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Sample records for emitter hollow cathode

  1. Barium depletion in hollow cathode emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Capece, Angela M.; Katz, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of Ba released by BaO-CaO-Al2O3 source material in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. The examination of cathode emitters from long duration tests shows deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of Ba from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of Ba transport in the cathode plasma indicates that the Ba partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant Ba-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress Ba loss in the upstream part of the emitter. New measurements of the Ba depletion depth from a cathode insert operated for 8200 h reveal that Ba loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis. The Ba transport model was modified to predict the depletion depth with time. A comparison of the calculated and measured depletion depths gives excellent qualitative agreement, and quantitative agreement was obtained assuming an insert temperature 70 °C lower than measured beginning-of-life values.

  2. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  3. Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Ronald; Goebel, Dan; Hofer, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-current, hollow cathode utilizing a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) thermionic electron emitter has been developed for use with high-power Hall thrusters and ion thrusters. LaB6 cathodes are being investigated due to their long life, high current capabilities, and less stringent xenon purity and handling requirements compared to conventional barium oxide (BaO) dispenser cathodes. The new cathode features a much smaller diameter than previously developed versions that permit it to be mounted on axis of a Hall thruster ( internally mounted ), as opposed to the conventional side-mount position external to the outer magnetic circuit ("externally mounted"). The cathode has also been reconfigured to be capable of surviving vibrational loads during launch and is designed to solve the significant heater and materials compatibility problems associated with the use of this emitter material. This has been accomplished in a compact design with the capability of high-emission current (10 to 60 A). The compact, high-current design has a keeper diameter that allows the cathode to be mounted on the centerline of a 6- kW Hall thruster, inside the iron core of the inner electromagnetic coil. Although designed for electric propulsion thrusters in spacecraft station- keeping, orbit transfer, and interplanetary applications, the LaB6 cathodes are applicable to the plasma processing industry in applications such as optical coatings and semiconductor processing where reactive gases are used. Where current electrical propulsion thrusters with BaO emitters have limited life and need extremely clean propellant feed systems at a significant cost, these LaB6 cathodes can run on the crudest-grade xenon propellant available without impact. Moreover, in a laboratory environment, LaB6 cathodes reduce testing costs because they do not require extended conditioning periods under hard vacuum. Alternative rare earth emitters, such as cerium hexaboride (CeB6) can be used in this

  4. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  5. Life Model of Hollow Cathodes Using a Barium Calcium Aluminate Impregnated Tungsten Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovaleski, S. D.; Burke, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Hollow cathodes with barium calcium aluminate impregnated tungsten emitters for thermionic emission are widely used in electric propulsion. These high current, low power cathodes are employed in ion thrusters, Hall thrusters, and on the International Space Station in plasma contactors. The requirements on hollow cathode life are growing more stringent with the increasing use of electric propulsion technology. The life limiting mechanism that determines the entitlement lifetime of a barium impregnated thermionic emission cathode is the evolution and transport of barium away from the emitter surface. A model is being developed to study the process of barium transport and loss from the emitter insert in hollow cathodes. The model accounts for the production of barium through analysis of the relevant impregnate chemistry. Transport of barium through the approximately static gas is also being treated. Finally, the effect of temperature gradients within the cathode are considered.

  6. Three dimensional simulation of the operation of a hollow cathode electron emitter on the Shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.; Parks, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Several researchers have suggested using hollow cathodes as plasma contactors for electrodynamic tethers, particularly to prevent the shuttle orbiter from charging to large negative potentials. Previous studies have shown that fluid models with anomalous scattering can describe the electron transport in hollow cathode generated plasmas. An improved theory of the hollow cathode plasmas is developed and computational results using the theory are compared with laboratory experiment. Numerical predictions for a hollow cathode plasma source of the type considered for use on the shuttle are presented as are three-dimensional NASCAP/LEO calculations of the emitted ion trajectories and the resulting potentials in the vicinity of the orbiter. The computer calculations show that the hollow cathode plasma source makes vastly superior contact with the ionospheric plasma compared with either an electron gun or passive ion collection by the orbiter.

  7. Compact High Current Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode for Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofer, Richard R. (Inventor); Goebel, Dan M. (Inventor); Watkins, Ronnie M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus and method for achieving an efficient central cathode in a Hall effect thruster is disclosed. A hollow insert disposed inside the end of a hollow conductive cathode comprises a rare-earth element and energized to emit electrons from an inner surface. The cathode employs an end opening having an area at least as large as the internal cross sectional area of the rare earth insert to enhance throughput from the cathode end. In addition, the cathode employs a high aspect ratio geometry based on the cathode length to width which mitigates heat transfer from the end. A gas flow through the cathode and insert may be impinged by the emitted electrons to yield a plasma. One or more optional auxiliary gas feeds may also be employed between the cathode and keeper wall and external to the keeper near the outlet.

  8. Hollow cathode apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hollow cathode apparatus is described, which can be rapidly and reliably started. An ignitor positioned upstream from the hollow cathode, generates a puff of plasma that flows with the primary gas to be ionized through the cathode. The plasma puff creates a high voltage breakdown between the downstream end of the cathode and a keeper electrode, to heat the cathode to an electron-emitting temperature.

  9. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  10. Hollow-Cathode Source Generates Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Aston, G.; Pless, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Device generates argon, krypton, or xenon plasma via thermionic emission and electrical discharge within hollow cathode and ejects plasma into surrounding vacuum. Goes from cold start up to full operation in less than 5 s after initial application of power. Exposed to moist air between operations without significant degradation of starting and running characteristics. Plasma generated by electrical discharge in cathode barrel sustained and aided by thermionic emission from emitter tube. Emitter tube does not depend on rare-earth oxides, making it vulnerable to contamination by exposure to atmosphere. Device modified for use as source of plasma in laboratory experiments or industrial processes.

  11. A Hollow Cathode Magnetron (HCM)

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Cohen; Z. Wang

    1998-04-01

    A new type of plasma sputtering device, named the hollow cathode magnetron (HCM), has been developed by surrounding a planar magnetron cathode with a hollow cathode structure (HCS). Operating characteristics of HCMs, current-voltage ( I-V ) curves for fixed discharge pressure and voltage-pressure ( V-p ) curves for fixed cathode current, are measured. Such characteristics are compared with their planar magnetron counterparts. New operation regimes, such as substantially lower pressures (0.3 mTorr), were discovered for HCMs. Cathode erosion profiles show marked improvement over planar magnetron in terms of material utilization. The use of HCMs for thin film deposition are discussed.

  12. Hollow-cathode evaporators

    SciTech Connect

    Saenko, V.A.; Kravatskii, V.A.; Veremeichenko, G.N.; Vladimirov, A.I.

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes devices for producing plasma from the vapor of a solid substance under vacuum and depositing films from the plasma. The plasma is produced by a discharge between a hollow cathode crucible and an anode, which are placed in a magnetic field longitudinal in relation to the vapor flow. The basic parameters are: film deposition rate 1-70 nm/sec, consumption of working substance 1-30 mg/sec, ionization factor for the working substance in the flow 1-10%, ion-current density at the substrate 0.1-10 mA/cm/sup 2/. Films of Cu, Au, Ag, Cr, and A1 have been made with parameters better than those of films deposited without ionization.

  13. Hydrogen hollow cathode ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J., Jr.; Sovey, J. S.; Roman, R. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A source of hydrogen ions is disclosed and includes a chamber having at one end a cathode which provides electrons and through which hydrogen gas flows into the chamber. Screen and accelerator grids are provided at the other end of the chamber. A baffle plate is disposed between the cathode and the grids and a cylindrical baffle is disposed coaxially with the cathode at the one end of the chamber. The cylindrical baffle is of greater diameter than the baffle plate to provide discharge impedance and also to protect the cathode from ion flux. An anode electrode draws the electrons away from the cathode. The hollow cathode includes a tubular insert of tungsten impregnated with a low work function material to provide ample electrons. A heater is provided around the hollow cathode to initiate electron emission from the low work function material.

  14. RHETT/EPDM Flight Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Patterson, Michael; Pastel, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the BMDO Russian Hall Electric Thruster Technology program two xenon hollow cathodes, a flight unit and a flight spare were fabricated, acceptance tested and delivered to the Naval Research Laboratory for use on the Electric Propulsion Demonstration Module. These hollow cathodes, based on the International Space Station plasma contactor design, were fabricated at the NASA Lewis Research Center for use with a D-55 anode layer thruster in the first on-orbit operational application of this technology. The 2.2 Ampere nominal emission current of this device was obtained with a xenon flow rate of 0.6 mg/s. Ignition of the cathode discharge was accomplished through preheating the active electron emitter with a resistive heating element before application of a 650 volt ignition pulse between the emitter and an external starting electrode. The successful acceptance testing of the Electric Propulsion Demonstration Module utilizing these cathodes demonstrated the suitability of cathodes based on barium impregnated inserts in an enclosed keeper configuration for use with Hall thruster propulsion systems.

  15. Plasma processes inside dispenser hollow cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2006-06-01

    A two-dimensional fluid model of the plasma and neutral gas inside dispenser orificed hollow cathodes has been developed to quantify plasma processes that ultimately determine the life of the porous emitters inserted in these devices. The model self-consistently accounts for electron emission from the insert as well as for electron and ion flux losses from the plasma. Two cathodes, which are distinctively different in size and operating conditions, have been simulated numerically. It is found that the larger cathode, with outer tube diameter of 1.5cm and orifice diameter of 0.3cm, establishes an effective emission zone that spans approximately the full length of the emitter when operated at a discharge current of 25A and a flow rate of 5.5sccm. The net heating of the emitter is caused by ions that are produced by ionization of the neutral gas inside the tube and are then accelerated by the sheath along the emitter. The smaller cathode, with an outer diameter of 0.635cm and an orifice diameter of 0.1cm, does not exhibit the same operational characteristics. At a flow rate of 4.25sccm and discharge current of 12A, the smaller cathode requires 4.5 times the current density near the orifice and operates with more than 6 times the neutral particle density compared to the large cathode. As a result, the plasma particle density is almost one order of magnitude higher compared to the large cathode. The plasma density in this small cathode is high enough such that the Debye length is sufficiently small to allow "sheath funneling" into the pores of the emitter. By accessing areas deeper into the insert material, it is postulated that the overall emission of electrons is significantly enhanced. The maximum emission current density is found to be about 1A/mm2 in the small cathode, which is about one order of magnitude higher than attained in the large cathode. The effective emission zone in the small cathode extends to about 15% of the emitter length only, and the power

  16. Characterization of Hollow Cathode Performance and Thermal Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Goebel, Dan M.; Watkins, Ron; Jameson, Kristina; Yoneshige, Lance; Przybylowski, JoHanna; Cho, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    Hollow cathodes are one of the main life-limiting components in ion engines and Hall thrusters. Although state-of-the-art hollow cathodes have demonstrated up to 30,352 hours of operation in ground tests with careful handling, future missions are likely to require longer life, more margin and greater resistance to reactive contaminant gases. Three alternate hollow cathode technologies that exploit different emitter materials or geometries to address some of the limitations of state-of-the-art cathodes are being investigated. Performance measurements of impregnated tungsten-iridium dispenser cathodes at discharge currents of 4 to 15 A demonstrated that they have the same operating range and ion production efficiency as conventional tungsten dispenser cathodes. Temperature measurements indicated that tungsten-iridium cathodes also operate at the same emitter temperatures. They did not exhibit the expected reduction in work function at the current densities tested. Hollow cathodes with lanthanum hexaboride emitters operated over a wide current range, but suffered from lower ion production efficiency at currents below about 12.4 A because of higher insert heating requirements. Differences in operating voltages and ion production rates are explained with a simple model of the effect of cathode parameters on discharge behavior.

  17. Multiple Hollow Cathode Wear Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been baselined for use on the Space Station to reduce station charging. The plasma contactor provides a low impedance connection to space plasma via a plasma produced by an arc discharge. The hollow cathode of the plasma contactor is a refractory metal tube, through which xenon gas flows, which has a disk-shaped plate with a centered orifice at the downstream end of the tube. Within the cathode, arc attachment occurs primarily on a Type S low work function insert that is next to the orifice plate. This low work function insert is used to reduce cathode operating temperatures and energy requirements and, therefore, achieve increased efficiency and longevity. The operating characteristics and lifetime capabilities of this hollow cathode, however, are greatly reduced by oxygen bearing contaminants in the xenon gas. Furthermore, an optimized activation process, where the cathode is heated prior to ignition by an external heater to drive contaminants such as oxygen and moisture from the insert absorbed during exposure to ambient air, is necessary both for cathode longevity and a simplified power processor. In order to achieve the two year (approximately 17,500 hours) continuous operating lifetime requirement for the plasma contactor, a test program was initiated at NASA Lewis Research Center to demonstrate the extended lifetime capabilities of the hollow cathode. To date, xenon hollow cathodes have demonstrated extended lifetimes with one test having operated in excess of 8000 hours in an ongoing test utilizing contamination control protocols developed by Sarver-Verhey. The objectives of this study were to verify the transportability of the contamination control protocols developed by Sarver-Verhey and to evaluate cathode contamination control procedures, activation processes, and cathode-to-cathode dispersions in operating characteristics with time. These were accomplished by conducting a 2000 hour wear test of four hollow

  18. Co-Flow Hollow Cathode Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    Hall thrusters utilize identical hollow cathode technology as ion thrusters, yet must operate at much higher mass flow rates in order to efficiently couple to the bulk plasma discharge. Higher flow rates are necessary in order to provide enough neutral collisions to transport electrons across magnetic fields so that they can reach the discharge. This higher flow rate, however, has potential life-limiting implications for the operation of the cathode. A solution to the problem involves splitting the mass flow into the hollow cathode into two streams, the internal and external flows. The internal flow is fixed and set such that the neutral pressure in the cathode allows for a high utilization of the emitter surface area. The external flow is variable depending on the flow rate through the anode of the Hall thruster, but also has a minimum in order to suppress high-energy ion generation. In the co-flow hollow cathode, the cathode assembly is mounted on thruster centerline, inside the inner magnetic core of the thruster. An annular gas plenum is placed at the base of the cathode and propellant is fed throughout to produce an azimuthally symmetric flow of gas that evenly expands around the cathode keeper. This configuration maximizes propellant utilization and is not subject to erosion processes. External gas feeds have been considered in the past for ion thruster applications, but usually in the context of eliminating high energy ion production. This approach is adapted specifically for the Hall thruster and exploits the geometry of a Hall thruster to feed and focus the external flow without introducing significant new complexity to the thruster design.

  19. Hollow cathodes for arcjet thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebben, Craig R.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to prevent exterior spot emission, hollow cathode bodies and orifice plates were constructed from boron nitride which is an electrical insulator, but the orifice plates melted and/or eroded at high interelectrode pressures. The most suitable hollow cathodes tested included a refractory metal orifice plate in a boron nitride body, with the insert insulated electrically from the orifice plate. In addition, the hollow cathode interior was evacuated to assure a low pressure at the insert surface, thus promoting diffuse electron emission. At high interelectrode pressures, the electrons tended to flow through the orifice plate rather than through the orifice, which could result in overheating of the orifice plate. Using a carefully aligned centerline anode, electron flow through the orifice could be sustained at interelectrode pressures up to 500 torr - but the current flow path still occasionally jumped from the orifice to the orifice plate. Based on these tests, it appears that a hollow cathode would operate most effectively at pressures in the arcjet regime with a refractory, chemically stable, and electrically insulating cathode body and orifice plate.

  20. Model of a Hollow Cathode Insert Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-D axisymmetric fluid model of the plasma in the insert region of a hollow cathode is presented. The level of sophistication included in the model is motivated in part by the need to determine quantitatively plasma fluxes to the emitter surface. The ultimate goal is to assess whether plasma effects can degrade the life of impregnated inserts beyond those documented throughout the 30-50 year history of vacuum cathode technologies. Results from simulations of a 1.2-cm diameter cathode operating at a discharge current of 25 A, and a gas flow rate of 5 sccm, suggest that approximately 10 A of electron current, and 3.5 A of ion current return to the emitter surface. The total emitted electron current computed by the model is about 35 A. Comparisons with plasma measurements suggest that anomalous heating of the plasma due to two-stream instabilities is possible near the orifice region. Solution to the heavy species energy equation, with classical transport and no viscous effects, predicts heavy species temperatures as high as 2640 K.

  1. 12Cao-7Al2o3 Electride Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Lauren P. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The use of the electride form of 12CaO-7Al.sub.2O.sub.3, or C12A7, as a low work function electron emitter in a hollow cathode discharge apparatus is described. No heater is required to initiate operation of the present cathode, as is necessary for traditional hollow cathode devices. Because C12A7 has a fully oxidized lattice structure, exposure to oxygen does not degrade the electride. The electride was surrounded by a graphite liner since it was found that the C12A7 electride converts to it's eutectic (CA+C3A) form when heated (through natural hollow cathode operation) in a metal tube.

  2. 28,000 Hour Xenon Hollow Cathode LifeTest Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    The International Space Station Plasma Contactor System requires a hollow cathode assembly (HCA) with a lifetime of at least 18,000 hours. Critical components of the HCA include the hollow cathode and electron emitter. A series of hollow cathode wear tests was performed which included a life test operated at the maximum current of the HCA. This test sought to verify the hollow cathode design and contamination control protocols. The life test accumulated 27,800 hours of operation before failing to ignite. The hollow cathode exhibited relatively small changes in operating parameters over the course of the test. This life test is the longest duration test of a high current xenon hollow cathode reported to date.

  3. Hollow Cathode With Multiple Radial Orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Improved hollow cathode serving as source of electrons has multiple radial orifices instead of single axial orifice. Distributes ion current more smoothly, over larger area. Prototype of high-current cathodes for ion engines in spacecraft. On Earth, cathodes used in large-diameter ion sources for industrial processing of materials. Radial orientation of orifices in new design causes current to be dispersed radially in vicinity of cathode. Advantageous where desireable to produce plasma more nearly uniform over wider region around cathode.

  4. The effect of cathode geometry on barium transport in hollow cathode plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, James E. Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2014-05-14

    The effect of barium transport on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in numerical modeling of a cathode with two different orifice sizes. Despite large differences in cathode emitter temperature, emitted electron current density, internal xenon neutral and plasma densities, and size of the plasma-surface interaction region, the barium transport in the two geometries is qualitatively very similar. Barium is produced in the insert and flows to the surface through the porous structure. A buildup of neutral Ba pressure in the plasma over the emitter surface can suppress the reactions supplying the Ba, restricting the net production rate. Neutral Ba flows into the dense Xe plasma and has a high probability of being ionized at the periphery of this zone. The steady state neutral Ba density distribution is determined by a balance between pressure gradient forces and the drag force associated with collisions between neutral Ba and neutral Xe atoms. A small fraction of the neutral Ba is lost upstream. The majority of the neutral Ba is ionized in the high temperature Xe plasma and is pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field. The steady state Ba{sup +} ion density distribution results from a balance between electrostatic and pressure forces, neutral Xe drag and Xe{sup +} ion drag with the dominant forces dependent on location in the discharge. These results indicate that hollow cathodes are very effective at recycling Ba within the discharge and therefore maintain a high coverage of Ba on the emitter surface, which reduces the work function and sustains high electron emission current densities at moderate temperatures. Barium recycling is more effective in the cathode with the smaller orifice because the Ba is ionized in the dense Xe plasma concentrated just upstream of the orifice and pushed back into the hollow cathode. Despite a lower emitter temperature, the large orifice cathode has a higher Ba loss rate through the orifice

  5. The effect of cathode geometry on barium transport in hollow cathode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Capece, Angela M.; Katz, Ira

    2014-05-01

    The effect of barium transport on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in numerical modeling of a cathode with two different orifice sizes. Despite large differences in cathode emitter temperature, emitted electron current density, internal xenon neutral and plasma densities, and size of the plasma-surface interaction region, the barium transport in the two geometries is qualitatively very similar. Barium is produced in the insert and flows to the surface through the porous structure. A buildup of neutral Ba pressure in the plasma over the emitter surface can suppress the reactions supplying the Ba, restricting the net production rate. Neutral Ba flows into the dense Xe plasma and has a high probability of being ionized at the periphery of this zone. The steady state neutral Ba density distribution is determined by a balance between pressure gradient forces and the drag force associated with collisions between neutral Ba and neutral Xe atoms. A small fraction of the neutral Ba is lost upstream. The majority of the neutral Ba is ionized in the high temperature Xe plasma and is pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field. The steady state Ba+ ion density distribution results from a balance between electrostatic and pressure forces, neutral Xe drag and Xe+ ion drag with the dominant forces dependent on location in the discharge. These results indicate that hollow cathodes are very effective at recycling Ba within the discharge and therefore maintain a high coverage of Ba on the emitter surface, which reduces the work function and sustains high electron emission current densities at moderate temperatures. Barium recycling is more effective in the cathode with the smaller orifice because the Ba is ionized in the dense Xe plasma concentrated just upstream of the orifice and pushed back into the hollow cathode. Despite a lower emitter temperature, the large orifice cathode has a higher Ba loss rate through the orifice because the Xe

  6. A hollow cathode hydrogen ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    High current density ion sources have been used to heat plasmas in controlled thermonuclear reaction experiments. High beam currents imply relatively high emission currents from cathodes which have generally taken the form of tungsten filaments. A hydrogen ion source is described which was primarily developed to assess the emission current capability and design requirements for hollow cathodes for application in neutral injection devices. The hydrogen source produced ions by electron bombardment via a single hollow cathode. Source design followed mercury ion thruster technology, using a weak magnetic field to enhance ionization efficiency.

  7. Hollow cathode startup using a microplasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to a microplasma discharge to initiate a hollow cathode discharge for such applications as plasma flow experiments, the electric propulsion of space vehicles, and as a replacement for filament cathodes in neutral beam injector ion sources. The technique results in a cathode that is easy to start, simple in design, and which does not require external RF exciters, inserts or heating elements. Future applications may include ion beam milling and ion implantation.

