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Sample records for emission x-ray source

  1. X-Ray Emission from Compact Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cominsky, L

    2004-03-23

    This paper presents a review of the physical parameters of neutron stars and black holes that have been derived from X-ray observations. I then explain how these physical parameters can be used to learn about the extreme conditions occurring in regions of strong gravity, and present some recent evidence for relativistic effects seen in these systems. A glossary of commonly used terms and a short tutorial on the names of X-ray sources are also included.

  2. X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Morihana, Kumiko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken; Yoshida, Tessei

    2013-03-20

    Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

  3. Carbon nanotube based field emission X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuan

    This dissertation describes the development of field emission (FE) x-ray sources with a carbon-nanotube (CNT) cathode. Field emission x-rays have advantages over conventional x-rays by replacing the thermionic cathode with a cold cathode so that electrons are emitted at room temperature and emission is voltage controllable. CNTs are found to be excellent electron emitters with low threshold fields and high current density which makes them ideal for generate field emission x-rays. Macroscopic CNT cold cathodes are prepared and the parameters to tune their field emission properties are studied: structure and morphology of CNT cathodes, temperature as well as electronic work function of CNT. Macroscopic CNT cathodes with optimized performance are chosen to build a high-resolution x-ray imaging system. The system can readily generate x-ray radiation with continuous variation of temporal resolution up to nanoseconds and spatial resolution down to 10 micron. Its potential applications for dynamic x-ray imaging and micro-computed tomography are also demonstrated. The performance characteristics of this compact and versatile system are promising for non-destructive testing and for non-invasive small-animal imaging for biomedical research.

  4. ANS hard X-ray experiment development program. [emission from X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsignault, D.; Gursky, H.; Frank, R.; Kubierschky, K.; Austin, G.; Paganetti, R.; Bawdekar, V.

    1974-01-01

    The hard X-ray (HXX) experiment is one of three experiments included in the Dutch Astronomical Netherlands Satellite, which was launched into orbit on 30 August 1974. The overall objective of the HXX experiment is the detailed study of the emission from known X-ray sources over the energy range 1.5-30keV. The instrument is capable of the following measurements: (1) spectral content over the full energy range with an energy resolution of approximately 20% and time resolution down to 4 seconds; (2) source time variability down to 4 milliseconds; (3) silicon emission lines at 1.86 and 2.00keV; (4) source location to a limit of one arc minute in ecliptic latitude; and (5) spatial structure with angular resolution of the arc minutes. Scientific aspects of experiment, engineering design and implementation of the experiment, and program history are included.

  5. Searches for correlated X-ray and radio emission from X-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. M.; Catura, R. C.; Lamb, P. A.; White, N. E.; Sanford, P. W.; Hoffman, J. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Jernigan, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The NRAO Green Bank interferometer has been used to monitor MXB 1730-335 and MXB 1837+05 during periods when 68 X-ray bursts were detected by X-ray observations. No significant radio emission was detected from these objects, or from MXB 1820-30 and MXB 1906+00, which emitted no bursts throughout the simultaneous observations. The data place upper limits on radio emission from these objects in the 2695 and 8085 MHz bands.

  6. Tentative study on x-ray enhancement by fluorescent emission of radiation by plasma x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sagae, Michiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki; Sakamaki, Kimio; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu

    1999-09-01

    Tentative study on characteristic x-ray enhancement by fluorescent emission of radiation by plasma x-ray source is described. The enhancement was performed by the plasma flash x-ray generator having a cold-cathode triode. And the generator employs a high-voltage power supply, a low-impedance coaxial transmission line with a gap switch, a high-voltage condenser with a capacity of 200 nF, a turbo-molecular pump, a thyristor pulser as a trigger device, and a flash x-ray tube. The high-voltage main condenser is charged up to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is of a demountable triode that is connected to the turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As the electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to the target by the electric field in the tube, the plasma x-ray source, which consists of metal ions and electrons, forms by the target evaporating. Both the tube voltage and current displayed damped oscillations, and their peak values increased according to increases in the charging voltage. In the present work, the peak tube voltage was almost equivalent to the initial charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was less than 30 kA. The characteristic x-ray intensity substantially increased according to the growth in the plasma x-ray source. When the linear plasma x-ray source formed, the bremsstrahlung x-rays were absorbed without using a monochromatic filter, and high- intensity characteristic x-rays were produced.

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopy of faint discrete X-ray point sources constituting the Galactic ridge X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morihana, Kumiko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Dubath, Pierre; Yoshida, Tessei; Suzuki, Kensuke; Ebisawa, Ken

    2016-08-01

    The Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE) is an apparently extended X-ray emission along the Galactic plane. The X-ray spectrum is characterized by a hard continuum with a strong Fe K emission feature in the 6-7 keV band. A substantial fraction (˜80%) of the GRXE in the Fe band was resolved into point sources by deep Chandra imaging observations; thus GRXE is mostly composed of dim Galactic X-ray point sources, at least in this energy band. To investigate the populations of these dim X-ray point sources, we carried out near-infrared (NIR) follow-up spectroscopic observations in two deep Chandra fields located in the Galactic plane at (l, b) = (0.1°, -1.4°) and (28.5°, 0.0°) using NTT/SofI and Subaru/MOIRCS. We obtained well-exposed NIR spectra from 65 objects and found that there are three main classes of Galactic sources based on the X-ray color and NIR spectral features: those having (A) hard X-ray spectra and NIR emission features such as H I (Brγ), He I, and He II (2 objects), (B) soft X-ray spectra and NIR absorption features such as H I, Na I, Ca I, and CO (46 objects), and (C) hard X-ray spectra and NIR absorption features such as H I, Na I, Ca I, and CO (17 objects). From these features, we argue that class A sources are cataclysmic variables (CVs), and class B sources are late-type stars with enhanced coronal activity, which is in agreement with current knowledge. Class C sources possibly belong to a new group of objects, which has been poorly studied so far. We argue that the candidate sources for class C are the binary systems hosting white dwarfs and late-type companions with very low accretion rates. It is likely that this newly recognized class of sources contribute to a non-negligible fraction of the GRXE, especially in the Fe K band.

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy of faint discrete X-ray point sources constituting the Galactic ridge X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morihana, Kumiko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Dubath, Pierre; Yoshida, Tessei; Suzuki, Kensuke; Ebisawa, Ken

    2016-05-01

    The Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE) is an apparently extended X-ray emission along the Galactic plane. The X-ray spectrum is characterized by a hard continuum with a strong Fe K emission feature in the 6-7 keV band. A substantial fraction (˜80%) of the GRXE in the Fe band was resolved into point sources by deep Chandra imaging observations; thus GRXE is mostly composed of dim Galactic X-ray point sources, at least in this energy band. To investigate the populations of these dim X-ray point sources, we carried out near-infrared (NIR) follow-up spectroscopic observations in two deep Chandra fields located in the Galactic plane at (l, b) = (0.1°, -1.4°) and (28.5°, 0.0°) using NTT/SofI and Subaru/MOIRCS. We obtained well-exposed NIR spectra from 65 objects and found that there are three main classes of Galactic sources based on the X-ray color and NIR spectral features: those having (A) hard X-ray spectra and NIR emission features such as H I (Brγ), He I, and He II (2 objects), (B) soft X-ray spectra and NIR absorption features such as H I, Na I, Ca I, and CO (46 objects), and (C) hard X-ray spectra and NIR absorption features such as H I, Na I, Ca I, and CO (17 objects). From these features, we argue that class A sources are cataclysmic variables (CVs), and class B sources are late-type stars with enhanced coronal activity, which is in agreement with current knowledge. Class C sources possibly belong to a new group of objects, which has been poorly studied so far. We argue that the candidate sources for class C are the binary systems hosting white dwarfs and late-type companions with very low accretion rates. It is likely that this newly recognized class of sources contribute to a non-negligible fraction of the GRXE, especially in the Fe K band.

  9. Dynamic radiography using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y.Z.; Gao, B.; Dike, S.; Lin, W.; Lu, J.P.; Zhou, O.

    2004-10-01

    We report a dynamic radiography system with a carbon nanotube based field-emission microfocus x-ray source. The system can readily generate x-ray radiation with continuous variation of temporal resolution as short as nanoseconds. Its potential applications for dynamic x-ray imaging are demonstrated. The performance characteristics of this compact and versatile system are promising for noninvasive imaging in biomedical research and industrial inspection.

  10. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to use the All-Sky Monitor on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in combination with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to simultaneously measure the x-ray (2-12 keV) and hard x-ray (20-100 keV) emission from x-ray bursters. The investigation was successful. We made the first simultaneous measurement of hard and soft x-ray emission and found a strong anticorrelation of hard and soft x-ray emission from the X-Ray Burster 4U 0614+091. The monitoring performed under this investigation was also important in triggering target of opportunity observations of x-ray bursters made under the investigation hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters approved for RXTE cycles 1 and 2. These observations lead to a number of papers on high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations and on hard x-ray emission from the x-ray bursters 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1705-44.

  11. Electron optics simulation for designing carbon nanotube based field emission x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Shabana

    In this dissertation, electron optics simulation for designing carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission x-ray source for medical imaging applications will be presented. However, for design optimization of x-ray tubes accurate electron beam optics simulation is essential. To facilitate design of CNT x-ray sources a commercial 3D finite element software has been chosen for extensive simulation. The results show that a simplified model of uniform electron field emission from the cathode surface is not sufficient when compared to experimental measurements. This necessitated the development of a refined model to describe a macroscopic field emission CNT cathode for electron beam optics simulations. The model emulates the random distribution of CNTs and the associated variation of local field enhancement factor. The main parameter of the model has been derived empirically from the experimentally measured I-V characteristics of the CNT cathode. Simulation results based on this model agree well with experiments which include measurements of the transmission rate and focus spot size. The model provides a consistent simulation platform for optimization of electron beam optics in CNT x-ray source design. A systematic study of electron beam optics in CNT x-ray tubes led to the development of a new generation of compact x-ray source with multiple pixels. A micro focus field emission x-ray source with a variable focal spot size has been fully characterized and evaluated. It has been built and successfully integrated into micro-CT scanners which are capable of dynamic cardiac imaging of free-breathing small animals with high spatial and temporal resolutions. In addition a spatially distributed high power multi-beam x-ray source has also been designed and integrated into a stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) configuration. This system has the potential to reduce the total scan time to 4 seconds and yield superior image quality in breast imaging.

  12. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  13. Hard X-Ray Emission and the Ionizing Source in LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terashima, Y.; Ho, L. C.; Ptak, A. F.

    2004-01-01

    We report X-ray luminosities of 21 LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions) and 17 low-luminosity Seyferts obtained with ASCA and discuss the ionizing source in LINERs. Most LINERs with broad H-alpha emission in their optical spectra (LINER 1s) have a compact hard X-ray source and their 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities (LX) are proportional to their H alpha luminosities (L-H-alpha). This correlation strongly supports the hypothesis that the dominant ionizing source in LINER 1s is photoionization by hard photons from low-luminosity AGNs. Although some LINERs without broad H-alpha emission (LINER 2s) have X-ray properties similar to LINER 1s, the X-ray luminosities of many LINER 2s in our sample are lower than LINER 1s at a given H-alpha luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities in these objects are insufficient to power their H-alpha luminosities, suggesting that their primary ionizing source is something other than an AGN, or that an AGN, if present, is obscured even at energies above 2 keV. LINER 2s having small LX/LH-alpha occupy a localized region with small [OI]/H-alpha on the excitation diagram. Such LINER spectra can be reproduced by photoionization by very hot stars.

  14. Fabrication, characterization and integration of carbon nanotube cathodes for field emission X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon-Colon, Xiomara

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters are now being evaluated for a wide range of vacuum electronic applications. Our laboratory pioneer in the development of CNT based field emission X-ray source technology, which has the potential to fundamentally change how X-ray radiation is generated and utilized. Applications of the CNT field emission X-ray source technology in a wide range of applications including biomedical imaging, radiation therapy, and homeland security are being actively pursued. However, problems with the performance of the CNT cathodes for X-ray generation including short lifetime at high current density, instability under high voltage, poor emission uniformity, and cathode-to-cathode inconsistency are still major obstacles for device applications. The goal of this thesis work is the development and optimization of an electrophoretic process to fabricate composite CNT films with controlled nanotube orientation and surface density, and enhanced adhesion. The CNT cathode fabrication process consist in a combination of photolithography and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method where parameters such as SU-8 photoresist thickness, deposition time, and deposition voltage were varied to fabricate CNT cathodes with the required properties for X-ray generation. Also the development of CNT alcohol-based suspensions in context of the EPD method requirements with excellent long term stability has been accomplished. The CNT cathodes fabricated by EPD have significantly enhanced macroscopic field emission current density and long-term stability under high operating voltages. Also these CNT cathodes compared to others reported previously show significant improved field emission properties with small cathode-to-cathode variation. The integration, characterization, and evaluation of these CNT cathodes into a micro focus field emission X-ray source has been achieved with excellent X-ray source characteristics and performance including X-ray flux and stability at the

  15. On the Thermal Line Emission from the Outflows in Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ya-Di; Cao, Xinwu

    2016-08-01

    The atomic features in the X-ray spectra of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be associated with the outflow, which may provide a way to explore the physics of the ULXs. We construct a conical outflow model and calculate the thermal X-ray Fe emission lines from the outflows. Our results show that thermal line luminosity decreases with increasing outflow velocity and/or opening angle of the outflow for a fixed kinetic power of the outflows. Assuming the kinetic power of the outflows to be comparable with the accretion power in the ULXs, we find that the equivalent width can be several eV for the thermal X-ray Fe emission line from the outflows in the ULXs with stellar-mass black holes. The thermal line luminosity is proportional to 1/M bh (M bh is the black hole mass of the ULX). The equivalent width decreases with the black hole mass, which implies that the Fe line emission from the outflows can hardly be detected if the ULXs contain intermediate-mass black holes. Our results suggest that the thermal X-ray Fe line emission should be preferentially be detected in the ULXs with high kinetic power slowly moving outflows from the accretion disks surrounding stellar-mass black holes/neutron stars. The recently observed X-ray atomic features of the outflows in a ULX may imply that it contains a stellar-mass black hole.

  16. Hard X-Ray Emission and the Ionizing Source in LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terashima, Yuichi; Ho, Luis C.; Ptak, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    We report X-ray fluxes in the 2-10 keV band from LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions) and low-luminosity Seyfert galaxies obtained with the ASCA satellite. Observed X-ray luminosities are in the range between 4 x 10(exp 39) and 5 x 10(exp 41) ergs/s, which are significantly smaller than that of the "classical" low-luminosity Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051. We found that X-ray luminosities in 2-10 keV of LINERs with broad H.alpha emission in their optical spectra (LINER 1s) are proportional to their Ha luminosities. This correlation strongly supports the hypothesis that the dominant ionizing source in LINER 1s is photoionization by hard photons from low-luminosity AGNs. On the other hand, the X-ray luminosities of most LINERs without broad H.alpha emission (LINER 2s) in our sample are lower than LINER 1s at a given H.alpha luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities in these objects are insufficient to power their H.alpha luminosities, suggesting that their primary ionizing source is other than an AGN, or that an AGN, if present, is obscured even at energies above 2 keV.

  17. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project was to monitor a selected sample of x-ray bursters using data from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer together with data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to study the long-term temporal evolution of these sources in the x-ray and hard x-ray bands. The project was closely related to "Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters", NASA project NAG5-3891, and and "Hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters", NASA project NAG5-4633, and shares publications in common with both of these. The project involved preparation of software for use in monitoring and then the actual monitoring itself. These efforts have lead to results directly from the ASM data and also from Target of Opportunity Observations (TOO) made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer based on detection of transient hard x-ray outbursts with the ASM and BATSE.

  18. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  19. Development of tomographic imaging systems using carbon-nanotube-based field-emission x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian

    2005-11-01

    Conventional thermionic x-ray sources use hot filament cathodes to generate electrons for x-ray production. The thermionic technology has several inherent limitations such as high operating temperature, slow response time, and difficulty for miniaturization. On the other hand, field emission provides an alternative to generate electrons without all these limitations. The concept of field emission x-ray source has been proposed and tested in the early 1970s. Unfortunately all of the early field emission x-ray systems failed due primarily to the limitations on the electron field emitters. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have recently emerged as a promising class of electron emissive materials and field emission x-ray source based on CNTs are expected to have significantly improved properties. We have recently developed a CNT-based field emission micro-focus x-ray source. It shows stable tube current under high operating voltage, extraordinary dynamic imaging capability, and excellent potential for miniaturization. All of these new features make it very attractive for various potential industrial and medical applications. In order to demonstrate its applications, two sets of x-ray imaging systems using this field emission x-ray source were constructed in our lab. One is a micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging system using a single field emission x-ray source for dynamic radiographic and tomographic imaging applications. It shows great potential for the future development of dynamic micro-CT scanner. The other one is a multi-beam field emission x-ray source with multiple addressable focal spots which can provide scanning x-ray beams without mechanical movement. It can lead to fast data acquisition rates for future tomographic imaging systems with a simplified experimental set-up.

  20. Neutron star population in the Galactic center region as a potential source of polarized X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajacek, Michal; Karas, Vladimir; Eckart, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    We analyse the emission properties of neutron stars that are predicted to exist in large numbers of the order of 10000 in the innermost parts of the Galactic center. A part of the population of isolated neutron stars propagates supersonically through denser ionized streams of the Minispiral (Sgr A West), forming bow shocks where particles are accelerated and are expected to produce polarized X-ray synchrotron signal. Another source of the synchrotron emission is an elongated magnetosphere and tail. We investigate whether the polarized X-ray emission from Galactic center neutron stars will be potentially detectable in the framework of future X-ray polarimeters. A special case is a detected young neutron star - magnetar SGRJ1745-2900 - that has undergone a series of outbursts with a peak X-ray luminosity of the order of 10^{35} erg s^{-1} (1-10 keV). Apart from an intrinsic X-ray emission, the X-ray emission from neutron star outbursts may be scattered by molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone by Thomson scattering, which is another potential source of polarized X-ray emission.

  1. On the x-ray emission from the radio source SGR A*

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, R. F.; Pittard, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent infrared observations of the Galactic Center have permitted the estimation of orbital parameters for the 8 O stars closest to the compact, nonthermal radio source, Sgr A*. The emission of Sgr A* is thought to be due to the accretion of gas down the potential well of a {approx} 3 x 10{sup 6} solar mass black hole at the dynamical heart of the Milky Way. The O stars are located within 0.03 pc of Sgr A* and are likely to have significant stellar winds. Since they are deep within the potential well of a black hole, much of their winds are gravitationally bound. These hot winds may be piling up and emitting significantly in the X-rays. Thus it is possible that the emission from the recently detected compact CHANDRA source may at least in part be due to the winds of these O stars rather than the hot gas close to the event horizon of the black hole. This has serious implications for applicable black hole accretion models. From preliminary 3D numerical simulations which treat the 8 O stars as mass sources moving on individual orbits, we have constructed simulated X-ray images. We present these images and discuss their impact on accretion models for Sgr A*.

  2. Physiologically gated microbeam radiation using a field emission x-ray source array

    SciTech Connect

    Chtcheprov, Pavel E-mail: zhou@email.unc.edu; Burk, Laurel; Inscoe, Christina; Ger, Rachel; Hadsell, Michael; Lu, Jianping; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto E-mail: zhou@email.unc.edu

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses narrow planes of high dose radiation beams to treat cancerous tumors. This experimental therapy method based on synchrotron radiation has been shown to spare normal tissue at up to 1000 Gy of peak entrance dose while still being effective in tumor eradication and extending the lifetime of tumor-bearing small animal models. Motion during treatment can lead to significant movement of microbeam positions resulting in broader beam width and lower peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR), which reduces the effectiveness of MRT. Recently, the authors have demonstrated the feasibility of generating microbeam radiation for small animal treatment using a carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The purpose of this study is to incorporate physiological gating to the CNT microbeam irradiator to minimize motion-induced microbeam blurring. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source array with a narrow line focal track was operated at 160 kVp. The x-ray radiation was collimated to a single 280 μm wide microbeam at entrance. The microbeam beam pattern was recorded using EBT2 Gafchromic{sup ©} films. For the feasibility study, a strip of EBT2 film was attached to an oscillating mechanical phantom mimicking mouse chest respiratory motion. The servo arm was put against a pressure sensor to monitor the motion. The film was irradiated with three microbeams under gated and nongated conditions and the full width at half maximums and PVDRs were compared. An in vivo study was also performed with adult male athymic mice. The liver was chosen as the target organ for proof of concept due to its large motion during respiration compared to other organs. The mouse was immobilized in a specialized mouse bed and anesthetized using isoflurane. A pressure sensor was attached to a mouse's chest to monitor its respiration. The output signal triggered the electron extraction voltage of the field emission source such that x-ray was generated only during a

  3. Physiologically gated microbeam radiation using a field emission x-ray source array

    PubMed Central

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Burk, Laurel; Yuan, Hong; Inscoe, Christina; Ger, Rachel; Hadsell, Michael; Lu, Jianping; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses narrow planes of high dose radiation beams to treat cancerous tumors. This experimental therapy method based on synchrotron radiation has been shown to spare normal tissue at up to 1000 Gy of peak entrance dose while still being effective in tumor eradication and extending the lifetime of tumor-bearing small animal models. Motion during treatment can lead to significant movement of microbeam positions resulting in broader beam width and lower peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR), which reduces the effectiveness of MRT. Recently, the authors have demonstrated the feasibility of generating microbeam radiation for small animal treatment using a carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The purpose of this study is to incorporate physiological gating to the CNT microbeam irradiator to minimize motion-induced microbeam blurring. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source array with a narrow line focal track was operated at 160 kVp. The x-ray radiation was collimated to a single 280 μm wide microbeam at entrance. The microbeam beam pattern was recorded using EBT2 Gafchromic© films. For the feasibility study, a strip of EBT2 film was attached to an oscillating mechanical phantom mimicking mouse chest respiratory motion. The servo arm was put against a pressure sensor to monitor the motion. The film was irradiated with three microbeams under gated and nongated conditions and the full width at half maximums and PVDRs were compared. An in vivo study was also performed with adult male athymic mice. The liver was chosen as the target organ for proof of concept due to its large motion during respiration compared to other organs. The mouse was immobilized in a specialized mouse bed and anesthetized using isoflurane. A pressure sensor was attached to a mouse's chest to monitor its respiration. The output signal triggered the electron extraction voltage of the field emission source such that x-ray was generated only during a

  4. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  5. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  6. Persistent X-ray emission from a gamma-ray burst source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Cline, T.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Pizzichini, G.; Evans, W. D.; Laros, J. G.; Hurley, K. C.; Niel, M.; Klebesadel, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    A quiescent X-ray source detected with the Einstein X-ray Observatory in a location consistent with that of an intense gamma ray burst is shown to be also consistent with the location of the 1928 optical transient, the likely optical counterpart of the gamma ray burst source GBS0117-29. The system appears to be underluminous in X-rays by a factor of 10; possible reasons for this are discussed. The observed X-ray flux would require an accretion rate of about 10 to the -14th (d/1 kpc/)-squared solar masses per year, which is probably too low to be consistent with published nuclear flash models for gamma bursts, unless the distance is substantially greater than about 1 kpc or the burst recurrence time is greater than about 50 yrs, or the accretion rate is highly variable. Such a long recurrence time appears to be inconsistent with the detection of the optical burst.

  7. X-ray emission from normal galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, K. S.; Van Speybroeck, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    The results of Einstein Observatory studies of X-ray emission from normal galaxies, including the LMC and SMC, M31, M33, M101, NGC 247, M81 and M100, and N253 are surveyed. The X-ray luminosity of normal galaxies is proportional to their optical luminosity, revealing no strong dependence on galaxy type. The number of individual sources detected are comparable to the number of sources expected on mass considerations. There are substantial numbers of X-ray sources in the Magellanic Clouds with luminosities in the range 10 to the 35th-36th ergs/s, lower than most X-ray binaries but higher than known uncollapsed stellar systems. About seven X-ray sources with luminosities of at least 10 to the 39th ergs/s in the 0.5-3.0 keV band have been found in the arms of nearby spiral galaxies.

  8. Models for galactic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joss, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to those compact galactic X-ray sources whose X-ray luminosities are considerably in excess of the solar luminosity. It is pointed out that the key breakthrough in the development of an understanding of compact galactic X-ray sources was the discovery of X-ray pulsars with the UHURU satellite. There is now overwhelming evidence that these objects are neutron stars in close binary stellar systems. The X-ray pulsations are thought to be thermal emission from the magnetic polar caps of a neutron star that is accreting matter from a companion star and whose magnetic field is misaligned with its rotation axis. Among the compact galactic X-ray sources that are not X-ray pulsars, some still show direct evidence of binary membership, such as X-ray eclipses. There is evidence that the galactic-bulge sources are, in fact, close binary stellar systems. It is concluded, that the great majority of bright galactic X-ray sources, with only a tiny handful of exceptions (such as the Crab and Vela pulsars), are likely to be binaries.

  9. Hard X-ray emission from X-ray bursters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, M.; Liang, E.

    1996-11-01

    Hard X-ray emission from compact objects has been considered a spectral signature of black hole candidates. However, SIGMA and BATSE recently detected transient emission in the energy range 30-200keV from several X-ray bursters (XRBs) believed to contain weakly magnetized neutron stars. At least seven XRBs (including Aquila X-1 and 4U 1608-52) are currently known to produce erratic hard X-ray outbursts with typical durations of several weeks. These results lead us to reconsider theoretical models of high-energy emission from compact objects, and in particular thermal Comptonization models vs. non-thermal models of particle energization and X-ray emission from weakly magnetized neutron stars. We summarize here recent results for magnetic field reconnection models of non-thermal particle acceleration and high-energy emission of accretion disks. For intermediate soft X-ray luminosities below the Eddington limit, non-thermal hard X-ray emission is predicted to have a (broken) power-law spectrum with intensity anticorrelated with the soft X-ray luminosity. Recent GINGA/BATSE data for the XRB 4U 1608-52 are in agreement with the mechanism of emission proposed here: transient hard X-ray emission consistent with a broken power-law spectrum was detected for a sub-Eddington soft X-ray luminosity.

  10. X-RAY SPECTRAL CUTOFF AND THE LACK OF HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES M81 X-6 AND HOLMBERG IX X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.; Jithesh, V.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2013-07-10

    We present broadband X-ray spectral study of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), M81 X-6 and Holmberg IX X-1, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. We perform joint broadband spectral analysis of the brightest sources in the field, i.e., the two ULXs and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in M81, and demonstrate that the X-ray spectra of the ULXs cut off at energies {approx}> 3 keV with negligible contribution at high energies in the Suzaku HXD/PIN band. The 90% upper limit on the 10-30 keV band luminosity of an underlying broadband power-law component is 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. These limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than the bolometric (0.1-30 keV) luminosity of 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. Our results confirm earlier indications of spectral cutoffs inferred from the XMM-Newton observations of bright ULXs and show that there is not an additional high-energy power-law component contributing significantly to the X-ray emission. The spectral form of the two ULXs are very different from those of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) or AGNs. This implies that the ULXs are neither simply scaled-up versions of stellar-mass BHBs nor scaled-down versions of AGNs.

  11. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  12. Detection of x ray sources in PROS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deponte, J.; Primini, F. A.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of detecting discrete sources in x-ray images has much in common with the problem of automatic source detection at other wavelengths. In all cases, one searches for positive brightness enhancements exceeding a certain threshold, which appear consistent with what one expects for a point source, in the presence of a (possibly) spatially variable background. Multidimensional point spread functions (e.g., dependent on detector position and photon energy) are also common. At the same time, the problem in x-ray astronomy has some unique aspects. For example, for typical x-ray exposures in current or recent observatories, the number of available pixels far exceeds the number of actual x-ray events, so Poisson, rather than Gaussian statistics apply. Further, extended cosmic x-ray sources are common, and one often desires to detect point sources in the vicinity or even within bright, diffuse x-ray emission. Finally, support structures in x-ray detectors often cast sharp shadows in x-ray images making it necessary to detect sources in a region of rapidly varying exposure. We have developed a source detection package within the IRAF/PROS environment which attempts to deal with some of the problems of x-ray source detection. We have patterned our package after the successful Einstein Observatory x-ray source detection programs. However, we have attempted to improve the flexibility and accessibility of the functions and to provide a graphical front-end for the user. Our philosophy has been to use standard IRAF tasks whenever possible for image manipulation and to separate general functions from mission-specific ones. We will report on the current status of the package and discuss future developments, including simulation tasks, to allow the user to assess detection efficiency and source significance, tasks to determine source intensity, and alternative detection algorithms.

  13. Design and characterization of a spatially distributed multibeam field emission x-ray source for stationary digital breast tomosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xin; Rajaram, Ramya; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Yang, Guang; Phan, Tuyen; Lalush, David S.; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2009-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a limited angle computed tomography technique that can distinguish tumors from its overlying breast tissues and has potentials for detection of cancers at a smaller size and earlier stage. Current prototype DBT scanners are based on the regular full-field digital mammography systems and require partial isocentric motion of an x-ray tube over certain angular range to record the projection views. This prolongs the scanning time and, in turn, degrades the imaging quality due to motion blur. To mitigate the above limitations, the concept of a stationary DBT (s-DBT) scanner has been recently proposed based on the newly developed spatially distributed multibeam field emission x-ray (MBFEX) source technique using the carbon nanotube. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the performance of the 25-beam MBFEX source array that has been designed and fabricated for the s-DBT system. The s-DBT system records all the projection images by electronically activating the multiple x-ray beams from different viewing angles without any mechanical motion. The configuration of the MBFEX source is close to the published values from the Siemens Mammomat system. The key issues including the x-ray flux, focal spot size, spatial resolution, scanning time, beam-to-beam consistency, and reliability are evaluated using the standard procedures. In this article, the authors describe the design and performance of a distributed x-ray source array specifically designed for the s-DBT system. They evaluate the emission current, current variation, lifetime, and focal spot sizes of the source array. An emission current of up to 18 mA was obtained at 0.5×0.3 mm effective focal spot size. The experimentally measured focal spot sizes are comparable to that of a typical commercial mammography tube without motion blurring. Trade-off between the system spatial resolution, x-ray flux, and scanning time are also discussed. Projection images of a breast phantom were

  14. Design and characterization of a spatially distributed multibeam field emission x-ray source for stationary digital breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Xin; Rajaram, Ramya; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Yang Guang; Phan, Tuyen; Lalush, David S.; Lu Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2009-10-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a limited angle computed tomography technique that can distinguish tumors from its overlying breast tissues and has potentials for detection of cancers at a smaller size and earlier stage. Current prototype DBT scanners are based on the regular full-field digital mammography systems and require partial isocentric motion of an x-ray tube over certain angular range to record the projection views. This prolongs the scanning time and, in turn, degrades the imaging quality due to motion blur. To mitigate the above limitations, the concept of a stationary DBT (s-DBT) scanner has been recently proposed based on the newly developed spatially distributed multibeam field emission x-ray (MBFEX) source technique using the carbon nanotube. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the performance of the 25-beam MBFEX source array that has been designed and fabricated for the s-DBT system. The s-DBT system records all the projection images by electronically activating the multiple x-ray beams from different viewing angles without any mechanical motion. The configuration of the MBFEX source is close to the published values from the Siemens Mammomat system. The key issues including the x-ray flux, focal spot size, spatial resolution, scanning time, beam-to-beam consistency, and reliability are evaluated using the standard procedures. In this article, the authors describe the design and performance of a distributed x-ray source array specifically designed for the s-DBT system. They evaluate the emission current, current variation, lifetime, and focal spot sizes of the source array. An emission current of up to 18 mA was obtained at 0.5x0.3 mm effective focal spot size. The experimentally measured focal spot sizes are comparable to that of a typical commercial mammography tube without motion blurring. Trade-off between the system spatial resolution, x-ray flux, and scanning time are also discussed. Projection images of a breast phantom were

  15. Pre-Impulsive Hard X-Ray Emission from Coronal Sources in X-Class Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P.

    2006-12-01

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has observed significant non- thermal emission up to ~70~keV from coronal sources prior to the impulsive phase in some flares, which has interesting implications for particle trapping and flare energy release. Images and spectra during the pre- impulsive phase of the GOES-class X4.8 event on 23~July~2002 suggests that the coronal hard X-ray (HXR) emission is non-thermal, as analysis of the Fe (~6.7~keV) and Fe/Ni (~8~keV) line complexes constrains the thermal component to have little or no thermal continuum emission above ~15~keV. The over-the-limb X3.1 event on 24~Aug~2002 displays similar spectral characteristics, and occultation of the footpoints places the non-thermal HXR emission unambiguously in the corona. RHESSI images of this event show an extended source below ~35~keV and a compact looptop source above ~35~keV, possibly indicating trapping of energetic electrons. Spatially-integrated spectra are well-fit by a broken power-law and the spectral indices above and below the break differ by ~2, suggesting an observation of the transition between thin- and thick-target bremsstrahlung. The collisional lifetime of non-thermal electrons is <10~sec at the inferred densities of ~1011~cm-3 and the rising HXR flux thus suggests continuous particle injection. We apply the technique of Johns &Lin (1992) to invert the pre-impulsive phase photon spectra and recover the original electron energy spectra as a function of time, both for spatially-integrated spectra and source-isolated spectra using imaging spectroscopy. We then compare the inverted spectra with a forward-modeling analysis of the photon spectra using the iron line analysis technique of Caspi &Lin (2006) to constrain the thermal model. We compare the results for both 24~Aug~2002 and 23~Jul~2002, and discuss the implications for electron acceleration and flare plasma heating in the corona during this period.

  16. X-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, W. H. G.

    1986-01-01

    There are about 100 bright X-ray sources in the Galaxy that are accretion-driven systems composed of a neutron star and a low mass companion that fills its critical Roche lobe. Many of these systems generate recurring X-ray bursts that are the result of thermonuclear flashes in the neutron star's surface layers, and are accompanied by a somewhat delayed optical burst due to X-ray heating of accretion disk. The Rapid Burster discovered in 1976 exhibits an interval between bursts that is strongly correlated with the energy in the preceding burst. There is no optical identification for this object.

  17. Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of this proposal was to perform an accurate measurement of the broadband x-ray spectrum of a neutron-star low-mass x-ray binary found in a hard x-ray state. This goal was accomplished using data obtained under another proposal, which has provided exciting new information on the hard x-ray emission of neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. In "BeppoSAX Observations of the Atoll X-Ray Binary 4U0614+091", we present our analysis of the spectrum of 4U0614+091 over the energy band from 0.3-150 keV. Our data confirm the presence of a hard x-ray tail that can be modeled as thermal Comptonization of low-energy photons on electrons having a very high temperature, greater than 220 keV, or as a non-thermal powerlaw. Such a very hard x-ray spectrum has not been previously seen from neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. We also detected a spectral feature that can be interpreted as reprocessing, via Compton reflection, of the direct emission by an optically-thick disk and found a correlation between the photon index of the power-law tail and the fraction of radiation reflected which is similar to the correlation found for black hole candidate x-ray binaries and Seyfert galaxies. A secondary goal was to measure the timing properties of the x-ray emission from neutronstar low-mass x-ray binaries in their low/hard states.

  18. Application of CVD diamonds as dosimeters of soft X-ray emission from plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krása, J.; Juha, L.; Vorlíček, V.; Cejnarová, A.

    2004-05-01

    The thermoluminescent properties of polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond, as free-standing CVD cutting tool material, type CVDITE-CDM (De Beers Company), were studied with respect to its use in the dosimetry of soft X-ray emission from laser-produced plasma. The range of linearity for 5.9-keV radiation was measured to be only two orders of magnitude, ranging from a sensitivity threshold of ˜0.01 to ˜2 Gy. In this linearity range, the sensitivity of CVD diamonds is about 65 times lower than the sensitivity of TLD-100 dosimeters. The unpolished (grained) face of CVD diamonds shows ˜1.5-times higher thermoluminescence (TL) response after irradiation than the polished face, in the high-temperature range, but the polished face shows slightly higher TL response in the low-temperature range. A strong TL sensitivity to the blue portion of the visible light spectrum was measured. Simultaneous irradiation of TLD-100 dosimeters and CVD diamonds by soft X-rays emitted from a laser-produced plasma showed that CVDITE-CDM diamonds can be applied as detectors of intense soft X-ray radiation.

  19. THE NATURE OF THE UV/OPTICAL EMISSION OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE IN HOLMBERG II

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Lian; Feng Hua; Kaaret, Philip; Grise, Fabien

    2012-05-10

    We report on UV and X-ray spectroscopy and broadband optical observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source in Holmberg II. Fitting various stellar spectral models to the combined, non-simultaneous data set, we find that normal metallicity stellar spectra are ruled out by the data, while low-metallicity, Z = 0.1 Z{sub Sun }, late O-star spectra provide marginally acceptable fits, if we allow for the fact that X-ray ionization from the compact object may reduce or eliminate UV absorption/emission lines from the stellar wind. By contrast, an irradiated disk model fits both UV and optical data with {chi}{sup 2}/dof = 175.9/178, and matches the nebular extinction with a reddening of E(B - V) = 0.05{sup +0.05}{sub -0.04}. These results suggest that the UV/optical flux of Holmberg II X-1 may be dominated by X-ray irradiated disk emission.

  20. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  1. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  2. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOEpatents

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  3. Effect of a concave grid mesh in a carbon nanotube-based field emission X-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Suk; Castro, Edward Joseph D.; Lee, Choong Hun

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Successful design using a concave grid mesh for the focusing electron. • Much better X-ray image due to the concave grid mesh. • Higher anode current efficiency using the concave grid mesh versus a flat grid mesh. - Abstract: This study introduces a simple approach to improve the X-ray image quality produced by the carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitter X-ray source by altering the geometrical shape of the grid mesh from the conventional flat shape to a concave one in a typical triode structure. The concave shape of the grid electrode increases the effective number of the grid cells in the mesh, which exerted an electric field in the direction of the emitted electrons, thereby increasing the emission current reaching the anode. Furthermore, the curved mesh (concave grid mesh), which was responsible for the extraction of electrons from the field emitter, exhibited a focusing effect on the electron beam trajectory thereby, reducing the focal spot size impinging on the anode and resulted in a better spatial resolution of the X-ray images produced.

  4. X-ray emission from starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rephaeli, Yoel; Gruber, Duane; Macdonald, Dan; Persic, Massimo

    1991-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation of X-ray emission from a sample of 53 IRAS-selected candidate starburst galaxies. Superposed soft and hard X-ray emission from these galaxies in the Einstein-IPC and HEAO-1 A-2 and A-4 energy bands, which span 0.5 to 160 keV, is detected at the 99.6 percent confidence level, after allowing for confusion noise in the HEAO-1 data. Above 15 keV the confidence level is 97 percent. The combined spectrum is flat, with a (photon) power-law index of 1.0 +/- 0.3. The contribution of the population of sources represented by this sample to the 3-50 keV residual cosmic X-ray background is estimated to be at least about 4 percent assuming no evolution. Moderate evolution, for which there is some observational evidence, increases this fractional contribution to about 26 percent.

  5. A search for X-ray polarization in cosmic X-ray sources. [binary X-ray sources and supernovae remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. P.; Long, K. S.; Novick, R.

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen strong X-ray sources were observed by the X-ray polarimeters on board the OSO-8 satellite from 1975 to 1978. The final results of this search for X-ray polarization in cosmic sources are presented in the form of upper limits for the ten sources which are discussed elsewhere. These limits in all cases are consistent with a thermal origin for the X-ray emission.

  6. Nondispersive X-ray emission analysis for geochemical exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, I.; Lamothe, R.; Schmadebeck, R.; Trombka, J. I.

    1969-01-01

    Nondispersive X-ray emission technique uses lightweight, and rugged X-ray fluorescence units. The X-ray pulse-height spectra is excited by radioactive isotope sources. The technique is applicable for quantitative and qualitative analyses on complex chemical systems, and satisfies the goals for a lunar geochemical exploration device.

  7. The Chandra Survey of Extragalactic Sources in the 3CR Catalog: X-ray Emission from Nuclei, Jets, and Hotspots in the Chandra Archival Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; Harris, D. E.; Liuzzo, E.; Orienti, M.; Paladino, R.; Paggi, A.; Tremblay, G. R.; Wilkes, B. J.; Kuraszkiewicz, J.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    As part of our program to build a complete radio and X-ray database of all Third Cambridge catalog extragalactic radio sources, we present an analysis of 93 sources for which Chandra archival data are available. Most of these sources have already been published. Here we provide a uniform re-analysis and present nuclear X-ray fluxes and X-ray emission associated with radio jet knots and hotspots using both publicly available radio images and new radio images that have been constructed from data available in the Very Large Array archive. For about 1/3 of the sources in the selected sample, a comparison between the Chandra and radio observations was not reported in the literature: we find X-ray detections of 2 new radio jet knots and 17 hotspots. We also report the X-ray detection of extended emission from the intergalactic medium for 15 galaxy clusters.

  8. Physiologically gated micro-beam radiation therapy using electronically controlled field emission x-ray source array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Hadsell, Michael; Burk, Laurel; Ger, Rachel; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Lee, Yueh Z.; Chang, Sha; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2013-03-01

    Micro-beam radiation therapy (MRT) uses parallel planes of high dose narrow (10-100 um in width) radiation beams separated by a fraction of a millimeter to treat cancerous tumors. This experimental therapy method based on synchrotron radiation has been shown to spare normal tissue at up to 1000Gy of entrance dose while still being effective in tumor eradication and extending the lifetime of tumor-bearing small animal models. Motion during the treatment can result in significant movement of micro beam positions resulting in broader beam width and lower peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR), and thus can reduce the effectiveness of the MRT. Recently we have developed the first bench-top image guided MRT system for small animal treatment using a high powered carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The CNT field emission x-ray source can be electronically synchronized to an external triggering signal to enable physiologically gated firing of x-ray radiation to minimize motion blurring. Here we report the results of phantom study of respiratory gated MRT. A simulation of mouse breathing was performed using a servo motor. Preliminary results show that without gating the micro beam full width at tenth maximum (FWTM) can increase by 70% and PVDR can decrease up to 50%. But with proper gating, both the beam width and PVDR changes can be negligible. Future experiments will involve irradiation of mouse models and comparing histology stains between the controls and the gated irradiation.

  9. Coherent Compton X-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.; Miceli, L.

    1993-12-31

    Coherent X-Rays can be produced by scattering of laser light by a beam of relativistic electrons, provided that the electron beam is density modulated or the scattering is done at, or near 90{degree}. Since the coherent scattering is proportional to N{sup 2}, where N is the number of electrons, and the incoherent scattering is proportional to N, also a modest degree of coherence can substantially increase the X-Ray yield. The theory of laser-electron beam scattering is reviewed and compared with the emission of radiation by an electron beam in an undulator. Examples of the practical implementation of an intense source of coherent X-Rays are discussed.

  10. X-ray emission from red quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Kinney, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    A dozen red quasars were observed with the Einstein Observatory in order to determine their X-ray properties. The observations show that for all these sources, the infrared-optical continuum is so steep that when extrapolated to higher frequencies, it passes orders of magnitude below the measured X-ray flux. The X-ray emission is better correlated with the radio than with the infrared flux, suggesting a connection between the two. By applying the synchrotron-self-Compton model to the data, it is found that the infrared-optical region has a size of 0.01 pc or more and a magnetic field more than 0.1 G, values considerably different than are found in the radio region. Unlike other quasars, the ionizing continuum is dominated by the X-ray emission. The peculiar line ratios seen in these objects can be understood with a photoionization model, provided that the photon to gas density ratio (ionization parameter) is an order of magnitude less than in typical quasars.

  11. Tunable X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  12. X-ray sources in molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Lepp, S.; McCray, R.

    1983-06-15

    Models are calculated for the structure and infrared line emission from a dense interstellar gas cloud containing a compact X-ray source. For constant gas pressure models, the resulting structure consists of nested spherical shells containing, respectively, coronal gas at T>10/sup 6/ K, an H II region with Tapprox.10/sup 4/ K, and H I region with Tapprox.8000 K, and finally an H/sub 2/ region with T<5000 K. Scaling laws are given for the locations of the transitions. Approximately 10% of the X-ray luminosity absorbed in the H/sub 2/ region is converted into infrared emission lines that may be observable. Line ratios are predicted.

  13. A 190 second periodicity in the optical emission of the enigmatic X-ray source GX 339-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiman-Cameron, T.; Imamura, J.; Middleditch, J.; Kristian, J.

    1990-01-01

    The results are reported of submillisecond white-light optical photometry of the X-ray source GX 339-4 obtained over the years 1985-1988 at the Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. A coherent, df/f less than 0.025, 5.25 mHz feature with pulsed amplitude up to 50 percent is found which persisted for about 20-30 cycles. The feature only appeared in data taken in July 5, 1986 UT. The 885 Hz feature proposed by Imamura et al. (1990) was not detected at 90-percent-confidence upper limits of 2 percent pulsed emission. The 885 Hz feature was reported by Imamura et al. to have a pulsed amplitude of 2.3-2.4 percent. The proposed 0.2 mag, 0.618 day orbital variation proposed by Honey et al. (1988) could not be verified due to the length of the data strings.

  14. Is low-energy-ion bombardment generated X-ray emission a secondary mutational source to ion-beam-induced genetic mutation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongkumkoon, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Thopan, P.; Yaopromsiri, C.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L. D.

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam biotechnology has achieved tremendous successes in inducing crop mutation and gene transfer. However, mechanisms involved in the related processes are not yet well understood. In ion-beam-induced mutation, ion-bombardment-produced X-ray has been proposed to be one of the secondary mutation sources, but the speculation has not yet been experimentally tested. We carried out this investigation to test whether the low-energy ion-beam-produced X-ray was a source of ion-beam-induced mutation. In the investigation, X-ray emission from 29-keV nitrogen- or argon- ion beam bombarded bacterial Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells held in a metal or plastic sample holder was in situ detected using a highly sensitive X-ray detector. The ion beam bombarded bacterial cells held in different material holders were observed for mutation induction. The results led to a conclusion that secondary X-ray emitted from ion-beam-bombarded biological living materials themselves was not a, or at least a negligible, mutational source, but the ion-beam-induced X-ray emission from the metal that made the sample holder could be a source of mutation.

  15. X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is often held that the X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) arises from a region close to the central energy source. Thus X-ray observations may provide the best constraints on the central engine. In particular, the shape of the X-ray continuum gives information about the mechanism for photon generation, X-ray time variability data can constrain the size and mass of the continuum source, and X-ray occultation data give constraints on the relative sizes of the continuum source and the intervening absorbing material (often assumed to be the broad line clouds). In addition, since a fair fraction of the total energy of an AGN is emitted at X-ray wavelengths, direct measurement of the amount and spectral form of this radiation is important for modeling of the optically emitting clouds.

  16. Soft X-Ray Emissions from Planets and Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Lewis, W. S.; Crary, F. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The soft x-ray energy band (less than 4 keV) is an important spectral regime for planetary remote sensing, as a wide variety of solar system objects are now known to shine at these wavelengths. These include Earth, Jupiter, comets, moons, Venus, and the Sun. Earth and Jupiter, as magnetic planets, are observed to emanate strong x-ray emissions from their auroral (polar) regions, thus providing vital information on the nature of precipitating particles and their energization processes in planetary magnetospheres. X rays from low latitudes have also been observed on these planets, resulting largely from atmospheric scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays. Cometary x-rays are now a well established phenomena, more than a dozen comets have been observed at soft x-ray energies, with the accepted production mechanism being charge-exchange between heavy solar wind ions and cometary neutrals. Also, Lunar x-rays have been observed and are thought to be produced by scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays from the Moon's surface. With the advent of sophisticated x-ray observatories, e.g., Chandra and XMM-Newton, the field of planetary x-ray astronomy is advancing at a much faster pace. The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) has recently captured soft x-rays from Venus. Venusian x-rays are most likely produced through fluorescence of solar x-rays by C and O atoms in the upper atmosphere. Very recently, using CXO we have discovered soft x-rays from the moons of Jupiter-Io, Europa, and probably Ganymede. The plausible source of the x-rays from the Galilean satellites is bombardment of their surfaces by energetic (greater than 10 KeV) ions from the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The Io plasma Torus (IPT) is also discovered by CXO to be a source of soft x-rays by CXO have revealed a mysterious pulsating (period approx. 45 minutes) x-ray hot spot is fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and is magnetically connected to a region in the outer magnetosphere of Jupiter. These

  17. X-RAY EMISSION FROM HESS J1731-347/SNR G353.6-0.7 AND CENTRAL COMPACT SOURCE XMMS J173203-344518

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, W. W.; Li, Z.; Leahy, D. A.; Yang, J.; Lu, D.; Yang, X. J.; Yamazaki, R. E-mail: wtian@ucalgary.c

    2010-04-01

    We present new results of the HESS J1731-347/SNR G353.6-0.7 system from XMM-Newton and Suzaku X-ray observations and Delinha CO observations. We discover extended hard X-rays coincident with the bright, extended TeV source HESS J1731-347 and the shell of the radio supernova remnant (SNR). We find that spatially resolved X-ray spectra can generally be characterized by an absorbed power-law model, with a photon index of {approx}2, typical of non-thermal emission. A bright X-ray compact source, XMMS J173203-344518, is also detected near the center of the SNR. We find no evidence of a radio counterpart or an extended X-ray morphology for this source, making it unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebular (PWN). The spectrum of the source can be well fitted by an absorbed blackbody with a temperature of {approx}0.5 keV plus a power-law tail with a photon index of {approx}5, reminiscent of the X-ray emission of a magnetar. CO observations toward the inner part of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) source reveal a bright cloud component at -20 +- 4 km s{sup -1}, which is likely located at the same distance of {approx}3.2 kpc as the SNR. Based on the probable association between the X-ray and gamma-ray emissions and likely association between the CO cloud and the SNR, we argue that the extended TeV emission originates from the interaction between the SNR shock and the adjacent CO clouds rather than from a PWN.

  18. Colliding Wind Binary X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Pollock, A. M. T.; Pittard, J. M.; Stevens, I. R.; Henley, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Marchenko, S.

    Very massive stars (≳ 20 M⊙) are rare but important components of galaxies. Products of core nucleosynthesis from these stars are distributed into the circumstellar environment via wind-driven mass loss. Explosive nucleosynthesis after core collapse further enriches the galactic medium. Clusters of such stars can produce galactic chimneys which can pierce the galactic disk and chemically enrich intergalactic space. Such processes are vitally important to the chemical evolution of the early Universe, when the stellar mass function was much more weighted to massive stars.Very massive stars are difficult to study, since they are formed in distant clusters which yield problems of sensitivity and source crowding. A relatively new tool for studying these systems is via high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution observations in the X-ray band. In this note we describe some recent progress in studying mechanisms by which very massive stars produce X-ray emission.

  19. Late B Star X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The most basic conclusion to be drawn from the EINSTEIN stellar X-ray observations was that all stars are X-ray sources - except the late-B and early- to mid-A stars. While this is still true in general, observations with the ROSAT X-ray observatory have shown that young late-B/early-A stars, those in and near regions of star formation, are often bright X-ray sources. It is not yet clear why (or, indeed, whether) young B-A stars are often X-ray sources. We request time on the IUE to observe a sample of these stars. We will compare the line profiles against B star models against archival spectra, looking for evidence of mass loss or mass inflows, as well as evidence of transition region gas. Detection of the latter will prove that the B stars are indeed X-ray sources.

  20. On the secondary star of the galactic supersoft X-ray source RX J0925.7-4758 and Doppler tomography of the emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Mennickent, R. E.

    2000-04-01

    We carried out optical spectroscopic observations of the galactic supersoft X-ray source RX J0925.7-4758. The relatively long orbital period among supersoft X-ray sources was confirmed. The nature of the secondary star is discussed using its invisibility in the optical spectrum. Under the hypothesis of a non-eclipsing white dwarf, we derived an A-G giant secondary with an inclination angle of 55deg +/- 10deg. Doppler maps of the He Ii lambda4686 and Hα emission lines were constructed, which generally resemble those of RX J0019.8+2156, suggesting a common line emitting region in supersoft X-ray sources. The concentration of the main emission region to low-velocities indicates that the mass function gives only a lower limit to the mass of the secondary star. Based on observations obtained at ESO La Silla Observatory (ESO Proposal 61.D-0397).

  1. X-Ray Emission from the Soft X-Ray Transient Aquila X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    Aquila X-1 is the most prolific of soft X-ray transients. It is believed to contain a rapidly spinning neutron star sporadically accreting near the Eddington limit from a low-mass companion star. The interest in studying the repeated X-ray outbursts from Aquila X-1 is twofold: (1) studying the relation between optical, soft and hard X-ray emission during the outburst onset, development and decay; (2) relating the spectral component to thermal and non-thermal processes occurring near the magnetosphere and in the boundary layer of a time-variable accretion disk. Our investigation is based on the BATSE monitoring of Aquila X-1 performed by our group. We observed Aquila X-1 in 1997 and re-analyzed archival information obtained in April 1994 during a period of extraordinary outbursting activity of the source in the hard X-ray range. Our results allow, for the first time for this important source, to obtain simultaneous spectral information from 2 keV to 200 keV. A black body (T = 0.8 keV) plus a broken power-law spectrum describe accurately the 1994 spectrum. Substantial hard X-ray emission is evident in the data, confirming that the accretion phase during sub-Eddington limit episodes is capable of producing energetic hard emission near 5 x 10(exp 35) ergs(exp -1). A preliminary paper summarizes our results, and a more comprehensive account is being written. We performed a theoretical analysis of possible emission mechanisms, and confirmed that a non-thermal emission mechanism triggered in a highly sheared magnetosphere at the accretion disk inner boundary can explain the hard X-ray emission. An anticorrelation between soft and hard X-ray emission is indeed prominently observed as predicted by this model.

  2. The X-ray emission of subflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valnichek, B. I.; Likin, O. B.; Morozova, E. I.; Pisarenko, N. F.; Farnik, F.

    1983-08-01

    Optical observations of subflares in the active region Mc Math 14553 in the period 8-15 December, 1976 are compared with the X-ray emission bursts measured during the same period by the X-ray photometer on board the Prognoz-5 automatic observatory. X-ray emissions with energies 2-7 and 6-10 keV are used in the analysis presented here. It is found that energy release in the X-ray emissions is directly proportional to the area of the H-alpha flare events over a wide range of flare intensities, i.e., from subflares to high-power flares of the class 3B.

  3. Efficient soft x-ray emission source at 13.5 nm by use of a femtosecond-laser-produced Li-based microplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Rajyaguru, Chirag; Kubodera, Shoichi; Sasaki, Wataru; Yugami, Noboru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kawata, Shigeo; Andreev, Alex

    2005-06-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment was demonstrated to optimize a Li-based microjet target coupled to dual subpicosecond laser pulses as a 13.5 nm soft x-ray emission source. An optimum pulse duration of 450 fs to achieve a maximum emission at 13.5 nm was well explained by the resonant absorption process. Utilization of dual femtosecond pulses revealed that the optimum pulse separation around 500 ps was necessary to achieve a maximum soft x-ray conversion efficiency of 0.2%, where plasma hydrodynamics could not be neglected. A one-fluid two-temperature hydrodynamic simulation reproduced this optimum pulse separation behavior.

  4. Nanomaterial-based x-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew T; Parmee, R J; Milne, William I

    2016-02-26

    Following the recent global excitement and investment in the emerging, and rapidly growing, classes of one and two-dimensional nanomaterials, we here present a perspective on one of the viable applications of such materials: field electron emission based x-ray sources. These devices, which have a notable history in medicine, security, industry and research, to date have almost exclusively incorporated thermionic electron sources. Since the middle of the last century, field emission based cathodes were demonstrated, but it is only recently that they have become practicable. We outline some of the technological achievements of the past two decades, and describe a number of the seminal contributions. We explore the foremost market hurdles hindering their roll-out and broader industrial adoption and summarise the recent progress in miniaturised, pulsed and multi-source devices. PMID:26807781

  5. Nanomaterial-based x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Matthew T.; Parmee, R. J.; Milne, William I.

    2016-02-01

    Following the recent global excitement and investment in the emerging, and rapidly growing, classes of one and two-dimensional nanomaterials, we here present a perspective on one of the viable applications of such materials: field electron emission based x-ray sources. These devices, which have a notable history in medicine, security, industry and research, to date have almost exclusively incorporated thermionic electron sources. Since the middle of the last century, field emission based cathodes were demonstrated, but it is only recently that they have become practicable. We outline some of the technological achievements of the past two decades, and describe a number of the seminal contributions. We explore the foremost market hurdles hindering their roll-out and broader industrial adoption and summarise the recent progress in miniaturised, pulsed and multi-source devices.

  6. X-ray emission from normal stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The paper addresses the potential for future X-ray missions to determine the fundamental cause of stellar X-ray emissions based on available results and existing analyses. The determinants of stellar X-ray emission are listed, and the relation of stellar X-ray emissions to the 'universal' activity-rotation connection is discussed. The specific rotation-activity connection for evolved stars is mentioned, and the 'decay' of stellar activity at the low-mass end of the main sequence is related to observational data. The data from Einstein and EXOSAT missions that correspond to these issues are found to be sparse, and more observational work is found to be necessary. Also, it is concluded that some issues need to be addressed, such as the X-ray dividing line in evolved stars and the absence of X-ray emission from dA stars. The related observational requirements and instrumental capabilities are given for each significant research focus.

