions of estimating forest cover and forest carbon stock change exist to support policy in monitoring and accounting. These technologies typically combine remotely sensed data with ground-based inventories. In this article we assess the costs of monitoring REDD based on available technologies and requirements associated with key elements of REDD policy. Results We find that the design of a REDD policy framework (and specifically its rules) can have a significant impact on monitoring costs. Costs may vary from 0.5 to 550 US$ per square kilometre depending on the required precision of carbon stock and area change detection. Moreover, they follow economies of scale, i.e. single country or project solutions will face relatively higher monitoring costs. Conclusion Although monitoring costs are relatively small compared to other cost items within a REDD system, they should be shared not only among countries but also among sectors, because an integrated monitoring system would have multiple benefits for non-REDD management. Overcoming initialization costs and unequal access to monitoring technologies is crucial for implementation of an integrated monitoring system, and demands for international cooperation. PMID:19709413

  1. Monitoring, reporting and verifying emissions in the climate economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Stephan, Nicolas; Afriat, Marion; Alberola, Emilie; Barker, Alexandra; Chang, Jean-Pierre; Chiquet, Caspar; Cochran, Ian; Deheza, Mariana; Dimopoulos, Christopher; Foucherot, Claudine; Jacquier, Guillaume; Morel, Romain; Robinson, Roderick; Shishlov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse-gas emissions is the cornerstone of carbon pricing and management mechanisms. Here we consider peer-reviewed articles and 'grey literature' related to existing MRV requirements and their costs. A substantial part of the literature is the regulatory texts of the 15 most important carbon pricing and management mechanisms currently implemented. Based on a comparison of key criteria such as the scope, cost, uncertainty and flexibility of procedures, we conclude that conventional wisdom on MRV is not often promoted in existing carbon pricing mechanisms. Quantification of emissions uncertainty and incentives to reduce this uncertainty are usually only partially applied, if at all. Further, the time and resources spent on small sources of emissions would be expected to be limited. Although provisions aiming at an effort proportionate to the amount of emissions at stake -- 'materiality' -- are widespread, they are largely outweighed by economies of scale: in all schemes, MRV costs per tonne are primarily driven by the size of the source.

  2. Field evaluation of hydrogen fluoride continuous monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, V.V.M.; Dunder, T.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a comparative study of commercially available hydrogen fluoride (HF) continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMSs). The evaluation was conducted at a primary aluminum smelting plant. Three CEMSs-one infrared (IR) absorption analyzer and two ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) analyzers-gathered data continuously over a 12-day time frame. Manual sampling trains were run concurrently with the CEMSs. All three monitoring systems provided time-averaged emissions estimates within 0.5 parts per million of each other. CEMS data were comparable to data gathered by manual sampling techniques.

  3. Shared performance monitor in a multiprocessor system

    DOEpatents

    Chiu, George; Gara, Alan G; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-12-02

    A performance monitoring unit (PMU) and method for monitoring performance of events occurring in a multiprocessor system. The multiprocessor system comprises a plurality of processor devices units, each processor device for generating signals representing occurrences of events in the processor device, and, a single shared counter resource for performance monitoring. The performance monitor unit is shared by all processor cores in the multiprocessor system. The PMU is further programmed to monitor event signals issued from non-processor devices.

  4. Lidar for monitoring methane emission in Siberian permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishkanich, A. S.; Zhevlakov, A. P.; Sidorov, I.; Elizarov, V. V.; Mak, A. A.; Kascheev, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Identifying methane anomalies responsible for the temperature increase, by hiking trails in the Arctic requires great human labor .According to the tentative forecast by the year 2100 Arctic permafrost will greatly deteriorate, which will have numerous consequences. Indeed, release of less than 0.1% of the organic carbon stored in the upper 100-meter permafrost level (approximately 10000 ppm of carbon in the CH4 form) can double concentration of atmospheric methane, which is roughly 20 times more potent greenhouse gas than the CO2. Necessary to create a Raman lidar for monitoring of emissions of methane hydrate from the permafrost.