  8. Development and Testing of High Current Hollow Cathodes for High Power Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Van Noord, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist In-Space Propulsion project is sponsoring the testing and development of high power Hall thrusters for implementation in NASA missions. As part of the project, NASA Glenn Research Center is developing and testing new high current hollow cathode assemblies that can meet and exceed the required discharge current and life-time requirements of high power Hall thrusters. This paper presents test results of three high current hollow cathode configurations. Test results indicated that two novel emitter configurations were able to attain lower peak emitter temperatures compared to state-of-the-art emitter configurations. One hollow cathode configuration attained a cathode orifice plate tip temperature of 1132 degC at a discharge current of 100 A. More specifically, test and analysis results indicated that a novel emitter configuration had minimal temperature gradient along its length. Future work will include cathode wear tests, and internal emitter temperature and plasma properties measurements along with detailed physics based modeling.

  9. Argon hollow cathode. M.S. Thesis; [propellants for ion bombardment thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehn, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    An interest in alternate propellants for ion-bombardment thrusters, together with ground applications of this technology, has prompted consideration of argon. Several variations of conventional hollow cathode designs were tried, but the bulk of the testing used a hollow tube with an internal tungsten emitter and an orifice at one end. The optimum cathode tube diameter was found to be in the range of 1.0-2.5 cm, somewhat larger than those used for cesium and mercury. Optimum orifice diameter depended on operating conditions, and varied from 0.5 to 5 mm. Biasing the internal emitter negative relative to the cathode chamber reduced the external coupling voltage and should therefore improve orifice lifetime. The expected effect of this bias on emitter lifetime was less clear. Lifetime tests were not conducted as part of this investigation, but several designs show promise of long lifetime in specific applications.

  10. The temporal development of hollow cathode discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Mai T.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Gerdin, Glenn A.; Lee, Ja H.

    1990-01-01

    The temporal development of hollow cathode discharges was studied by means of electrical and optical diagnostic techniques. The results indicate that the discharge develops in two stages. The initial breakdown occurs along the longest straight path of the system, i.e., from the anode to the bottom of the cathode hole. This predischarge is confined to a narrow filament along the axis and carries a current of up to hundreds of milliamperes. The resulting distortion of the electric field in the cathode hole is assumed to cause a radial breakdown from the filamentary plasma on the axis to the edge of the cathode hole. After this second breakdown, an increase in current by more than three orders of magnitude is observed. Measurements with axial magnetic fields support the two-stage model.

  11. Destructive Evaluation of a Xenon Hollow Cathode after a 28,000 Hour Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) plasma contactor system requires a hollow cathode assembly (HCA) with a lifetime of at least 18,000 hours. In order to demonstrate the lifetime capability of the HCA, a series of hollow cathode wear tests was performed which included a life test operated at the maximum current of the HCA. This test sought to verify hollow cathode lifetime capability and contamination control protocols. This hollow cathode accumulated 27,800 hours of operation before it failed during a restart attempt. The cathode was subsequently destructively analyzed in order to determine the failure mechanism. Microscopic examination of the cathode interior determined that relatively small changes in the cathode physical geometry had occurred and barium tungstates, which are known to limit the emission process, had formed over a majority of the electron emitter surface. Because the final state of the insert was consistent with expected impregnate chemistry, the hollow cathode was believed to have reached the end of its usable life under the test conditions.

  12. A model of hollow cathode plasma chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Anderson, J. R.; Polk, J. E.; Brophy, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a new model of hollow cathode plasma chemistry based on the observation that xenon ion mobility is diffusion limited due to resonant charge exchange reactions. The model shows that vapor phase barium atoms are ionized almost immediately and electric fields accelerate the ions upstream from the emission zone. We have also applied the model to the orifice region, where the resultant ion generation profile correlates with previously reported orifice erosion.

  13. Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Frizzle, Patrick B.

    2002-08-20

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

  14. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  15. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1986-01-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  16. Hollow cathode plasma coupling study, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    The electron collection and emission characteristics of a simple hollow cathode contactor, an extended anode hollow cathode contactor supplied by JSC, and a ring cusp magnetic field contactor are presented and the effects of discharge power and argon or xenon expellant flowrate on these characteristics are examined. All of the contactors are shown to exhibit good electron emission performance over a wide range of discharge power and expellant type and flowrate. Good electron performance is shown to be more difficult to achieve. Results suggest that the extended anode and ring cusp contactors should perform satisfactorily to electron emission currents beyond 1000 mA and electron collection currents beyond 500 mA. All contactors performed better on xenon than argon. A general theory of plasma contactor operation in both the electron collection and electron emission modes, which describes the current-limiting effects of space-charge phenomena is given. This current-limiting and collecting phenomenon is shown to be a function of driving potential differences and emitting and collecting surface radius ratio for the case of a spherical geometry. Discharge power did not appear to influence the electron collection current substantially in the experiments so it is suggested in light of the model that the contactors are generally not limited by their ion production capabilities under conditions at which they were tested.

  17. Long lifetime hollow cathodes for 30-cm mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation of hollow cathodes for 30-cm Hg bombardment thrusters was carried out. Both main and neutralizer cathode configurations were tested with both rolled foil inserts coated with low work function material and impregnated porous tungsten inserts. Temperature measurements of an impregnated insert at various positions in the cathode were made. These, along with the cathode thermal profile are presented. A theory for rolled foil and impregnated insert operation and lifetime in hollow cathodes is developed. Several endurance tests, as long as 18000 hours at emission currents of up to 12 amps were attained with no degradation in performance.

  18. Energetic ion production and electrode erosion in hollow cathode discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    Ions with energies significantly in excess of the discharge voltage have been reported in high current hollow cathode discharges. Models of DC potential hills downstream of the cathode and ion acoustic instabilities in a double layer postulated in the cathode orifice have been proposed to explain these energetic ions, but have not been substantiated in experiments.

  19. Emission current control system for multiple hollow cathode devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, John R. (Inventor); Hancock, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An emission current control system for balancing the individual emission currents from an array of hollow cathodes has current sensors for determining the current drawn by each cathode from a power supply. Each current sensor has an output signal which has a magnitude proportional to the current. The current sensor output signals are averaged, the average value so obtained being applied to a respective controller for controlling the flow of an ion source material through each cathode. Also applied to each controller are the respective sensor output signals for each cathode and a common reference signal. The flow of source material through each hollow cathode is thereby made proportional to the current drawn by that cathode, the average current drawn by all of the cathodes, and the reference signal. Thus, the emission current of each cathode is controlled such that each is made substantially equal to the emission current of each of the other cathodes. When utilized as a component of a multiple hollow cathode ion propulsion motor, the emission current control system of the invention provides for balancing the thrust of the motor about the thrust axis and also for preventing premature failure of a hollow cathode source due to operation above a maximum rated emission current.

  20. Studies on an experimental quartz tube hollow cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfried, D. E.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study is described in which a quartz tube, hollow cathode was operated in a test fixture allowing the simultaneous measurement of internal cathode pressure, insert temperature profiles, and the emission currents from various cathode components as a function of discharge current and propellant (mercury) mass flow rate for a number of different cathode orifice diameters. Results show that the insert temperature profile is essentially independent of orifice diameter but depends strongly on internal cathode pressure and emission current. The product of internal cathode pressure and insert diameter is shown to be important in determining the emission location and the minimum keeper voltage.

  1. Modeling of LaB6 hollow cathode performance and lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrini, Daniela; Albertoni, Riccardo; Paganucci, Fabrizio; Andrenucci, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Thermionic hollow cathodes are currently used as sources of electrons in a variety of space applications, in particular as cathodes/neutralizers of electric thrusters (Hall effect and ion thrusters). Numerical tools are needed to guide the design of new devices before their manufacturing and testing, since multiple geometrical parameters influence the cathode performance. A reduced-order, numerical model was developed to assess the performance of orificed hollow cathodes, with a focus on the operational lifetime. The importance of the lifetime prediction is tied to its impact on the operational lifetime of the thruster to which the cathode is coupled. The cathode architecture consists of a refractory metal tube with an internal electron emitter made of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6). The choice of LaB6 accounts for the reduced evaporation rate, the low sensitivity to poisoning and the absence of an activation procedure with respect to oxide cathodes. A LaB6 emitter is thus a valuable option for long-lasting cathodes, despite its relatively high work-function and reactivity with many refractory metals at high temperatures. The suggested reduced-order model self-consistently predicts the key parameters of the cathode operation, shedding light on the power deposition processes as well as on the main erosion mechanisms. Preliminary results showed good agreement with both the experimental data collected by Alta and data available from the literature for different operating conditions and power levels. Next developments will include further comparisons between theoretical and experimental data, considering cathodes of various size and operating conditions.

  2. Scenario for Hollow Cathode End-Of-Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent successful hollow cathode life tests have demonstrated that lifetimes can meet the requirements of several space applications. However, there are no methods for assessing cathode lifetime short of demonstrating the requirement. Previous attempts to estimate or predict cathode lifetime were based on relatively simple chemical depletion models derived from the dispenser cathode community. To address this lack of predicative capability, a scenario for hollow cathode lifetime under steady-state operating conditions is proposed. This scenario has been derived primarily from the operating behavior and post-test condition of a hollow cathode that was operated for 28,000 hours. In this scenario, the insert chemistry evolves through three relatively distinct phases over the course of the cathode lifetime. These phases are believed to correspond to demonstrable changes in cathode operation. The implications for cathode lifetime limits resulting from this scenario are examined, including methods to assess cathode lifetime without operating to End-of- Life and methods to extend the cathode lifetime.

  3. Extended-testing of xenon ion thruster hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    1992-01-01

    A hollow cathode wear-test of 508 hours was successfully completed at an emission current of 23.0 A and a xenon flow rate of 10 Pa-L/s. This test was the continuation of a hollow cathode contamination investigation. Discharge voltage was stable at 16.7 V. The cathode temperature averaged 1050 C with a 7 percent drop during the wear-test. Discharge ignition voltage was found to be approximately 20 V and was repeatable over four starts. Post-test analyses of the hollow cathode found a much improved internal cathode condition with respect to earlier wear-test cathodes. Negligible tungsten movement occurred and no formation of mono-barium tungsten was observed. These results correlated with an order-of-magnitude reduction in propellant feed-system leakage rate. Ba2CaWO6 and extensive calcium crystal formation occurred on the upstream end of the insert. Ba-Ca compound depositions were found on the Mo insert collar, on the Re electrical leads, and in the gap between the insert and cathode wall. This wear-test cathode was found to be in the best internal condition and had the most stable operating performance of any hollow cathode tested during this contamination investigation.

  4. Plasma-Surface Interactions in Hollow Cathode Discharges for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capece, Angela Maria

    Electric thrusters generate high exhaust velocities and can achieve specific impulses in excess of 1000 s. The low thrust generation and high specific impulse make electric propulsion ideal for interplanetary missions, spacecraft station keeping, and orbit raising maneuvers. Consequently, these devices have been used on a variety of space missions including Deep Space 1, Dawn, and hundreds of commercial spacecraft in Earth orbit. In order to provide the required total impulses, thruster burn time can often exceed 10,000 hours, making thruster lifetime essential. One of the main life-limiting components on ion engines is the hollow cathode, which serves as the electron source for ionization of the xenon propellant gas. Reactive contaminants such as oxygen can modify the cathode surface morphology and degrade the electron emission properties. Hollow cathodes that operate with reactive impurities in the propellant will experience higher operating temperatures, which increase evaporation of the emission materials and reduce cathode life. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms initiating cathode failure will improve thruster operation, increase lifetime, and ultimately reduce cost. A significant amount of work has been done previously to understand the effects of oxygen poisoning on vacuum cathodes; however, the xenon plasma adds complexity, and its role during cathode poisoning is not completely understood. The work presented here represents the first attempt at understanding how oxygen impurities in the xenon discharge plasma alter the emitter surface and affect operation of a 4:1:1 BaO-CaO-Al2O3 hollow cathode. A combination of experimentation and modeling was used to investigate how oxygen impurities in the discharge plasma alter the emitter surface and reduce the electron emission capability. The experimental effort involved operating a 4:1:1 hollow cathode at various conditions with oxygen impurities in the xenon flow. Since direct measurements of the emitter

  5. Preliminary test results of a hollow cathode MPD thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, Maris A.; Myers, Roger M.

    1991-01-01

    Performance of four hollow cathode configurations with low work function inserts was evaluated in a steady-state 100 kW class applied magnetic field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster. Two of the configurations exhibited stable discharge current attachment to the low work function inserts of the hollow cathodes. A maximum discharge current of 2250 A was attained. While the applied-field increased the performance of the thruster, at high applied fields the discharge current attachment moved from the insert to the cathode body. The first successful hollow cathode performed well in comparison with a conventional rod cathode MPD thruster, attaining a thrust efficiency with argon of close to 20 percent at a specific impulse of about 2000 s. The second successful configuration had significantly lower performance.

  6. Nanostructure TEM analysis of diamond cold cathode field emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, Travis S.; Ghosh, Nikkon; Wittig, James Edward; Kang, Weng; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Unocic, Kinga A; Davidson, James; Tolk, Norman H.

    2012-01-01

    Diamond cold cathode devices have demonstrated significant potential as electron field emitters. Ultra-sharp diamond pyramidal tips (~5nm tip radius) have been fabricated and show improvement in emission when compared to conventional field emitters. However, the emission mechanisms in these complex diamond nanostructures are not well understood. Transmission electron microscopy performed in this study provides new insight into tip structure and composition with implications for field emission and diamond growth.

  7. High Current Hollow Cathode Plasma Plume Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Kamhawi, Hani; Williams, George J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma plume measurements are reported for a hollow cathode assembly (HCA) operated at discharge currents of 50, 70, and 100 A at xenon flow rates between 19 - 46 standard cubic centimeter per minute. The HCA was centrally mounted in the NASA-300MS Hall Thruster and was operated in the "spot" and "plume" modes with additional data taken with an applied magnetic field. Langmuir probes, retarding potential analyzers, and optical emission spectroscopy were employed to measure plasma properties near the orifice of the HCA and to assess the charge state of the near-field plasma. Electron temperatures (2-6 electron volt) and plasma potentials are consistent with probe-measured values in previous investigations. Operation with an applied-field yields higher discharge voltages, increased Xe III production, and increased signals from the 833.5 nm C I line. While operating in plume mode and with an applied field, ion energy distribution measurements yield ions with energies significantly exceeding the applied discharge voltage. These findings are correlated with high-frequency oscillations associated with each mode.

  8. High Current Hollow Cathode Plasma Plume Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Kamhawi, Hani; Williams, George J., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma plume measurements are reported for a hollow cathode assembly (HCA) oper-ated at discharge currents of 50, 70, and 100 A at xenon ow rates between 19 - 46 sccm.The HCA was centrally mounted in the annulus of the NASA-300MS Hall Thruster andwas operated in the spot and plume modes with additional data taken with an appliedmagnetic eld. Langmuir probes, retarding potential analyzers, and optical emission spec-troscopy were employed to measure plasma properties near the orice of the HCA and toassess the charge state of the near-eld plasma. Electron temperatures (2-6 eV) and plasmapotentials are consistent with probe-measured values in previous investigations. Operationwith an applied-eld yields higher discharge voltages, increased Xe III production, andincreased signals from the 833.5 nm C I line. While operating in plume mode and with anapplied eld, ion energy distribution measurements yield ions with energies signicantlyexceeding the applied discharge voltage. These ndings are correlated with high-frequencyoscillations associated with each mode.

  9. Characterization of a High Current, Long Life Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Kamhawi, Hani; McEwen, Heather K.

    2006-01-01

    The advent of higher power spacecraft makes it desirable to use higher power electric propulsion thrusters such as ion thrusters or Hall thrusters. Higher power thrusters require cathodes that are capable of producing higher currents. One application of these higher power spacecraft is deep-space missions that require tens of thousands of hours of operation. This paper presents the approach used to design a high current, long life hollow cathode assembly for that application, along with test results from the corresponding hollow cathode. The design approach used for the candidate hollow cathode was to reduce the temperature gradient in the insert, yielding a lower peak temperature and allowing current to be produced more uniformly along the insert. The lower temperatures result in a hollow cathode with increased life. The hollow cathode designed was successfully operated at currents from 10 to 60 A with flow rates of 5 to 19 sccm with a maximum orifice temperature measured of 1100 C. Data including discharge voltage, keeper voltage, discharge current, flow rates, and orifice plate temperatures are presented.

  10. Hollow cathode and ion accelerator system for current ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, G.

    1981-01-01

    A small self-heating hollow cathode has been designed and tested which uses a novel flowing plasma starting concept to eliminate the need for cathode heating elements and low work function insert materials. In a magnetic field free ion source, this cathode has reliably and repeatedly produced arc currents, using argon, of 100 ampere (the power supply limit) at arc voltages of 22 volts. The cathode operates with a high gas stagnation pressure and plasma density to produce field enhanced thermionic emission from the electron emitting surface, a 0.02mm thick rolled tungsten foil cylinder, without appreciable erosion of this surface. Possible applications of larger versions of this hollow cathode for use in neutral beam injector ion sources are discussed. An ion accelerator system has also been designed and tested which combines a unique arrangement of multiple hole and slit apertures to amplify the extracted ion current density by a factor of four during the ion acceleration process.

  11. Microanalysis of extended-test xenon hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhey, Timothy R.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Four hollow cathode electron sources were analyzed via boroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x ray analysis, and x ray diffraction analysis. These techniques were used to develop a preliminary understanding of the chemistry of the devices that arise from contamination due to inadequate feed-system integrity and improper insert activation. Two hollow cathodes were operated in an ion thruster simulator at an emission current of 23.0 A for approximately 500 hrs. The two tests differed in propellant-feed systems, discharge power supplies, and activation procedures. Tungsten deposition and barium tungstate formation on the internal cathode surfaces occurred during the first test, which were believed to result from oxygen contamination of the propellant feed-system. Consequently, the test facility was upgraded to reduce contamination, and the test was repeated. The second hollow cathode was found to have experienced significantly less tungsten deposition. A second pair of cathodes examined were the discharge and the neutralizer hollow cathodes used in a life-test of a 30-cm ring-cusp ion thruster at a 5.5 kW power level. The cathodes' test history was documented and the post-test microanalyses are described. The most significant change resulting from the life-test was substantial tungsten deposition on the internal cathode surfaces, as well as removal of material from the insert surface. In addition, barium tungstate and molybdate were found on insert surfaces. As a result of the cathode examinations, procedures and approaches were proposed for improved discharge ignition and cathode longevity.

  12. A hollow cathode hydrogen ion source. [for controlled fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    High current density ion sources have been used to heat plasmas in controlled thermonuclear reaction experiments. High beam currents imply relatively high emission currents from cathodes which have generally taken the form of tungsten filaments. This paper describes a hydrogen ion source which was primarily developed to assess the emission current capability and design requirements for hollow cathodes for application in neutral injection devices. The hydrogen source produced ions by electron bombardment via a single hollow cathode. Source design followed mercury ion thruster technology, using a weak magnetic field to enhance ionization efficiency. A 1.3-cm-diam hollow cathode using a low work function material dispenser performed satisfactorily over a discharge current range of 10-90 A. Cylindrical probe measurements taken without ion extraction indicate maximum ion number densities on the order of 10 trillion/cu cm. Discharge durations ranged from 30 sec to continuous operation. Tests with beam extraction at 2.5 keV and 30 A discharge current yield average ion beam current densities of 0.1 A/sq cm over a 5-cm extraction diameter. Results of this study can be used to supply the baseline information needed to scale hollow cathodes for operation at discharge currents of hundreds of amperes using distributed cathodes.

  13. Hollow cathode heater development for the Space Station plasma contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    1993-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been selected for use on the Space Station. During the operation of the plasma contactor, the hollow cathode heater will endure approximately 12000 thermal cycles. Since a hollow cathode heater failure would result in a plasma contactor failure, a hollow cathode heater development program was established to produce a reliable heater design. The development program includes the heater design, process documents for both heater fabrication and assembly, and heater testing. The heater design was a modification of a sheathed ion thruster cathode heater. Three heaters have been tested to date using direct current power supplies. Performance testing was conducted to determine input current and power requirements for achieving activation and ignition temperatures, single unit operational repeatability, and unit-to-unit operational repeatability. Comparisons of performance testing data at the ignition input current level for the three heaters show the unit-to-unit repeatability of input power and tube temperature near the cathode tip to be within 3.5 W and 44 degrees C, respectively. Cyclic testing was then conducted to evaluate reliability under thermal cycling. The first heater, although damaged during assembly, completed 5985 ignition cycles before failing. Two additional heaters were subsequently fabricated and have completed 3178 cycles to date in an on-going test.

  14. High voltage pulse ignition of mercury discharge hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    A high voltage pulse generated by a capacitor discharge into a step-up transformer has been demonstrated capable of consistently igniting hollow cathode mercury discharges at propellant flows and heater power levels much below those required by conventional cathode starting. Results are presented for 3.2-mm diameter enclosed and open keeper cathodes. Starting characteristics are shown to depend on keeper voltage, mercury flow rate, heater power, keeper orifice size, emissive materials, and electrode to which the pulse is applied. This starting technique has been used to start a cathode over 10,000 times without any degradation of starting capability.

  15. Processes For Cleaning a Cathode Tube and Assemblies In A Hollow Cathode Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor); Verhey, Timothy R. R. (Inventor); Soulas, George C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a process for cleaning a cathode tube and other subassemblies in a hollow cathode assembly. In the disclosed process, hand covering elastomer gloves are used for handling all cathode assembly parts. The cathode tube and other subassemblies are cleaned with a lint-free cloth damped with acetone, then wiped with alcohol, immersed in ethyl alcohol or acetone, and ultrasonic agitation is applied, heating to 60 C. for ethyl alcohol or 56 C. for acetone. The cathode tube and other subassemblies are dried by blowing with nitrogen gas.

  16. The hollow cathode effect in a radio-frequency driven microhollow cathode discharge in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lianzhu; Zhao, Guoming; Wang, Jing; Han, Qing

    2016-02-01

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo code has been developed to study the physical mechanism of the hollow cathode effect (HCE) in an rf microhollow cathode discharge (rf-MHCD). Under the simulated conditions, the HCE in the rf-MHCD is the result of sheath-superposition, and both α ionization and γ ionization play a role. However, α ionization mode is predominant. Electrons undergo a pendular motion during the negative portion of the rf cycle. When the rf hollow electrode has a positive voltage, the majority of the electrons move toward the rf electrode, and the mean electron energy near the rf electrode is higher than that in a dc hollow cathode discharge, resulting in a large number of energetic electrons bombarding the hollow cathode wall, an important characteristic of the rf-MHCD. When the hollow cathode aperture is sufficiently small, many electrons strike the hollow electrode and are removed from the discharge space, so that the plasma density decreases. The average energy of the ions in the quasi-neutral plasma region near the axis is greater than the thermal energy in a molecular gas. Therefore, high density, high energy, and high chemical activity are characteristic advantages of rf-MHCD plasma sources.