  7. Globular cluster x-ray sources

    PubMed Central

    Pooley, David

    2010-01-01

    Globular clusters and x-ray astronomy have a long and fruitful history. Uhuru and OSO-7 revealed highly luminous (> 1036 ergs-1) x-ray sources in globular clusters, and Einstein and ROSAT revealed a larger population of low-luminosity (< 1033 ergs-1) x-ray sources. It was realized early on that the high-luminosity sources were low-mass x-ray binaries in outburst and that they were orders of magnitude more abundant per unit mass in globular clusters than in the rest of the galaxy. However, the low-luminosity sources proved difficult to classify. Many ideas were put forth—low-mass x-ray binaries in quiescence (qLMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), active main-sequence binaries (ABs), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs)—but secure identifications were scarce. In ROSAT observations of 55 clusters, about 25 low-luminosity sources were found. Chandra has now observed over 80 Galactic globular clusters, and these observations have revealed over 1,500 x-ray sources. The superb angular resolution has allowed for many counterpart identifications, providing clues to the nature of this population. It is a heterogeneous mix of qLMXBs, CVs, ABs, and MSPs, and it has been shown that the qLMXBs and CVs are both, in part, overabundant like the luminous LMXBs. The number of x-ray sources in a cluster correlates very well with its encounter frequency. This points to dynamical formation scenarios for the x-ray sources and shows them to be excellent tracers of the complicated internal dynamics. The relation between the encounter frequency and the number of x-ray sources has been used to suggest that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of globular clusters. PMID:20404204

  8. A 190 second periodicity in the optical emission of the enigmatic X-ray source GX 339-4

    SciTech Connect

    Steiman-Cameron, T.; Imamura, J.; Middleditch, J.; Kristian, J. Oregon Univ., Eugene Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-08-01

    The results are reported of submillisecond white-light optical photometry of the X-ray source GX 339-4 obtained over the years 1985-1988 at the Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. A coherent, df/f less than 0.025, 5.25 mHz feature with pulsed amplitude up to 50 percent is found which persisted for about 20-30 cycles. The feature only appeared in data taken in July 5, 1986 UT. The 885 Hz feature proposed by Imamura et al. (1990) was not detected at 90-percent-confidence upper limits of 2 percent pulsed emission. The 885 Hz feature was reported by Imamura et al. to have a pulsed amplitude of 2.3-2.4 percent. The proposed 0.2 mag, 0.618 day orbital variation proposed by Honey et al. (1988) could not be verified due to the length of the data strings. 24 refs.

  9. X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources

    DOEpatents

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraenkel, Ben; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, A. Lane; Stodiek, Wolfgang; von Goeler, Schweickhard E.

    2001-01-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

  10. Electron field emission Particle-In-Cell (PIC) coupled with MCNPX simulation of a CNT-based flat-panel x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Edwin J.; Posada, Chrystian M.; Castaño, Carlos H.; Lee, Hyoung K.

    2011-03-01

    A novel x-ray source based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) field emitters is being developed as an alternative for medical imaging diagnostic technologies. The design is based on an array of millions of micro sized x-ray sources similar to the way pixels are arranged in flat panel displays. The trajectory and focusing characteristics of the field emitted electrons, as well as the x-ray generation characteristics of each one of the proposed micro-sized x-ray tubes are simulated. The electron field emission is simulated using the OOPIC PRO particle-in-cell code. The x-ray generation is analyzed with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. MCNPX is used to optimize both the bremsstrahlung radiation energy spectra and to verify the angular distribution for 0.25-12 μm thick molybdenum, rhodium and tungsten targets. Also, different extracting, accelerating and focusing voltages, as well as different focusing structures and geometries of the micro cells are simulated using the OOPIC Pro particle-in-cell code. The electron trajectories, beam spot sizes, I-V curves, bremsstrahlung radiation energy spectra, and angular distribution are all analyzed for a given cell. The simulation results show that micro x-ray cells can be used to generate suitable electron currents using CNT field emitters and strike a thin tungsten target to produce an adequate bremsstrahlung spectrum. The shape and trajectory of the electron beam was modified using focusing structures in the microcell. Further modifications to the electron beam are possible and can help design a better x-ray transmission source.

  11. High-temperature differential emission measure and altitude variations in the temperature and density of solar flare coronal X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Dennis, Brian R.

    2015-12-01

    The detailed knowledge of plasma heating and acceleration region properties presents a major observational challenge in solar flare physics. Using the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), the high temperature differential emission measure, DEM(T), and the energy-dependent spatial structure of solar flare coronal sources were studied quantitatively. The altitude of the coronal X-ray source was observed to increase with energy by ~+0.2 arcsec/keV between 10 and 25 keV. Although an isothermal model can fit the thermal X-ray spectrum observed by RHESSI, such a model cannot account for the changes in altitude, and multi-thermal coronal sources are required where the temperature increases with altitude. For the first time, we show how RHESSI imaging information can be used to constrain the DEM(T) of a flaring plasma. We developed a thermal bremsstrahlung X-ray emission model with inhomogeneous temperature and density distributions to simultaneously reproduce i) DEM(T); ii) altitude as a function of energy; and iii) vertical extent of the flaring coronal source versus energy. We find that the temperature-altitude gradient in the region is ~+0.08 keV/arcsec (~1.3 MK/Mm). Similar altitude-energy trends in other flares suggest that the majority of coronal X-ray sources are multi-thermal and have strong vertical temperature and density gradients with a broad DEM(T).

  12. Modeling X-ray emission around galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael E.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2014-04-10

    Extended X-ray emission can be studied by spatial surface brightness measurements or by spectral analysis, but the two methods can disagree at low intensity levels. Here we present an improved method for spatial analysis that can be extended to include spectral information simultaneously. We construct a model for the entire image in a given energy band and generate a likelihood function to compare the model to the data. A critical goal is disentangling vignetted and unvignetted backgrounds through their different spatial distributions. Employing either maximum likelihood or Markov Chain Monte Carlo, we can derive probability distributions for the source and background parameters together, or we can fit and subtract the background, leaving the description of the source non-parametric. We calibrate this method against a variety of simulated images, and apply it to Chandra observations of the hot gaseous halo around the elliptical galaxy NGC 720. We follow the emission below a tenth of the background and infer a hot gas mass within 35 kpc of 4-5 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, with some indication that the profile continues to at least 50 kpc and that it steepens. We derive stronger constraints on the surface brightness profile than previous studies that employed the spectral method, and we show that the density profiles inferred from these studies are in conflict with the observed surface brightness profile. Contrary to a previous claim, we find that the X-ray halo does not contain the full complement of missing baryons within the virial radius.

  13. THE CHANDRA CARINA COMPLEX PROJECT: DECIPHERING THE ENIGMA OF CARINA'S DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Gagne, Marc; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Montmerle, Thierry; Naze, Yael; Oey, M. S.; Park, Sangwook; Petre, Robert; Pittard, Julian M.

    2011-05-01

    We present a 1.42 deg{sup 2} mosaic of diffuse X-ray emission in the Great Nebula in Carina from the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer camera. After removing >14,000 X-ray point sources from the field, we smooth the remaining unresolved emission, tessellate it into segments of similar apparent surface brightness, and perform X-ray spectral fitting on those tessellates to infer the intrinsic properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. By modeling faint resolved point sources, we estimate the contribution to the extended X-ray emission from unresolved point sources and show that the vast majority of Carina's unresolved X-ray emission is truly diffuse. Line-like correlated residuals in the X-ray spectral fits suggest that substantial X-ray emission is generated by charge exchange at the interfaces between Carina's hot, rarefied plasma and its many cold neutral pillars, ridges, and clumps.

  14. A portable x-ray source with a nanostructured Pt-coated silicon field emission cathode for absorption imaging of low-Z materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban; Swanwick, Michael E.; Fomani, Arash A.; Velásquez-García, Luis Fernando

    2015-06-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a portable x-ray generator for imaging of low-atomic number materials such as biological soft tissue. The system uses a self-aligned, gated, Pt-coated silicon field emitter cathode with two arrays of 62 500 nano-sharp tips arranged in a square grid with 10 μm emitter pitch, and a natural convection-cooled reflection anode composed of a Cu bar coated with a thin Mo film. Characterization of the field emitter array demonstrated continuous emission of 1 mA electron current (16 mA cm  -  2) with  >95% current transmission at a 150 V gate-emitter bias voltage for over 20 h with no degradation. The emission of the x-ray source was characterized across a range of anode bias voltages to maximize the fraction of photons from the characteristic K-shell peaks of the Mo film to produce a quasi-monochromatic photon beam, which enables capturing high-contrast images of low-atomic number materials. The x-ray source operating at the optimum anode bias voltage, i.e. 35 kV, was used to image ex vivo and nonorganic samples in x-ray fluoroscopic mode while varying the tube current; the images resolve feature sizes as small as ~160 µm.

  15. X-ray source for mammography

    DOEpatents

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  16. Spectra of cosmic x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.S.; Mccray, R.

    1982-02-01

    X-ray measurements provide the most direct probes of astrophysical environments with temperatures exceeding one million K. Progress in experimental research utilizing dispersive techniques (e.g., Bragg and grating spectroscopy) is considerably slower than that in areas utilizing photometric techniques, because of the relative inefficiency of the former for the weak X-ray signals from celestial sources. As a result, the term spectroscopy as applied to X-ray astronomy has traditionally satisfied a much less restrictive definition (in terms of resolving power) than it has in other wavebands. Until quite recently, resolving powers of order unity were perfectly respectable, and still provide (in most cases) the most useful spectroscopic data. In the broadest sense, X-ray photometric measurements are spectroscopic, insofar as they represent samples of the overall electromagnetic continua of celestial objects.

  17. X-ray source for mammography

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  18. Spectra of cosmic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Mccray, R.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray measurements provide the most direct probes of astrophysical environments with temperatures exceeding one million K. Progress in experimental research utilizing dispersive techniques (e.g., Bragg and grating spectroscopy) is considerably slower than that in areas utilizing photometric techniques, because of the relative inefficiency of the former for the weak X-ray signals from celestial sources. As a result, the term "spectroscopy" as applied to X-ray astronomy has traditionally satisfied a much less restrictive definition (in terms of resolving power) than it has in other wavebands. Until quite recently, resolving powers of order unity were perfectly respectable, and still provide (in most cases) the most useful spectroscopic data. In the broadest sense, X-ray photometric measurements are spectroscopic, insofar as they represent samples of the overall electromagnetic continua of celestial objects.

  19. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  20. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  1. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  2. Characterization of a hybrid target multi-keV x-ray source by a multi-parameter statistical analysis of titanium K-shell emission

    SciTech Connect

    Primout, M.; Babonneau, D.; Jacquet, L.; Gilleron, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Fournier, K. B.; Marrs, R.; May, M. J.; Heeter, R. F.; Wallace, R. J.

    2015-11-10

    We studied the titanium K-shell emission spectra from multi-keV x-ray source experiments with hybrid targets on the OMEGA laser facility. Using the collisional-radiative TRANSPEC code, dedicated to K-shell spectroscopy, we reproduced the main features of the detailed spectra measured with the time-resolved MSPEC spectrometer. We developed a general method to infer the Ne, Te and Ti characteristics of the target plasma from the spectral analysis (ratio of integrated Lyman-α to Helium-α in-band emission and the peak amplitude of individual line ratios) of the multi-keV x-ray emission. Finally, these thermodynamic conditions are compared to those calculated independently by the radiation-hydrodynamics transport code FCI2.

  3. Characterization of a hybrid target multi-keV x-ray source by a multi-parameter statistical analysis of titanium K-shell emission

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Primout, M.; Babonneau, D.; Jacquet, L.; Gilleron, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Fournier, K. B.; Marrs, R.; May, M. J.; Heeter, R. F.; Wallace, R. J.

    2015-11-10

    We studied the titanium K-shell emission spectra from multi-keV x-ray source experiments with hybrid targets on the OMEGA laser facility. Using the collisional-radiative TRANSPEC code, dedicated to K-shell spectroscopy, we reproduced the main features of the detailed spectra measured with the time-resolved MSPEC spectrometer. We developed a general method to infer the Ne, Te and Ti characteristics of the target plasma from the spectral analysis (ratio of integrated Lyman-α to Helium-α in-band emission and the peak amplitude of individual line ratios) of the multi-keV x-ray emission. Finally, these thermodynamic conditions are compared to those calculated independently by the radiation-hydrodynamics transportmore » code FCI2.« less

  4. Characterization of a hybrid target multi-keV x-ray source by a multi-parameter statistical analysis of titanium K-shell emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primout, M.; Babonneau, D.; Jacquet, L.; Gilleron, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Fournier, K. B.; Marrs, R.; May, M. J.; Heeter, R. F.; Wallace, R. J.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the titanium K-shell emission spectra from multi-keV x-ray source experiments with hybrid targets on the OMEGA laser facility. Using the collisional-radiative TRANSPEC code, dedicated to K-shell spectroscopy, we reproduced the main features of the detailed spectra measured with the time-resolved MSPEC spectrometer. We have developed a general method to infer the Ne, Te and Ti characteristics of the target plasma from the spectral analysis (ratio of integrated Lyman-α to Helium-α in-band emission and the peak amplitude of individual line ratios) of the multi-keV x-ray emission. These thermodynamic conditions are compared to those calculated independently by the radiation-hydrodynamics transport code FCI2.

  5. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  6. Faint X-ray source counts and the origin of the X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, T. T.; Helfand, D. J.; Wu, X.

    1991-01-01

    A thorough reanalysis of the Einstein Observatory Deep Survey data is presented in order to determine the contribution of detected, discrete sources of X-ray emission to the cosmic X-ray background. Substantial discrepancies with previously published work on this problem are found. A detailed discussion of data editing and source algorithms buttresses a claim of having constructed a complete, flux-limited sample of the faintest sources detectable with the Einstein imaging proportional counter, the most sensitive X-ray instrument yet flown. A total of 33 sources is found in a survey region of about 3.3 sq deg down to a minimum flux threshold of 4 x 10 to the 14th ergs/sq cm/s in the 0.3-3.5 keV band. Roughly 30 percent of the objects are foreground stars, leading to an extragalactic source surface density of 70,000/sr at this threshold. The integrated contribution from discrete sources to the number of cosmic X-ray background photons measured in this same band with the same instrument is 12 percent + or - 3 percent, substantially below previous estimates. Implications of these results for the origin of the background are discussed.

  7. Local structure and speciation of platinum in fresh and road-aged North American sourced vehicle emissions catalysts: an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Ash, Peter W; Boyd, David A; Hyde, Timothy I; Keating, Jonathan L; Randlshofer, Gabriele; Rothenbacher, Klaus; Sankar, Gopinathan; Schauer, James J; Shafer, Martin M; Toner, Brandy M

    2014-04-01

    Given emerging concerns about the bioavailability and toxicity of anthropogenic platinum compounds emitted into the environment from sources including vehicle emission catalysts (VEC), the platinum species present in selected North American sourced fresh and road-aged VEC were determined by Pt and Cl X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure at the Pt L3 and L2 edges of the solid phase catalysts revealed mainly oxidic species in the fresh catalysts and metallic components dominant in the road-aged catalysts. In addition, some bimetallic components (Pt-Ni, Pt-Pd, Pt-Rh) were observed in the road-aged catalysts from supporting Ni-, Pd-, and Rh-K edge XAS studies. These detailed analyses allow for the significant conclusion that this study did not find any evidence for the presence of chloroplatinate species in the investigated solid phase of a Three Way Catalyst or Diesel Oxidation Catalysts. PMID:24568168

  8. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission From Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F. J.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Ford, P. G.; Metzger, A. E.; Hurley, K. C.; Feigelson, E. D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of soft (0.25 - 2 keV) x-ray emission from the moons Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (greater than 10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays, even during flares from the active Sun, charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains fall to account for the observed emission. On the other hand, bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range may account for a substantial fraction of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT.

  9. The very soft X-ray emission of X-ray-faint early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellegrini, S.; Fabbiano, G.

    1994-01-01

    A recent reanaylsis of Einstein data, and new ROSAT observations, have revealed the presence of at least two components in the X-ray spectra of X-ray faint early-type galaxies: a relatively hard component (kT greater than 1.5 keV), and a very soft component (kT approximately 0.2-0.3 keV). In this paper we address the problem of the nature of the very soft component and whether it can be due to a hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is most likely originated by the collective emission of very soft stellar sources. To this purpose, hydrodynamical evolutionary sequences for the secular behavior of gas flows in ellipticals have been performed, varying the Type Ia supernovae rate of explosion, and the dark matter amount and distribution. The results are compared with the observational X-ray data: the average Einstein spectrum for six X-ray faint early-type galaxies (among which are NGC 4365 and NGC 4697), and the spectrum obtained by the ROSAT pointed observation of NGC 4365. The very soft component could be entirely explained with a hot ISM only in galaxies such as NGC 4697, i.e., when the depth of the potential well-on which the average ISM temperature strongly depends-is quite shallow; in NGC 4365 a diffuse hot ISM would have a temperature larger than that of the very soft component, because of the deeper potential well. So, in NGC 4365 the softest contribution to the X-ray emission comes certainly from stellar sources. As stellar soft X-ray emitters, we consider late-type stellar coronae, supersoft sources such as those discovered by ROSAT in the Magellanic Clouds and M31, and RS CVn systems. All these candidates can be substantial contributors to the very soft emission, though none of them, taken separately, plausibly accounts entirely for its properties. We finally present a model for the X-ray emission of NGC 4365, to reproduce in detail the results of the ROSAT pointed observation, including the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectrum and radial

  10. High power distributed x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frutschy, Kris; Neculaes, Bogdan; Inzinna, Lou; Caiafa, Antonio; Reynolds, Joe; Zou, Yun; Zhang, Xi; Gunturi, Satish; Cao, Yang; Waters, Bill; Wagner, Dave; De Man, Bruno; McDevitt, Dan; Roffers, Rick; Lounsberry, Brian; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2010-04-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a distributed x-ray source with up to 60kW demonstrated instantaneous power. Component integration and test results are shown for the dispenser cathode electron gun, fast switching controls, high voltage stand-off insulator, brazed anode, and vacuum system. The current multisource prototype has been operated for over 100 hours without failure, and additional testing is needed to discover the limiting component. Example focal spot measurements and x-ray radiographs are included. Lastly, future development opportunities are highlighted.

  11. The X-ray Emission of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbiano, P.

    2012-09-01

    The systematic study of galaxies in X-rays began with the high-resolution imaging X-ray telescope, the Einstein Observatory, launched by NASA in 1978. In the more than 30 years since, culminating with Chandra, X-ray observations have shown a different view of galaxies, consisting of gravity-driven populations of compact sources (XRBs, AGNs), and copious amounts of X-ray emitting plasmas. This gaseous component is either mechanically heated by supernovae, galaxy interactions and jets, or photo-ionized by AGNs, or gravity-confined by galaxy dark halos; and in all cases enriched in metals by the evolving stellar population. Observations of XRB populations have provided a new tool for understanding the evolution of binary stars in different environments, and for relating it to the evolution of the parent galaxy. Imaging and spectral observations of hot plasmas provide unique data for understanding the physical and chemical evolution of the gaseous component of galaxies, in comparison with models and theoretical simulations. Finally, peering deep into the nuclear regions, we are beginning to acquire direct new observational insight on the interaction of AGNs with their surroundings, and discover the nuclear remnants of galaxy mergers.

  12. A study of X-ray emission from galactic and extragalactic sources with emphasis on soft and ultra-soft wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, C. S.; Lampton, M.; Cruddace, R. G.; Paresce, F.

    1974-01-01

    A Black Brant VC rocket was used to scan the Coma and Virgo clusters in order to measure structure in the X-ray sources. The rocket also made measurements of soft X-ray spectra, soft X-ray background flux during a 50 deg scan of the sky, soft X-rays from De Voucoulers 50, set limits to the energy dependence of soft X-ray background spectra, and the flux of solar 584 A radiation resonantly scattered by interstellar He flowing through the solar system.

  13. Advanced X-Ray Sources Ensure Safe Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Ames Research Center awarded inXitu Inc. (formerly Microwave Power Technology), of Mountain View, California, an SBIR contract to develop a new design of electron optics for forming and focusing electron beams that is applicable to a broad class of vacuum electron devices. This technology offers an inherently rugged and more efficient X-ray source for material analysis; a compact and rugged X-ray source for smaller rovers on future Mars missions; and electron beam sources to reduce undesirable emissions from small, widely distributed pollution sources; and remediation of polluted sites.

  14. Search for optical coronal line emission from the X-ray sources Epsilon Orionis /B0 Ia/ and Kappa Orionis /B0.5 Ia/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordsieck, K. H.; Cassinelli, J. P.; Anderson, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    A search was conducted for evidence of a coronal region at the base of the winds of Epsilon Ori and Kappa Ori, by means of high signal-to-noise observations at the forbidden lines of Fe X, at 6574 A, and Fe XIV, 5303 A. Both stars have been detected as soft X-ray sources, and show anomalously strong O VI lines in their UV spectra. Large coronal emission measures were expected from the total X-ray flux and Auger-enhanced ionization, but the fact that the iron coronal lines were not detected places new limits on the emission measure if the total temperature is in the range of 700,000-3,000,000 or more than 1,000,000 for Kappa Ori and 2,000,000 for Epsilon Ori. It is suggested that at least some of the X-rays arise, not from the base corona, but from source features farther out in the wind.

  15. BROAD COMPONENTS IN OPTICAL EMISSION LINES FROM THE ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE NGC 5408 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cseh, D.; Corbel, S.

    2011-02-10

    High-resolution optical spectra of the ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1 show a broad component with a width of {approx}750 km s{sup -1} in the He II and H{beta} lines in addition to the narrow component observed in these lines and [O III]. Reanalysis of moderate-resolution spectra shows a similar broad component in the He II line. The broad component likely originates in the ULX system itself, probably in the accretion disk. The central wavelength of the broad He II line is shifted by 252 {+-} 47 km s{sup -1} between the two observations. If this shift represents motion of the compact object, then its mass is less than {approx}1800 M{sub sun}.

  16. COMPACT OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Lian; Feng Hua; Grise, Fabien; Kaaret, Philip

    2011-08-20

    Using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging data, we report the multiband photometric properties of 13 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that have a unique compact optical counterpart. Both magnitude and color variation are detected at timescales of days to years. The optical color, variability, and X-ray to optical flux ratio indicate that the optical emission of most ULXs is dominated by X-ray reprocessing on the disk, similar to that of low-mass X-ray binaries. For most sources, the optical spectrum is a power law, F{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}} with {alpha} in the range 1.0-2.0 and the optically emitting region has a size on the order of 10{sup 12} cm. Exceptions are NGC 2403 X-1 and M83 IXO 82, which show optical spectra consistent with direct emission from a standard thin disk, M101 ULX-1 and M81 ULS1, which have X-ray to optical flux ratios more similar to high-mass X-ray binaries, and IC 342 X-1, in which the optical light may be dominated by the companion star. Inconsistent extinction between the optical counterpart of NGC 5204 X-1 and the nearby optical nebulae suggests that they may be unrelated.

  17. The SWIRE/Chandra Survey: The X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Kilgard, Roy; Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Minsun; Polletta, Mari; Lonsdale, Carol; Smith, Harding E.; Surace, Jason; Owen, Frazer N.; Franceschini, A.; Siana, Brian; Shupe, David

    2009-12-01

    We report a moderate-depth (70 ks), contiguous 0.7 deg2 Chandra survey in the Lockman Hole Field of the Spitzer/SWIRE Legacy Survey coincident with a completed, ultra-deep VLA survey with deep optical and near-infrared imaging in-hand. The primary motivation is to distinguish starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including the significant, highly obscured (log N H > 23) subset. Chandra has detected 775 X-ray sources to a limiting broadband (0.3-8 keV) flux ~4 × 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1. We present the X-ray catalog, fluxes, hardness ratios, and multi-wavelength fluxes. The log N versus log S agrees with those of previous surveys covering similar flux ranges. The Chandra and Spitzer flux limits are well matched: 771 (99%) of the X-ray sources have infrared (IR) or optical counterparts, and 333 have MIPS 24 μm detections. There are four optical-only X-ray sources and four with no visible optical/IR counterpart. The very deep (~2.7 μJy rms) VLA data yield 251 (>4σ) radio counterparts, 44% of the X-ray sources in the field. We confirm that the tendency for lower X-ray flux sources to be harder is primarily due to absorption. As expected, there is no correlation between observed IR and X-ray fluxes. Optically bright, type 1, and red AGNs lie in distinct regions of the IR versus X-ray flux plots, demonstrating the wide range of spectral energy distributions in this sample and providing the potential for classification/source selection. Many optically bright sources, which lie outside the AGN region in the optical versus X-ray plots (fr /fx >10), lie inside the region predicted for red AGNs in IR versus X-ray plots, consistent with the presence of an active nucleus. More than 40% of the X-ray sources in the VLA field are radio-loud using the classical definition, RL . The majority of these are red and relatively faint in the optical so that the use of RL to select those AGNs with the strongest radio emission becomes questionable. Using the 24 μm to radio

  18. Massive stellar X-ray sources in the Galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhan, Jon Christian

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discover unidentified members of the massive stellar population in the Galactic center, using a novel selection technique: the identification of infrared counterparts to hard X-ray sources. This method provides a means of distinguishing a subset of hot, massive stars from the more numerous cool giants that dominate the stellar population of the central Galaxy, providing potential beacons toward undiscovered regions of massive star formation, and the remains of tidally-disrupted stellar clusters. Hard-X-ray selection also highlights exotic species of massive star, including Wolf-Rayet (WR) binaries with colliding supersonic winds, and wind-accreting neutron stars and black holes in high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). Massive stars were sought in the central 300 pc of the Galaxy by cross- correlating X-ray and IR point-source catalogs. Approximately 1% of the 6067 Chandra X-ray sources near the Galactic center have near-infrared matches with K s < 15.6 mag. A spectroscopic campaign was launched to investigate the most promising candidates; 17 new WR/O stars were discovered throughout the inner 300 pc. Most of the massive stars exhibit infrared excess, attributable to free-free and dust emission. In many cases, mid-IR images exhibit strong interaction of the X-ray sources with the Galactic center medium. Most of the newly found sources have no apparent association with a dense stellar cluster, although several stars lie near the Quintuplet cluster and may have escaped from it. The X-ray emission of the massive stars is consistent with thermal emission from plasma at temperatures above 2 keV, not a ubiquitous feature of single massive stars. The X-ray data are consistent with models of strong WR/O winds colliding with the surfaces of binary companions, but are also consistent with known, low-luminosity HMXBs. Future experiments are discussed, aimed at unambiguously determining the masses of the stellar components, and surveying the

  19. Relation of large-scale coronal X-ray structure and cosmic rays. I - Sources of solar wind streams as defined by X-ray emission and H-alpha absorption features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krieger, A. S.; Nolte, J. T.; Sullivan, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcintosh, P. S.; Gold, R. E.; Roelof, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the corona and the interplanetary medium during Carrington rotations 1601-1607 is discussed relative to recurrent high-speed solar wind streams and their coronal sources. Only streams A, C, D, and F recur on more than one rotation. Streams A and D are associated with coronal holes, while C and F originate in the high corona (20-50 solar radii) over faint X-ray emissions. The association of the streams with holes is confirmed by earlier findings that there are no large equatorial holes without an associated high-speed stream and that the area of the equatorial region of coronal holes is highly correlated with the maximum velocity observed in the associated stream near 1 AU.

  20. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements.

    PubMed

    Seidler, G T; Mortensen, D R; Remesnik, A J; Pacold, J I; Ball, N A; Barry, N; Styczinski, M; Hoidn, O R

    2014-11-01

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10(6)-10(7) photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species. PMID:25430123

  1. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  2. X-rays from protostellar jets: emission from continuous flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonito, R.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Favata, F.; Rosner, R.

    2007-02-01

    Context: Recently X-ray emission from protostellar jets has been detected with both XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites, but the physical mechanism which can give rise to this emission is still unclear. Aims: We performed an extensive exploration of the parameter space for the main parameters influencing the jet/ambient medium interaction. Aims include: 1) to constrain the jet/ambient medium interaction regimes leading to the X-ray emission observed in Herbig-Haro objects in terms of the emission by a shock forming at the interaction front between a continuous supersonic jet and the surrounding medium; 2) to derive detailed predictions to be compared with optical and X-ray observations of protostellar jets; 3) to get insight into the protostellar jet's physical conditions. Methods: We performed a set of two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical simulations, in cylindrical coordinates, modeling supersonic jets ramming into a uniform ambient medium. The model takes into account the most relevant physical effects, namely thermal conduction and radiative losses. Results: Our model explains the observed X-ray emission from protostellar jets in a natural way. In particular, we find that a protostellar jet that is less dense than the ambient medium well reproduces the observations of the nearest Herbig-Haro object, HH 154, and allows us to make detailed predictions of a possible X-ray source proper motion (v_sh ≈500 km s-1) detectable with Chandra. Furthermore, our results suggest that the simulated protostellar jets which best reproduce the X-rays observations cannot drive molecular outflows.

  3. Observation of soft X-rays from extended sources. [such as Perseus star cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Acton, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    Efforts were directed toward surveying several supernova remnants for the emission of soft X-rays. Rather than attempt to detect such faint X-ray emission, the program was redirected to observe the spectrum and angular structure of the extended X-ray source in the Perseus cluster of galaxies and the super-nova remnant Puppis A. An attempt was made to detect X-ray line emission from Puppis A with a Bragg crystal spectrometer. Observations provide evidence for the presence of X-ray line emission in the spectrum of Puppis A near .65 keV.

  4. X-Ray Emission from "Uranium" Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Eric; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    The project aims to secure XMM observations of two targets with extremely low abundances of the majority of heavy elements (e.g., log[Fe/H] $\\sim$-4), but that show absorption lines of uranium. The presence of an r-process element such as uranium requires a binary star system in which the companion underwent a supernova explosion. A binary star system raises the distinct possibility of the existence of a compact object, most likely a neutron star, in the binary, assuming it survived the supernova blast. The presence of a compact object then suggests X-ray emission if sufficient matter accretes to the compact object. The observations were completed less than one year ago following a series of reobservations to correct for significant flaring that occurred during the original observations. The ROSAT all-sky survey was used to report on the initial assessment of X-ray emission from these objects; only upper limits were reported. These upper limits were used to justify the XMM observing time, but with the expectation that upper limits would merely be pushed lower. The data analysis hinges critically on the quality and degree of precision with which the background is handled. During the past year, I have spent some time learning the ins and outs of XMM data analysis. In the coming year, I can apply that learning to the analysis of the 'uranium' stars.

  5. What dominates the X-ray emission of Andromeda at E>20 keV? New constraints from NuSTAR and Swift on a very bright, hard X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Wik, Daniel R.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Antoniou, Vallia; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Lehmer, Bret; Zezas, Andreas; Boyd, Patricia T.; Kennea, Jamie; Page, Kim L.

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to its better sensitivity and spatial resolution, NuSTAR allows us to investigate the E>10 keV properties of nearby galaxies. We now know that starburst galaxies, containing very young stellar populations, have X-ray spectra which drop quickly above 10 keV. We extend our investigation of hard X-ray properties to an older stellar population system, the bulge of M31. The NuSTAR and Swift simultaneous observations reveal a bright hard source dominating the M31 bulge above 20 keV, which is likely to be a counterpart of Swift J0042.6+4112 previously detected (but not classified) in the Swift BAT All-sky Hard X-ray Survey. This source had been classified as an XRB candidate in various Chandra and XMM-Newton studies; however, since it was not clear that it is the counterpart to the strong Swift J0042.6+4112 source at higher energies, the previous E < 10 keV observations did not generate much attention. The NuSTAR and Swift spectra of this source drop quickly at harder energies as observed in sources in starburst galaxies. The X-ray spectral properties of this source are very similar to those of an accreting pulsar; yet, we do not find a pulsation in the NuSTAR data. The existing deep HST images indicate no high mass donors at the location of this source, further suggesting that this source has an intermediate or low mass companion. The most likely scenario for the nature of this source is an X-ray pulsar with an intermediate/low mass companion similar to the Galactic Her X-1 system. We will also discuss other possibilities in more detail.

  6. Resonant X-ray emission with a standing wave excitation

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsalainen, Kari O.; Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Collins, Stephen P.; Monaco, Giulio; Moretti Sala, Marco; Krisch, Michael; Hämäläinen, Keijo; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo

    2016-01-01

    The Borrmann effect is the anomalous transmission of x-rays in perfect crystals under diffraction conditions. It arises from the interference of the incident and diffracted waves, which creates a standing wave with nodes at strongly absorbing atoms. Dipolar absorption of x-rays is thus diminished, which makes the crystal nearly transparent for certain x-ray wave vectors. Indeed, a relative enhancement of electric quadrupole absorption via the Borrmann effect has been demonstrated recently. Here we show that the Borrmann effect has a significantly larger impact on resonant x-ray emission than is observable in x-ray absorption. Emission from a dipole forbidden intermediate state may even dominate the corresponding x-ray spectra. Our work extends the domain of x-ray standing wave methods to resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and provides means for novel spectroscopic experiments in d- and f-electron systems. PMID:26935531

  7. Backscatter of hard X-rays in the solar atmosphere. [Calculating the reflectance of solar x ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1977-01-01

    The solar photosphere backscatters a substantial fraction of the hard X rays from solar flares incident upon it. This reflection was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation which takes into account Compton scattering and photo-electric absorption. Both isotropic and anisotropic X ray sources are considered. The bremsstrahlung from an anisotropic distribution of electrons are evaluated. By taking the reflection into account, the inconsistency is removed between recent observational data regarding the center-to-limb variation of solar X ray emission and the predictions of models in which accelerated electrons are moving down toward the photosphere.

  8. A 62 Day X-Ray Periodicity and an X-Ray Flare from the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source in M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip; Simet, Melanie G.; Lang, Cornelia C.

    2006-07-01

    In 240 days of X-ray monitoring of M82, we have discovered an X-ray periodicity at 62.0+/-2.5 days with a peak-to-peak amplitude corresponding to an isotropic luminosity of 2.4×1040 ergs s-1 in M82 and an X-ray flare reaching a peak luminosity of 9.8×1040 ergs s-1. The periodicity and flare likely originate from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in M82, which has been identified as a possible intermediate-mass black hole. We suggest that the 62 day modulation is due to orbital motion within an X-ray binary with a Roche lobe overflowing companion star, which would imply that the average density of the companion star is near 5×10-5 g cm-3 and is therefore a giant or supergiant. Chandra observations just after the flare show an energy spectrum that is consistent with a power law with no evidence of a thermal component or line emission. Radio observations made with the VLA during the flare allow us to rule out a blazar identification for the source and place strong constraints on relativistically beamed models of the X-ray emission. The Chandra observations reveal that a second X-ray source reached a flux of 4.4×10-12 ergs cm-2 s-1 in the 0.3-7 keV band, which is dramatically higher than any flux previously seen from this source and corresponds to an isotropic luminosity of 1.1×1040 ergs s-1. This source is a second ultraluminous X-ray source in M82 and may give rise to the QPOs detected from the central region of M82.

  9. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOEpatents

    Bird, Charles R.; Rockett, Paul D.

    1987-01-01

    An x-ray source having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events.

  10. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOEpatents

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  11. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2X-ray background. The identification of X-ray counterparts of IFRS is considered to be the smoking gun for this hypothesis. We propose to observe 8 IFRS using 30ks pointed observations. X-ray detections of IFRS with different ratios of radio-to-infrared fluxes, will constrain the class-specific SED.

  12. "X-Ray Transients in Star-Forming Regions" and "Hard X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This grant funded work on the analysis of data obtained with the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The goal of the work was to search for hard x-ray transients in star forming regions using the all-sky hard x-ray monitoring capability of BATSE. Our initial work lead to the discovery of a hard x-ray transient, GRO J1849-03. Follow-up observations of this source made with the Wide Field Camera on BeppoSAX showed that the source should be identified with the previously known x-ray pulsar GS 1843-02 which itself is identified with the x-ray source X1845-024 originally discovered with the SAS-3 satellite. Our identification of the source and measurement of the outburst recurrence time, lead to the identification of the source as a Be/X-ray binary with a spin period of 94.8 s and an orbital period of 241 days. The funding was used primarily for partial salary and travel support for John Tomsick, then a graduate student at Columbia University. John Tomsick, now Dr. Tomsick, received his Ph.D. from Columbia University in July 1999, based partially on results obtained under this investigation. He is now a postdoctoral research scientist at the University of California, San Diego.

  13. K alpha line emission during solar X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Neupert, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    Calculations of K alpha line emission from S, Ar, Ca and Fe are presented. It is reported that on the basis of data for hard X-ray bursts, the flux during most impulsive, non-thermal events is likely to be weak, though for a few strong bursts, a flux of approximately 100 photons/cm/s may be expected. The amount of S K alpha emission particularly is sensitively dependent on the value of the lower energy bound of the non-thermal electron distribution, offering a possible means of determining this. Thermal K alpha emission is only significant for Fe ions. The calculated thermal K alpha radiation is much less than that observed during an intense soft X-ray burst. It is concluded that a detailed temperature structure for the emission source is required in order to explain the discrepancy.

  14. Laser-based X-ray and electron source for X-ray fluorescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle Brozas, F.; Crego, A.; Roso, L.; Peralta Conde, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present a modification to conventional X-rays fluorescence using electrons as excitation source and compare it with the traditional X-ray excitation for the study of pigments. For this purpose, we have constructed a laser-based source capable to produce X-rays as well as electrons. Because of the large penetration depth of X-rays, the collected fluorescence signal is a combination of several material layers of the artwork under study. However, electrons are stopped in the first layers, allowing a more superficial analysis. We show that the combination of both excitation sources can provide extremely valuable information about the structure of the artwork.

  15. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miaja-Avila, L; O'Neil, G C; Uhlig, J; Cromer, C L; Dowell, M L; Jimenez, R; Hoover, A S; Silverman, K L; Ullom, J N

    2015-03-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼10(6) photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >10(7) laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. PMID:26798792

  16. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. PMID:26798792

  17. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  18. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  19. Plasma x-ray radiation source.

    PubMed

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar', A S

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives the results of studies on a plasma x-ray source, which enables one to obtain a 2.5-krad radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm2 in the quantum energy range from 20 to 500 keV. Pulse duration is 100 ns. Spectral radiation distributions from a diode under various operation conditions of a plasma are obtained. A Marx generator served as an initial energy source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4 = 10-6 s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10-7 s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches. PMID:21307500

  20. X-ray emission of young solar type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, Sophie

    1994-12-01

    T Tauri Stars (TTS) are young (<= 107 yrs) low mass (<= 2 Modot) stars. They have been originally characterized by strong emission lines (CTTS), and by IR excesses interpreted in terms of circumstellar disks. Ten years ago, the ``Einstein" satellite discovered the extraordinary X-ray activity of young low-mass stars. This activity, presumably magnetic in origin, is interpreted in terms of solar type flares, but up to 105 times more powerful than on the Sun. It also allowed to discover a new class of T Tauri stars called ``Weak line T Tauri Stars", without emission lines or IR excess and presumably without disk, which are 3 to 10 times more numerous than the CTTS. The ROSAT satellite, launched in 1990, has a much better resolution and sensitivity than ``Einstein". This work is based on the first ROSAT observations of molecular clouds, which are the stellar nurseries. 1) ROSAT X-ray study of the Chamaeleon cloud (see also Feigelson et al. 1993, ApJ, 416, 623). Using an important sample of young stars (60) in the Chamaeleon I star forming region, we have studied the influence of various stellar parameters on the X-ray emission. We find unexpected correlations of the X-ray luminosity with the stellar mass, radius and luminosity, but we could not detect any effect of rotation or age. These results are still unexplained by the standard dynamo theory of generation of a magnetic field. We show that the X-ray luminosity fonctions are the same for CTTS and WTTS which indicates that the X-ray emission mecanism is independent of the circumstellar disk, and that the X-rays can be used as a homogeneous tracer of all TTS. 2) ROSAT X-ray study of the ρ Oph Cloud (see also Casanova et al., 1995, ApJ, 439, 752). We show that the X-rays do also detect sources deeeply embedded in molecular clouds which are certainly very young. In fact it seems that even protostars (age ~105 yrs) are detected. For the embedded sources we estimate the bolometric luminosity from the dereddened J (1

  1. EX56a study of extended X-ray emission around isolated galaxies EX56b identification and spectra of bright X-ray sources at high galactic latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    The EXOSAT observations confirmed the identification and extended nature of PKS 2345-35. It gave a good 2 to 10 keV X-ray spectrum and a detailed spatial profile indicating asymmetry of the structure. In the high galactic latitidue investigation, the BL Lac object identified with the HEAO-1 source 1430+423 was detected, and the first X-ray spectrum was obtained. Several simulataneous observations of H0323+022 were obtained over a broad range of electromagnetic spectrum. Studies of luminous active galactic nuclei have given significant information on the spectrum of the quasar PKS 0558-504. In a study of Southern sky cataclysmic variables, the EXOSAT was used to determine the X-ray spectrum and search for periodicities in two objects. Studies of complete identifications have revealed that X-ray sources in two high galactic latitude fields are stars, and therefore are to be excluded from the Piccinotti extragalactic sample. Only one Piccinotti source remains to be identified.

  2. First Detection of Phase-dependent Colliding Wind X-ray Emission outside the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naze, Yael; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2007-01-01

    After having reported the detection of X-rays emitted by the peculiar system HD 5980, we assess here the origin of this high-energy emission from additional X-ray observations obtained with XMM-Newton. This research provides the first detection of apparently periodic X-ray emission from hot gas produced by the collision of winds in an evolved massive binary outside the Milky Way. It also provides the first X-ray monitoring of a Luminous Blue Variable only years after its eruption and shows that the source of the X-rays is not associated with the ejecta.

  3. Distributed source x-ray tube technology for tomosynthesis imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, F.; Calderon-Colon, X.; Cheng, Y.; Englestad, K.; Lu, J.; Maltz, J.; Paidi, A.; Qian, X.; Spronk, D.; Sultana, S.; Yang, G.; Zhou, O.

    2011-01-01

    Tomosynthesis imaging requires projection images from different viewing angles. Conventional systems use a moving xray source to acquire the individual projections. Using a stationary distributed x-ray source with a number of sources that equals the number of required projections, this can be achieved without any mechanical motion. Advantages are a potentially faster image acquisition speed, higher spatial and temporal resolution and simple system design. We present distributed x-ray sources based on carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission cathodes. The field emission cathodes deliver the electrons required for x-ray production. CNT emitters feature a stable emission at high current density, a cold emission, excellent temporal control of the emitted electrons and good configurability. We discuss the use of stationary sources for two applications: (i) a linear tube for stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (sDBT), and (ii) a square tube for on-board tomosynthesis image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Results from high energy distributed sources up to 160kVp are also presented. PMID:21785671

  4. First Search for an X-Ray-Optical Reverberation Signal in an Ultraluminous X-Ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Trippe, Margaret L.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Gandhi, Poshak

    2016-02-01

    Using simultaneous optical (VLT/FORS2) and X-ray (XMM-Newton) data of NGC 5408, we present the first ever attempt to search for a reverberation signal in an ultraluminous X-ray source (NGC 5408 X-1). The idea is similar to active galactic nucleus broad line reverberation mapping where a lag measurement between the X-ray and the optical flux combined with a Keplerian velocity estimate should enable us to weigh the central compact object. We find that although NGC 5408 X-1's X-rays are variable on a timescale of a few hundred seconds (rms of 9.0 ± 0.5%), the optical emission does not show any statistically significant variations. We set a 3σ upper limit on the rms optical variability of 3.3%. The ratio of the X-ray to the optical variability is an indicator of X-ray reprocessing efficiency. In X-ray binaries, this ratio is roughly 5. Assuming a similar ratio for NGC 5408 X-1, the expected rms optical variability is ≈2%, which is still a factor of roughly two lower than what was possible with the VLT observations in this study. We find marginal evidence (3σ) for optical variability on a ˜24 hr timescale. Our results demonstrate that such measurements can be made, but photometric conditions, low sky background levels, and longer simultaneous observations will be required to reach optical variability levels similar to those of X-ray binaries.

  5. Optimisation of X-ray emission from a laser plasma source for the realisation of microbeam in sub-keV region.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo Emilio, M; Festuccia, R; Palladino, L

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the X-ray emission generated from a plasma produced by focusing Nd-YAG laser beam on the Mylar and Yttrium targets will be characterised. The goal is to reach the best condition that optimises the X-ray conversion efficiency at 500 eV (pre-edge of the Oxigen K-shell), strongly absorbed by carbon-based structures. The characteristics of the microbeam optical system, the software/hardware control and the preliminary measurements of the X-ray fluence will be presented. PMID:25969522

  6. Toward a fourth-generation x-ray source.

    SciTech Connect

    Monction, D. E.

    1999-05-19

    The field of synchrotron radiation research has grown rapidly over the last 25 years due to both the push of the accelerator and magnet technology that produces the x-ray beams and the pull of the extraordinary scientific research that is possible with them. Three successive generations of synchrotrons radiation facilities have resulted in beam brilliances 11 to 12 orders of magnitude greater than the standard laboratory x-ray tube. However, greater advances can be easily imagined given the fact that x-ray beams from present-day facilities do not exhibit the coherence or time structure so familiar with the optical laser. Theoretical work over the last ten years or so has pointed to the possibility of generating hard x-ray beams with laser-like characteristics. The concept is based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) in flee-electron lasers. A major facility of this type based upon a superconducting linac could produce a cost-effective facility that spans wave-lengths from the ultraviolet to the hard x-ray regime, simultaneously servicing large numbers experimenters from a wide range of disciplines. As with each past generation of synchrotrons facilities, immense new scientific opportunities would result from fourth-generation sources.

  7. X-ray Emission Mechanisms in Herbig - Haro objects .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonito, R.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Favata, F.; Rosner, R.

    X-ray emission in Herbig - Haro objects is a quite recent and uncommon finding still waiting full explanation. With the scope of explaining this X-ray emission, our project is devoted to model the interaction between a supersonic jet originating from a young stellar object and the ambient medium. We have performed a wide exploration of the parameter space to infer the configuration(s) which can give rise to X-ray emission very similar to what recently observed.

  8. Advanced High Brilliance X-Ray Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Walter M.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility to dramatically increase the efficiency of laboratory based protein structure measurements through the use of polycapillary X-ray optics was investigated. This project initiated April 1, 1993 and concluded December 31, 1996 (including a no cost extension from June 31, 1996). This is a final report of the project. The basis for the project is the ability to collect X-rays from divergent electron bombardment laboratory X-ray sources and redirect them into quasiparallel or convergent (focused) beams. For example, a 0.1 radian (approx. 6 deg) portion of a divergent beam collected by a polycapillary collimator and transformed into a quasiparallel beam of 3 millradian (0.2 deg) could give a gain of 6(exp 2)/0.2(exp 2) x T for the intensity of a diffracted beam from a crystal with a 0.2 deg diffraction width. T is the transmission efficiency of the polycapillary diffraction optic, and for T=0.5, the gain would be 36/0.04 x O.5=45. In practice, the effective collection angle will depend on the source spot size, the input focal length of the optic (usually limited by the source spot-to-window distance on the x-ray tube) and the size of the crystal relative to the output diameter of the optic. The transmission efficiency, T, depends on the characteristics (fractional open area, surface roughness, shape and channel diameter) of the polycapillary optic and is typically in the range 0.2-0.4. These effects could substantially reduce the expected efficiency gain. During the course of this study, the possibility to use a weakly focused beam (0.5 deg convergence) was suggested which could give an additional 10-20 X efficiency gain for small samples . Weakly focused beams from double focusing mirrors are frequently used for macromolecular crystallography studies. Furthermore the crystals are typically oscillated by as much as 2 deg during each X-ray exposure in order to increase the reciprocal space (number of crystal planes) sampled and use of a slightly convergent

  9. The Integrated X-Ray Spectrum of Galactic Populations of Luminous Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, R.; Becker, C. M.; Fabbiano, G.

    1996-01-01

    We compute the composite X-ray spectrum of a population of unresolved SSS's in a spiral galaxy such as our own or M31. The sources are meant to represent the total underlying population corresponding to all sources which have bolometric luminosities in the range of 10(exp 37) - 10(exp 38) ergs/s and kT on the order of tens of eV. These include close-binary supersoft sources, symbiotic novae, and planetary nebulae, for example. In order to determine whether the associated X-ray signal would be detectable, we also 'seed' the galaxy with other types of X-ray sources, specifically low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB's) and high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXB's). We find that the total spectrum due to SSS's, LMXB's, and HMXB's exhibits a soft peak which owes its presence to the SSS population. Preliminary indications are that this soft peak may be observable.

  10. Application of monochromatic keV X-ray source to X-ray drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Taguchi, Hiroki; Mori, Azusa; Yusa, Noritaka; Kato, Takamitsu; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2009-09-01

    X-ray Drug Delivery System (DDS) enhances accumulation of anti-cancer drug or contrast agent by surrounding it with polymer and Enhanced Penetration and Retention (EPR) effect. DDS uses advanced nano-scaled polymers that contain and deliver drug or contrast agent to cancers without side effects. Several X-ray DDSs pose high-Z atoms such as gold to absorb X-rays effectively and used as contrast agent for inspection. Moreover, they have radiation enhancement effect by emission of Auger electron and successive characteristic X-rays. The enhancement factor of gold is more than five. This could be used even for therapy. This new modality must be very important for inspection and therapy of deep cancers. We are making use of our X-band Compton scattering monochromatic keV X-ray source for the inspection. Numerical simulation on monochromatic X-ray CT for possible concentration of gold-colloid DDS considering the X-ray property from the source was done. Enough visibility was confirmed. Furthermore, in vitro experiment analyzed its toxic effect to cells by the Alkaline comet assay and fluorescent immunostaining method for single and double strand breaks of DNA. Availability of clear imaging for the inspection has been confirmed by the numerical simulation and the in-vitro evaluation of the therapy effect is under way.

  11. Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2004-04-20

    A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

  12. Ultra Luminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, N. A.; Godet, O.

    2015-12-01

    Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are X-ray bright objects that are not coincident with the central nucleus of the host galaxy and which have luminosities that exceed the Eddington limit for a stellar mass black hole, typically L > 3 × 10^{39} erg s^{-1} for a black hole of 20 M_⊙. The nature of these objects is still unclear. However, it is possible that these sources do not form a single class of objects. Many ULXs may house stellar mass black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates, even if the physical mechanism for such high accretion rates is still not understood. Some ULXs may contain intermediate mass black holes (˜1 × 10^{2} - ˜1 × 10^{5} M_⊙). These elusive black holes are thought to be the building blocks of the more massive supermassive black holes, observed at the centre of many galaxies. Other ULXs may not be accreting black holes at all. Recent evidence for the different types of ULXs is presented in this paper.

  13. Optically thick X-ray transfer - The shell game. [transmission through gas surrounding cosmic x ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, S. H.; Ross, R. R.; Mccray, R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper investigates the radiative transfer of X-rays through a shell that is optically thick to Compton scattering, surrounding a point source of continuum X-rays. The emission and absorption of X-rays due to K-shell transitions of iron are included. The calculations are done in two entirely independent ways: by Monte Carlo simulation and by solving a Fokker-Planck diffusion equation. The emergent spectra agree very well for Thomson depths of at least about 2. The validity is confirmed of the modification to the Fokker-Planck equation of Kompaneets (1957) that is required when the photon energy is large compared with the average thermal energy of the electrons. A procedure is also developed for treating models of compact X-ray sources consisting of incomplete shells.

  14. The Soft X-Ray Emission Component of Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1998-01-01

    Work included the analysis of the HRJ observations of the Sombrero galaxy (Fabbiano and Juda) published in Ap.J. This paper discussed the discovery of a point-like x-ray source at the nucleus of the galaxy, which is suspected to host a massive black hole. More work was done on the analysis of the Observation of M94 in support of an AXAF proposal. We have also analyzed the M81 data by adding to our observation the entire set of the archival ROSAT data. We plan to write up the results for publication. Both galaxies have nuclei optically similar to that of the Sombrero galaxy. The nucleus of M81 is a known x-ray source. The M94 data has revealed a point-like nuclear source superposed on more diffuse emission.

  15. Radio search for the pulsing X-ray source in Hercules.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxsey, R.; Rappaport, S.; Spencer, J.; Zaumen, W.; Murthy, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The region of the celestial sphere near the pulsing X-ray source in Hercules (2U 1705+34) has been searched for radio emission with the NRAO three-element interferometer. The search was conducted during a period when the Hercules source was in its 27-day state of low X-ray luminosity. Four weak radio sources, which may be considered as candidates for the radio counterpart of this X-ray source, were detected.

  16. Compact X-ray sources: X-rays from self-reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangles, Stuart P. D.

    2012-05-01

    Laser-based particle acceleration offers a way to reduce the size of hard-X-ray sources. Scientists have now developed a simple scheme that produces a bright flash of hard X-rays by using a single laser pulse both to generate and to scatter an electron beam.

  17. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, W. H. G.; Joss, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Type 1 X-ray bursts, optical, infrared, and radio properties of the galactic bulge sources, are discussed. It was proven that these burst sources are neutron stars in low mass, close binary stellar systems. Several burst sources are found in globular clusters with high central densities. Optical type 1 X-ray bursts were observed from three sources. Type 2 X-ray bursts, observed from the Rapid Burster, are due to an accretion instability which converts gravitational potential energy into heat and radiation, which makes them of a fundamentally different nature from Type 1 bursts.

  18. Investigating the X-ray Emission from some of the Oldest Known X-ray Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarkadas, Vikram; Holmes, Danika

    2016-04-01

    The core-collapse of a massive star results in a supernova (SN) explosion, and a shock wave that expands outwards. The evolution of the shock wave, and the radius and morphology of the resulting remnant, depends on the density structure of the SN ejecta and surrounding medium. As the SN evolves, it sweeps up more material. The shock velocity, and therefore post-shock temperature (proportional to the square of the shock velocity), will consequently decrease. Thus we would expect a gradual evolution in the X-ray properties of the SN. While theoretical models anticipate this, very few SNe have observations over several decades that allow us to probe the time evolution of the X-ray emission and SN shocks.We have compiled a database of most observed X-ray SNe. In this talk we will summarize the X-ray data on some of the oldest detected X-ray SNe. These observations bridge the gap between old SNe and young supernova remnants, and shed light on the transition of a supernova to a remnant. We will show lightcurves for those which have multiple detections, outline the variation in their X-ray luminosity with time, compare their X-ray emission to that of younger supernovae, and discuss the evolution of the shock parameters as the supernova continues on its journey towards becoming a remnant.

  19. Ultraluminous X-ray Sources in NGC 6946.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Cruces, Mónica; Rosado, Margarita; Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura L.

    2016-07-01

    Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are the most X-ray luminous off-nucleus objects in nearby galaxies with X-ray luminosities between 10^{39} - 10^{41} erg s^{-1} in the 0.5-10 keV band. Since these luminosities cannot be explained by the standard accretion of a stellar mass black hole, these sources are often associated with intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, 10^{2}-10^{4} solar masses). However significantly beamed stellar binary systems could also explain these luminosities. Observational knowledge of the angular distribution of the source emission is essential to decide between these two scenarios. In this work, we present the X-ray analysis of five ULXs in the spiral galaxy NGC 6949, along with the kinematical analysis of the ionized gas surrounding each of these sources. For all sources, X-ray observations reveal a typical ULX spectral shape (with a soft excess below 2 keV and a hard curvature above 2 keV) which can be fit with a power-law + multi-color disk model. However, even if ULXs are classified as point-like objects, one of the sources in this galaxy displays an elongated shape in the Chandra images. Regarding the analysis of the emission lines of the surrounding ˜300 pc around each ULX, scanning Fabry-Perot observations show composite profiles for three of the five ULXs. The main component of these profiles follows the global rotation of the galaxy, while the faint secondary component seems to be associated with asymmetrical gas expansion. These sources have also been located in archive images of NGC 6946 in different wavelengths in order to relate them to different physical processes occurring in this galaxy. Though ULXs are usually located in star formation regions, we find that two of the sources lie a few tenths of parsecs away from different HII regions. Based on the X-ray morphology of each ULX, the velocities and distribution of the surrounding gas, as well as the location of the source in the context of the whole galaxy, we give the most

  20. Observations of galactic X-ray sources by OSO-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markert, T. H.; Canizares, C. R.; Clark, G. W.; Hearn, D. R.; Li, F. K.; Sprott, G. F.; Winkler, P. F.

    1977-01-01

    We present the MIT data from the OSO-7 satellite for observations of the galactic plane between 1971 and 1974. A number of sources discovered in the MIT all-sky survey are described in detail: MX 0049 + 59, MX 0836 - 42, MX 1353 - 64, MX 1406 - 61, MX 1418 - 61, MX 1709 - 40, and MX 1608 - 52 (the persistent source suggested to be associated with the X-ray burst source XB 1608 - 52). Upper limits to the X-ray emission from a number of interesting objects are also derived. General results describing all of our observations of galactic sources are presented. Specifically, we display the number-intensity diagrams, luminosity functions, and color-color diagrams for all of the sources we detected. The data are divided between disk and bulge populations, and the characteristics of the two groups are contrasted. Finally, the concept of X-ray source populations and the relationship of globular cluster sources and burst sources to the disk and bulge populations are discussed.

  1. X-Ray Scattering Applications Using Pulsed X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, B.C.

    1999-05-23

    Pulsed x-ray sources have been used in transient structural phenomena investigations for over fifty years; however, until the advent of synchrotrons sources and the development of table-top picosecond lasers, general access to ligh temporal resolution x-ray diffraction was relatively limited. Advances in diffraction techniques, sample excitation schemes, and detector systems, in addition to IncEased access to pulsed sources, have ld tO what is now a diverse and growing array of pulsed-source measurement applications. A survey of time-resolved investigations using pulsed x-ray sources is presented and research opportunities using both present and planned pulsed x-ray sources are discussed.

  2. Constraints on hot star X-ray source characteristics from combinded analysis of X-ray and UV observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macfarlane, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    Results from wind ionization calculations are presented which show how the P-Cygni profiles of 'superionized' species such as O VI can provide information about the X-ray source characteristics of early-type stars. Using detailed radiative and atomic physics models, we find that a significant source of X-ray emission from zeta Pup comes from a region in the wind located within rougly 1 to 2 stellar radii of the photosphere. Our results suggest that X-rays sources in which emission occurs exclusively at large radii (r greater than or approximately equal to a few R(sub *)) are inconsistent with UV P-Cygni profiles for O VI. Instead, we find that X-ray emission from shocks distributed throughout the lower regions of the wind (r approximately equal to 1-2 R(sub *)) is consistent with both X-ray and UV data, as well as mass loss rates deduced from radio and H-alpha observations.