  5. Directional spectral emissivity measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim (Inventor); Pandey, Dhirendra K. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus and process for determining the emissivity of a test specimen including an integrated sphere having two concentric walls with a coolant circulating therebetween, and disposed within a chamber which may be under ambient, vacuum or inert gas conditions. A reference sample is disposed within the sphere with a monochromatic light source in optical alignment therewith. A pyrometer is in optical alignment with the test sample for obtaining continuous test sample temperature measurements during a test. An arcuate slit port is provided through the spaced concentric walls of the integrating sphere with a movable monochromatic light source extending through and movable along the arcuate slit port. A detector system extends through the integrating sphere for continuously detecting an integrated signal indicative of all radiation within its field of view, as a function of the emissivity of the test specimen at various temperatures and various angle position of the monochromatic light source. A furnace for heating the test sample to approximately 3000 K. and control mechanism for transferring the heated sample from the furnace to the test sample port in the integrating sphere is also contained within the chamber.

  6. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry -- A mature analytical method for industrial-level emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gravel, D.; Rilling, A.; Karfik, V.; Schmaeh, M.

    1997-12-31

    Monitoring extremely low limits of pollutants in the stack emissions of waste incinerators is required by German law (and recently by European Community regulations). This calls for the most advanced and innovative monitoring equipment. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers designed for use in industrial environments can now meet this need. The operating principle and construction of an FTIR-based continuous emissions multicomponent monitoring system will be explained. This FTIR spectrometer provides quantitative results of 9 chemical compounds simultaneously. This number can be increased by simple software addition. The hot/wet, extractive analytical method provides accurate results at extremely low concentration levels for pollutants like HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, even with up to 60 Vol% water vapor in the gas sample. The combination of FTIR spectrometry and modern chemometrics gives higher selectivity than any other analyzer. The excellent long-term stability allows extending the calibration interval to six months. The ruggedness of industrial grade FTIR Spectrometer and the simple design of the sampling and gas conditioning systems ensure extremely high availability. The performance of the FTIR spectrometer has been validated by an independent products testing organization, TUV Rheinland Germany. The testing includes a laboratory examination and a long term trial under real working conditions. As a result, the FTIR based system Cemas achieved the official permission for emission monitoring by the German Federal Ministry of Environment and Reactor Security. The experience and particular results obtained from the operation of more than 70 FTIR continuous emissions monitoring systems throughout the world will be presented.

  7. A Proposed Community Network For Monitoring Volcanic Emissions In Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Robertson, R. E.; Latchman, J. L.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    Systematic geochemical monitoring of volcanic systems in the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles was initiated by the UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in 2000, as part of its volcanic surveillance programme for the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles. This programme provided the first time-series observations used for the purpose of volcano monitoring in Dominica and Saint Lucia, permitted the characterization of the geothermal fluids associated with them, and established baseline studies for understanding of the hydrothermal systems during periods of quiescence (Joseph et al., 2011; Joseph et al., 2013). As part of efforts to improve and expand the capacity of SRC to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, it is necessary to develop economically sustainable options for the monitoring of volcanic emissions/pollutants. Towards this effort we intend to work in collaboration with local authorities in Saint Lucia, to develop a monitoring network for quantifying the background exposure levels of ambient concentrations of volcanic pollutants, SO2 in air and As in waters (as health significant marker elements in the geothermal emissions) that would serve as a model for the emissions monitoring network for other volcanic islands. This programme would facilitate the building of local capacity and training to monitor the hazardous exposure, through the application and transfer of a regionally available low-cost and low-technology SO2 measurement/detection system in Saint Lucia. Existing monitoring technologies to inform evidence based health practices are too costly for small island Caribbean states, and no government policies or health services measures currently exist to address/mitigate these influences. Gases, aerosols and toxic elements from eruptive and non-eruptive volcanic activity are known to adversely affect human health and the environment (Baxter, 2000; Zhang et al., 2008). Investigations into the

  8. Real-time calibrated microwave plasma mulitmetals emissions monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Hadidi, Kamal; Thomas, Paul; Green, Karyn; Flores, Guadalupe

    1999-02-01

    Real-time calibrated atomic emission spectroscopy in stack exhaust using a continuously sustained microwave plasma is under development for trace metals monitoring. The plasma, in a shorted waveguide attached to the stack by a short sample line, is powered at 1.5 kW, 2.45 GHz. An undiluted stack slipstream is isokinetically directed into the plasma at a nominal flow of 14 liters per minute. A pneumatic nebulizer attached to the sample line can momentarily, on command, inject a known concentration of metals solution providing a real-time calibration. Recent testing has been performed on the exhaust stack of an incinerator at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Laboratory in Research Triangle Park. Three hazardous metals were monitored, lead, chromium, and beryllium. These measurements were referenced to EPA Method-29. A total of twenty spiked stack exhaust tests were carried out. Ten one-hour tests at high concentration (40 - 60 (mu) g/actual m3) and ten one and half-hour tests at low concentration (10 - 15 (mu) g/actual m3). The microwave plasma monitor achieved measurement accuracies of approximately 20% for lead and beryllium and 40% for chromium with a threshold detection capability of less than 3 (mu) g/actual m3 for a time response of approximately 1-minute. Laboratory work is continuing to add mercury, arsenic, and cadmium to the monitored metals.