  17. Low-current hollow-cathode discharge in a trigger unit of a cold cathode thyratron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landl, N. V.; Korolev, Y. D.; Frants, O. B.; Geyman, V. G.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The paper deals with the investigations of the effect of cathode emissivity on the regimes of low-current hollow-cathode glow discharge. It is shown that an increase in the emissivity due to the so-called high-emissivity tablet allows the essential decrease in the discharge initiation voltage and the discharge burning voltage. The model of current sustaining for the hollow-cathode discharge, which takes into account the external emission current has been developed. On basis of the model, the current-voltage characteristics of the discharge have been interpreted.

  18. High efficiency ionizer using a hollow cathode discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.; Prelec, K.

    1984-01-01

    A proposal for an ionizer using a hollow cathode discharge plasma is described. Ionization is via the very high current density electron beam component in the plasma, as well as from charge exchange with plasma ions. Extraction of a He/sup +/ current corresponding to approximately 50% of the incoming atomic beam flux should be possible.

  19. Potential Fluctuations and Energetic Ion Production in Hollow Cathode Discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2007-01-01

    Ions with energies significantly in excess of the applied discharge voltage have been reported for many years in hollow cathode discharges. Models of dc potential hills downstream of the cathode and instabilities in postulated double layers in the cathode orifice have been proposed to explain this, but have not been substantiated. Measurements of the dc and rf plasma density and potential profiles near the exit of hollow cathodes by miniature fast-scanning probes suggests that turbulent ion acoustic fluctuations and ionization instabilities in the cathode plume significantly increase the energy of the ions that flow from this region. Increases in the discharge current and/or decreases in the cathode gas flow enhance the amplitude of the fluctuations and increase the number and energy of the energetic ions, which increases the erosion rate of the cathode electrodes. The transition from the quiescent 'spot mode' to the noisy 'plume mode' characteristic of these discharges is found to be a gradual transition of increasing fluctuation amplitudes.

  20. Potential fluctuations and energetic ion production in hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2007-10-15

    Ions with energies significantly in excess of the applied discharge voltage have been reported for many years in hollow cathode discharges. Models of dc potential hills downstream of the cathode and instabilities in postulated double layers in the cathode orifice have been proposed to explain this, but have not been substantiated. Measurements of the dc and rf plasma density and potential profiles near the exit of hollow cathodes by miniature fast-scanning probes suggests that turbulent ion acoustic fluctuations and ionization instabilities in the cathode plume significantly increase the energy of the ions that flow from this region. Increases in the discharge current and/or decreases in the cathode gas flow enhance the amplitude of the fluctuations and increase the number and energy of the energetic ions, which increases the erosion rate of the cathode electrodes. The transition from the quiescent 'spot mode' to the noisy 'plume mode' characteristic of these discharges is found to be a gradual transition of increasing fluctuation amplitudes.

  1. Ring cusp/hollow cathode discharge chamber performance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study performed to determine the effects of hollow cathode position, anode position, and ring cusp magnetic field configuration and strength on discharge chamber performance is described. The results are presented in terms of comparative plasma ion energy cost, extracted ion fraction, and beam profile data. Results show that the rate of primary electron loss to the anode decreases as the anode is moved downstream of the ring cusp toward the screen grid and that the loss rate of ions to hollow cathode surfaces are excessive if the cathode is located upstream of a point of peak magnetic flux density at the discharge chamber centerline. Moreover, the fraction of the ions produced that are lost to discharge chamber walls and ring magnet surfaces is reduced by positioning of the magnet rings so the plasma density is uniform over the grid surface, and adjusting their strength to a level where it is sufficient to prevent excessive ion losses by Bohm diffusion.

  2. Extended test of a xenon hollow cathode for a space plasma contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    1994-01-01

    Implementation of a hollow cathode plasma contactor for charge control on the Space Station has required validation of long-life hollow cathodes. A test series of hollow cathodes and hollow cathode plasma contactors was initiated as part of the plasma contactor development program. An on-going wear-test of a hollow cathode has demonstrated cathode operation in excess of 4700 hours with small changes in operating parameters. The discharge experienced 4 shutdowns during the test, all of which were due to test facility failures or expellant replenishment. In all cases, the cathode was reignited at approximately 42 volts and resumed typical operation. This test represents the longest demonstrated stable operation of a high current (greater than 1A) xenon hollow cathode reported to date.

  3. Continuing life test of a xenon hollow cathode for a space plasma contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    1994-01-01

    Implementation of a hollow cathode plasma contactor for charge control on the Space Station has required validation of long-life hollow cathodes. A test series of hollow cathodes and hollow cathode plasma contactors was initiated as part of the plasma contactor development program. An on-going wear-test of a hollow cathode has demonstrated cathode operation in excess of 10,000 hours with small changes in operating parameters. The discharge has experienced 10 shutdowns during the test, all of which were due to test facility failures or expellant replenishment. In all cases, the cathode was re-ignited at approximately 42 volts and resumed typical operation. This test represents the longest demonstrated stable operation of a high current (greater than 1 A) xenon hollow cathode reported to date.

  4. An experimental investigation of a hollow cathode discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of various modifications to the hollow cathode discharge region of a 20 cm electron bombardment ion thruster is presented. The introduction of electrical insulation between the main and cathode discharge regions is shown to have no significant effect on thruster performance. Adjustment of both the diameter and length of the cathode discharge region from the design condition are examined and the reduced sizes are shown to effect large improvements in propellant utilization when the thruster is operating at about 30% of the design thrust level. Performance improvements are shown to be less significant at higher thrust levels. The feasibility of using a high voltage tickler electrode to initiate the cathode-keeper discharge is considered and results obtained suggest this mode of startup is unsatisfactory.

  5. Energetic ion production in high current hollow cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, John; Kovach, Yao; Arthur, Neil; Viges, Eric; Davis, Chris

    2015-09-01

    High power Hall and gridded ion thrusters are being considered as a propulsion option supporting human operations (cargo or tug) to Mars. These engines utilize hollow cathodes for plasma production and beam neutralization. It has now been well documented that these cathodes produce energetic ions when operated at high current densities. Such ions are observed with peak energies approaching 100 eV. Because these ions can drive erosion of the cathode assembly, they represent a credible failure mode. An understanding of energetic ion production and approaches to mitigation is therefore desired. Presented here are data documenting the presence of energetic ions for both a barium oxide and a lanthanum hexaboride cathode as measured using a retarding potential analyzer. Also presented are energetic ion mitigation approaches, which are designed to eliminate the ion energy transfer mechanism. NASA SBIR Contract NNX15CP62P.

  6. Instability of plasma plume of micro-hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-11-15

    The micro-hollow cathode gas discharge driven by thermionic emission is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions simulation. The electron current is extracted from the plasma plume penetrating into the keeper–anode space through a small keeper orifice from the cathode-keeper space. The results of simulations and a simplified analytical model showed that the plasma density and extracted current can exhibit deep modulation in the range of frequencies of tens of MHz. This modulation appears when the space-charge limited current between the plume boundary and the anode exceeds the plasma thermal electron current through the orifice.

  7. Comparative Spectroscopic Temperature Measurements In Hydrogen Hollow Cathode Glow Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majstorovic, G. Lj.; Šišovic, N. M.; Konjevic, N.

    2010-07-01

    We report results of optical emission spectroscopy measurements of rotational Trot and translational temperature Ttr of hydrogen molecules. The light source was hollow cathode glow discharge with titanium cathode operated in hydrogen at low pressure. The rotational temperature of excited electronic states of H2 was determined either from relative line intensities of the R branch of the GK ? B band or from the Q branch of the Fulcher-a diagonal band. The population of excited energy levels, determined from relative line intensities, was used to derive ro-vibronic temperature of the ground state of hydrogen molecule.

  8. Linear ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, D.L.; Pu, S.H.; Wang, L.S.; Qiu, X.M.; Chu, Paul K.

    2005-11-15

    A linear ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge is described in this paper. The linear ion source is based on an anode layer thruster with closed-drift electrons that move in a closed path in the ExB fields. An open slit configuration is designed at the end of the ion source for the extraction of the linear ion beam produced by the magnetron hollow cathode discharge. The special configurations enable uninterrupted and expanded operation with oxygen as well as other reactive gases because of the absence of an electron source in the ion source. The ion current density and uniformity were experimentally evaluated. Using the ion source, surface modification was conducted on polyethylene terephthalate polymer films to improve the adhesion strength with ZnS coatings.

  9. Analysis of geological samples by hollow cathode plume

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, R.K.; Harrison, W.W.

    1987-10-01

    The hollow cathode plume (HCP) was applied to the elemental analysis of geological materials by atomic emission. Graphite, silver, and copper were studied as matrix materials to produce conducting electrodes from geological/matrix mixtures. Data taken from a range of sample-to-matrix ratios showed that a 10% sample composition was optimum. Reproducibility of HCP data was approximately 5%. Simulated analyses of NBS geological samples were undertaken by the developed procedures.

  10. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  11. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  12. Hollow nanoparticle cathode materials for sodium electrochemical cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Shevchenko, Elena; Rajh, Tijana; Johnson, Christopher S.; Koo, Bonil

    2016-07-12

    A cathode comprises, in its discharged state, a layer of hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles disposed between two layers of carbon nanotubes, and preferably including a metallic current collector in contact with one of the layers of carbon nanotubes. Individual particles of the hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles comprise a crystalline shell of .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 including cation vacancies within the crystal structure of the shell (i.e., iron vacancies of anywhere between 3% to 90%, and preferably 44 to 77% of available octahedral iron sites). Sodium ions are intercalated within at least some of the cation vacancies within the crystalline shell of the hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles.

  13. Numerical Simulations of the Partially-Ionized Gas in a 100-A LaB6 Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Goebel, Dan M.; Jorns, Benjamin A.; Polk, James E.; Guerrero, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a hollow cathode with a LaB6 emitter operating at 100 A have been performed for the first time using the 2-D Orificed Cathode (OrCa2D) code. Results for a variety of plasma properties are presented and compared with laboratory measurements. The large size of the device permits peak electron number densities in the cathode interior that are lower than those established in the NSTAR hollow cathode, which operates with a 7.3x lower discharge current and 3.2x lower mass flow rate. Also, despite the higher discharge current in the LaB6 cathode, the maximum electron current density is lower, by 4.2x, than that in the NSTAR cathode due to the larger orifice size. Simulations and direct measurements show that at 12 sccm of xenon flow the peak emitter temperature is in the range of 1594-1630 C. It is also found that the conditions for the excitement of current-driven streaming instabilities and ion-acoustic turbulence (IAT) are satisfied in this cathode, similarly to what was found in the past in its smaller counterparts like the NSTAR cathode. Based on numerical simulations, it has long been argued that these instabilities may be responsible for the anomalously large ion energies that have been measured in these discharges as well as for the enhancement of the plasma resistivity. Confirmation of the presence of IAT in this cathode is presented for the first time in a companion paper.

  14. The hollow cathode in the quasi-steady MPD discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Jaskowsky, W. F.; Jahn, R. G.; Clark, K. E.; Krishnan, M.

    1973-01-01

    A large hollow cathode has been operated in a quasi-steady MPD discharge over a range of current from 7 to 30 kA and argon mass flow from 0.04 to 6.0 g/sec. The 1.3-cm-i.d. cathode cavity attains steady emission characteristics in some tens of microseconds without the assistance of auxiliary heating, low work function inserts, or external keeper electrodes. Measured current and potential distributions within the cavity reveal that the current attaches in a zone 1 to 2 cm long with a surface current density greater than 1000 A/sq cm and a local axial electric field less than 10 V/cm. Electron densities within the cavity, estimated from spectroscopic records, are above 10 to the 17th power per cu cm, at least one order of magnitude greater than has been reported for either ion engine hollow cathodes or conventional solid cathodes in similar arc discharges.

  15. Investigation of Energetic Ions in a 100-A Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of ion acoustic turbulence in the formation of high-energy ion tails in the plume of a 100-A LaB6 hollow cathode is experimentally and theoretically examined. At fixed flow rate and varying discharge current, single-point measurements of fluctuation intensity in the cathode plume are taken and compared to ion energy measurements. It is shown that for high discharge current the formation of energetic ions is correlated with the amplitude of the ion acoustic turbulence. Two-dimensional maps of background plasma parameters and wave turbulence are made at the highest discharge current investigated, 140 A. A simple, one-dimensional quasilinear model for the interaction of the ion energy distribution with the ion acoustic turbulence is employed, and it is shown that the energy in the measured wave turbulence is sufficiently large to explain the formation of ion tails in the cathode plume. Mitigation techniques for minimizing the amplitude of the turbulence are discussed.

  16. Pulsed hollow-cathode ion lasers: pumping and lasing parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Zinchenko, S P; Ivanov, I G

    2012-06-30

    Optimal discharge conditions have been experimentally found for ion lasers excited in the hollow-cathode discharge plasma by microsecond current pulses by pumping working atoms in secondkind collisions with ions and metastable buffer-gas atoms. Measurements of the output power of krypton ion and zinc-, cadmium-, mercury-, thallium-, copper-, and gallium-vapour lasers in tubes with cathodes of different diameters showed that the pulse power reaches several tens of watts, and the average power obtained with cathodes 2 cm in diameter and a length of 40 cm or more approaches 1 W. Lasing in most media is observed simultaneously at several lines (the multi-wavelength regime). Lasing on a three-component (He - Kr - Hg) mixture is realised in the multi-wavelength regime at blue, red, and IR lines.

  17. Geometrical Aspects of a Hollow-cathode Magnetron (HCM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Samuel, A.; Wang, Zhehui

    1998-11-01

    A hollow-cathode magnetron (HCM), built by surrounding a planar sputtering-magnetron cathode with a hollow-cathode structure (HCS), is operable at substantially lower pressures than its planar-magnetron counterpart. We have studied the dependence of magnetron operational parameters on the inner diameter D and length L of a cylindrical HCS. Only when L is greater than L sub zero, a critical length, is the HCM operable in the new low-pressure regime. The critical length varies with HCS inner diameter D. Explanations of the lower operational pressure regime, critical length, and plasma shape are proposed and compared with a one-dimension diffusion model for energetic or primary electron transport. At pressures above 1 mTorr, an electron-impact ionization model with Bohm diffusion at a temperature equivalent to one-half the primary electron energy and with an ambipolar constraint can explain the ion-electron pair creation required to sustain the discharge. The critical length L sub zero is determined by the magnetization length of the primary electrons.

  18. Tungsten and barium transport in the internal plasma of hollow cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport, and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from 8200 h and 30 352 h ion engine wear tests. Erosion and subsequent redeposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduce the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  19. Neutralizer Hollow Cathode Simulations and Validation with Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Goebel, Dan M.; Snyder, John S.; Katz, Ira; Herman, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    The fidelity of electric propulsion physics-based models depends largely on the validity of their predictions over a range of operating conditions and geometries. In general, increased complexity of the physics requires more extensive comparisons with laboratory data to identify the region(s) that lie outside the validity of the model assumptions and to quantify the uncertainties within its range of application. This paper presents numerical simulations of neutralizer hollow cathodes at various operating conditions and orifice sizes. The simulations were performed using a two-dimensional axisymmetric model that solves numerically a relatively extensive system of conservation laws for the partially-ionized gas in these devices. The results for the plasma are compared directly with Langmuir probe measurements. The computed keeper voltages are also compared with the observed values. Wherever model inputs and/or specific physics of the cathode discharge are uncertain, additional sensitivity calculations have been performed to quantify the uncertainties.

  20. Modeling the plasma plume of a hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Iain D.; Crofton, Mark W.

    2004-04-01

    In this study, a numerical model is developed to simulate the xenon plasma plume from a thermionic hollow cathode employing an orifice plate used for propellant ionization and beam neutralization in an electrostatic space propulsion system. The model uses a detailed fluid model to describe the electrons and a particle-based kinetic approach is used to model the heavy xenon ions and atoms. A number of key assumptions in terms of physical modeling and boundary conditions of the simulations are assessed through direct comparisons with experimental measurements. For two of the three cathode operating conditions considered, good agreement with the measured data is obtained. The third condition appears to lie in a different physical regime where elevated electron and ion temperatures and decreased transport coefficients are required in the simulation to provide agreement between the model and the measured data.

  1. Hollow cathode plasma source for active spacecraft charge control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, William D.; Aston, Graeme; Pless, Lewis C.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype plasma source spacecraft discharge device has been developed to control overall and differential spacecraft surface charging. The plasma source is based on a unique hollow cathode discharge, where the plasma generation process is contained completely within the cathode. This device can be operated on argon, krypton, or xenon and has a rapid cold start time of less than 4 s. The discharge system design includes a spacecraft-discharge/net-charge sensing circuit which provides the ability to measure the polarity, magnitude, pulse shape, and time duration of a discharging event. Ion currents of up to 325 microA and electron currents ranging from 0.02 to 6.0 A have been extracted from the device. In addition, the spacecraft discharge device successfully discharged capacitively biased plates, from as high as + or - 2500 V, to ground potential, and discharged and clamped actively biased plates at +5 V with respect to ground potential during ground simulation testing.

  2. Comparison of Cu-II 781 nm lasers using high-voltage hollow-cathode and hollow-anode-cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Peard, K.A.; Tobin, R.C. . Dept. of Physics); Donko, Z.; Rozsa, K. ); Szalai, L. )

    1994-09-01

    Voltage-current characteristics and the Cu-II 780.8 nm laser performances are described for a novel segmented hollow cathode and for three- and four-slot hollow-anode cathode (HAC) tubes. Each of these operate at a higher voltage and with higher slope resistance than a conventional hollow cathode and produce improved laser performance. The best laser performance is obtained with the segmented tube. The application of a longitudinal magnetic field raises the discharge voltage and enhances the laser performance for the segmented tube and raises the voltage for the four-slot HAC tube. The magnetic field lowers the voltage and reduces the laser performance with the three-slot HAC tube. The voltage effects are attributed to the deflection of the fast electrons by the magnetic field and represent experimental evidence for the oscillation of electrons in a hollow-cathode discharge.

  3. Hollow cathodes as electron emitting plasma contactors Theory and computer modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.; Parks, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    Several researchers have suggested using hollow cathodes as plasma contactors for electrodynamic tethers, particularly to prevent the Shuttle Orbiter from charging to large negative potentials. Previous studies have shown that fluid models with anomalous scattering can describe the electron transport in hollow cathode generated plasmas. An improved theory of the hollow cathode plasmas is developed and computational results using the theory are compared with laboratory experiments. Numerical predictions for a hollow cathode plasma source of the type considered for use on the Shuttle are presented, as are three-dimensional NASCAP/LEO calculations of the emitted ion trajectories and the resulting potentials in the vicinity of the Orbiter. The computer calculations show that the hollow cathode plasma source makes vastly superior contact with the ionospheric plasma compared with either an electron gun or passive ion collection by the Orbiter.

  4. Self-pulsing of hollow cathode discharge in various gases

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Y.; He, F. Jiang, X. X.; Ouyang, J. T.; Xie, K.

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, we investigate the self-pulsing phenomenon of cavity discharge in a cylindrical hollow cathode in various gases including argon, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and air. The current-voltage characteristics of the cavity discharge, the waveforms of the self-pulsing current and voltage as well as the repetition frequency were measured. The results show that the pulsing frequency ranges from a few to tens kilohertz and depends on the averaged current and the pressure in all gases. The pulsing frequency will increase with the averaged current and decrease with the pressure. The rising time of the current pulse is nearly constant in a given gas or mixture. The self-pulsing does not depend on the external ballast but is affected significantly by the external capacitor in parallel with the discharge cell. The low-current self-pulsing in hollow cathode discharge is the mode transition between Townsend and glow discharges. It can be described by the charging-discharging process of an equivalent circuit consisting of capacitors and resistors.

  5. Neutralizer Hollow Cathode Simulations and Comparisons with Ground Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Snyder, John S.; Goebel, Dan M.; Katz, Ira; Herman, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    The fidelity of electric propulsion physics-based models depends largely on the validity of their predictions over a range of operating conditions and geometries. In general, increased complexity of the physics requires more extensive comparisons with laboratory data to identify the region(s) that lie outside the validity of the model assumptions and to quantify the uncertainties within its range of application. This paper presents numerical simulations of neutralizer hollow cathodes at various operating conditions and orifice sizes. The simulations were performed using a two-dimensional axisymmetric model that solves numerically a relatively extensive system of conservation laws for the partially ionized gas in these devices. A summary of the comparisons between simulation results and Langmuir probe measurements is provided. The model has also been employed to provide insight into recent ground test observations of the neutralizer cathode in NEXT. It is found that a likely cause of the observed keeper voltage drop is cathode orifice erosion. However, due to the small magnitude of this change, is approx. 0.5 V (less than 5% of the beginning-of-life value) over 10 khrs, and in light of the large uncertainties of the cathode material sputtering yield at low ion energies, other causes cannot be excluded. Preliminary simulations to understand transition to plume mode suggest that in the range of 3-5 sccm the existing 2-D model reproduces fairly well the rise of the keeper voltage in the NEXT neutralizer as observed in the laboratory. At lower flow rates the simulation produces oscillations in the keeper current and voltage that require prohibitively small time-steps to resolve with the existing algorithms.

  6. Intrinsic emittance reduction of copper cathodes by laser wavelength tuning in an rf photoinjector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divall, Marta Csatari; Prat, Eduard; Bettoni, Simona; Vicario, Carlo; Trisorio, Alexandre; Schietinger, Thomas; Hauri, Christoph P.

    2015-03-01

    With the improvement of acceleration techniques, the intrinsic emittance of the cathode has a strong impact on the final brightness of a free electron laser. The systematic studies presented in this paper demonstrate for the first time in a radiofrequency photocathode gun a reduction of the intrinsic emittance when tuning the laser photon energies close to the effective work function of copper. The intrinsic emittance was determined by measuring the core slice emittance as a function of the laser beam size at laser wavelengths between 260 and 275 nm. The results are consistent with the measured effective work function of the cathode. Slice emittance values normalized to the laser beam size reached values down to 500 nm /mm , close to that expected from theory. A 20% reduction of the intrinsic emittance was observed over the spectral range of the laser.