  3. Models for X-Ray Emission from Isolated Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F. Y.-H.; Ruderman, M.; Halpern, Jules P.; Zhu, T.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed for the observed combination of power-law and thermal X-rays from rotationally powered pulsars. For gamma-ray pulsars with accelerators very many stellar radii above the neutron star surface, 100 MeV curvature gamma-rays from e(-) or e(+) flowing starward out of such accelerators are converted to e1 pairs on closed field lines all around the star. These pairs strongly affect X-ray emission from near the star in two ways. (1) The pairs are a source of synchrotron emission immediately following their creation in regions where B approx. 10(exp 10) G. This emission, in the photon energy range 0.1 keV less than E(sub X) less than 5 MeV, has a power-law spectrum with energy index 0.5 and X-ray luminosity that depends on the back-flow current, and is typically approx. 10(exp 33) ergs/ s. (2) The pairs ultimately a cyclotron resonance "blanket" surrounding the star except for two holes along the open field line bundles which pass through it. In such a blanket the gravitational pull on e(+,-) pairs toward the star is balanced by the hugely amplified push of outflowing surface emitted X-rays wherever cyclotron resonance occurs. Because of it the neutron star is surrounded by a leaky "hohlraum" of hot blackbody radiation with two small holes, which prevents direct X-ray observation of a heated polar cap of a gamma-ray pulsar. Weakly spin modulated radiation from the blanket together with more strongly spin-modulated radiation from the holes through it would then dominate observed low energy (0.1-10 keV) emission. For non-y-ray pulsars, in which no such accelerators with their accompanying extreme relativistic back-flow toward the star are expected, optically thick e1 resonance blankets should not form (except in special cases very close to the open field line bundle). From such pulsars blackbody radiation from both the warm stellar surface and the heated polar caps should be directly observable. In these pulsars, details of the surface magnetic field

  4. Diffuse X-ray Emission from M101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.; Pence, W. D.; Mukai, K.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The total 0.45-2.0 keV luminosity of M101 is 3.1 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s, of which 2.2 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s is due to diffuse emission. Of the diffuse emission, no more than 6% can be due to unresolved point sources such as X-ray binaries, and approx. 11% is due to dwarf stars. The diffuse emission traces the spiral arms and is roughly correlated with the H alpha and FUV (far ultraviolet) emission. The radial distribution closely follows the optical profile. The bulk of the diffuse emission is characterized by a two thermal component spectrum with kT = 0.20,0.75 keV, and the ratios of the emission measures of the two components is roughly constant as a function of both radius and surface brightness. The softer component has a sufficiently large covering factor that the bulk of the emission is likely extra-planar. We find no evidence of an extended axisymmetric X-ray halo, suggesting that any such halo has a strength much smaller than current predictions.

  5. Directional properties of hard x-ray sources generated by tightly focused ultrafast laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Bixue; Mordovanakis, Aghapi; Easter, James; Krushelnick, Karl; Nees, John A.

    2008-11-17

    Directional properties of ultrafast laser-based hard x-ray sources are experimentally studied using tightly focused approximately millijoule laser pulses incident on a bulk Mo target. Energy distributions of K{alpha} and total x rays, as well as source-size distributions are directionally resolved in vacuum and in flowing helium, respectively. Directional distributions of x-ray emission is more isotropic for p-polarized pump than for s-polarized. Based on source-size measurements, a simple two-location model, with expanded plasma and bulk material, is employed to represent the x-ray source profile.

  6. X-ray emission from supergiant shell in the LMC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomans, D. J.; Chu, Y.-H.; Magnier, E. A.; Points, S.

    1996-02-01

    The authors have used the Snowden & Petre (1995) mosaics of pointed ROSAT PSPC observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud to study the X-ray characteristics of supergiant shells. Diffuse soft X-ray emission above the background is detected in all of the well-defined supergiant shells. The observed large range of X-ray properties can be explained by differential obscuration, temperature and density differences, and localized heating by supernova remnants.

  7. Spectroscopic Measurement of L X-Rays Emitted by 241Am Source by TES Microcalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, M.; Yamaguchi, K.; Maehata, K.; Iyomoto, N.; Ishibashi, K.; Takasaki, K.; Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, K.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Nondestructive plutonium monitoring during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and in mixed-oxide-fuel fabrication facilities is expected to require spectroscopic measurements of L X-rays ranging from 10 to 20 keV. To this end, L X-ray emission intensities of transuranium elements will be important parameters in estimating the plutonium isotopic composition from L X-ray spectra. However, owing to fine structure within the L X-ray spectra, significant discrepancies exist among theoretical values, reference and experimental data concerning these emission intensities. To obtain better spectroscopic measurements, we used a TES microcalorimeter to get the energy spectrum of L X-rays emitted by 237Np resulting from α-decay of a 241Am source. Values for the L X-ray emission intensities were estimated by analyzing the spectral data and compared with previous data. We advocate for improvements in evaluation of emission intensities given the enhanced precision afforded by TES microcalorimetry.

  8. Evidence of Bulk Acceleration of the GRB X-Ray Flare Emission Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing

    2016-06-01

    Applying our recently developed generalized version of the high-latitude emission theory to the observations of X-ray flares in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), here we present clear observational evidence that the X-ray flare emission region is undergoing rapid bulk acceleration as the photons are emitted. We show that both the observed X-ray flare light curves and the photon index evolution curves can be simultaneously reproduced within a simple physical model invoking synchrotron radiation in an accelerating emission region far from the GRB central engine. Such an acceleration process demands an additional energy dissipation source other than kinetic energy, which points toward a significant Poynting flux in the emission region of X-ray flares. As the X-ray flares are believed to share a similar physical mechanism as the GRB prompt emission, our finding here hints that the GRB prompt emission jets may also carry a significant Poynting flux in their emitting region.

  9. Modeling X-ray emission line profiles from massive star winds - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignace, Richard

    2016-09-01

    The Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes have led to numerous advances in the study and understanding of astrophysical X-ray sources. Particularly important has been the much increased spectral resolution of modern X-ray instrumentation. Wind-broadened emission lines have been spectroscopically resolved for many massive stars. This contribution reviews approaches to the modeling of X-ray emission line profile shapes from single stars, including smooth winds, winds with clumping, optically thin versus thick lines, and the effect of a radius-dependent photoabsorption coefficient.

  10. HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE NGC 5044 GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Observations made with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (PCA) to constrain the hard X-ray emission in the NGC 5044 group are reported here. Modeling a combined PCA and ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter spectrum with a 0.5-15 keV energy range shows excess hard emission above 4 keV. Addition of a power-law component with a spectral index of 2.6-2.8 and a luminosity of 2.6 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} within 700 kpc in the observed energy band removes these residuals. Thus, there is a detection of a significant non-thermal component that is 32% of the total X-ray emission. Point-source emission makes up at most 14% of the non-thermal emission from the NGC 5044 group. Therefore, the diffuse, point-source-subtracted, non-thermal component is (2.2-3.0) x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. The cosmic-ray electron energy density is 3.6 x 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -3} and the average magnetic field is 0.034 {mu}G in the largest radio emitting region. The ratio of cosmic-ray electron energy density to magnetic field energy density, {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 4}, is significantly out of equipartition and is therefore atypical of radio lobes. In addition, the group's small size and low non-thermal energy density strongly contradicts the size-energy relationship found for radio lobes. Thus, it is unlikely related to the active galaxy and is most likely a relic of the merger. The energy in cosmic rays and magnetic field is consistent with simulations of cosmic-ray acceleration by merger shocks.

  11. Balloon observations of hard X-rays from some galactic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damle, S. V.; Kunte, P. K.; Naranan, S.; Sreekantan, B. V.; Leahy, D. A.; Venkatesan, D.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray telescope consisting of 400 cm phoswich detectors (NaI(T1)/CsI(Na)) was flown from Hyderabad (India) on 18 December 1984. The field of view was 5 deg x 5 deg FWHM. In a 10 hour float at 4 MB several galactic X-ray sources were tracked by the telescope using an on-board microprocessor. Fluxes and spectra in 18-120 keV X-rays for SCO X-1, GX 1+4, Gx 5-1, GX 17+2, SCT X-1, CYC X-1 an CYG X-3 will be presented.

  12. X-ray emission from high temperature plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The physical processes occurring in plasma focus devices were investigated with particular emphasis on X-ray emission. Topics discussed include: trajectories of high energy electrons; detection of ion trajectories; spatial distribution of neutron emission; space and time resolved emission of hard X-rays from a plasma focus; the staged plasma focus as a variation of the hypocloidal pinch; formation of current sheets in a staged plasma focus; and X-ray and neutron emission from a staged plasma focus. The possibility of operating dense plasma-focus type devices in multiple arrays beyond the scaling law for a single gun is discussed.

  13. Line-Source Based X-Ray Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bharkhada, Deepak; Yu, Hengyong; Liu, Hong; Plemmons, Robert; Wang, Ge

    2009-01-01

    Current computed tomography (CT) scanners, including micro-CT scanners, utilize a point x-ray source. As we target higher and higher spatial resolutions, the reduced x-ray focal spot size limits the temporal and contrast resolutions achievable. To overcome this limitation, in this paper we propose to use a line-shaped x-ray source so that many more photons can be generated, given a data acquisition interval. In reference to the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) algorithm for image reconstruction from projection data generated by an x-ray point source, here we develop a generalized SART algorithm for image reconstruction from projection data generated by an x-ray line source. Our numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of our novel line-source based x-ray CT approach and the proposed generalized SART algorithm. PMID:19436708

  14. Mobile, scanning x-ray source for mine detection using backscattered x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Shope, S.; Lockwood, G.; Bishop, L.; Selph, M.; Jojola, J.; Wavrik, R.; Turman, B.; Wehlburg, J.

    1997-04-01

    A continuously operating, scanning x-ray machine is being developed for landmine detection using backscattered x-rays. The source operates at 130 kV and 650 mA. The x-rays are formed by electrons striking a high Z target. Target shape is an approximate 5 cm wide by 210 cm long racetrack. The electron beam is scanned across this target with electromagnets. There are 105, 1-cm by 1-cm collimators in each leg of the racetrack for a total of 210 collimators. The source is moved in the forward direction(the direction perpendicular to the 210-cm dimension) at 3 mi/h. The forward velocity and collimator spacing are such that a grid of collimated x-rays are projected at normal incidence to the soil. The spacing between the collimators and the ground results in a 2-cm by 2-cm x-ray pixel on the ground. A unique detector arrangement of collimated and uncollimated detectors allows surface features to be recognized and removed, leaving an image of a buried landmine. Another detector monitors the uncollimated x-ray output and is used to normalize the source output. The mine detector is being prepared for an Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD). The ATD is scheduled for midyear of 1998. The results of the source performance in pre ATD tests will be presented.

  15. X-ray sources in Galactic old Open Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, M.

    2013-01-01

    I review the current status of studies of the X-ray sources in Galactic old open clusters. Cataclysmic variables (CVs), magnetically-active binaries (ABs), and sub-subgiants (SSGs) dominate the X-ray emission of old open clusters. Surprisingly, the number of ABs detected inside the half-mass radius with LX ≥ 1 × 1030 erg s-1 (0.3-7 keV) does not appear to scale with cluster mass. Comparison of the numbers of CVs, ABs, and SSGs per unit mass in old open and globular clusters shows that each of these classes is under-abundant in globulars. This suggests that dense environments suppress the frequency of even some of the hardest binaries.

  16. X-ray emission from the A0p star IQ~Aur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Jurgen

    2008-10-01

    We propose to use XMM-Newton to obtain the first high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the peculiar magnetic A-type star IQ~Aur. From previous X-ray observations IQ~Aur is known as a strong, but very soft X-ray source. In addition to the HAeBe star HD~163296, IQ~Aur is a very good candidate for an A-type star with intrinsic X-ray emission. The XMM-Newton RGS spectrum will strongly constrain the location of the X-ray emission site from a measurement or upper limit to the strength of the OVII f/r line ratio, the overall RGS spectrum will determine the elemental abundances, which may be far from solar, and finally, the phase coverage of the EPIC data will be sufficient to search for a rotational modulation of IQ~Aur's X-ray flux.

  17. X-ray micrography and imaging of Escherichia coli cell shape using laser plasma pulsed point x-ray sources.

    PubMed Central

    Rajyaguru, J M; Kado, M; Richardson, M C; Muszynski, M J

    1997-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray microscopy is a relatively new technique and is performed mostly at a few large synchrotron x-ray sources that use exposure times of seconds. We utilized a bench-top source of single-shot laser (ns) plasma to generate x-rays similar to synchrotron facilities. A 5 microlitres suspension of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 in 0.9% phosphate buffered saline was placed on polymethylmethyacrylate coated photoresist, covered with a thin (100 nm) SiN window and positioned in a vacuum chamber close to the x-ray source. The emission spectrum was tuned for optimal absorption by carbon-rich material. Atomic force microscope scans provided a surface and topographical image of differential x-ray absorption corresponding to specimen properties. By using this technique we observed a distinct layer around whole cells, possibly representing the Gram-negative envelope, darker stained areas inside the cell corresponding to chromosomal DNA as seen by thin section electron microscopy, and dent(s) midway through one cell, and 1/3- and 2/3-lengths in another cell, possibly representing one or more division septa. This quick and high resolution with depth-of-field microscopy technique is unmatched to image live hydrated ultrastructure, and has much potential for application in the study of fragile biological specimens. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:9083658

  18. Beamed and Unbeamed X-ray Emission in FR1 Radio Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M.

    1997-01-01

    There is good evidence for X-ray emission associated with AGN jets which are relativistically boosted towards the observer. But to what jet radius does such X-ray emission persist? To attempt to answer this question one can look at radio galaxies; their cores are sufficiently X-ray faint that any unbeamed X-ray emission in the vicinity of the central engine must be obscured. The jets of such sources are at unfavourable angles for relativistic boosting, and so their relatively weak X-ray emission must be carefully separated from the plateau of resolved X-ray emission from a hot interstellar, intragroup, or intracluster medium on which they are expected to sit. This paper presents results arguing that jet X-ray emission is generally detected in radio galaxies, even those of low intrinsic power without hot spots. The levels of emission suggest an extrapolated radio to soft X-ray spectral index, alpha(sub tao x) of about 0.85 at parsec to perhaps kiloparsec distances from the cores.

  19. The faint X-ray sources in and out of omega Centauri: X-ray observations and optical identifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Callanan, Paul J.; Hertz, Paul

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of an observation of the globular cluster omega Cen (NGC 5139) with the Einstein high-resolution imager (HRI). Of the five low-luminosity X-ray sources toward omega Cen which were first identified with the Einstein imaging proportional counter (IPC) (Hertz and Grindlay 1983a, b), two are detected in the Einstein HRI observation: IPC sources A and D. These detections provide source positions accurate to 3 sec-4 sec; the positions are confirmed in a ROSAT HRI observation reported here. Using CCD photometry and spectroscopy, we have identified both sources as foreground dwarf M stars with emission lines (dMe). The chance projection of two Mde stars within approximately 13 min of the center of omega Cen is not extraordinary, given the space density of these stellar coronal X-ray sources. We discuss the possible nature of the three as yet unidentified IPC sources toward omega Cen, and consider the constraints that the Einstein observations place on the total population of X-ray sources in this cluster. The integrated luminosity from faint X-ray sources in omega Cen appears to be low relative to both the old open cluster M67 and the post-core-collapse globular, NGC 6397.

  20. X-ray emission from high temperature plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    X-rays from a 25-hJ plasma focus apparatus were observed with pinhole cameras. The cameras consist of 0.4 mm diameter pinholes in 2 cm thick lead housing enclosing an X-ray intensifying screen at the image plane. Pictures recorded through thin aluminum foils or plastic sheets for X-ray energies sub gamma smaller than 15 keV show distributed X-ray emissions from the focussed plasma and from the anode surface. However, when thick absorbers are used, radial filamentary structure in the X-ray emission from the anode surface is revealed. Occasionally larger structures are observed in addition to the filaments. Possible mechanisms for the filamentary structure are discussed.

  1. X-ray source safety shutter

    DOEpatents

    Robinet, McLouis

    1977-05-31

    An apparatus is provided for controlling the activation of a high energy radiation source having a shutter. The apparatus includes magnets and magnetically responsive switches appropriately placed and interconnected so that only with the shutter and other parts of the source in proper position can safe emission of radiation out an open shutter occur.

  2. Search for X-ray emission from the radio lobes of Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldzahler, Barry; Hertz, Paul

    1987-11-01

    Images obtained with the low-energy imaging telescope on board the European X-Ray Astronomy Satellite have been searched for X-ray emission from the radio lobes of Sco X-1. After the scattered photons from the image of the central X-ray source in Sco X-1 are taken into account, no significant additional X-ray flux from the radio lobes can be detected above the background. The 3 sigma upper limit is less than 0.7 micro-Jy for the northeast radio lobe and less than 1.0 micro-J for the southwest radio lobe. This eliminates the embedded source model of Kundt and Gopal-Krishna as a viable model of the radio emission. These limits are three orders of magnitude too high to constrain models of synchrotron or inverse Compton X-ray emission.

  3. Characterizing X-Ray and Radio Emission in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni during Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Vikram; Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane; Tomsick, John A.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Walton, Dominic J.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William; Fuerst, Felix; Gandhi, Poshak; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Hailey, Charles; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Rahoui, Farid; Stern, Daniel; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Zhang, William W.

    2016-04-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broadband (0.3–30 keV) quiescent luminosity of the source is 8.9 × 1032 erg s‑1 for a distance of 2.4 kpc. The source shows clear variability on short timescales (an hour to a couple of hours) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray bands in the form of multiple flares. The broadband X-ray spectra obtained from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR can be characterized with a power-law model having a photon index of Γ = 2.12 ± 0.07 (90% confidence errors); however, residuals at high energies indicate spectral curvature significant at a 3σ confidence level with the e-folding energy of the cutoff as {20}-7+20 keV. Such curvature can be explained using synchrotron emission from the base of a jet outflow. Radio observations using the VLA reveal that the spectral index evolves on very fast timescales (as short as 10 minutes), switching between optically thick and thin synchrotron emission, possibly due to instabilities in the compact jet or stochastic instabilities in the accretion rate. We explore different scenarios to explain this very fast variability.

  4. Diffuse X-Ray Emission in Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Krystal; Quillen, A. C.; LaPage, Amanda; Rieke, George H.

    2004-07-01

    We compare the soft diffuse X-ray emission from Chandra images of 12 nearby intermediate-inclination spiral galaxies to the morphology seen in Hα, molecular gas, and mid-infrared emission. We find that diffuse X-ray emission is often located along spiral arms in the outer parts of spiral galaxies but tends to be distributed in a more nearly radially symmetric morphology in the center. The X-ray morphology in the spiral arms matches that seen in the mid-infrared or Hα and thus implies that the X-ray emission is associated with recent active star formation. In the spiral arms there is a good correlation between the level of diffuse X-ray emission and that in the mid-infrared in different regions. The correlation between X-ray and mid-IR flux in the galaxy centers is less strong. We also find that the central X-ray emission tends to be more luminous in galaxies with brighter bulges, suggesting that more than one process is contributing to the level of central diffuse X-ray emission. We see no strong evidence for X-ray emission trailing the location of high-mass star formation in spiral arms. However, population synthesis models predict a high mechanical energy output rate from supernovae for a time period that is about 10 times longer than the lifetime of massive ionizing stars, conflicting with the narrow appearance of the arms in X-rays. The fraction of supernova energy that goes into heating the interstellar medium must depend on environment and is probably higher near sites of active star formation. The X-ray estimated emission measures suggest that the volume filling factors and scale heights are low in the outer parts of these galaxies but higher in the galaxy centers. The differences between the X-ray properties and morphology in the centers and outer parts of these galaxies suggest that galactic fountains operate in outer galaxy disks but that winds are primarily driven from galaxy centers.

  5. All-laser-driven Thomson X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umstadter, Donald P.

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the development of a new generation of accelerator-based hard X-ray sources driven exclusively by laser light. High-intensity laser pulses serve the dual roles: first, accelerating electrons by laser-driven plasma wakefields, and second, generating X-rays by inverse Compton scattering. Such all-laser-driven X-rays have recently been demonstrated to be energetic, tunable, relatively narrow in bandwidth, short pulsed and well collimated. Such characteristics, especially from a compact source, are highly advantageous for numerous advanced X-ray applications - in metrology, biomedicine, materials, ultrafast phenomena, radiology and fundamental physics.

  6. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region I: Hard X-Ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman; Hong, Jaesub; Ponti, Gabriele; Bauer, Franz; Perez, Kerstin; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Tomsick, John A.; Alexander, David M.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barret, Didier; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Canipe, Alicia M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hornstrup, Allan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E.; Luu, Vy; Madsen, Kristen K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Westergaard, Niels J.; Zhang, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with Γ ˜ 1.3-2.3 up to ˜50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe Kα fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broadband X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (˜1023 cm-2), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with Γ ˜ 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to LX ≳ 1038 erg s-1. Above ˜20 keV, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc region around Sgr A* consists of the candidate PWN G359.95-0.04 and the CHXE, possibly resulting from an unresolved population of massive CVs with white dwarf masses MWD ˜ 0.9 M⊙. Spectral energy distribution analysis suggests that G359.95-0.04 is likely the hard X-ray counterpart of the ultra-high gamma-ray source HESS J1745-290, strongly favoring a leptonic origin of the GC TeV emission.

  7. Multilayers for next generation x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Hau-Riege, S; Alameda, J; Nelson, A J; Walton, C C; Kjornrattanawanich, B; Aquila, A; Dollar, F; Gullikson, E; Tarrio, C

    2007-05-04

    Multilayers are artificially layered structures that can be used to create optics and optical elements for a broad range of x-ray wavelengths, or can be optimized for other applications. The development of next generation x-ray sources (synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers) requires advances in x-ray optics. Newly developed multilayer-based mirrors and optical elements enabled efficient band-pass filtering, focusing and time resolved measurements in recent FLASH (Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) experiments. These experiments are providing invaluable feedback on the response of the multilayer structures to high intensity, short pulsed x-ray sources. This information is crucial to design optics for future x-ray free electron lasers and to benchmark computer codes that simulate damage processes.

  8. X-ray Emission in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, You-Hua; Snowden, Steve; Gruendl, Robert; Points, Sean

    2003-01-01

    All HRI images of the LMC was mosaicked. The HRI mosaic has been presented in various meetings. We have identified point and diffuse X-ray sources and analyzing their X-ray properties. The HRI mosaic has been included in papers studying individual interstellar features as well as large-scale distribution of hot gas. The results have been published in several papers.

  9. Gamma-Ray Emission from X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrader, Chris R.

    2007-01-01

    We summarize the current observational picture regarding high-energy emission from Galactic X-ray binaries, reviewing the results of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory mission. We speculate on the prospects for the GLAST era.

  10. X-Ray Emission from the Guitar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Roger W.; Cordes, James M.; Yadigaroglu, I.-A.

    1997-01-01

    We have detected weak soft X-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula trailing the high-velocity star PSR 2224+65 (the "Guitar Nebula"). This X-ray flux gives evidence of gamma approximately 10(exp 7) eV particles in the pulsar wind and constrains the properties of the postshock flow. The X-ray emission is most easily understood if the shocked pulsar wind is partly confined in the nebula and if magnetic fields in this zone can grow to near-equipartition values.

  11. X-ray emission from the outer planets: Albedo for scattering and fluorescence of solar X rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Clark, J.; Bhardwaj, A.; Elsner, R.; Waite, J. H.; Maurellis, A. N.; Gladstone, G. R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.

    2006-07-01

    Soft X-ray emission has been observed from the low-latitude "disk" of both Jupiter and Saturn as well as from the auroral regions of these planets. The disk emission as observed by ROSAT, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton appears to be uniformly distributed across the disk and to be correlated with solar activity. These characteristics suggest that the disk X rays are produced by (1) the elastic scattering of solar X rays by atmospheric neutrals and (2) the absorption of solar X rays in the carbon K-shell followed by fluorescent emission. The carbon atoms are found in methane molecules located below the homopause. In this paper we present the results of calculations of the scattering albedo for soft X rays. We also show the calculated X-ray intensity for a range of atmospheric abundances for Jupiter and Saturn and for a number of solar irradiance spectra. The model calculations are compared with recent X-ray observations of Jupiter and Saturn. We conclude that the emission of soft X rays from the disks of Jupiter and Saturn can be largely explained by the scattering and fluorescence of solar soft X rays. We suggest that measured X-ray intensities from the disk regions of Jupiter and Saturn can be used to constrain both the absolute intensity and the spectrum of solar X rays.

  12. Irregular X-ray variability in the transient X-ray burst source MXB 1659-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, L.; Ossmann, W.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1983-01-01

    Irregular variability in the X-ray emission from MXB 1659-29 was observed with SAS 3 during the 1978 transient outburst of the source. No stable period can yet be derived from the low-intensity states, although there is evidence for a quasi-periodicity of either 1.2 or 1.4 hours. The low-intensity states observed in MXB 1659-29 during the transient outburst vary both in width and duration, similar to those in MXB 1916-05. The SAS 3 data are consistent with either the intermittent obscuration of the X-ray emitter by relatively cold gas or with scattering of the X-rays by hotter material.

  13. A Study of Nonthermal X-Ray and Radio Emission from the O Star 9 Sgr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Drake, Stephen A.

    1999-01-01

    The observed X-ray and highly variable nonthermal radio emission from OB stars has eluded explanation for more than 18 years. The most favorable model of X-ray production in these stars (shocks) predicts both nonthermal radio and X-ray emission. The nonthermal X-ray emission should occur above 2 keV and the variability of this X-ray component should also be comparable to the observed radio variability. To test this scenario, we proposed an ASC/VLA monitoring program to observe the OB star, 9 Sgr, a well known nonthermal, variable radio source and a strong X-ray source. We requested 625 ks ASCA observations with a temporal spacing of approximately 4 days which corresponds to the time required for a density disturbance to propagate to the 6 cm radio free-free photosphere. The X-ray observations were coordinated with 5 multi-wavelength VLA observations. These observations represent the first systematic attempt to investigate the relationship between the X-ray and radio emission in OB stars.

  14. X-Ray Emissivity of Old Stellar Populations: A Local Group Census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Chong; Li, Zhiyuan; Xu, Xiaojie; Gu, Qiusheng; Wang, Q. Daniel; Roberts, Shawn; Kraft, Ralph P.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.

    2015-10-01

    We study the unresolved X-ray emission in three Local Group dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies (NGC 147, NGC 185, and NGC 205) using XMM-Newton observations; this emission most likely originates from a collection of weak X-ray sources, mainly cataclysmic variables and coronally active binaries. Precise knowledge of this stellar X-ray emission is crucial not only for understanding the relevant stellar astrophysics but also for disentangling and quantifying the thermal emission from diffuse hot gas in nearby galaxies. We find that the integrated X-ray emissivities of the individual dEs agree well with those of the solar vicinity, supporting an often assumed but untested view that the X-ray emissivity of old stellar populations is quasi-universal in normal galactic environments, in which dynamical effects on the formation and destruction of binary systems are not important. The average X-ray emissivity of the dEs studied in the literature, including M32, is measured to be {L}0.5-2 {{keV}}/{M}*=(6.0+/- 0.5+/- 1.8)× {10}27 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {M}⊙ -1. We also compare this value to the integrated X-ray emissivities of Galactic globular clusters and old open clusters and discuss the role of dynamical effects in these dense stellar systems.

  15. Transmission type flat-panel X-ray source using ZnO nanowire field emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Daokun; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Chen, Jun; Li, Ziping; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2015-12-14

    A transmission type flat-panel X-ray source in diode structure was fabricated. Large-scale patterned ZnO nanowires grown on a glass substrate by thermal oxidation were utilized as field emitters, and tungsten thin film coated on silica glass was used as the transmission anode. Uniform distribution of X-ray generation was achieved, which benefited from the uniform electron emission from ZnO nanowires. Self-ballasting effect induced by the intrinsic resistance of ZnO nanowire and decreasing of screening effect caused by patterned emitters account for the uniform emission. Characteristic X-ray peaks of W-L lines and bremsstrahlung X-rays have been observed under anode voltages at a range of 18–20 kV, the latter of which were the dominant X-ray signals. High-resolution X-ray images with spatial resolution less than 25 μm were obtained by the flat-panel X-ray source. The high resolution was attributed to the small divergence angle of the emitted X-rays from the transmission X-ray source.

  16. Transmission type flat-panel X-ray source using ZnO nanowire field emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daokun; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Li, Ziping; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A transmission type flat-panel X-ray source in diode structure was fabricated. Large-scale patterned ZnO nanowires grown on a glass substrate by thermal oxidation were utilized as field emitters, and tungsten thin film coated on silica glass was used as the transmission anode. Uniform distribution of X-ray generation was achieved, which benefited from the uniform electron emission from ZnO nanowires. Self-ballasting effect induced by the intrinsic resistance of ZnO nanowire and decreasing of screening effect caused by patterned emitters account for the uniform emission. Characteristic X-ray peaks of W-L lines and bremsstrahlung X-rays have been observed under anode voltages at a range of 18-20 kV, the latter of which were the dominant X-ray signals. High-resolution X-ray images with spatial resolution less than 25 μm were obtained by the flat-panel X-ray source. The high resolution was attributed to the small divergence angle of the emitted X-rays from the transmission X-ray source.

  17. Survey for Radio Nebulae Around Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Neal A.; Heil, Martha Nicole; Mushotzky, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULX) is an ongoing debate. As such sources appear to violate the Eddington Limit for the expected masses of stellar remnants, ULX may represent a class of super-Eddington objects, "intermediate" mass black holes (IMBH) emitting at sub-Eddington levels, or a diverse population including examples of both. Most initial efforts to search for radio emission associated with ULX did so with high angular resolution in hopes of applying the "fundamental plane of black hole activity" which relates X-ray luminosity, radio luminosity, and black hole mass. The predicted radio flux densities for such compact radio emission are quite low meaning that even non-detections leave open much of the mass range associated with IMBH. However, a small number of ULX have been associated with extended radio emission and these radio nebulae have sizes and energetics that differentiate them from more common classes of extended objects such as HII regions and supernova remnants. We report here on the results of a cohesive study to identify and characterize ULX radio nebula associated with unbiased samples of ULX. This study has two prongs: one relying upon archival Very Large Array data and one using new, dedicated Jansky Very Large Array observations. Several new candidate ULX radio nebulae are identified and characterized, and along with limits from non-detections we discuss implications for the overall population of ULX.

  18. Generation of first hard X-ray pulse at Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source.

    PubMed

    Du, Yingchao; Yan, Lixin; Hua, Jianfei; Du, Qiang; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Renkai; Qian, Houjun; Huang, Wenhui; Chen, Huaibi; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2013-05-01

    Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source (TTX) is the first-of-its-kind dedicated hard X-ray source in China based on the Thomson scattering between a terawatt ultrashort laser and relativistic electron beams. In this paper, we report the experimental generation and characterization of the first hard X-ray pulses (51.7 keV) via head-on collision of an 800 nm laser and 46.7 MeV electron beams. The measured yield is 1.0 × 10(6) per pulse with an electron bunch charge of 200 pC and laser pulse energy of 300 mJ. The angular intensity distribution and energy spectra of the X-ray pulse are measured with an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device using a CsI scintillator and silicon attenuators. These measurements agree well with theoretical and simulation predictions. An imaging test using the X-ray pulse at the TTX is also presented. PMID:23742539

  19. Generation of first hard X-ray pulse at Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yingchao; Yan Lixin; Hua Jianfei; Du Qiang; Zhang Zhen; Li Renkai; Qian Houjun; Huang Wenhui; Chen Huaibi; Tang Chuanxiang

    2013-05-15

    Tsinghua Thomson Scattering X-ray Source (TTX) is the first-of-its-kind dedicated hard X-ray source in China based on the Thomson scattering between a terawatt ultrashort laser and relativistic electron beams. In this paper, we report the experimental generation and characterization of the first hard X-ray pulses (51.7 keV) via head-on collision of an 800 nm laser and 46.7 MeV electron beams. The measured yield is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} per pulse with an electron bunch charge of 200 pC and laser pulse energy of 300 mJ. The angular intensity distribution and energy spectra of the X-ray pulse are measured with an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device using a CsI scintillator and silicon attenuators. These measurements agree well with theoretical and simulation predictions. An imaging test using the X-ray pulse at the TTX is also presented.

  20. Long-term X-ray variability of ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Hu, Chin-Ping; Kong, Albert K. H.; Yen, David Chien-Chang; Takata, Jumpei; Chou, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Long-term X-ray modulations on time-scales from tens to hundreds of days have been widely studied for X-ray binaries located in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. For other nearby galaxies, only the most luminous X-ray sources can be monitored with dedicated observations. We here present the first systematic study of long-term X-ray variability of four ultraluminous X-ray sources (ESO 243-49 HLX-1, Holmberg IX X-1, M81 X-6, and NGC 5408 X-1) monitored with Swift. By using various dynamic techniques to analyse their light curves, we find several interesting low-frequency quasi-periodicities. Although the periodic signals may not represent any stable orbital modulations, these detections reveal that such long-term regular patterns may be related to superorbital periods and structure of the accretion discs. In particular, we show that the outburst recurrence time of ESO 243-49 HLX-1 varies over time and suggest that it may not be the orbital period. Instead, it may be due to some kinds of precession, and the true binary period is expected to be much shorter.

  1. X-ray framing camera for pulsed, high current, electron beam x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Failor, B. H.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Riordan, J. C.; Lojewski, D. Y.

    2007-07-01

    High power x-ray sources built for nuclear weapons effects testing are evolving toward larger overall diameters and smaller anode cathode gaps. We describe a framing camera developed to measure the time-evolution of these 20-50 ns pulsed x-ray sources produced by currents in the 1.5-2.5 MA range and endpoint voltages between 0.2 and 1.5 MV. The camera has up to 4 frames with 5 ns gate widths; the frames are separated by 5 ns. The image data are recorded electronically with a gated intensified CCD camera and the data are available immediately following a shot. A fast plastic scintillator (2.1 ns decay time) converts the x-rays to visible light and, for high sensitivity, a fiber optic imaging bundle carries the light to the CCD input. Examples of image data are shown.

  2. The cosmic X-ray background-IRAS galaxy correlation and the local X-ray volume emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyaji, Takamitsu; Lahav, Ofer; Jahoda, Keith; Boldt, Elihu

    1994-01-01

    We have cross-correlated the galaxies from the IRAS 2 Jy redshift survey sample and the 0.7 Jy projected sample with the all-sky cosmic X-ray background (CXB) map obtained from the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 1 A-2 experiment. We have detected a significant correlation signal between surface density of IRAS galaxies and the X-ray background intensity, with W(sub xg) = (mean value of ((delta I)(delta N)))/(mean value of I)(mean value of N)) of several times 10(exp -3). While this correlation signal has a significant implication for the contribution of the local universe to the hard (E greater than 2 keV) X-ray background, its interpretation is model-dependent. We have developed a formulation to model the cross-correlation between CXB surface brightness and galaxy counts. This includes the effects of source clustering and the X-ray-far-infrared luminosity correlation. Using an X-ray flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which has IRAS 60 micrometer measurements, we have estimated the contribution of the AGN component to the observed CXB-IRAS galaxy count correlations in order to see whether there is an excess component, i.e., contribution from low X-ray luminosity sources. We have applied both the analytical approach and Monte Carlo simulations for the estimations. Our estimate of the local X-ray volume emissivity in the 2-10 keV band is rho(sub x) approximately = (4.3 +/- 1.2) x 10(exp 38) h(sub 50) ergs/s/cu Mpc, consistent with the value expected from the luminosity function of AGNs alone. This sets a limit to the local volume emissivity from lower luminosity sources (e.g., star-forming galaxies, low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs)) to rho(sub x) less than or approximately = 2 x 10(exp 38) h(sub 50) ergs/s/cu Mpc.

  3. [C ii] emission from galactic nuclei in the presence of X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Pineda, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The luminosity of [C ii] is used as a probe of the star formation rate in galaxies, but the correlation breaks down in some active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Models of the [C ii] emission from galactic nuclei do not include the influence of X-rays on the carbon ionization balance, which may be a factor in reducing the [C ii] luminosity. Aims: We aim to determine the properties of the ionized carbon and its distribution among highly ionized states in the interstellar gas in galactic nuclei under the influence of X-ray sources. We calculate the [C ii] luminosity in galactic nuclei under the influence of bright sources of soft X-rays. Methods: We solve the balance equation of the ionization states of carbon as a function of X-ray flux, electron, atomic hydrogen, and molecular hydrogen density. These are input to models of [C ii] emission from the interstellar medium (ISM) in galactic nuclei representing conditions in the Galactic central molecular zone and a higher density AGN model. The behavior of the [C ii] luminosity is calculated as a function of the X-ray luminosity. We also solve the distribution of the ionization states of oxygen and nitrogen in highly ionized regions. Results: We find that the dense warm ionized medium (WIM) and dense photon dominated regions (PDRs) dominate the [C ii] emission when no X-rays are present. The X-rays in galactic nuclei can affect strongly the C+ abundance in the WIM, converting some fraction to C2+ and higher ionization states and thus reducing its [C ii] luminosity. For an X-ray luminosity L(X-ray) ≳ 1043 erg s-1 the [C ii] luminosity can be suppressed by a factor of a few, and for very strong sources, L(X-ray) >1044 erg s-1 such as found for many AGNs, the [C ii] luminosity is significantly depressed. Comparison of the model with several extragalactic sources shows that the [C ii] to far-infrared ratio declines for L(X-ray) ≳ 1043 erg s-1, in reasonable agreement with our model. Conclusions: We conclude that X-rays

  4. Soft X-Ray Emissions from Planets and Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Cravens, T. E.; Howell, R. R.; Metzger, A. E.; Ostgaard, N.; Maurellis, A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A wide variety of solar system planetary bodies are now known to radiate in the soft x-ray energy (<5 keV) regime. These include planets (Earth, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn): bodies having thick atmosphere and with/without intrinsic magnetic field; planetary satellites (Moon, Io, Europa, Ganymede): bodies with no/thin atmosphere; and comets and Io plasma torus: bodies having extended tenuous atmosphere. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of soft x-rays from these objects. whereas in the hard x-ray energy range (>10 keV) x-rays mainly result from electron bremsstrahlung process. In this paper we present a brief review of the x-ray observations on each of the planetary bodies and discuss their characteristics and proposed source mechanisms.

  5. A Pilot Deep Survey for X-Ray Emission from fuvAGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Stute, M.

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a pilot survey for X-ray emission from a newly discovered class of AGB stars with far-ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars) using XMM-Newton and Chandra. We detected X-ray emission in three of six fuvAGB stars observed—the X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long timescales, and simultaneous UV observations using the Optical Monitor on XMM for these sources show similar variations in the UV flux. These data, together with previous studies, show that X-ray emission is found only in fuvAGB stars. From modeling the spectra, we find that the observed X-ray luminosities are ˜(0.002-0.2) L⊙ and the X-ray-emitting plasma temperatures are ˜(35-160) × 106 K. The high X-ray temperatures argue against the emission arising in stellar coronae, or directly in an accretion shock, unless it occurs on a WD companion. However, none of the detected objects is a known WD-symbiotic star, suggesting that if WD companions are present, they are relatively cool (<20,000 K). In addition, the high X-ray luminosities specifically argue against emission originating in the coronae of main-sequence companions. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  6. X-ray Imaging and preliminary studies of the X-ray self-emission from an innovative plasma-trap based on the Bernstein waves heating mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliri, C.; Romano, F. P.; Mascali, D.; Gammino, S.; Musumarra, A.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Neri, L.; Altana, C.

    2013-10-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are based on ECR heated plasmas emitting high fluxes of X-rays. Here we illustrate a pilot study of the X-ray emission from a compact plasma-trap in which an off-resonance microwave-plasma interaction has been attempted, highlighting a possible Bernstein-Waves based heating mechanism. EBWs-heating is obtained via the inner plasma EM-to-ES wave conversion and enables to reach densities much larger than the cut-off ones. At LNS-INFN, an innovative diagnostic technique based on the design of a Pinhole Camera (PHC) coupled to a CCD device for X-ray Imaging of the plasma (XRI) has been developed, in order to integrate X-ray traditional diagnostics (XRS). The complementary use of electrostatic probes measurements and X-ray diagnostics enabled us to gain knowledge about the high energy electrons density and temperature and about the spatial structure of the source. The combination of the experimental data with appropriate modeling of the plasma-source allowed to estimate the X-ray emission intensity in different energy domains (ranging from EUV up to Hard X-rays). The use of ECRIS as X-ray source for multidisciplinary applications, is now a concrete perspective due to the intense fluxes produced by the new plasma heating mechanism.

  7. Preliminary designs for X-ray source modifications for the Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray calibration facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to develop preliminary designs for modifications to the X-ray source of the MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility. Recommendations are made regarding: (1) the production of an unpolarized X-ray beam, (2) modification of the source to provide characteristic X-rays with energies up to 40 keV, and (3) addition of the capability to calibrate instruments in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region.

  8. X-ray emission from the galactic disk.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleach, R. D.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Schwartz, D. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    A search was made for a diffuse component of greater than 1.5 keV X rays associated with an interarm region of the Galaxy at galactic longitudes in the vicinity of 60 degrees. A statistically significant excess associated with a narrow disk component was detected. The angular extent of this component has a most probable value of 2 degrees. The best-fit spectrum yields an intensity of 2.9 photons/sq cm per sec per sterad over the 2-10 keV range. The 3-sigma upper limit to any emission in a 1.5 keV band centered at 7 keV from galactic latitudes not greater than 3.5 deg is 0.3 photons/sq cm per sec per sterad. Several possible emission models are evaluated, with the most likely choice being a population of unresolvable low-luminosity sources.

  9. Observing Solvation Dynamics with Simultaneous Femtosecond X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Haldrup, Kristoffer; Gawelda, Wojciech; Abela, Rafael; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe; Bordage, Amélie; Cammarata, Marco; Canton, Sophie E; Dohn, Asmus O; van Driel, Tim Brandt; Fritz, David M; Galler, Andreas; Glatzel, Pieter; Harlang, Tobias; Kjær, Kasper S; Lemke, Henrik T; Møller, Klaus B; Németh, Zoltán; Pápai, Mátyás; Sas, Norbert; Uhlig, Jens; Zhu, Diling; Vankó, György; Sundström, Villy; Nielsen, Martin M; Bressler, Christian

    2016-02-18

    In liquid phase chemistry dynamic solute-solvent interactions often govern the path, ultimate outcome, and efficiency of chemical reactions. These steps involve many-body movements on subpicosecond time scales and thus ultrafast structural tools capable of capturing both intramolecular electronic and structural changes, and local solvent structural changes are desired. We have studied the intra- and intermolecular dynamics of a model chromophore, aqueous [Fe(bpy)3](2+), with complementary X-ray tools in a single experiment exploiting intense XFEL radiation as a probe. We monitored the ultrafast structural rearrangement of the solute with X-ray emission spectroscopy, thus establishing time zero for the ensuing X-ray diffuse scattering analysis. The simultaneously recorded X-ray diffuse scattering patterns reveal slower subpicosecond dynamics triggered by the intramolecular structural dynamics of the photoexcited solute. By simultaneous combination of both methods only, we can extract new information about the solvation dynamic processes unfolding during the first picosecond (ps). The measured bulk solvent density increase of 0.2% indicates a dramatic change of the solvation shell around each photoexcited solute, confirming previous ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Structural changes in the aqueous solvent associated with density and temperature changes occur with ∼1 ps time constants, characteristic for structural dynamics in water. This slower time scale of the solvent response allows us to directly observe the structure of the excited solute molecules well before the solvent contributions become dominant. PMID:26783685

  10. Enhanced X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua

    2016-04-01

    X-rays from binaries containing compact objects may have played an important role in heating the early Universe. Here we discuss our findings from X-ray studies of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), Lyman break analogs (LBAs), and Green Pea galaxies (GP), all of which are considered local analogs to high redshift galaxies. We find enhanced X-ray emission per unit star-formation rate which strongly correlates with decreasing metallicity. We find evidence for the existence of a L_X-SFR-Metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies. The exact properties of X-ray emission in the early Universe affects the timing and morphology of reionization, both being observable properties of current and future radio observations of the redshifted 21cm signal from neutral hydrogen.

  11. X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

    1999-05-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

  12. THREE NEW GALACTIC CENTER X-RAY SOURCES IDENTIFIED WITH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, Curtis; Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sarajedini, Ata; Sellgren, Kris; Blum, Robert; Olsen, Knut; Bauer, Franz E.

    2013-11-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 47 candidate counterparts to X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory near the Galactic center (GC). Though a significant number of these astrometric matches are likely to be spurious, we sought out spectral characteristics of active stars and interacting binaries, such as hot, massive spectral types or emission lines, in order to corroborate the X-ray activity and certify the authenticity of the match. We present three new spectroscopic identifications, including a Be high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) or a γ Cassiopeiae (Cas) system, a symbiotic X-ray binary, and an O-type star of unknown luminosity class. The Be HMXB/γ Cas system and the symbiotic X-ray binary are the first of their classes to be spectroscopically identified in the GC region.

  13. VLA observations of a complete sample of extragalactic X-ray sources. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schild, R.; Zamorani, G.; Gioia, I. M.; Feigelson, E. D.; Maccacaro, T.

    1983-01-01

    A complete sample of 35 X-ray selected sources found with the Einstein Observatory has been observed with the Very Large Array at 6 cm to investigate the relationship between radio and X-ray emission in extragalactic objects. Detections include three active galactic nuclei (AGNs), two clusters or groups of galaxies, two individual galaxies, and two BL Lac objects. The frequency of radio emission in X-ray selected AGNs is compared with that of optically selected quasars using the integral radio-optical luminosity function. The result suggests that the probability for X-ray selected quasars to be radio sources is higher than for those optically selected. No obvious correlation is found in the sample between the richness of X-ray luminosity of the cluster and the presence of a galaxy with radio luminosity at 5 GHz larger than 10 to the 30th ergs/s/Hz.

  14. Satellite Observations of Rapidly Varying Cosmic X-ray Sources. Ph.D. Thesis - Catholic Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray source data obtained with the high energy celestial X-ray detector on the Orbiting Solar Observatory -8 are presented. The results from the 1977 Crab observation show nonstatistical fluctuations in the pulsed emission and in the structure of the integrated pulse profile which cannot be attributed to any known systematic effect. The Hercules observations presented here provide information on three different aspects of the pulsed X-ray emission: the variation of pulsed flux as a function of the time from the beginning of the ON-state, the variation of pulsed flux as a function of binary phase, and the energy spectrum of the pulse emission.

  15. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Mascali, David; Castro, Giuseppe; Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József; Caliri, Claudia; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Romano, Francesco Paolo; Torrisi, Giuseppe; Gammino, Santo

    2016-02-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs-Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed "on-line" during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure. PMID:26931918

  16. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascali, David; Castro, Giuseppe; Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József; Caliri, Claudia; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Romano, Francesco Paolo; Torrisi, Giuseppe; Gammino, Santo

    2016-02-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed "on-line" during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  17. Stationary scanning x-ray source based on carbon nanotube field emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, G.; Cheng, Y.; Gao, B.; Qiu, Q.; Lee, Y. Z.; Lu, J. P.; Zhou, O.

    2005-05-01

    We report a field emission x-ray source that can generate a scanning x-ray beam to image an object from multiple projection angles without mechanical motion. The key component of the device is a gated carbon nanotube field emission cathode with an array of electron emitting pixels that are individually addressable via a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor-based electronic circuit. The characteristics of this x-ray source are measured and its imaging capability is demonstrated. The device can potentially lead to a fast data acquisition rate for laminography and tomosynthesis with a simplified experimental setup.

  18. Stationary scanning x-ray source based on carbon nanotube field emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Yang, G.; Cheng, Y.; Gao, B.; Qiu, Q.; Lee, Y.Z.; Lu, J.P.; Zhou, O.

    2005-05-02

    We report a field emission x-ray source that can generate a scanning x-ray beam to image an object from multiple projection angles without mechanical motion. The key component of the device is a gated carbon nanotube field emission cathode with an array of electron emitting pixels that are individually addressable via a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor-based electronic circuit. The characteristics of this x-ray source are measured and its imaging capability is demonstrated. The device can potentially lead to a fast data acquisition rate for laminography and tomosynthesis with a simplified experimental setup.

  19. Soft X-ray production by photon scattering in pulsating binary neutron star sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussard, R. W.; Meszaros, P.; Alexander, S.

    1985-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed as a source of soft (less than 1 keV) radiation in binary pulsating X-ray sources, in the form of photon scattering which leaves the electron in an excited Landau level. In a plasma with parameters typical of such sources, the low-energy X-ray emissivity of this mechanism far exceeds that of bremsstrahlung. This copious source of soft photons is quite adequate to provide the seed photons needed to explain the power-law hard X-ray spectrum by inverse Comptonization on the hot electrons at the base of the accretion column.

  20. A Comprehensive Archival Chandra Search for X-Ray Emission from Ultracompact Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Viraj; Mulchaey, John; Greene, Jenny E.

    2016-03-01

    We present the first comprehensive archival study of the X-ray properties of ultracompact dwarf (UCD) galaxies, with the goal of identifying weakly accreting central black holes in UCDs. Our study spans 578 UCDs distributed across 13 different host systems, including clusters, groups, fossil groups, and isolated galaxies. Of the 336 spectroscopically confirmed UCDs with usable archival Chandra imaging observations, 21 are X-ray-detected. Imposing a completeness limit of {L}X\\gt 2× {10}38 erg s-1, the global X-ray detection fraction for the UCD population is ˜ 3%. Of the 21 X-ray-detected UCDs, seven show evidence of long-term X-ray time variability on the order of months to years. X-ray-detected UCDs tend to be more compact than non-X-ray-detected UCDs, and we find tentative evidence that the X-ray detection fraction increases with surface luminosity density and global stellar velocity dispersion. The X-ray emission of UCDs is fully consistent with arising from a population of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). In fact, there are fewer X-ray sources than expected using a naive extrapolation from globular clusters. Invoking the fundamental plane of black hole activity for SUCD1 near the Sombrero galaxy, for which archival Jansky Very Large Array imaging at 5 GHz is publicly available, we set an upper limit on the mass of a hypothetical central black hole in that UCD to be ≲ {10}5{M}⊙ . While the majority of our sources are likely LMXBs, we cannot rule out central black holes in some UCDs based on X-rays alone, and so we address the utility of follow-up radio observations to find weakly accreting central black holes.

  1. Comparison of X-ray source concepts for radiographic purposes at OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, L.; Primout, M.; Villette, B.; Girard, F.; Oudot, G.

    2013-09-01

    As multi-keV X-ray sources, seven targets including thick and thin foils, metal-lined halfraums and a foil combined with a plastic cylinder, have been shot on Omega in September 2011. Titanium was used as X-ray emitting material for all the sources. Using experimental data and FCI2 simulation results, we have, for each source type, characterized the emission lobes and determined the spatial directions of maximum multi-keV energy. These results demonstrate the benefit of using a laser drive with a pre-pulse for both thick and thin foils. The favorable effect of a confinement cylinder for the X-ray emitted from front side by a thin foil has also been experimentally found but is not yet confirmed by the simulations. The temporal waveforms of the X-ray power obtained from the different sources as well as the emission spots at the times of maximum emission are also compared.

  2. X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Around 300,000 years after the Big Bang, the Universe had cooled enough to combine and form neutral atoms. This signified the beginning of a time known as the Dark Ages. Neutral matter began to fall into the dark matter gravitational wells that were seeded after the initial moments of the Big Bang. As the first stars and galaxies formed within these gravitational wells, the surrounding baryonic matter was heated and started to ionize. The source of energetic photons that heated and reionized the early Universe remains uncertain. Early galaxies had low metallicity and recent population synthesis calculations suggest that the number and luminosity of high-mass X-ray binaries are enhanced in star-forming galaxies with low metallicity, offering a potentially important and previously overlooked source of heating and reionization. Here we examine two types of local galaxies that have been shown to be good analogs to the early galaxies in the Universe: Blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) and Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs).A BCD is defined by its blue optical colors, low metallicities, and physically small size. This makes BCDs the best available local analogs for early star formation. We analyzed data from a sample of 25 metal-poor BCDs and compared our results with those of near-solar metallicity galaxies. Using a Bayesian approach, we showed that the X-ray luminosity function for the low-metallicity BCDs is significantly elevated relative to the XLF for near-solar metallicity galaxies.Larger, gas-rich galaxies may have formed shortly after these first galaxies. These larger galaxies would be similar in their properties to the high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). LBAs provide the best local comparison to the LBGs. We studied a sample of 10 LBAs in order to measure the relation between star formation rate and X-ray luminosity for these galaxies. We found that for LBAs with intermediate sub-solar metallicities, there is enhanced X-ray emission relative to the expected

  3. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission from Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F. J.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Ford, P. G.; Metzger, A. E.; Hurley, K. C.; Feigelson, E. D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory observed the Jovian system for about 24 hours on 25-26 Nov 1999 with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), in support of the Galileo flyby of Io, and for about 10 hours on 18 Dec 2000 with the imaging array of the High Resolution Camera (HRC-I), in support of the Cassini flyby of Jupiter. Analysis of these data have revealed soft (0.25--2 keV) x-ray emission from the moons Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (greater than 10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays is about an order of magnitude too weak even during flares from the active Sun to account for the observed x-ray flux from the IPT. Charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains both fall by orders of magnitude. On the other hand, we calculate that bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range accounts for roughly one third of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT. Extension of the far ultraviolet (FUV) IPT spectrum likely also contributes.

  4. X-ray emission from two nearby millisecond pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorsett, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    This grant, titled 'X-Ray Emission from Two Nearby Millisecond Pulsars,' included ROSAT observations of the nearby pulsars PSR J2322+20 and PSR J2019+24. Neither was detected, although the observations were among the most sensitive ever made towards millisecond pulsars, reaching 1.5 x 10(exp 29) and 2.7 x 10(exp 29) erg s(exp -1) (0.1-2.4 keV), respectively. This is about, or slightly below, the predicted level of emission from the Seward and Wang empirical prediction, based on an extrapolation from slower pulsars. To understand the significance of this result, we have compared these limits with observations of four other millisecond pulsars, taken from the ROSAT archives. Except for the case of PSR B1821-21, where we identified a possible x-ray counterpart, only upper limits on x-ray flux were obtained. From these results, we conclude that x-ray emission beaming does not follow the same dependence on pulsar period as that of radio emission: while millisecond pulsars have beaming fractions near unity in the radio, x-ray emission is observed only for favorable viewing geometries.

  5. X-Ray Sources in the Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Draco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonbas, E.; Rangelov, B.; Kargaltsev, O.; Dhuga, K. S.; Hare, J.; Volkov, I.

    2016-04-01

    We present the spectral analysis of an 87 ks XMM-Newton observation of Draco, a nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Of the approximately 35 robust X-ray source detections, we focus our attention on the brightest of these sources, for which we report X-ray and multiwavelength parameters. While most of the sources exhibit properties consistent with active galactic nuclei, few of them possess the characteristics of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and cataclysmic variable (CVs). Our analysis places constraints on the population of X-ray sources with LX > 3 × 1033 erg s‑1 in Draco, suggesting that there are no actively accreting black hole and neutron star binaries. However, we find four sources that could be quiescent state LMXBs/CVs associated with Draco. We also place constraints on the central black hole luminosity and on a dark matter decay signal around 3.5 keV.

  6. Miniaturized High-Speed Modulated X-Ray Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C. (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor); Kenyon, Steven J. (Inventor); Spartana, Nick Salvatore (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A miniaturized high-speed modulated X-ray source (MXS) device and a method for rapidly and arbitrarily varying with time the output X-ray photon intensities and energies. The MXS device includes an ultraviolet emitter that emits ultraviolet light, a photocathode operably coupled to the ultraviolet light-emitting diode that emits electrons, an electron multiplier operably coupled to the photocathode that multiplies incident electrons, and an anode operably coupled to the electron multiplier that is configured to produce X-rays. The method for modulating MXS includes modulating an intensity of an ultraviolet emitter to emit ultraviolet light, generating electrons in response to the ultraviolet light, multiplying the electrons to become more electrons, and producing X-rays by an anode that includes a target material configured to produce X-rays in response to impact of the more electrons.

  7. Generation of High Brightness X-rays with the PLEIADES Thomson X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W J; Anderson, S G; Barty, C P J; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D N; Hartemann, F V; Kuba, J; LeSage, G P; Slaughter, D R; Springer, P T; Tremaine, A M; Rosenzweig, J B; Gibson, D J

    2003-05-28

    The use of short laser pulses to generate high peak intensity, ultra-short x-ray pulses enables exciting new experimental capabilities, such as femtosecond pump-probe experiments used to temporally resolve material structural dynamics on atomic time scales. PLEIADES (Picosecond Laser Electron InterAction for Dynamic Evaluation of Structures) is a next generation Thomson scattering x-ray source being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Ultra-fast picosecond x-rays (10-200 keV) are generated by colliding an energetic electron beam (20-100 MeV) with a high intensity, sub-ps, 800 nm laser pulse. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10{sup 20} photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm2/mrad2. Simulations of the electron beam production, transport, and final focus are presented. Electron beam measurements, including emittance and final focus spot size are also presented and compared to simulation results. Measurements of x-ray production are also reported and compared to theoretical calculations.