  9. Monitoring shipping emissions with MAX-DOAS measurements of reactive trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittrock, Folkard; Peters, Enno; Seyler, André; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Burrows, John P.; Chirkov, Maksym; Meier, Andreas C.; Richter, Andreas; Schönhardt, Anja; Schmolke, Stefan; Theobald, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution from ships contributes to overall air quality problems and it has direct health effects on the population in particular in coastal regions, and in harbor cities. In order to reduce the emissions the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) have tightened the regulations for air pollution. E.g. Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA) have been introduced where the sulfur content of marine fuel is limited. However, up to now there is no regular monitoring system available to verify that ships are complying with the new regulations. Furthermore measurements of reactive trace gases in marine environments are in general sparse. The project MeSMarT (Measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere, www.mesmart.de) has been established as a cooperation between the University of Bremen and the German Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency) with support of the Helmholtz Research Centre Geesthacht to estimate the influence of ship emissions on the chemistry of the atmospheric boundary layer and to establish a monitoring system for main shipping routes. Here we present MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 and SO2 carried out during ship campaigns in the North and Baltic Sea and from two permanent sites close to the Elbe river (Wedel, Germany) and on the island Neuwerk close to the mouths of Elbe and Weser river. Mixing ratios of both trace gases have been retrieved using different approaches (pure geometric and taking into account the radiative transfer) and compared to in situ and air borne observations (see Kattner et al., Monitoring shipping emissions with in-situ measurements of trace gases, and Meier et al., Airborne measurements of NO2 shipping emissions using imaging DOAS) observations. Furthermore simple approaches have been used to calculate emission factors of NOx and SO2 for single ships.

  10. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-10-13

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed. The month of June, 2004 was primarily occupied with the writing of the Phase I Final Report, the sole deliverable of Phase I, which will be submitted in the next quarter. Redesign of the laboratory prototype and design of the downhole (Phase II) prototype was begun.

  11. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-08-31

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.

  12. Versatile mobile lidar system for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Weibring, Petter; Edner, Hans; Svanberg, Sune

    2003-06-20

    A mobile lidar (light detection and ranging) system for environmental monitoring is described. The optical and electronic systems are housed in a truck with a retractable rooftop transmission and receiving mirror, connected to a 40-cm-diameter vertically looking telescope. Two injection-seeded Nd:YAG lasers are employed in connection with an optical parametric oscillator-optical parametric amplification transmitter, allowing deep-UV to mid-IR wavelengths to be generated. Fast switching that employs piezoelectric drivers allows multiwavelength differential absorption lidar for simultaneous measurements of several spectrally overlapping atmospheric species. The system can also be used in an imaging multispectral laser-induced fluorescence mode on solid targets. Advanced LabVIEW computer control and multivariate data processing render the system versatile for a multitude of measuring tasks. We illustrate the monitoring of industrial atmospheric mercury and hydrocarbon emissions, volcanic sulfur dioxide plume mapping, fluorescence lidar probing of seawater, and multispectral fluorescence imaging of the facades of a historical monument. PMID:12833965

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MERCURY CEMS FOR COMBUSTION EMISSIONS MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous emission montiroing systems (CEMS) for mercury (Hg) are receiving increased attention and focus. Their potential use as a compiance assurance tool is of particular interest. While Hg CEMS are currently used in Europe for compliance purposes, use of Hg CEMS in the Unite...

  14. 40 CFR 63.848 - Emission monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the primary control system, devices for the measurement of water flow and air flow; (4) For electrostatic precipitators, devices for the measurement of voltage and secondary current; and (5) For wet roof scrubbers for secondary emission control: (i) A device for the measurement of total water flow; and (ii)...