  7. Atlas of uranium emission intensities in a hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.A.; Keller, R.A.; Engleman, R. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    The uranium emission spectrum from a hollow cathode discharge is displayed from 11,000 to 26,000 cm/sup -1/. This atlas lists 4928 spectral lines of uranium; 3949 are classified to the neutral spectrum and 431 are classified to the singly ionized spectrum. Listed wavenumbers are accurate to +-0.003 cm/sup -1/ and the listed relative intensities to +-8%. The richness of the spectrum makes this atlas useful for wavenumber calibration of lasers, spectrographs, and monochromators to an accuracy of 1 part in 10/sup 7/. This atlas is also useful as a guide to the uranium spectrum, and relative oscillator strengths (gf values) can be calculated from the intensities to a precision of +-20%.

  8. High-pressure dc glow discharges in hollow diamond cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscott, B. S.; Turner, C.; May, P. W.

    2016-04-01

    We report the generation and characterization of dc helium microdischarges at several times atmospheric pressure in monolithic diamond hollow-cathode devices having cavity diameters on the order of 100 μm. I-V characteristics indicated operation in the glow discharge regime even at nearly 10 atm, while spectroscopic measurements of the N2 C3Πu  →  B3Πg emission returned rotational temperatures always around 420 K, with a pressure-dependent vibrational population distribution. The variation of breakdown voltage with pressure closely followed Paschen’s law, but with offsets in both axes that we tentatively ascribe to strong diffusive loss and a partial thermalization of electron energies under the high pressures considered here.

  9. Study of Discharging Characteristics of Hollow Cathode Surge Protective Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xueling; Chen, Jingliang; Xu, Xiaowei; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2010-02-01

    A hollow cathode surge protective gap (HCSPG) was designed, and the discharge characteristics was investigated in an air and nitrogen gas environment. For both the gap spacing D and the hole diameter varphi of HCSPG of 3 mm, the voltage protective value Up of HCSPG is about 3.5 kV and its converting time tc exceeds 100 ns at an air pressure from 10 Pa to 100 Pa. The maximum converting time tc from glow to arc discharging reaches 1600 ns at an air pressure of 100 Pa, while the minimum converting time tc is 120 ns at 10 Pa. For a triggered HCSPG, Up is reduced to about 1.6 kV while the converting time is 120 ns with a semiconductor trigger device and 50 ns with a dielectric porcelain trigger device under an air pressure of 100 Pa.

  10. The hollow-cathode helium-fluorine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, J. K.; Verdeyen, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    It is possible to obtain uniform stable long-pulse excitation (in excess of 100 microsec) in gas mixtures involving highly electronegative constituents (SF6, CCl4, NF3, and I2). Such a system was used to investigate the atomic fluorine laser. In the hollow cathode, lasing on fluorine transitions in the doublet system lasted for up to 80 microsec with no signs of the self-termination as reported previously in positive-column devices. The excitation process of the laser appears to depend heavily upon the fluorine donor utilized. For instance, a single-step process is involved when NF3 is used whereas a two-step process is evident for SF6. The details are discussed.

  11. Two-stage plasma gun based on a gas discharge with a self-heating hollow emitter.

    PubMed

    Vizir, A V; Tyunkov, A V; Shandrikov, M V; Oks, E M

    2010-02-01

    The paper presents the results of tests of a new compact two-stage bulk gas plasma gun. The plasma gun is based on a nonself-sustained gas discharge with an electron emitter based on a discharge with a self-heating hollow cathode. The operating characteristics of the plasma gun are investigated. The discharge system makes it possible to produce uniform and stable gas plasma in the dc mode with a plasma density up to 3x10(9) cm(-3) at an operating gas pressure in the vacuum chamber of less than 2x10(-2) Pa. The device features high power efficiency, design simplicity, and compactness. PMID:20192469

  12. Hollow Cathode Studies for the Next Generation Ion Engines in JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkawa, Yasushi; Hayakawa, Yukio; Yoshida, Hideki; Miyazaki, Katsuhiro; Kitamura, Shoji; Kajiwara, Kenichi

    The current status of experimental studies of hollow cathodes for the next-generation ion engines in the Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, JAXA is described. One of the topics on the hollow cathode studies is a life test of a discharge cathode. The keeper disk, orifice plate, and cathode tube of this discharge cathode are made of "high density graphite," which possesses much higher tolerance to ion impingement compared with conventional metal materials. The life test had started in March 2006 and the cumulative operation time reached 15,600 hours in April 2008. No severe degradation has been found both in the operation voltages and electrodes so far, and the test is favorably in progress. In addition to the life test of the discharge cathode, some experiments for design optimization of neutralizer cathodes have been performed. A life test of the neutralizer cathode is being started in June 2008.

  13. Two-dimensional model of orificed micro-hollow cathode discharge for space application

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Vekselman, V.; Haber, I.

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, we describe results of self-consistent two-dimensional (x-z) particle-in-cell simulations, with a Monte Carlo collision model, of an orificed micro-hollow cathode operating in a planar diode geometry. The model includes thermionic electron emission with Schottky effect, secondary electron emission due to cathode bombardment by the plasma ions, several different collision processes, and a non-uniform xenon background gas density in the cathode-anode gap. Simulated results showing behavior of the plasma density, potential distribution, and energy flux towards the hollow cathode and orifice walls, are discussed. In addition, results of simulations showing the effect of different Xe gas pressures, orifice size, and cathode voltage, on operation of the micro-hollow cathode are presented.

  14. Study Of Erosion Rates And Surface Effects of Different Hollow Cathode Materials During Vacuum Microarc Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Atta Khedr, M.; Abdel Moneim, H.M.

    2005-03-17

    Studies of the properties of the emitted plasma from graphite, titanium, titanium Carbide, Stainless Steel, Cupper and Molybdenum Hollow Cathode materials during vacuum microarc were carried out. Using high voltage of 30 KV, short arc duration (0.5 - 4 {mu}s) and arc currents (100 - 450 A), each cathode material was subjected to 1000-3000 arc discharges under high vacuum (10-8 mbar) conditions. The angular distributions for the evaporants in each case were measured and show an exponential isotropic distribution in agreement with the theoretical predictions. The total erosion rates of evaporants and molten droplets were estimated and showed clearly their, dependence on the cathode material and on the hollow cathode geometry. The damages on the cathode surfaces and the inside of the hollow cathodes were investigated by the scanning electron microscope. Crater formation were formed spreading inside the hole of the hollow cathodes as well as on the rim surfaces and were found to differ according to both geometry and material of the hollow cathodes. The crater evacuation velocity and plasma pressure were determined. The damage on the anode tip showed erosion on the pen anode tip to the extent of drilling hole. The mechanism responsible for such phenomena is discussed.

  15. Numerical simulation of the sustaining discharge in radio frequency hollow cathode discharge in argon

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xin-Xian; He, Feng Ouyang, Ji-Ting; Chen, Qiang Ge, Teng

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, a two-dimensional fluid model was developed to study the radio frequency (RF) hollow cathode discharge (HCD) in argon at 1 Torr. The evolutions of the particle density distribution and the ionization rate distribution in RF HCD at 13.56 MHz indicate that the discharge mainly occurs inside the hollow cathode. The spatio-temporal distributions of the ionization rate and the power deposition within the hollow cathode imply that sheath oscillation heating is the primary mechanism to sustain the RF HCD, whereas secondary electron emission plays a negligible role. However, as driving frequency decreases, secondary electron heating becomes a dominant mechanism to sustain the discharge in RF hollow cathode.

  16. Mercury vapor hollow cathode component studies. [emissive materials for ion thruster requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuccaro, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study of starting and operating characteristics of conventional hollow cathodes and of hollow cathodes without alkaline earth emissive materials demonstrated that the emissive mix is essential to obtain the desired cathode operation. Loss of the emissive mix by evaporation and chemical reaction was measured. New insert designs consisting of emissive mix supported on nickel and of barium impregnated porous tungsten were studied. Cathodes with a modified orifice geometry operated in a low voltage, 'spot' mode over a broad range of discharge current. Thermal degradation tests on cathode heaters showed the flame sprayed SERT II type to be the most durable at high temperatures. Thermal shock was observed to be a significant factor in limiting cathode heater life. A cathode having a barium impregnated porous tungsten tip and a heater which is potted in sintered alumina was found to have favorable operating characteristics.

  17. Tungsten and Barium Transport in the Internal Plasma of Hollow Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushedback to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. Thisbarium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream endgreater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length,so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollowcathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  18. Hollow cathode lamp based Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Shang, Haosen; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), which has acquired wide applications, is mainly limited to some gaseous elements and low melting-point metals before, for the restriction of the attainable atomic density. In conventional FADOF systems a high atomic density is usually achieved by thermal equilibrium at the saturated vapor pressure, hence for elements with high melting-points a high temperature is required. To avoid this restriction, we propose a scheme of FADOF based on the hollow cathode lamp (HCL), instead of atomic vapor cells. Experimental results in strontium atoms verified this scheme, where a transmission peak corresponding to the 88Sr (5s2)1S0 − (5s5p)1P1 transition (461 nm) is obtained, with a maximum transmittance of 62.5% and a bandwith of 1.19 GHz. The dependence of transmission on magnetic field and HCL discharge current is also studied. Since the state-of-art commercial HCLs cover about 70 elements, this scheme can greatly expand the applications of FADOFs, and the abundant atomic transitions they provide bring the HCL based FADOFs potential applications for frequency stabilization. PMID:27418112

  19. Hollow cathode lamp based Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Shang, Haosen; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2016-07-01

    The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), which has acquired wide applications, is mainly limited to some gaseous elements and low melting-point metals before, for the restriction of the attainable atomic density. In conventional FADOF systems a high atomic density is usually achieved by thermal equilibrium at the saturated vapor pressure, hence for elements with high melting-points a high temperature is required. To avoid this restriction, we propose a scheme of FADOF based on the hollow cathode lamp (HCL), instead of atomic vapor cells. Experimental results in strontium atoms verified this scheme, where a transmission peak corresponding to the 88Sr (5s2)1S0 ‑ (5s5p)1P1 transition (461 nm) is obtained, with a maximum transmittance of 62.5% and a bandwith of 1.19 GHz. The dependence of transmission on magnetic field and HCL discharge current is also studied. Since the state-of-art commercial HCLs cover about 70 elements, this scheme can greatly expand the applications of FADOFs, and the abundant atomic transitions they provide bring the HCL based FADOFs potential applications for frequency stabilization.

  20. Hollow cathode lamp based Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter.

    PubMed

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Shang, Haosen; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), which has acquired wide applications, is mainly limited to some gaseous elements and low melting-point metals before, for the restriction of the attainable atomic density. In conventional FADOF systems a high atomic density is usually achieved by thermal equilibrium at the saturated vapor pressure, hence for elements with high melting-points a high temperature is required. To avoid this restriction, we propose a scheme of FADOF based on the hollow cathode lamp (HCL), instead of atomic vapor cells. Experimental results in strontium atoms verified this scheme, where a transmission peak corresponding to the (88)Sr (5s(2))(1)S0 - (5s5p)(1)P1 transition (461 nm) is obtained, with a maximum transmittance of 62.5% and a bandwith of 1.19 GHz. The dependence of transmission on magnetic field and HCL discharge current is also studied. Since the state-of-art commercial HCLs cover about 70 elements, this scheme can greatly expand the applications of FADOFs, and the abundant atomic transitions they provide bring the HCL based FADOFs potential applications for frequency stabilization. PMID:27418112

  1. Life Cycle Tests on a Hollow Cathode Based Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster with a mission duration of 12 days. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma, and a Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit to the ambient plasma. The HCPC for the ProSEDS mission have made it necessary to turn off the HCPC once a minute throughout the entire mission. Because of the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, an engineering development unit of the HCPC was built to demonstrate the HCPC design would start reliably for the life of the ProSEDS mission. During the life test the engineering unit cycled for over 10,000 on/off cycles without missing a single start, and during that same test the HCPC unit demonstrated the capability to emit 0 to 5 A electron emission current. The performance of the HCPC unit during this life test will be discussed.

  2. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R.; Overzet, L. J.

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250 μm thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8 μm thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2 μs long current peak as high as 24 mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400 Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few μs relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  3. Model of the Plasma Potential Distribution in the Plume of a Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present results from a new model of the plasma potentials in the plume just downstream of the hollow cathode keeper. We examine the electron drift velocity as the hollow cathode plasma and neutral gas expand downstream of the keeper. If the drift velocity exceeds the thermal velocity a double layer potential structure develops that is the source of hot electrons. Ions are accelerated upstream through the double layer. The locations of the double layers are calculated using a simple model. It is shown that as the cathode gas flow increases, the location of the double layer moves farther downstream.

  4. Experimental investigation of a capacitive blind hollow cathode discharge with central gas injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Müller, M.; Petkow, D.; Herdrich, G.; Lein, S.

    2014-12-01

    The operating parameters and resulting plasma properties of a blind hollow cathode (BHC) discharge have been investigated. The hollow cathode was driven capacitively with a pulsed dc signal of 200 kHz in a power range between 50 and 100 W at an ambient pressure of about 10 Pa. The working gas was argon, which was introduced with a ceramic capillary at different positions of the longitudinal axis of the hollow cathode with flow rates of between 30 and 1000 sccm. The current-voltage characteristics were recorded. The pressure at the end of the BHC was measured with a miniaturized pressure transducer with varying volumetric flow rate and axial position of the capillary in the hollow cathode. To characterize the ignition behaviour of the system, the measured breakdown voltages were compared with phenomenological Paschen curves calculated from the pressure data. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to examine the origins of the light emission, comparing the glow mode and hollow cathode mode in particular. A high-speed camera recorded some plasma processes. A mounting with an indium tin oxide coated glass was used to observe the inner volume of the BHC along the longitudinal axis, while the plasma was operated with different parameters. The optical observations revealed an inhomogeneous plasma condition along the axis.

  5. Broad beam gas ion source with hollow cathode discharge and four-grid accelerator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Deli; Pu, Shihao; Huang, Qi; Tong, Honghui; Cui, Xirong; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-04-01

    A broad beam gas ion source based on low-pressure hollow cathode glow discharge is described. An axial magnetic filed produced by AlNiCo permanent magnets enhances the glow discharge in the ion source as a result of the magnetizing electrons between the hollow cathode and rod anode. The gas plasma is produced by magnetron hollow cathode glow discharge in the hollow cathode and a collimated broad ion beam is extracted by a four-grid accelerator system. A weak magnetic field of several millitesla is enough to ignite the magnetron glow discharge at pressure lower than 0.1 Pa, thereby enabling stable and continuous high-current discharge to form the homogeneous plasma. A four-grid accelerator, which separates the extraction and acceleration of the ion beam, is used in this design to generate the high-energy ion beam from 10 keV to 60 keV at a working pressure of 10-4 Torr. Although a higher gas pressure is necessary to maintain the low-pressure glow discharge when compared to hot filament discharge, the hollow cathode ion source is operational with reactive gases such as oxygen in the high-voltage continuous mode. A laterally uniform ion beam can be achieved by using the four-grid accelerator system. The effects of the rod anode length on the characteristics of the plasma discharge as well as ion beam extraction from the ion source are discussed.

  6. Status of Hollow Cathode Heater Development for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been selected for use on the Space Station. During the operation of the plasma contactor, the hollow cathode heater will endure approximately 12000 thermal cycles. Since a hollow cathode heater failure would result in a plasma contactor failure, a hollow cathode heater development program was established to produce a reliable heater. The development program includes the heater design, process documents for both heater fabrication and assembly, and heater testing. The heater design was a modification of a sheathed ion thruster cathode heater. Heater tests included testing of the heater unit alone and plasma contactor and ion thruster testing. To date, eight heaters have been or are being processed through heater unit testing, two through plasma contactor testing and three through ion thruster testing, all using direct current power supplies. Comparisons of data from heater unit performance tests before cyclic testing, plasma contactor tests, and ion thruster tests at the ignition input current level show the average deviation of input power and tube temperature near the cathode tip to be +/-0.9 W and +/- 21 C, respectively. Heater unit testing included cyclic testing to evaluate reliability under thermal cycling. The first heater, although damaged during assembly, completed 5985 ignition cycles before failing. Four additional heaters successfully completed 6300, 6300, 700, and 700 cycles. Heater unit testing is currently ongoing for three heaters which have to date accumulated greater than 7250, greater than 5500, and greater than 5500 cycles, respectively.

  7. Characterization of hollow cathode, ring cusp discharge chambers. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study into the effects of changes in such physical design parameters as hollow cathode position, anode position and ring cusp magnetic field configuration and strength on discharge chamber performance, is described. The results are presented in terms of comparative plasma ion energy cost, extracted ion fraction and ion beam profile data. Such comparisons are used to demonstrate specific means by which changes in these design parameters induce changes in performance, i.e., through changes in the loss rates of primary electrons to the anode, of ions to discharge chamber walls or of ions to cathode and anode surfaces. Results show: (1) the rate of primary electron loss to the anode decreases as the anode is moved downstream of the ring cusp toward the screen grid, (2) the loss rate of ions to hollow cathode surfaces are excessive if the cathode is located upstream of a point of peak magnetic flux density on the discharge chamber centerline, and (3) the fraction of the ions produced that are lost to discharge chamber walls and ring magnet surfaces is reduced by positioning the magnet rings so the plasma density is uniform over the grid surface and so there are no steep magnetic flux density gradients near the walls through which ions can be lost by Bohm diffusion. The uniformity of the plasma density at the grids can also be improved by moving the point of primary electron injection into the discharge chamber off of the chamber centerline. Other results show the discharge chamber losses decrease when a filament cathode is substituted for a hollow cathode to the extent of the hollow cathode operating power. When plasma ion energy cost is determined in such a way that the cost of operating the hollow cathode is subtracted out, the performance using either electron source is similar.

  8. Life test of a xenon hollow cathode for a space plasma contractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma contacting device using a hollow cathode for plasma production has been baselined for use on the Space Station. This application will require reliable, continuous operation of the cathode at electron emission currents of between 0.75 and 10 A for two years (17,500 hours). In order to validate life-time capability, a hollow cathode, operated in a diode configuration, has been tested for more than 8600 hours of stable discharge operation as of March 30, 1994. This cathode is operated at a steady-state emission current of 12.0 and a fixed xenon flow rate of 4.5 sccm. Discharge voltage and cathode temperature have remained relatively stable at approximately 12.9 V and 1260 C during the test. The test has experienced 7 shutdowns to date. In all instances, the cathode was reignited at about 42 V and resumed stable operation. This test represents the longest demonstration of stable operation of high current (greater than 1A) xenon hollow cathodes reported to date.

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigation into high current hollow cathode arc attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Ryan T.

    This research addresses several concerns of the mechanisms controlling performance and lifetime of high-current single-channel-hollow-cathodes, the central electrode and primary life-limiting component in Magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. Specifically covered are the trends, and the theorized governing mechanisms, seen in the discharge efficiency and power, the size of the plasma attachment to the cathode (the active zone), cathode exit plume plasma density and energy, along with plasma property distributions of the internal plasma column (the IPC) of a single-channel-hollow-cathode. Both experiment and computational modeling were employed in the analysis of the cathodes. Employing Tantalum and Tungsten cathodes (of 2, 6 and 10 mm inner diameter), experiments were conducted to measure the temperature profile of operating cathodes, the width of the active zone, the discharge voltage, power, plasma arc resistance and efficiency, with mass flow rates of 50 to 300 sccm of Argon, and discharge currents of 15 to 50 Amps. Langmuir probing was used to obtain measurements for the electron temperature, plasma density and plasma potential at the cathode exit plane (down stream tip). A computational model was developed to predict the distribution of plasma inside the cathode, based upon experimentally determined boundary conditions. It was determined that the peak cathode temperature is a function of both interior cathode density and discharge current, though the location of the peak temperature is controlled gas density but not discharge current. The active zone width was found to be an increasing function of the discharge current, but a decreasing function of the mass flow rate. The width of the active zone was found to not be controlled by the magnitude of the peak cathode wall temperature. The discharge power consumed per unit of mass throughput is seen as a decreasing function of the mass flow rate, showing the increasing efficiency of the cathode. Finally, this new

  10. Extraction of a steady state electron beam from HCD (hollow cathode discharge) plasmas for EBIS (electron beam ion source) applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.; Prelec, K.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments to extract high brightness electron beams from hollow cathode discharge plasmas are now in progress. A unique feature of these plasmas, which in principle can facilitate the extraction of large current low emittance electron beams, is the existence of a relatively high energy electron population with a very narrow energy spread. This electron population was identified in a self-extraction experiment, which yielded a 35 eV, 600 mA electron beam with parallel energy spread of less than 0.5 eV. Preliminary, crude application of 2.5 kV extraction voltage yielded a steady state electron beam current of 1.2 A. The end result of this endeavor would be an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) with an electron beam current of 6 A. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Demonstration of cathode emittance dominated high bunch charge beams in a DC gun-based photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliford, Colwyn Bartnik, Adam Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca

    2015-03-02

    We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (≥100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittances measured at 9–9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs and Free Electron Lasers.

  12. Demonstration of cathode emittance dominated high bunch charge beams in a DC gun-based photoinjector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliford, Colwyn; Bartnik, Adam; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (≥100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittances measured at 9-9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs and Free Electron Lasers.

  13. Influence of the floating potential on micro-hollow cathode operation

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of a keeper electrode with a floating potential on the operation of a micro-hollow cathode is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The floating potential is determined self-consistently, taking into account the electron and ion charges collected by the keeper and the potential induced by the plasma non-compensated space charge. It is shown that the parameters of the micro-hollow cathode operation vary significantly, according to whether the keeper potential is floating or has a specified constant value.