  8. Extended X-Ray Emission around Quasars at Intermediate Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    We compare the optical to soft X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) of a sample of bright low-redshift (0.048 less than z less than 0.155), radio-quiet quasars, with a range of thermal models which have been proposed to explain the optical/UV/soft X-ray quasar emission: (a) optically thin emission from an ionized plasma, (b) optically thick emission from the innermost regions of an accretion disk in Schwarzschild and Kerr geometries. We presented ROSAT PSPC observations of these quasars in an earlier paper. Here our goals are to search for the signature of thermal emission in the quasar SED, and to investigate whether a single component is dominating at different frequencies. We find that isothermal optically thin plasma models can explain the observed soft X-ray color and the mean OUV color. However, they predict an ultraviolet (1325 Angstrom) luminosity a factor of 3 to 10 times lower than observed. Pure disk models, even in a Kerr geometry, do not have the necessary flexibility to account for the observed OUV and soft X-ray luminosities. Additional components are needed both in the optical and in the soft X-rays (e.g. a hot corona can explain the soft X-ray color). The most constrained modification of pure disk models, is the assumption of an underlying power law component extending from the infrared (3 micrometers) to the X-ray. This can explain both the OUV and soft X-ray colors and luminosities and does not exceed the 3 micrometers luminosity, where a contribution from hot dust is likely to be important. We also discuss the possibility that the observed soft X-ray color and luminosity are dominated by reflection from the ionized surface of the accretion disk. While modifications of both optically thin plasma models and pure disk models might account for the observed SED, we do not find any strong evidence that the OUV bump and soft X-ray emission are one and the same component. Likewise, we do not find any strong argument which definitely argues in favor

  9. Non-thermal Hard X-Ray Emission from Coma and Several Abell Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, C

    2004-02-05

    We report results of hard X-Ray observations of the clusters Coma, Abell 496, Abell754, Abell 1060, Abell 1367, Abell2256 and Abell3558 using RXTE data from the NASA HEASARC public archive. Specifically we searched for clusters with hard x-ray emission that can be fitted by a power law because this would indicate that the cluster is a source of non-thermal emission. We are assuming the emission mechanism proposed by Vahk Petrosian where the inter cluster space contains clouds of relativistic electrons that by themselves create a magnetic field and emit radio synchrotron radiation. These relativistic electrons Inverse-Compton scatter Microwave Background photons up to hard x-ray energies. The clusters that were found to be sources of non-thermal hard x-rays are Coma, Abell496, Abell754 and Abell 1060.

  10. SPECTRAL STATES AND EVOLUTION OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Hua; Kaaret, Philip

    2009-05-10

    We examined spectral evolution in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with apparent luminosities of about 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}. Based on new results in this paper, and those reported in the literature, two common spectral behaviors were found. Some ULXs in starburst galaxies have varying luminosity (L) but remain in the hard state with power-law spectra and a constant, hard photon index ({gamma}). Other ULXs, such as NGC 5204 X-1, show a correlation between L and {gamma}. We interpret this L-{gamma} correlated phase as an intermediate state with hybrid properties from the thermal dominant and steep power-law states. When the spectra of NGC 5204 X-1 are fitted with a multicolor disk blackbody plus power-law model, the X-ray luminosity increases with the effective temperature of the accretion disk in a manner similar to that found in stellar-mass black hole X-ray binaries, suggesting that the emission arises from an accretion disk. The luminosity, disk size, and temperature suggest that NGC 5204 X-1 harbors a compact object more massive than stellar-mass black holes. In contrast, the disk model in IC 342 X-1 is ruled out because the luminosity decreases as the temperature increases; sources with such behavior may represent a class of objects with super-Eddington accretion. Also, we report a peculiar soft spectral feature from IC 342 X-2 and variability on a timescale of 20 ks from Holmberg II X-1. More observations are needed to test these results.

  11. Laser-Produced Coherent X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Umstadter

    2007-01-31

    We study the generation of x-rays from the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-intense laser pulse either directly or via laser generated ion channels. The laser pulse acts as the accelerator and wiggler leading to an all-optical synchrotron-like x-ray source. The mm sized accelerator and micron-sized wiggler leads to a compact source of high brightness, ultrafast x-rays with applications in relativistic nonlinear optics, ultrafast chemistry, biology, inner-shell electronic processes and phase transitions.

  12. Transition radiation as a source of cosmic X-rays.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Bleach, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that transition radiation generated during the passage of relativistic charged particles through interstellar grains can be an important source of cosmic X-rays. In order to account for recent X-ray observations below 300 eV by transition radiation, an energy density in interstellar space of about 10 eV per cu cm in 10 MeV electrons is required. This seems to rule out transition radiation as an important source of diffuse cosmic X-rays in any energy region.

  13. Exotic X-ray Sources from Intermediate Energy Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chouffani, K.; Wells, D.; Harmon, F.; Jones, J.L.; Lancaster, G.

    2003-08-26

    High intensity x-ray beams are used in a wide variety of applications in solid-state physics, medicine, biology and material sciences. Synchrotron radiation (SR) is currently the primary, high-quality x-ray source that satisfies both brilliance and tunability. The high cost, large size and low x-ray energies of SR facilities, however, are serious limitations. Alternatively, 'novel' x-ray sources are now possible due to new small linear accelerator (LINAC) technology, such as improved beam emittance, low background, sub-Picosecond beam pulses, high beam stability and higher repetition rate. These sources all stem from processes that produce Radiation from relativistic Electron beams in (crystalline) Periodic Structures (REPS), or the periodic 'structure' of laser light. REPS x-ray sources are serious candidates for bright, compact, portable, monochromatic, and tunable x-ray sources with varying degrees of polarization and coherence. Despite the discovery and early research into these sources over the past 25 years, these sources are still in their infancy. Experimental and theoretical research are still urgently needed to answer fundamental questions about the practical and ultimate limits of their brightness, mono-chromaticity etc. We present experimental results and theoretical comparisons for three exotic REPS sources. These are Laser-Compton Scattering (LCS), Channeling Radiation (CR) and Parametric X-Radiation (PXR)

  14. The BL LAC phenomenon: X-ray observations of transition objects and determination of the x-ray spectrum of a complete sample of flat-spectrum radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities related to two ROSAT investigations: (1) x-ray properties of radio galaxies thought to contain BL Lac type nuclei; and (2) x-ray spectra of a complete sample of flat-spectrum radio sources. The following papers describing the research are provided as attachments: Multiple X-ray Emission Components in Low Power Radio Galaxies; New X-ray Results on Radio Galaxies; Analysis Techniques for a Multiwavelength Study of Radio Galaxies; Separation of X-ray Emission Components in Radio Galaxies; X-ray Emission in Powerful Radio Galaxies and Quasars; Extended and Compact X-ray Emission in Powerful Radio Galaxies; and X-ray Spectra of a Complete Sample of Extragalactic Core-dominated Radio Sources.

  15. Quasisoft X-ray Sources: their physical natures revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Primini, Francis A.; Guo, Jincheng; Liu, Jifeng

    2016-04-01

    Quasisoft X-ray sources (QSSs) have been the Mona Lisa of X-ray sources. They have remained enigmatic, even though we have known of their existence and basic properties for more than a decade. QSSs have X-ray luminosities greater than 10^{36} erg/s, but emit few or no photons above 2 keV. They were discovered in external galaxies during searches for softer sources, supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs). Every external galaxy contains QSSs, but it has been challenging to find any in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. Recent work, however, reveals that a significant fraction of QSSs may be black holes. We review what is known about QSSs to date, because this obscure class of objects may at last to be ready for "prime time'', capable of identifying BHs in a wide range of Galactic environments.

  16. Self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Paulikas, A.P.

    1987-06-02

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising and evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof. 2 figs.

  17. Self-cleaning rotating anode X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Paulikas, Arvydas P.

    1989-01-01

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising an evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof.

  18. New Directions in X-Ray Light Sources

    ScienceCinema

    Falcone, Roger

    2010-01-08

    July 15, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Molecular movies of chemical reactions and material phase transformations need a strobe of x-rays, the penetrating light that reveals how atoms and molecules assemble in chemical and biological systems and complex materials. Roger Falcone, Director of the Advanced Light Source,will discuss a new generation of x ray sources that will enable a new science of atomic dynamics on ultrafast timescales.

  19. New Directions in X-Ray Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone, Roger

    2008-07-18

    July 15, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Molecular movies of chemical reactions and material phase transformations need a strobe of x-rays, the penetrating light that reveals how atoms and molecules assemble in chemical and biological systems and complex materials. Roger Falcone, Director of the Advanced Light Source,will discuss a new generation of x ray sources that will enable a new science of atomic dynamics on ultrafast timescales.

  20. The X-ray eclipse geometry of the super-soft X-ray source CAL 87

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, T.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.

    2014-09-01

    We explore XMM-Newton observations of the eclipsing super-soft X-ray source CAL 87 in order to map the accretion structures of the system. Indirect imaging techniques were applied in X-ray light curves to provide eclipse maps. The surface brightness distribution exhibits an extended and symmetric emission, and a feature is revealed from the hardest X-rays that is likely due to a bright spot. A rate of P-dot =(+6±2)×10{sup −10} for changes in the orbital period of the system was derived from the eclipses. There is no significant variation of the emission lines even during eclipses, arguing that the lines are formed in an extended region. The continuum emission dominates the decrease in flux that is observed during eclipses. The O VIII Lyα line reveals a broadening velocity that is estimated to be 365{sub −69}{sup +65} km s{sup –1} (at 1σ), marginal evidence for asymmetry in its profile, and sometimes shows evidence of double-peaked emission. Together, the results support that the wind-driven mass transfer scenario is running in CAL 87.

  1. X-ray emission from the supernova remnant G287.8-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Rothschild, R. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    The GSFC Cosmic X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO-8 observed a weak galactic X-ray source near theta 2 at 288 deg, b2 at -1 deg. The spectrum for this source between 2-20 keV is well represented by a thermal spectrum of kT = 7.34(+3.6), sub -2.6 keV with an intense iron emission line centered at 6.5 + or - .2 keV. The error box of the Uhuru source 4U1043-59, the only known X-ray source in our field of view, contains the radio supernova remnant G287.8-0.5. The possible association of the X-ray source with this supernova remnant is discussed.

  2. Ultra-luminous X-Ray Sources in HARO II and the Role of X-Ray Binaries in Feedback in Lyα Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestwich, A. H.; Jackson, F.; Kaaret, P.; Brorby, M.; Roberts, T. P.; Saar, S. H.; Yukita, M.

    2015-10-01

    Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs) are local proxies of high-redshift Lyman Break Galaxies. Spatially resolved studies of nearby starbursts have shown that Lyman continuum and line emission are absorbed by dust and that the Lyα is resonantly scattered by neutral hydrogen. In order to observe Lyα emission from star-forming regions, some source of feedback is required to blow the neutral gas away from the starburst to prevent scattering and allow the Lyα emission to escape. We show that there are two X-ray point sources embedded in the diffuse emission of the LBA galaxy Haro 11. CXOU J003652.4-333316 (abbreviated to Haro 11 X-1) is an extremely luminous (L{}{{X}}˜ {10}41 erg s-1), spatially compact source with a hard-X-ray spectrum. We suggest that the X-ray emission from Haro 11 X-1 is dominated by a single accretion source. This might be an active galactic nucleus or a source similar to the extreme black hole binary (BHB) M82 X-1. The hard X-ray spectrum indicates that Haro 11 X-1 may be a BHB in a low accretion state. In this case, the very high X-ray luminosity suggests an intermediate mass black hole that could be the seed for formation of a supermassive black hole. Source CXOU J003652.7-33331619.5 (abbreviated Haro 11 X-2) has an X-ray luminosity of {L}{{X}}˜ 5× {10}40 erg s-1 and a soft X-ray spectrum (power-law photon index Γ ˜ 2.2). This strongly suggests that Haro 11 X-2 is an X-ray binary in the ultra luminous state (i.e., an Ultra Luminous X-ray source, ULX). Haro 11 X-2 is coincident with the star-forming knot that is the source of the Lyα emission. The association of a ULX with Lyα emission raises the possibility that strong winds from X-ray binaries play an important role in injecting mechanical power into the interstellar medium, thus blowing away neutral material from the starburst region and allowing the Lyα to escape. We suggest that feedback from X-ray binaries may play a significant role in allowing Lyα emission to escape from galaxies in the

  3. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays. II. Faint Sources Detected with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunez, N. E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I.; Mukai, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection from four symbiotic stars that were not known to be X-ray sources. These four object show a ß-type X-ray spectrum, that is, their spectra can be modeled with an absorbed optically thin thermal emission with temperatures of a few million degrees. Photometric series obtained with the Optical Monitor on board XMM-Newton from V2416 Sgr and NSV 25735 support the proposed scenario where the X-ray emission is produced in a shock-heated region inside the symbiotic nebulae.

  4. Numerical simulation for all-optical Thomson scattering X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Fang; Zhu, Bin; Han, Dan; Xin, Jian-Ting; Zhao, Zong-Qing; Cao, Lei-Feng; Gu, Yu-Qiu; Zhang, Bao-Han

    2014-03-01

    Energy spectra, angular distributions, and temporal profiles of the photons produced by an all-optical Thomson scattering X-ray source are explored through numerical simulations based on the parameters of the SILEX-I laser system (800 nm, 30 fs, 300 TW) and the previous wakefield acceleration experimental results. The simulation results show that X-ray pulses with a duration of 30 fs and an emission angle of 50 mrad can be produced from such a source. Using the optimized electron parameters, X-ray pulses with better directivity and narrower energy spectra can be obtained. Besides the electron parameters, the laser parameters such as the wavelength, pulse duration, and spot size also affect the X-ray yield, the angular distribution, and the maximum photon energy, except the X-ray pulse duration which is slightly changed for the case of ultrafast laser—electron interaction.

  5. X-ray and radio core emission in radio quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kembhavi, A.; Feigelson, E. D.; Singh, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate the physical relationship between X-ray and radio core emission in radio-selected quasars, 35 radio quasars have been observed with the VLA at 6 and 20 cm. The sample was chosen from a list of radio quasars with known X-ray luminosity but poorly known radio properties. Including data gathered from the literature, radio core detections or upper limits at 6 cm have been obtained for 127 radio quasars which have published Einstein X-ray data. A statistical association is sought between radio core luminosity and X-ray luminosity, and it is found that there is a strong correlation. The slope of the relation of L(x) to L(Gamma)-alpha is alpha = 0.71 + or - 0.07 for unresolved quasars with flat radio spectra. The slope decreases as quasars with extended radio regions are considered. This is traced to the presence of radio emission which is unrelated to the X-ray emission, in the presently unresolved cores of quasars.

  6. L X-ray emission induced by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajek, M.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Semaniak, J.; Fijał-Kirejczyk, I.; Jaskóła, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Korman, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Mukoyama, T.; Trautmann, D.

    2015-11-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is usually applied using typically 1 MeV to 3 MeV protons or helium ions, for which the ion-atom interaction is dominated by the single ionization process. For heavier ions the multiple ionization plays an increasingly important role and this process can influence substantially both the X-ray spectra and atomic decay rates. Additionally, the subshell coupling effects are important for the L- and M-shells ionized by heavy ions. Here we discuss the main features of the X-ray emission induced by heavy ions which are important for PIXE applications, namely, the effects of X-ray line shifts and broadening, vacancy rearrangement and change of the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields in multiple ionized atoms. These effects are illustrated here by the results of the measurements of L X-ray emission from heavy atoms bombarded by 6 MeV to 36 MeV Si ions, which were reported earlier. The strong L-subshell coupling effects are observed, in particular L2-subshell, which can be accounted for within the coupling subshell model (CSM) developed within the semiclassical approximation. Finally, the prospects to use heavy ions in PIXE analysis are discussed.

  7. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission Around Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Miyoshi, Y.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to 6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of 3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts and the bright spot seemed to move according to the Io's motion. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. We hence examined three mechanisms: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon related to Io.

  8. Diffuse X-ray emission from the Dumbbell Nebula?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, You-Hua; Kwitter, Karen B.; Kaler, James B.

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter pointed observations of the Dumbbell Nebula and find that the previously reported 'extended' X-ray emission is an instrumental electronic ghost image at the softest energy band. At slightly higher energy bands, the image of the Dumbbell is not very different from that of the white dwarf HZ43. We conclude that the X-ray emission of the Dumbbell Nebula comes from its central star. A blackbody model is fitted to the spectrum and the best-fit temperature of not greater than 136,000 +/- 10,000 K is in excellent agreement with the Zanstra temperatures.

  9. Miniaturized, High-Speed, Modulated X-Ray Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Kenyon, Steve; Spartana, Nick

    2013-01-01

    A low-cost, miniature x-ray source has been developed that can be modulated in intensity from completely off to full intensity on nanosecond timescales. This modulated x-ray source (MXS) has no filaments and is extremely rugged. The energy level of the MXS is adjustable from 0 to more than 100 keV. It can be used as the core of many new devices, providing the first practical, arbitrarily time-variable source of x-rays. The high-speed switching capability and miniature size make possible many new technologies including x-ray-based communication, compact time-resolved x-ray diffraction, novel x-ray fluorescence instruments, and low- and precise-dose medical x-rays. To make x-rays, the usual method is to accelerate electrons into a target material held at a high potential. When the electrons stop in the target, x-rays are produced with a spectrum that is a function of the target material and the energy to which the electrons are accelerated. Most commonly, the electrons come from a hot filament. In the MXS, the electrons start off as optically driven photoelectrons. The modulation of the x-rays is then tied to the modulation of the light that drives the photoelectron source. Much of the recent development has consisted of creating a photoelectrically-driven electron source that is robust, low in cost, and offers high intensity. For robustness, metal photocathodes were adopted, including aluminum and magnesium. Ultraviolet light from 255- to 350-nm LEDs (light emitting diodes) stimulated the photoemissions from these photocathodes with an efficiency that is maximized at the low-wavelength end (255 nm) to a value of roughly 10(exp -4). The MXS units now have much higher brightness, are much smaller, and are made using a number of commercially available components, making them extremely inexpensive. In the latest MXS design, UV efficiency is addressed by using a high-gain electron multiplier. The photocathode is vapor-deposited onto the input cone of a Burle Magnum

  10. Detecting X-ray Emission from Cometary Atmospheres Using the Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Bodewits, D; Porter, F S; Ezoe, Y; Hamaguchi, K; Hanya, M; Itoh, M; Kilbourne, C A; Kohmura, T; Maeda, Y; Negoro, H; Tsuboi, Y; Tsunemi, H; Urata, Y

    2009-11-16

    The Suzaku X-ray imaging spectrometer has been used to observe the X-ray emission from comets 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C and 8P/Tuttle. Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C was observed during May and June of 2006, while it was near perihelion and passed within 0.1 AU of the Earth. Comet 8P/Tuttle was observed during January of 2008 when it was at its closest approach to the Earth at 0.25 AU, and again near perihelion at a distance of 0.5 Au from Earth. In the case of comet 73P/Schwassmann Wachmann 3C, the XIS spectra show line emission from highly charged oxygen and carbon ions as well as emission from what is most likely L-shell transitions from Mg, Si, and S ions. This line emission is caused by charge exchange recombination between solar wind ions and cometary neutrals, and can be used as a diagnostic of the solar wind. Here we present some of the results of the observation of the comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C.

  11. Bright X-Ray Sources in M31 Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Kong, A. K. H.; Garcia, M. R.; Barmby, P.; Greiner, J.; Murray, S. S.; Primini, F. A.

    2002-05-01

    We have conducted Chandra observations of ~2560 arcmin2 (~131 kpc2) of M31 and find that the most luminous X-ray sources in most of our fields are in globular clusters. Of the 28 globular cluster X-ray sources in our fields, 15 are newly discovered. Approximately one-third of all the sources have LX([0.5-7] keV)>1037 ergs s-1, and approximately one-tenth of all the sources have LX([0.5-7] keV) close to or above 1038 ergs s-1. The most luminous source, in the globular cluster Bo 375, is consistently observed to have LX greater than 2×1038 ergs s-1. (1) We present data on the spectra and/or light curves of the five most luminous M31 globular cluster sources. (2) We explore possible explanations for the high X-ray luminosities of the brightest sources. These include that the X-ray sources may be composites, the radiation we receive may be beamed, metallicity effects could be at work, or the sources may be accreting black holes. We weigh each of these possibilities against the data. In addition, we introduce a neutron star model in which mass transfer proceeds on the thermal timescale of the donor star. Our model can produce luminosities of several times 1038 ergs s-1 and leads to a set of well-defined predictions. (3) We compute the X-ray luminosity function and the distribution of counts in wavebands that span the range of energies to which Chandra is sensitive. We find the peak X-ray luminosity is higher and that systems with LX>1037 ergs s-1 constitute a larger fraction of all GC sources than in our Galaxy. (4) We study the possible reasons for this difference between M31 and Galactic globular cluster X-ray sources and identify three promising explanations.

  12. K alpha line emission during solar X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Neupert, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The expected flux of K alpha line emission from sulfur, argon, calcium, and iron is calculated during both thermal and nonthermal solar X-ray events. Such emission is shown to be weak during the course of most of the nonthermal hard X-ray bursts that Kane and Anderson (1970) have observed. If Compton backscattering is significant at high energies, the flux is reduced still further for disk flares, but it is noted that the strong, near-limb burst of June 26 would have produced about 100 photons /sq cm/sec of sulfur and iron K alpha emission. The impulsive hard X-ray bursts may in general be too short-lived for much K alpha emission. It may be noted that sulfur K alpha emission in particular depends sensitively on the lower-energy limit of the nonthermal electron spectrum, assuming such a sharply defined boundary exists. During soft X-ray bursts, when temperatures of a few 10 to the 7th power K are obtained, K alpha emission from certain iron ions, specifically Fe XVIII-XXIII, may be important.

  13. Chandra Detection of X-Ray Emission from Ultracompact Dwarf Galaxies and Extended Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Meicun; Li, Zhiyuan

    2016-03-01

    We have conducted a systematic study of X-ray emission from ultracompact dwarf (UCD) galaxies and extended star clusters (ESCs), based on archival Chandra observations. Among a sample of 511 UCDs and ESCs complied from the literature, 17 X-ray counterparts with 0.5-8 keV luminosities above ˜5 × 1036 erg s-1 are identified, which are distributed in eight early-type host galaxies. To facilitate comparison, we also identify X-ray counterparts of 360 globular clusters (GCs) distributed in four of the eight galaxies. The X-ray properties of the UCDs and ESCs are found to be broadly similar to those of the GCs. The incidence rate of X-ray-detected UCDs and ESCs, 3.3% ± 0.8%, while lower than that of the X-ray-detected GCs (7.0% ± 0.4%), is substantially higher than expected from the field populations of external galaxies. A stacking analysis of the individually undetected UCDs/ESCs further reveals significant X-ray signals, which corresponds to an equivalent 0.5-8 keV luminosity of ˜4 × 1035 erg s-1 per source. Taken together, these provide strong evidence that the X-ray emission from UCDs and ESCs is dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries having formed from stellar dynamical interactions, consistent with the stellar populations in these dense systems being predominantly old. For the most massive UCDs, there remains the possibility that a putative central massive black hole gives rise to the observed X-ray emission.

  14. Generation Mechanisms UV and X-ray Emissions During SL9 Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to study the ultraviolet and X-ray emissions associated with the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The University of Michigan task was primarily focused on theoretical calculations. The NAGW-4788 subtask was to be largely devoted to determining the constraints placed by the X-ray observations on the physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of the X-rays. Author summarized below the ROSAT observations and suggest a physical mechanism that can plausibly account for the observed emissions. It is hoped that the full set of activities can be completed at a later date. Further analysis of the ROSAT data acquired at the time of the impact was necessary to define the observational constraints on the magnetospheric-ionospheric processes involved in the excitation of the X-ray emissions associated with the fragment impacts. This analysis centered around improvements in the pointing accuracy and improvements in the timing information. Additional pointing information was made possible by the identification of the optical counterparts to the X-ray sources in the ROSAT field-of-view. Due to the large number of worldwide observers of the impacts, a serendipitous visible plate image from an observer in Venezuela provided a very accurate location of the present position of the X-ray source, virtually eliminating pointing errors in the data. Once refined, the pointing indicated that the two observed X-ray brightenings that were highly correlated in time with the K and P2 events were brightenings of the X-ray aurora (as identified in images prior to the impact).Appendix A "ROSAT observations of X-ray emissions from Jupiter during the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9' also included.

  15. Waiting in the Wings: Reflected X-ray Emission from the Homunculus Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Gull, T.; Davidson, K.; Petre, R.; Hillier, D. J.; Smith, N.; Damineli, A.; Morse, J. A.; Walborn, N. R.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first detection of X-ray emission associated with the Homunculus Nebula which surrounds the supermassive star eta Carinae. The emission is characterized by a temperature in excess of 100 MK, and is consistent with scattering of the time-delayed X-ray flux associated with the star. The nebular emission is bright in the northwestern lobe and near the central regions of the Homunculus, and fainter in the southeastern lobe. We also report the detection of an unusually broad Fe K fluorescent line, which may indicate fluorescent scattering off the wind of a companion star or some other high velocity outflow. The X-ray Homunculus is the nearest member of the small class of Galactic X-ray reflection nebulae, and the only one in which both the emitting and reflecting sources are distinguishable.

  16. BROADBAND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Yuasa, Takayuki; Makishima, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro

    2012-07-10

    Detailed spectral analysis of the Galactic X-ray background emission, or the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE), is presented. To study the origin of the emission, broadband and high-quality GRXE spectra were produced from 18 pointing observations with Suzaku in the Galactic bulge region, with a total exposure of 1 Ms. The spectra were successfully fitted by a sum of two major spectral components: a spectral model of magnetic accreting white dwarfs with a mass of 0.66{sup +0.09}{sub -0.07} M{sub Sun} and a softer optically thin thermal emission with a plasma temperature of 1.2-1.5 keV that is attributable to coronal X-ray sources. When combined with previous studies that employed high spatial resolution of the Chandra satellite, the present spectroscopic result gives stronger support to the scenario that the GRXE is essentially an assembly of numerous discrete faint X-ray stars. The detected GRXE flux in the hard X-ray band was used to estimate the number density of the unresolved hard X-ray sources. When integrated over a luminosity range of {approx}10{sup 30}-10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}, the result is consistent with a value that was reported previously by directly resolving faint point sources.

  17. Classifying the Zoo of Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Cropper, Mark; Motch, Christian

    2005-06-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are likely to include different physical types of objects. We discuss some possible subclasses, reviewing the properties of a sample of ULXs recently observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton. Sources with an isotropic X-ray luminosity up to a few times 1039 erg s-1 are consistent with ``normal'' stellar-mass X-ray binaries (mostly high-mass X-ray binaries in star-forming regions). Higher black hole (BH) masses (≈ 50-100 M⊙) may be the end product of massive stellar evolution in peculiar environments: they may explain ULXs with luminosities ≈ 1-2 × 1040 erg s-1. Only a handful of ULXs require a true intermediate-mass BH (M ⪆ 500 M⊙). Finally, a small subclass of ULXs shows flaring or rapid variability in its power-law spectral component.

  18. Chilled disks in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Kuncic, Zdenka; Gonçalves, Anabela C.

    2007-04-01

    The "soft-excess" component fitted to the X-ray spectra of many ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) remains a controversial finding, which may reveal fundamental information either on the black hole (BH) mass or on the state of the accretion flow. In the simplest model, it was explained as thermal emission from a cool accretion disk around an intermediate-mass BH (about 1000 solar masses). We argue that this scenario is highly implausible, and discuss and compare the two most likely alternatives. 1) The soft-excess does come from a cool disk; however, the temperature is low not because of a high BH mass but because most of the accretion power is drained from the inner disk via magnetic torques, and channelled into jets and outflows ("chilled disk" scenario). Using a phenomenological model, we infer that ULXs contain BHs of about 50 solar masses accreting gas at about 10 times their Eddington rate. 2) The soft excess is in fact a soft deficit, if the power-law continuum is properly fitted. Such broad absorption features are caused by smeared absorption lines in fast, highly ionized outflows. This scenario has already been successfully applied to the soft excess in AGN. If so, this spectral feature reveals details of disk outflows,but is unrelated to the BH mass.

  19. No Compton Reflection In a Chandra/RXTE Observation of Mkn 509: Implications for the Fe-K Line Emission From Accreting X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; Padmanabhan, Urmila; Kraemer, Steven B.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Mckernan, Barry; George, Ian M.; Turner, T. Jane; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of simultaneous Chandra and RXTE observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mkn 509. We deconvolve the broad and narrow Fe-K emission-line components for which we measure rest-frame equivalent widths of 119+/-18 eV and 57+/-13 eV respectively. The broad line has a FWHM of 57,600((sup 14,400)(sub -21,000)) km/s and the narrow line is unresolved, with an upper limit on the FWHM of 4,940 km/s. Both components must originate in cool matter since we measure rest-frame center energies of 6.36((sup +0.13)(sub -0.12)) keV and 6.42+/-0.01 keV for the broad and narrow line respectively. This rules out He-like and H-like Fe for the origin of both the broad and narrow lines. If, as is widely accepted, the broad Fe-K line originates in Thomson-thick matter (such as an accretion disk), then one expects to observe spectral curvature above approximately 10 keV, (commensurate with the observed broad line), characteristic of the Compton-reflection continuum. However our data sets very stringent limits on deviations of the observed continuum from a power law. Light travel-time delays cannot be invoked to explain anomalies in the relative strengths of the broad Ferry line and Compton-reflection continuum since they are supposed to originate in the same physical location. We are forced to conclude that both the broad and narrow Fe-K lines had to originate in Thomson-thin matter during our observation. This result, for a single observation of just one source, means that our understanding of Fe K line emission and Compton reflection from accreting X-ray sources in general needs to be re-examined. For example, if an irradiated accretion disk existed in Mkn 509 at the time of the observations, the lack of spectral curvature above approximately 10 keV suggests two possibilities. Either the disk was Thomson-thick and highly ionized, having negligible Fe-K line emission and photoelectric absorption or the disk was Thomson-thin producing some or all of the broad Fe-K line

  20. Stellar X-ray Emission From Magnetically Funneled Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Hans

    Stars and planets form in giant molecular clouds, so they are deeply embedded in their early stages. When they become optically visible, the young stars are still surrounded by a proto-planetary disk, where planets evolve. These stars are called classical T Tauri stars (CTTS). A key, yet poorly constrained, parameter for the disk evolution is the stellar high-energy emission. It can ionize the outer layers of the disk, change its chemistry and even drive photoevaporation of the disk. Thus the spectral shape and the temporal variability of the stellar X-ray and UV emission shapes the gas and dust properties in some regions of the disk. It sets the photoevaporation timescale which provides an upper limit for planet formation. CTTS still actively accrete mass from their disk. The infalling matter is funneled by the stellar magnetic field and impacts on the star close to free fall velocity. A hot accretion shock develops, which emits X-rays which are distinct from any coronal X-rays. Eventually the disk disperses and bulk planet formation comes to an end. X-ray emitting shocks can still occur at a later stage in stellar evolution, if e.g. the magnetic field is strong enough to funnel the stellar wind to collide in the disk midplane. This so-called magnetically confined wind shock model was originally developed for the A0p star IQ Aur. The magnetically funneled accretion model has been successfully tested for CTTS in a small mass range only; the magnetically confined wind shock model lacks a comparison for high-resolution X-ray grating spectra for all but the most massive stars. In this proposal we request funding to analyze three XMM-Newton observations, which will probe X-ray emitting shocks in stars with magnetic fields: DN Tau (observed as category C target in cycle 8), a CTTS with much lower mass than previous CTTS with X- ray grating spectroscopy; MN Lup (to be observed in cycle 9), a prime candidate for simultaneous X-ray/Doppler-imaging studies; and IQ Aur (to

  1. Discovery of Oxygen Kalpha X-ray Emission from the Rings of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Gladstone, G Randall; Cravens, Thomas E.; Ford, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    Using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observed the Saturnian system for one rotation of the planet (approx.37 ks) on 20 January, 2004, and again on 26-27 January, 2004. In this letter we report the detection of X-ray emission from the rings of Saturn. The X-ray spectrum from the rings is dominated by emission in a narrow (approx.130 eV wide) energy band centered on the atomic oxygen Ka fluorescence line at 0.53 keV. The X-ray power emitted from the rings in the 0.49-0.62 keV band is about one-third of that emitted from Saturn disk in the photon energy range 0.24-2.0 keV. Our analysis also finds a clear detection of X-ray emission from the rings in the 0.49-0.62 keV band in an earlier (14-15 April, 2003) Chandra ACIS observation of Saturn. Fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays from oxygen atoms in the H20 icy ring material is the likely source mechanism for ring X-rays, consistent with the scenario of solar photo-production of a tenuous ring oxygen atmosphere and ionosphere recently discovered by Cassini.

  2. X-Ray Emission from the Halo of M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); DiStefano, Rosanne

    2004-01-01

    Our goal was to use short (10 ksec) observations of selected fields in the halo of M31, to determine the size and characteristics of its X-ray population and to study the connection between globular clusters and X-ray sources. The program of observations has yet to be successfully completed. We received acceptable data from just 2 of the 5 approved fields. Nevertheless, the results were intriguing and we have submitted a paper based on this data to Nature. We find that the X-ray source density is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of one GC, providing the first observational evidence supporting the ejection hypothesis. We also find additional X-ray sources, including some which are very soft, in large enough numbers to suggest that not all could have been formed in GCs. That is, some must be descended from the same primordial halo population that produced any compact stars comprising part of the halo's dark matter. Extrapolating fiom the X-ray source population, we estimate that stellar remnants and dim old stars in the halo could comprise as much as 25% of the estimated mass (approx. 10(exp 12) Solar Mass) of the halo. These results suggest that the other approved fields should be observed soon and also provide strong motivation for the future XMM-Newton programs.

  3. X-ray QPOs from the Ultra-luminous X-ray Source in M82: Evidence Against Beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery with the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) CCD cameras onboard XMM-Newton of a 54 mHz quasiperiodic oscillation (QPO) in the greater than 2 keV X-ray flux from the ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) X41.4+60 in the starburst galaxy M82. This is the first detection of a QPO in the X-ray flux from an extra-Galactic ULX, and confirms that the source is a compact object. The QPO is detected in the combined PN and MOS data at the approx. 6sigma level, and separately at lower significances in both the PN and MOS instruments. It had a centroid frequency of 54.3 +/- 0.9 mHz, a coherence Q is identical with nu(sub 0)/Delta nu(sub fwhm) is approx. 5, and an amplitude (rms) in the 2 - 10 keV band of 8.5%. Below about 0.2 Hz the power spectrum can be described by a power-law with index approx. 1, and integrated amplitude (rms) of 13.5%. The X-ray spectrum requires a curving continuum, with a disk-blackbody (diskbb) at T = 3.1 keV providing an acceptable, but not unique, fit. A broad Fe line centered at 6.55 keV is required in all fits, but the equivalent width (EW) of the line is sensitive to the choice of continuum model. There is no evidence of a reflection component. The implied bolometric luminosity is approx. 4 - 5 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s. Data from several archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) pointings at M82 also show evidence for QPOs in the 50 - 100 mHz frequency range. Several Galactic black hole candidates (BHCs), including GRS 1915+105, GRO J1655-40, and XTE 1550-564, show QPOs in the same frequency range as the 50 - 100 mHz QPOs in X41.4+60, which at first glance suggests a possible connection with such objects. However, strong, narrow QPOs provide solid evidence for disk emission, and thus present enormous theoretical difficulties for models which rely on either geometrically or relativistically beamed emission to account for the high X-ray luminosities. We discuss the implications of our findings for models of the ULX sources.

  4. Linear accelerator x-ray sources with high duty cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Condron, Cathie; Brown, Craig; Gozani, Tsahi; Langeveld, Willem G. J.; Hernandez, Michael

    2013-04-19

    X-ray cargo inspection systems typically use a several-MV pulsed linear accelerator (linac) to produce a bremsstrahlung spectrum of x rays by bombarding a target with electrons. The x rays traverse the cargo and are detected by a detector array. Spectroscopy of the detected x rays is very desirable: if one can determine the spectrum of the transmitted x rays, one can determine the Z of the material they traversed. Even in relatively low-dose modes of operation, thousands of x rays arrive at each detector element during each pulse, unless the x rays are heavily absorbed or scattered by the cargo. For portal or fixed-site systems, dose rates, and therefore x-ray count rates, are even higher. Because of the high x-ray count rate, spectroscopy is impractical in conventional cargo inspection systems, except in certain special cases. For a mobile system, typical pulse durations are a few microseconds, and the number of pulses is on the order of 100 per second, leading to a duty factor of about 0.04%. Clearly, a linear accelerator x-ray source with much higher duty factor would be useful, since then the same number of x rays could be spread out over time, reducing the x-ray count rate. In this paper, we explore the possibility of designing a linear accelerator system, using more or less Conventional Off the Shelf (COTS) components, capable of duty cycles of 1% or greater. A survey was conducted of available linac RF source options and, given the possibilities, calculations were performed for suitable beam centerline designs. Keeping in mind that the size and cost of the accelerator system should be practical for use in a mobile cargo inspection system, only a few options are shown to be reasonably feasible, both requiring the use of klystrons instead of the magnetrons used in conventional systems. An S-Band design appears clearly possible, and there is also a promising X-Band design.

  5. Diffuse X-Ray Emission in the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the diffuse X-ray emission from the Milky Way has evolved. extensively with time from when it was first observed in the 1960's, and its origin is still the subject of debate as much now as ever. This presentation will provide an overview of that evolution, the various emission components, emission mechanisms, an assessment of the current state of the field, and implications for eROSITA.

  6. Ionization nebulae surrounding supersoft X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Chiang, E.; Kallman, T.; Malina, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we carry out a theoretical investigation of a new type of astrophysical gaseous nebula, viz., ionized regions surrounding supersoft X-ray sources. Supersoft X-ray sources, many of which have characteristic luminosities of approximately 10(exp 37)-(10(exp 38) ergs/s and effective temperatures of approximately 4 x 10(exp 5) K, were first discovered with the Einstein Observatory. These sources have now been shown to constitute a distinct class of X-ray source and are being found in substantial numbers with ROSAT. We predict that these sources should be surrounded by regions of ionized hydrogen and helium with properties that are distinct from other astrophysical gaseous nebulae. We present caluations of the ionization and temperature structure of these ionization nebulae, as well as the expected optical line fluxes. The ionization profiles for both hydrogen and helium exhibit substantially more gradual transitions from the ionized to the unionized state than is the case for conventional H II regions. The calculated optical line intensitites are presented as absolute fluxes from sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud and as fractions of the central source luminosity. We find, in particular, that (O III) lambda 5008 and He II lambda 4686 are especially prominent in these ionization nebulae as compared to other astrophysical nebulae. We propose that searches for supersoft X-rays via their characteristic optical lines may reveal sources in regions where the soft X-rays are nearly completely absorbed by the interstellar medium.

  7. Temperature and emission measure from GOES soft X-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Howard A.

    1994-10-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of the procedure used for computing color temperature and emission measure from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) X-ray data, including a table of constants for Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) and GOES X-ray sensors that are necessary for reducing the archived data from these satellites. Temperature and theoretical current tables were constructed, for individual GOES sensors, from laboratory calibrations of instrument responses and from synthetic solar X-ray spectra generated by two models of solar thermal X-ray emission: Raymond-Smith and Mewe-Alkemade. Example tables are shown and others are available on request. Errors that may be incurred from the use of GOES X-ray data in the computation of flare temperatures and emission measures may be classified under four major groups: instrument induced errors, including errors of calibration and random measurements errors; environmentally induced errors, due primarily to the ambient energetic electron background; solar influences, including the consequences of the isothermal assumption and the single-source assumption; and uncertainties in the modelled solar synthetic spectrum. These error sources are discussed separately, and a rough estimation of the collective error is made where this is quantitatively feasible. Finally, temperatures and emission measures are computed from GOES data and are compared with those derived from Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Hinotori soft X-ray spectrometer data and from broadband photometric data from the PROGNOZ satellite.

  8. X-ray Spectral Measurements of the JMAR High-Power Laser-plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, Robert R.; Dozier, Charles M.; Newman, Daniel A.; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Gaeta, Celestino J.; Cassidy, Kelly L.; Powers, Michael F.; Kleindolph, Thomas; Morris, James H.; Forber, Richard A.

    2002-10-01

    X-ray spectra of Cu plasmas at the focus of a four-beam, solid-state diode-pumped laser have been recorded. This laser-plasma X-ray source is being developed for JMAR's lithography systems aimed at high- performance semiconductor integrated circuits. The unique simultaneous overlay of the four sub-nanosecond laser beams at 300 Hertz produces a bright, point-plasma X-ray source. PIN diode measurements of the X-ray output indicate that the conversion efficiency (ratio of X-ray emission energy into 2π steradians to incident laser energy) was approximately 9 percent with average X-ray power yields of greater than 10 Watts. Spectra were recorded on calibrated Kodak DEF film in a curved-crystal spectrograph. A KAP crystal (2d = 26.6 Angstroms) was used to disperse the 900 eV to 3000 eV spectral energies onto the film. Preliminary examination of the films indicated the existence of Cu and Cu XX ionization states. Additional spectra as a function of laser input power were also recorded to investigate potential changes in X-ray yields. These films are currently being analyzed. The analysis of the spectra provide absolute line and continuum intensities, and total X-ray output in the measured spectral range.

  9. Refractive lenses for coherent x-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Pantell, R H; Feinstein, J; Beguiristain, H R; Piestrup, M A; Gary, C K; Cremer, J T

    2001-10-01

    Incoherent x rays in the wavelength interval from approximately 0.5-2 A have been focused with refractive lenses. A single lens would have a long focal length because the refractive index of any material is close to unity; but with a stack of N lens elements the focal length is reduced by the factor N, and such a lens is termed a compound refractive lens (CRL). Misalignment of the parabolic lens elements does not alter the focusing properties and results in only a small reduction in transmission. Based on the principle of spontaneous emission amplification in a FEL wiggler, coherent x-ray sources are being developed with wavelengths of 1-1.5 A and source diameters of 50-80 mum; and the CRL can be used to provide a small, intense image. Chromatic aberration increases the image size by an amount comparable with the diffraction-limited size, and so chromatic correction is important. Pulse broadening through the lens that is due to material dispersion is negligible. The performance of a CRL used in conjunction with a coherent source is analyzed by means of the Kirchhoff integral. For typical parameters, intensity gain is 10(5)-10(6), where gain is defined as the intensity ratio in an image plane with and without the lens in place. (There may be some confusion concerning the usage of the word intensity. As employed in this manuscript, intensity, also called irradiance, refers to power per unit area. This is a commonly accepted usage for intensity, although there are places in the literature where the term radiant incidence is reserved for this definition and intensity refers to power per unit solid angle.) The image intensity is maximized when the CRL is placed 100-200 m from the source, and the diameter of the diffraction-limited spot is approximately 0.12 mum. PMID:18364790

  10. X-RAY EMISSION ANALYSIS: SAMPLE LOSSES DURING EXCITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many samples of atmospheric aerosols and biological materials containing volatile or unstable species are now being examined by X-ray emission analysis, and loss of these species by sample heating is a critical consideration. The amount of heat energy deposited in a sample by the...

  11. Diffuse X-ray emission from the superbubble N70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Iturbide, J.; Rosado, M.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Ambrocio-Cruz, P.

    2011-10-01

    We present a study of the diffuse X-ray emission from the superbubbles N70. Using observations from the XMM-Newton satellite we obtained images and spectra over the energy range 0.2 to 10 keV of this superbubble.

  12. Large Scale Diffuse X-ray Emission from Abell 3571

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Sandor M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the Luman alpha forest suggest that there are many more baryons at high redshift than we can find in the Universe nearby. The largest known concentration of baryons in the nearby Universe is the Shapley supercluster. We scanned the Shapley supercluster to search for large scale diffuse emission with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), and found some evidence for such emission. Large scale diffuse emission may be associated to the supercluster, or the clusters of galaxies within the supercluster. In this paper we present results of scans near Abell 3571. We found that the sum of a cooling flow and an isothermal beta model adequately describes the X-ray emission from the cluster. Our results suggest that diffuse emission from A3571 extends out to about two virial radii. We briefly discuss the importance of the determination of the cut off radius of the beta model.

  13. A Study of the X-Ray Emission from Three Radio Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick O. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The subject grant is for work on a study of x-ray emission from isolated pulsars. The purpose of the study was to: determine whether the pulsars were x-ray sources; and, if so, search for evidence of pulsations at the known radio period; and study the nature of the x-ray emission. Observation of the pulsar PSR 0355+54 were obtained, and the analysis of these data is complete. These results were reported at the 183rd AAS Meeting, and in a paper entitled 'X-Ray Emission from PSR 0355+54' which as published in the The Astrophysical Journal. Also obtained an approx. 3 ks PSPC observations of PSR 1642-03. A summary of the results from these data were reported in a Conference Proceedings for the 'New Horizon of X-ray Astronomy' symposium. In addition, as part of a study with a student from the SAO Summer Intern Program, I incorporated ROSAT archival data in an extended study of pulsar emission. These results were reported at the 185th AAS Meeting, and in a paper entitled 'Soft X-ray Emission from Selected Isolated Pulsars' which was published in The Astrophysical Journal (Letters).

  14. Results from the Daresbury Compton backscattering X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundy, D.; Priebe, G.; Jamison, S. P.; Graham, D. M.; Phillips, P. J.; Smith, S. L.; Saveliev, Y.; Vassilev, S.; Seddon, E. A.

    2012-10-01

    The Daresbury Compton Backscattering X-ray Source uses a high power Ti Sapphire laser interacting in head on geometry with electron bunches in the ALICE energy recovery linear accelerator. X-ray photons with peak energy of 21 keV were generated with the accelerator operating at an energy of 29.6 MeV. The spatial profile of the X-rays emitted near the electron beam axis was measured. The characteristics of the X-ray yield measured as a function of relative timing between the laser pulse and the interacting electron bunch was found to be consistent with the modelled intensity behaviour using measured electron and laser beam parameters.

  15. TYPING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS USING X-RAY LINE EMISSION MORPHOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, L. A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Badenes, C.; Huppenkothen, D.; Jeltema, T. E.

    2009-11-20

    We present a new observational method to type the explosions of young supernova remnants (SNRs). By measuring the morphology of the Chandra X-ray line emission in 17 Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs with a multipole expansion analysis (using power ratios), we find that the core-collapse SNRs are statistically more asymmetric than the Type Ia SNRs. We show that the two classes of supernovae can be separated naturally using this technique because X-ray line morphologies reflect the distinct explosion mechanisms and structure of the circumstellar material. These findings are consistent with recent spectropolarimetry results showing that core-collapse supernovae explosions are intrinsically more asymmetric.

  16. Monitoring variable X-ray sources in nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-12-01

    In the last decade, it has been possible to monitor variable X-ray sources in nearby galaxies. In particular, since the launch of Chandra, M31 has been regularly observed. It is perhaps the only nearby galaxy which is observed by an X-ray telescope regularly throughout operation. With 10 years of observations, the center of M31 has been observed with Chandra for nearly 1 Msec and the X-ray skies of M31 consist of many transients and variables. Furthermore, the X-ray Telescope of Swift has been monitoring several ultraluminous X-ray sources in nearby galaxies regularly. Not only can we detect long-term X-ray variability, we can also find spectral variation as well as possible orbital period. In this talk, I will review some of the important Chandra and Swift monitoring observations of nearby galaxies in the past 10 years. I will also present a "high-definition" movie of M31 and discuss the possibility of detecting luminous transients in M31 with MAXI.

  17. X-ray continuum and iron K emission line from the radio galaxy 3C 390.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inda, M.; Makishima, K.; Kohmura, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Ohashi, T.; Barr, P.; Hayashida, K.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Trinchieri, G.; Elvis, M.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray properties of the radio galaxy 3C 390.3 were investigated using the European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) and Ginga satellites. Long-term, large-amplitude X-ray intensity changes were detected over a period extending from 1984 through 1991, and high-quality X-ray spectra were obtained especially with Ginga. The X-ray continuum spectra were described with power-law model with photon slope in the range 1.5-1.8, and the slope flattened as the 2-20 keV luminosity decreased by 40%. There was a first detection of the iron emission line from this source at the 90% confidence level. An upper limit was derived on the thermal X-ray component. X-ray emission mechanisms and possible origins of the long-term variation are discussed.

  18. The X-ray spectral evolution and radio-X-ray correlation in radiatively efficient black-hole sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ai-Jun; Wu, Qingwen; Cao, Xiao-Feng

    2016-02-01

    We explore X-ray spectral evolution and radio-X-ray correlation simultaneously for four X-ray binaries (XRBs). We find that hard X-ray photon indices, Γ, are anti- and positively correlated to X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F 3-9keV, is below and above a critical flux, F X,crit, which may be regulated by ADAF and disk-corona respectively. We find that the data points with anti-correlation of Γ-F 3-9keV follow the universal radio-X-ray correlation of F R ~ F X b (b ~ 0.5-0.7), while the data points with positive X-ray spectral evolution follow a steeper radio-X-ray correlation (b ~ 1.4, the so-called `outliers track'). The bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) share similar X-ray spectral evolution and radio-X-ray correlation as XRBs in `outliers' track, and we present a new fundamental plane of log L R=1.59+0.28 -0.22 log L X-0.22+0.19 -0.20 log M BH-28.97+0.45 -0.45 for these radiatively efficient BH sources.

  19. Enhanced hard x-ray emission from microdroplet preplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.; Kahaly, S.; Ravindra Kumar, G.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Sandhu, A.S.; Gibbon, P.

    2006-05-01

    We perform a comparative study of hard x-ray emission from femtosecond laser plasmas in 15 {mu}m methanol microdroplets and Perspex target. The hard x-ray yield from droplet plasmas is {approx_equal}68 times more than that obtained from solid plasmas at 2x10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. A 10 ns prepulse at about 5% of the main pulse appears to be essential for hard x-ray generation from droplets. Hot electron temperature of 36 keV is measured from the droplets at 8x10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}, whereas a three times higher intensity is needed to obtain similar hot electron temperatures from Perspex plasmas. Particle-in-cell simulations with very long scale-length density profiles support experimental observations.

  20. X ray and gamma ray emission from classical nova outbursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truran, James W.; Starrfield, Sumner; Sparks, Warren M.

    1992-01-01

    The outbursts of classical novae are now recognized to be consequences of thermonuclear runaways proceeding in accreted hydrogen-rich shells on white dwarfs in close binary systems. For the conditions that are known to exist in these environments, it is expected that soft x-rays can be emitted, and indeed x-rays were detected from a number of novae. The circumstances for which we expect novae to produce significant x-ray fluxes and provide estimates of the luminosities and effective temperatures are described. It is also known that at the high temperatures that are known to be achieved in this explosive hydrogen-burning environment, significant production of both Na-22 and Al-26 will occur. In this context, we identify the conditions for which gamma-ray emission may be expected to result from nova outbursts.

  1. Infrared Line Emission from Molecular Gas Heated by X-Rays and Energetic Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip R.

    1997-01-01

    "I propose to carry out a detailed study using infrared observations (and in some cases, optical and ultraviolet observations) of dense interstellar gas exposed to intense fluxes of X-rays and/or energetic electrons. This is undoubtedly the dominant source of line emission for clouds exposed to X-rays from active galactic nuclei, supernova shocks, or embedded X-ray sources (e.g., X-ray binaries), or to high-temperature or relativistic electrons in galaxy clusters, near powerful radio sources, or supernova remnants. Detailed physical and chemical models of such clouds will be used to analyze infrared observations of the Great Annihilator X-ray source in the Galactic Center, cD galaxies in massive cooling flows, and the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies which will be obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), UV and optical observations of the Crab Nebula obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, and ground-based near-infrared observations of Seyfert nuclei. Results from this work will also be of great relevance to observations obtained with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomical Satellite (SWAS). In the first year of funding of this proposal, my chief collaborators (D.J. Hollenbach and A.G.G.M. Tielens, both of NASA Ames Research Center) and I concentrated on completing our models of the physical conditions in, and the resulting line emission from, dense gas irradiated by X-rays. As noted in the original proposal, some important physical processes were not yet thoroughly incorporated into our models at the time of submission. We completed our modeling of the physical conditions and line emission for essentially the entire range of parameter space (five orders of magnitude in X-ray flux to gas density ratio) occupied by typical dense interstellar clouds in which the gas is mostly neutral and X-rays are important for the ionization, chemistry, and thermal balance.

  2. X-Ray Source Populations in Galaxies Giuseppina Fabbiano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1997-01-01

    The talk will review the present results on X-ray sources in external galaxies, with particular emphasis on black hole candidates and supersoft sources. These sources will be excellent AXAF targets and it is important that we summarize our knowledge and open issues in time for the AXAF NRA.

  3. Chandra Observations of Diffuse Gas and Luminous X-Ray Sources around the X-Ray-bright Elliptical Galaxy NGC 1600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.

    2004-12-01

    We observed the X-ray-bright E3 galaxy NGC 1600 and nearby members of the NGC 1600 group with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory ACIS-S3 to study their X-ray properties. Unresolved emission dominates the observation; however, we resolved some of the emission into 71 sources, most of which are low-mass X-ray binaries associated with NGC 1600. Twenty-one of the sources have LX>2×1039 ergs s-1 (0.3-10.0 keV; assuming they are at the distance of NGC 1600), marking them as ultraluminous X-ray point source (ULX) candidates; we expect that only 11+/-2 are unrelated foreground/background sources. NGC 1600 may have the largest number of ULX candidates in an early-type galaxy to date; however, cosmic variance in the number of background active galactic nuclei cannot be ruled out. The spectrum and luminosity function (LF) of the resolved sources are more consistent with sources found in other early-type galaxies than with sources found in star-forming regions of galaxies. The source LF and the spectrum of the unresolved emission both indicate that there are a large number of unresolved point sources. We propose that these sources are associated with globular clusters (GCs) and that NGC 1600 has a large GC specific frequency. Observations of the GC population in NGC 1600 would be very useful for testing this prediction. Approximately 50%-75% of the unresolved flux comes from diffuse gaseous emission. The spectral fits, hardness ratios, and X-ray surface brightness profile all point to two gas components. We interpret the soft inner component (a<~25'', kT~0.85 keV) as the interstellar medium of NGC 1600 and the hotter outer component (a>~25'', kT~1.5 keV) as the intragroup medium of the NGC 1600 group. The X-ray image shows several interesting structures. First, there is a central region of excess emission that is roughly cospatial with Hα and dust filaments immediately west of the center of NGC 1600. There appear to be holes in the X-ray emission to the north and south of the

  4. Laboratory Measurements of Solar-Wind/Comet X-Ray Emission and Charge Exchange Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Cadez, I.; Greenwood, J. B.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Smith, S. J.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    The detection of X-rays from comets such as Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp, d Arrest, and Linear as they approach the Sun has been unexpected and exciting. This phenomenon, moreover, should be quite general, occurring wherever a fast solar or stellar wind interacts with neutrals in a comet, a planetary atmosphere, or a circumstellar cloud. The process is, O(+8) + H2O --> O(+7*) + H2O(+), where the excited O(+7*) ions are the source of the X-ray emissions. Detailed modeling has been carried out of X-ray emissions in charge-transfer collisions of heavy solar-wind Highly Charged Ions (HCIs) and interstellar/interplanetary neutral clouds. In the interplanetary medium the solar wind ions, including protons, can charge exchange with interstellar H and He. This can give rise to a soft X-ray background that could be correlated with the long-term enhancements seen in the low-energy X-ray spectrum of ROSAT. Approximately 40% of the soft X-ray background detected by Exosat, ROSAT, Chandra, etc. is due to Charge Exchange (CXE): our whole heliosphere is glowing in the soft X-ray due to CXE.

  5. Clumped X-ray emission around radio galaxies in Abell clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Rhee, George; Owen, Frazer N.; Pinkney, Jason

    1994-01-01

    We have made a comparison of the X-ray and radio morphologies for a sample of 41 rich cluster fields using Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) and Very Large Array (VLA) 20 cm images. Surprisingly, we find that 75% of the radio galaxies have a statistically significant X-ray peak or subclump within 5 min of the radio galaxy position. The X-ray luminosity and the generally extended nature of the X-ray subclumps suggest that these subclumps are overdense regions emitting free-free radiation, although there is also evidence for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) X-ray emission coming from some of the more compact, high surface brightness X-ray peaks. Some interesting correlations with radio morphology were also discovered. For clusters which contain wide-angle-tailed radio sources associated with centrally dominant galaxies, there are significant elongations or clumps in the central X-ray emission which are unusual for this type of cluster. We suggest that cluster radio galaxies are pointers to particular clusters or regions within clusters that have recently undergone mergers between cluster subsystems.

  6. RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY POINT SOURCES NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jae Sub; Van den Berg, Maureen; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Laycock, Silas

    2009-11-20

    We present the log N-log S and spatial distributions of X-ray point sources in seven Galactic bulge (GB) fields within 4 deg. from the Galactic center (GC). We compare the properties of 1159 X-ray point sources discovered in our deep (100 ks) Chandra observations of three low extinction Window fields near the GC with the X-ray sources in the other GB fields centered around Sgr B2, Sgr C, the Arches Cluster, and Sgr A* using Chandra archival data. To reduce the systematic errors induced by the uncertain X-ray spectra of the sources coupled with field-and-distance-dependent extinction, we classify the X-ray sources using quantile analysis and estimate their fluxes accordingly. The result indicates that the GB X-ray population is highly concentrated at the center, more heavily than the stellar distribution models. It extends out to more than 1.{sup 0}4 from the GC, and the projected density follows an empirical radial relation inversely proportional to the offset from the GC. We also compare the total X-ray and infrared surface brightness using the Chandra and Spitzer observations of the regions. The radial distribution of the total infrared surface brightness from the 3.6 band mum images appears to resemble the radial distribution of the X-ray point sources better than that predicted by the stellar distribution models. Assuming a simple power-law model for the X-ray spectra, the closer to the GC the intrinsically harder the X-ray spectra appear, but adding an iron emission line at 6.7 keV in the model allows the spectra of the GB X-ray sources to be largely consistent across the region. This implies that the majority of these GB X-ray sources can be of the same or similar type. Their X-ray luminosity and spectral properties support the idea that the most likely candidate is magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), primarily intermediate polars (IPs). Their observed number density is also consistent with the majority being IPs, provided the relative CV to star density in

  7. X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Joseph

    2009-08-08

    How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences. Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons. This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning. This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes. During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields. These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air. Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away. As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited.

  8. X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Joseph

    2009-07-08

    How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences.  Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons.  This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning.  This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes.  During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields.  These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air.  Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away.  As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited. 

  9. X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning

    ScienceCinema

    Dwyer, Joseph [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, United States

    2010-01-08

    How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences.  Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons.  This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning.  This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes.  During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields.  These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air.  Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away.  As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited. 