  15. 40 CFR 63.848 - Emission monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the primary control system, devices for the measurement of water flow and air flow; (4) For electrostatic precipitators, devices for the measurement of voltage and secondary current; and (5) For wet roof scrubbers for secondary emission control: (i) A device for the measurement of total water flow; and (ii)...

  16. FRP/steel composite damage acoustic emission monitoring and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhi

    2015-04-01

    FRP is a new material with good mechanical properties, such as high strength of extension, low density, good corrosion resistance and anti-fatigue. FRP and steel composite has gotten a wide range of applications in civil engineering because of its good performance. As the FRP/steel composite get more and more widely used, the monitor of its damage is also getting more important. To monitor this composite, acoustic emission (AE) is a good choice. In this study, we prepare four identical specimens to conduct our test. During the testing process, the AE character parameters and mechanics properties were obtained. Damaged properties of FRP/steel composite were analyzed through acoustic emission (AE) signals. By the growing trend of AE accumulated energy, the severity of the damage made on FRP/steel composite was estimated. The AE sentry function has been successfully used to study damage progression and fracture emerge release rate of composite laminates. This technique combines the cumulative AE energy with strain energy of the material rather than analyzes the AE information and mechanical separately.

  17. Atmospheric monitoring for fugitive emissions from geological carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.; Luhar, A.; Leuning, R.; Jenkins, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present a multi-year record of continuous atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements, flask sampling (for CO2, CH4, N2O, δ13CO2 and SF6) and CO2 flux measurements at the CO2CRC Otway Project (http://www.co2crc.com.au/otway/), a demonstration site for geological storage of CO2 in south-western Victoria, Australia. The measurements are used to develop atmospheric methods for operational monitoring of large scale CO2 geological storage. Characterization of emission rates ideally requires concentration measurements upwind and downwind of the source, along with knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence field. Because only a single measurement location was available for much of the measurement period, we develop techniques to filter the record and to construct a ';pseudo-upwind' measurement from our dataset. Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations were filtered based on wind direction, downward shortwave radiation, atmospheric stability and hour-to-hour changes in CO2 flux. These criteria remove periods of naturally high concentration due to the combined effects of biogenic respiration, stable atmospheric conditions and pre-existing sources (both natural and anthropogenic), leaving a reduced data set, from which a fugitive leak from the storage reservoir, the ';(potential) source sector)', could more easily be detected. Histograms of the filtered data give a measure of the background variability in both CO2 and CH4. Comparison of the ';pseudo-upwind' dataset histogram with the ';(potential) source sector' histogram shows no statistical difference, placing limits on leakage to the atmosphere over the preceding two years. For five months in 2011, we ran a true pair of up and downwind CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements. During this period, known rates of gas were periodically released at the surface (near the original injection point). These emissions are clearly detected as elevated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in the filtered data and in the measured

  18. Implementation of Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The updated status of TEMPO, as it proceeds from formulation phase into implementation phase is presented. TEMPO, the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument, will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. GEO-CAPE is not planned for implementation this decade. However, instruments from Europe (Sentinel 4) and Asia (GEMS) will form parts of a global GEO constellation for pollution monitoring later this decade, with a major focus on intercontinental

  19. Leak detection by acoustic emission monitoring. Phase 1: Feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenstein, Bernard; Winder, A. A.

    1994-05-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of detecting leaks from underground storage tanks or pipelines using acoustic emissions. An extensive technical literature review established that distinguishable acoustic emission signals will be generated when a storage tank is subjected to deformation stresses. A parametric analysis was performed which indicated that leak rates less than 0.1 gallons per hour can be detected for leak sizes less than 1/32 inch with 99% probability if the transient signals were sensed with an array of accelerometers (cemented to the tank or via acoustic waveguides), each having a sensitivity greater than 250 mv/g over a frequency range of 0.1 to 4000 Hz, and processed in a multi-channel Fourier spectrum analyzer with automatic threshold detection. An acoustic transient or energy release processor could conceivably detect the onset of the leak at the moment of fracture of the tank wall. The primary limitations to realizing reliable and robust acoustic emission monitoring of underground fluid leaks are the various masking noise sources prevalent at Air Force bases, which are attributed to aircraft, motor traffic, pump station operation, and ground tremors.

  20. A sensor management architecture concept for monitoring emissions from open-air demil operations.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michael M.; Robinson, Jerry D.; Stoddard, Mary Clare; Horn, Brent A.; Lipkin, Joel; Foltz, Greg W.