  14. Plasma Emission Characteristics from a High Current Hollow Cathode in an Ion Thruster Discharge Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of energetic ions produced by a hollow cathodes operating at high emission currents (greater than 5A) has been documented in the literature. In order to further elucidate these findings, an investigation of a high current cathode operating in an ion thruster discharge chamber has been undertaken. Using Langmuir probes, a low energy charged particle analyzer and emission spectroscopy, the behavior of the near-cathode plasma and the emitted ion energy distribution was characterized. The presence of energetic ions was confirmed. It was observed that these ions had energies in excess of the discharge voltage and thus cannot be simply explained by ions falling out of plasma through a potential difference of this order. Additionally, evidence provided by Langmuir probes suggests the existence of a double layer essentially separating the hollow cathode plasma column from the main discharge. The radial potential difference associated with this double layer was measured to be of order the ionization potential.

  15. Instability of a Low-Pressure Hollow-Cathode Discharge in a Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E.M.; Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.; Soloshenko, I.A.; Shchedrin, A.I.

    2005-11-15

    Mechanisms responsible for current oscillations at the ion branch of the probe characteristic are investigated experimentally and theoretically. A comparison between experiment and theory shows that the oscillations in a hollow-cathode discharge in a longitudinal magnetic field are most likely related to the onset of helical instabili0008.

  16. A High-Pressure Hollow Cathode Ionization Source for In-Situ Detection of Organic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, L. W.; Kanik, I.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed, constructed and characterized a new high-pressure (1-5 Torr) hollow cathode discharge source (HCDS) that can be utilized as an ionizer in a wide variety of mass analyzers. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Optimization of hollow cathode discharge electrode for damage free remote plasma removal process for semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Tae S.; Han, Qing; Yang, Dongqing; Park, Soonam; Lubomirsky, Dima; Venkataraman, Shankar

    2016-05-01

    Cone-shaped hollow cathode electrode configuration for a damage free remote plasma removal process has been optimized for given pressures based on Paschen characteristic curves, voltage-current characteristics and time-resolved discharge observations as well as oxide film removal performances. Remote plasmas have been generated in two types of cone-shaped electrodes with mixtures of He, NF3, and NH3 for pressure range of 1-30 Torr. Paschen characteristic curves and voltage-current (V-I) characteristics define an operating pressure for low breakdown voltage and the hollow cathode effect to minimize the particles. Sinusoidal voltage waveform and asymmetry electrode configuration alternate the glow discharge and hollow cathode discharge modes in a cycle. The current and infrared emission intensity from the glow discharge increases together for both cone-shaped electrodes with increasing pressure, whereas the hollow cathode discharge plasma emits strong infrared only when pD condition is satisfied. For the wide cone electrode configuration, high voltage operation at higher pressure results in particle contamination on the processed wafer by high energy ion bombardment. Operating at optimum pressure for a given electrode configuration shows faster oxide etch rate with better uniformity over a whole 300 mm wafer.

  18. Requirements for long-life operation of inert gas hollow cathodes: Preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhey, Timothy R.; Macrae, Gregory S.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was initiated to establish conditioning procedures for reliable hollow cathode operation via the characterization of critical parameters in a representative cathode test facility. From vacuum pumpdown rates, it was found that approximately 1.5 hours were required to achieve pressure levels within 5 percent of the lowest attainable pressure for this facility, depending on the purge conditions. The facility atmosphere was determined by a residual gas analyzer to be composed of primarily air and water vapor. The effects of vacuum pumping and inert gas purging were evaluated. A maximum effective leakage rate of 2.0 x 10(exp -3)sccm was observed and its probable causes were examined. An extended test of a 0.64 cm diameter Mo-Re hollow cathode was successfully completed. This test ran for 504 hours at an emission current of 23.0 amperes and a xenon flow rate of 6.1 sccm. Discharge voltage rose continuously from 15 to 21 volts over the course of the test. The temperature of the cathode body during the test was relatively stable at 1160 C. Post-test examination revealed ion-bombardment texturing of the orifice plate to be the only detectable sign of wear on the hollow cathode.

  19. Requirements for long-life operation of inert gas hollow cathodes - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhey, Timothy R.; Macrae, Gregory S.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was initiated to establish conditioning procedures for reliable hollow cathode operation via the characterization of critical parameters in a representative cathode test facility. From vacuum pumpdown rates, it was found that approximately 1.5 hours were required to achieve pressure levels within 5 percent of the lowest attainable pressure for this facility, depending on the purge conditions. The facility atmosphere was determined by a residual gas analyzer to be composed of primarily air and water vapor. The effects of vacuum pumping and inert gas purging were evaluated. A maximum effective leakage rate of 2.0 x 10 (exp -3) sccm was observed and its probable causes were examined. An extended test of a 0.64 cm diameter Mo-Re hollow cathode was successfully completed. This test ran for 504 hours at an emission current of 23.0 amperes and a xenon flow rate of 6.1 sccm. Discharge voltage rose continuously from 15 to 21 volts over the course of the test. The temperature of the cathode body during the test was relatively stable at 1160 C. Post-test examination revealed ion-bombardment texturing of the orifice plate to be the only detectable sign of wear on the hollow cathode.

  20. Low-Current, Xenon Orificed Hollow Cathode Performance for In-Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the operating characteristics of 3.2-mm diameter orificed hollow cathodes was conducted to examine low current and low flow rate operation. Cathode power was minimized with an orifice aspect ratio of approximately one and the use of an enclosed keeper. Cathode flow rate requirements were proportional to orifice diameter and the inverse of the orifice length. The minimum power consumption in diode mode was 10-W, and the minimum mass flow rate required for spot-mode emission was approximately 0.08-mg/s. Cathode temperature profiles were obtained using an imaging radiometer and conduction was found to be the dominant heat transfer mechanism from the cathode tube. Orifice plate temperatures were found to be weakly dependent upon the flow rate and strongly dependent upon the current.

  1. Amplification of intrinsic emittance due to rough metal cathodes: Formulation of a parameterization model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, T. K.; Paganin, D. M.; Dowd, R. T.

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic emittance is often the limiting factor for brightness in fourth generation light sources and as such, a good understanding of the factors affecting intrinsic emittance is essential in order to be able to decrease it. Here we present a parameterization model describing the proportional increase in emittance induced by cathode surface roughness. One major benefit behind the parameterization approach presented here is that it takes the complexity of a Monte Carlo model and reduces the results to a straight-forward empirical model. The resulting models describe the proportional increase in transverse momentum introduced by surface roughness, and are applicable to various metal types, photon wavelengths, applied electric fields, and cathode surface terrains. The analysis includes the increase in emittance due to changes in the electric field induced by roughness as well as the increase in transverse momentum resultant from the spatially varying surface normal. We also compare the results of the Parameterization Model to an Analytical Model which employs various approximations to produce a more compact expression with the cost of a reduction in accuracy.

  2. Hollow cathode theory and experiment. I. Plasma characterization using fast miniature scanning probes

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Watkins, Ron M.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2005-12-01

    A detailed study of the spatial variation of plasma density, temperature, and potential in hollow cathodes using miniature fast scanning probes has been undertaken in order to better understand the cathode operation and to provide benchmark data for the modeling of the cathode performance and life described in a companion paper. Profiles are obtained throughout the discharge and in the very high-density orifice region by pneumatically driven Langmuir probes, which are inserted directly into the hollow cathode orifice from either the upstream insert region inside the hollow cathode or from the downstream anode-plasma region. A fast transverse-scanning probe is also used to provide radial profiles of the cathode plume as a function of position from the cathode exit. The probes are extremely small to avoid perturbing the plasma; the ceramic tube insulator is 0.05 cm in diameter with a probe tip area of 0.002 cm{sup 2}. A series of current-voltage characteristics are obtained by applying a rapid sawtooth voltage wave form to the probe as it is scanned through the plasma at speeds of up to 2 m/s to produce the profiles with a spatial resolution of about 0.05 cm. At discharge currents of 10-25 A from the 1.5-cm-diameter hollow cathode, the plasma density inside the cathode is found to exceed 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}, with the peak density occurring upstream of the orifice. The plasma potentials on axis inside the cathode are found to be in the 10-20 V range with electron temperatures of 2-5 eV, depending on the discharge current and gas flow rate. A potential discontinuity or double layer of less than 10 V is observed in the orifice region, and under certain conditions appears in the bright 'plasma ball' in front of the cathode. This structure tends to change location and magnitude with discharge current, gas flow, and orifice size. A potential maximum proposed in the literature to exist in or near the cathode orifice is not observed. Instead, the plasma potential increases

  3. Multiple Hollow Cathode Wear Testing for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    1994-01-01

    A wear test of four hollow cathodes was conducted to resolve issues associated with the Space Station plasma contactor. The objectives of this test were to evaluate unit-to-unit dispersions, verify the transportability of contamination control protocols developed by the project, and to evaluate cathode contamination control and activation procedures to enable simplification of the gas feed system and heater power processor. These objectives were achieved by wear testing four cathodes concurrently to 2000 hours. Test results showed maximum unit-to-unit deviations for discharge voltages and cathode tip temperatures to be +/-3 percent and +/-2 percent, respectively, of the nominal values. Cathodes utilizing contamination control procedures known to increase cathode lifetime showed no trends in their monitored parameters that would indicate a possible failure, demonstrating that contamination control procedures had been successfully transferred. Comparisons of cathodes utilizing and not utilizing a purifier or simplified activation procedure showed similar behavior during wear testing and pre- and post-test performance characterizations. This behavior indicates that use of simplified cathode systems and procedures is consistent with long cathode lifetimes.

  4. Enhanced Field-Emission Performance from Carbon Nanotube Emitters on Nickel Foam Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Meng; Xu, Peng; Han, Lijing; Yi, Lan; Wang, Xu; Li, Zhenhua; Shang, Xuefu; Wang, Xiumin; Wu, Huizhen; Zhao, Pei; Song, Yenan; Wang, Miao

    2016-04-01

    We present a three-dimensionally configured cathode with enhanced field-emission performance formed by combining carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters with a nickel foam (NiF) substrate via a conventional screen-printing technique. The CNT/NiF cathode has low turn-on electric field of 0.53 V μm-1 (with current density of 10 μA cm-2) and threshold electric field of 0.87 V μm-1 (with current density of 0.1 mA cm-2), and a very high field enhancement factor of 1.4 × 104. The porous structure of the NiF substrate can greatly improve the field-emission properties due to its large specific surface area that can accommodate more CNTs and increase the emitter density, as well as its high electrical and thermal conductivities that facilitate current transition and heat dissipation in the cathode. Most importantly, the local electric field was also enhanced by the multistage effect resulting from the rough metal surface, which furthermore leads to a high field enhancement factor. We believe that this improved field-emission performance makes such cathodes promising candidates for use in various field-emission applications.

  5. Operational Status of the International Space Station Plasma Contactor Hollow Cathode Assemblies July 2001 to May 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Yim, John T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Dalton, Penni J.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station has onboard two Aerojet Rocketdyne developed plasma contactor units that perform the function of charge control. The plasma contactor units contain NASA Glenn Research Center developed hollow cathode assemblies. NASA Glenn Research Center monitors the on-orbit operation of the flight hollow cathode assemblies. As of May 31, 2013, HCA.001-F has been ignited and operated 123 times and has accumulated 8072 hours of operation, whereas, HCA.003-F has been ignited and operated 112 times and has accumulated 9664 hours of operation. Monitored hollow cathode ignition times and anode voltage magnitudes indicate that they continue to operate nominally.

  6. Operational Status of the International Space Station Plasma Contactor Hollow Cathode Assemblies from July 2011 to May 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Yim, John T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Dalton, Penni J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station has onboard two Aerojet Rocketdyne developed plasma contactor units that perform the function of charge control. The plasma contactor units contain NASA Glenn Research Center developed hollow cathode assemblies. NASA Glenn Research Center monitors the onorbit operation of the flight hollow cathode assemblies. As of May 31, 2013, HCA.001-F has been ignited and operated 123 times and has accumulated 8072 hours of operation, whereas, HCA.003-F has been ignited and operated 112 times and has accumulated 9664 hours of operation. Monitored hollow cathode ignition times and anode voltage magnitudes indicate that they continue to operate nominally.

  7. Wear Mechanisms in Electron Sources for Ion Propulsion, 1: Neutralizer Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2008-01-01

    Upon the completion of two long-duration life tests of a 30-cm ion engine, the orifice channel of the neutralizer hollow cathode was eroded away to as much as twice its original diameter. Whereas the neutralizer cathode orifice opened significantly, no noticeable erosion of the discharge cathode orifice was observed. Noquantitative explanation of these erosion trends has been established since the completion of the two life tests. A two-dimensional model of the partially ionized gas inside these devices has been developed and applied to the neutralizer hollow cathode. The numerical simulations show that the main mechanism responsible for the channel erosion is sputtering by Xe+. These ions are accelerated by the sheath along the channel and bombard the surface with kinetic energy/charge of about 17 V at the beginning of cathode life. The density of the ions inside the neutralizer orifice is computed to be as high as 2.1 x 10(sup 22) m(sup -3). Because of the 3.5-times larger diameter of the discharge cathode orifice, the ion density inside the orifice is more than 40 times lower and the sheath drop 7 V lower compared with the values in the neutralizer. At these conditions, Xe+ can cause no significant sputtering of the surface.

  8. Hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathodes for high specific capacity rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Cha, Judy J; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li(2)S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO(3) additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. PMID:21916442

  9. Operating modes of a hydrogen ion source based on a hollow-cathode pulsed Penning discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oks, E. M.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    An ion source based on a hollow-cathode Penning discharge was switched to a high-current pulsed mode (tens of amperes and tens of microseconds) to produce an intense hydrogen ion beam. With molecular hydrogen (H2), the ion beam contained three species: H+, H2+, and H3+. For all experimental conditions, the fraction of H2+ ions in the beam was about 10 ÷ 15% of the total ion beam current and varied little with ion source parameters. At the same time, the ratio of H+ and H3+ depended strongly on the discharge current, particularly on its distribution in the gap between the hollow and planar cathodes. Increasing the discharge current increased the H+ fraction in ion beam. The maximum fraction of H+ reached 80% of the total ion beam current. Forced redistribution of the discharge current in the cathode gap for increasing the hollow cathode current could greatly increase the H3+ fraction in the beam. At optimum parameters, the fraction of H3+ ions reached 60% of the total ion beam current.

  10. Comparison of On-orbit and Ground Based Hollow Cathode Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael (Technical Monitor); Carpenter, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The Plasma Contactor Units (PCUs) were developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and Boeing for charge control on board the International Space Station (ISS). Since the first ignition of a PCU on 10/16/2000 over 3,900 hours of operation have been demonstrated on a single unit. In order to guarantee that the PCUs hollow cathode assemblies (HCAs), which emit the electrons used for charge control, would satisfy the life requirement of 18,000 hours, a ground based hollow cathode life test program was initiated at GRC. The life test program aimed at 27,000 hours of operation on a single unit to demonstrate the industry standard 1.5 times operational life requirement. As of this printing, over 18,000 hours of operation have been accumulated on a single hollow cathode. By comparing the data received from the on-orbit HCAs to the data obtained for the life test cathodes, a comparison may be drawn to determine if the on-orbit HCAs are operating normally, with a final goal of predicting lifetime. Based on the data taken thus far, it can be concluded that the on-orbit HCAs are operating within their design specifications.

  11. Process for Ignition of Gaseous Electrical Discharge Between Electrodes of a Hollow Cathode Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor); Verhey, Timothy R. R. (Inventor); Soulas, George C. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The design and manufacturing processes for Hollow Cathode Assemblies (HCA's) that operate over a broad range of emission currents up to 30 Amperes, at low potentials, with lifetimes in excess of 17,500 hours. The processes include contamination control procedures which cover hollow cathode component cleaning procedures, gas feed system designs and specifications, and hollow cathode activation and operating procedures to thereby produce cathode assemblies that have demonstrated stable and repeatable operating conditions, for both the discharge current and voltage. The HCA of this invention provides lifetimes of greater than 10,000 hours, and expected lifetimes of greater than 17,500 hours, whereas the present state-of-the-art is less than 500 hours at emission currents in excess of 1 Ampere. Stable operation is provided over a large range of operating emission currents, up to a 6:1 ratio, and this HCA can emit electron currents of up to 30 Amperes in magnitude to an external anode that simulates the current drawn to a space plasma, at voltages of less than 20 Volts.

  12. Process for testing a xenon gas feed system of a hollow cathode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor); Verhey, Timothy R. R. (Inventor); Soulas, George C. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The design and manufacturing processes for Hollow Cathode Assemblies (HCA's) that operate over a broad range of emission currents up to 30 Amperes, at low potentials, with lifetimes in excess of 17,500 hours. The processes include contamination control procedures which cover hollow cathode component cleaning procedures, gas feed system designs and specifications, and hollow cathode activation and operating procedures to thereby produce cathode assemblies that have demonstrated stable and repeatable operating conditions, for both the discharge current and voltage. The HCA of this invention provides lifetimes of greater than 10,000 hours, and expected lifetimes of greater than 17,500 hours, whereas the present state-of-the-art is less than 500 hours at emission currents in excess of 1 Ampere. Stable operation is provided over a large range of operating emission currents, up to a 6:1 ratio, and this HCA can emit electron currents of up to 30 Amperes in magnitude to an external anode that simulates the current drawn to a space plasma, at voltages of less than 20 Volts.

  13. Hollow cathode operation at high discharge currents. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedly, Verlin Joe

    1990-01-01

    It was shown that ion thruster hollow cathode operation at high discharge current levels can induce reduced thruster lifetimes by causing cathode insert overheating and/or erosion of surfaces located downstream of the cathode. The erosion problem has been particularly baffling because the mechanism by which it occurs has not been understood. The experimental investigation described reveals the energies of the ions produced close to the cathode orifice can be several times the anode-to-cathode potential difference generally considered available to accelerate them. These energies (of order 50 eV) are sufficient to cause the observed erosion rates. The effects of discharge current (to 60 A), magnetic field configuration and the cathode flowrate, orifice diameter and insert design on the energies and current densities of these jet ions are examined. A model describing the mechanism by which the high energy ions could be produced when the anode-cathode potential difference is insufficient is proposed. The effects of discharge current on cathode temperature and internal pressure are also examined experimentally and described phenomenologically.

  14. Effects of pulse-length and emitter area on virtual cathode formation in electron guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valfells, Ágúst; Feldman, D. W.; Virgo, M.; O'Shea, P. G.; Lau, Y. Y.

    2002-05-01

    Recent experiments at the University of Maryland using photoemission from a dispenser cathode have yielded some interesting results regarding the effects of the area of emission and of the ratio between the pulse length and the gap transit time on the amount of current that may be drawn from an electron gun before a virtual cathode forms. The experiments show that a much higher current density may be drawn from a short pulse or limited emitter area than is anticipated by the Child-Langmuir limiting current. There is also evidence that the current may be increased even after virtual cathode formation, which leads a distinction between a limiting current density and a current density critical for virtual cathode formation. The experiments have also yielded some interesting results on the longitudinal structure of the current pulse passed through the anode. Some empirical and theoretical scaling laws regarding the formation of virtual cathodes in an electron gun will be presented. This work was motivated by the needs of the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) [P. G. O'Shea, M. Reiser, R. A. Kishek et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 464, 646 (2001)] where the goal is to generate pulses that are well-localized in time and space.

  15. A Particle and Energy Balance Model of the Orificed Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.

    2002-01-01

    A particle and energy balance model of orificed hollow cathodes was developed to assist in cathode design. The model presented here is an ensemble of original work by the author and previous work by others. The processes in the orifice region are considered to be one of the primary drivers in determining cathode performance, since the current density was greatest in this volume (up to 1.6 x 10(exp 8) A/m2). The orifice model contains comparatively few free parameters, and its results are used to bound the free parameters for the insert model. Next, the insert region model is presented. The sensitivity of the results to the free parameters is assessed, and variation of the free parameters in the orifice dominates the calculated power consumption and plasma properties. The model predictions are compared to data from a low-current orificed hollow cathode. The predicted power consumption exceeds the experimental results. Estimates of the plasma properties in the insert region overlap Langmuir probe data, and the predicted orifice plasma suggests the presence of one or more double layers. Finally, the model is used to examine the operation of higher current cathodes.

  16. Hollow cathode restartable 15 cm diameter ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of substituting high perveance dished grids for low perveance flat ones on performance variables and plasma properties within a 15 cm modified SERT II thruster are discussed. Results suggest good performance may be achieved as an ion thruster is throttled if the screen grid transparency is decreased with propellant flow rate. Thruster startup tests, which employ a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode between the keeper and the cathode to initiate the discharge, are described. High startup reliability at cathode tip temperatures of about 500 C without excessive component wear over 2000 startup cycles is demonstrated. Testing of a single cusp magnetic field concept of discharge plasma containment is discussed. A theory which explains the observed behavior of the device is presented and proposed thruster modifications and future testing plans are discussed.

  17. Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 Å

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 112 Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 Å (Web, free access)   Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 Å contains wavelengths and intensities for about 5600 lines in the region 4330 Å. An atlas plot of the spectrum is given, with the spectral lines marked and their intensities, wavelengths, and classifications listed.

  18. Broadband microwave characteristics of a novel coaxial gridded hollow cathode argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ruilin; Yuan, Chengxun; Li, Hui; Jia, Jieshu; Zhou, Zhong-Xiang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiaoou; Wu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between microwave and large area plasma is crucially important for space communication. Gas pressure, input power, and plasma volume are critical to both the microwave electromagnetic wave phase shift and electron density. This paper presents a novel type of large coaxial gridded hollow cathode plasma having a 50 cm diameter and a 40 cm thickness. Microwave characteristics are studied using a microwave measurement system that includes two broadband antennae in the range from 2 GHz to 18 GHz. The phase shift under varying gas pressure and input power is shown. In addition, the electron density ne, which varies from 1.2 × 1016 m-3 to 8.7 × 1016 m-3 under different discharge conditions, is diagnosed by the microwave system. The measured results accord well with those acquired by Langmuir Probe measurement and show that the microwave properties in the large volume hollow cathode discharge significantly depend on the input power and gas pressure.

  19. Spatio-temporal characteristics of self-pulse in hollow cathode discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ha; He, Shoujie

    2015-02-01

    The characteristics of self-pulse in hollow cathode discharge at low pressure have been investigated. The voltage-current (V-I) curves, the influence of ballast resistor on the self-pulses, and the evolution of current and voltage are measured. Both the axial and radial spatio-temporal discharge images of self-pulse are recorded. The results show that there exists the hysteresis effect in the present hollow cathode discharge. The high value of ballast resistors is favourable for the observation of self-pulses. The process of the self-pulse can be divided into three stages from the temporal discharge images, i.e., the pre-discharge, the transition from mainly axial electric field to mainly radial electric field, and the decaying process. The self-pulse is suggested to originate from the mode transition of the discharge in essence.