  10. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Dennis; Padmore, Howard; Lessner, Eliane

    2013-03-27

    Each new generation of synchrotron radiation sources has delivered an increase in average brightness 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the previous generation. The next evolution toward diffraction-limited storage rings will deliver another 3 orders of magnitude increase. For ultrafast experiments, free electron lasers (FELs) deliver 10 orders of magnitude higher peak brightness than storage rings. Our ability to utilize these ultrabright sources, however, is limited by our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate these beams with X-ray optics. X-ray optics technology unfortunately lags behind source technology and limits our ability to maximally utilize even today’s X-ray sources. With ever more powerful X-ray sources on the horizon, a new generation of X-ray optics must be developed that will allow us to fully utilize these beams of unprecedented brightness. The increasing brightness of X-ray sources will enable a new generation of measurements that could have revolutionary impact across a broad area of science, if optical systems necessary for transporting and analyzing X-rays can be perfected. The high coherent flux will facilitate new science utilizing techniques in imaging, dynamics, and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. For example, zone-plate-based hard X-ray microscopes are presently used to look deeply into materials, but today’s resolution and contrast are restricted by limitations of the current lithography used to manufacture nanodiffractive optics. The large penetration length, combined in principle with very high spatial resolution, is an ideal probe of hierarchically ordered mesoscale materials, if zone-plate focusing systems can be improved. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) probes a wide range of excitations in materials, from charge-transfer processes to the very soft excitations that cause the collective phenomena in correlated electronic systems. However, although RIXS can probe high-energy excitations, the most exciting and

  11. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ∼60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres.

  12. The Behavior of the Optical and X-Ray Emission from Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B. J.; Harrison, T. E.; Zavala, R. T.; Galvan, Eduardo; Galvan, Javier; Jarvis, T.; Killgore, GeeAnn; Mireles, O. R.; Olivares, D.; Rodriquez, B. A.; Sanchez, M.; Silva, Allison L.; Silva, Andrea L.; Silva-Velarde, E.; Templeton, M. R.

    2003-03-01

    In 1970, Hiltner & Mook reported the results of the first multiyear study of the optical emission from Sco X-1. They found that the Sco X-1 B-magnitude histograms changed from year to year. Subsequent multiwavelength campaigns confirmed the variable nature of these optical histograms and also found that the X-ray and optical emissions were only correlated when Sco X-1 was brighter than about B=12.6. Models had suggested that the optical emission from this source arose from X-rays reprocessed in an accretion disk surrounding the central neutron star. It was therefore difficult to explain why the optical and X-ray fluxes were not more closely correlated. In 1994 and 1995, two new simultaneous optical and X-ray campaigns on Sco X-1 were conducted with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the 1 m Yale telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Using these data and models by Psaltis, Lamb, & Miller, it is now possible to provide a qualitative picture of how the X-ray and optical emissions from Sco X-1 are related. Differences in the B-magnitude histograms are caused by variations in the mass accretion rate and the relatively short time period typically covered by optical investigations. The tilted-Γ pattern seen in plots of the simultaneous X-ray and optical emission from Sco X-1 arises from (1) the nearly linear relation between the optical B magnitude and the mass accretion rate in the range 13.3>=B>=12.3 and an asymptotic behavior in the B magnitude outside this range, and (2) a double-valued relation between the X-ray emission and mass accretion rate along the normal branch and lower flaring branch of this source.

  13. Characteristics of x-ray emission from optically thin high-Z plasmas in the soft x-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Hayato; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Tamura, Naoki; Sudo, Shigeru; Koike, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Chihiro

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of soft x-ray emission from optically thin high-Z plasmas of gold, lead and bismuth were investigated with the large helical device. Compared to optically thicker laser-produced plasmas, significantly different spectral structures were observed due to the difference in opacities and electron temperatures. Peak structures appearing in unresolved transition arrays were identified by calculations using atomic structure codes. The main contributors of discrete line emission in each case were Pd-, Ag-, and Rh-like ion stages. The present calculations point to the overestimation of contributions for 4p-4d transitions based on intensity estimates arising purely from gA distributions that predict strong emission from 4p-4d transitions. Understanding of such spectral emission is not only important for the completion of databases of high-Z highly ion charge states but also the development of promising high brightness sources for biological imaging applications.

  14. Gravitationally Lensed X-Ray Sources at the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, L.

    2012-01-01

    More than two thousand x-ray sources located within 20 pc of the Galactic Center (GC) have been identified by Muno et al. (2003). If an x-ray source is located behind the Galactic Center and offset by a small angle from the GC projected on the sky, then that x-ray source could be gravitationally lensed. The consequences of finding gravitationally lensed sources at the Galactic Center include the ability to independently measure the mass of the GC as well as provide a new probe of the density distribution of the GC (e.g. Wardle & Yusef-Zadeh 1992). Inspecting x-ray images of the GC we were immediately drawn to a set of four x-ray objects. The identified objects are cataloged as CXOJ 174541.0-290014, 174540.1-290005, 174540.0-290031, and 174538.1-290022. These are the brightest and most obvious variable x-ray objects whose positions suggest patterns of images that may either be an inclined quad or two sets of dual gravitational lens patterns. Based on the image patterns, and image brightnesses and relative variations, we modeled possible lens systems using two algorithms. Both of the algorithms describing gravitational lenses are based on the Fermat potential and its time derivatives. For a lens radius of R = 0.01 pc, the total enclosed mass is 2.6 x 107 M⊙ and for R = 0.001 pc, the total enclosed mass is 2.6 x 105 M⊙. These masses are consistent with other measurements of the mass of the GC, such as 4.5 x 106 M⊙ (Ghez et al. 2008). We will present these results and our plans to further study the nature of these x-ray objects.

  15. Beamed and Unbeamed X-Ray Emission in FR1 Radio Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M.

    2000-01-01

    The research exploited ROSAT's sensitivity, together with its spatial and spectral resolution, to separate X-ray emission components in the sources. Prior to ROSAT, the dominant X-ray emission mechanism in radio galaxies as a class was unclear, with correlations between the X-ray and radio emission used on one hand to argue for a nuclear origin for the X-rays, and on the other hand for a thermal origin. Our observations (normally between 10 and 25 ks in length) routinely detected the target sources, and demonstrated that both resolved (thermal) and unresolved X-ray emission are typically present. Highlights of our work included two of the first detections of high-power radio galaxies at high redshift, 3C 280 and 3C 220.1. When combined with the work of two other groups, we find that of the 38 radio galaxies at z > 0.6 in the 3CRR sample, 12 were observed in ROSAT pointed observations and 9 were detected with the four most significant detections exhibiting source extent, including 3C 280 and 3C 220.1. Moreover, we discovered extended emission around five 3CRR quasars at redshift greater than about 0.4, one of which is at z > 0.6. Unification predicts that the X-ray environments of powerful radio galaxies and quasars should be similar, and our results show that powerful radio sources are finding some of the highest-redshift X-ray clusters known to date, pointing to deep gravitational potential wells early in the Universe.

  16. The X-ray emission of the γ Cassiopeiae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Myron A.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Motch, C.

    2016-09-01

    Long considered as the "odd man out" among X-ray emitting Be stars, γ Cas (B0.5e IV) is now recognized as the prototype of a class of stars that emit hard thermal X-rays. Our classification differs from the historical use of the term " γ Cas stars" defined from optical properties alone. The luminosity output of this class contributes significantly to the hard X-ray production of massive stars in the Galaxy. The γ Cas stars have light curves showing variability on a few broadly-defined timescales and spectra indicative of an optically thin plasma consisting of one or more hot thermal components. By now 9-13 Galactic ≈ B0-1.5e main sequence stars are judged to be members or candidate members of the γ Cas class. Conservative criteria for this designation are for a ≈ B0-1.5e III-V star to have an X-ray luminosity of 1032-1033 ergs s-1, a hot thermal spectrum containing the short wavelength Lyα Fe XXV and Fe XXVI lines and the fluorescence FeK feature all in emission. If thermality cannot be demonstrated, for example from either the presence of these Lyα lines or curvature of the hard continuum of the spectrum of an X-ray active Be star, we call them γ Cas candidates. We discuss the history of the discovery of the complicated characteristics of the variability in the optical, UV, and X-ray domains, leading to suggestions for the physical cause of the production of hard X-rays. These include scenarios in which matter from the Be star accretes onto a degenerate secondary star and interactions between magnetic fields on the Be star and its decretion disk. The greatest aid to the choice of the causal mechanism is the temporal correlations of X-ray light curves and spectra with diagnostics in the optical and UV wavebands. We show why the magnetic star-disk interaction scenario is the most tenable explanation for the creation of hard X-rays on these stars.

  17. High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Thoe, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 ..mu.. x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10/sup 4/) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail.

  18. Discovery of a second outbursting hyperluminous X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heida, M.; Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P.

    2015-11-01

    We report on six Chandra and one HST/WFC3 observation of CXO J122518.6+144545, discovered by Jonker et al. (2010) as a candidate hyperluminous X-ray source (HLX), X-ray bright supernova or recoiling supermassive black hole at LX = 2.2 × 1041 erg s-1 (if associated with the galaxy at 182 Mpc). We detect a new outburst of the source in a Chandra image obtained on 2014 November 20 and show that the X-ray count rate varies by a factor >60. New HST/WFC3 observations obtained in 2014 show that the optical counterpart is still visible at g'= 27.1 ± 0.1, 1 ± 0.1 mag fainter than in the discovery HST/ACS observation from 2003. This optical variability strongly suggests that the optical and X-ray source are related. Furthermore, these properties strongly favour an HLX nature of the source over the alternative scenarios. We therefore conclude that CXO J122518.6+144545 is most likely an outbursting HLX. It is only the second such object to be discovered, after HLX-1 in ESO 243-49. Its high X-ray luminosity makes it a strong candidate to host an intermediate-mass black hole.

  19. Environments of High Luminosity X-Ray Sources in the Antennae Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. P.; Barry, D. J.; Houck, J. R.; Ptak, A.; Colbert, E.

    2003-12-01

    We use deep J (1.25 μ m) and Ks (2.15 μ m) images of the Antennae (NGC 4038/9) obtained with the Wide-field InfraRed Camera on the Palomar 200-inch telescope, together with the Chandra X-ray source list of Zezas et al. (2001), to establish an X-ray/IR astrometric frame tie with ˜ 0.5 ″ RMS residuals over a ˜ 5 ‧ field. We find 13 ``strong" IR counterparts <1.0 ″ from X-ray sources, and an additional 6 ``possible" IR counterparts between 1.0 ″ and 1.5 ″ from X-ray sources. Based on detailed study of the surface density of IR sources near the X-ray sources, we expect only ˜ 2 of the ``strong" counterparts and ˜ 3 of the ``possible" counterparts to be chance superpositions of unrelated objects. Comparing the IR counterparts to our photometric study of ˜ 250 IR clusters in the Antennae, we find that IR counterparts to X-ray sources are Δ MK ˜ 1.2 mag more luminous than average non-X-ray clusters (>99.9% confidence), and that the X-ray/IR matches are concentrated in the spiral arms and ``bridge" regions of the Antennae. This implies that these X-ray sources lie in the most ``super" of the Antennae's Super Star Clusters, and thus trace the recent massive star formation history here. Based on the NH inferred from the X-ray sources without IR counterparts, we determine that the absence of most of the ``missing" IR counterparts is not due to extinction, but that these sources are intrinsically less luminous in the IR, implying that they trace a different (older?) stellar population. We find no clear correlation between X-ray luminosity classes and IR properties of the sources, though small number statistics hamper this analysis. Finally, we find a Ks = 16.2 mag counterpart to the Ultra-Luminous X-ray (ULX) source X-37 within <0.5 ″ , eliminating the need for the ``runaway binary" hypothesis proposed by previous authors for this object. We discuss some of the implications of this detection for models of ULX emission. This work is funded by an NSF CAREER

  20. A Chandra X-Ray Study of NGC 1068 IL the Luminous X-Ray Source Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.; Wilson, Andrew S.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of the compact X-ray source population in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, imaged with a approx. 50 ks Chandra observation. We find a total of 84 compact sources on the S3 chip, of which 66 are located within the 25.0 B-mag/arcsec isophote of the galactic disk of NGC 1068. Spectra have been obtained for the 21 sources with at least 50 counts and modeled with both multicolor disk blackbody and power-law models. The power-law model provides the better description of the spectrum for 18 of these sources. For fainter sources, the spectral index has been estimated from the hardness ratio. Five sources have 0.4 - 8 keV intrinsic luminosities greater than 10(exp 39)ergs/ s, assuming that their emission is isotropic and that they are associated with NGC 1068. We refer to these sources as intermediate-luminosity X-ray objects (ISOs). If these five sources are X-ray binaries accreting with luminosities that are both sub-Eddington and isotropic, then the implied source masses are approx greater than 7 solar mass, and so they are inferred to be black holes. Most of the spectrally modeled sources have spectral shapes similar to Galactic black hole candidates. However, the brightest compact source in NGC 1068 has a spectrum that is much harder than that found in Galactic black hole candidates and other ISOs. The brightest source also shows large amplitude variability on both short-term and long-term timescales, with the count rate possibly decreasing by a factor of 2 in approx. 2 ks during our Chundra observation, and the source flux decreasing by a factor of 5 between our observation and the grating observations taken just over 9 months later. The ratio of the number of sources with luminosities greater than 2.1 x 10(exp 38) ergs/s in the 0.4 - 8 keV band to the rate of massive (greater than 5 solar mass) star formation is the same, to within a factor of 2, for NGC 1068, the Antennae, NGC 5194 (the main galaxy in M51), and the Circinus galaxy. This suggests

  1. X-ray Emission from Megamaser Galaxy IC 2560

    SciTech Connect

    Madejski, Greg; Done, Chris; Zycki, Piotr; Greenhill, Lincoln; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2005-09-12

    Observation of the H{sub 2}O megamaser galaxy IC 2560 with the Chandra Observatory reveals a complex spectrum composed of soft X-ray emission due to multi-temperature thermal plasma, and a hard continuum with strong emission lines. The continuum is most likely a Compton reflection (reprocessing) of primary emission that is completely absorbed at least up to 7 keV. The lines can be identified with fluorescence from Si, S and Fe in the lowest ionization stages. The equivalent widths of the Si and S lines are broadly compatible with those anticipated for reprocessing by optically thick cold plasma of Solar abundances, while the large equivalent width of the Fe line requires some overabundance of iron. A contribution to the line from a transmitted component cannot be ruled out, but the limits on the strength of the Compton shoulder make it less likely. From the bolometric luminosity of the nuclear region, we infer that the source radiates at 1-10% of its Eddington luminosity, for an adopted central mass of 3 x 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The overall spectrum is consistent with the hypotheses that the central engines powering the detected megamsers in accretion disks are obscured from direct view by the associated accretion disk material itself, and that there is a correlation between the occurrence of megamaser emission and Compton-thick absorption columns. For the 11 known galaxies with both column density measurements and maser emission believed to arise from accretion disks, eight AGN are Compton thick.

  2. X-ray emission from the galactic disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleach, R. D.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Schwartz, D. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    A search was made of a diffuse component of X-rays 1.5 keV associated with an interarm region of the galaxy at galactic longitudes in the vicinity of 60 deg. A statistically significant excess associated with a narrow disk component was detected. The angular extent of this component has a most probable value of 2 deg and may be as large as 7 deg at 90% confidence. The best fit spectrum yields an intensity of 2.9 photons 1/(cm2-sec-ster) over the 2 to 10 keV range. The 3 sigma upper limit to any emission (e.g. iron line) in a 1.5 keV band centered at 7 keV from galactic latitudes h or = 3.5 deg is .3 photons 1/(cm2-sec-ster). Several possible emission models are discussed, with the most likely candidate being a population of unresolvable low luminosity discrete sources.

  3. Synchrotron X-ray emission from old pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Shota; Tanaka, Shuta J.

    2014-09-01

    We study the synchrotron radiation as the observed non-thermal emission by the X-ray satellites from old pulsars (≳1-10 Myr) to investigate the particle acceleration in their magnetospheres. We assume that the power-law component of the observed X-ray spectra is caused by the synchrotron radiation from electrons and positrons in the magnetosphere. We consider two pair-production mechanisms of X-ray emitting particles, the magnetic and the photon-photon pair productions. High-energy photons, which ignite the pair production, are emitted via the curvature radiation of the accelerated particles. We use the analytical description for the radiative transfer and estimate the luminosity of the synchrotron radiation. We find that for pulsars with the spin-down luminosity Lsd ≲ 1033 erg s-1, the locations of the particle acceleration and the non-thermal X-ray emission are within ≲107 cm from the centre of the neutron star, where the magnetic pair production occurs. For pulsars with the spin-down luminosity Lsd ≲ 1031 erg s-1 such as J0108-1431, the synchrotron radiation is difficult to explain the observed non-thermal component even if we consider the existence of the strong and small-scale surface magnetic field structures.

  4. Discrete X-ray sources and the X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacconi, Riccardo

    1987-01-01

    Since the discovery of a highly uniform X-ray background (XRB) in the 2 to 10 keV range, its nature is not yet fully explained. It appears clear from the results of Einstein medium and deep surveys that at least 50% of the XRB is due to individual extragalactic sources when their contribution is integrated to Z = 3. This includes contribution from Quasi Stellar Objects (QSOs), Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. The average spectrum of each of the individual contributing sources is softer than that of the observed XRB. Therefore, the remaining contribution must have a rather hard spectrum of alpha nearly equal to 0.0 to 0.2. It is unlikely that this spectrum can be produced by diffuse processes. Therefore, the remainder of the XRB must be due to individual sources with the appropriate spectrum. This requires either that the spectrum of the already identified sources changes at early epochs or a new class of objects. Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) observations will extend survey sensitivity to limiting fluxes of order of 3 x 10 to the minus 16 erg/sq cm/s, some 50 times fainter than any previous survey. There will be sufficient sensitivity and angular resolution to permit identification and study of these objects.

  5. An optimal design of X-ray target for uniform X-ray emission from an electronic brachytherapy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihsan, Aamir; Heo, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kang, Chang Mu; Cho, Sung Oh

    2011-05-01

    We present a novel design of an X-ray target to deliver uniform dose from an electronic brachytherapy system (EBS). This design comprises of a combination of both the reflection- and transmission-type target geometries. Monte-Carlo simulation code MCNP5 has been employed for the calculation of angular distribution of the X-ray intensity produced from various morphologies of X-ray targets. The simulation results reveal that the combinatorial target-assembly is promising and effective in achieving uniformity of X-ray emission over the entire space of solid angle of 4 π in comparison to a transmission-type target that produces X-rays mainly in the forward direction and a reflection-type target that generates X-rays mostly in the backward direction. As a direct consequence of the uniformity of X-ray emission, the combinatorial target-assembly can impart a uniform dose distribution which makes it suitable as a target of an X-ray tube for EBS.

  6. X-Ray Sources in the Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy DRACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonbas, E.; Dhuga, K.; Rangelov, B.; Kargaltsev, O.

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a spectral analysis of X - ray sources in Draco, a nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxy recently observed by XMM-Newton. While most of the sources exhibit properties consistent with AGN, few of them possess characteristics of LMXBs and CVs. We also discuss the possibility of the existence of a central IMBH in Draco.

  7. Measuring x-ray spectra of flash radiographic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, Amanda Elizabeth; Espy, Michelle A.; Haines, Todd Joseph; Mendez, Jacob; Moir, David C.; Sedillo, Robert; Shurter, Roger P.; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Webb, Timothy J

    2015-11-02

    The x-ray spectra of flash radiographic sources is difficult to measure. The sources measured were Radiographic Integrated Test Stand-6 (370 rad at 1 m; 50 ns pulse) and Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) (550 rad at 1 m; 50 ns pulse). Features of the Compton spectrometer are described, and spectra are shown. Additional slides present data on instrumental calibration.

  8. Linking jet emission and X-ray properties in the peculiar neutron star X-ray binary Circinus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleri, Paolo; Tudose, Valeriu; Fender, Rob; van der Klis, Michiel; Jonker, Peter G.

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the peculiar Z-type neutron star X-ray binary Cir X-1, observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite and the Australia Telescope Compact Array in 2000 October and 2002 December. We identify typical Z-source behaviour in the power density spectra as well as characteristic Z patterns drawn in an X-ray hardness-intensity diagram. Power spectra typical of bright atoll sources have also been identified at orbital phases after the periastron passage, while orbital phases before the periastron passage are characterized by power spectra that are typical neither of Z nor of atoll sources. We investigate the coupling between the X-ray and the radio properties, focusing on three orbital phases when an enhancement of the radio flux density has been detected, to test the link between the inflow (X-ray) and the outflow (radio jet) to/from the compact object. In two out of three cases, we associate the presence of the radio jet to a spectral transition in the X-rays, although the transition does not precede the radio flare, as detected in other Z sources. An analogous behaviour has recently been found in the black hole candidate GX 339-4. In the third case, the radio light curve shows a similar shape to the X-ray light curve. We discuss our results in the context of jet models, considering also black hole candidates.

  9. Spontaneous emission effects in optically pumped x-ray FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Smetanin, I.V.; Grigor`ev, S.V.

    1995-12-31

    An effect of spontaneous emission in both quantum and classical regimes of the optically pumped X-ray free electron laser (FEL) in investigated. The quantum properties of an FEL are determined by the ratio of the separation {h_bar} between the absorption and emission lines (i.e. the quanta emitted) and their effective width {Delta}{epsilon} {eta}={h_bar}/{Delta}{epsilon}. In the conventional classical regime {eta} {much_lt} 1 an electron emits and absorbes a great number of shortwavelength photons over the interaction region, the gain in FEL being the result of these competitive processes. In the quantum limit {eta} {much_gt} 1 the emission and absorption lines are completely separated and thus the FEL becomes a two-level quantum oscillator with a completely inverted active medium. Spontaneous emission causes the electron to leave the range of energies where resonant interaction with the laser field occurs, thus effectively reducing the number of particles that take part in generating the induced X-ray signal. This effect is found to be crucial for lasing in optically pumped X-ray FEL. The characteristic relaxation times are calculated for both classical and quantum FEL regimes. It is shown that spontaneous emission results in FEL electron beam threshold current, which is of rather high value. An optimal range of pumping laser intensities is determined.

  10. The Mystery of the γ CAS Type X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrejon, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently gamma Cas stood alone as the major exception to our understanding of the X-ray emission from massive stars. In the last years, however, a growing number of `gamma Cas-like' objects has been unveiled by X-ray telescopes suggesting the existence of an entire new class of X-ray sources. The nature of their X-ray emission remains a mystery. Two hypotheses have been put forward: accretion onto a degenerate companion (a White Dwarf) or, alternatively, the interaction of the circumstellar disk with the star's magnetic field. Both explanations challenge our current understanding of the structure and evolution of massive stars. To ascertain their true nature is, therefore, of great interest.

  11. THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SHOCKED STELLAR WIND OF PULSAR GAMMA-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zabalza, V.; Paredes, J. M.; Bosch-Ramon, V.

    2011-12-10

    Gamma-ray-loud X-ray binaries are binary systems that show non-thermal broadband emission from radio to gamma rays. If the system comprises a massive star and a young non-accreting pulsar, their winds will collide producing broadband non-thermal emission, most likely originated in the shocked pulsar wind. Thermal X-ray emission is expected from the shocked stellar wind, but until now it has neither been detected nor studied in the context of gamma-ray binaries. We present a semi-analytic model of the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked stellar wind in pulsar gamma-ray binaries, and find that the thermal X-ray emission increases monotonically with the pulsar spin-down luminosity, reaching luminosities of the order of 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}. The lack of thermal features in the X-ray spectrum of gamma-ray binaries can then be used to constrain the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds. By fitting the observed X-ray spectra of gamma-ray binaries with a source model composed of an absorbed non-thermal power law and the computed thermal X-ray emission, we are able to derive upper limits on the spin-down luminosity of the putative pulsar. We applied this method to LS 5039, the only gamma-ray binary with a radial, powerful wind, and obtain an upper limit on the pulsar spin-down luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Given the energetic constraints from its high-energy gamma-ray emission, a non-thermal to spin-down luminosity ratio very close to unity may be required.

  12. A spectral and spatial analysis of η Carinae's diffuse X-ray emission using CHANDRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, K.; Corcoran, M. F.; Bomans, D. J.; Davidson, K.

    2004-02-01

    The luminous unstable star (star system) η Carinae is surrounded by an optically bright bipolar nebula, the Homunculus and a fainter but much larger nebula, the so-called outer ejecta. As images from the EINSTEIN and ROSAT satellites have shown, the outer ejecta is also visible in soft X-rays, while the central source is present in the harder X-ray bands. With our CHANDRA observations we show that the morphology and properties of the X-ray nebula are the result of shocks from fast clumps in the outer ejecta moving into a pre-existing denser circumstellar medium. An additional contribution to the soft X-ray flux results from mutual interactions of clumps within the ejecta. Spectra extracted from the CHANDRA data yield gas temperatures kT of 0.6-0.76 keV. The implied pre-shock velocities of 670-760 km s-1 are within the scatter of the velocities we measure for the majority of the clumps in the corresponding regions. Significant nitrogen enhancements over solar abundances are needed for acceptable fits in all parts of the outer ejecta, consistent with CNO processed material and non-uniform enhancement. The presence of a diffuse spot of hard X-ray emission at the S condensation shows some contribution of the highest velocity clumps and further underlines the multicomponent, non-equilibrium nature of the X-ray nebula. The detection of an X-ray ``bridge'' between the northern and southern part of the X-ray nebula and an X-ray shadow at the position of the NN bow can be attributed to a large expanding disk, which would appear as an extension of the equatorial disk. No soft emission is seen from the Homunculus, or from the NN bow or the ``strings''.

  13. Compact Laser-Compton X-ray Source Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Po-Chun

    The state-of-the-art X-ray source based on inverse-Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam produced by an X-band RF accelerator and a high-intensity laser pulse generated by chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) has been carried out by our research team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system is called "Compact Laser-Compton X-ray Source". The applications include nuclear resonance fluorescence, medical imaging and therapy, and nuclear waste imaging and assay. One of the key factors in this system is how we know the interaction happened in the vacuum chamber, which is the spectrometer of electron beams. The other key factor is the interaction after the spectrometer, which is the outgoing X-ray. In this thesis, the work in the simulation for the result of the interaction between electrons and the laser, the calibration of spectrometer, and laser focus characterization are discussed.

  14. Transient X-Ray Source Population in the Magellanic-type Galaxy NGC 55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jithesh, V.; Wang, Zhongxiang

    2016-04-01

    We present the spectral and temporal properties of 15 candidate transient X-ray sources detected in archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the nearby Magellanic-type, SB(s)m galaxy NGC 55. Based on an X-ray color classification scheme, the majority of the sources may be identified as X-ray binaries (XRBs), and six sources are soft, including a likely supernova remnant. We perform a detailed spectral and variability analysis of the data for two bright candidate XRBs. Both sources displayed strong short-term X-ray variability, and their X-ray spectra and hardness ratios are consistent with those of XRBs. These results, combined with their high X-ray luminosities (∼1038 erg s‑1), strongly suggest that they are black hole (BH) binaries. Seven less luminous sources have spectral properties consistent with those of neutron star or BH XRBs in both normal and high-rate accretion modes, but one of them is the likely counterpart to a background galaxy (because of positional coincidence). From our spectral analysis, we find that the six soft sources are candidate super soft sources (SSSs) with dominant emission in the soft (0.3–2 keV) X-ray band. Archival Hubble Space Telescope optical images for seven sources are available, and the data suggest that most of them are likely to be high-mass XRBs. Our analysis has revealed the heterogeneous nature of the transient population in NGC 55 (six high-mass XRBs, one low-mass XRBs, six SSSs, one active galactic nucleus), helping establish the similarity of the X-ray properties of this galaxy to those of other Magellanic-type galaxies.

  15. The Radio/X-Ray Correlation and Black Hole Fundamental Plane for Young Radio Sources: Implications for X-Ray Origin and Accretion Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xu-Liang; Bai, Jin-Ming

    2016-02-01

    We find that the young radio sources (gigahertz-peaked spectrum and compact steep spectrum radio sources) follow in the radio/X-ray correlation with b=0.61+/- 0.07 ({L}R\\propto {L}Xb), and the fundamental plane of black hole activity with the form {log}{L}R={0.58}-0.03+0.03{log}{L}X+{0.42}-0.07+0.09{log}{M}{BH}+{13.83}-0.97+0.91 and the intrinsic scatter σ =0.29. The flatter coefficient between radio and X-ray bands denies the jet origin of the X-ray emission in these types of sources. Meanwhile, the higher ratio of X-ray luminosity to Eddington luminosity ({L}X/{L}{Edd}) suggests that the X-ray emission is produced by the hot corona coupling with the standard thin disk. The deviation with the radiative efficient fundamental plane proposed by Dong et al. is mainly due to the extended radio emission in young radio sources. This fundamental plane manifests that even the kiloparsec-scaled radio emission has a tight connection with the accretion process, and could be suitable for the radio-loud active galactic nuclei whose radio and X-ray emission are dominated by the extended jets and the radiative efficient accretion flow, respectively. Otherwise, the high-excitation galaxies and low-excitation galaxies do not have obvious distinctions in the radio/X-ray correlation and the fundamental plane.

  16. RT Crucis: a look into the X-ray emission of a peculiar symbiotic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducci, L.; Doroshenko, V.; Suleimanov, V.; Nikołajuk, M.; Santangelo, A.; Ferrigno, C.

    2016-07-01

    Symbiotic stars are a heterogeneous class of interacting binaries. Among them, RT Cru has been classified as prototype of a subclass that is characterised by hard X-ray spectra that extend past ~20 keV. We analyse ~8.6 Ms of archival INTEGRAL data collected during the period 2003-2014, ~ 140 ks of Swift/XRT data, and a Suzaku observation of 39 ks, to study the spectral X-ray emission and investigate the nature of the compact object. Based on the 2MASS photometry, we estimate the distance to the source of 1.2-2.4 kpc. The X-ray spectrum obtained with Swift/XRT, JEM-X, IBIS/ISGRI, and Suzaku data is well fitted by a cooling flow model modified by an absorber that fully covers the source and two partially covering absorbers. Assuming that the hard X-ray emission of RT Cru originates from an optically thin boundary layer around a non-magnetic white dwarf, we estimated a mass of the white dwarf of MWD ≈ 1.2M⊙. The mass accretion rate obtained for this source might be too high for the optically thin boundary layer scenario. Therefore we investigate other plausible scenarios to model its hard X-ray emission. We show that, alternatively, the observed X-ray spectrum can be explained with the X-ray emission from the post-shock region above the polar caps of a magnetised white dwarf with mass MWD ≈ 0.9-1.1M⊙.

  17. Quantitative X-ray phase-contrast microtomography from a compact laser-driven betatron source.

    PubMed

    Wenz, J; Schleede, S; Khrennikov, K; Bech, M; Thibault, P; Heigoldt, M; Pfeiffer, F; Karsch, S

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has recently led to a revolution in resolving power and tissue contrast in biomedical imaging, microscopy and materials science. The necessary high spatial coherence is currently provided by either large-scale synchrotron facilities with limited beamtime access or by microfocus X-ray tubes with rather limited flux. X-rays radiated by relativistic electrons driven by well-controlled high-power lasers offer a promising route to a proliferation of this powerful imaging technology. A laser-driven plasma wave accelerates and wiggles electrons, giving rise to a brilliant keV X-ray emission. This so-called betatron radiation is emitted in a collimated beam with excellent spatial coherence and remarkable spectral stability. Here we present a phase-contrast microtomogram of a biological sample using betatron X-rays. Comprehensive source characterization enables the reconstruction of absolute electron densities. Our results suggest that laser-based X-ray technology offers the potential for filling the large performance gap between synchrotron- and current X-ray tube-based sources. PMID:26189811

  18. Quantitative X-ray phase-contrast microtomography from a compact laser-driven betatron source

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, J.; Schleede, S.; Khrennikov, K.; Bech, M.; Thibault, P.; Heigoldt, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Karsch, S.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has recently led to a revolution in resolving power and tissue contrast in biomedical imaging, microscopy and materials science. The necessary high spatial coherence is currently provided by either large-scale synchrotron facilities with limited beamtime access or by microfocus X-ray tubes with rather limited flux. X-rays radiated by relativistic electrons driven by well-controlled high-power lasers offer a promising route to a proliferation of this powerful imaging technology. A laser-driven plasma wave accelerates and wiggles electrons, giving rise to a brilliant keV X-ray emission. This so-called betatron radiation is emitted in a collimated beam with excellent spatial coherence and remarkable spectral stability. Here we present a phase-contrast microtomogram of a biological sample using betatron X-rays. Comprehensive source characterization enables the reconstruction of absolute electron densities. Our results suggest that laser-based X-ray technology offers the potential for filling the large performance gap between synchrotron- and current X-ray tube-based sources. PMID:26189811

  19. Quantitative X-ray phase-contrast microtomography from a compact laser-driven betatron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenz, J.; Schleede, S.; Khrennikov, K.; Bech, M.; Thibault, P.; Heigoldt, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Karsch, S.

    2015-07-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has recently led to a revolution in resolving power and tissue contrast in biomedical imaging, microscopy and materials science. The necessary high spatial coherence is currently provided by either large-scale synchrotron facilities with limited beamtime access or by microfocus X-ray tubes with rather limited flux. X-rays radiated by relativistic electrons driven by well-controlled high-power lasers offer a promising route to a proliferation of this powerful imaging technology. A laser-driven plasma wave accelerates and wiggles electrons, giving rise to a brilliant keV X-ray emission. This so-called betatron radiation is emitted in a collimated beam with excellent spatial coherence and remarkable spectral stability. Here we present a phase-contrast microtomogram of a biological sample using betatron X-rays. Comprehensive source characterization enables the reconstruction of absolute electron densities. Our results suggest that laser-based X-ray technology offers the potential for filling the large performance gap between synchrotron- and current X-ray tube-based sources.

  20. X-ray emission from high temperature plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bremsstrahlung X-rays from a plasma focus device were investigated with emphasis on the emission versus position, time, energy, and angle of emission. It is shown that low energy X-rays come from the plasma focus region, but that the higher energy components come from the anode. The emission is anisotropic, the low energy polar diagram resembling a cardioid, while the high energy emission is a lobe into the anode. The plasma parameters were considered indicating that even in the dense focus, the plasma is collisionless near the axis. By considering the radiation patterns of relativistic electrons a qualitative picture is obtained, which explains the measured polar diagrams, assuming the electrons that produce the X-rays have velocity vectors lying roughly in a cone between the point of focus and the anode. The average electron energy is about 3keV at the focus and about 10 keV on the anode surface. Results are consistent with the converging beam model of neutron production.

  1. Observing soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium with X-ray calorimeter on a sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, J.; Edwards, B.; Juda, M.; Mccammon, D.; Skinner, M.; Kelley, R.; Moseley, H.; Schoelkopf, R.; Szymkowiak, A.

    1990-01-01

    For an X-ray calorimeter working at 0.1 K, the energy resolution ideally can be as good as one eV for a practical detector. A detector with a resolution of 17 eV FWHM at 6 keV has been constructed. It is expected that this can be improved by a factor of two or more. With X-ray calorimeters flown on a sounding rocket, it should be possible to observe soft X-ray line emission from the interstellar medium over the energy range 0.07 to 1 keV. Here, a preliminary design for an X-ray calorimeter rocket experiment and the spectrum which might be observed from an equilibrium plasma are presented. For later X-ray calorimeter sounding rocket experiments, it is planned to add an aluminum foil mirror with collecting area of about 400 sq cm to observe line features from bright supernova remnants.

  2. Calibrated time-resolved transmission grating spectrometer for the study of ultrafast x-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, J F; Chaker, M; Kieffer, J C

    1996-01-01

    A transmission grating spectrometer has been coupled to a high-temporal-resolution soft x-ray streak camera for the study of picosecond laser-plasma x-ray sources. A procedure to deconvolve the overlapping contributions of diffraction orders and to calibrate the instrument has been established in order to obtain absolute time-resolved x-ray emission spectra in the 0.1-1.2 keV spectral region. The deconvolution and calibration techniques are presented along with measurements establishing the temporal resolution of this diagnostic at ~2 ps. Examples of calibrated spectra of laser-plasma x-ray sources created by 400 fs laser pulses at intensities of 1018 W/cm2 are also shown. PMID:21307534

  3. X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Some X-ray spectral observations of approximately 30 clusters of galaxies from HEAO-1 are summarized. There exists strong correlations between X-ray luminosity, L(x), and temperature kT in the form L(x)alphaT to the 2.3 power. This result combined with the L(x) central galaxy density relation and the virial theorem indicates that the core dadius of the gas should be roughly independent of L(x) or KT and that more luminous clusters have a greater fraction of their virial mass in gas. The poor correlation of KT and optical velocity dispersion seems to indicate that clusters have a variety of equations of state. There is poor agreement between X-ray imaging observations and optical and X-ray spectral measures of the polytropic index. Most clusters show Fe emission lines with a strong indication that they all have roughly 1/2 solar abundance. The evidence for cooling in the cores of several clusters is discussed based on spectral observations with the Einstein solid state spectrometer.

  4. Innovations in X-ray-induced electron emission spectroscopy (XIEES)

    SciTech Connect

    Pogrebitsky, K. Ju. Sharkov, M. D.

    2010-06-15

    Currently, a pressing need has arisen for controlling the local atomic and electron structure of materials irrespective of their aggregate state. Efficient approaches to the studies of short-range order are based on phenomena accompanied by interference of secondary electrons excited by primary X-ray radiation. The set of such approaches are commonly referred to as the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) methods. In reality, the XAFS methods are based on the use of synchrotron radiation and applied to structural studies in two modes of measurements, transmission analysis and recording of secondary effects. Only two such effects-specifically, the X-ray fluorescence an d X-ray-induced electron emission effect-are commonly discussed. Access to synchrotron accelerators is problematic for most researchers, so a demand is created for designing laboratory systems that make direct access possible. Since the power of laboratory systems is much lower than that of synchrotrons, it is essential to use much more efficient detectors of secondary electrons. In addition, it is of interest to analyze energy characteristics with a high spatial resolution. Channel multipliers and multichannel boards are incapable of providing such a possibility. For this reason, an improved electron detector has been developed to analyze the photoemission effect in an accelerating field.

  5. X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Some X-ray spectral observations of approximately 30 clusters of galaxies from HEAO-1 are summarized. There exists strong correlation betwen X-ray luminosity, L(x), and temperature kT in the form L(x)alphaT to the 2.3 power. This result combined with the L(x) central galaxy density relation and the virial theorem indicates that the core dadius of the gas should be roughly independent of L(x) or Kt and that more luminous clusters have a greater fraction of their virial mass in gas. The poor correlation of KT and optical velocity dispersion seems to indicate that clusters have a variety of equations of state. There is poor agreement between X-ray imaging observations and optical and X-ray spectral measures of the polytropic index. Most clusters show Fe emission lines with a strong indication that they all have roughly 1/2 solar abundance. The evidence for cooling in the cores several clusters is discussed based on spectral observations with the Einstein solid state spectrometer.

  6. Tentative study on high-photon-energy quasi-x-ray laser generator by forming plasma x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Ichimaru, Toshio; Mori, Hidezo; Tanaka, Etsuro; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Usuki, Tatsumi; Sato, Koetsu; Sakamaki, Kimio; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu

    2001-04-01

    Tentative study on high-photon-energy quasi-x-ray-laser generator by forming plasma x-ray source is described. The generator employs a high-voltage power supply, a low-impedance coaxial transmission line, a high-voltage condenser with a capacity of about 200 nF, a turbo-molecular pump, a thyristor pulse generator as a trigger device, and a flash x-ray tube. The high-voltage main condenser is charged up to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is of a demountable triode that is connected to the turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As the electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to the copper target by the electric field in the tube, the plasma x- ray source, which consists of metal ions and electrons, forms by the target evaporating. Both the tube voltage and current displayed damped oscillations, and their peak values increased according to increases in the charging voltage. In the present work, the peak tube voltage was much higher than the initial charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 25 kA with a charging voltage of 60 kV. When the charging voltage was increased, the plasma x-ray source formed, and the characteristic x-ray intensities of K-series lines increased. When the plate target was employed, we observed high-intensity characteristic x-rays from the axial direction of the linear plasma x-ray source. In the case where the rod target was employed, we detected higher-intensity characteristic x-rays.

  7. Quantifying the Exospheric Component of Soft X-ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, Steven L.; Robertson, Ina; Hansen, Kenneth; Cravens, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    High charge state heavy ions in the solar wind exchange charge with ambient neutral gas. This process creates a product ion in an excited state. During the radiative cascade process, EUV and X-ray photons are emitted with energies in the range of about 100 eV to 1 keV. Because the terrestrial exospheric density at the nominal magnetopause location is relatively high, approx. 10 cu cm, solar wind charge exchange, or SWCX, can be observed by Earth-orbiting soft X-ray instruments such as the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counters (PSPC). In this presentation, we will compare simulated and observed soft Xray emission during an event on August 18-19, 1991 and discuss the role of exospheric SWCX emission for this and other events.

  8. Recent Advances in Computational Studies of Charge Exchange X-ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbee, Renata

    2016-06-01

    Interest in astrophysical sources of charge exchange (CX) has grown since X-ray emission from comet Hyakutake was first observed, the origin of which is primarily due to CX processes between neutral species in the comet’s atmosphere and highly charged ions from the solar wind. More recent observations have shown that CX may have a significant contribution to the X-ray emission spectra of a wide variety of environments within our solar system including solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with neutral gases in the heliosphere and in planetary atmospheres, as well as beyond the solar system in galaxy clusters, supernova remnants, and star forming galaxies.While the basic process of CX has been studied for many decades, the reliability of the existing data is not uniform, and the coverage of the astrophysically important projectile and target combinations and collisional velocities is insufficient. The need for reliable and robust CX X-ray emission models will only be amplified with the with the high resolution X-ray spectra expected from the soft X-ray imaging calorimeter spectrometer (SXS) onboard the Hitomi X-ray observatory. In this talk, I will discuss recent advances in theoretical CX cross sections and X-ray modeling with a focus on CX diagnostics. The need for experimental X-ray spectra and cross sections for benchmarking current theory will also be highlighted. This work was performed in collaboration with David Lyons, Patrick Mullen, David Schultz, Phillip Stancil, and Robin Shelton. Work at UGA was partially supported by NASA grant NNX09AC46G.

  9. XMM-Newton reveals extreme winds in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, C.; Middleton, M.; Fabian, A.

    2016-06-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are extragalactic, off-nucleus, point sources with X-ray luminosities above 10^{39} erg/s, thought to be powered by accretion onto compact objects. Viable solutions include accretion onto neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, stellar-mass black holes at or in excess of the Eddington limit or intermediate-mass black holes. The lack of sufficient energy resolution in previous analyses has prevented an unambiguous identification of any emission or absorption lines in the X-ray band, thereby precluding a detailed analysis of the accretion flow. In this talk, I will show the discovery of rest-frame emission and blueshifted (˜0.2c) absorption lines arising from highly ionized gas in the deep high-resolution XMM-Newton spectra of two ultraluminous X-ray sources. The blueshifted absorption lines occurs in a fast outflowing gas, whereas the emission lines originate in slow-moving gas around the source. The compact object is therefore surrounded by powerful winds with an outflow velocity of about 0.2c as predicted by models of hyper-accreting black holes. Further, deep, XMM-Newton observations will reveal powerful winds in many other ultraluminous X-ray sources and provide important hints to estimate the energetics of the wind, the geometry of the system, and the black hole masses.

  10. Modeling of the EUV and X-Ray Emission Spectra Induced by the Solar Winds Ions in the Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharchenko, Vasili

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out investigation of the EUV and X-ray emission spectra induced in interaction between the Solar Wind (SW) and interstellar neutral gas. The spectra of most important SW ions have been computed for the charge-exchange mechanism of X-ray emission using new accurate spectroscopic data from recent laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations. Total spectra have been constructed as a sum of spectra induced in the charge-exchange collisions by individual O(exp q+), C(exp q+), N(exp q+), Ne(exp q+), Mg (exp q+) and Fe(exp q+) ions. Calculations have been performed for X-ray emission from the heliospheric hydrogen and helium gas. X-ray maps of the heliosphere have been computed. The power density of X-ray sources in the heliospheric ecliptic plane is shown for the H gas and for the He gas. Distances from the Sun (0,0) are given in AU. The helium cone is clear seen in the X-ray map of the charge-exchange emission induced by the solar wind. X-ray emission spectra detected by the Chandra X-ray telescope from the "dark" side of Moon has been identified as a X-ray background emission induced by the solar wind from the geocorona. Spectra and intensities of this charge-exchange X-rays have been compared with the heliospheric component of the X-ray background. Observations and modeling of the SW spectra induced from the geocorona indicate a strong presence of emission lines of highly charged oxygen ions. Anisotropy in distribution of heliospheric X-rays has been predicted and calculated for the regions of the fast and slow solar winds.

  11. X-ray emission of the night terrestrial atmosphere (experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, Galina; Pankov, Vladislav; Prokhin, Vladimir; Gusev, Anatoly; Spjeldvik, Walther; Martin, Inacio; Pugacheva, Galina

    A spectrometer RPS-1 onboard the LEO "CORONAS-F" satellite monitored solar X-rays in the energy range 3-31.5 keV (31.07.2001 - 06.12.2005 years) using CdTe solid state detector with thermoelectric semiconductor micro cooler. The device registered X-ray emission of the upper atmosphere at shadowed branches of the orbit. When touching the inner radiation belt in the South Atlantic anomaly and at high latitudes the device registered signals produced by energetic trapped particles. Among the other factors determining the flux registered by the device there are solar activity, the Earth position relatively the Sun (seasonality), satellite position, the telescope orientation relatively nadir when entering and leaving the Earth's shadow. This paper presents global maps of the atmospheric X-ray emission in four energy intervals 3-5; 5-8, 8-16, and 16-31.5 keV during the total period from 23.03.2002 up to 23.03.2003 and periods of 23.03.2002-23.09.2002 and 23.09.2002-23.03/2003 corresponding "summer" and "winter" seasons in the Northern hemisphere. The energy of the registered emission does not exceed 8 keV out of the radiation belt. Comparison of the seasonal maps reveals a gap between the radiation belts at low altitudes ( 500km) in the summer of 2002 probably due to compression of the magnetosphere and/or the seasonal atmospheric temperature changesin time period close to the maximum of solar activity and the absence of the gap in summer of 2004 year near to solar activity minimum. A weak emission of 3-5 keV x-rays in the gap within radiation belts is produced by interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the atmosphere.

  12. A simple physical model for X-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joss, P. C.; Rappaport, S.

    1977-01-01

    In connection with information considered by Illarianov and Sunyaev (1975) and van den Heuvel (1975), a simple physical model for an X-ray burst source in the galactic disk is proposed. The model includes an unevolved OB star with a relatively weak stellar wind and a compact object in a close binary system. For some reason, the stellar wind from the OB star is unable to accrete steadily on to the compact object. When the stellar wind is sufficiently weak, the compact object accretes irregularly, leading to X-ray bursts.

  13. X-ray sources for radiography of warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benuzzi-Mounaix, Alessandra; Brambrink, Erik; Barbrel, Benjamin; Koenig, Michel; Gregory, Chris; Loupias, Bérénice; Ravasio, Alessandra; Rabec Le Gloahec, Marc; Vinci, Tommaso; Boehly, Tom; Endo, Takashi; Kimura, Tomoaki; Ozaki, Norimasa; Wei, Huigang; Aglitskiy, Yefim; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana

    2008-11-01

    The knowledge of Warm Dense Matter is important in different domains such as inertial confinement fusion, astrophysics and geophysics. The development of techniques for direct probing of this type of matter is of great interest. X-ray radiography is one of the most promising diagnostic to measure density directly. Here we present some results of low-Z material radiography and an experiment devoted to characterize a short pulse laser driven hard x-ray source for the radiography of medium and high Z matter. Experiments have been performed on LULI2000 and TW facilities at the Ecole Polytechnique.

  14. Thermonuclear-flash models for X-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joss, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical models for X-ray burst sources that invoke thermonuclear flashes in the surface layers of an accreting neutron star are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the studies by Joss (1978) and Joss and Li (1979) on the evolution of the helium-burning shell. Numerical calculations with regard to the mass accretion rate, core temperature of the neutron star and the sensitivity of the flash properties to the assumed mass and radius of the neutron star are considered. Attention is also given to the behavior of the surface luminosity following a thermonuclear flash, the decline from maximum X-ray luminosity, structure of the surface layers prior to and during the first helium-burning flash and the temporal evolution of the first X-ray burst.

  15. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  16. Characterization of X-Ray Diffraction System with a Microfocus X-Ray Source and a Polycapillary Optic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Marshall, Joy K.; Ciszak, Ewa; Ponomarev, Igor

    2000-01-01

    We present here an optimized microfocus x-ray source and polycapillary optic system designed for diffraction of small protein crystals. The x-ray beam is formed by a 5.5mm focal length capillary collimator coupled with a 40 micron x-ray source operating at 46Watts. Measurements of the x-ray flux, the divergence and the spectral characteristics of the beam are presented, This optimized system provides a seven fold greater flux than our recently reported configuration [M. Gubarev, et al., J. of Applied Crystallography (2000) 33, in press]. We now make a comparison with a 5kWatts rotating anode generator (Rigaku) coupled with confocal multilayer focusing mirrors (Osmic, CMF12- 38Cu6). The microfocus x-ray source and polycapillary collimator system delivers 60% of the x-ray flux from the rotating anode system. Additional ways to improve our microfocus x-ray system, and thus increase the x-ray flux will be discussed.

  17. X-RAY EMISSION AND ABSORPTION FEATURES DURING AN ENERGETIC THERMONUCLEAR X-RAY BURST FROM IGR J17062-6143

    SciTech Connect

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Fabian, A. C.

    2013-04-20

    Type-I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions occurring in the surface layers of accreting neutron stars. These events are powerful probes of the physics of neutron stars and their surrounding accretion flow. We analyze a very energetic type-I X-ray burst from the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17062-6143 that was detected with Swift on 2012 June 25. The light curve of the {approx_equal}18 minute long X-ray burst tail shows an episode of {approx_equal}10 minutes during which the intensity is strongly fluctuating by a factor of {approx_equal}3 above and below the underlying decay trend on a timescale of seconds. The X-ray spectrum reveals a highly significant emission line around {approx_equal}1 keV, which can be interpreted as an Fe-L shell line caused by the irradiation of cold gas. We also detect significant absorption lines and edges in the Fe-K band, which are strongly suggestive of the presence of hot, highly ionized gas along the line of sight. None of these features are present in the persistent X-ray spectrum of the source. The timescale of the strong intensity variations, the velocity width of the Fe-L emission line (assuming Keplerian motion), and photoionization modeling of the Fe-K absorption features each independently point to gas at a radius of {approx_equal} 10{sup 3} km as the source of these features. The unusual X-ray light curve and spectral properties could have plausibly been caused by a disruption of the accretion disk due to the super-Eddington fluxes reached during the X-ray burst.

  18. Statistical data of X-ray emission from laboratory sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkin, P.; Deursen, D. V.

    2011-12-01

    In this study we present a summary of the data of 1331 long laboratory sparks in atmospheric pressure intended for a statistical analysis. A 2 MV, 17kJ Marx generator were used to generate 1.2/52μs shape pulses positive and negative polarity. The generator was connected to a spark gap with cone-shaped electrodes. The distance between high-voltage and grounded electrodes was 1.08 meters. Breakdown voltage between electrodes was about 1MV. X-rays have been detected during the development of the discharge channel. The currents through the grounded electrode and through the high-voltage electrode were recorded separately and simultaneously with the voltage and the X-ray signal. X-rays were registered by two LaBr3(Ce+) scintillation detectors in different positions with respect to the forming discharge channel. Detector D1 was placed immediately under the grounded electrode at 15cm distance. Detector D2 was placed at horizontal distances of 143cm and 210cm, at mid-gap height. We also used lead shields of 1.5, 3, and 4 mm thickness for radiation attenuation measurements. For detector collimation we used shields up to 2 cm thickness. Also no metallic objects with pointed surfaces were present within 2 m from the spark gap. Typical plot of positive discharge presented in Figure 1a. Table 1 shows the summary of the X-ray registrations. Signal detection occurred significantly more for positive polarity discharges than for negative. This dependence was observed for both detectors. For detector D2 the probability of X-ray registration decreased proportional to 1/d2 with increasing the distance d to the breakdown gap from 1m43 to 2m10. Detailed energy spectra and time distribution of X-ray emission were obtained; see for example Fig. 1b. For both polarities of the high voltage, the X-rays only occurred when there was a current at the cathode.

  19. 21 CFR 872.1810 - Intraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraoral source x-ray system. 872.1810 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1810 Intraoral source x-ray system. (a) Identification. An intraoral source x-ray system is an electrically powered device that produces x-rays and...

  20. 21 CFR 872.1800 - Extraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extraoral source x-ray system. 872.1800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1800 Extraoral source x-ray system. (a) Identification. An extraoral source x-ray system is an AC-powered device that produces x-rays and is intended...

  1. 21 CFR 872.1810 - Intraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraoral source x-ray system. 872.1810 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1810 Intraoral source x-ray system. (a) Identification. An intraoral source x-ray system is an electrically powered device that produces x-rays and...

  2. 21 CFR 872.1800 - Extraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extraoral source x-ray system. 872.1800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1800 Extraoral source x-ray system. (a) Identification. An extraoral source x-ray system is an AC-powered device that produces x-rays and is intended...

  3. 21 CFR 872.1810 - Intraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraoral source x-ray system. 872.1810 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1810 Intraoral source x-ray system. (a) Identification. An intraoral source x-ray system is an electrically powered device that produces x-rays and...

  4. 21 CFR 872.1810 - Intraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral source x-ray system. 872.1810 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1810 Intraoral source x-ray system. (a) Identification. An intraoral source x-ray system is an electrically powered device that produces x-rays and...

  5. 21 CFR 872.1810 - Intraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraoral source x-ray system. 872.1810 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1810 Intraoral source x-ray system. (a) Identification. An intraoral source x-ray system is an electrically powered device that produces x-rays and...

  6. 21 CFR 872.1800 - Extraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extraoral source x-ray system. 872.1800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1800 Extraoral source x-ray system. (a) Identification. An extraoral source x-ray system is an AC-powered device that produces x-rays and is intended...

  7. 21 CFR 872.1800 - Extraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extraoral source x-ray system. 872.1800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1800 Extraoral source x-ray system. (a) Identification. An extraoral source x-ray system is an AC-powered device that produces x-rays and is intended...

  8. 21 CFR 872.1800 - Extraoral source x-ray system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extraoral source x-ray system. 872.1800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1800 Extraoral source x-ray system. (a) Identification. An extraoral source x-ray system is an AC-powered device that produces x-rays and is intended...

  9. Water maser emission from X-ray-heated circumnuclear gas in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Conger, Sarah

    1994-01-01

    We have modeled the physical and chemical conditions present within dense circumnuclear gas that is irradiated by X-rays from an active galactic nucleus. Over a wide range of X-ray fluxes and gas pressures, the effects of X-ray heating give rise to a molecular layer at temperatures of 400-1000 K within which the water abundance is large. The physical conditions within this molecular layer naturally give rise to collisionally pumped maser emission in the 6(sub 16) - 5(sub 23) 22 GHz transition of ortho-water, with predicted maser luminosities of 10(exp 2 +/- 0.5) solar luminosity per sq. pc of illuminated area. Given plausible assumptions about the geometry of the source and about the degree to which the maser emission is anisotropic, such surface luminosities are sufficient to explain the large apparent luminosities observed in water maser sources that are associated with active galactic nuclei.

  10. Studies of a prototype linear stationary x-ray source for tomosynthesis imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwoebel, P. R.; Boone, John M.; Shao, Joe

    2014-05-01

    A prototype linear x-ray source to implement stationary source-stationary detector tomosynthesis (TS) imaging has been studied. Potential applications include human breast and small animal imaging. The source is comprised of ten x-ray source elements each consisting of a field emission cathode, electrostatic lens, and target. The electrostatic lens and target are common to all elements. The source elements form x-ray focal spots with minimum diameters of 0.3-0.4 mm at electron beam currents of up to 40 mA with a beam voltage of 40 kV. The x-ray flux versus time was quantified from each source. X-ray bremsstrahlung spectra from tungsten targets were produced using electron beam energies from 35 to 50 keV. The half-value layer was measured to be 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 mm, respectively, for the 35, 40, and 45 kV tube potentials using the tungsten target. The suppression of voltage breakdown events, particularly during source operation, and the use of a modified form of the standard cold-cathode geometry, enhanced source reliability. The prototype linear source was used to collect tomographic data sets of a mouse phantom using digital TS reconstruction methods and demonstrated a slice-sensitivity profile with a full-width-half-maximum of 1.3 mm. Lastly, preliminary studies of tomographic imaging of flow through the mouse phantom were performed.

  11. From incoherent to coherent x-rays with ICS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Graves, William S.; Moncton, David E.

    2015-08-01

    We present the design and performance parameters for a compact x-ray light source (CXLS), which is presently under construction, based on inverse Compton scattering (ICS) of a high brightness electron bunch on a picosecond laser pulse. The flux and brilliance of this source are orders of magnitude beyond existing laboratory scale sources. The accelerator operates at a repetition rate of 1 kHz with 100 bunches of 100 pC charge, each separated by 5 ns, in each shot. The entire CXLS is a few meters in length and produces hard x-rays tunable over a wide range of photon energies. The scattering laser is a Yb:YAG solid-state amplifier producing 100 mJ pulses at 1030 nm. The laser pulse is frequency-doubled and coupled into a ringdown cavity to match the linac pulse structure. At a photon energy of 12.4 keV, the predicted x-ray flux is 5×1011 photons/second in a 5% bandwidth and the brilliance is 2×1012 photons/(secmm2mrad20.1%) with a RMS pulse length of 490 fs. Novel concepts for improving the performance of the CXLS with the generation of relativistic electron beams having current modulation at nanometer scale and below are also discussed. This tunable longitudinal modulation enables the production of coherent hard x-rays with ICS.

  12. Transition radiation very soft X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umiastowski, K.; Nguyen, A.

    1994-05-01

    There is a growing interest in the transition radiation (TR), as a soft X-ray source, in the last few years. Many papers have been published on calculations or experiments in the 1-10 keV X-ray energy range using 50-200 MeV electron accelerators. We investigate the possibility to generate very soft X-rays (λ = 12 nm) with low-energy electron accelerator (5-20 MeV). Very little information is available on TR in this range of photon wavelength and electron energy. A stack of 20 foils of beryllium placed in vacuum was used in our computer simulation. Calculation shows that for 1 mA electron beam current, radiation with few mW intensity can be produced. Emitted photons are quasi-monoenergetic (FWHM less than 5%), and well collimated. The aim of our study is to investigate the possibility of fabricate a soft X-ray source, much more compact than synchrotron source and producing an intense and quasi-coherent radiation, for industrial applications.