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, CA proposed a sensor concept to detect emissions from open-burning/open-detonation (OB/OD) events. The system would serve two purposes: (1) Provide data to demilitarization operations about process efficiency, allowing process optimization for cleaner emissions and higher efficiency. (2) Provide data to regulators and neighboring communities about materials dispersing into the environment by OB/OD operations. The proposed sensor system uses instrument control hardware and data visualization software developed at Sandia National Laboratories to link together an array of sensors to monitor emissions from OB/OD events. The suite of sensors would consist of various physical and chemical detectors mounted on stationary or mobile platforms. The individual sensors would be wirelessly linked to one another and controlled through a central command center. Real-time data collection from the sensors, combined with integrated visualization of the data at the command center, would allow for feedback to the sensors to alter operational conditions to adjust for changing needs (i.e., moving plume position, increased spatial resolution, increased sensitivity). This report presents a systems study of the problem of implementing a sensor system for monitoring OB/OD emissions. The goal of this study was to gain a fuller understanding of the political, economic, and technical issues for developing and fielding this technology.

  1. The Ames Power Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osetinsky, Leonid; Wang, David

    2003-01-01

    The Ames Power Monitoring System (APMS) is a centralized system of power meters, computer hardware, and specialpurpose software that collects and stores electrical power data by various facilities at Ames Research Center (ARC). This system is needed because of the large and varying nature of the overall ARC power demand, which has been observed to range from 20 to 200 MW. Large portions of peak demand can be attributed to only three wind tunnels (60, 180, and 100 MW, respectively). The APMS helps ARC avoid or minimize costly demand charges by enabling wind-tunnel operators, test engineers, and the power manager to monitor total demand for center in real time. These persons receive the information they need to manage and schedule energy-intensive research in advance and to adjust loads in real time to ensure that the overall maximum allowable demand is not exceeded. The APMS (see figure) includes a server computer running the Windows NT operating system and can, in principle, include an unlimited number of power meters and client computers. As configured at the time of reporting the information for this article, the APMS includes more than 40 power meters monitoring all the major research facilities, plus 15 Windows-based client personal computers that display real-time and historical data to users via graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The power meters and client computers communicate with the server using Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) on Ethernet networks, variously, through dedicated fiber-optic cables or through the pre-existing ARC local-area network (ARCLAN). The APMS has enabled ARC to achieve significant savings ($1.2 million in 2001) in the cost of power and electric energy by helping personnel to maintain total demand below monthly allowable levels, to manage the overall power factor to avoid low power factor penalties, and to use historical system data to identify opportunities for additional energy savings. The APMS also

  2. GFAS fire emissions and smoke in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Andela, Niels; Benedetti, Angela; He, Jiangping; Heil, Angelika; Inness, Antje; Paugam, Ronan; Remy, Samuel; Trigo, Isabel; van der Werf, Guido R.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2015-04-01

    We present the latest developments of the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS), which has been implemented by the MACC-III project in order to provide accurate biomass burning emission estimates for real time and retrospective atmospheric composition monitoring and forecasting, and climate monitoring. It is now part of the EU's operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Accurate fire emissions have been shown to be a crucial input for air quality forecasts even when satellite-based atmospheric observations are being assimilated. On the other hand, comparisons of the simulated smoke plumes and data assimilation of atmospheric observations with ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) provide information on the accuracy of the bottom-up fire emission estimates. GFAS calculates the global dry matter combustion rate and injection height estimates from satellite observations of fire radiative power. Emission rates for forty smoke constituents are subsequently calculated from the dry matter combustion rate with resolutions of 0.1deg and 1 day. The emission estimates of GFAS are used for the operational monitoring and forecasting of global and regional atmospheric composition and air quality in CAMS. The emisson estimates have been validated against atmospheric smoke plume observations of aerosol optical depth, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde using the atmospheric models of MACC-III. The simulated smoke plumes are largely consistent with satellite-based and in-situ observations. However, distinct systematic differences appear. New developments of GFAS include the provision of Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products from the geostationary GOES satellites, the calculation of diurnal fire cycles for individual days and grid cells, and a bias correction for periods with more sparse satellite data coverage. Further developments address the viewing angle-dependence of the satellite observations and an improved land cover / fire typ

  3. Artificial nerve system for structural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, William N., Jr.; Ghoshal, Anindya; Sundaresan, Mannur J.; Lebby, Gary L.; Schulz, Mark J.; Pratap, Promod R.