  20. Spatio-temporal characteristics of self-pulse in hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Ha; He, Shoujie

    2015-02-15

    The characteristics of self-pulse in hollow cathode discharge at low pressure have been investigated. The voltage-current (V-I) curves, the influence of ballast resistor on the self-pulses, and the evolution of current and voltage are measured. Both the axial and radial spatio-temporal discharge images of self-pulse are recorded. The results show that there exists the hysteresis effect in the present hollow cathode discharge. The high value of ballast resistors is favourable for the observation of self-pulses. The process of the self-pulse can be divided into three stages from the temporal discharge images, i.e., the pre-discharge, the transition from mainly axial electric field to mainly radial electric field, and the decaying process. The self-pulse is suggested to originate from the mode transition of the discharge in essence.

  1. Design of triode extraction system for a dual hollow cathode ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Hui; Zhu, Kun; Zhao, Wei-Jiang; Liu, Ke-Xin

    2011-02-01

    A triode extraction system is designed for a dual hollow cathode ion source being developed at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. Basic parameters of the plasma are selected after examining the operation principle of the ion source, then the triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using software PBGUNS (for Particle Beam GUN Simulations). The physical design of the system is given in this paper.

  2. Characterization of carbon nitride films deposited by hollow cathode discharge process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaceanu, M.; Grigore, E.; Truica-Marasescu, F.; Pantelica, D.; Negoita, F.; Pavelescu, G.; Ionescu, F.

    2000-03-01

    Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) has been applied to determine the composition of carbon nitride and hydrogenated carbon nitride films prepared by hollow cathode discharge process. The films were deposited on Si (1 1 1) substrates. The films were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The influence of the main deposition parameters (substrate bias voltage, nitrogen injection mode) on the film properties was investigated.

  3. Anomalous optogalvanic line shapes of argon metastable transitions in a hollow cathode lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Anomalous optogalvanic line shapes were observed in a commercial hollow cathode lamp containing argon buffer gas. Deviations from Gaussian line shapes were particularly strong for transitions originating from the 3P2 metastable level of argon. The anomalous line shapes can be described reasonably well by the assumption that two regions in the discharge are excited simultaneously, each giving rise to a purely Gaussian line shape, but with different polarities, amplitudes, and linewidths.

  4. Laser optogalvanic wavelength calibration with a commercial hollow cathode iron - neon discharge lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Xinming; Nur, Abdullahi H.; Misra, Prabhakar

    1994-01-01

    351 optogalvanic transitions have been observed in the 337 - 598 nm wavelength region using an iron - neon hollow cathode discharge lamp and a pulsed tunable dye laser. 223 of these have been identified as transitions associated with neon energy levels. These optogalvanic transitions have allowed, in conjunction with interference fringes recorded concomitantly with an etalon, the calibration of the dye laser wavelength with 0.3/cm accuracy.

  5. Diagnostics of a see-through hollow cathode discharge by emission, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nicholas

    Atomic line filters have been suggested to be attractive in areas of Doppler velocimetry, resonance fluorescence detection, and resonance ionization detection. They are based on the resonant absorption of photons by an atomic vapor, and allow all other radiation to pass. This allows the detection of very low levels of light superimposed on a large optical background. Several elements have been studied for use as atomic line filters, such as the alkali metals, alkaline earths, and thallium. As previously recognized, thallium is especially attractive since the 535.046 nm metastable transition overlaps with the second harmonic output of an Nd:La2Be2O 5 (BEL) laser (1070 nm). This makes thallium ideal for certain applications as an atomic line filter. Recently a see-through hollow cathode lamp, or galvatron (Hamamatsu), was made commercially available. The galvatron geometry is unique compared to traditional hollow cathode lamps since the cathode and cell are oriented in a T-shape, with the cathode bored completely through to allow the propagation of a light source through the cathode. This allows multi-step excitation of the atomic vapor, not easily accomplished with a traditional hollow cathode lamp. The advantages that a galvatron offers over conventional atomic reservoirs make it an attractive candidate for the application as an atomic line filter; however, little spectroscopic data have been found in the literature. For this reason, Doppler temperatures, number densities, quantum efficiencies, and lifetimes have been determined in order to characterize this atomic reservoir as a potential atomic line filter. These parameters are determined by use of various spectroscopic techniques which include emission, absorption, time-resolved fluorescence, and time-resolved laser-induced saturated fluorescence spectroscopy. From these measurements, it has been demonstrated that a galvatron is an attractive atomic reservoir for applications as an atomic line filter. The

  6. Effects of Neutral Density on Energetic Ions Produced Near High-Current Hollow Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kameyama, Ikuya

    1997-01-01

    Energy distributions of ion current from high-current, xenon hollow cathodes, which are essential information to understand erosion phenomena observed in high-power ion thrusters, were obtained using an electrostatic energy analyzer (ESA). The effects of ambient pressure and external flow rate introduced immediately downstream of hollow cathode on ion currents with energies greater than that associated with the cathode-to-anode potential difference were investigated. The results were analyzed to determine the changes in the magnitudes of ion currents to the ESA at various energies. Either increasing the ambient pressure or adding external flow induces an increase in the distribution of ion currents with moderate energies (epsilon less than 25 to 35 eV) and a decrease in the distribution for high energies (epsilon greater than 25 to 35 eV). The magnitude of the current distribution increase in the moderate energy range is greater for a cathode equipped with a toroidal keeper than for one without a keeper, but the distribution in the high energy range does not seem to be affected by a keeper. An MHD model, which has been proposed to describe energetic-ion production mechanism in hollow cathode at high discharge currents, was developed to describe these effects. The results show, however, that this model involves no mechanism by which a significant increase of ion current could occur at any energy. It was found, on the other hand, that the potential-hill model of energetic ion production, which assumes existence of a local maximum of plasma potential, could explain combined increases in the currents of ions with moderate energies and decreases in high energy ions due to increased neutral atom density using a charge-exchange mechanism. The existing, simplified version of the potential-hill model, however, shows poor quantitative agreement with measured ion-current-energy-distribution changes induced by neutral density changes.

  7. Ring cusp/hollow cathode discharge chamber performance studies. [ion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to determine the effects of hollow cathode position, anode position, and ring cusp magnetic field configuration and strength on discharge chamber performance. The results are presented in terms of comparative plasma ion energy cost, extracted ion fraction, and beam profile data. Such comparisons are used to demonstrate whether changes in performance are caused by changes in the loss rate of primary electrons to the anode or the loss rate of ions to discharge chamber walls or cathode and anode surfaces. Results show: (1) the rate of primary electron loss to the anode decreases as the anode is moved downstream of the ring cusp toward the screen grid; (2) the loss rate of ions to hollow cathode surfaces are excessive if the cathode is located upstream of a point of peak magnetic flux density at the discharge chamber centerline; and (3) the fraction of the ions produced that are lost to discharge chamber walls and ring magnet surfaces is reduced by positioning of the magnet rings so the plasma density is uniform over the grid surface, and adjusting their strength to a level where it is sufficient to prevent excessive ion losses by Bohm diffusion.

  8. A Review of Testing of Hollow Cathodes for the International Space Station Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovaleski, S. D.; Patterson, M. J.; Soulas, G. C.; Sarver-Verhey, T. R.

    2001-01-01

    Since October 2000, two plasma contactors have been providing charge control on the International Space Station (ISS). At the heart of each of the two plasma contactors is a hollow cathode assembly (HCA) that produces the contacting xenon plasma. The HCA is the result of 9 years of design and testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This paper summarizes HCA testing that has been performed to date. As of this time, one cathode has demonstrated approximately 28,000 hr of lifetime during constant, high current use. Another cathode, HCA.014. has demonstrated 42,000 ignitions before cathode heater failure. In addition to these cathodes, four cathodes. HCA.006, HCA.003, HCA.010, and HCA.013 have undergone cyclic testing to simulate the variable current demand expected on the ISS. HCA.006 accumulated 8,000 hr of life test operation prior to being voluntarily stopped for analysis before the flight units were fabricated. HCA.010 has accumulated 15,876 hr of life testing, and 4,424 ignitions during ignition testing. HCA.003 and HCA.0 13 have accumulated 12,415 and 18,823 hr of life testing respectively.

  9. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim

    2013-08-06

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high energy physics applications.

  10. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Benedetti, C.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-08-15

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high-energy physics applications.

  11. Oxygen transport in the internal xenon plasma of a dispenser hollow cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Capece, Angela M. Shepherd, Joseph E.; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2014-04-21

    Reactive gases such as oxygen and water vapor modify the surface morphology of BaO dispenser cathodes and degrade the electron emission properties. For vacuum cathodes operating at fixed temperature, the emission current drops rapidly when oxygen adsorbs on top of the low work function surface. Previous experiments have shown that plasma cathodes are more resistant to oxygen poisoning and can operate with O{sub 2} partial pressures one to two orders of magnitude higher than vacuum cathodes before the onset of poisoning occurs. Plasma cathodes used for electric thrusters are typically operated with xenon; however, gas phase barium, oxygen, and tungsten species may be found in small concentrations. The densities of these minor species are small compared with the plasma density, and thus, their presence in the discharge does not significantly alter the xenon plasma parameters. It is important, however, to consider the transport of these minor species as they may deposit on the emitter surface and affect the electron emission properties. In this work, we present the results of a material transport model used to predict oxygen fluxes to the cathode surface by solving the species conservation equations in a cathode with a 2.25 mm diameter orifice operated at a discharge current of 15 A, a Xe flow rate of 3.7 sccm, and 100 ppm of O{sub 2}. The dominant ionization process for O{sub 2} is resonant charge exchange with xenon ions. Ba is effectively recycled in the plasma; however, BaO and O{sub 2} are not. The model shows that the oxygen flux to the surface is not diffusion-limited; therefore, the high resistance to oxygen poisoning observed in plasma cathodes likely results from surface processes not considered here.

  12. Oxygen transport in the internal xenon plasma of a dispenser hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capece, Angela M.; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2014-04-01

    Reactive gases such as oxygen and water vapor modify the surface morphology of BaO dispenser cathodes and degrade the electron emission properties. For vacuum cathodes operating at fixed temperature, the emission current drops rapidly when oxygen adsorbs on top of the low work function surface. Previous experiments have shown that plasma cathodes are more resistant to oxygen poisoning and can operate with O2 partial pressures one to two orders of magnitude higher than vacuum cathodes before the onset of poisoning occurs. Plasma cathodes used for electric thrusters are typically operated with xenon; however, gas phase barium, oxygen, and tungsten species may be found in small concentrations. The densities of these minor species are small compared with the plasma density, and thus, their presence in the discharge does not significantly alter the xenon plasma parameters. It is important, however, to consider the transport of these minor species as they may deposit on the emitter surface and affect the electron emission properties. In this work, we present the results of a material transport model used to predict oxygen fluxes to the cathode surface by solving the species conservation equations in a cathode with a 2.25 mm diameter orifice operated at a discharge current of 15 A, a Xe flow rate of 3.7 sccm, and 100 ppm of O2. The dominant ionization process for O2 is resonant charge exchange with xenon ions. Ba is effectively recycled in the plasma; however, BaO and O2 are not. The model shows that the oxygen flux to the surface is not diffusion-limited; therefore, the high resistance to oxygen poisoning observed in plasma cathodes likely results from surface processes not considered here.

  13. Local Electric Field Strength in a Hollow Cathode Determined by Stark Splitting of the 2S Level of Hydrogen Isotopes by Optogalvanic Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, C.; Rosa, M. I. de la; Gruetzmacher, K.; Fuentes, L. M.; Gonzalo, A. B.

    2008-10-22

    In this work we present Doppler-free two-photon optogalvanic spectroscopy as a tool to measure the electric field strength in the cathode fall region of a hollow cathode discharge via the Stark splitting of the 2S level of atomic deuterium. The strong electric field strength present in the hollow cathode is determined for various discharge conditions which allows studying the corresponding variations of the cathode fall, and its changes with discharge operation time.

  14. Wear Mechanisms in Electron Sources for Ion Propulsion, 2: Discharge Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Polk, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The wear of the keeper electrode in discharge hollow cathodes is a major impediment to the implementation of ion propulsion onboard long-duration space science missions. The development of a predictive theoretical model for hollow cathode keeper life has long been sought, but its realization has been hindered by the complexities associated with the physics of the partially ionized gas and the associated erosion mechanisms in these devices. Thus, although several wear mechanisms have been hypothesized, a quantitative explanation of life test erosion profiles has remained incomplete. A two-dimensional model of the partially ionized gas in a discharge cathode has been developed and applied to understand the mechanisms that drove the erosion of the keeper in two long-duration life tests of a 30-cm ion thruster. An extensive set of comparisons between predictions by the numerical simulations and measurements of the plasma properties and of the erosion patterns is presented. It is found that the near-plume plasma oscillations, predicted by theory and observed by experiment, effectively enhance the resistivity of the plasma as well as the energy of ions striking the keeper.

  15. Temporal Fluctuations in a 100-A LaB6 Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal fluctuations in the near plume of a 100-Amperes LaB6 (Lanthanum hexaboride) hollow cathode are experimentally investigated. At high currents, turbulent oscillations may contribute to two of the anomalous processes of hollow cathode operation - anomalous resistivity and the production of energetic ions. A detailed study of the properties of the oscillations in a high current cathode is necessary to determine the impact of the fluctuation spectrum on these two effects. In this investigation, a probe array is employed to measure the amplitude and dispersion of axial modes in the plume while a retarding potential analyzer yields estimates of the radial ion energy distribution. The onset of the ion acoustic turbulence (IAT) is observed at high current values, and the character of the turbulent spectrum is shown to agree with weak turbulent theory: the amplitude of the spectrum decreases with flow rate but increases with discharge current. Estimates of the anomalous collision frequency based on experimental observations indicate that the IAT collision frequency can exceed the classical collision frequency at sufficiently high discharge current densities. Additionally, the onset of the IAT is shown to be correlated with the appearance of a high energy ion tail and that the energy in this tail is comparable to the energy in the experimentally-observed IAT.

  16. Evidence of nonclassical plasma transport in hollow cathodes for electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2007-03-15

    Measurements, simplified analyses, and two-dimensional numerical simulations with a fluid plasma model show that classical resistivity cannot account for the elevated electron temperatures and steep plasma potential gradients measured in a 25-27.5 A electric propulsion hollow cathode. The cathode consisted of a 1.5 cm hollow tube with an {approx}0.28 cm diameter orifice and was operated with 5.5 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) of xenon flow using two different anode geometries: a segmented cone and a circular flat plate. The numerical simulations show that classical resistivity yields as much as four times colder electron temperatures compared to the measured values in the orifice and near-plume regions of the cathode. Classical transport and Ohm's law also predict exceedingly high electron-ion relative drift speeds compared to the electron thermal speed (>4). It is found that the addition of anomalous resistivity based on existing growth rate formulas for electron-ion streaming instabilities improves qualitatively the comparison between the numerical results and the time-averaged measurements. Simplified analyses that have been based largely on the axial measurements support the conclusion that additional resistivity is required in Ohm's law to explain the measurements. The combined results from the two-dimensional simulations and the analyses bound the range of enhanced resistivity to be 3-100 times the classical value.

  17. A phenomenological model for orificed hollow cathodes. Ph.D. Thesis, 1 Dec. 1981 - 1 Dec. 1982; [electrostatic thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfried, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    A quartz hollow tube cathode was used to determine the operating conditions within a mercury orificed hollow cathode. Insert temperature profiles, cathode current distributions, plasma properties profile, and internal pressure-mass flow rate results are summarized and used in a phenomenological model which qualitatively describes electron emission and plasma production processes taking place within the cathode. By defining an idealized ion production region within which most of the plasma processes are concentrated, this model is expressed analytically as a simple set of equations which relate cathode dimensions and specifiable operating conditions, such as mass flow rate and discharge current, to such important parameters as emission surface temperature and internal plasma properties. Key aspects of the model are examined.

  18. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  19. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: a modular vacuum ultraviolet source.

    PubMed

    Roberts, F Sloan; Anderson, Scott L

    2013-12-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a "soft" photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry. PMID:24387477

  20. Uniformity of TiN Films Fabricated by Hollow Cathode Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Haifu; Gong, Chunzhi; Tian, Xiubo; Yang, Shiqin; K. Y. Fu, R.; K. Chu, P.

    2010-04-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates using hollow cathode plasma physical vapor deposition (HC-PVD). Titanium was introduced by eroding the Ti cathode nozzle and TiN was formed in the presence of a nitrogen plasma excited by radio frequency (RF). The substrate bias voltage was varied from 0 to -300 V and the uniformity in film thickness, surface roughness, crystal size, microhardness and wear resistance for the film with a diameter of 20 mm was evaluated. Although the central zone of the plasma had the highest ion density, the film thickness did not vary appreciably across the sample. The results from atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed a low surface roughness dominated by an island-like morphology with a similar crystal size on the entire surface. Higher microhardness was measured at the central zone of the sample. The sample treated at -200 V had excellent tribological properties and uniformity.

  1. Nitrogen Atom Energy Distributions in a Hollow-cathode Planar Sputtering Magnetron

    SciTech Connect

    D.N. Ruzic; M.J. Goeckner; Samuel A. Cohen; Zhehui Wang

    1999-06-01

    Energy distributions of N atoms in a hollow-cathode planar sputtering magnetron were obtained by use of optical emission spectroscopy. A characteristic line, N I 8216.3 Å, well-separated from molecular nitrogen emission bands, was identified. Jansson's nonlinear spectral deconvolution method, refined by minimization of {chi}w ² , was used to obtain the optimal deconvolved spectra. These showed nitrogen atom energies from 1 eV to beyond 500 eV. Based on comparisons with VFTRIM results, we propose that the energetic N atoms are generated from N2+ ions after these ions are accelerated through the sheath and dissociatively reflect from the cathode.

  2. Ion acoustic turbulence in a 100-A LaB₆ hollow cathode.

    PubMed

    Jorns, Benjamin A; Mikellides, Ioannis G; Goebel, Dan M

    2014-12-01

    The temporal fluctuations in the near plume of a 100-A LaB(6) hollow cathode are experimentally investigated. A probe array is employed to measure the amplitude and dispersion of axial modes in the plume, and these properties are examined parametrically as a function of cathode operating conditions. The onset of ion acoustic turbulence is observed at high current and is characterized by a power spectrum that exhibits a cutoff at low frequency and an inverse dependence on frequency at high values. The amplitude of the turbulence is found to decrease with flow rate but to depend nonmonotonically on discharge current. Estimates of the anomalous collision frequency based on experimental measurements indicate that the ion acoustic turbulence collision frequency can exceed the classical rate at high discharge current densities by nearly two orders of magnitude. PMID:25615204

  3. Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

    1975-01-01

    A steady-state ExB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasma with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage. Neutrons were produced from deuterium plasma, but it was not established whether thay came from the plasma volume or from the electrode surfaces.

  4. Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

    1975-01-01

    The paper reports on hot-ion plasma experiments conducted in a magnetic mirror facility. A steady-state E x B plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasmas with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage.

  5. A novel device for spectrochemical analysis based on a combination of LIBS and a hollow cathode discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatodorov, S.; Steflekova, V.; Mihailov, V.; Mihailova, D.; van Dijk, J.; van der Mullen, J.; Grozeva, M.

    2016-05-01

    A new modified analytical scheme of laser ablation-hollow cathode discharge (LA- HCD) for elemental analysis is reported. The novelty is the use of a hollow cathode with a longitudinal slit. This slit enables registration of the axial species distribution in the discharge and decoupling of the laser and the analytical signals. In this paper preliminary experiments on the modified LA-HCD set-up are reported. The improved analytical performance of the new LA-HCD scheme is demonstrated by comparing it to stand-alone laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. The results of the modified LA-HCD technique show enhancement of the excitation efficiency.

  6. Criteria of radio-frequency ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge using H{sub 2} and Ar gases for plasma processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsu, Yasunori; Kawasaki, Yujiro

    2013-01-21

    In order to achieve high-density capacitively coupled plasma, a radio-frequency (RF) ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge has been developed as a candidate for processing plasma sources. The plasma density in the hollow cathode discharge reaches a high magnitude of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. The RF ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge depends on the pressure and mass of the working gas. Criteria required for producing a RF ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge have been investigated for various gas pressures using H{sub 2} and Ar gases for high-density plasma production. The results reveal that the criteria for the occurrence of the hollow cathode effect are that the trench width should be approximately equal to the sum of the electron-neutral mean free paths and twice the sheath thickness of the RF powered electrode.

  7. DUHOCAMIS: a dual hollow cathode ion source for metal ion beams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W J; Müller, M W O; Janik, J; Liu, K X; Ren, X T

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we describe a novel ion source named DUHOCAMIS for multiply charged metal ion beams. This ion source is derived from the hot cathode Penning ion gauge ion source (JINR, Dubna, 1957). A notable characteristic is the modified Penning geometry in the form of a hollow sputter electrode, coaxially positioned in a compact bottle-magnetic field along the central magnetic line of force. The interaction of the discharge geometry with the inhomogeneous but symmetrical magnetic field enables this device to be operated as hollow cathode discharge and Penning discharge as well. The main features of the ion source are the very high metal ion efficiency (up to 25%), good operational reproducibility, flexible and efficient operations for low charged as well as highly charged ions, compact setup, and easy maintenance. For light ions, e.g., up to titanium, well-collimated beams in the range of several tens of milliamperes of pulsed ion current (1 ms, 10/s) have been reliably performed in long time runs. PMID:18315181

  8. An experimental investigation of hollow cathode-based plasma contactors. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which describe operation of the plasma environment associated with a hollow cathod-based plasma contactor collecting electrons from or emitting them to an ambient, low density Maxwellian plasma. A one-dimensional, phenomenological model of the near-field electron collection process, which was formulated from experimental observations, is presented. It considers three regions, namely, a plasma cloud adjacent to the contactor, an ambient plasma from which electrons are collected, and a double layer region that develops between the contactor plasma cloud and the ambient plasma regions. Results of the electron emission experiments are also presented. An important observation is made using a retarding potential analyzer (RPA) which shows that high energy ions generally stream from a contactor along with the electrons being emitted. A mechanism for this phenomenon is presented and it involves a high rate of ionization induced between electrons and atoms flowing together from the hollow cathode orifice. This can result in the development of a region of high positive potential. Langmuir and RPA probe data suggest that both electrons and ions expand spherically from this hill region. In addition to experimental observations, a one-dimensional model which describes the electron emission process and predicts the phenomena just mentioned is presented and shown to agree qualitatively with these observations.