  13. The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.; Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R. Jr.; Balick, B.; Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A.; Jones, D.; Miszalski, B.; Sahai, R.; Blackman, E.; Frank, A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Guerrero, M. A.; Zijlstra, A.; Bujarrabal, V.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Nordhaus, J.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ∼1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ∼1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ∼27% and the point source detection rate to ∼36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (≲ 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ≳ 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  14. Elemental biological imaging by differential absorption with a laser-produced x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillman, C.; Mercer, I.; Svanberg, S.; Herrlin, K.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate the novel application of hard x rays emitted by a laser-produced plasma for differential imaging of elements. An x-ray-emitting laser-produced plasma, obtained by the focusing of radiation from a 10-Hz terawatt laser, is used for biological imaging. The x-ray source can be arranged to yield characteristic x-ray emission lines with photon energies that bridge the K absorption edge of a chosen atomic species. One can obtain element-specific radiographs by recording transillumination images for different target materials on digital image plates and by subsequently subtracting or dividing the images. Successful phantom and experimental animal imaging are performed utilizing tantalum and gadolinium as target materials for the terawatt laser and gadolinium as the imaged contrast agent.

  15. The optical emission lines of type 1 X-ray bright Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mura, G.; Berton, M.; Ciroi, S.; Cracco, V.; Di Mille, F.; Rafanelli, P.

    2014-10-01

    A strong X-ray emission is one of the defining signatures of nuclear activity in galaxies. According to the Unified Model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), both the X-ray radiation and the prominent broad emission lines, characterizing the optical and UV spectra of Type 1 AGNs, are originated in the innermost regions of the sources, close to the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH), which power the central engine. Since the emission is concentrated in a very compact region (with typical size r⩽0.1 pc) and it is not possible to obtain resolved images of the source, spectroscopic studies of this radiation represent the only valuable key to constrain the physical properties of matter and its structure in the center of active galaxies. Based on previous studies on the physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR) and on the X-ray spectra of broad (FWHMHβ ⩾ 2000 km s-1) and narrow line (1000 km s-1 ⩽FWHMHβ ⩽ 2000 km s-1) emitting objects, it has been observed that the kinematic and ionization properties of matter close to the SMBHs are related together, and, in particular, that ionization is higher in narrow line sources. Here we report on the study of the optical and X-ray spectra of a sample of Type 1 AGNs, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, within an upper redshift limit of z=0.35, and detected at X-ray energies. We present analysis of the broad emission line fluxes and profiles, as well as the properties of the X-ray continuum and Fe Kα emission and we use these parameters to assess the consistency of our current AGN understanding.

  16. ROSAT observations of the luminous X-ray sources in M51

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, A. P.; Elmegreen, D.; Elmegreen, B.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Flanagan, K.

    1995-01-01

    Our analysis of a 24 ks ROSAT Position Sensitive Proprtional Counter (PSPC) image of the interacting galaxies NGC 5194 (M51) and NGC 5195 shows that X-ray emission is distributed across the whole of NGC 5194. In addition to the diffuse emission and a bright nuclear region, eight individual sources were detected with 0.2-2.2 keV luminosities from 5 to 29 x 10(exp 38) ergs/s, more than 10 times higher than typical bright Galactic X-ray sources. The energy distribution of the luminous sources can be characterized by bremsstrahlung spectra with temperatures around 1 keV and low-energy absorption exceeding that expected from our Galaxy. Two sources lie in an inner spiral arm, while five lie along the outer edges of the outer spiral arms. Four sources (R1, R2, R4, R6) lie in or near regions of recent star formation as indicated by H II regions or CO emission from molecular clouds. However, for three of the X-ray sources which fall on the outer edge of the spiral arms (R3, R7, and R8), there is little or no associated CO or H alpha emission. We discuss the origin of the luminous X-ray sources as possibly arising from either massive black holes in binary star systems, supernova remnants, or hot gas associated with star forming regions.

  17. An XMM-Newton Survey of the Soft X-Ray Background. III. The Galactic Halo X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2013-08-01

    We present measurements of the Galactic halo's X-ray emission for 110 XMM-Newton sight lines selected to minimize contamination from solar wind charge exchange emission. We detect emission from few million degree gas on ~4/5 of our sight lines. The temperature is fairly uniform (median = 2.22 × 106 K, interquartile range = 0.63 × 106 K), while the emission measure and intrinsic 0.5-2.0 keV surface brightness vary by over an order of magnitude (~(0.4-7) × 10-3 cm-6 pc and ~(0.5-7) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 deg-2, respectively, with median detections of 1.9 × 10-3 cm-6 pc and 1.5 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 deg-2, respectively). The high-latitude sky contains a patchy distribution of few million degree gas. This gas exhibits a general increase in emission measure toward the inner Galaxy in the southern Galactic hemisphere. However, there is no tendency for our observed emission measures to decrease with increasing Galactic latitude, contrary to what is expected for a disk-like halo morphology. The measured temperatures, brightnesses, and spatial distributions of the gas can be used to place constraints on models for the dominant heating sources of the halo. We provide some discussion of such heating sources, but defer comparisons between the observations and detailed models to a later paper.

  18. X-ray Studies of Unidentified Galactic TeV Gamma-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pühlhofer, Gerd

    2009-05-01

    Many of the recently discovered Galactic TeV sources remain unidentified to date. A large fraction of the sources is possibly associated with relic pulsar wind nebula (PWN) systems. One key question here is the maximum energy (beyond TeV) attained in the compact PWNe. Hard X-ray emission can trace those particles, but current non-focussing X-ray instruments above 10 keV have difficulties to deconvolve the hard pulsar spectrum from its surrounding nebula. Some of the new TeV sources are also expected to originate from middle-aged and possibly even from old supernova remnants (SNR). But no compelling case for such an identification has been found yet. In established young TeV-emitting SNRs, X-ray imaging above 10 keV could help to disentangle the leptonic from the hadronic emission component in the TeV shells, if secondary electrons produced in hadronic collisions can be effectively detected. As SNRs get older, the high energy electron component is expected to fade away. This may allow to verify the picture through X-ray spectral evolution of the source population. Starting from the lessons we have learned so far from X-ray follow-up observations of unidentified TeV sources, prospects for Simbol-X to resolve open questions in this field will be discussed.

  19. CHANDRA REVEALS VARIABLE MULTI-COMPONENT X-RAY EMISSION FROM FU ORIONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Guedel, Manuel; Briggs, Kevin R.; Lamzin, Sergei A.

    2010-10-20

    FU Orionis is the prototype of a class of eruptive young stars ('FUors') characterized by strong optical outbursts. We recently completed an exploratory survey of FUors using XMM-Newton to determine their X-ray properties, about which little was previously known. The prototype FU Ori and V1735 Cyg were detected. The X-ray spectrum of FU Ori was found to be unusual, consisting of a cool moderately absorbed component plus a hotter component viewed through an absorption column density that is an order of magnitude higher. We present here a sensitive (99 ks) follow-up X-ray observation of FU Ori obtained at higher angular resolution with Chandra ACIS-S. The unusual multi-component spectrum is confirmed. The hot component is centered on FU Ori and dominates the emission above 2 keV. It is variable (a signature of magnetic activity) and is probably coronal emission originating close to FU Ori's surface viewed through cool gas in FU Ori's strong wind or accretion stream. In contrast, the X-ray centroid of the soft emission below 2 keV is offset 0.''20 to the southeast of FU Ori, toward the near-IR companion (FU Ori S). This offset amounts to slightly less than half the separation between the two stars. The most likely explanation for the offset is that the companion contributes significantly to the softer X-ray emission below 2 keV (and weakly above 2 keV). The superimposed X-ray contributions from FU Ori and the companion resolve the paradox posed by XMM-Newton of an apparently single X-ray source viewed through two different absorption columns.

  20. HARD X-RAY AND ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION DURING THE 2011 JUNE 7 SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Inglis, A. R.; Gilbert, H. R.

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between X-ray and UV emission during flares, particularly in the context of quasi-periodic pulsations, remains unclear. To address this, we study the impulsive X-ray and UV emission during an eruptive flare on 2011 June 7 utilizing X-ray imaging from RHESSI and UV 1700 Å imaging from SDO/AIA. This event is associated with quasi-periodic pulsations in X-ray and possibly UV emission, as well as substantial parallel and perpendicular motion in the hard X-ray footpoints. The motion of the footpoints parallel to the flare ribbons is unusual; it reverses direction on at least two occasions. However, there is no associated short timescale motion of the UV bright regions. Over the same time interval, the footpoints also gradually move apart at v ≈ 12 km s{sup –1}, consistent with the gradual outward expansion of the UV ribbons and the standard flare model. Additionally, we find that the locations of the brightest X-ray and UV regions are different, particularly during the early portion of the flare impulsive phase, despite their integrated emission being strongly correlated in time. Correlation analysis of measured flare properties, such as the footpoint separation, flare shear, photospheric magnetic field, and coronal reconnection rate, reveals that—in the impulsive phase—the 25-50 keV hard X-ray flux is only weakly correlated with these properties, in contrast with previous studies. We characterize this event in terms of long-term behavior, where the X-ray non-thermal, thermal, and UV emission sources appear temporally and spatially consistent, and short-term behavior, where the emission sources are inconsistent and quasi-periodic pulsations are a dominant feature requiring explanation. We suggest that the short timescale behavior of hard X-ray footpoints and the nature of the observed quasi-periodic pulsations are determined by fundamental, as yet unobserved properties of the reconnection region and particle acceleration sites. This presents a

  1. Automatic classification of time-variable X-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Kitty K.; Farrell, Sean; Murphy, Tara; Gaensler, B. M.

    2014-05-01

    To maximize the discovery potential of future synoptic surveys, especially in the field of transient science, it will be necessary to use automatic classification to identify some of the astronomical sources. The data mining technique of supervised classification is suitable for this problem. Here, we present a supervised learning method to automatically classify variable X-ray sources in the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog (2XMMi-DR2). Random Forest is our classifier of choice since it is one of the most accurate learning algorithms available. Our training set consists of 873 variable sources and their features are derived from time series, spectra, and other multi-wavelength contextual information. The 10 fold cross validation accuracy of the training data is ∼97% on a 7 class data set. We applied the trained classification model to 411 unknown variable 2XMM sources to produce a probabilistically classified catalog. Using the classification margin and the Random Forest derived outlier measure, we identified 12 anomalous sources, of which 2XMM J180658.7–500250 appears to be the most unusual source in the sample. Its X-ray spectra is suggestive of a ultraluminous X-ray source but its variability makes it highly unusual. Machine-learned classification and anomaly detection will facilitate scientific discoveries in the era of all-sky surveys.

  2. Bright x-ray stainless steel K-shell source development at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Hohenberger, M.; Moody, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-06-01

    High x-ray conversion efficiency (XRCE) K-shell sources are being developed for high energy density experiments for use as backlighters and for the testing of materials exposed to high x-ray fluxes and fluences. Recently, sources with high XRCE in the K-shell x-ray energy range of iron and nickel were investigated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The x-ray conversion efficiency in the 5-9 keV spectral range was determined to be 6.8% ± 0.3%. These targets were 4.1 mm diameter, 4 mm tall hollow epoxy tubes having a 50 μm thick wall supporting a tube of 3 to 3.5 μm thick stainless steel. The NIF laser deposited ˜460 kJ of 3ω light into the target in a 140 TW, 3.3 ns square pulse. The absolute x-ray emission of the source was measured by two calibrated Dante x-ray spectrometers. Time resolved images filtered for the Fe K-shell were recorded to follow the heating of the target. Time integrated high-resolution spectra were recorded in the K-shell range.

  3. Bright x-ray stainless steel K-shell source development at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Moody, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-06-15

    High x-ray conversion efficiency (XRCE) K-shell sources are being developed for high energy density experiments for use as backlighters and for the testing of materials exposed to high x-ray fluxes and fluences. Recently, sources with high XRCE in the K-shell x-ray energy range of iron and nickel were investigated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The x-ray conversion efficiency in the 5–9 keV spectral range was determined to be 6.8% ± 0.3%. These targets were 4.1 mm diameter, 4 mm tall hollow epoxy tubes having a 50 μm thick wall supporting a tube of 3 to 3.5 μm thick stainless steel. The NIF laser deposited ∼460 kJ of 3ω light into the target in a 140 TW, 3.3 ns square pulse. The absolute x-ray emission of the source was measured by two calibrated Dante x-ray spectrometers. Time resolved images filtered for the Fe K-shell were recorded to follow the heating of the target. Time integrated high-resolution spectra were recorded in the K-shell range.

  4. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Gotthelf, Eric; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman; Bauer, Franz; Perez, Kerstin; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; Stern, Daniel; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Alexander, David M.; Aramaki, Tsuguo; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barret, Didier; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Canipe, Alicia M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Desai, Meera A.; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Dooran; Hornstrup, Allan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E.; Madsen, Kristen K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Westergaard, Niels J.; Zhang, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    We present the first survey results of hard X-ray point sources in the Galactic Center (GC) region by NuSTAR. We have discovered 70 hard (3–79 keV) X-ray point sources in a 0.6 deg{}2 region around Sgr A* with a total exposure of 1.7 Ms, and 7 sources in the Sgr B2 field with 300 ks. We identify clear Chandra counterparts for 58 NuSTAR sources and assign candidate counterparts for the remaining 19. The NuSTAR survey reaches X-ray luminosities of ˜4× and ˜8 × 10{}32 erg s{}-1 at the GC (8 kpc) in the 3–10 and 10–40 keV bands, respectively. The source list includes three persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra indicates that all the NuSTAR sources are in the central bulge or are of extragalactic origin. Spectral analysis of relatively bright NuSTAR sources suggests that magnetic cataclysmic variables constitute a large fraction (>40%–60%). Both spectral analysis and logN–logS distributions of the NuSTAR sources indicate that the X-ray spectra of the NuSTAR sources should have kT > 20 keV on average for a single temperature thermal plasma model or an average photon index of Γ = 1.5–2 for a power-law model. These findings suggest that the GC X-ray source population may contain a larger fraction of XBs with high plasma temperatures than the field population.

  5. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Gotthelf, Eric; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman; Bauer, Franz; Perez, Kerstin; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; Stern, Daniel; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Alexander, David M.; Aramaki, Tsuguo; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barret, Didier; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Canipe, Alicia M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Desai, Meera A.; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Dooran; Hornstrup, Allan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E.; Madsen, Kristen K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Westergaard, Niels J.; Zhang, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    We present the first survey results of hard X-ray point sources in the Galactic Center (GC) region by NuSTAR. We have discovered 70 hard (3–79 keV) X-ray point sources in a 0.6 deg{}2 region around Sgr A* with a total exposure of 1.7 Ms, and 7 sources in the Sgr B2 field with 300 ks. We identify clear Chandra counterparts for 58 NuSTAR sources and assign candidate counterparts for the remaining 19. The NuSTAR survey reaches X-ray luminosities of ∼4× and ∼8 × 10{}32 erg s{}-1 at the GC (8 kpc) in the 3–10 and 10–40 keV bands, respectively. The source list includes three persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra indicates that all the NuSTAR sources are in the central bulge or are of extragalactic origin. Spectral analysis of relatively bright NuSTAR sources suggests that magnetic cataclysmic variables constitute a large fraction (>40%–60%). Both spectral analysis and logN–logS distributions of the NuSTAR sources indicate that the X-ray spectra of the NuSTAR sources should have kT > 20 keV on average for a single temperature thermal plasma model or an average photon index of Γ = 1.5–2 for a power-law model. These findings suggest that the GC X-ray source population may contain a larger fraction of XBs with high plasma temperatures than the field population.

  6. Diagnosing the accretion flow in ultraluminous X-ray sources using soft X-ray atomic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Matthew J.; Walton, Dominic J.; Fabian, Andrew; Roberts, Timothy P.; Heil, Lucy; Pinto, Ciro; Anderson, Gemma; Sutton, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The lack of unambiguous detections of atomic features in the X-ray spectra of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) has proven a hindrance in diagnosing the nature of the accretion flow. The possible association of spectral residuals at soft energies with atomic features seen in absorption and/or emission and potentially broadened by velocity dispersion could therefore hold the key to understanding much about these enigmatic sources. Here we show for the first time that such residuals are seen in several sources and appear extremely similar in shape, implying a common origin. Via simple arguments we assert that emission from extreme colliding winds, absorption in a shell of material associated with the ULX nebula and thermal plasma emission associated with star formation are all highly unlikely to provide an origin. Whilst CCD spectra lack the energy resolution necessary to directly determine the nature of the features (i.e. formed of a complex of narrow lines or intrinsically broad lines), studying the evolution of the residuals with underlying spectral shape allows for an important, indirect test for their origin. The ULX NGC 1313 X-1 provides the best opportunity to perform such a test due to the dynamic range in spectral hardness provided by archival observations. We show through highly simplified spectral modelling that the strength of the features (in either absorption or emission) appears to anticorrelate with spectral hardness, which would rule out an origin via reflection of a primary continuum and instead supports a picture of atomic transitions in a wind or nearby material associated with such an outflow.

  7. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission associated with Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.

    2009-12-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to ~6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of ~3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. Although such an emission can be originated from multiple background point sources, its possibility is quite low. We hence examined three mechanisms, assuming that the emission is truly diffuse: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon around Jupiter.

  8. X-ray Emission from the Born-Again Planetary Nebula Abell 30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    The planetary nebula (PN) Abell 30 underwent a very late thermal pulse that resulted in the ejection of knots of hydrogen-poor material. ROSAT detected soft X-ray emission from these knots. We present deep Chandra and XMM-Newton observations that show this X-ray emission to consist of two components: a point-source at the central star and diffuse emission associated with the hydrogen-poor knots and the cloverleaf structure inside the nebular shell. The spatial distribution and spectral properties of the diffuse X-ray emission suggest that it is generated by the shock-heated plasma produced by the interaction of the present stellar wind with the hydrogen-poor ejecta of the born-again event. Charge-exchange reactions between the ions of the stellar winds and the born-again ejecta may also contribute to this emission. The origin of the X-ray emission from the central star of A 30 is puzzling: shocks in the present fast stellar wind and photospheric emission can be ruled out, while the development of a new, compact hot bubble confining the fast stellar wind seems implausible.

  9. Soft X-ray emission in kink-unstable coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, R. F.; Vilmer, N.; Brun, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Solar flares are associated with intense soft X-ray emission generated by the hot flaring plasma in coronal magnetic loops. Kink-unstable twisted flux-ropes provide a source of magnetic energy that can be released impulsively and may account for the heating of the plasma in flares. Aims: We investigate the temporal, spectral, and spatial evolution of the properties of the thermal continuum X-ray emission produced in such kink-unstable magnetic flux-ropes and discuss the results of the simulations with respect to solar flare observations. Methods: We computed the temporal evolution of the thermal X-ray emission in kink-unstable coronal loops based on a series of magnetohydrodynamical numerical simulations. The numerical setup consisted of a highly twisted loop embedded in a region of uniform and untwisted background coronal magnetic field. We let the kink instability develop, computed the evolution of the plasma properties in the loop (density, temperature) without accounting for mass exchange with the chromosphere. We then deduced the X-ray emission properties of the plasma during the whole flaring episode. Results: During the initial (linear) phase of the instability, plasma heating is mostly adiabatic (as a result of compression). Ohmic diffusion takes over as the instability saturates, leading to strong and impulsive heating (up to more than 20 MK), to a quick enhancement of X-ray emission, and to the hardening of the thermal X-ray spectrum. The temperature distribution of the plasma becomes broad, with the emission measure depending strongly on temperature. Significant emission measures arise for plasma at temperatures higher than 9 MK. The magnetic flux-rope then relaxes progressively towards a lower energy state as it reconnects with the background flux. The loop plasma suffers smaller sporadic heating events, but cools down globally by thermal conduction. The total thermal X-ray emission slowly fades away during this phase, and the high

  10. Measurement of coronal X-ray emission lines from Capella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, P. W.; Canizares, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory's Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer has detected X-ray emission lines due to O VIII, Fe XVII, and Fe XX, from the binary star system Capella. Line luminosities are well fitted by an emitting plasma at a single temperature of 6.29 + or - 0.01 - 0.03 million K, and a volume emission measure of about 8.6 x 10 to the 52nd/cu cm, corresponding to the low temperature component previously observed. A high temperature component is undetectable, since the observed lines are not produced in plasma at temperatures above about 20 million K. Nearly isothermal plasma would be expected if many of the magnetically confined coronal loops have similar sizes and pressures, and a second population of longer loops would be required to account for the hotter component. An alternative interpretation of the observed X-ray line emission and upper limit is that the plasma contains a continuous distribution of emission measure versus temperature that rises sharply to 3 million K and then falls by nearly a decade to 16 million. An extrapolation of the loop sizes suggested by this alternative to hotter, longer loops may also account for the higher temperature emission.

  11. Analysis of Off-Nuclear X-Ray Sources in Galaxy NGC 4945

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Sarah M.; /MIT /SLAC

    2006-09-11

    Recently, X-ray astronomy has been used to investigate objects such as galaxies, clusters of galaxies, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), quasars, starburst superbubbles of hot gas, X-ray binary systems, stars, supernova remnants, and interstellar and intergalactic material. By studying the x-ray emission patterns of these objects, we can gain a greater understanding of their structure and evolution. We analyze X-ray emission from the galaxy NGC 4945 using data taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations (CIAO) software package was used to extract and fit energy spectra and to extract light curves for the brightest off-nuclear sources in two different observations of NGC 4945 (January, 2000 and May, 2004). A majority of sources were closely fit by both absorbed power law and absorbed bremsstrahlung models, with a significantly poorer {chi}{sup 2}/dof for the absorbed blackbody model, and most sources had little variability. This indicates that the sources are accreting binary systems with either a neutron star or black hole as the compact object. The calculated luminosities were about 10{sup 38} erg/s, which implies that the mass of the accreting object is close to 10 solar masses and must be a black hole.

  12. On the origin of two unidentified radio/X-ray sources discovered with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Federico; Combi, Jorge A.; Medina, María C.; Romero, Gustavo E.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: We aim at clarifying the nature of the emission of two spatially related unidentified X-ray sources detected with XMM-Newton telescope at intermediate-low Galactic latitude Methods: We use the imaging and spectral capabilities of XMM-Newton to study the X-ray properties of these two sources. In addition, we complement our study with radio data obtained at different frequencies to analyze a possible physical association between the sources. Results: Observations reveal a point-like source aligned with elongated diffuse emission. The X-ray spectra of these sources is best-fitted by an absorbed power law with photon index Γ ~ 1.7 for the point-like source and ~2.0 for the extended source. Both sources show nonthermal radio-continuum counterparts that might indicate a physical association. In addition, from the available data, we did not detect variability on the point-like source in several timescales. Two possible scenarios are analyzed: one Galactic and one extra-Galactic. First, based on HI line absorption, assuming a Galactic origin, we infer a distance upper bound of ≲2 kpc, which poses a constraint on the height over the Galactic plane of ≲200 pc and on the linear size of the system of ≲2.3 pc. In this case, the X-ray luminosities are ≳1032 erg s-1 and ≳7.5 × 1032 erg s-1, for the point-like and extended sources, respectively. Second, an extra-Galactic nature is discussed, where the point-like source might be the core of a radio galaxy and the extended source its lobe. In this case, we compare derived fluxes, spectral indices, and spatial correlation with those typical from the radio galaxy population, showing the feasibility of this alternative astrophysical scenario. Conclusions: From the available observational evidence, we suggest that the most promising scenario to explain the nature of these sources is a system consisting of a one-sided radio galaxy, where the point-like source is an active galactic nucleus and the extended source

  13. X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Main

    We study a detailed broad-band X-ray/UV emission from the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy II Zw 177 based on two XMM-Newton and single Swift/XRT observations. Both XMM-Newton observations show the soft X-ray excess emission below 2 keV when the best-fit 2 - 10 keV power law is extrapolated down to 0.3 keV. We find the blurred reflection from an ionized accretion disc and Comptonized disc emission both describe the observed soft excess well. We find a remarkable trend of decreasing UV flux with increasing soft X-ray excess and power law emission. We suggest that this could be due to that the external edge of corona hide a fraction of accretion disk. Co-Author: Prof. Gulab C. Dewangan (IUCAA), Prof. Ranjeev Misra (IUCAA), Pramod Kumar (Nanded university)

  14. Stationary scanning x-ray source based on carbon nanotube field emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Jian; Cheng, Yuan; Gao, Bo; Qiu, Qi; Lee, Yueh; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2006-03-01

    Carbon nanotube is an ideal field emitter thanks to its large aspect ratio and small diameter. Based on its field emission property, we have developed a stationary scanning x-ray source, which can generate a scanning x-ray beam to image an object from multiple projection angles without mechanical motion. The key component of the device is a gated carbon nanotube field emission cathode with an array of electron emitting pixels that are individually addressable via a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor-based electronic circuit. The characteristics of this x-ray source are measured and its imaging capability is demonstrated. The device can potentially lead to a fast data acquisition rate for laminography and tomosynthesis.

  15. Inverse Compton X-ray emission from the superluminal quasar 3C 345

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, S. C.; Wehrle, A. E.; Urry, C. M.; Gilmore, D. M.; Barton, E. J.; Kjerulf, B. C.; Zensus, J. A.; Rabaca, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    In quasars with strong radio cores, the inverse-Compton process is believed to be the dominant source X-ray emission. For objects with parsec-scale radio jets, simple models have predicted that components in the jet emerging from the quasar nucleus generate the observed X-ray emission. We have tested this hypothesis in detail for the quasar 3C 345 using a ROSAT X-ray observation in 1990 July, together with quasi-simultaneous very long base interferometry (VLBI) imaging of the parsec-scale jet at five frequencies. The ROSAT spectrum is well fitted by a power law with index alpha = -0.96 +/- -0.13, consistent with models in which the X-ray emission results from inverse-Compton scattering of radio radiation from high-energy electrons in compact components. We show that the radio properties of brightest `knot' in the jet (`C5') can be fitted with a homogeneous sphere model whose parameters require bulk relativistic motion of the emitting material; otherwise the predicted model whose parameters require bulk relativistic motion of the emitting material; otherwise the predicted inverse-Compton X-ray emission exceeds the observed flux. If C5 is the origin of the X-ray emission, then it has a Doppler factor delta = 7.5((sup +3 sub -2)). If the nucleus or other components contribute to the X-ray emission, then this becomes a firm lower limit to delta. The inhomogeneous jet model of Koenigl is a good fit both to the barely resolved (less than 1 pc) flat-spectrum nucleus in the radio, and also to the ROSAT X-ray spectrum. The synchrotron and inverse-Compton emitting fluid moves down a narrow cone (opening angle 2 phi approximately 5 deg) nucleus relativistically, with delta approximately 4.6. Doppler factors for the nucleus and C5, derived from our ROSAT observation, provide evidence for bulk relativistic motion in the jet. By combining these constraints with well-known superluminal motion of jet components, we can deduce geometry. For epoch 1990.5 we infer the Lorentz factor

  16. Diffuse X-Ray Emission from Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Kartick C.; Nath, Biman B.; Sharma, Prateek; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    We study the diffuse X-ray luminosity (LX) of star-forming galaxies using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations and analytical considerations of supernovae-(SNe-)driven galactic outflows. We find that the mass loading of the outflows, a crucial parameter for determining the X-ray luminosity, is constrained by the availability of gas in the central star-forming region, and a competition between cooling and expansion. We show that the allowed range of the mass loading factor can explain the observed scaling of LX with star formation rate (SFR) as {L}{{X}}\\quad \\propto SFR2 for SFR ≳ \\quad 1 {M}⊙ yr-1, and a flatter relation at low SFRs. We also show that the emission from the hot circumgalactic medium (CGM) in the halo of massive galaxies can explain the large scatter in the {L}{{X}}{--}{SFR} relation for low SFRs (≲few {M}⊙ yr-1). Our results suggest that galaxies with small SFRs and large diffuse X-ray luminosities are excellent candidates for the detection of the elusive CGM.

  17. ELECTRON INJECTORS FOR NEXT GENERATION X-RAY SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUEM,H.; BEN-ZVI,I.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; ET AL.

    2004-08-02

    Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing.

  18. Measuring x-ray spectra of flash radiographic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda E.; Espy, Michelle A.; Haines, Todd J.; Mendez, Jacob; Moir, David C.; Sedillo, Robert; Shurter, Roger P.; Volegov, Petr; Webb, Timothy J.

    2015-08-01

    A Compton spectrometer has been re-commissioned for measurements of flash radiographic sources. The determination of the energy spectrum of these sources is difficult due to the high count rates and short nature of the pulses (~50 ns). The spectrometer is a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet which measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. Incoming x-rays are collimated into a narrow beam incident on a converter foil. The ejected Compton electrons are collimated so that the forward-directed electrons enter the magnetic field region of the spectrometer. The position of the electrons at the magnet's focal plane is a function of their momentum, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. Recent measurements of flash sources are presented.

  19. Chandra ACIS Observations of Jovian X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmire, Gordon; Elsner, Ronald; Feigelson, Eric; Ford, Peter; Gladstone, G. Randall; Hurley, Kevin; Metzger, Albert; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On November 25 and 26, 1999, the Chandra X-ray spacecraft conducted a set of four 19,000 sec observations of Jupiter. The ACIS-S instrument configuration was used for its good low energy efficiency and spatial resolution. An anomalous response was obtained which was subsequently attributed to strong jovian infrared radiation penetrating the detector and piling up spurious events across the entire X-ray range. However, the pre-observation establishment of an offsetting bias field has allowed the recovery of data from that portion of Jupiter's disc which remained within the elevated portion of the bias field during the observation. This ranges from fewer than 3000 sec to the entire observing time for about 10% of the planet. Auroral emission is seen near both poles in each observation. The northern aurora ia overall more intense than the southern, consistent with prior Einstein and ROSAT Observatory results. The southern aurora shows more modulation with Jupiter's rotation than the northern. Spatial resolution has been improved by at least a factor of two over prior measurements but convincing evidence of structure has not been seen. Lower latitude emission, first observed by ROSAT, is confirmed with flux levels averaging more than a factor of five below peak auroral values. Pronounced variation in the observed emission has occurred over the observing period. The spectral response extends from 0.24 keV, below which noise dominates, to about 1.2 keV. For all four observations the spectrum is clearly enhanced between 0.45 and 0.85 keV. This is apparently unequivocal evidence that Jupiter's X-ray emission is the result of oxygen and perhaps sulfur ions precipitating into the planet's atmosphere, where they undergo charge exchange interactions. The identification of specific transitions lines in the spectrum is among the ongoing efforts. A bremsstrahlung component has not yet been identified.

  20. X-ray emission from cataclysmic variables with accretion disks. I - Hard X-rays. II - EUV/soft X-ray radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J.; Raymond, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical models explaining the hard-X-ray, soft-X-ray, and EUV emission of accretion-disk cataclysmic variables in terms of the disk boundary layer (DBL) are developed on the basis of a survey of the published observational data. The data are compared with model predictions in graphs for systems with high or low (greater than or less than 10-Pg/s) accretion rates. Good agreement is obtained both at low accretion rates, where an optically thin rarefied hot (Te = 10 to the 8th K) DBL radiates most of its energy as hard X-rays, and at high accretion rates, where an optically thick 100,000-K DBL radiates most of its energy in the EUV and as soft X-rays. Detailed analysis of the old nova V603 Aql suggests that previous models predicting more detections of soft-X-ray/EUV emissions from thick-DBL objects (Ferland et al., 1982) used inappropriate dwarf masses, interstellar column densities, or classical-nova space densities.

  1. Ultraviolet/X-ray Variability and the Extended X-ray Emission of the Radio-loud Broad Absorption Line Quasar PG 1004+130

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Miller, B. P.; Luo, B.; Gallagher, S. C.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of recent Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Hubble Space Telescope observations of the radio-loud (RL), broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1004+130. We compare our new observations to archival X-ray and UV data, creating the most comprehensive, high signal-to-noise, multi-epoch, spectral monitoring campaign of a RL BAL quasar to date. We probe for variability of the X-ray absorption, the UV BAL, and the X-ray jet, on month-year timescales. The X-ray absorber has a low column density of {N}H=8× {10}20-4× {10}21 {{cm}}-2 when it is assumed to be fully covering the X-ray emitting region, and its properties do not vary significantly between the four observations. This suggests that the observed absorption is not related to the typical “shielding gas” commonly invoked in BAL quasar models, but is likely due to material further from the central black hole. In contrast, the C iv BAL shows strong variability. The equivalent width (EW) in 2014 is {EW}=11.24+/- 0.56 \\AA, showing a fractional increase of Δ {EW}/< {EW}> =1.16+/- 0.11 from the 2003 observation, 3183 days earlier in the rest-frame. This places PG 1004+130 among the most highly variable BAL quasars. By combining Chandra observations we create an exposure that is 2.5 times deeper than studied previously, with which to investigate the nature of the X-ray jet and extended diffuse X-ray emission. An X-ray knot, likely with a synchrotron origin, is detected in the radio jet ˜ 8\\prime\\prime (30 kpc) from the central X-ray source with a spatial extent of ˜ 4\\prime\\prime (15 kpc). No similar X-ray counterpart to the counterjet is detected. Asymmetric, non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission, likely due to inverse Compton scattering of Cosmic Microwave Background photons, is also detected.

  2. An X-Ray Reprocessing Model of Disk Thermal Emission in Type 1 Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, James

    2002-06-01

    Using a geometry consisting of a hot central Comptonizing plasma surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we model the optical through hard X-ray spectral energy distributions of the type 1 Seyfert galaxies NGC 3516 and NGC 7469. As in the model proposed by Poutanen, Krolik, & Ryde for the X-ray binary Cyg X-1 and later applied to Seyfert galaxies by Zdziarski, Lubiński, & Smith, feedback between the radiation reprocessed by the disk and the thermal Comptonization emission from the hot central plasma plays a pivotal role in determining the X-ray spectrum and, as we show, the optical and ultraviolet spectra as well. Seemingly uncorrelated optical/UV and X-ray light curves, similar to those that have been observed from these objects can, in principle, be explained by variations in the size, shape, and temperature of the Comptonizing plasma. Furthermore, by positing a disk mass accretion rate that satisfies a condition for global energy balance between the thermal Comptonization luminosity and the power available from accretion, one can predict the spectral properties of the heretofore poorly measured hard X-ray continuum above ~50 keV in type 1 Seyfert galaxies. Conversely, forthcoming measurements of the hard X-ray continuum by more sensitive hard X-ray and soft γ-ray telescopes, such as those aboard the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, in conjunction with simultaneous optical, UV, and soft X-ray monitoring, will allow the mass accretion rates to be directly constrained for these sources in the context of this model.

  3. An X-Ray Reprocessing Model of Disk Thermal Emission in Type 1 Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Using a geometry consisting of a hot central Comptonizing plasma surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we model the optical through hard X-ray spectral energy distributions of the type 1 Seyfert. galaxies NGC 3516 and NGC 7469. As in the model proposed by Poutanen, Krolik, and Ryde for the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 and later applied to Seyfert galaxies by Zdziarski, Lubifiski, and Smith, feedback between the radiation reprocessed by the disk and the thermal Comptonization emission from the hot central plasma plays a pivotal role in determining the X-ray spectrum, and as we show, the optical and ultraviolet spectra as well. Seemingly uncorrelated optical/UV and X-ray light curves, similar to those which have been observed from these objects can, in principle, be explained by variations in the size, shape, and temperature of the Comptonizing plasma. Furthermore, by positing a disk mass accretion rate which satisfies a condition for global energy balance between the thermal Comptonization luminosity and the power available from accretion, one can predict the spectral properties of the heretofore poorly measured hard X-ray continuum above approximately 50 keV in type 1 Seyfert galaxies. Conversely, forthcoming measurements of the hard X-ray continuum by more sensitive hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray telescopes, such as those aboard the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) in conjunction with simultaneous optical, UV, and soft X-ray monitoring, will allow the mass accretion rates to be directly constrained for these sources in the context of this model.

  4. Identification of Galactic Bulge Survey X-Ray Sources with Tycho-2 Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Wright, N. J.; Maccarone, T. J.; Jonker, P. G.; Greiss, S.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Britt, C. T.; Nelemans, G.

    2012-12-01

    We identify 69 X-ray sources discovered by the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) that are coincident with or very close to bright stars in the Tycho-2 catalog. Additionally, two other GBS sources are resolved binary companions to Tycho-2 stars where both components are separately detected in X-rays. Most of these are likely to be real matches, but we identify nine objects with large and significant X-ray-to-optical offsets as either detections of resolved binary companions or chance alignments. We collate known spectral types for these objects, and also examine Two Micron All Sky Survey colors, variability information from the All-Sky Automated Survey, and X-ray hardness ratios for the brightest objects. Nearly a third of the stars are found to be optically variable, divided roughly evenly between irregular variations and periodic modulations. All fall among the softest objects identified by the GBS. The sample forms a very mixed selection, ranging in spectral class from O9 to M3. In some cases, the X-ray emission appears consistent with normal coronal emission from late-type stars, or wind emission from early-types, but the sample also includes one known Algol, one W UMa system, two Be stars, and several X-ray bright objects likely to be coronally active stars or binaries. Surprisingly, a substantial fraction of the spectroscopically classified, non-coincidental sample (12 out of 38 objects) have late B or A type counterparts. Many of these exhibit redder near-IR colors than expected for their spectral type and/or variability, and it is likely that the X-rays originate from a late-type companion star in most or all of these objects.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF GALACTIC BULGE SURVEY X-RAY SOURCES WITH TYCHO-2 STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, Robert I.; Britt, C. T.; Wright, N. J.; Jonker, P. G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Greiss, S.; Nelemans, G.

    2012-12-20

    We identify 69 X-ray sources discovered by the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) that are coincident with or very close to bright stars in the Tycho-2 catalog. Additionally, two other GBS sources are resolved binary companions to Tycho-2 stars where both components are separately detected in X-rays. Most of these are likely to be real matches, but we identify nine objects with large and significant X-ray-to-optical offsets as either detections of resolved binary companions or chance alignments. We collate known spectral types for these objects, and also examine Two Micron All Sky Survey colors, variability information from the All-Sky Automated Survey, and X-ray hardness ratios for the brightest objects. Nearly a third of the stars are found to be optically variable, divided roughly evenly between irregular variations and periodic modulations. All fall among the softest objects identified by the GBS. The sample forms a very mixed selection, ranging in spectral class from O9 to M3. In some cases, the X-ray emission appears consistent with normal coronal emission from late-type stars, or wind emission from early-types, but the sample also includes one known Algol, one W UMa system, two Be stars, and several X-ray bright objects likely to be coronally active stars or binaries. Surprisingly, a substantial fraction of the spectroscopically classified, non-coincidental sample (12 out of 38 objects) have late B or A type counterparts. Many of these exhibit redder near-IR colors than expected for their spectral type and/or variability, and it is likely that the X-rays originate from a late-type companion star in most or all of these objects.

  6. Einstein observations of extended galactic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, F. D.

    1979-01-01

    Features of the X-ray pictures taken aboard the space observatory are presented. Imaging proportional counter pictures in three broad X-ray energy ranges were obtained. The X-ray spectrum of supernova remnants is described.

  7. Detection of X-ray Emission From Galaxies Inside The Bootes Void

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chulhee; Boller, Thomas; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report the x-ray properties of Bootes void galaxies detected by the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). By searching the fields of 26 radio and 27 emission-line-selected void galaxies, we have detected 9 x-ray emitting void galaxies at >2.7-sigma confidence level. Five of these 9 galaxies are in the IP,AS subsample. We expect 2 detections at the redshift of the Bootes void based on previous positional cross-correlation studies of the RASS and IRAS Point Source Catalogue sources. Three of the x-ray emitting galaxies are AGNs (IRAS14288+5255, Mrk845, and IRAS 15195+5050), and the remaining 6 are all likely emission line galaxies (PC1357+4641, CG547, CG922, IRAS14SOO+4804, CG637, and IRAS15092+3940). The far infrared flux levels of the AGN sources implies most of the observed x-ray emissivity is from starburst activity. We have carried out timing and spectral analysis for the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk845. Poor statistics prevents detailed analysis of the remaining sources. only two galaxies in our sample, BHI 1514+3819 and FSS 1515+3823, were observed during ROSAT pointed observations resulting in a nondetection at the 1-sigma level.

  8. Detection of X-Ray Emission from Galaxies Inside the Bootes Void

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chulhee; Boller, T.; Ghosh, K.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    We report the X-ray properties of Bootes void galaxies detected by the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). By searching the fields of 26 radio and 27 emission-line-selected void galaxies, we have detected nine X-ray-emitting void galaxies at greater than 2.7 sigma confidence level. Five of these nine galaxies are in the IRAS subsample. Two of the IRAS galaxies were previously identified in positional cross-correlation studies of the RASS and IRAS Point Source Catalogue sources. Three of the X-ray-emitting galaxies are active galactic nuclei (AGNs; IRAS 14288+5255, Mrk 845, and IRAS 15195+5050), three are emission-line galaxies (PC 1357+4641, CG 547, and CG 922), and the remaining three are of unknown spectral type (IRAS 14500+4804, CG 637, and MAS 15092+3940). The far-infrared flux levels of the AGN sources imply that most of the observed X-ray emissivity is from starburst activity. We have carried out timing and spectral analysis for the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 845. Poor statistics prevents detailed analysis of the remaining sources. Only two galaxies in our sample, BHI 1514+3819 and FSS 1515+3823, were observed during ROSAT pointed observations resulting in a nondetection at the 1 sigma level.

  9. X-ray Thomson Scattering using the Hybrid X-pinch X-ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, Cad; Pikuz, Sergei; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, Dave

    2013-10-01

    Stringent photometric and bandwidth requirements have historically relegated X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) probe sources to high energy laser plasma sources or free electron lasers. Standard x-pinch configurations in which two or more fine wires cross and subtend an angle of about 30° forming an ``X'' between the anode and cathode of a pulsed power generatorcan produce extremely bright, subnanosecond bursts of continuum and line radiation from micron-scale sources. The hybrid x-pinch is a new configuration based on conical W-Cu alloy electrodes with a short 1-2 mm gap that is bridged by a fine wire resulting in an easier to load setup with improved performance characteristics. We explore the possibility of utilizing the hybid x-pinch as a novel XRTS probe source by examining certain spectral and temporal attributes of a range of materials in a hybrid x-pinch configuration on the XP (500 kA, 50 ns) and COBRA(1MA, 100ns) pulsed power generators. We find that a Ti hybrid x-pinch produces >1012 photons/sr in Ti He-alpha radiation and satisfies the noncollective scattering bandwidth requirement. Measurements of photon fluence, bandwidth and applicability to the relevant scattering regime and initial scattering results will be presented.

  10. The Detection of Circumnuclear X-Ray Emission from the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, I. M.; Turner, T. J.; Netzer, H.; Kraemer, S. B.; Ruiz, J.; Chelouche, D.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Yaqoob, T.; Nandra, K.; Mushotzky, R. F.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present the first high-resolution, X-ray image of the circumnuclear regions of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516, using the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO). All three of the CXO observations reported were performed with one of the two grating assemblies in place, and here we restrict our analysis to undispersed photons (i.e. those detected in the zeroth-order). A previously-unknown X-ray source is detected approximately 6 arcsec (1.1h(sub 75)(exp -1) kpc) NNE of the nucleus (position angle approximately 29 degrees) which we designate CXOU 110648.1 + 723412. Its spectrum can be characterized as a power law with a photon index (Gamma) approximately 1.8 - 2.6, or as thermal emission with a temperature kT approximately 0.7 - 3 keV. Assuming a location within NGC 3516, isotropic emission implies a luminosity L approximately 2 - 8 x 10(exp 39)h(sub 75)(exp-2) erg s(exp -1) in the 0.4 - 2 keV band. If due to a single point source, the object is super-Eddington for a 1.4 solar mass neutron star. However, multiple sources or a small, extended source cannot be excluded using the current data. Large-scale extended S-ray emission is also detected out to approximately 10 arcsec (approximately 2h(sub 75)(exp -1) kpc) from the nucleus to the NE and SW, and is approximately aligned with the morphologies of the radio emission and extended narrow emission line region (ENLR). The mean luminosity of this emission is 1 - 5 x 10(exp 37)h(sub 75)(exp -2) erg s(exp -1) arcsec(exp -2), in the 0.4 - 2 keV band. Unfortunately the current data cannot usefully constrain its spectrum. These results are consistent with earlier suggestions of circumnuclear X-ray emissi in NGC 3516 based on ROSAT observations, and thus provide the first clear detection of extended X-ray emission in a Seyfert 1.0 galaxy. If the extended emission is due to scattering of the nuclear X-ray continuum, then the pressure in the X-ray emitting gas is at least two orders of magnitude too small to provide the confining

  11. Characteristics of a molybdenum X-pinch X-ray source as a probe source for X-ray diffraction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchini, F.; Chauvin, C.; Combes, P.; Sol, D.; Loyen, A.; Roques, B.; Grunenwald, J.; Bland, S. N.

    2015-03-15

    X-ray emission from a molybdenum X-pinch has been investigated as a potential probe for the high pressure states made in dynamic compression experiments. Studies were performed on a novel 300 kA, 400 ns generator which coupled the load directly to a low inductance capacitor and switch combination. The X-pinch load consisted of 4 crossed molybdenum wires of 13 μm diameter, crossed at an angle of 62°. The load height was 10 mm. An initial x-ray burst generated at the wire crossing point, radiated in the soft x-ray range (hυ < 10 keV). This was followed, 2–5 ns later, by at least one harder x-ray burst (hυ > 10 keV) whose power ranged from 1 to 7 MW. Time integrated spectral measurements showed that the harder bursts were dominated by K-alpha emission; though, a lower level, wide band continuum up to at least 30 keV was also present. Initial tests demonstrated that the source was capable of driving Laue diffraction experiments, probing uncompressed samples of LiF and aluminium.

  12. Characteristics of a molybdenum X-pinch X-ray source as a probe source for X-ray diffraction studies.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, F; Bland, S N; Chauvin, C; Combes, P; Sol, D; Loyen, A; Roques, B; Grunenwald, J

    2015-03-01

    X-ray emission from a molybdenum X-pinch has been investigated as a potential probe for the high pressure states made in dynamic compression experiments. Studies were performed on a novel 300 kA, 400 ns generator which coupled the load directly to a low inductance capacitor and switch combination. The X-pinch load consisted of 4 crossed molybdenum wires of 13 μm diameter, crossed at an angle of 62°. The load height was 10 mm. An initial x-ray burst generated at the wire crossing point, radiated in the soft x-ray range (hυ < 10 keV). This was followed, 2-5 ns later, by at least one harder x-ray burst (hυ > 10 keV) whose power ranged from 1 to 7 MW. Time integrated spectral measurements showed that the harder bursts were dominated by K-alpha emission; though, a lower level, wide band continuum up to at least 30 keV was also present. Initial tests demonstrated that the source was capable of driving Laue diffraction experiments, probing uncompressed samples of LiF and aluminium. PMID:25832229

  13. Characteristics of a molybdenum X-pinch X-ray source as a probe source for X-ray diffraction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, F.; Bland, S. N.; Chauvin, C.; Combes, P.; Sol, D.; Loyen, A.; Roques, B.; Grunenwald, J.

    2015-03-01

    X-ray emission from a molybdenum X-pinch has been investigated as a potential probe for the high pressure states made in dynamic compression experiments. Studies were performed on a novel 300 kA, 400 ns generator which coupled the load directly to a low inductance capacitor and switch combination. The X-pinch load consisted of 4 crossed molybdenum wires of 13 μm diameter, crossed at an angle of 62°. The load height was 10 mm. An initial x-ray burst generated at the wire crossing point, radiated in the soft x-ray range (hυ < 10 keV). This was followed, 2-5 ns later, by at least one harder x-ray burst (hυ > 10 keV) whose power ranged from 1 to 7 MW. Time integrated spectral measurements showed that the harder bursts were dominated by K-alpha emission; though, a lower level, wide band continuum up to at least 30 keV was also present. Initial tests demonstrated that the source was capable of driving Laue diffraction experiments, probing uncompressed samples of LiF and aluminium.

  14. X-ray emission associated with radio galaxies in the Perseus cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, George; Burns, Jack O.; Kowalski, Michael P.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we report on new x-ray observations of the Perseus cluster made using four separate pointings of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) Positron Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). We searched for x-ray emission associated with 16 radio galaxies and detected six above 3 sigma. We made use of the PSPC spectra to determine if the x-ray emission associated with radio galaxies in Perseus is thermal or nonthermal in origin (i.e., hot gas or an active galactic nuclei (AGN)). For the head-tail radio galaxy IC 310, we find that the data are best fit by a power law model with an unusually large spectral index alpha = 2.7. This is consistent with its unresolved spatial structure. On the other hand, a second resolved x-ray source associated with another radio galaxy 2.3 Mpc from the Perseus center (V Zw 331) is best fit by a thermal model. For three sources with insufficient flux for a full spectral analysis, we calculated hardness ratios. On this basis, the x-ray emission associated with the well known head-tail source NGC 1265 is consistent with thermal radiation. The x-ray spectra of UGC 2608 and UGC 2654 probably arise from hot gas, although very steep power-law spectra (alpha greater than 3.2) are also possible. The spectrum of NGC 1275 is quite complex due to the presence of an AGN and the galaxy's location at the center of a cluster cooling flow.

  15. X-ray identifications of FIRST radio sources in the XBoötes field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bouchefry, K.

    2009-07-01

    With the goal of investigating the nature and the environment of the faint radio sources (at mJy level), here are presented results of X-ray identifications of Faint Imaging Radio Survey at Twenty centimetres (FIRST) in the 9 deg2 Boötes field of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) Deep Wide Field Survey (NDWFS), using data from the Chandra XBoötes survey. A total of 92 (10 per cent) FIRST radio sources are identified above the X-ray flux limit fX(0.5-7)keV = 8 × 10-15ergs-1cm-2, and 79 optical counterparts are common to both the radio and X-ray sources. Spectroscopic identifications [obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) survey] were available for 22 sources (27 per cent). The majority of these sources (59 per cent) are classified as broad line active galactic nuclei (BLAGNs), and 18 per cent as low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), 14 per cent as star-forming galaxies and one source classified as BL Lac object. Multiwavelength optical/infrared photometric data (Bw ~ 25.5 mag, R ~ 25.8 mag, I ~ 25.5 mag and K ~ 19.4 mag) were available for this field and were used to derive photometric redshift for the remaining 57 sources without spectroscopic information. Most of the radio-X-ray matches are optically extended objects in the R band with a red colour, their radio emission is associated with AGN activity hosted in massive early type host galaxies with a photometric redshift distribution peaking at z ~ 0.7. Based on the hardness ratio and X-ray luminosity, 37 sources (89 per cent) were classified as AGN-1, 19 as AGN-2, 12 as quasi-stellar object 1 (QSO-1), two as QSO-2 and nine sources as normal galaxies. While the majority of these sources have a hard X-ray luminosity LX(2-7) keV > 1042ergs-1, about one third of the sources have LX(2-7) keV > 1044ergs-1 and therefore classified as QSO-1, 92 per cent of these objects are spectroscopically identified as QSOs. I found good agreement between the X-ray classification scheme

  16. Resolved atomic lines reveal outflows in two ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Ciro; Middleton, Matthew J.; Fabian, Andrew C.

    2016-05-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are extragalactic, off-nucleus, point sources in galaxies, and have X-ray luminosities in excess of 3 × 1039 ergs per second. They are thought to be powered by accretion onto a compact object. Possible explanations include accretion onto neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, onto stellar-mass black holes (of up to 20 solar masses) at or in excess of the classical Eddington limit, or onto intermediate-mass black holes (103-105 solar masses). The lack of sufficient energy resolution in previous analyses has prevented an unambiguous identification of any emission or absorption lines in the X-ray band, thereby precluding a detailed analysis of the accretion flow. Here we report the presence of X-ray emission lines arising from highly ionized iron, oxygen and neon with a cumulative significance in excess of five standard deviations, together with blueshifted (about 0.2 times light velocity) absorption lines of similar significance, in the high-resolution X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and NGC 5408 X-1. The blueshifted absorption lines must occur in a fast-outflowing gas, whereas the emission lines originate in slow-moving gas around the source. We conclude that the compact object in each source is surrounded by powerful winds with an outflow velocity of about 0.2 times that of light, as predicted by models of accreting supermassive black holes and hyper-accreting stellar-mass black holes.

  17. Resolved atomic lines reveal outflows in two ultraluminous X-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ciro; Middleton, Matthew J; Fabian, Andrew C

    2016-05-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are extragalactic, off-nucleus, point sources in galaxies, and have X-ray luminosities in excess of 3 × 10(39) ergs per second. They are thought to be powered by accretion onto a compact object. Possible explanations include accretion onto neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, onto stellar-mass black holes (of up to 20 solar masses) at or in excess of the classical Eddington limit, or onto intermediate-mass black holes (10(3)-10(5) solar masses). The lack of sufficient energy resolution in previous analyses has prevented an unambiguous identification of any emission or absorption lines in the X-ray band, thereby precluding a detailed analysis of the accretion flow. Here we report the presence of X-ray emission lines arising from highly ionized iron, oxygen and neon with a cumulative significance in excess of five standard deviations, together with blueshifted (about 0.2 times light velocity) absorption lines of similar significance, in the high-resolution X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and NGC 5408 X-1. The blueshifted absorption lines must occur in a fast-outflowing gas, whereas the emission lines originate in slow-moving gas around the source. We conclude that the compact object in each source is surrounded by powerful winds with an outflow velocity of about 0.2 times that of light, as predicted by models of accreting supermassive black holes and hyper-accreting stellar-mass black holes. PMID:27120159

  18. Long-term cycles in cosmic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priedhorsky, W. C.; Holt, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    Data on long-term cycles in galactic X-ray sources are reviewed, and classes of variations are identified including precessional activity, recurrent outbursts in Population II sources, and Be/neutron star flare cycles. Cycles of 30-300 days have been found in LMC X-4, Her X-1, SS433, and Cyg X-1 which represent cyclic variations in both the inner and outer parts of the accretion disk. Quasi-periodic cycles with periods ranging from 1/2 to 2 years have been noted in several low-mass X-ray binaries. It is suggested that periodic outbursts in the Be/neutron star systems may result from variable mass transfer in a wide eccentric orbit.

  19. X-ray emission in manganese compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabua, Malkhaz; Gotta, Detlev; Strauch, Thomas; Weidemann, Christian; Fricke, Burkhard; Rashid, Khalid

    2016-07-01

    X-ray emission spectra of manganese compounds have been measured using an ultimate-resolution Bragg spectrometer optimised for long-term high-statistics measurements. Energies corresponding to the peak positions of the Kα lines were measured to a precision of 10-20 meV. Total line widths of the Kα1 and Kα2 components and their asymmetry have been determined to about 50 meV. A model-free parametrisation of the line pattern corrected for the spectrometer response may serve as testing ground for detailed theoretical considerations.

  20. Kinematics of Compton backscattering x-ray source for angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Blumberg, L.N.

    1992-05-01

    Calculations of X-Ray production rates, energy spread, and spectrum of Compton-backscattered photons from a Free Electron Laser on an electron beam in a low energy (136-MeV) compact (8.5-m circumference) storage ring indicate that an X-Ray intensity of 34.6 10{sup 7} X-Ray photons per 0.5-mm {times} 0.5-mm pixel for Coronary Angiography near the 33.169-keV iodine K-absorption edge can be achieved in a 4-msec pulse within a scattering cone of 1-mrad half angle. This intensity, at 10-m from the photon-electron interaction point to the patient is about a factor of 10 larger than presently achieved from a 4.5-T superconducting wiggler source in the NSLS 2.5-GeV storage ring and over an area about 5 times larger. The 2.2-keV energy spread of the Compton-backscattered beam is, however, much larger than the 70-eV spread presently attained form the wiggler source and use of a monochromator. The beam spot at the 10-m interaction point-to-patient distance is 20-mm diameter; larger spots are attainable at larger distances but with a corresponding reduction in X-Ray flux. Such a facility could be an inexpensive clinical alternative to present methods of non-invasive Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), small enough to be deployed in an urban medical center, and could have other medical, industrial and aerospace applications. Problems with the Compton backscattering source include laser beam heating of the mirror in the FEL oscillator optical cavity, achieving a large enough X-Ray beam spot at the patient, and obtaining radiation damping of the transverse oscillations and longitudinal emittance dilution of the storage ring electron beam resulting from photon-electron collisions without going to higher electron energy where the X-Ray energy spread becomes excessive for DSA. 38 refs.

  1. X-Ray Properties of the Youngest Radio Sources and Their Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sobolewska, Małgosia; Migliori, Giulia; Guainazzi, Matteo; Hardcastle, Martin; Ostorero, Luisa; Stawarz, Łukasz

    2016-05-01

    We present the first results from our X-ray study of young radio sources classified as compact symmetric objects (CSOs). Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory we observed six CSOs for the first time in X-rays, and re-observed four CSOs already observed with XMM-Newton or BeppoSAX. We also included six other CSOs with archival data to built a pilot study of a sample of the 16 CSO sources observed in X-rays to date. All the sources are nearby, z\\lt 1, and the age of their radio structures (\\lt 3000 yr) has been derived from the expansion velocity of their hot spots. Our results show the heterogeneous nature of the CSOs’ X-ray emission, indicating a complex environment associated with young radio sources. The sample covers a range in X-ray luminosity, {L}2{--10{keV}}∼ {10}41–1045 erg s‑1, and intrinsic absorbing column density of {N}{{H}}≃ {10}21–1022 cm‑2. In particular, we detected extended X-ray emission in 1718‑649 a hard photon index of {{Γ }}≃ 1 in 2021+614 and 1511+0518 consistent with either a Compton-thick absorber or non-thermal emission from compact radio lobes, and in 0710+439 an ionized iron emission line at {E}{rest}=(6.62+/- 0.04) keV and EW ∼ 0.15–1.4 keV, and a decrease by an order of magnitude in the 2–10 keV flux since the 2008 XMM-Newton observation in 1607+26. We conclude that our pilot study of CSOs provides a variety of exceptional diagnostics and highlights the importance of deep X-ray observations of large samples of young sources. This is necessary in order to constrain theoretical models for the earliest stage of radio source evolution and to study the interactions of young radio sources with the interstellar environment of their host galaxies.