    2002-06-01

    Recent structural health monitoring techniques have focused on developing global sensor systems that can detect damage on large structures. The approach presented here uses a piezoelectric sensor array system that mimics the biological nervous system architecture to measure acoustic emissions and dynamic strains in structures. The advantage of this approach is that the number of channels of data acquisition used for an N-by-N sensor array can be reduced from N2 to 2N. For large arrays the number of data acquisition channels is tremendously reduced. When transient damage events occur on the structure, the array output time histories can be recorded and the location of the excitation can be accurately determined using combinatorial logic. A trade-off is the difficulty of extracting individual sensor time histories from the array outputs without a neural network or a regressive technique. Only the sums of the sensor strains of each row and column can be exactly calculated using the voltage outputs of the array. The array approach allows efficient use of data acquisition instrumentation for structural health monitoring. Applications for the sensor array include crack and delamination detection, dynamic strain measurement, impact detection, and localization of damage on large complex structures.

  4. Characterization of a nondestructive beam profile monitor using luminescent emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variola, A.; Jung, R.; Ferioli, G.

    2007-12-01

    The LHC (large hadron collider) [LHC study group: LHC. The large hadron collider conceptual design; CERN/AC/95-05] is the future p-p collider under construction at CERN, Geneva. Over a circumference of 26.7 km a set of cryogenic dipoles and rf cavities will store and accelerate proton and ion beams up to energies of the order of 7 TeV. Injection in LHC will be performed by the CERN complex of accelerators, starting from the source and passing through the linac, the four booster rings, the proton synchrotron (PS), and super proton synchrotron (SPS) accelerators. One of the main constraints on LHC performance is emittance preservation along the whole chain of CERN accelerators. The accepted relative normalized emittance blowup after filamentation is ±7%. To monitor the beam and the emittance blowup process, a study of different prototypes of nonintercepting beam profile monitors has been performed. In this context a monitor using the luminescent emission of gases excited by ultrarelativistic protons (450 GeV) was developed and tested in the SPS ring. The results of beam size measurements and their evolution as a function of the machine parameters are presented. The image quality and resolution attainable in the LHC case have been assessed. A first full characterization of the luminescence cross section, spectrum, decay time, and afterglow effect for an ultrarelativistic proton beam is provided. Some significant results are also provided for lead ion beams.

  5. 40 CFR 60.343 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rotary lime kiln. The span of this system shall be set at 40 percent opacity. (b) The owner or operator of any rotary lime kiln having a control device with a multiple stack exhaust or a roof monitor may... observations shall occur during normal operation of the rotary lime kiln at least once per day. For at...

  6. 40 CFR 60.343 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rotary lime kiln. The span of this system shall be set at 40 percent opacity. (b) The owner or operator of any rotary lime kiln having a control device with a multiple stack exhaust or a roof monitor may... observations shall occur during normal operation of the rotary lime kiln at least once per day. For at...

  7. 40 CFR 60.343 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... rotary lime kiln. The span of this system shall be set at 40 percent opacity. (b) The owner or operator of any rotary lime kiln having a control device with a multiple stack exhaust or a roof monitor may... observations shall occur during normal operation of the rotary lime kiln at least once per day. For at...

  8. 40 CFR 60.343 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rotary lime kiln. The span of this system shall be set at 40 percent opacity. (b) The owner or operator of any rotary lime kiln having a control device with a multiple stack exhaust or a roof monitor may... observations shall occur during normal operation of the rotary lime kiln at least once per day. For at...

  9. 40 CFR 60.343 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rotary lime kiln. The span of this system shall be set at 40 percent opacity. (b) The owner or operator of any rotary lime kiln having a control device with a multiple stack exhaust or a roof monitor may... observations shall occur during normal operation of the rotary lime kiln at least once per day. For at...