  9. DUHOCAMIS: A dual hollow cathode ion source for metal ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W. J.; Mueller, M. W. O.; Janik, J.; Liu, K. X.; Ren, X. T.

    2008-02-15

    In this paper we describe a novel ion source named DUHOCAMIS for multiply charged metal ion beams. This ion source is derived from the hot cathode Penning ion gauge ion source (JINR, Dubna, 1957). A notable characteristic is the modified Penning geometry in the form of a hollow sputter electrode, coaxially positioned in a compact bottle-magnetic field along the central magnetic line of force. The interaction of the discharge geometry with the inhomogeneous but symmetrical magnetic field enables this device to be operated as hollow cathode discharge and Penning discharge as well. The main features of the ion source are the very high metal ion efficiency (up to 25%), good operational reproducibility, flexible and efficient operations for low charged as well as highly charged ions, compact setup, and easy maintenance. For light ions, e.g., up to titanium, well-collimated beams in the range of several tens of milliamperes of pulsed ion current (1 ms, 10/s) have been reliably performed in long time runs.

  10. Surface Charging Controlling of the Chinese Space Station with Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Kai; Wang, Xianrong; Qin, Xiaogang; Yang, Shengsheng; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Chengxuan; Chen, Yifeng; Shi, Liang; Tang, Daotan; Xie, Kan

    2016-07-01

    A highly charged manned spacecraft threatens the life of an astronaut and extravehicular activity, which can be effectively reduced by controlling the spacecraft surface charging. In this article, the controlling of surface charging on Chinese Space Station (CSS) is investigated, and a method to reduce the negative potential to the CSS is the emission electron with a hollow cathode plasma contactor. The analysis is obtained that the high voltage (HV) solar array of the CSS collecting electron current can reach 4.5 A, which can be eliminated by emitting an adequate electron current on the CSS. The theoretical analysis and experimental results are addressed, when the minimum xenon flow rate of the hollow cathode is 4.0 sccm, the emission electron current can neutralize the collected electron current, which ensures that the potential of the CSS can be controlled in a range of less than 21 V, satisfied with safety voltage. The results can provide a significant reference value to define a flow rate to the potential controlling programme for CSS.

  11. Electromagnetic Noise from a Microwave Discharge Neutralizer and a Hollow Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Yukio; Funaki, Ikkoh; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Toki, Kyoichiro

    Noise and oscillatory behavior of a plasma column produced in front of the microwave discharge neutralizer developed for MUSES-C mission were experimentally investigated. Radiated electric field emissions were measured following to MIL-STD-461 E. The average noise level exceeded the narrowband specification by 30 dBμV/m at frequencies less than 5 MHz. Noise in electron emission current was also measured by using a current probe and a spectrum analyzer, and was compared with the noise of a hollow cathode. The microwave discharge neutralizer generates a broadband noise and oscillations which have a fundamental frequency of about 160 kHz and are accompanied by its harmonics up to the 5th. Considering the dependence on the diameter of the plasma column, they are probably the radial oscillation modes of ion acoustic waves. Although the hollow cathode shows nearly the same noise level at frequencies less than 1 MHz, intense oscillation exists in the 1-10 MHz range, which is generated by the keeper plasma.

  12. Broadband microwave characteristics of a novel coaxial gridded hollow cathode argon plasma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruilin; Yuan, Chengxun; Li, Hui; Jia, Jieshu; Zhou, Zhong-Xiang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiaoou; Wu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between microwave and large area plasma is crucially important for space communication. Gas pressure, input power, and plasma volume are critical to both the microwave electromagnetic wave phase shift and electron density. This paper presents a novel type of large coaxial gridded hollow cathode plasma having a 50 cm diameter and a 40 cm thickness. Microwave characteristics are studied using a microwave measurement system that includes two broadband antennae in the range from 2 GHz to 18 GHz. The phase shift under varying gas pressure and input power is shown. In addition, the electron density ne, which varies from 1.2 × 10(16) m(-3) to 8.7 × 10(16) m(-3) under different discharge conditions, is diagnosed by the microwave system. The measured results accord well with those acquired by Langmuir Probe measurement and show that the microwave properties in the large volume hollow cathode discharge significantly depend on the input power and gas pressure. PMID:27587122

  13. Laser-triggered hollow-cathode plasma process for film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Witanachchi, S.; Mahawela, P.; Mukherjee, P.

    2004-09-01

    A method of generating a pulsed plasma plume of metallic species using a hollow-cathode arc discharge arrangement is presented. Electrical energy from a pulse-forming network (PFN) generates the transient plasma that evaporates material from the anode that is placed inside a hollow cathode. The discharge is triggered by thermionic electrons produced by a CO{sub 2} laser pulse that impinges on one of the electrodes. This plasma process has been used to deposit carbon films in a low-pressure argon or nitrogen ambient. Current pulses of 4-10 ms in duration with peak currents of 350 A have been produced by the PFN. Characteristics of the produced plasma have been studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The amount of energy imparted to the argon plasma is more than that for a nitrogen plasma. Comparison of on-axis intensity for the 426.9 nm line of C{sup +} for the two plasmas shows that the density of carbon ions generated in the nitrogen plasma is higher than that in the argon plasma. Films deposited by this method have fairly uniform thickness profiles that are of the form cos{sup 0.4} {theta} for the argon plasma and cos{sup 2.2} {theta} for the nitrogen plasma. This indicates that the nitrogen plasma is more forward directed than the argon plasma. Deposition rates of about 10-16 A /pulse have been obtained for carbon films.

  14. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2013-10-01

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel determines the focusing forces, while the accelerating field is determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Beam loading using a near-hollow plasma channel is examined. Properly shaping and phasing the witness particle beam, high-gradient acceleration can be achieved with high-efficiency, and without induced energy spread or emittance growth. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high-energy physics applications. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  15. Experimental investigation of a throttlable 15 cm hollow cathode ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The use of dished high perveance grids on a 15 cm modified SERT 2 thruster is shown to facilitate throttled operation over a beam current range from 60 to 600 mA. Effects of increasing the radial component of the magnetic field in the main discharge chamber and decreasing the dimensions of the cathode discharge region are examined and found to degrade performance to the extent that primary electrons are forced in toward the center-line of the thruster. Studies of the baffle aperture region of two thrusters indicate that the electric potential gradient vector is perpendicular to the local magnetic field lines when the thruster is operating properly. The correlation between the shape of the ion beam current density and that of the ion density at the screen grid within the thruster is shown to be 94%. Additional experimental studies on maximum propellant utilization, plasma ion production cost, neutral density in the cathode discharge region, double ion production in hollow cathode thrusters and thermal flow meter performance are discussed.

  16. A high pressure hollow cathode ionization source for in-situ detection of organic molecules on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kanik, Isik

    2001-01-01

    We have designed, constructed and characterized a new high-pressure (1-5 Torr) hollow cathode discharge source (HCDSj that can be utilized as an ionizer in a wide variety of mass analyzers. It is able to function under ambient Martian atmospheric conditions without modification.

  17. Hollow spherical carbonized polypyrrole/sulfur composite cathode materials for lithium/sulfur cells with long cycle life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongbao; Zhang, Shichao; Zhang, Lan; Lin, Ruoxu; Wu, Xiaomeng; Fang, Hua; Ren, Yanbiao

    2014-02-01

    Hollow carbonized polypyrrole (PPy) spheres are synthesized using poly(methyl methacrylate-ethyl acrylate-acrylic acid) latex spheres as sacrificial templates. The hollow spherical carbonized PPy/sulfur composite cathode materials are prepared by heating the mixture of hollow carbonized PPy spheres and element sulfur at 155 °C for 24 h. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations show the hollow structures of the carbonized PPy spheres and the homogeneous distribution of sulfur on the carbonized PPy shells. The hollow spherical carbonized PPy/sulfur composite with 60.9 wt.% S shows high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability when used as the cathode materials in lithium/sulfur cells, whose initial specific discharge capacity reaches as high as 1320 mA h g-1 and the reversible discharge capacity retains 758 mA h g-1 after 400 cycles at 0.2C. The excellent electrochemical properties benefit from the hollow structures and the flexible shells of the carbonized PPy spheres.

  18. Improvement of the voltage-controlled negative resistance of a porous silicon emitter using cathode reduction and electro-pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li; Zhang, Xiaoning; Wang, Wenjiang; Zhao, Xiaoning

    2016-09-01

    A new composite treatment method combining cathode reduction (CR) and electro-pretreatment (EP) is proposed to improve the voltage-controlled negative resistance (VCNR) of porous silicon (PS) emitters. Four groups of PS emitters were treated, with nothing, CR, EP, and a combination of CR and EP, during different preparation stages. The experimental results indicate that both CR and EP improved the VCNR property and the emission characteristics of the PS emitter. The most favorable results occurred for the electron emitter treated with a combination of CR–EP. A peak-to-valley current ratio of 1.06 and an emission current density of 150 µA cm‑2, which are the lowest value and approximately twice that of other samples, respectively, were obtained. In addition, the operating stability of the PS emitter also improved significantly compared with the two methods alone. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry results demonstrate that the improvements of the VCNR and the emission characteristics of PS emitters are due to the content variation of defects, impurities, and unstable microstructures in the PS layer under the influence of CR and EP. The mechanism of VCNR behavior is explained by a proposed energy band model, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  19. Microstructure and hardness of hollow cathode discharge ion-plated titanium nitride film

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.T.; Song, Y.C.; Yu, G.P.; Huang, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by hollow cathode discharge (HCD) ion-plating technique. The preferred orientation and microstructure were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Microhardness of the TiN film was measured and correlated to the microstructure and preferred orientation. The results of TEM study showed that the microstructure of TiN film contains grains with nanometer scale. As the film thickness increases, the grain size of TiN increases. The x-ray results show that TiN(111) is the major preferred orientation of the film. The hardness of TiN film is primarily contributed from TiN(111) preferred orientation.

  20. Low-frequency flute instabilities of a hollow cathode arc discharge - Theory and experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilic, D. B.; Rognlien, T. D.; Self, S. A.; Crawford, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of two low-frequency electrostatic flute instabilities of a low-pressure hollow cathode arc discharge are reported. Mode I has azimuthal mode number m = 1, and occurs when the radial electric field is negative (directed inward), while mode II has m = - 1 and occurs when the field is positive. The radial electric field is controlled by varying the potential of a secondary anode cylinder located close to the outer discharge radius. A linear perturbation analysis, based on the two-fluid equations, is given for a low-beta, collisionless, cylindrical plasma column, immersed in a uniform axial magnetic field, having a Gaussian density profile and an arbitrary radial electric field profile. Reasonable correlation between theory and experiment is demonstrated for both modes.

  1. Plasma Treatment of Polyethylene Powder Particles in Hollow Cathode Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Wolter, Matthias; Quitzau, Meike; Bornholdt, Sven; Kersten, Holger

    2008-09-07

    Polyethylen (PE) is widely used in the production of foils, insulators, packaging materials, plastic bottles etc. Untreated PE is hydrophobic due to its unpolar surface. Therefore, it is hard to print or glue PE and the surface has to be modified before converting.In the present experiments a hollow cathode glow discharge is used as plasma source which is mounted in a spiral conveyor in order to ensure a combines transport of PE powder particles. With this set-up a homogeneous surface treatment of the powder is possible while passing the glow discharge. The plasma treatment causes a remarkable enhancement of the hydrophilicity of the PE powder which can be verified by contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  2. Comparison of On-Orbit and Ground Based Hollow Cathode Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Tom (Technical Monitor); Carpenter, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) was developed by the Rocketdyne division of Boeing to control charging of the International Space Station (ISS). Each PCU contains a Hollow Cathode Assembly (HCA), which emits the charge control electrons. The HCAs were designed and fabricated at NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC). GRC's HCA development program included manufacture of engineering, qualification, and flight model HCAs as well as wear tests and qualification tests. GRC is currently tracking the on-orbit data for the flight HCAs. This data will be discussed with comparison to operating parameters verified by ground based HCA tests. The flight HCAs continue to operate flawlessly. The first unit has accumulated more than 3650 hours of on-orbit operation and the second unit has accumulated over 5550 hours.

  3. Broadband microwave propagation in a novel large coaxial gridded hollow cathode helium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ruilin; Yuan, Chengxun; Liu, Sha; Yue, Feng; Jia, Jieshu; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Wu, Jian; Li, Hui

    2016-06-01

    The broadband microwave propagating characteristics of a novel, large volume, coaxial gridded hollow cathode helium plasma is reported in this paper. The basic plasma parameters were determined using an Impedans Ltd. Langmuir probe under a variety of conditions. The transmission attenuation was recorded by using Scattering Parameters (S-parameters) of a vector network analyzer with the frequency range from 2 GHz to 18 GHz and a propagation model was established using the Z transform finite-difference time-domain method for simulating the transmission of microwave. The effects of both the gas pressure and the input power on the electromagnetic wave propagation are analyzed. The results showed that the computational and experimental results of transmission attenuation were in good agreements. Moreover, the electron density ne and the effective collision rate ν c were found to play important roles in the propagation of microwave.

  4. On the Operational Status of the ISS Plasma Contactor Hollow Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Thomas P. (Technical Monitor); Carpenter, Christian B.

    2004-01-01

    The Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) was developed by the Rocketdyne division of The Boeing Company to control charging of the International Space Station (ISS). Each PCU contains a Hollow Cathode Assembly (HCA), which emits the charge control electrons. The HCAs were designed and fabricated at NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC). GRC's HCA development program included manufacture of engineering, qualification, and flight model HCAs as well as qualification and wear tests. GRC tracks the on-orbit data for the flight HCAs in order to ascertain their overall health. As of April 5, 2004, 43 ignitions and over 6000 hours have been accumulated on a single unit. The flight HCAs continue to operate flawlessly. This paper will discuss the operation of the HCAs during ground tests and on-orbit operation from initial startup to April 30, 2004.

  5. Towards a reduced chemistry module of a He-Ar-Cu hollow cathode discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailova, D.; van Dijk, J.; Grozeva, M.; Degrez, G.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2011-05-01

    This study is aimed at finding a reduced chemistry module for a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) excited in a He-Ar-Cu mixture. This enables us to construct lean and reliable models that can be used as a part of the design tool of HCDs. To this end estimative calculations and numerical simulations are performed under optimal conditions for lasing. An analysis of the species behaviour and reactions is made and as a result the model is simplified by means of reducing the number of species and reactions. The consequences of these reductions are justified by comparing the results of the simplified models with those of a more complete one. This study delivers a model that is chemically lean and thus, much less time consuming. It can be used in optimization studies to find the optimum in the plasma control parameter set of HCDs. The technique developed in this study for HCDs can be applied to glow discharges in general.

  6. Discharge chamber of high-current ion source with cold hollow cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Glazunov, V.N.; Grechanyi, V.G.; Metel', A.S.

    1988-08-01

    The discharge chamber of a high-current ion source with a sectional cold hollow cathode of conical shape formed by 44 coaxial rings and an emission grid is described. For a relative loss aperture of approx. = 1% of the fast oscillating electrons from the cavity, the discharge voltage does not exceed 500 V for currents of up to 200 A and helium or argon pressures of less than or equal to 10/sup -1/ Pa. Stable conditions are obtained with ion-extraction factors of up to 13% and a nonuniformity of ion-current density of approx. = 10% in the central zone of a grid with a diameter of up to 20 cm for a discharge current of 200 A and a pulse duration of up to 1 msec.

  7. Spectroscopic study of hydrogen rotational, vibrational and translational temperatures in a hollow cathode glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majstorovic, G. Lj.

    2008-07-01

    Hydrogen hollow cathode glow discharges (HCGD) have been extensively used for study of fundamental discharge processes as well as for wide variety of applications. For instance, recently, this type of discharge was utilized for producing hydrogen by reforming natural gas (da Silva et al. 2006). The translational or gas kinetic temperature in gas discharges is a parameter of utmost importance in the field of plasma chemistry while vibrationally excited neutral hydrogen molecules play significant role in the chemistry of weakly ionized hydrogen plasmas. This is why the modeling of cold, reactive hydrogen plasma includes rotational and vibrational energy of the hydrogen molecule. This is the reason why we study HC discharge parameters like rotational, translational and vibrational temperature. Several diagnostic techniques are developed to determine gas kinetic temperature T_g like coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Here we selected OES. This diagnostic technique provides information about atom, molecule and ion density in excited and ground state, as well as rotational, vibrational, and gas temperature including the excitation temperature of certain group of excited levels. The technique is applied for measurements of the rotational T_rot, vibrational T_vib and determines translational temperatures in a hollow cathode glow discharge in hydrogen. The rotational temperature of excited electron energy levels is determined from the Boltzmann plot of intensities of rotational moleculelar hydrogen lines belonging to Fulcher-alpha diagonal bands. Following procedure described elsewhere (Astashkevich et al. 2006) the temperature of ground state rovibronic levels is evaluated. The constrains of rotational temperature are discussed in detail. The vibrational temperature is also determined, but from the relative intensities of the H_2 Fulcher-alpha diagonal bands. The dependence of these

  8. PIC/MCC Simulation of Radio Frequency Hollow Cathode Discharge in Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qing; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Lianzhu

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional PIC/MCC model is developed to simulate the nitrogen radio frequency hollow cathode discharge (rf-HCD). It is found that both the sheath oscillation heating and the secondary electron heating together play a role to maintain the rf-HCD under the simulated conditions. The mean energy of ions (N2+, N+) in the negative glow region is greater than the thermal kinetic energy of the molecular gas (N2), which is an important characteristic of rf-HCD. During the negative portion of the hollow electrode voltage cycle, electrons mainly follow pendulum movement and produce a large number of ionization collisions in the plasma region. During the positive voltage of the rf cycle, the axial electric field becomes stronger and its direction is pointing to the anode (substrate), therefore the ions move toward the anode (substrate) via the axial electric field acceleration. Compared with dc-HCD, rf-HCD is more suitable for serving as a plasma jet nozzle at low pressure. supported by Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. A2012205072)

  9. Effects of bias on surface properties of TiN films fabricated by hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, H. F.; Tian, X. B.; Yang, S. Q.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-07-15

    Titanium nitride (TiN) films have been deposited on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates using hollow cathode reactive plasma vapor deposition. Titanium is introduced by sputtering the Ti cathode nozzle and TiN is formed in the presence of a nitrogen plasma excited by radio frequency. The substrate bias voltage is varied from 0 to -300 V to investigate its effect on the mechanical and structural properties of the films. X-ray diffraction results show the formation of TiN (111) and Ti{sub 2}N (220) phases in the films. The sample bias has a critical influence on the thickness of the deposited films. The bias of -200 V leads to the thickest films (about 1680 nm) and the deposition rate is 18.7 nm/min. The microhardness, root-mean-square (rms) roughness values, and tribological properties also exhibit nonlinear relationship with increasing bias voltages. The highest hardness of about 1027 hardness vickers and best wear resistance are achieved at a bias voltage of -100 V. Atomic force microscopy results reveal the lowest rms surface roughness of 3.19 nm when the bias voltage is -200 V.

  10. A thin-walled metallic hollow cathode as an atomizer for Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeyev, A. A.; Sholupov, S. E.

    1998-03-01

    A new kind of glow discharge atomizer, a thin-walled metallic hollow cathode (TMHC) combined with Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry using high frequency modulated light polarization (ZAAS-HFM), is studied. A theoretically suggested, and experimentally confirmed, model of the atom confinement in the TMHC yields the appearance of the diffusion traps for atoms at both ends of the cathode, which increases the residence time of the analyte atoms in the analysis volume. The high atomization efficiency in the glow discharge atomizer (caused by the ionic-thermal mechanism of sputtering) and the high selectivity of ZAAS-HFM are demonstrated in the analysis of complex matrix samples such as whole blood and urine. The analytical system TMHC + ZAAS-HFM is characterized by low detection limits, which are comparable to those of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Owing to its rather low average power consumption (30-50 W) the TMHC can be used in a portable and mobile spectrometer, and is therefore suitable for the in situ analysis of various sample materials.

  11. Hollow K0.27MnO2 Nanospheres as Cathode for High-Performance Aqueous Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Qiao, Yun; Lou, Xiangdong; Zhang, Xinhe; Zhang, Wuxing; Huang, Yunhui

    2016-06-15

    Hollow K0.27MnO2 nanospheres as cathode material were designed for aqueous sodium ion batteries (SIBs) using polystyrene (PS) as a template. The samples were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As cathode materials for aqueous SIBs, the hollow structure can effectively improve the sodium storage property. A coin cell with hollow K0.27MnO2 as cathode and NaTi2(PO4)3 as anode exhibits a specific capacity of 84.9 mA h g(-1) at 150 mA g(-1), and the capacity of 56.6 mA h g(-1) is still maintained at an extremely high current density of 600 mA g(-1). For full cell measurement at the current density of 200 mA g(-1), 83% capacity retention also can be attained after 100 cycles. The as-designed hollow K0.27MnO2 nanospheres demonstrate long cyclability and high rate capability, which grant the potential for application in advanced aqueous SIBs. PMID:27229291

  12. Robust Low-Cost Cathode for Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Under funding from the NASA Commercial Technology Office, a cathode assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested for use in plasma sources for ground-based materials processing applications. The cathode development activity relied on the large prior NASA investment and successful development of high-current, high-efficiency, long-life hollow cathodes for use on the International Space Station Plasma Contactor System. The hollow cathode was designed and fabricated based on known engineering criteria and manufacturing processes for compatibility with the requirements of the plasma source. The transfer of NASA GRC-developed hollow cathode technology for use as an electron emitter in the commercial plasma source is anticipated to yield a significant increase in process control, while eliminating the present issues of electron emitter lifetime and contamination.