  2. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-08-10

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L{sub X} {>=} 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass {approx}10 M{sub Sun} or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the {approx}>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow.

  3. X-RAY EMISSION FROM NITROGEN-TYPE WOLF-RAYET STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Guedel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner

    2010-03-15

    We summarize new X-ray detections of four nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars obtained in a limited survey aimed at establishing the X-ray properties of WN stars across their full range of spectral subtypes. None of the detected stars is so far known to be a close binary. We report Chandra detections of WR 2 (WN2), WR 18 (WN4), and WR 134 (WN6), and an XMM-Newton detection of WR79a (WN9ha). These observations clearly demonstrate that both WNE and WNL stars are X-ray sources. We also discuss Chandra archive detections of the WN6h stars WR 20b, WR 24, and WR 136 and ROSAT non-detections of WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). The X-ray spectra of all WN detections show prominent emission lines and an admixture of cool (kT < 1 keV) and hot (kT > 2 keV) plasma. The hotter plasma is not predicted by radiative wind shock models and other as yet unidentified mechanisms are at work. Most stars show X-ray absorption in excess of that expected from visual extinction (A {sub V}), likely due to their strong winds or cold circumstellar gas. Existing data suggest a falloff in X-ray luminosity toward later WN7-9 subtypes, which have higher L {sub bol} but slower, denser winds than WN2-6 stars. This provides a clue that wind properties may be a more crucial factor in determining emergent X-ray emission levels than bolometric luminosity.

  4. The Chandra Deep Field North Survey. XV. Optically Bright, X-Ray-Faint Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschemeier, A. E.; Bauer, F. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bautz, M. W.; Conselice, C.; Garmire, G. P.; Schneider, D. P.; Wilson, G.

    2003-08-01

    We have analyzed optically bright, X-ray-faint [OBXF; i.e., log(fX/fR)<~-2] sources identified in an 178.9 arcmin2 area having high exposure (greater than 1500 ks) within the Chandra Deep Field North 2 Ms survey. We find 43 OBXF sources in this area, making up ~15% of the X-ray sources above a 0.5-2 keV flux of ~2.3×10-17 ergs cm-2 s-1. We present spectroscopic identifications for 42 of the OBXF sources and optical spectra for 25, including five previously unpublished redshifts. Deep optical imaging data (either Hubble Space Telescope [HST] or ground-based) are presented for all the OBXF sources; we measure the optical morphologies of the 20 galaxies having HST imaging data. The OBXF population consists mainly of normal and starburst galaxies detected out to cosmologically significant distances (i.e., to a median redshift of z=0.297 and a full redshift range z=0.06-0.845). This is notable since these distances equate to look-back times of up to ~8 Gyr; we are thus provided with a window on the X-ray emission from galaxies at redshifts much closer to the cosmic star formation peak than was possible prior to the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The X-ray luminosity distribution of OBXF sources extends to higher luminosity than does that of ``normal'' galaxies, indicating that a significant fraction are likely dominated by low-luminosity active galactic nuclei or vigorous star formation. The lowest redshift galaxies (z~0.06-0.2) have very low X-ray-to-optical flux ratios [i.e., log(fX/fR)<~-3], which are consistent with those of normal galaxies in the local universe. By combining the detected X-ray counts, we find the average OBXF X-ray spectrum to be consistent with a Γ~2.0 power law. The 0.5-2 keV logN-logS for the OBXF galaxies is much steeper (α~-1.7) than for the general X-ray source population. Indeed, the number of OBXF sources has doubled between the 1 and 2 Ms surveys, rising sharply in numbers at faint fluxes. The extragalactic OBXF sources are found to

  5. Measuring X-ray Spectra of Flash Radiographic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda; Espy, Michelle; Haines, Todd; Mendez, Jacob; Moir, David; Sedillo, Robert; Volegov, Petr; Webb, Tim

    2015-10-01

    A Compton spectrometer has been re-commissioned for measurements of flash radiographic sources. The determination of the energy spectrum provides information about the x-ray production mechanisms of these sources (ie. reaction history of plasmas, electron-target interactions) and benefits the analysis of images obtained at radiographic facilities. However, the measurements of the spectra are difficult due to the high count rates and short nature of the pulses (~ 50 ns). The spectrometer is a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet which measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. Incoming x-rays are collimated into a narrow beam incident on a converter foil. The ejected Compton electrons are collimated so that the forward-directed electrons enter the magnetic field region of the spectrometer. The position of the electrons at the focal plane of the magnet is a function of their momentum, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. Recent measurements of both flash and continuous radiographic sources will be presented.

  6. Unique X-ray emission characteristics from volumetrically heated nanowire array plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, J. J.; Bargsten, C.; Hollinger, R.; Shlyaptsev, V.; Pukhov, A.; Kaymak, V.; Capeluto, G.; Keiss, D.; Townsend, A.; Rockwood, A.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.

    2015-11-01

    Highly anisotropic emission of hard X-ray radiation (h ν >10 keV) is observed when arrays of ordered nanowires (50 nm diameter wires of Au or Ni) are volumetrically heated by normal incidence irradiation with high contrast 50-60 fs laser pulses of relativistic intensity. The annular emission is in contrast with angular distribution of softer X-rays (h ν >1 KeV) from these targets and with the X-ray radiation emitted by polished flat targets, both of which are nearly isotropic. Model computations that make use the electron energy distribution computed by particle-in-cell simulations show that the unexpected annular distribution of the hard x-rays is the result of bremsstrahlung from fast electrons. Volumetric heating of Au nanowire arrays irradiated with an intensity of 2 x 10 19 W cm-2 is measured to convert laser energy into h ν>1KeV photons with a record efficiency of >8 percent into 2 π, creating a bright picosecond X-ray source for applications. Work supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Science of the U.S Department of Energy, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. A.P was supported by DFG project TR18.

  7. Development of an X-ray tube for irradiation experiments using a field emission electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hidetoshi; O`Rourke, Brian E.; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Wang, Jiayu; Ooi, Takashi; Nakajima, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new X-ray tube using a ring-shaped emitter as a field emission electron source has been developed. By using a ring shaped cathode, X-rays can be extracted along the axial direction through the central hole. This cylindrically symmetrical design allows for the tube to be arranged in the axial direction with the high voltage target at one end and the X-ray beam at the other. The newly developed X-ray tube can operate at a tube voltage of more than 100 kV and at a tube current of more than 4 mA, and can be used for irradiation experiments with an irradiation dose range from mGy up to kGy. The X-ray tube can be used immediately after turning on (i.e. there is no stand-by time). In the experimental model, we demonstrated stable electron emission at a tube voltage of 100 kV and at a tube current of 4 mA during a 560 h continuous test.

  8. DISCOVERY OF DIFFUSE HARD X-RAY EMISSION AROUND JUPITER WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect

    Ezoe, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.

    2010-02-01

    We report the discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter in a deep 160 ks Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer data. The emission is distributed over {approx}16 x 8 Jovian radius and spatially associated with the radiation belts and the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). It shows a flat power-law spectrum with a photon index of 1.4 {+-} 0.2 with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of (3.3 {+-} 0.5)x10{sup 15} erg s{sup -1}. We discussed its origin and concluded that it seems to be truly diffuse, although a possibility of multiple background point sources cannot be completely rejected with a limited angular resolution. If it is diffuse, the flat continuum indicates that X-rays arise by the nonthermal electrons in the radiation belts and/or the IPT. The synchrotron and bremsstrahlung models can be rejected from the necessary electron energy and X-ray spectral shape, respectively. The inverse-Compton scattering off solar photons by ultra-relativistic (several tens MeV) electrons can explain the energy and the spectrum but the necessary electron density is {approx}>10 times larger than the value estimated from the empirical model of Jovian charge particles.

  9. Analysis of the Central X-ray Source in DG Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P. Christian; Schmitt, Jürgen H. M. M.

    As a stellar X-ray source DG Tau shows two rather unusual features: A resolved X-ray jet [2] and an X-ray spectrum best described by two thermal components with different absorbing column densities, a so called "two-absorber X-ray (TAX)" morphology [1, 2]. In an effort to understand the properties of the central X-ray source in DG Tau a detailed position analysis was carried out.

  10. Pulsed Capillary Discharge Operated As A Compact Soft X-Ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Wyndham, E. S.; Favre, M.; Valenzuela, J. C.

    2010-07-01

    We analyze experimental results of radiation emission from a compact pulsed capillary ns discharge source, designed for soft x-ray applications, operated in Nitrogen and N/He mixtures at voltages in the range of 18-24kV. The discharge operates in an alumina capillary of length 21mm and 1.6mm inner diameter. The electrical energy stored is ~0.5 J with peak current of ~5kA. Fast charging from an IGBT based pulsed power circuit allows operation at 35-150 Hz. Characteristic time-integrated Nitrogen spectra were recorded from 10-220 Å with clear evidence of He-like Nitrogen line at 28.9 Å, which represents a possible source for a water window soft x-ray microscope. Time-evolution measurements show the influence of axial electron beams, generated by hollow cathode dynamics, on the x-ray emission. We discuss optimal frequency of operation, voltage applied, geometrical and pressure conditions for cathode and anode, for soft x-ray generation. Time-integrated MCP images of a filtered slit-wire system delivered an estimate of the maximum emission energy of our source, as well as clear evidence of full wall detachment, of ~100μm in radial size for the entire emission range.

  11. Search for X-Ray Emission in the Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    The XMM observation were obtained on 2001 January 07-08 for 51767 s. The Optical Monitor (OM) was used with the V filter for 4 exposures of 5000 s each in imaging mode. We used the data given by the OM to confirm the presence of the source in the field of view. The European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) MOS 1 and MOS2 were used 48724 s each in prime full window mode with 2.5 s time resolution. The EPIC PN was used 46618 s in prime full window mode with 73.4 ms time resolution. The X-ray source closest to the expected position of our target is offset by delta R.A=2.5 arcsec and delta Dec=-28.37 arcsec. This offset is high in comparison with the 0.4 arcsec observed with the optical data. So at this point we already knew that the target was not detected. To confirm that conclusion, we performed the identification of all X-ray sources in the field of view by comparing source to source our image with the one obtained by Rutledge et al. with Chandra. This allowed us to identify all the X-ray sources in our field of view in an area of 20 arcsec times 10 arcsec centered on the expected coordinates of LP944-20. We were then able to conclude that the target was not detected during this observation. This result allowed us to determine a new and better 3 sigma upper limit of X-Ray emission for this object. We have also derived duty cycles for X-ray flares as a function of X-ray luminosity by comparing the XMM data with Chandra and ROSAT data. One student has been supported with the grant during four months (Herve Bouy). A Sun workstation was purchased for him.

  12. X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Main; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Misra, Ranjeev; Pawar, Pramod K.

    2016-03-01

    We study X-ray and UV emission from the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy II Zw 177 using a 137 ks long and another 13 ks short XMM-Newton observation performed in 2012 and 2001, respectively. Both observations show soft X-ray excess emission contributing 76.9 ± 4.9 per cent in 2012 and 58.8 ± 10.2 per cent in 2001 in the 0.3-2 keV band. We find that both blurred reflection from an ionized disc and Comptonized disc emission describe the observed soft excess well. Time-resolved spectroscopy on scales of ˜20 ks reveals strong correlation between the soft excess and the power-law components. The fractional variability amplitude Fvar derived from EPIC-pn light curves at different energy bands is nearly constant (Fvar ˜ 20 per cent). This is in contrast to other active galactic nuclei where the lack of short term variation in soft X-ray excess emission has been attributed to intense light bending in the framework of the `lamppost' model. Thus, the variations in power-law emission are most likely intrinsic to corona rather than just due to the changes of height of compact corona. The variable UV emission (Fvar ˜ 1 per cent) is uncorrelated to any of the X-ray components on short time-scales suggesting that the UV emission is not dominated by the reprocessed emission. The gradual observed decline in the UV emission in 2012 may be related to the secular decline due to the changes in the accretion rate. In this case, the short term X-ray variability is not due to the changes in the seed photons but intrinsic to the hot corona.

  13. X-ray illumination of globular cluster puzzles. [globular cluster X ray sources as clues to Milky Way Galaxy age and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, A. P.; Grindlay, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Globular clusters are thought to be among the oldest objects in the Galaxy, and provide, in this connection, important clues for determining the age and process of formation of the Galaxy. The present investigation is concerned with puzzles relating to the X-ray emission of globular clusters, taking into account questions regarding the location of X-ray emitting clusters (XEGC) unusually near the galactic plane and/or galactic center. An adopted model is discussed for the nature, formation, and lifetime of X-ray sources in globular clusters. An analysis of the available data is conducted in connection with a search for correlations between binary formation time scales, central relaxation times, galactic locations, and X-ray emission. The positive correlation found between distance from galactic center and two-body binary formation time for globular clusters, explanations for this correlation, and the hypothesis that X-ray sources in globular clusters require binary star systems provide a possible explanation of the considered puzzles.

  14. Chandra Detection of X-ray Emission from Ultra-compact Dwarf Galaxies and Extended Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Meicun; Li, Zhiyuan

    2016-04-01

    We have conducted a systematic study of X-ray emission from ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies and extended star clusters (ESCs), based on archival Chandra observa- tions. Among a sample of 511 UCDs and ESCs complied from the literature, 17 X-ray counterparts with 0.5-8 keV luminosities above ˜5 × 1036 erg s-1 are identified, which are distributed in eight early-type host galaxies. To facilitate comparison, we also identify X-ray counterparts of 360 globular clusters (GCs) distributed in four of the eight galaxies. The X-ray properties of the UCDs and ESCs are found to be broadly similar to those of the GCs. The incidence rate of X-ray-detected UCDs and ESCs, (3.3±0.8)%, while lower than that of the X-ray-detected GCs [(7.0±0.4)%], is substan- tially higher than expected from the field populations of external galaxies. A stacking analysis of the individually undetected UCDs/ESCs further reveals significant X-ray signals, which corresponds to an equivalent 0.5-8 keV luminosity of ˜4 × 1035 erg s-1 per source. Taken together, these provide strong evidence that the X-ray emission from UCDs and ESCs is dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries having formed from stellar dynamical interactions, consistent with the stellar populations in these dense systems being predominantly old.

  15. Discovery of X-Ray Emission from the Wolf-Rayet Star WR 142 of Oxygen Subtype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskinova, L. M.; Hamann, W.-R.; Feldmeier, A.; Ignace, R.; Chu, Y.-H.

    2009-03-01

    We report the discovery of weak yet hard X-ray emission from the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 142 with the XMM-Newton X-ray telescope. Being of spectral subtype WO2, WR 142 is a massive star in a very advanced evolutionary stage shortly before its explosion as a supernova or γ-ray burst. This is the first detection of X-ray emission from a WO-type star. We rule out any serendipitous X-ray sources within ≈1'' of WR 142. WR 142 has an X-ray luminosity of L X ≈ 7 × 1030 erg s-1, which constitutes only lsim10-8 of its bolometric luminosity. The hard X-ray spectrum suggests a plasma temperature of about 100 MK. Commonly, X-ray emission from stellar winds is attributed to embedded shocks due to the intrinsic instability of the radiation driving. From qualitative considerations we conclude that this mechanism cannot account for the hardness of the observed radiation. There are no hints for a binary companion. Therefore the only remaining, albeit speculative explanation must refer to magnetic activity. Possibly related, WR 142 seems to rotate extremely fast, as indicated by the unusually round profiles of its optical emission lines. Our detection implies that the wind of WR 142 must be relatively transparent to X-rays, which can be due to strong wind ionization, wind clumping, or nonspherical geometry from rapid rotation.

  16. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SUPERGIANT SHELL IN IC 2574

    SciTech Connect

    Yukita, Mihoko; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2012-05-01

    The M81 group member dwarf galaxy IC 2574 hosts a supergiant shell of current and recent star formation activity surrounding a 1000 Multiplication-Sign 500 pc hole in the ambient H I gas distribution. Chandra X-ray Observatory imaging observations reveal a luminous, L{sub X} {approx} 6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.3-8.0 keV band, point-like source within the hole but offset from its center and fainter diffuse emission extending throughout and beyond the hole. The star formation history at the location of the point source indicates a burst of star formation beginning {approx}25 Myr ago and currently weakening and there is a young nearby star cluster, at least 5 Myr old, bracketing the likely age of the X-ray source at between 5 and {approx}25 Myr. The source is thus likely a bright high-mass X-ray binary-either a neutron star or black hole accreting from an early B star undergoing thermal-timescale mass transfer through Roche lobe overflow. The properties of the residual diffuse X-ray emission are consistent with those expected from hot gas associated with the recent star formation activity in the region.

  17. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION IN THE OLD CLASSICAL NOVA DK LACERTAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, D.; Drake, J. J.; Sakamoto, T.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of X-ray emission at the position of the old classical nova DK Lacertae using the Swift satellite. Three observations were conducted using the X-Ray Telescope 62 years after the discovery of the nova, yielding 46 source signals in an exposure time of 4.8 ks. A background-subtracted count rate was 9 {+-} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} counts s{sup -1}, corresponding to a detection significance level of 5{sigma}. The X-ray spectrum was characterized by a continuum extending up to about 7 keV, which can be modeled by a power-law component with a photon index of 1.4-5.6, or by a thermal bremsstrahlung component with a temperature of 0.7-13.3 keV, convolved with interstellar absorption with an equivalent hydrogen column density of 0.3-2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. Assuming a distance of 3900 pc to the source, the luminosity was 10{sup 32}-10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.3-10 keV energy band. The origin of X-rays is considered to be either mass accretion on the white dwarf or adiabatic shocks in nova ejecta, with the former appearing much more likely. In either case, DK Lacertae represents a rare addition to the exclusive club of X-ray emitting old novae.

  18. Multiplexing radiography based on carbon nanotube field emission X-ray technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, G.; Lee, Y.; Chang, S.; Lu, J. P.; Zhou, O.

    2007-03-01

    State-of-the-art tomographic imaging technique is based upon of simple serial imaging scheme. The tomographic scanners collect the projection images sequentially in the time domain, by a step-and-shoot process using a single-pixel x-ray source. The inefficient serial data collection scheme severely limits the data collection speed, which is critical for imaging of objects in rapid motion such as for diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, CT fluoroscopy, and airport luggage inspection. Further improvement of the speed demands an increasingly high x-ray peak workload and gantry rotation speed, both of which have approached the engineering limits. Multiplexing technique, which has been widely adopted in communication devices and in certain analytical instruments, holds the promise to significantly increase the data throughput. It however, has not been applied to x-ray radiography, mainly due to limitations of the current x-ray source technology. Here we report a method for frequency multiplexing radiography (FMR) based on the frequency multiplexing principle and the carbon nanotube field emission x-ray technology. We show the feasibility of multiplexing radiography that enables simultaneous collection of multiple projection images. It has the potential to significantly increase the imaging speed for tomographic imaging without compromising the imaging quality.

  19. Ultraluminous X-ray sources - three exciting years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachetti, M.

    2015-09-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are off-nuclear extragalactic sources with (apparent) luminosities exceeding the Eddington limit for a stellar-mass black hole. This naturally suggests an association with the elusive class of intermediate-mass black holes, or with super-Eddington accreting black holes. As it turns out, this peculiar class of sources is actually a variegated zoo, including both classes of accreting black holes mentioned above and, rather unexpectedly, neutron stars. In this talk I will overview the astrophysical properties of these objects, and give an update on the many breakthroughs appeared in the literature in the last three years.

  20. The Brookhaven Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.B.; Blumberg, L.N.; Bozoki, E.; Desmond, E.; Galayda, J.; Halama, H.; Heese, R.; Hsieh, H.; Keane, J.; Kramer, S.; Mortazavi, P.; Schuchman, J.; Sharma, S.; Singh, O.; Solomon, L.; Thomas, M.; Wang, J.M. ); Kalsi, S.; Reusch, M.; Rose, J. ); Moser, H.O. )

    1990-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation from dipole magnets in electron storage rings has emerged as a useful source of x-rays for lithography. The goal of the SXLS Project at BNL is to design and construct a compact storage ring of circumference, C = 8.503 meters. It will use superconducting dipoles with a field of B{sub 0} = 3.87 Tesla and bending radius of {rho} = .6037 meters along with 700 MeV electrons to produce 10 angstrom x-rays for lithography. The project is proceeding in two phases: in Phase I low field iron dipoles are being used; in Phase II the low field dipoles will be replaced with superconducting dipoles. An overview of the design and status report are presented.

  1. Electron beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses.

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2010-09-30

    A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons is considered. The importance of the time-resolved studies of matter at picosecond (ps), femtosecond (fs), and atttosecond (as) time scales using x-rays has been widely recognized including by award of a Nobel Prize in 1999 [Zewa]. Extensive reviews of scientific drivers can be found in [BES1, BES2, BES3, Lawr, Whit]. Several laser-based techniques have been used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses including laser-driven plasmas [Murn, Alte, Risc, Rose, Zamp], high-order harmonic generation [Schn, Rund, Wang, Arpi], and laser-driven anode sources [Ande]. In addition, ultrafast streak-camera detectors have been applied at synchrotron sources to achieve temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale [Wulf, Lind1]. In this paper, we focus on a different group of techniques that are based on the use of the relativistic electron beam produced in conventional accelerators. In the first part we review several techniques that utilize spontaneous emission of electrons and show how solitary sub-ps x-ray pulses can be obtained at existing storage ring based synchrotron light sources and linacs. In the second part we consider coherent emission of electrons in the free-electron lasers (FELs) and review several techniques for a generation of solitary sub-fs x-ray pulses. Remarkably, the x-ray pulses that can be obtained with the FELs are not only significantly shorter than the ones considered in Part 1, but also carry more photons per pulse by many orders of magnitude.

  2. Energy-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser in a shot-by-shot mode

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kern, Jan; Gildea, Richard J.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hellmich, Julia; Glöckner, Carina; Echols, Nathaniel; Sierra, Raymond G.; Schafer, Donald W.; Sellberg, Jonas; Kenney, Christopher; Herbst, Ryan; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Herrmann, Sven; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Latimer, Matthew J.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Zwart, Petrus H.; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Bogan, Michael J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Glatzel, Pieter; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Bergmann, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The ultrabright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray free-electron lasers open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of systems beyond what is possible with synchrotron sources. Recently, this “probe-before-destroy” approach has been demonstrated for atomic structure determination by serial X-ray diffraction of microcrystals. There has been the question whether a similar approach can be extended to probe the local electronic structure by X-ray spectroscopy. To address this, we have carried out femtosecond X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) at the Linac Coherent Light Source using redox-active Mn complexes. XES probes the charge and spin states as well as the ligand environment, critical for understanding the functional role of redox-active metal sites. Kβ1,3 XES spectra of MnII and Mn2III,IV complexes at room temperature were collected using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer and femtosecond X-ray pulses with an individual dose of up to >100 MGy. The spectra were found in agreement with undamaged spectra collected at low dose using synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that the intact electronic structure of redox active transition metal compounds in different oxidation states can be characterized with this shot-by-shot method. This opens the door for studying the chemical dynamics of metal catalytic sites by following reactions under functional conditions. The technique can be combined with X-ray diffraction to simultaneously obtain the geometric structure of the overall protein and the local chemistry of active metal sites and is expected to prove valuable for understanding the mechanism of important metalloproteins, such as photosystem II. PMID:23129631

  3. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; Scott, A. E.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-10-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <~ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γeff ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (gsim 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  4. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; and others

    2014-10-10

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ{sub eff} ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  5. X-Ray, UV, and Optical Observations of Supernova 2006bp with Swift: Detection of Early X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immler, S.; Brown, P. J.; Milne, P.; Dessart, L.; Mazzali, P. A.; Landsman, W.; Gehrels, N.; Petre, R.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Chevalier, R. A.; Williams, C. L.; Koss, M.; Stockdale, C. J.; Kelley, M. T.; Weiler, K. W.; Holland, S. T.; Pian, E.; Roming, P. W. A.; Pooley, D.; Nomoto, K.; Greiner, J.; Campana, S.; Soderberg, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    We present results on the X-ray and optical/UV emission from the Type IIP supernova (SN) 2006bp and the interaction of the SW shock with its environment, obtained with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) on-board the Swift observatory. SN 2006bp is detected in X-rays at a 4.5 sigmalevel of significance in the merged XRT data from days 1 to 12 after the explosion. If the (0.2-10 keV band) X-ray luminosity of L(sub 0.2-10) = (1.8 plus or minus 0.4) x l0(exp 39 ergs s(exp -1) is caused by interaction of the SN shock with circumstellar material (CSM), deposited by a stellar wind from the progenitor's companion star, a mass-loss rate of M is approximately 2x10(exp -6) solar mass yr(exp -1) (v(sub w)/10 km s(exp -l) is inferred. The mass-loss rate is one of the lowest ever recorded for a core-collapse SN and consistent with the non-detection in the radio with the VLA on days 2, 9, and 11 after the explosion. The Swift data further show a fading of the X-ray emission starting around day 12 after the explosion. In combination with a follow-up XMM-Newton observation obtained on day 21 after the explosion, an X-ray rate of decline Lx, varies as t(exp -n) with index n = 1.2 plus or minus 0.6 is inferred. Since no other SN has been detected in X-rays prior to the optical peak and since Type IIP SNe have an extended 'plateau' phase in the optical, we discuss the scenario that the X-rays might be due to inverse Compton scattering of photospheric optical photons off relativistic electrons produced in circumstellar shocks. However, due to the high required value of the Lorentz factor (approximately 10-100), inconsistent with the ejecta velocity inferred from optical line widths, we conclude that Inverse Compton scattering is an unlikely explanation for the observed X-ray emission. The fast evolution of the optical/ultraviolet (1900-5500A) spectral energy distribution and the spectral changes observed with Swift reveal the onset of metal line-blanketing and

  6. Note: Construction of x-ray scattering and x-ray absorption fine structure beamline at the Pohang Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ik-Jae; Yu, Chung-Jong; Yun, Young-Duck; Lee, Chae-Soon; Seo, In Deuk; Kim, Hyo-Yun; Lee, Woul-Woo; Chae, Keun Hwa

    2010-02-15

    A new hard x-ray beamline, 10B KIST-PAL beamline (BL10B), has been designed and constructed at the Pohang Light Source (PLS) in Korea. The beamline, operated by Pohang Accelerator Laboratory-Korean Institute of Science and Technology consortium, is dedicated to x-ray scattering (XRS) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments. X rays with photon energies from 4.0 to 16.0 keV are delivered to the experimental station passing a collimating mirror, a fixed-exit double-crystal Si(111) monochromator, and a toroidal mirror. Basic experimental equipments for XAFS measurement, a high resolution diffractometry, an image plate detector system, and a hot stage have been prepared for the station. From our initial commissioning and performance testing of the beamline, it is observed that BL10B beamline can perform XRS and XAFS measurements successfully.

  7. Simultaneous X-ray and optical observations of the flaring X-ray source, Aquila A-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, C. S.; Charles, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    During the summer of 1978 the recurrent transient X-ray source, Aquila X-1, underwent its first major outburst in two years. The results of extensive observations at X-ray and optical wavelengths throughout this event, which lasted for approximately two months are presented. The peak X-ray luminosity was approximately 1.3 times that of the Crab and exhibited spectral dependent flickering on timescales approximately 5 minutes. The observations are interpreted in terms of a standard accretion disk model withparticular emphasis on the similarities to Sco X-1 and other dward X-ray systems, although the transient nature of the system remains unexplained. It was found that Aquila X-1 can be described adequately by the semi-detached Roche lobe model and yields a mass ratio of less than or approximate to 3.5.

  8. An extended galactic population of low-luminosity x-ray sources (CVs?) and the diffuse x-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maoz, Eyal; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1995-01-01

    The incompatibility of the properties of the X-ray background (XRB) with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contributing approximately greater than 60% at energies of a few keV has often been interpreted as being due to a substantial contribution of a new population of yet unrecognized X-ray sources. The existence of such population has been recently suggested also by an analysis of very deep ROSAT observations which revealed a considerable excess of faint X-ray sources over that expected from QSO evolution models, and that the average spectrum of the resolved sources becomes harder with decreasing flux limit. These sources could be extragalactic in origin, but if they make a substantial contribution to the XRB then they must exhibit much weaker clustering than galaxies or QSOs in order to be consistent with the stringent constraints on source clustering imposed by autocorrelation analyses of the unresolved XRB. We investigate the possibility that the indicated new population of X-ray sources is Galactic in origin. Examining spherical halo and thick disk distributions, we derive the allowed properties of such populations which would resolve the discrepancy found in the number counts of faint sources and be consistent with observational constraints on the total background intensity, the XRB anisotropy, the number of unidentified bright sources, the Galaxy's total X-ray luminosity, and with the results of fluctuation analyses of the unresolved XRB. We find that a flattened Galactic halo (or a thick disk) distribution with a scale height of a few kpc is consistent with all the above requirements. The typical X-ray luminosity of the sources is approximately equal to 10(exp 30-31)ergs/s in the 0.5-2 keV band, the number density of sources in the solar vicinity is approximately 10(exp -4.5)pc(exp -3), their total number in the Galaxy is approximately 10(exp 8.5), and their total contribution to the Galaxy's X-ray luminosity is approximately 10(exp 39) ergs/s. We discuss the

  9. Variable X-ray Emission from FU Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Steve L.; Guedel, M.; Briggs, K. R.; Lamzin, S. A.; Sokal, K. R.

    2009-05-01

    FU Orionis is the prototype of a small but remarkable class of pre-main sequence stars ('FUors') that have undergone large optical outbursts thought to be linked to episodic accretion. FU Ori increased in optical brightness by about 6 mag in 1936-37 and is still in slow decline. Because of their high accretion rates, FUors are good candidates for exploring potential effects of accretion on X-ray emission. A recently completed survey of FUors with XMM-Newton detected X-rays from FU Ori and V1735 Cyg. We present new results from a sensitive 99 ksec (1.15 day) follow-up X-ray observation of FU Ori with Chandra. The Chandra ACIS-S CCD spectrum confirms the presence of a cool plasma component (kT < 1 keV) viewed under moderate absorption and a much hotter component (kT > 3 keV), viewed under high absorption, in accord with previous XMM results. The uninterrupted Chandra light curve shows that the hot component is slowly variable on a timescale of one day, but no variability is detected in the cool component. The slow variability and high plasma temperature point to a magnetic origin for the hot component, but other mechanisms (including accretion) may be responsible for the cool non-variable component. We will discuss these new results in the context of what is known about FU Ori from previous observations, including XMM (Skinner et al. 2006, ApJ, 643, 995) and HST (Kravtsova et al. 2007, Ast. Ltrs., 33, 755).

  10. The Discovery of X-ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Back in 1974 the UHURU catalog (3U) had been published with many UHGLS - unidentified high galactic latitude sources. Identifications were hampered by the square degree sized error boxes (positional uncertainties). Could these explain the cosmic X-ray background? Could UHGLS be "X-ray galaxies"? Only three active galaxies (AGNs) had been found as X-ray sources: 3C273, Cen A and NGC 4151, while others had upper limits. What was the difference between X-ray and non-X-ray AGNs? It turned out that the slightly better positioning capability and slightly deeper sensitivity of the Ariel V Sky Survey Instrument (SSI), launched in October 1974, were just enough to show that the UHGLS were Seyfert galaxies. And I was lucky enough that I'd joined the Leicester X-ray group and had taken on the UHGLS for my PhD thesis, with Ken Pounds as my supervisor. With the SSI we made a catalog of high latitude sources, the "2A" catalog, including about a dozen known Seyfert galaxies (lowish luminosity nearby AGNs) and, with Mike Penston and Martin Ward, we went on to identify many of them with both newly discovered normal broad emission line AGNs and a few new "narrow emission line galaxies", or NELGs, as we called them. We are now convinced that it is summation of many obscured NELGs that produce the flat spectrum of the X-ray background, and we are still searching for them in Chandra deep surveys and at higher energies with NuSTAR. There was an obvious connection between the X-ray obscuration and the optical reddening, which must lie outside the region emitting the broad optical spectral lines. Andy Lawrence and I, following a clue from Bill Keel, put this together into what we now call the Unified Scheme for AGN structure. This idea of a flattened torus obscuring the inner regions of the AGN was so dramatically confirmed a few years later -- by Ski Antonucci and Joe Miller's discovery of polarized broad emission lines in NGC1068 -- that the precursor papers became irrelevant. But Ariel

  11. AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. III. THE GALACTIC HALO X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2013-08-20

    We present measurements of the Galactic halo's X-ray emission for 110 XMM-Newton sight lines selected to minimize contamination from solar wind charge exchange emission. We detect emission from few million degree gas on {approx}4/5 of our sight lines. The temperature is fairly uniform (median = 2.22 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K, interquartile range = 0.63 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K), while the emission measure and intrinsic 0.5-2.0 keV surface brightness vary by over an order of magnitude ({approx}(0.4-7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} cm{sup -6} pc and {approx}(0.5-7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} deg{sup -2}, respectively, with median detections of 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} cm{sup -6} pc and 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} deg{sup -2}, respectively). The high-latitude sky contains a patchy distribution of few million degree gas. This gas exhibits a general increase in emission measure toward the inner Galaxy in the southern Galactic hemisphere. However, there is no tendency for our observed emission measures to decrease with increasing Galactic latitude, contrary to what is expected for a disk-like halo morphology. The measured temperatures, brightnesses, and spatial distributions of the gas can be used to place constraints on models for the dominant heating sources of the halo. We provide some discussion of such heating sources, but defer comparisons between the observations and detailed models to a later paper.

  12. A 6 second periodic X-ray source in Carina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, F. D.; Charles, P. A.; Smale, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    A serendipitous source, 1E 1048.1-5937, was discovered during Einstein imaging observations of the Carina nebula. On July 13, 1979, this source had an intensity of 0.14 IPC counts/s, and the signal was 65 percent pulsed with a period of 6.44 s. An earlier observation failed to detect any source with strength greater than 1/10 the above signal. The source is therefore highly variable, perhaps transient. An Exosat observation of this source on June 20, 1985 confirmed the pulse period and refined the source position to an accuracy of 10 arcsec. On the basis of the position, the source is tentatively identified with a V = 19 optical counterpart. The X-ray spectrum is best fitted by a power law with photon index = 2.26 and a column density of 1.6 x 10 to the 22nd atoms/sq cm. The X-ray characteristics are consistent with an accretion-powered Be star binary.

  13. Irradiated, colour-temperature-corrected accretion discs in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Andrew D.; Done, Chris; Roberts, Timothy P.

    2014-11-01

    Although attempts have been made to constrain the stellar types of optical counterparts to ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), the detection of optical variability instead suggests that they may be dominated by reprocessed emission from X-rays which irradiate the outer accretion disc. Here, we report results from a combined X-ray and optical spectral study of a sample of ULXs, which were selected for having broadened disc-like X-ray spectra and known optical counterparts. We simultaneously fit optical and X-ray data from ULXs with a new spectral model of emission from an irradiated, colour-temperature-corrected accretion disc around a black hole, with a central Comptonizing corona. We find that the ULXs require reprocessing fractions of ˜10-3, which is similar to sub-Eddington thermal dominant state black hole binaries (BHBs), but less than has been reported for ULXs with soft ultraluminous X-ray spectra. We suggest that the reprocessing fraction may be due to the opposing effects of self-shielding in a geometrically thick supercritical accretion disc and reflection from far above the central black hole by optically thin material ejected in a natal super-Eddington wind. Then, the higher reprocessing fractions reported for ULXs with wind-dominated X-ray spectra may be due to enhanced scattering on to the outer disc via the stronger wind in these objects. Alternatively, the accretion discs in these ULXs may not be particularly geometrically thick, rather they may be similar in this regard to the thermal dominant state BHBs.

  14. Disentangling X-Ray Emission Processes in Vela-Like Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaensler, Bryan; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We present a deep observation with the X-Ray Multimirror Mission of PSR B1823-13, a young pulsar with similar properties to the Vela pulsar. We detect two components to the X-ray emission associated with PSR B1823-13: an elongated core of extent 30 min immediately surrounding the pulsar embedded in a fainter, diffuse component of emission 5 sec in extent, seen only on the southern side of the pulsar. The pulsar itself is not detected, either as a point source or through its pulsations. Both components of the X-ray emission are well fitted by a power-law spectrum, with photon index Gamma approx. 1.6 and X-ray luminosity (0.5-10 keV) L(sub X) approx. 9 x 10(exp 32) ergs/s for the core and Gamma approx. 2.3 and L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s for the diffuse emission, for a distance of 4 kpc. We interpret both components of emission as corresponding to a pulsar wind nebula, which we designate G18.0-0.7. We argue that the core region represents the wind termination shock of this nebula, while the diffuse component indicates the shocked downstream wind. We propose that the asymmetric morphology of the diffuse emission with respect to the pulsar is the result of a reverse shock from an associated supernova remnant, which has compressed and distorted the pulsar-powered nebula. Such an interaction might be typical for pulsars at this stage in their evolution. The associated supernova remnant is not detected directly, most likely being too faint to be seen in existing X-ray and radio observations.

  15. Deterministic Chaos in the X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzedzielski, M.; Sukova, P.; Janiuk, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hardly any of the observed black hole accretion disks in X-ray binaries and active galaxies shows constant flux. When the local stochastic variations of the disk occur at specific regions where a resonant behaviour takes place, there appear the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). If the global structure of the flow and its non-linear hydrodynamics affects the fluctuations, the variability is chaotic in the sense of deterministic chaos. Our aim is to solve a problem of the stochastic versus deterministic nature of the black hole binary variabilities. We use both observational and analytic methods. We use the recurrence analysis and we study the occurence of long diagonal lines in the recurrence plot of observed data series and compare it to the surrogate series. We analyze here the data of two X-ray binaries - XTE J1550-564 and GX 339-4 observed by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. In these sources, the non-linear variability is expected because of the global conditions (such as the mean accretion rate) leading to the possible instability of an accretion disk. The thermal-viscous instability and fluctuations around the fixed-point solution occurs at high accretion rate, when the radiation pressure gives dominant contribution to the stress tensor.

  16. The Einstein objective grating spectrometer survey of galactic binary X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrtilek, S. D.; Mcclintock, J. E.; Seward, F. D.; Kahn, S. M.; Wargelin, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    The results of observations of 22 bright Galactic X-ray point sources are presented, and the most reliable measurements to date of X-ray column densities to these sources are derived. The results are consistent with the idea that some of the objects have a component of column density intrinsic to the source in addition to an interstellar component. The K-edge absorption due to oxygen is clearly detected in 10 of the sources and the Fe L and Ne K edges are detected in a few. The spectra probably reflect emission originating in a collisionally excited region combined with emission from a photoionized region excited directly by the central source.

  17. Upper limits for X-ray emission from Jupiter as measured from the Copernicus satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Culhane, J. L.; Hawkins, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray telescopic observations are made by the Copernicus satellite for detecting X-ray emission from Jupiter analogous to X-rays from terrestrial aurorae. Values of X-ray fluxes recorded by three Copernicus detectors covering the 0.6 to 7.5 keV energy range are reported. The detectors employed are described and the times at which the observations were made are given. Resulting upper-limit spectra are compared with previous X-ray observations of Jupiter. The upper-limit X-ray fluxes are discussed in terms of magnetospheric activity on Jupiter.

  18. Properties and Applications of Laser Generated X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R F; Key, M H

    2002-02-25

    The rapid development of laser technology and related progress in research using lasers is shifting the boundaries where laser based sources are preferred over other light sources particularly in the XUV and x-ray spectral region. Laser based sources have exceptional capability for short pulse and high brightness and with improvements in high repetition rate pulsed operation, such sources are also becoming more interesting for their average power capability. This study presents an evaluation of the current capabilities and near term future potential of laser based light sources and summarizes, for the purpose of comparison, the characteristics and near term prospects of sources based on synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. Conclusions are drawn on areas where the development of laser based sources is most promising and competitive in terms of applications potential.

  19. Uhuru observations of 4U 1608-52 - The 'steady' X-ray source associated with the X-ray burst source in Norma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H.; Chaisson, L. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Matilsky, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented for the X-ray source 4U 1608-52, summarizing its light curve, location, and spectral parameters. Evidence is presented showing that this source is the 'steady' X-ray counterpart of the X-ray burst source in Norma. The spectrum of the 'steady' source is compared with the spectrum observed during two bursts, and it is noted that there is substantially more low-energy absorption during the bursts. The 'steady' source spectral data are used to examine the optical data, and it is concluded that if the X-ray spectrum is thermal, then a globular-cluster counterpart probably would have been detected (whereas none has been). Further X-ray and optical observations are suggested for this source, since an optical identification may be central in determining whether all X-ray bursts have a common origin and if this origin requires a globular-cluster environment.

  20. Einstein Observatory survey of X-ray emission from solar-type stars - The late F and G dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, A.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Majer, P.; Bookbinder, J.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a volume-limited X-ray survey of stars of luminosity classes IV and V in the spectral range F7-G9 observed with the Einstein Observatory are presented. Using survival analysis techniques, the stellar X-ray luminosity function in the 0.15-4.0 keV energy band for both single and multiple sources. It is shown that the difference in X-ray luminosity between these two classes of sources is consistent with the superposition of individual components in multiple-component systems, whose X-ray properties are similar to those of the single-component sources. The X-ray emission of the stars in our sample is well correlated with their chromospheric CA II H-K line emission and with their projected equatorial rotational velocity. Comparison of the X-ray luminosity function constructed for the sample of the dG stars of the local population with the corresponding functions derived elsewhere for the Hyades, the Pleiades, and the Orion Ic open cluster confirms that the level of X-ray emission decreases with stellar age.

  1. Einstein Observatory survey of X-ray emission from solar-type stars - the late F and G dwarf stars

    SciTech Connect

    Maggio, A.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G.S.; Majer, P.; Bookbinder, J.

    1987-04-01

    Results of a volume-limited X-ray survey of stars of luminosity classes IV and V in the spectral range F7-G9 observed with the Einstein Observatory are presented. Using survival analysis techniques, the stellar X-ray luminosity function in the 0.15-4.0 keV energy band for both single and multiple sources. It is shown that the difference in X-ray luminosity between these two classes of sources is consistent with the superposition of individual components in multiple-component systems, whose X-ray properties are similar to those of the single-component sources. The X-ray emission of the stars in our sample is well correlated with their chromospheric CA II H-K line emission and with their projected equatorial rotational velocity. Comparison of the X-ray luminosity function constructed for the sample of the dG stars of the local population with the corresponding functions derived elsewhere for the Hyades, the Pleiades, and the Orion Ic open cluster confirms that the level of X-ray emission decreases with stellar age. 62 references.

  2. X-ray Emission from Hot Bubbles in nebulae around Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toalá Sánz, Jesús Alberto

    This thesis presents an observational and numerical study on the X-ray emission related to the formation and evolution from hot bubbles in nebulae around evolved stars. The observational part of this study consists mainly in observations obtained from the X-ray satellites X-ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton) and Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO). We have made use of optical, infrared, and ultraviolet observations that have complemented our results and analysis. These observations have allowed us to study the Wolf-Rayet (WR) nebulae S 308 and NGC 6888 and that around the WR star WR 16. We have also studied the planetary nebulae (PNe) NGC 6543 and Abell 78 (A 78). The X-ray telescopes, XMM-Newton and CXO, have allowed us to study the distribution and physical characteristics of the hot and diffuse gas in the WR nebulae S 308 and NGC 6888 with exquisite detail. Even though the CXO observations do not map entirely NGC 6888, we are able to estimate global parameters of the X-ray emission making use of ROSAT observations. Previous observations performed with were hampered by Suzaku, ROSAT, and ASCA were hampered by a large number of point sources in the line of sight of the nebulae. S 308 was observed with XMM-Newton with four pointings. We have made use of the most up-to-date tools for the analysis of soft and diffuse X-ray emission (the ESAS tasks). We found that in both nebulae the hot gas has a plasma temperature of 1-1.5×10^6 K and it is delineated by the [O III] emission and not the Hα as stated in previous studies. A notable difference between these two WR nebulae is that S 308 has a limb-brightened morphology in the distribution of its hot gas, while NGC 6888 displays three maxima. We have studied the WR nebula around WR 16 with archived XMM-Newton observations. Even though it was expected that diffuse X-ray emission should be detected from a spherical, non-disrupted WR nebula, by comparison with S 308 and NGC 6888, we are not able to detect such emission

  3. The velocity dependence of X-ray emission due to Charge Exchange in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbee, Renata; Lyons, David; Mullen, Patrick Dean; Shelton, Robin L.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Schultz, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental collisional process of charge exchange (CX) has been been established as a primary source of X-ray emission from the heliosphere [1], planetary exospheres [2], and supernova remnants [3,4]. In this process, X-ray emission results from the capture of an electron by a highly charged ion from a neutral atom or molecule, to form a highly-excited, high charge state ion. As the captured electron cascades down to the lowest energy level, photons are emitted, including X-rays.To provide reliable CX-induced X-ray spectral models to realistically simulate these environments, line ratios and spectra are computed using theoretical CX cross-sections obtained with the multi-channel Landau-Zener, atomic-orbital close-coupling, and classical-trajectory Monte Carlo methods for various collisional velocities relevant to astrophysics for collisions of bare and H-like C to Al ions with H, He, and H2. Using these line ratios, XSPEC models of CX emission in the northeast rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant will be shown as an example with ion velocity dependence.[1] Henley, D. B. & Shelton, R. L. 2010, ApJSS, 187, 388[2] Dennerl, K. et al. 2002, A&A 386, 319[3] Katsuda, S. et al. 2011, ApJ 730 24[4] Cumbee, R. S. et al. 2014, ApJ 787 L31This work was partially supported by NASA grant NNX09AC46G.

  4. Using Poisson statistics to analyze supernova remnant emission in the low counts X-ray regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Quentin Jeffrey

    We utilize a Poisson likelihood in a maximum likelihood statistical analysis to analyze X-ray spectragraphic data. Specifically, we examine four extragalactic supernova remnants (SNR). IKT 5 (SNR 0047-73.5), IKT 25 (SNR 0104-72.3), and DEM S 128 (SNR 0103-72.4) which are designated as Type Ia in the literature due to their spectra and morphology. This is troublesome because of their asymmetry, a trait not usually associated with young Type Ia remnants. We present Chandra X-ray Observatory data on these three remnants, and perform a maximum likelihood analysis on their spectra. We find that the X-ray emission is dominated by interactions with the interstellar medium. In spite of this, we find a significant Fe overabundance in all three remnants. Through examination of radio, optical, and infrared data, we conclude that these three remnants are likely not "classical" Type Ia SNR, but may be examples of so-called "prompt" Type Ia SNR. We detect potential point sources that may be members of the progenitor systems of both DEM S 128 and IKT 5, which could suggest a new subclass of prompt Type Ia SNR, Fe-rich CC remnants. In addition, we examine IKT 18. This remnant is positionally coincident with the X-ray point source HD 5980. Due to an outburst in 1994, in which its brightness changed by 3 magnitudes (corrsponding to an increase in luminosity by a factor of 16) HD 5980 was classified as a luminous blue variable star. We examine this point source and the remnant IKT 18 in the X-ray, and find that its non-thermal photon index has decreased from 2002 to 2013, corresponding to a larger proportion of more energetic X-rays, which is unexpected.

  5. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTER AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN NGC 2139

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, Joseph C.; Boeker, Torsten; Ho, Luis C.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Walcher, C. Jakob

    2012-07-15

    We report Chandra observations of the Scd galaxy NGC 2139, which is known to host a recently formed (10{sup 7.6} yr) nuclear star cluster. The star cluster is undetected in X-rays, with an upper bound on 0.5-7 keV luminosity of L{sub X} < 7.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}. This bound implies a bolometric accretion luminosity <0.3% of the Eddington luminosity for a black hole with the mass ({approx}3400 M{sub Sun} ) expected from extrapolation of the M - {sigma} relation. The lack of X-ray emission indicates that a black hole, if present, is not undergoing significant accretion at the current time. While the central cluster is undetected, the data reveal a substantial population of bright X-ray point sources elsewhere in this galaxy, with eight qualifying as ultraluminous X-ray sources with L{sub X} > 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}. We use archival Hubble Space Telescope images to identify candidate optical counterparts for seven Chandra sources, which in most cases have optical luminosities and spatial profiles consistent with star clusters. Compared with other galaxies, the number of luminous X-ray sources in NGC 2139 is larger by a factor of {approx}4-10 than expected based on its present star formation rate and stellar mass. This finding can be understood if NGC 2139 has concluded a burst of star formation in the recent past, and suggests that this galaxy could be important for testing the use of X-ray source populations as a chronometer of star formation history.

  6. Conceptual study of moderately coupled plasmas and experimental comparison of laboratory x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.

    1993-12-01

    In this thesis the fundamental concepts of moderately coupled plasmas, for which 2{approx_lt}ln{Lambda}{sub b}{approx_lt}10, are, for the first time, presented. This investigation is motivated because neither the conventional Fokker-Planck approximation [for weakly coupled plasmas (ln{Lambda}{sub b}{approx_lt}10)] nor the theory of dielectric response with correlations for strongly coupled plasmas (ln{Lambda}{sub b}{approx_lt}1) has satisfactorily addressed this regime. Specifically, herein the standard Fokker-Planck operator for Coulomb collisions has been modified to include hitherto neglected terms that are directly associated with large-angle scattering. In addition a reduced electron-ion collision operator has been calculated that, for the first time, manifests 1/ln{Lambda}{sub b} corrections. Precise calculations of some relaxation rates and crude calculations of electron transport coefficients have been made. As one of major applications of the modified Fokker-Planck equation, the stopping powers and {rho}R have been calculated for charged fusion products ({alpha}`s, {sup 3}H, {sup 3}He) and hot electrons interacting with plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion. In the second major topic of this thesis, advances made in the area of laboratory x-ray sources are presented. First, and most importantly, through the use a Cockcroft-Walton linear accelerator, a charged particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) source has been developed. Intense line x radiation (including K-, L-, M-, and N-lines) with wavelengths from 0.5 {angstrom} to 111 {angstrom} have been successfully produced. Second, a new high intensity electron-beam x-ray generator has also been developed, and it has been used with advantage in the soft x-ray region ( < 3 keV). Finally, a direct comparisons of both sources (PIXE and electron-beam x-ray sources) to a commercially available radioactive {alpha} fluorescent x-ray source has been made.

  7. Emission lines from X-ray-heated accretion disks in low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Kallman, Timothy R.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the structure of accretion disks illuminated by X-rays from a central compact object in a binary system. X-rays can photoionize the upper atmosphere of the disk and form an accretion disk corona (ADC) where emission lines can form. We construct a model to calculate the vertical structure and the emission spectrum of the ADC with parameters appropriate to low-mass X-ray binaries. These models are made by nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of ion and level populations and include a large number of atomic processes for 10 cosmically abundant elements. Transfer of radiation is treated by using the escape probability formalism. The vertical temperature profile of the ADC consists of a Compton-heated region and a mid-T zone where the temperature is approximately 10(exp 6) K. A thermal instability occurs close to the disk photosphere and causes the temperature of the ADC to drop abruptly from 10(exp 6) K to several times 10(exp 4) K. The emission spectrum in the optical, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, and X-ray range is discussed and compared with the observations.

  8. Broadband X-ray Spectroscopy of the ADC Source 4U 1822-37 with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottam, J.; White, N.

    2006-01-01

    We will present the broadband spectra of the low mass x-ray binary 4U 1822-37, recently observed with Suzaku. 4U 1822-37 is the canonical accretion disk corona (ADC) source where the compact object is obscured by an extended corona that intercepts and scatters the central continuum emission, some of which is then reprocessed in the outer regions of the accretion disk. 4U 1822-37 therefore serves as an important link between x-ray binaries and AGN. The broadband x-ray spectra from the Suzaku XIS and HXD provide a unique opportunity to probe the physical conditions in the corona and the accretion disk for this important accretion geometry.

  9. Discovery of multiple low-luminosity X-ray sources in NGC 6397

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Krockenberger, Martin; Bailyn, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    New low-luminosity X-ray sources have been discovered in NGC 6397 with the ROSAT High Resolution Imager. These sources have a total number, spatial distribution, and X-ray luminosities consistent with their being CVs. The findings supports the hypothesis that the low-luminosity X-ray sources in clusters are generally dominated by CVs.

  10. Laboratory measurements of the x-ray emission following dielectronic recombination onto highly charged argon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bulbul, Esra; Hell, Natalie; Foster, Adam; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele; Porter, Frederick Scott; Smith, Randall K.

    2016-06-01

    We have used the LLNL EBIT-I electron beam ion trap to measure the X-ray emission following resonant dielectronic recombination (DR) onto helium-like and lithium-like argon as a function of electron energy. These measurements were completed by sweeping the energy of EBIT-I's near mono-energetic electron beam from below threshold for DR resonance to above threshold for direct excitation of K-shell transitions in helium-like argon. The X-ray emission was recorded as a function of electron beam energy using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer, whose energy resolution is ~ 5 eV, and also a relatively low resolution, solid-state X-ray detector. These results will be useful when analyzing and interpreting high resolution spectra from celestial sources measured with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) calorimeter instrument recently launched on the Hitomi X-ray Observatory (formerly known as Astro-H), as well as data measured using instruments on the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories. Specifically, these data will help determine if the feature detected at ~ 3.56 keV (Bulbul et al. 2014, Boyarsky et al. 2014) in clusters is the result of the decay of a sterile neutrino, a long sought after dark matter particle candidate. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and Chandra Grant AR5-16012A.

  11. Observations of X-ray Sources with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    2000-04-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) offers unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity compared to previous or currently flying X-ray Missions. Results of a number of observations conducted during the previous six months of operation will be presented. Some of the observations include very long exposures toward the Hubble Deep Field North, the supernova remnants 1987A, RCW103, and N103B, the Orion Nebula, the Galactic Center, M82 and a survey of low luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. This work is a collaboration between scientists at Penn State University, MIT and Caltech. The support for this endeavor comes from NASA through contract NAS8-38252.

  12. The Lack of Halo Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    The premise that Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) exist beyond the optical extent of nearby galaxies is investigated. A published catalog containing 41 ULX candidates located between 1 and approx. 3 times the standard D-{25} isophotal radius of their putative host galaxies is examined. Twenty-one of these sources have spectroscopically-confirmed distances. All 21 are background objects giving a 95\\% probability that at least 37 of the 41 candidates are background sources. Thirty-nine of the 41 sources have X-ray-to-optical flux ratios, -1.61.6.) The uniform spatial distribution of the sample is also consistent with a background population. This evidence suggests that ULXs rarely, if at all, exist beyond the distribution of luminous matter in nearby galaxies and, as a consequence, there is no correlation between the population of ULXs and halo objects such as old globular clusters or Population III remnants.

  13. The X-ray spectral evolution of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, Wasutep; Roberts, Timothy P.; Done, Chris

    2016-08-01

    We present a new analysis of X-ray spectra of the archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 obtained by the Swift, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories. This ULX is a persistent source, with a typical luminosity of ~10^40 erg s^-1, that varied by a factor of 4 - 5 over eight years. We find that its spectra tend to evolve from relatively flat or two-component spectra in the medium energy band (1-6 keV), at lower luminosities, to a spectrum that is distinctly curved and disc-like at the highest luminosities, with the peak energy in the curved spectrum tending to decrease with increased luminosity. We argue that the spectral evolution of the ULX can be explained by super-Eddington accretion models, where in this case we view the ULX down the evacuated funnel along its rotation axis, bounded by its massive radiatively driven wind. The spectral changes then originate in enhanced geometric beaming as the accretion rate increases and wind funnel narrows, causing the scattered flux from the central regions of the supercritical flow to brighten faster than the isotropic thermal emission from the wind, and so the curved hard spectral component to dominate at the highest luminosities. The wind also Compton down-scatters photons at the edge of the funnel, resulting in the peak energy of the spectrum decreasing. We also confirm that Holmberg IX X-1 displays spectral degeneracy with luminosity, and suggest that the observed differences are naturally explained by precession of the black hole rotation axis for the suggested wind geometry.

  14. The X-ray spectral evolution of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, Wasutep; Roberts, Timothy P.; Done, Chris

    2016-08-01

    We present a new analysis of X-ray spectra of the archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 obtained by the Swift, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories. This ULX is a persistent source, with a typical luminosity of ˜1040 erg s-1, that varied by a factor of 4-5 over eight years. We find that its spectra tend to evolve from relatively flat or two-component spectra in the medium energy band (1-6 keV), at lower luminosities, to a spectrum that is distinctly curved and disc-like at the highest luminosities, with the peak energy in the curved spectrum tending to decrease with increased luminosity. We argue that the spectral evolution of the ULX can be explained by super-Eddington accretion models, where in this case we view the ULX down the evacuated funnel along its rotation axis, bounded by its massive radiatively driven wind. The spectral changes then originate in enhanced geometric beaming as the accretion rate increases and wind funnel narrows, causing the scattered flux from the central regions of the supercritical flow to brighten faster than the isotropic thermal emission from the wind, and so the curved hard spectral component to dominate at the highest luminosities. The wind also Compton down-scatters photons at the edge of the funnel, resulting in the peak energy of the spectrum decreasing. We also confirm that Holmberg IX X-1 displays spectral degeneracy with luminosity, and suggest that the observed differences are naturally explained by precession of the black hole rotation axis for the suggested wind geometry.