  10. The future of remote ECG monitoring systems

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na; Liu, Hong-Wei; Si, Quan-Jin; Kong, De-Feng; Guo, Fu-Su

    2016-01-01

    Remote ECG monitoring systems are becoming commonplace medical devices for remote heart monitoring. In recent years, remote ECG monitoring systems have been applied in the monitoring of various kinds of heart diseases, and the quality of the transmission and reception of the ECG signals during remote process kept advancing. However, there remains accompanying challenges. This report focuses on the three components of the remote ECG monitoring system: patient (the end user), the doctor workstation, and the remote server, reviewing and evaluating the imminent challenges on the wearable systems, packet loss in remote transmission, portable ECG monitoring system, patient ECG data collection system, and ECG signals transmission including real-time processing ST segment, R wave, RR interval and QRS wave, etc. This paper tries to clarify the future developmental strategies of the ECG remote monitoring, which can be helpful in guiding the research and development of remote ECG monitoring. PMID:27582770

  11. The future of remote ECG monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na; Liu, Hong-Wei; Si, Quan-Jin; Kong, De-Feng; Guo, Fu-Su

    2016-09-01

    Remote ECG monitoring systems are becoming commonplace medical devices for remote heart monitoring. In recent years, remote ECG monitoring systems have been applied in the monitoring of various kinds of heart diseases, and the quality of the transmission and reception of the ECG signals during remote process kept advancing. However, there remains accompanying challenges. This report focuses on the three components of the remote ECG monitoring system: patient (the end user), the doctor workstation, and the remote server, reviewing and evaluating the imminent challenges on the wearable systems, packet loss in remote transmission, portable ECG monitoring system, patient ECG data collection system, and ECG signals transmission including real-time processing ST segment, R wave, RR interval and QRS wave, etc. This paper tries to clarify the future developmental strategies of the ECG remote monitoring, which can be helpful in guiding the research and development of remote ECG monitoring. PMID:27582770

  12. Ethylene monitoring and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Bruce N. (Inventor); Richard, II, Roy V. (Inventor); Kane, James A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system that can accurately monitor and control low concentrations of ethylene gas includes a test chamber configured to receive sample gas potentially containing an ethylene concentration and ozone, a detector configured to receive light produced during a reaction between the ethylene and ozone and to produce signals related thereto, and a computer connected to the detector to process the signals to determine therefrom a value of the concentration of ethylene in the sample gas. The supply for the system can include a four way valve configured to receive pressurized gas at one input and a test chamber. A piston is journaled in the test chamber with a drive end disposed in a drive chamber and a reaction end defining with walls of the test chamber a variable volume reaction chamber. The drive end of the piston is pneumatically connected to two ports of the four way valve to provide motive force to the piston. A manifold is connected to the variable volume reaction chamber, and is configured to receive sample gasses from at least one of a plurality of ports connectable to degreening rooms and to supply the sample gas to the reactive chamber for reaction with ozone. The apparatus can be used to monitor and control the ethylene concentration in multiple degreening rooms.

  13. Ethylene monitoring and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Bruce N. (Inventor); Richard, II, Roy V. (Inventor); Kanc, James A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system that can accurately monitor and control low concentrations of ethylene gas includes a test chamber configured to receive sample gas potentially containing an ethylene concentration and ozone, a detector configured to receive light produced during a reaction between the ethylene and ozone and to produce signals related thereto, and a computer connected to the detector to process the signals to determine therefrom a value of the concentration of ethylene in the sample gas. The supply for the system can include a four way valve configured to receive pressurized gas at one input and a test chamber. A piston is journaled in the test chamber with a drive end disposed in a drive chamber and a reaction end defining with walls of the test chamber a variable volume reaction chamber. The drive end of the piston is pneumatically connected to two ports of the four way valve to provide motive force to the piston. A manifold is connected to the variable volume reaction chamber, and is configured to receive sample gasses from at least one of a plurality of ports connectable to degreening rooms and to supply the sample gas to the reactive chamber for reaction with ozone. The apparatus can be used to monitor and control the ethylene concentration in multiple degreening rooms.

  14. Water monitor system: Phase 1 test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic water monitor system was tested with the objectives of assuring high-quality effluent standards and accelerating the practice of reclamation and reuse of water. The NASA water monitor system is described. Various components of the system, including the necessary sensors, the sample collection system, and the data acquisition and display system, are discussed. The test facility and the analysis methods are described. Test results are reviewed, and recommendations for water monitor system design improvement are presented.

  15. Neural system for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Mannur J.; Schulz, Mark J.; Ghoshal, Anindya; Martin, William N., Jr.; Pratap, Promod R.

    2001-08-01

    This is an overview paper that discusses the concept of an embeddable structural health monitoring system for use in composite and heterogeneous material systems. The sensor system is formed by integrating groups of autonomous unit cells into a structure, much like neurons in biological systems. Each unit cell consists of an embedded processor and a group of distributed sensors that gives the structure the ability to sense damage. In addition, each unit cell periodically updates a central processor on the status of health in its neighborhood. This micro-architectured synthetic nervous system has an advanced sensing capability based on new continuous sensor technology. This technology uses a plurality of serially connected piezoceramic nodes to form a distributed sensor capable of measuring waves generated in structures by damage events, including impact and crack propagation. Simulations show that the neural system can detect faint acoustic waves in large plates. An experiment demonstrates the use of a simple neural system that was able to measure simulated acoustic emissions that were not clearly recognizable by a single conventional piezoceramic sensor.

  16. Automated biowaste sampling system feces monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R.; Glanfield, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The Feces Monitoring System (FMS) Program designed, fabricated, assembled and tested an engineering model waste collector system (WCS) to be used in support of life science and medical experiments related to Shuttle missions. The FMS design was patterned closely after the Shuttle WCS, including: interface provisions; mounting; configuration; and operating procedures. These similarities make it possible to eventually substitute an FMS for the Shuttle WCS of Orbiter. In addition, several advanced waste collection features, including the capability of real-time inertial fecal separation and fecal mass measurement and sampling were incorporated into the FMS design.

  17. Quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the UK using a dense monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A. L.; Manning, A. J.; Grant, A.; Young, D.; Oram, D. E.; Sturges, W. T.; Moncrieff, J. B.; O'Doherty, S.

    2015-01-01

    The UK is one of several countries around the world that has enacted legislation to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. Monitoring of emissions has been done through a detailed sectoral level bottom-up inventory (UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, NAEI) from which national totals are submitted yearly to the United Framework Convention on Climate Change. In parallel, the UK government has funded four atmospheric monitoring stations to infer emissions through top-down methods that assimilate atmospheric observations. In this study, we present top-down emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) for the UK and Ireland over the period August 2012 to August 2014. We used a hierarchical Bayesian inverse framework to infer fluxes as well as a set of covariance parameters that describe uncertainties in the system. We inferred average UK emissions of 2.08 (1.72-2.47) Tg yr-1 CH4 and 0.105 (0.087-0.127) Tg yr-1 N2O and found our derived estimates to be generally lower than the inventory. We used sectoral distributions from the NAEI to determine whether these discrepancies can be attributed to specific source sectors. Because of the distinct distributions of the two dominant CH4 emissions sectors in the UK, agriculture and waste, we found that the inventory may be overestimated in agricultural CH4 emissions. We also found that N2O fertilizer emissions from the NAEI may be overestimated and we derived a significant seasonal cycle in emissions. This seasonality is likely due to seasonality in fertilizer application and in environmental drivers such as temperature and rainfall, which are not reflected in the annual resolution inventory. Through the hierarchical Bayesian inverse framework, we quantified uncertainty covariance parameters and emphasized their importance for high-resolution emissions estimation. We inferred average model errors of approximately 20 and 0.4 ppb and correlation timescales of 1.0 (0.72-1.43) and 2.6 (1.9-3.9) days for CH4 and N2O

  18. 40 CFR 63.4168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine the average of all recorded readings for each successive 3-hour period of the emission capture... monitoring equipment. (5) You must operate the CPMS and collect emission capture system and add-on control... emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data recorded during monitoring...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determine the average of all recorded readings for each successive 3-hour period of the emission capture... monitoring equipment. (5) You must operate the CPMS and collect emission capture system and add-on control... emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data recorded during monitoring...

  20. Acoustic emission of offshore structures, attenuation - noise - crack monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lovaas, S.

    1985-01-01

    No NDT crack detection methods have up to now proved to be the method which can overrule the others. We shall probably in the future in the offshore industry see a combination of various structure monitoring systems, remotely operated vehicles (ROV) with NDT-equipment and also the use of divers. The author believes that in some 5 - 10 years ROVs will perform much of the routine inspection, and mobile monitoring instrumentation will be concentrated to some hot spot areas, already detected defects or any repairs. The main areas for AE are monitoring of pressure vessels and fibre reinforced plastics. For application on offshore structures some fullscale trials have been performed (with practical problems) as well as some laboratory studies. Norwegian institutions seem to have a leading role today in the research of offshore applications. Norsk Hydro participated in a signature analysis project at Sintef/Veritas some years ago.