  15. The X-ray spectral evolution of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, Wasutep; Roberts, Timothy P.; Done, Chris

    2016-05-01

    We present a new analysis of X-ray spectra of the archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 obtained by the Swift, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories. This ULX is a persistent source, with a typical luminosity of ˜1040 erg s-1, that varied by a factor of 4 - 5 over eight years. We find that its spectra tend to evolve from relatively flat or two-component spectra in the medium energy band (1-6 keV), at lower luminosities, to a spectrum that is distinctly curved and disc-like at the highest luminosities, with the peak energy in the curved spectrum tending to decrease with increased luminosity. We argue that the spectral evolution of the ULX can be explained by super-Eddington accretion models, where in this case we view the ULX down the evacuated funnel along its rotation axis, bounded by its massive radiatively driven wind. The spectral changes then originate in enhanced geometric beaming as the accretion rate increases and wind funnel narrows, causing the scattered flux from the central regions of the supercritical flow to brighten faster than the isotropic thermal emission from the wind, and so the curved hard spectral component to dominate at the highest luminosities. The wind also Compton down-scatters photons at the edge of the funnel, resulting in the peak energy of the spectrum decreasing. We also confirm that Holmberg IX X-1 displays spectral degeneracy with luminosity, and suggest that the observed differences are naturally explained by precession of the black hole rotation axis for the suggested wind geometry.

  16. Correlation of X-ray burst properties with source state in the 'atoll' source 4U/MXB 1636 - 53

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Klis, M.; Damen, E.; Penninx, W.; Van Paradijs, J.; Hasinger, G.

    1990-01-01

    A series of Exosat observations of the 'atoll' source 4U/MXB 1636 - 53 shows that duration and temperature of the X-ray bursts strongly correlate with the X-ray spectral and fast variability characteristics of the persistent emission of the source. This implies that spectral shape, fast variability, and burst duration and temperature all correlate well with accretion rate M. This provides a strong argument that in the atoll sources, source-state is determined by M, just as in the Z sources. These observations also show that the persistent X-ray intensity can vary independently from the other mentioned characteristics. Therefore, intensity is probably not a good measure for the accretion rate.

  17. Bright X-ray Fe K-shell Source Development at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Mark; Fournier, K. B.; Colvin, J.; Barrios, M. A.; Widmann, K.; Patterson, R.; Schneider, M.; Regan, S.

    2012-10-01

    High conversion efficiency (CE) K-shell sources are being developed for High Energy Density (HED) experiments for use as backlighters and for the testing of materials exposed to high X-ray fluences. Recently, sources with high CE in the Fe K-shell have been investigated at the National Ignition Facility. These targets were 4.1 mm in diameter 4 mm tall hollow epoxy tubes having a 50 μm thick wall supporting a tube of 3.5 μm thick stainless steel. 160 of the NIF laser beams deposited 500 kJ of 3φ light into the target in a 150 TW 3.3 ns square pulse. This laser configuration sufficiently heated the target to optimize the K-shell emission. The absolute X-ray emission of the source was measured by two calibrated Dantes, which are filtered X-ray spectrometers. Time resolved and time integrated images filtered for the Fe K-shell were recorded to understand the heating of the target. Time integrated high resolution spectra were recorded in the K-shell range. Details of the experiment and CE's will be discussed. This work was done under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and Defense Threat Reduction Agency IACRO no. 11-4551l, ``Research Program for X-Ray Experimentation Cap

  18. A Compact X-ray Generator Using a Nanostructured Field Emission Cathode and a Microstructured Transmission Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, S.; Hill, F. A.; Heubel, E. V.; Velás quez-García, L. F.

    2013-12-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and preliminary characterization of a compact X-ray generator for improved X-ray absorption imaging that uses a nanostructured field emission cathode (FEC) as the electron source and a microstructured transmission anode as the X-ray generating element. FECs consume less power, respond faster, and tolerate lower vacuum than thermionic cathodes used in conventional X-ray generators. The use of a transmission anode, instead of a conventional reflection anode, allows filtering of the background radiation (brems strahlung) while allowing efficient generation of X-rays at lower voltages by exciting atomic shell transitions, resulting in emission of X-rays with narrow spectral linewidth for sharper imaging of biological tissue. The fabricated FEC contains arrays of self-aligned, gated field emitters that turn on at bias voltages under 30 V and transmit 99.5% of the electrons to the anode. The FEC emits a maximum current of 1.2 μA per field emitter (588 μA total array current) at a bias voltage of 85 V. A facility is built and tested to generate X-rays with an FEC and a transmission anode. Using the facility, we obtained an X-ray absorption image of an ex-vivos ample that clearly shows softtissue and fine bone structures.

  19. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Kanngießer, Birgit; Witte, Katharina; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  20. Multibeam field emission x-ray system with half-scan reconstruction algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yang; Yu Hengyong; Cao Guohua; Zhao Jun; Wang Ge; Zhou, Otto

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: In this article, the authors propose a multibeam field emission x-ray (MBFEX) system along with a half-scan fan-beam reconstruction algorithm. Methods: The proposed system consists of a linear CNT-based MBFEX source array, a single large area detector that is divided into same number of segments as the number of x-ray beams, a multihole collimator that aligns each beam with a corresponding detector segment, and a sample rotation stage. The collimator is placed between the source and the object to restrict the x-ray radiations through the target object only. In this design, all the x-ray beams are activated simultaneously to provide multiple projection views of the object. The detector is virtually segmented and synchronized with the x-ray exposure and the physiological signals when gating is involved. The transmitted x-ray intensity from each beam is collected by the corresponding segment on the detector. After each exposure, the object is rotated by a step angle until sufficient data set is collected. The half-scan reconstruction formula for MBFEX system is derived from the conventional filtered backprojection algorithm. To demonstrate the advantages of the system and method in reducing motion artifacts, the authors performed simulations with both standard and dynamic Shepp-Logan phantoms. Results: The numerical results indicate that the proposed multibeam system and the associated half-scan algorithm can effectively reduce the scanning time and improve the image quality for a time-varying object. Conclusions: The MBFEX technique offers an opportunity for the innovation of multisource imaging system.

  1. Einstein X-ray survey of the Pleiades - The dependence of X-ray emission on stellar age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Serio, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Bookbinder, J.; Golub, L.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1985-01-01

    The data obtained with two pointed observations of 1 deg by 1 deg fields of the Pleiades region have been analyzed, and the results are presented. The maximum-likelihood X-ray luminosity functions for the Pleiades G and K stars in the cluster are derived, and it is shown that, for the G stars, the Pleiades X-ray luminosity function is significantly brighter than the corresponding function for Hyades G dwarf stars. This finding indicates a dependence of X-ray luminosity on stellar age, which is confirmed by comparison of the same data with median X-ray luminosities of pre-main sequence and local disk population dwarf G stars. It is suggested that the significantly larger number of bright X-ray sources associated with G stars than with K stars, the lack of detection of M stars, and the relatively rapid rotation of the Pleiades K stars can be explained in terms of the onset of internal differential rotation near the convective envelope-radidative core interface after the spin-up phase during evolution to the main sequence.

  2. Einstein X-ray survey of the Pleiades - the dependence of X-ray emission on stellar age

    SciTech Connect

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Serio, S.; Vaiana, G.S.; Bookbinder, J.; Golub, L.; Harnden, F.R.,JR.; Rosner, R.

    1985-05-01

    The data obtained with two pointed observations of 1 deg by 1 deg fields of the Pleiades region have been analyzed, and the results are presented. The maximum-likelihood X-ray luminosity functions for the Pleiades G and K stars in the cluster are derived, and it is shown that, for the G stars, the Pleiades X-ray luminosity function is significantly brighter than the corresponding function for Hyades G dwarf stars. This finding indicates a dependence of X-ray luminosity on stellar age, which is confirmed by comparison of the same data with median X-ray luminosities of pre-main sequence and local disk population dwarf G stars. It is suggested that the significantly larger number of bright X-ray sources associated with G stars than with K stars, the lack of detection of M stars, and the relatively rapid rotation of the Pleiades K stars can be explained in terms of the onset of internal differential rotation near the convective envelope-radidative core interface after the spin-up phase during evolution to the main sequence. 48 references.

  3. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Haugh and M. B. Schneider

    2008-10-31

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 μm square pixels, and 15 μm thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/ΔE≈10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

  4. Studies of a prototype linear stationary X-ray source for tomosynthesis imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schwoebel, P R; Boone, John M.; Shao, Joe

    2014-01-01

    A prototype linear X-ray source to implement stationary source – stationary detector tomosynthesis imaging has been studied. Potential applications include human breast and small animal imaging. The source is comprised of ten X-ray source elements each consisting of a field emission cathode, electrostatic lens, and target. The electrostatic lens and target are common to all elements. The source elements form X-ray focal spots with minimum diameters of 0.3 to 0.4 mm at electron beam currents of up to 40 mA with a beam voltage of 40 kV. The X-ray flux versus time was quantified from each source. X-ray bremsstrahlung spectra from tungsten targets were produced using electron beam energies from 35 to 50 keV. The half-value layer was measured to be 0.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.0 mm, respectively, for the 35 kV, 40 kV, and 45 kV tube potentials using the tungsten target. The suppression of voltage breakdown events, particularly during source operation, and the use of a modified form of the standard cold-cathode geometry, enhanced source reliability. The prototype linear source was used to collect tomographic data sets of a mouse phantom using digital tomosynthesis reconstruction methods and demonstrated a slice-sensitivity profile with a full-width-half-maximum of 1.3 mm. Lastly, preliminary studies of tomographic imaging of flow through the mouse phantom were performed. PMID:24743496

  5. Studies of a prototype linear stationary x-ray source for tomosynthesis imaging.

    PubMed

    Schwoebel, P R; Boone, John M; Shao, Joe

    2014-05-21

    A prototype linear x-ray source to implement stationary source-stationary detector tomosynthesis (TS) imaging has been studied. Potential applications include human breast and small animal imaging. The source is comprised of ten x-ray source elements each consisting of a field emission cathode, electrostatic lens, and target. The electrostatic lens and target are common to all elements. The source elements form x-ray focal spots with minimum diameters of 0.3-0.4 mm at electron beam currents of up to 40 mA with a beam voltage of 40 kV. The x-ray flux versus time was quantified from each source. X-ray bremsstrahlung spectra from tungsten targets were produced using electron beam energies from 35 to 50 keV. The half-value layer was measured to be 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 mm, respectively, for the 35, 40, and 45 kV tube potentials using the tungsten target. The suppression of voltage breakdown events, particularly during source operation, and the use of a modified form of the standard cold-cathode geometry, enhanced source reliability. The prototype linear source was used to collect tomographic data sets of a mouse phantom using digital TS reconstruction methods and demonstrated a slice-sensitivity profile with a full-width-half-maximum of 1.3 mm. Lastly, preliminary studies of tomographic imaging of flow through the mouse phantom were performed. PMID:24743496

  6. Synchronous time-resolved optical and x-ray emission from simultaneous optical and x-ray streak cameras driven by a master ramp generator

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, J.E.; Lampert, W.; Roschger, E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    An optical and an x-ray streak camera have been synchronized by driving the deflection plates of both cameras from the same ramp generator. The relative timing of the two cameras was calibrated by running UV light onto the x-ray streak camera. The x-ray streak camera was then used to measure the time of the x-ray emission from a laser plasma with respect to the laser pulse.

  7. EFFECT OF SATELLITE LINES FROM X-RAY SOURCE ON X-RAY DIFFRACTION PEAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the development of a method for relating reactivity to crystallite size and strain parameters obtained by the Warren-Averbach technique. PA has been using crystallite size and strain data obtained from x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak profile analysis to predict...

  8. Two component X-ray emission from RS CVn binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, J. H.; White, N. E.; Holt, S. S.; Becker, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of results from the solid state spectrometer on the Einstein Observatory for 7 RS CVn binaries is presented. The spectra of all require two emission components, evidenced by line emission characteristic of plasma at 4 to 8 x 10 to the 6th power and bremsstrahlung characteristic of 20 to 100 x 10 to the 6th power K. The data are interpreted in terms of magnetic coronal loops similar to those seen on the Sun, although with different characteristic parameters. The emission regions could be defined by separate magnetic structures. For pressure less than approximately 10 dynes/sq cm the low temperature plasma would be confined within the stellar radii, while the high temperature plasma would, for the synchronous close binaries, fill the binary orbits. However, for loop pressures exceeding 100 dynes/sq cm, the high temperature components would also be confined to within the stellar radii, in loops covering only small fractions of the stellar surfaces. While the radio properties and the occurrence of X-ray flares suggest the larger emission regions, the observations of time variations leave the ambiguity unresolved.

  9. A free-electron laser fourth-generation x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Moncton, D. E.

    1999-10-21

    The field of synchrotrons radiation research has grown rapidly over the last 25 years due to both the push of the accelerator and magnet technology that produces the x-ray beams and the pull of the extraordinary scientific research those beams make possible. Three successive generations of synchrotrons radiation facilities have resulted in beam brilliances 11 to 12 orders of magnitude greater than the standard laboratory x-ray tube. However, greater advances can be easily imagined given the fact that x-ray beams from present-day facilities do not exhibit the coherence or time structure so familiar with the.optical laser. Theoretical work over the last ten years or so has pointed to the possibility of generating hard x-ray beams with laser-like characteristics. The concept is based on self-amplified spontaneous emission in free electron lasers. The use of a superconducting linac could produce a major, cost-effective facility that spans wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the hard x-ray regime, simultaneously servicing large numbers experimenters from a wide range of disciplines. As with each past generation of synchrotron facilities, immense new scientific opportunities from fourth-generation sources.

  10. The HEAO A-1 X-ray source catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, K. S.; Meekins, J. F.; Yentis, D. J.; Smathers, H. W.; Mcnutt, D. P.; Bleach, R. D.; Friedman, H.; Byram, E. T.; Chubb, T. A.; Meidav, M.

    1984-01-01

    The catalog of X-ray sources detected during the NRL Large Area Sky Survey (LASS) with the HEAO 1 satellite is presented. The catalog is derived from the first six months of data from HEAO 1 and includes sources detected during one full scan. Positions and intensities for a total of 842 different sources are included, with a limiting flux of 250 nJy at 5 keV. The catalog is more than 90 percent complete at a flux level equivalent to 1.5 microjoules at 5 keV for a Crab-like spectrum. Cross-references with published literature are provided and coincidental identifications are proposed for some of the sources which have been never studied before. A cross-sectional line drawing of the sensor module of HEAO I is also provided.

  11. LARGE HIGHLY IONIZED NEBULAE AROUND ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Dae-Sik; Shariff, Jamil A.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cenko, S. Bradley E-mail: shariff@astro.utoronto.ca E-mail: cenko@astro.berkeley.edu

    2011-04-20

    We present the results of deep optical spectroscopic observations using the LRIS spectrograph on the Keck I 10 m telescope of three ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs): Ho IX X-1, M81 X-6, and Ho II X-1. Our observations reveal the existence of large (100-200 pc diameter) highly ionized nebulae, identified by diffuse He II {lambda}4686 emission, surrounding these sources. Our results are the first to find highly ionized nebulae of this extent, and the detection in all three objects indicates this may be a common feature of ULXs. In addition to the extended emission, Ho IX X-1 has an unresolved central component containing about one-third of the total He II flux, with a significant velocity dispersion of {approx_equal}370 km s {sup -1}, suggestive of the existence of a photoionized accretion disk or an extremely hot early-type stellar counterpart. Most of the He II emission appears to be surrounded by significantly more extended H{beta} emission, and the intensity ratios between the two lines, which range from 0.12 to 0.33, indicate that photoionization is the origin of the He II emission. Sustaining these extended nebulae requires substantial X-ray emission, in the range {approx}10{sup 39}-10{sup 40} erg s {sup -1}, comparable to the measured X-ray luminosities of the sources. This favors models where the X-ray emission is isotropic, rather than beamed, which includes the interpretation that ULXs harbor intermediate-mass black holes.

  12. An X-ray Survey of FU Orionis Stars andUnusual X-ray Emission from Embedded YoungStars in NGC 2071

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Steve L.; Simmons, A. E.; Audard, M.; Briggs, K. R.; Guedel, M.; Meyer, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    We present new results from the first X-ray survey of accreting FU Orionis stars (FUors) and a pointed X-ray observation of the infrared cluster near the reflection nebula NGC 2071 in the Orion B cloud. Both observations reveal unusual X-ray spectra that challenge interpretive models. FUors are low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stars that have undergone optical eruptions attributed to a large increase in the disk accretion rate. The prototype FU Ori and V1735 Cyg were both detected and show high temperature plasma typical of magnetic (e.g. coronal) emission. FU Ori also reveals a cooler component at kT = 0.7 keV viewed through lower absorption that could be shock-related, but a magnetic origin seems more likely (Skinner et al. 2006, ApJ, 643, 995). The IR cluster in NGC 2071 is one of the closest star-forming regions known to contain young high-mass stars. We have detected an unusual X-ray source within 1 arcsec of IRS-1, which is thought to be an embedded high-mass star. It drives a powerful outflow and is surrounded by a dense molecular disk or ring. The X-ray spectrum shows a hard continuum extending up to at least 8 keV and a broad fluorescent Fe line at 6.43 keV. The fluorescent line likely originates in cold nearby material (possibly the surrounding disk) illuminated by the heavily-absorbed X-ray source. This work is supported by NASA grants NNG05GJ15G, NNG05GK52G, and NNX06AE93G.

  13. Formation and evolution of luminous supersoft X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Di Stefano, R.; Smith, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Luminous supersoft X-ray sources, with characteristic luminosities of approximately 10(exp 38) ergs/s and temperatures, kT, of approximately 35 eV, have been established as a new and distinct class of X-ray source through recent Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) observations. Several possible physical models have been proposed for these sources. One promising scenario (van den Heuvel et al. 1992) involves mass transfer, which is unstable on a thermal timescale, from a main-sequence or subgiant donor star onto the surface of a white dwarf. For a narrow range of accretion rates, steady nuclear burning of the accreted matter can take place. This process can provide the high luminosities and the correct range of temperatures observed in the supersoft sources. However, given the limited range of mass transfer rates that are consistent with this phenomenon, it is far from obvious that a sufficient population of such systems exists in galaxies such as our own, M31, and the Magellanic Clouds, in order to account for the large number of supersoft sources which can be inferred from present observations. This work addresses the population question in detail, through a Monte Carlo simulation of the formation and evolution of such systems, which starts with zero-age primordial binaries. In order to evolve into close binary systems which contain a white dwarf component and a companion transferring mass at a rate within the requisite narrow range, a binary system must undergo a specific progression of evolutionary steps. We find that a sufficient subset of our initial binaries evolve to become systems with the requisite properties, so that they can account for the population of supersoft sources that is inferred from observations. In particular, we find that there should be more than 1000 systems in the Galaxy today with properties that very closely match those of the observed supersoft sources. From our models, we find expected luminosities, white dwarf effective temperatures, and

  14. Detection of extended X-ray emission surrounding cD galaxies in poor clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kriss, G.A.; Canizares, C.R.; McClintock, J.E.; Feigelson, E.D.

    1980-01-15

    The imaging proportional counter on the Einstein Observatory has detected extended X-ray emission from MKW 3s and AWM 4, two poor clusters containing dominant galaxies. In each case the X-ray emission is centered on the D or cD galaxy, but in MKW 3s it is symmetric (core radius 2'.5) while in AWM 4 it is not (extended 1' in NW-SE direction). The 0.25--3 keV luminosities, 10/sup 44/ ergs s/sup -1/ for MKW 3s and 10/sup 43/ ergs s/sup -1/ for AWM 4, are typical of those observed for the richer Abell clusters. We have measured redshifts of three galaxies in MKW 3s to confirm the physical association of the group. The hot gas present in this cluster is dense enough to confine the relativistic particles in 3C 318.1. As in the rich clusters, the mass of X-ray emitting gas in these two clusters is comparable to the visual mass and is approx.10--20% of the virial mass. Our results suggest that poor clusters can collect enough gas to become detectable X-ray sources if they are relatively compact, which the presence of dominant galaxies indicates.

  15. Influence of laser focal position on X-ray and ion emission of copper plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, S.; Tripathi, S.; Ryc, L.; Dhareshwar, L. J.

    2011-05-01

    X-ray emission from copper plasma produced by a sub-nanosecond Nd:glass laser was studied as a function of distance of the target from the focus position. Optimization of soft (0.7-1.56 keV) and hard (3.2-5 keV) X-ray emissions as a function of the laser focal position was studied. In addition, a thallium acid phthalate (TAP) crystal spectrometer with spectral resolution of 30 mÅ was also developed to study variation in X-ray line emission in the spectral range of 1.291-1.610 keV (7.7-9.6 Å) as a function of laser focal position. It is observed that the maximum soft X-ray emission is on either sides of the focus, indicating a dependence on plasma volume, whereas hard X-ray emission shows a single peak close to the 'best focus' position. The line X-ray emission intensity with respect to laser focal position also shows a double hump structure as in the case of soft X-ray emission. This indicates that the line emission is also a function of plasma volume. Scaling of X-ray yield with laser intensity has also been determined. Ion emission was also studied as a function of focal position variation. It is observed to match well with the trend shown by X-ray emission.

  16. X-ray reverberations and the giant X-ray bursts. [short duration pulse in plasma cloud surrounding X-ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the shape and spectral evolution of the giant X-ray bursts from the source 3U 1820-30 can be explained by Compton scattering of a short, intense X-ray pulse in a cloud surrounding the source. Pulse shapes due to Thomson scattering of an X-ray burst in an electron cloud were calculated for the (1) optically thin case on the assumption of one scattering per photon, (2) intermediate case with optical depth of about unity, and (3) optically thick case where the process is regarded as diffusion of photons through a uniform sphere. For the intermediate case, the effects of the reverberation were determined explicitly by Monte Carlo calculation. For an optical depth of 3, square pulse duration of 2 sec, characteristic cloud radius of 70,000 km, characteristic cloud density of 4 times 10 to the 14th per cu cm, and temperature of 5-30 keV, the calculations give a reasonably accurate description of X-ray bursts from 3U 1820-30. The scattering model does not imply the existence of a supermassive, central black hole.

  17. ASCA Observation of the Dipping X-Ray Source X1916-053

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Makai, Koji; Smale, Alan P.; White, Nick E.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of timing and spectral studies of the dipping X-ray source X1916-053, observed by ASCA during its Performance Verification phase. The detected dipping activity is consistent with previous observations, with a period of 3008s and an intermittent secondary dip observed roughly 0.4 out of phase with the primary dip. The energy spectra of different intensity states are fitted with a power law with partial covering fraction absorption and interstellar absorption. The increase in the hardness ratio during the primary and secondary dips, and the increase in the covering fraction and column density with decreasing X-ray intensity, all imply that the dipping is caused by the photo-absorbing materials which have been suggested to be where the accreted flow hits the outer edge of the disk materials. The spectra at all intensity levels show no apparent evidence for Fe or Ne emission lines. This may be due to the low metal abundance in the accretion flow. Alternatively, the X-ray luminosity of the central source may be too weak to excite emission lines, which are assumed to be produced by X-ray photoionization of the disk materials.

  18. Application of a transmission crystal x-ray spectrometer to moderate-intensity laser driven sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, J. Y.; Chen, L. M.; Zhang, L.; Sun, Y. Q.; Lin, X. X.; Hudson, L. T.; Seely, J. F.; Zhang, J.

    2012-04-15

    In the pursuit of novel, laser-produced x-ray sources for medical imaging applications, appropriate instrumental diagnostics need to be developed concurrently. A type of transmission crystal spectroscopy has previously been demonstrated as a survey tool for sources produced by high-power and high-energy lasers. The present work demonstrates the extension of this method into the study of medium-intensity laser driven hard x-ray sources with a design that preserves resolving power while maintaining high sensitivity. Specifically, spectroscopic measurements of characteristic K{alpha} and K{beta} emissions were studied from Mo targets irradiated by a 100 fs, 200 mJ, Ti: sapphire laser with intensity of 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} per shot. Using a transmission curved crystal spectrometer and off-Rowland circle imaging, resolving powers (E/{Delta}E) of around 300 for Mo K{alpha}{sub 2} at 17.37 keV were obtained with an end-to-end spectrometer efficiency of (1.13 {+-} 0.10) x 10{sup -5}. This sensitivity is sufficient for registering x-ray lines with high signal to background from targets following irradiation by a single laser pulse, demonstrating the utility of this method in the study of the development of medium-intensity laser driven x-ray sources.

  19. Soft X-Ray Emission Analysis Of A Pulsed Capillary Discharge Operated In Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Valenzuela, J. C.; Wyndham, E. S.; Favre, M.; Chuaqui, H.; Bhuyan, H.

    2014-05-01

    We present results from a pulsed capillary ns discharge source, operated in Nitrogen and N/He mixtures, in an alumina capillary 2.1mm long with outer diameter of 6.3mm and inner diameter of 1.6mm. The electrical energy stored is 0.5J with peak current of 6kA. Fast charging from an IGBT based pulsed power circuit allows operation at 35-600 Hz with voltages in the range of 18-24kV. Characteristic time-integrated N/He spectra were recorded and analyzed for values of 20-200 Å, with clear evidence of He-like Nitrogen emission at 28.8Å, which represents a possible source for water window soft x-ray microscopy. Filtered diode measurements reveal the influence of axial electron beams, generated by hollow cathode dynamics, on the x-ray emission in the range of 300-450 eV. We discuss optimal voltage applied and pressure conditions for soft x-ray generation. Time-integrated MCP images of a filtered slit-wire system delivered clear evidence of full wall detachment with ~500μm in radial size for the entire emission range and ~200μm for the emission in the 300-450 eV range.

  20. Final Report: Rotating anode x-ray source, January 1, 1996 - April 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, Charles M.

    1998-04-30

    The 18 KW Rigaku high brilliance rotating anode X-ray source with four-circle qoniometer is used for X-ray diffraction characterization on thin films. This X-ray source can determine the crystal structures of a wide variety of thin materials of the type used in the semiconductor and magnetic data storage industries.

  1. Nonquasineutral relativistic current filaments and their X-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeev, A. V.; Losseva, T. V.

    2009-02-15

    Nonquasineutral electron current filaments with the azimuthal magnetic field are considered that arise due to the generation of electron vorticity in the initial (dissipative) stage of evolution of a current-carrying plasma, when the Hall number is small ({sigma}B/en{sub e}c << 1) because of the low values of the plasma conductivity and magnetic field strength. Equilibrium filamentary structures with both zero and nonzero net currents are considered. Structures with a zero net current type form on time scales of t < t{sub sk} = (r{sub 0{omega}pe}/c){sup 2}t{sub st}, where t{sub sk} is the skin time, t{sub st} is the typical time of electron-ion collisions, and r{sub 0} is the radius of the filament. It is shown that, in nonquasineutral filaments in which the current is carried by electrons drifting in the crossed electric (E{sub r}) and magnetic (B{sub {theta}}) fields, ultrarelativistic electron beams on the typical charge-separation scale r{sub B} = B/(4{pi}en{sub e}) (the so-called magnetic Debye radius) can be generated. It is found that, for comparable electron currents, the characteristic electron energy in filaments with a nonzero net current is significantly lower than that in zero-net-current filaments that form on typical time scales of t < t{sub sk}. This is because, in the latter type of filaments, the oppositely directed electron currents repel one another; as a result, both the density and velocity of electrons increase near the filament axis, where the velocities of relativistic electrons are maximum. Filaments with a zero net current can emit X rays with photon energies h {omega} up to 10 MeV. The electron velocity distributions in filaments, the X-ray emission spectra, and the total X-ray yield per unit filament length are calculated as functions of the current and the electron number density in the filament. Analytical estimates of the characteristic lifetime of a radiating filament and the typical size of the radiating region as functions of the

  2. Laser-based K α X-ray emission characterization using a high contrast ratio and high-power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmaux, S.; Kieffer, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    We characterized a laser-based K_α X-ray source produced onto a Mo solid target. We used a laser system with a high laser pulse contrast ratio (LPCR) and an instantaneous power ˜30 TW. We investigated simultaneously the K_α X-ray conversion efficiency, the X-ray source size, and the proton front surface emission. We found a high K_α X-ray conversion efficiency up to 2× 10^{-4} associated with an X-ray source size only ˜1.8 times larger than the laser focal spot for the highest intensities. We found that using a high LPCR laser pulse with 245 mJ per pulse is of interest to develop a laser-based X-ray imaging system as it can combine a high conversion efficiency with a small increase in the X-ray source size compared to the laser focal spot.

  3. X-Ray Emission from Stellar Jets by Collision against High-density Molecular Clouds: an Application to HH 248

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Santiago, J.; Bonito, R.; Orellana, M.; Miceli, M.; Orlando, S.; Ustamujic, S.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; de Castro, E.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the plausibility of detecting X-ray emission from a stellar jet that impacts a dense molecular cloud, a scenario that may be typical for classical T Tauri stars with jets in dense star-forming complexes. We first model the impact of a jet against a dense cloud using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations, exploring different configurations of the ambient environment. Then, we compare our results with XMM-Newton observations of the Herbig-Haro object HH 248, where extended X-ray emission aligned with the optical knots is detected at the edge of the nearby IC 434 cloud. Our simulations show that a jet can produce plasma with temperatures up to 107 K, consistent with production of X-ray emission, after impacting a dense cloud. We find that jets denser than the ambient medium but less dense than the cloud produce detectable X-ray emission only at impact with the cloud. From an exploration of the model parameter space, we constrain the physical conditions (jet density and velocity and cloud density) that reproduce the intrinsic luminosity and emission measure of the X-ray source possibly associated with HH 248 well. Thus, we suggest that the extended X-ray source close to HH 248 corresponds to a jet impacting a dense cloud.

  4. Population of post-nova supersoft X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soraisam, Monika D.; Gilfanov, Marat; Wolf, William M.; Bildsten, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Novae undergo a supersoft X-ray phase of varying duration after the optical outburst. Such transient post-nova supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) are the majority of the observed SSSs in M31. In this paper, we use the post-nova evolutionary models of Wolf et al. to compute the expected population of post-nova SSSs in M31. We predict that depending on the assumptions about the white dwarf (WD) mass distribution in novae, at any instant there are about 250-600 post-nova SSSs in M31 with (unabsorbed) 0.2-1.0 keV luminosity Lx ≥ 1036 erg s-1. Their combined unabsorbed luminosity is of the order of ˜1039 erg s-1. Their luminosity distribution shows significant steepening around log (Lx) ˜ 37.7-38 and becomes zero at Lx ≈ 2 × 1038 erg s-1, the maximum Lx achieved in the post-nova evolutionary tracks. Their effective temperature distribution has a roughly power-law shape with differential slope of ≈4-6 up to the maximum temperature of Teff ≈ 1.5 × 106 K. We compare our predictions with the results of the XMM-Newton monitoring of the central field of M31 between 2006 and 2009. The predicted number of post-nova SSSs exceeds the observed number by a factor of ≈2-5, depending on the assumed WD mass distribution in novae. This is good agreement, considering the number and magnitude of uncertainties involved in calculations of the post-nova evolutionary models and their X-ray output. Furthermore, only a moderate circumstellar absorption, with hydrogen column density of the order of ˜1021 cm-2, will remove the discrepancy.

  5. 26.3 MHz radio source survey. III - Correlation with extragalactic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.; Matthews, T. A.; Viner, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    The correlation between extragalactic X-ray sources and radio sources in a 26.3-MHz catalog is studied. A list of reliably identified sources is developed by examining X-ray, optical, and radio data for those candidate objects that are in or near the X-ray error boxes. The source 3UR 0432+05 is identified with 3C 120, 3UR 1555+27 (identified with A2142) is shown to be a steep-spectrum radio source, and it is found that 86% of the high-galactic-latitude sources can be reliably identified when the X-ray source error areas are no more than 1 sq deg. The results also indicate that: (1) X-ray sources identified with clusters of galaxies as a whole, with individual galaxies in clusters, and with separate isolated galaxies have similar decametric properties in that their spectral indices and radio luminosities fall in the same range; (2) there is a Bautz-Morgan dependence of both the X-ray and the decametric luminosities of clusters and of individual objects in clusters; and (3) the X-ray luminosity of all except compact sources appears to be approximately proportional to the decametric luminosity.

  6. Plasma Emission Profile Recreation using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, J. W.; Mauel, M. E.; Levesque, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    With sufficient views from multiple diode arrays, soft X-ray tomography is an invaluable plasma diagnostic because it is a non-perturbing method to reconstruct the emission within the interior of the plasma. In preparation for the installation of new SXR arrays in HBT-EP, we compute high-resolution tomographic reconstructions of discharges having kink-like structures that rotate nearly rigidly. By assuming a uniform angular mapping from the kink mode rotation, Δϕ ~ ωΔ t, a temporal sequence from a single 16-diode fan array represents as many as 16 x 100 independent views. We follow the procedure described by Wang and Granetz and use Bessel basis functions to take the inverse Radon transform. This transform is fit to our data using a least-squares method to estimate the internal SXR emissivity as a sum of polar functions. By varying different parameters of the transformation, we optimize the quality of our recreation of the emission profile and quantify how the reconstruction changes with the azimuthal order of the transform. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  7. What Can be Learned from the Absence of Auroral X-Ray Emission from Saturn?

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Yawei; Cravens, Thomas E. E.; Ozak, Nataly; Schultz, David Robert

    2010-01-01

    To understand the origin and magnitude of the present upper limit observations of Saturn's auroral X-ray emission, we use simple models based on the mechanism that leads to analogous emission at Jupiter, charge transfer between ion precipitation and atmospheric gas. Several putative sources and characteristics of the precipitation are considered, namely, (1) highly charged solar wind ions with additional acceleration and (2) ambient, thermal ion population originating, for example, from Saturn's satellites, and then accelerated to high energies. Estimates obtained for each of these sources show the need for acceleration, either to focus the highly charged solar wind ions into the atmosphere or to enable stripping of the initially low-charge state ambient ions to higher charges. The former yields a constraint on the existing accelerating potentials present at Saturn but can only account for about a tenth of the observed upper limit to the auroral luminosity, while the latter requires extremely low limits on the area (i.e., less than 100 km{sup 2}) over which field-aligned potentials are active and needed to produce the acceleration to generate the observational upper limit on the X-ray luminosity. We therefore narrow the range of possible ion sources, the accelerating potentials required that are consistent with the present understanding of the magnetosphere, and model upper limit of X-ray emission from ion precipitation.

  8. Effect of insulator sleeve material on the x-ray emission from a plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Badar, M. A.; Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M.

    2010-09-15

    The effect of insulator sleeve material on x-ray emission from a 2.3 kJ Mather type plasma focus device operated in argon-hydrogen mixture is investigated. The time and space resolved x-ray emission characteristics are studied by using a three channel p-i-n diode x-ray spectrometer and a multipinhole camera. The x-ray emission depends on the volumetric ratio of argon-hydrogen mixture as well as the filling pressure and the highest x-ray emission is observed for a volumetric ratio 40% Ar to 60%H{sub 2} at 2.5 mbar filling pressure. The fused silica insulator sleeve produces the highest x-ray emission whereas nonceramic insulator sleeves such as nylon, Perspex, or Teflon does not produce focus or x-rays. The pinhole images of the x-ray emitting zones reveal that the contribution of the Cu K{alpha} line is weak and plasma x-rays are intense. The highest plasma electron temperature is estimated to be 3.3 and 3.6 keV for Pyrex glass and fused silica insulator sleeves, respectively. It is speculated that the higher surface resistivity of fused silica is responsible for enhanced x-ray emission and plasma electron temperature.

  9. Resonant x-ray emission from gas-phase TiCl{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Hague, C.F.; Tronc, M.; De Groot, F.

    1997-04-01

    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) has proved to be a powerful tool for studying the electronic structure of condensed matter. Over the past few years it has been used mainly for studying the valence bands of solids and condensed molecules. Very recently the advent of high brightness photon beams provided by third generation synchrotron radiation source undulators, associated with efficient x-ray emission spectrometers has made it possible to perform experiments on free diatomic molecular systems. RXE spectra of free molecules are of prime importance to gain insight into their electronic structure and bonding as they reflect the symmetry of orbitals engaged in the two-electron, two-step process with the l = 0, {+-}2 parity-conserving selection rule, and are free from solid state effects which can introduce difficulties in the interpretation. They provide information (more so than XAS) on the core excited states, and, when performed at fixed incident photon energy as a function of the emitted photon energy, on the electronic excitation (charge transfer, multiplet states). Moreover the anisotropy of the angular distribution of resonant x-ray emission affects the relative intensity of the emission peaks and provides information concerning the symmetries of final states. This is a preliminary report on what are the first RXE spectra of a 3d transition metal complex in the gas phase. The experiment concerns the Ti 3d {yields}2p emission spectrum of TiCl{sub 4} over the 450 to 470 eV region.

  10. High resolution stationary digital breast tomosynthesis using distributed carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Shan Jing; Yang Guang; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Sultana, Shabana; Lu Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing Zhenxue

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of increasing the system spatial resolution and scanning speed of Hologic Selenia Dimensions digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner by replacing the rotating mammography x-ray tube with a specially designed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, which generates all the projection images needed for tomosynthesis reconstruction by electronically activating individual x-ray sources without any mechanical motion. The stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) design aims to (i) increase the system spatial resolution by eliminating image blurring due to x-ray tube motion and (ii) reduce the scanning time. Low spatial resolution and long scanning time are the two main technical limitations of current DBT technology. Methods: A CNT x-ray source array was designed and evaluated against a set of targeted system performance parameters. Simulations were performed to determine the maximum anode heat load at the desired focal spot size and to design the electron focusing optics. Field emission current from CNT cathode was measured for an extended period of time to determine the stable life time of CNT cathode for an expected clinical operation scenario. The source array was manufactured, tested, and integrated with a Selenia scanner. An electronic control unit was developed to interface the source array with the detection system and to scan and regulate x-ray beams. The performance of the s-DBT system was evaluated using physical phantoms. Results: The spatially distributed CNT x-ray source array comprised 31 individually addressable x-ray sources covering a 30 angular span with 1 pitch and an isotropic focal spot size of 0.6 mm at full width at half-maximum. Stable operation at 28 kV(peak) anode voltage and 38 mA tube current was demonstrated with extended lifetime and good source-to-source consistency. For the standard imaging protocol of 15 views over 14, 100 mAs dose, and 2 x 2 detector binning

  11. High resolution stationary digital breast tomosynthesis using distributed carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Shan, Jing; Yang, Guang; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Sultana, Shabana; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang, Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing, Zhenxue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of increasing the system spatial resolution and scanning speed of Hologic Selenia Dimensions digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner by replacing the rotating mammography x-ray tube with a specially designed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, which generates all the projection images needed for tomosynthesis reconstruction by electronically activating individual x-ray sources without any mechanical motion. The stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) design aims to (i) increase the system spatial resolution by eliminating image blurring due to x-ray tube motion and (ii) reduce the scanning time. Low spatial resolution and long scanning time are the two main technical limitations of current DBT technology. Methods: A CNT x-ray source array was designed and evaluated against a set of targeted system performance parameters. Simulations were performed to determine the maximum anode heat load at the desired focal spot size and to design the electron focusing optics. Field emission current from CNT cathode was measured for an extended period of time to determine the stable life time of CNT cathode for an expected clinical operation scenario. The source array was manufactured, tested, and integrated with a Selenia scanner. An electronic control unit was developed to interface the source array with the detection system and to scan and regulate x-ray beams. The performance of the s-DBT system was evaluated using physical phantoms. Results: The spatially distributed CNT x-ray source array comprised 31 individually addressable x-ray sources covering a 30 angular span with 1 pitch and an isotropic focal spot size of 0.6 mm at full width at half-maximum. Stable operation at 28 kV(peak) anode voltage and 38 mA tube current was demonstrated with extended lifetime and good source-to-source consistency. For the standard imaging protocol of 15 views over 14, 100 mAs dose, and 2 × 2 detector

  12. LIGHT SOURCE: Spot size diagnostics for flash radiographic X-ray sources at LAPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Gang; Li, Qin; Shi, Jin-Shui; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2009-06-01

    Spot size is one of the parameters to characterize the performance of a radiographic X-ray source. It determines the degree of blurring due to magnification directly. In recent years, a variety of measurement methods have been used to diagnose X-ray spot size at Laboratory of Accelerator Physics and Application (LAPA). Computer simulations and experiments showed that using a rolled-edge to measure the spot size are more accurate, and the intensity distribution of X-ray source was obtained by a device with a square aperture. Experimental and simulation results on a flash X-ray source at our laboratory are presented and discussed in this paper. In addition, a new method for time resolved diagnostics of X-ray spot size is introduced too.

  13. Thermal X-ray emission from a baryonic jet: a self-consistent multicolour spectral model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabibullin, I.; Medvedev, P.; Sazonov, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a publicly available spectral model for thermal X-ray emission from a baryonic jet in an X-ray binary system, inspired by the microquasar SS 433. The jet is assumed to be strongly collimated (half-opening angle Θ ˜ 1°) and mildly relativistic (bulk velocity β = Vb/c ˜ 0.03-0.3). Its X-ray spectrum is found by integrating over thin slices of constant temperature, radiating in optically thin coronal regime. The temperature profile along the jet and corresponding differential emission measure distribution are calculated with full account for gas cooling due to expansion and radiative losses. Since the model predicts both the spectral shape and luminosity of the jet's emission, its normalization is not a free parameter if the source distance is known. We also explore the possibility of using simple X-ray observables (such as flux ratios in different energy bands) to constrain physical parameters of the jet (e.g. gas temperature and density at its base) without broad-band fitting of high-resolution spectra. We demonstrate this approach in application to Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer spectra of SS 433 in its `edge-on' precession phase, when the contribution from non-jet spectral components is expected to be low. Our model provides a reasonable fit to the 1-3 keV data, while some residuals remain at higher energies, which may be partially attributed to a putative reflection component. Besides SS 433, the model might be used for describing jet components in spectra of other Galactic X-ray binary systems (e.g. 4U 1630-47), ULXs (e.g. Holmberg II X-1), and candidate SS 433 analogues like S26 in NGC 7793 and the radio transient in M82.

  14. X-ray Emission from Young Stars in the TW Hya Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexander; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Ayres, Thomas R.; France, Kevin; Brown, Joanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The 9 Myr old TW Hya Association (TWA) is the nearest group (typical distances of ˜50 pc) of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars with ages less than 10 Myr and contains stars with both actively accreting disks and debris disks. We have studied the coronal X-ray emission from a group of low mass TWA common proper motion binaries using the Chandra and Swift satellites. Our aim is to understand better their coronal properties and how high energy photons affect the conditions around young stars and their role in photo-exciting atoms, molecules and dust grains in circumstellar disks and lower density circumstellar gas. Once planet formation is underway, this emission influences protoplanetary evolution and the atmospheric conditions of the newly-formed planets. The X-ray properties for 7 individual stars (TWA 13A, TWA 13B, TWA 9A, TWA 9B, TWA 8A, TWA 8B, and TWA 7) and 2 combined binary systems (TWA 3AB and TWA 2AB) have been measured. All the stars with sufficient signal require two-component fits to their CCD-resolution X-ray spectra, typically with a dominant hot (~2 kev (25 MK)) component and a cooler component at ~0.4 keV (4 MK). The brighter sources all show significant X-ray variability (at a level of 50-100% of quiescence) over the course of 5-15 ksec observations due to flares. We present the X-ray properties for each of the stars and find that the coronal emission is in the super-saturated rotational domain.

  15. High Brightness, Laser-Driven X-ray Source for Nanoscale Metrology and Femtosecond Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Siders, C W; Crane, J K; Semenov, V; Betts, S; Kozioziemski, B; Wharton, K; Wilks, S; Barbee, T; Stuart, B; Kim, D E; An, J; Barty, C

    2007-02-26

    This project developed and demonstrated a new, bright, ultrafast x-ray source based upon laser-driven K-alpha generation, which can produce an x-ray flux 10 to 100 times greater than current microfocus x-ray tubes. The short-pulse (sub-picosecond) duration of this x-ray source also makes it ideal for observing time-resolved dynamics of atomic motion in solids and thin films.

  16. X-ray spectra of a complete sample of extragalactic core-dominated radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunner, H.; Lamer, G.; Worrall, D. M.; Staubert, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present ROSAT soft X-ray spectra for the members of a complete sample of 13 core-dominated, flat radio spectrum sources. The sample comprises all radio sources from a flux-limited radio catalog (S(sub 5GHz) greater than 1 Jy; Kuehr et al. 1981) which are north of delta = 70 deg, at galactic latitudes b greater than 10 deg, and have a flat radio spectrum between 1.4 and 5 GHz (alpha(sub r) less than 0.5; f approximately nu(sup -alpha)). The sources have already undergone much study at radio and optical wavelengths and are classified in broad terms as quasars (8 sources) and BL Lac objects (5 sources). We find mean X-ray power-law energy indices of alpha(sub x) = 0.59 +/- 0.19 for the quasars and 1.36 +/- 0.27 for the BL Lac objects (68% confidence range for two parameters of interest as determined by a maximum likelihood method), supporting earlier Einstein Observatory results for heterogeneous samples of sources (Worrall & Wilkes 1990). A non-zero dispersion on alpha(sub x) is found for both the quasars and the BL Lac objects. When we incorporate published radio, mm, and optical measurements and compare the X-ray and broad-band spectral indices alpha(sub x), alpha(sub rx), alpha(sub mm,x), and alpha(sub ox), the most obvious difference between the quasar and BL Lac subsamples lies within the X-ray band. We have fitted the multi-wavelength data to inhomogeneous synchotron-self-Compton models and find that, for the BL Lac objects with steep X-ray spectra, synchotron emission can account for the radio to soft X-ray measurements, whereas the BL Lac objects with hard X-ray spectra and the quasars require significant Compton emission to model the spectral flattening indicated by alpha(sub x) less than alpha(sub ox).

  17. Measuring the Radius of a Neutron Star; Origin of High X-Ray Luminosities in Optically Passive Galaxies; Resolving the Source of X-Rays in IC 1613"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ROSAT projects over the past three years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work resulting from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from its support. A high resolution ROSAT HRI X-ray image of the Local Group dwarf IC1613 revealed that the principal source of X-ray emission in this direction arises in a background cluster of galaxies, as first suggested by Eskridge (1995). In addition, however, we found a bright X-ray source coincident with the only known supernova remnant in this galaxy, S # 8. Extensive ground-based follow-up observations in the radio and optical regimes were conducted. We confirmed the nonthermal radio spectral index of the source and measured its extent to be approx. 3 sec at 20 cm. Imaging spectrophotometric observations taken with the multi-pupil spectrograph of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in the FSU allowed us to determine the density and velocity distribution of the gas in the remnant. The simultaneous presence of luminous X-ray and optical emission suggests a relatively young remnant in which the outward-moving shock has recently encountered dense material. Many of this object's properties are similar to those of the brightest optical remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, N49. Another potential source of X-rays in this galaxy which featured prominently in our original proposal, an Oxygen Wolf-Rayet star with a large surrounding wind-blown bubble, was not detected.

  18. A KPC-Scale X-Ray Jet in the BL Lac Source S5 2007+777

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Donato, Davide; Cheung, C.C.; Tavecchio, F.; Maraschi, L.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray jets in AGN are commonly observed in FRII and FRI radiogalaxies, but rarely in BL Lacs, most probably due to their orientation close to the line of sight and the ensuing foreshortening effects. Only three BL Lacs are known so far to contain a kpc-scale X-ray jet. In this paper, we present the evidence for the existence of a fourth extended X-ray jet in the classical radio-selected source S5 2007+777, which for its hybrid FRI/II radio morphology has been classified as a HYMOR (HYbrid MOrphology Radio source). Our Chandra ACISS observations of this source revealed an X-ray counterpart to the 19"-long radio jet. Interestingly, the X-ray properties of the kpc-scale jet in S5 2007+777 are very similar to those observed in FRII jets. First, the X-ray morphology closely mirrors the radio one, with the X-rays being concentrated in the discrete radio knots. Second, the X-ray continuum of the jet/brightest knot is described by a very hard power law, with photon index gamma(sub x) approximately 1. Third, the optical upper limit from archival HST data implies a concave radio-to-X-ray SED. If the X-ray emission is attributed to IC/CMB with equipartition, strong beaming (delta= 13) is required, implying a very large scale (Mpc) jet. The beaming requirement can be somewhat relaxed assuming a magnetic field lower than equipartition. Alternatively, synchrotron emission from a second population of very high-energy electrons is viable. Comparison to other HYMOR jets detected with Chandra is discussed, as well as general implications for the origin of the FRI/II division.

  19. Modification of the TASMIP x-ray spectral model for the simulation of microfocus x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sisniega, A.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The availability of accurate and simple models for the estimation of x-ray spectra is of great importance for system simulation, optimization, or inclusion of photon energy information into data processing. There is a variety of publicly available tools for estimation of x-ray spectra in radiology and mammography. However, most of these models cannot be used directly for modeling microfocus x-ray sources due to differences in inherent filtration, energy range and/or anode material. For this reason the authors propose in this work a new model for the simulation of microfocus spectra based on existing models for mammography and radiology, modified to compensate for the effects of inherent filtration and energy range. Methods: The authors used the radiology and mammography versions of an existing empirical model [tungsten anode spectral model interpolating polynomials (TASMIP)] as the basis of the microfocus model. First, the authors estimated the inherent filtration included in the radiology model by comparing the shape of the spectra with spectra from the mammography model. Afterwards, the authors built a unified spectra dataset by combining both models and, finally, they estimated the parameters of the new version of TASMIP for microfocus sources by calibrating against experimental exposure data from a microfocus x-ray source. The model was validated by comparing estimated and experimental exposure and attenuation data for different attenuating materials and x-ray beam peak energy values, using two different x-ray tubes. Results: Inherent filtration for the radiology spectra from TASMIP was found to be equivalent to 1.68 mm Al, as compared to spectra obtained from the mammography model. To match the experimentally measured exposure data the combined dataset required to apply a negative filtration of about 0.21 mm Al and an anode roughness of 0.003 mm W. The validation of the model against real acquired data showed errors in exposure and attenuation in

  20. Chandra Discovers X-ray Source at the Center of Our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Culminating 25 years of searching by astronomers, researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology say that a faint X-ray source, newly detected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, may be the long-sought X-ray emission from a known supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Frederick K. Baganoff and colleagues from Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and the University of California, Los Angeles, will present their findings today in Atlanta at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society. Baganoff, lead scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) team's "Sagittarius A* and the Galactic Center" project and postdoctoral research associate at MIT, said that the precise positional coincidence between the new X-ray source and the radio position of a long-known source called Sagittarius A* "encourages us to believe that the two are the same." Sagittarius A* is a point-like, variable radio source at the center of our galaxy. It looks like a faint quasar and is believed to be powered by gaseous matter falling into a supermassive black hole with 2.6 million times the mass of our Sun. Chandra's remarkable detection of this X-ray source has placed astronomers within a couple of years of a coveted prize: measuring the spectrum of energy produced by Sagittarius A* to determine in detail how the supermassive black hole that powers it works. "The race to be the first to detect X-rays from Sagittarius A* is one of the hottest and longest-running in all of X-ray astronomy," Baganoff said. "Theorists are eager to hear the results of our observation so they can test their ideas." But now that an X-ray source close to Sagittarius A* has been found, it has taken researchers by surprise by being much fainter than expected. "There must be something unusual about the environment around this black hole that affects how it is fed and how the gravitational energy released from the infalling matter is

  1. The Soft X-Ray Emission in a Large Sample of Galaxy Clusters with ROSAT PSPC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonamente, Massimiliano; Lieu, Richard; Joy, Marshall K.; Nevalainen, Jukka H.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The study of soft X-ray emission of 38 X-ray selected galaxy clusters observed by ROSAT PSPC indicates that the soft excess phenomenon may be a common occurrence in galaxy clusters. Excess soft X-ray radiation, above the contribution from the hot intra-cluster medium, is evident in a large fraction of sources, and is clearly detected with large statistical significance in the deepest observations. The investigation relies on new, high resolution 21 cm HI observations. The sample selection also features analysis of infrared images, to further ensure reliability of results with respect to the characteristics of Galactic absorption. The possibility of background or calibration effects as cause of the excess emission is likewise investigated; a detailed analysis of the distribution of the excess emission with respect to detector position and Galactic HI column density shows that the excess emission is a genuine celestial phenomenon. We find evidence for a preferential distribution of the soft excess emission at distances larger than approx. 150-200 kpc from the centers of clusters; this behavior may be naturally explained in the context of a non-thermal Inverse-Compton scenario. Alternatively, we propose that the phenomenon maybe caused by thermal emission of very large-scale 'warm' filaments seen in recent hydrodynamic simulations. This new interpretation relieves the very demanding requirements of either the traditional intra-cluster 'warm' gas and the non-thermal scenarios. We also investigate the possibility of the soft excess originating from unresolved, X-ray faint cluster galaxies.

  2. SCO X-1: Origin of the radio and hard X-ray emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Cheng, C. C.; Tsuruta, S.

    1973-01-01

    The consequences of models for the central radio source and the hard X-ray ( 30 keV) emitting region in Sco X-1 are examined. It was found that the radio emission could result from noncoherent synchrotron radiation and that the X-rays may be produced by bremsstrahlung. It is shown that both mechanisms require a mass outflow from Sco X-1. The radio source is located at r approximately 3x10 to the 12th power cm from the center of the star, and its linear dimensions do not exceed 3x10 to the 13th power cm. The magnetic field in the radio source is on the order of 1 gauss. If the hard X-rays are produced by thermal bremsstrahlung, their source is located at 10 to the 9th power approximately r approximately 5x10 to the 9th power cm, the temperature is 2x10 to the 9th power K, and the emission measure is 2x10 to the 56th power/cu cm. This hot plasma loses energy inward by conduction and outward by supersonic expansion. The rates of energy loss for both processes are about 10 to the 36th power erg/s, comparable to the total luminosity of Sco X-1.

  3. A potential cyclotron line signature in low-luminosity X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wang, John C. L.; Salpeter, E. E.; Wasserman, Ira

    1995-01-01

    Estimates indicate there may be greater than or approximately equal to 10(exp 3) low-luminosity X-ray pulsars (L less than or approximately equal to 10(exp 34) ergs/s) in the Galaxy undergoing 'low-state' wind accretion in Be/X-ray binary systems, and approximately 10(exp 8)-10(exp 9) isolated neutron stars which may be accreting directly from the interstellar medium. Despite their low effective temperatures (kT(sub e) less than or approximately equal to 300 eV), low-luminosity accreting neutron stars with magnetic fields B approximately (0.7-7) x 10(exp 12) G could emit a substantial fraction (0.5%-5%) of their total luminosity in a moderately broadened (Epsilon/delta Epsilon approximately 2-4) cyclotron emission line which peaks in the energy range approximately 5-20 keV. The bulk of the thermal emission from these stars will be in the extreme ultraviolet/soft X-ray regime. In sharp contrast, the nonthermal cyclotron component predicted here will not be strongly absorbed, and consequently it may be the only distinguishing signature for the bulk of these low-luminosity sources. We propose a search for this cyclotron emission feature in long pointed observations of the newly discovered candidate isolated neutron star MS 0317.7-6477, and the Be/X-ray transient pulsar 4U 0115+63 in its quiescent state. We note that an emission-like feature similar to the one we predict here has been reported in the energy spectrum of the unusual X-ray pulsar 1E 2259+586.

  4. New active galactic nuclei among the INTEGRAL and SWIFT X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenin, R. A.; Mescheryakov, A. V.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Sazonov, S. Yu.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Pavlinsky, M. N.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2008-06-01

    We present the results of our optical identifications of a set of X-ray sources from the INTEGRAL and SWIFT all-sky surveys. The optical data have been obtained with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope (RTT-150). Nine X-ray sources have been identified with active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Two of them are located in the nearby spiral galaxies MCG-01-05-047 and NGC 973 seen almost edge-on. One source, IGR J16562-3301, is probably a BL Lac object (blazar). The remaining AGNs are observed as the starlike nuclei of spiral galaxies whose spectra exhibit broad emission lines. The relation between the hard X-ray (17-60 keV) luminosity and the [O III] 5007 line luminosity, log L x/ L [O III] ≈ 2.1, holds good for most of the AGNs detected in hard X rays. However, the luminosities of some AGNs deviate from this relation. The fraction of such objects can reach ˜20%. In particular, the [O III] line flux is lower for two nearby edge-on spiral galaxies. This can be explained by the effect of absorption in the galactic disks.

  5. Novae as a Class of Transient X-ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, K.; Orio, M.; Valle, M. Della

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the recently discovered class of faint (10(exp 34)-10(exp 35) ergs/s) X-ray transients in the Galactic Center region, we investigate the 2-10 keV properties of classical and recurrent novae. Existing data are consistent with the idea that all classical novae are transient X-ray sources with durations of months to years and peak luminosities in the 10(exp 34)-10(exp 35)ergs/s range. This makes classical novae a viable candidate class for the faint Galactic Center transients. We estimate the rate of classical novae within a 15 arcmin radius region centered on the Galactic Center (roughly the field of view of XMM-Newton observations centered on Sgr A*) to be approx.0.1 per year. Therefore, it is plausible that some of the Galactic Center transients that have been announced to date are unrecognized classical novae. The continuing monitoring of the Galactic Center region carried out by Chandra and XMM-Newton may therefore provide a new method to detect classical novae in this crowded and obscured region, an

  6. Soft x-ray contact imaging of biological specimens using a laser-produced plasma as an x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The use of a laser-produced plasma as an x-ray source provides significant advantages over other types of sources for x-ray microradiography of, particularly, living biological specimens. The pulsed nature of the x-rays enables imaging of the specimen in a living state, and the small source size minimizes penumbral blurring. This makes it possible to make an exposure close to the source, thereby increasing the x-ray intensity. In this article, we will demonstrate the applications of x-ray contact microradiography in structural and developmental botany such as the localization of silica deposition and the floral morphologenesis of maize.

  7. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; et al

    2015-04-21

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a newmore » generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced.« less

  8. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; Herrmann, Sven; Kenney, Chris; Markovic, Bojan; Nishimura, Kurtis; Osier, Shawn; Pines, Jack; Reese, Benjamin; Segal, Julie; Tomada, Astrid; Weaver, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a new generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced. PMID:25931071

  9. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; Herrmann, Sven; Kenney, Chris; Markovic, Bojan; Nishimura, Kurtis; Osier, Shawn; Pines, Jack; Reese, Benjamin; Segal, Julie; Tomada, Astrid; Weaver, Matt

    2015-04-21

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a new generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced.

  10. TRANSIENT EXTREMELY SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE UNUSUALLY BRIGHT CATACLYSMIC VARIABLE IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M3: A NEW CV X-RAY LUMINOSITY RECORD?

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W. S.; Heinke, C. O.; Elsner, R. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Edmonds, P. D.; Gr