  13. Gas pressure and electron density at the level of the active zone of hollow cathode arc discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minoo, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the longitudinal variations of the partial pressures of electrons, ions, and neutral particles is proposed as a result of an experimental study of pressure variations at the level of the active zone as a function of the various discharge parameters of a hollow cathode arc. The cathode region where the temperature passes through its maximum is called active zone. The proposed model embodies the very important variations which the partial electron and neutral particles pressures undergo at the level of the active zone.

  14. Fundamental principles of hollow-cathode-discharge operations in space and the design of a rocket-borne demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, Edward P.; Mccoy, James E.; Bonifazi, Carlo; Dobrowolny, Marino

    1988-01-01

    The issue of hollow-cathode operations in space is treated from the point of view of fundamental principles of plasma interactions and their control over currents involving the device, the spaceborne vehicle, and the ambient space plasma. Particular attention is given to collective plasma processes, the effects of the ambient magnetic field, and the high probability of plasma turbulence triggered by hallow cathode operations. The paper presents a rocket payload and experiment scenario designed for accommodation on a Black Brant booster, launched from a midlatitude site to an apogee in excess of 400 km.

  15. The Spectrum of Th-Ar Hollow Cathode Lamps in the 691nm to 5804nm region Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 161 The Spectrum of Th-Ar Hollow Cathode Lamps in the 691nm to 5804nm region Database (Web, free access)   This atlas presents observations of the infra-red (IR) spectrum of a low current Th-Ar hollow cathode lamp with the 2-m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at NIST. These observations establish more than 2400 lines that are suitable for use as wavelength standards in the range 691 nm to 5804 nm. The observations were made in collaboration with the European Southern Observatory (ESO), in order to provide calibration reference data for new high-resolution Echelle spectrographs, such as the Cryogenic High-Resolution IR Echelle Spectrograph ([CRIRES]), ESO's new IR spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope in Chile.

  16. Life Testing of the Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor for the ProSEDS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned expendable booster. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma. A hollow cathode plasma contactor emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit with the ambient plasma. The current flowing through the tether generates thrust based on the Lorentz Force Law. The thrust will be generated opposite to the velocity vector, slowing down the spacecraft and causing it to de-orbit in approximately 14 days compared to the normal 6 months. A 10-km non-conductive tether is between the conductive tether and an endmass containing several scientific instruments. The ProSEDS mission lifetime was set at I day because most of the primary objectives can be met in that time. The extended ProSEDS mission will be for as many days as possible, until the Delta 11 second stage burns up or the tether is severed by a micrometeoroid or space debris particle. The Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) unit has been designed for a 12-day mission. Because of the science requirements to measure the background ambient plasma, the HCPC must operate on a duty cycle. Later in the ProSEDS mission, the HCPC is operated in a manner to allow charging of the secondary battery. Due to the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, a development unit of the HCPC was built for thorough testing. This developmental unit was tested for a simulated ProSEDS mission, with measurements of the ability to start and stop during the duty cycle. These tests also provided valuable data for the ProSEDS software requirements. Qualification tests of the HCPC flight hardware are also discussed.

  17. Autonomous portable pulsed-periodical generator of high-power radiofrequency-pulses based on gas discharge with hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulychev, Sergey V.; Dubinov, Alexander E.; L'vov, Igor L.; Popolev, Vyacheslav L.; Sadovoy, Sergey A.; Sadchikov, Eugeny A.; Selemir, Victor D.; Valiulina, Valeria K.; Vyalykh, Dmitry V.; Zhdanov, Victor S.

    2016-05-01

    Portable autonomous generator of high-power RF-pulses based on the gas discharge with hollow cathode has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Input and output characteristics are the following: discharge current amplitude is 800 A, duration of generated RF-pulses is 350 ns, carrier frequency is ˜90 MHz, power in RF-pulse is 0.5 MW, pulse repetition rate is 0.5 kHz, and device efficiency is ˜25%.

  18. Process for thermal imaging scanning of a swaged heater for an anode subassembly of a hollow cathode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor); Verhey, Timothy R. R. (Inventor); Soulas, George C. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A process for thermal imaging scanning of a swaged heater of an anode subassembly of a hollow cathode assembly, comprising scanning a swaged heater with a thermal imaging radiometer to measure a temperature distribution of the heater; raising the current in a power supply to increase the temperature of the swaged heater; and measuring the swaged heater temperature using the radiometer, whereupon the temperature distribution along the length of the heater shall be less than plus or minus 5 degrees C.

  19. Autonomous portable pulsed-periodical generator of high-power radiofrequency-pulses based on gas discharge with hollow cathode.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, Sergey V; Dubinov, Alexander E; L'vov, Igor L; Popolev, Vyacheslav L; Sadovoy, Sergey A; Sadchikov, Eugeny A; Selemir, Victor D; Valiulina, Valeria K; Vyalykh, Dmitry V; Zhdanov, Victor S

    2016-05-01

    Portable autonomous generator of high-power RF-pulses based on the gas discharge with hollow cathode has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Input and output characteristics are the following: discharge current amplitude is 800 A, duration of generated RF-pulses is 350 ns, carrier frequency is ∼90 MHz, power in RF-pulse is 0.5 MW, pulse repetition rate is 0.5 kHz, and device efficiency is ∼25%. PMID:27250451

  20. Selective generation and extraction of low emittance electrons from plasmas: A new concept for E-beam cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1991-09-19

    It is shown that hollow cathode discharges can operate in a mode characterized by a two-component electron energy distribution: bulk electrons with a thermal distribution with a temperature of a few electron volts, and a component of fast electrons with an energy of about 30 eV and a thermal spread of about 0.1 eV. Measurements of both parallel and perpendicular energy spreads confirm the existence of fast, low energy spread electrons. Selective extraction of these electrons can form the basis of a high current, high brightness electron gun which could be well suited for EBIS applications. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Role of electrostatic and magnetic electron confinement in a hollow-cathode glow discharge in a nonuniform magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Metel, A. S. Grigoriev, S. N.; Volosova, M. A.; Bolbukov, V. P.; Melnik, Yu. A.

    2015-02-15

    Glow discharge with electron confinement in an electrostatic trap has been studied. The trap is formed by a cylindrical hollow cathode, as well as by a flat target on its bottom and a grid covering its output aperture, both being negatively biased relative to the cathode. At a gas pressure of 0.2–0.4 Pa, the fraction of ions sputtering the target (δ = 0.13) in the entire number of ions emitted by the uniform discharge plasma corresponds to the ratio of the target surface area to the total surface area of the cathode, grid, and target. When a nonuniform magnetic field with force lines passing through the target center (where the magnetic induction reaches 35 mT), as well as through the grid, hollow cathode, and target periphery (where the field lines are arc-shaped), is applied to the trap, its influence on the discharge depends on the magnetic induction B{sub 0} at the target edge. At B{sub 0} = 1 mT, the electrons emitted from the target periphery and drifting azimuthally in the arc-shaped field insignificantly contribute to gas ionization. Nevertheless, since fast electrons that are emitted from the cathode and oscillate inside it are forced by the magnetic field to come more frequently to the target, thereby intensifying gas ionization near the latter, the fraction δ doubles and the plasma density near the target becomes more than twice as high as that near the grid. At B{sub 0} = 6 mT, the contribution of electrons emitted from the target surface to gas ionization near the target grows up and δ increases two more times. At cathode-target voltages in the range of 0–3 kV, the current in the target circuit vanishes as the voltage between the anode and the cathode decreases to zero.

  2. Role of electrostatic and magnetic electron confinement in a hollow-cathode glow discharge in a nonuniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metel, A. S.; Grigoriev, S. N.; Volosova, M. A.; Bolbukov, V. P.; Melnik, Yu. A.

    2015-02-01

    Glow discharge with electron confinement in an electrostatic trap has been studied. The trap is formed by a cylindrical hollow cathode, as well as by a flat target on its bottom and a grid covering its output aperture, both being negatively biased relative to the cathode. At a gas pressure of 0.2-0.4 Pa, the fraction of ions sputtering the target (δ = 0.13) in the entire number of ions emitted by the uniform discharge plasma corresponds to the ratio of the target surface area to the total surface area of the cathode, grid, and target. When a nonuniform magnetic field with force lines passing through the target center (where the magnetic induction reaches 35 mT), as well as through the grid, hollow cathode, and target periphery (where the field lines are arc-shaped), is applied to the trap, its influence on the discharge depends on the magnetic induction B 0 at the target edge. At B 0 = 1 mT, the electrons emitted from the target periphery and drifting azimuthally in the arc-shaped field insignificantly contribute to gas ionization. Nevertheless, since fast electrons that are emitted from the cathode and oscillate inside it are forced by the magnetic field to come more frequently to the target, thereby intensifying gas ionization near the latter, the fraction δ doubles and the plasma density near the target becomes more than twice as high as that near the grid. At B 0 = 6 mT, the contribution of electrons emitted from the target surface to gas ionization near the target grows up and δ increases two more times. At cathode-target voltages in the range of 0-3 kV, the current in the target circuit vanishes as the voltage between the anode and the cathode decreases to zero.

  3. Mesoporous LiFeBO3/C hollow spheres for improved stability lithium-ion battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongxue; Cao, Liufei; Chen, Liang; Zhou, Haihui; Zheng, Chunman; Xie, Kai; Kuang, Yafei

    2015-12-01

    Polyanionic compounds are regarded as one of the most promising cathode materials for the next generation lithium-ion batteries due to their abundant resource and thermal stability. LiFeBO3 has a relatively higher capacity than olivine LiFePO4, however, moisture sensitivity and low conductivity hinder its further development. Here, we design and synthesize mesoporous LiFeBO3/C (LFB/C) hollow spheres to enhance its structural stability and electric conductivity, two LiFeBO3/C electrodes with different carbon content are prepared and tested. The experimental results show that mesoporous LiFeBO3/C hollow spheres with higher carbon content exhibit superior lithium storage capacity, cycling stability and rate capability. Particularly, the LFB/C electrode with higher carbon content demonstrates good structural stability, which can maintain its original crystal structure and Li storage properties even after three months of air exposure at room temperature. The exceptional structural stability and electrochemical performance may justify their potential use as high-performance cathode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries. In addition, the synthesis strategy demonstrated herein is simple and versatile for the fabrication of other polyanionic cathode materials with mesoporous hollow spherical structure.

  4. Characteristics of end Hall ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Deli; Wang, Lisheng; Pu, Shihao; Cheng, Changming; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-04-01

    An end Hall ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge is described. The source is suitable for high current, low energy ion beam applications such as Hall current plasma accelerators. The end Hall ion source is based on an anode layer thruster with closed drift electrons that move in a closed path in the E × B field. Only a simple magnetron power supply is used in the ion source. The special configuration enables uninterrupted and expanded operation with oxygen as well as other reactive gases because of the absence of an electron source in the ion source. In our evaluation, the ion beam current was measured by a circular electrostatic probe and the energy distribution of the ion beam was measured by a retarding potential analyzer (RPA). An ion beam current density of up to 10 mA/cm2 was obtained at a mean ion energy of 100-250 eV using Ar or O2. The ion source can be operated in a stable fashion at a discharge voltage between 200 and 500 V and without additional electron triggering. The discharge power of the ion source can be easily changed by adjusting the gas flow rate and anode voltage. No water cooling is needed for power from 500 W to 2 kW. The simple and rugged ion source is suitable for industrial applications such as deposition of thin films with enhanced adhesion. The operational characteristics of the ion source are experimentally determined and discussed.

  5. First results on Ge resonant laser photoionization in hollow cathode lamp.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Daniele; Barzakh, Anatoly; Fedorov, Dmitry; Andrighetto, Alberto; Mariotti, Emilio; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Tomaselli, Alessandra

    2016-02-01

    In the framework of the research and development activities of the SPES project regarding the optimization of the radioactive beam production, a dedicated experimental study has been recently started in order to investigate the possibility of in-source ionization of germanium using a set of tunable dye lasers. Germanium is one of the beams to be accelerated by the SPES ISOL facility, which is under construction at Legnaro INFN Laboratories. The three-step, two color ionization schemes have been tested using a Ge hollow cathode lamp. The slow and the fast optogalvanic signals were detected and averaged by an oscilloscope as a proof of the laser ionization inside the lamp. As a result, several wavelength scans across the resonances of ionization schemes were collected with the fast optogalvanic signal. Some comparisons of ionization efficiency for different ionization schemes were made. Furthermore, saturation curves of the first excitation transitions have been obtained. This investigation method and the setup built in the laser laboratory of the SPES project can be applied for the photo-ionization scheme studies also for the other possible radioactive elements. PMID:26932071

  6. First results on Ge resonant laser photoionization in hollow cathode lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Daniele; Barzakh, Anatoly; Fedorov, Dmitry; Andrighetto, Alberto; Mariotti, Emilio; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Tomaselli, Alessandra

    2016-02-01

    In the framework of the research and development activities of the SPES project regarding the optimization of the radioactive beam production, a dedicated experimental study has been recently started in order to investigate the possibility of in-source ionization of germanium using a set of tunable dye lasers. Germanium is one of the beams to be accelerated by the SPES ISOL facility, which is under construction at Legnaro INFN Laboratories. The three-step, two color ionization schemes have been tested using a Ge hollow cathode lamp. The slow and the fast optogalvanic signals were detected and averaged by an oscilloscope as a proof of the laser ionization inside the lamp. As a result, several wavelength scans across the resonances of ionization schemes were collected with the fast optogalvanic signal. Some comparisons of ionization efficiency for different ionization schemes were made. Furthermore, saturation curves of the first excitation transitions have been obtained. This investigation method and the setup built in the laser laboratory of the SPES project can be applied for the photo-ionization scheme studies also for the other possible radioactive elements.

  7. Studies on pulsed optogalvanic effect in Eu/Ne hollow cathode discharge.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K; Kumar, P; Dixit, S K; Nakhe, S V

    2014-07-01

    The optogalvanic (OG) effect has been observed in a Eu/Ne hollow cathode discharge lamp using pulsed laser irradiation. An OG spectrum is recorded in dye laser wavelength region 574–602 nm using a boxcar-averager. In total 41 atomic lines are observed. Of these, 38 lines are assigned to neon transitions. Two lines observed corresponding to wavelengths 576.519 and 601.815 nm are assigned to europium transitions; (4f 7 6s 2 , S 8 7/2 →4f 7 6s6p , zP 6 7/2 ) and (4f 7 6s 2 , S 8 7/2 →4f 7 6s6p , zP 8 9/2 ), respectively, and the remaining line at 582.475 nm could not be assigned. The effect of the discharge current on europium as well as neon OG signals is also studied. At moderate discharge current values, an extra positive peak is observed in neon OG signal for the transition (1s 5 →2p 2 ) at 588.189 nm, which is explained by Penning-ionization process using the quasi-resonant energy transfer interactions between excited neon and europium atoms lying in 2p 2 and D 10 9/2 states, respectively. PMID:25089996

  8. An investigation of conducted and radiated emissions from a hollow-cathode plasma contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchholtz, Brett W.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation conducted on the electrical interference induced by the operation of a hollow-cathode plasma contractor in a ground-based facility is described. The types of electrical interference, or noise, which are important to Space Station Freedom designers are classified as either conducted or radiated emissions. The procedures required to perform conducted and radiated emission measurements on a plasma contactor are examined. The experimental data obtained are typically examined in the frequency domain (i.e. amplitudes of the noise fluctuations versus frequency). Results presented indicate the conducted emissions, which are the current fluctuations from the contactor into the space station wiring, are affected by operating parameters such as expellant flow rate and discharge current. The radiated emissions, which are the electromagnetic waves induced and emitted by the contactor, appear to be influenced by the contactor emission current. Other experimental results suggest possible sources which are responsible for the observed noise. For example, the influence of the plasma environment downstream from the contactor on noise emission levels is described. In addition, a brief discussion is given on the correlation between conducted and radiated emissions and the mechanisms through which both are influenced by the plasma downstream of the contactor.

  9. [Microsecond Pulsed Hollow Cathode Lamp as Enhanced Excitation Source of Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo

    2015-09-01

    The spectral, electrical and atomic fluorescence characteristics of As, Se, Sb and Pb hollow cathode lamps (HCLs) powered by a laboratory-built high current microsecond pulse (HCMP) power supply were studied, and the feasibility of using HCMP-HCLs as the excitation source of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) was evaluated. Under the HCMP power supply mode, the As, Se, Sb, Pb HCLs can maintain stable glow discharge at frequency of 100~1000 Hz, pulse width of 4.0~20 μs and pulse current up to 4.0 A. Relationship between the intensity of characteristic emission lines and HCMP power supply parameters, such as pulse current, power supply voltage, pulse width and frequency, was studied in detail. Compared with the conventional pulsed (CP) HCLs used in commercial AFS instruments, HCMP-HCLs have a narrower pulse width and much stronger pulse current. Under the optimized HCMP power supply parameters, the intensity of atomic emission lines of As, Se, Sb HCLs had sharp enhancement and that indicated their capacity of being a novel HG-AFS excitation source. However, the attenuation of atomic lines and enhancement of ionic lines negated such feasibility of HCMP-Pb HCL. Then the HG-AFS analytical capability of using the HCMP-As/Se/Sb HCLs excitation source was established and results showed that the HCMP-HCL is a promising excitation source for HG-AFS. PMID:26669140

  10. Influence of metastable atoms in the simulation of hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shoujie; Liu, Shumin; Jing, Ha; Ouyang, Jiting

    2013-12-15

    The characteristics of hollow cathode discharge are investigated by using two-dimensional fluid model combined with a transport model for metastable atoms (F-M model) in argon. It shows that the stepwise ionization is one of main important mechanism for electrons production. The distribution of electric potential, density of electrons, ions, and metastable atoms are calculated with a pressure of 10 Torr and a voltage of 250 V. The peak density of electron and ion is 1.2×10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}, and the peak density of metastable atoms is 3.5×10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}. The results obtained in F-M model are compared with that in fluid model (without metastable atoms involved). Metastable atoms are found to play an important role in the discharge. In addition, with the increase of pressure and voltage, the percentage of stepwise ionization in the total ionization increase, and the difference of discharge characteristics simulated by these two kinds of models rises.

  11. Spectroscopic study of high energy excited deuterium atoms in a hollow cathode glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Majstorovic, G. Lj.; Sisovic, N. M.; Konjevic, N.

    2007-04-15

    The presented results are concerned with the shape of the Balmer alpha line emitted from a low pressure dc glow discharge with stainless steel (SS) and titanium (Ti) hollow cathode (HC) with D{sub 2} or Ar/D{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas mixture. The analysis indicates that the line profile represents a convolution of three Gaussian profiles resulting from different collision excitation processes. The average energy of excited deuterium atoms determined from the width of the broadest Gaussian is about 86 eV in both HCs. In Ar/D{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas mixtures, the energies are in the range from 33 eV to 47 eV, but with much larger contribution of this Gaussian to the Balmer alpha profile. In discharges with hydrogen isotopes, the energy derived from the medium-width Gaussian is in the range from 4 eV to 6 eV, while in gas mixtures it is between 1 eV and 2 eV. The width of the narrowest Gaussian slightly exceeds the instrumental broadening and it is always below 0.5 eV.

  12. Optogalvanic single-color multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of uranium in a hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, S.; Babin, F.; Gagne, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    Single color multiphoton ionization spectra of atoms can be obtained using the fast pulsed ({approximately} 10{sup {minus}9} s) optogalvanic signal generated by photoionization in the dark space of a hollow cathode discharge. Such spectra have been measured for uranium in the spectral range of rhodamine 6G with a high laser bandwidth excitation (0.3 cm{sup {minus}1}). In the process of ascribing an ionization scheme to each line through the known levels of uranium, many possibilities appear. In order to help the authors select the correct scheme, they perturbed the atomic level population distribution by optical pumping of the 16900.37 cm{sup {minus}1} level ({sup 7}M{sub 7}). The spectrum obtained this way show many new strong lines. They try to explain these lines by a three photon resonant or quasi-resonant scheme, using known levels of uranium, or by a two photon scheme from the 16900.37 cm{sup {minus}1} level. In both perturbed and unperturbed spectra, many ionization schemes are still possible for each line. For this reason the authors have performed higher resolution scans of selected lines (in particular 5915.4{angstrom}) in order to confirm the existence of more than one scheme for many lines.

  13. Discharge Hollow Cathode and Extraction Grid Analysis for the MiXI Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard; Sullivan, Regina; Przybylowski, JoHanna; Silva, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Miniature ion thrusters are well-suited future space missions such as Terrestrial Planet Finder - Interferometer (TPF-I), where high efficiency thrusters using non-contaminating noble gas propellant are desirable. Transient dynamic and orbital analyses have shown that the low-noise, continuous thrust of the Miniature Xenon Ion (MiXI) thruster is desirable for TPF-I formation rotation maneuvers when compared with other thruster options [1], [2]. The 3cm diameter MiXI thruster, Figure 1, was originally designed using experimental methods and is capable of high Isp (> 3,000 sec), propellant efficiency > 80%, and thrust from <0.1 mN to >1.5 mN [3]. The MiXI thruster must demonstrate high levels of thrust resolution and a low minimum impulse bit to ensure it meets the precision formation flying needs of missions such as TPF-I. A novel concept for controlling the ion extraction voltages yields the necessary thrust characteristics for the MiXI thruster. Experiments verify these techniques and two dimensional computational models show that such techniques should have minimal effect on the lifetime of the thruster. During this effort, the MiXI thruster incorporates, for the first time, flight like hollow cathodes for both the discharge chamber and beam neutralization.

  14. Magnetic control of breakdown: Toward energy-efficient hollow-cathode magnetron discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, O.; Romanov, M.; Kumar, S.; Zong, X. X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2011-03-15

    Characteristics of electrical breakdown of a planar magnetron enhanced with an electromagnet and a hollow-cathode structure, are studied experimentally and numerically. At lower pressures the breakdown voltage shows a dependence on the applied magnetic field, and the voltage necessary to achieve the self-sustained discharge regime can be significantly reduced. At higher pressures, the dependence is less sensitive to the magnetic field magnitude and shows a tendency of increased breakdown voltage at the stronger magnetic fields. A model of the magnetron discharge breakdown is developed with the background gas pressure and the magnetic field used as parameters. The model describes the motion of electrons, which gain energy by passing the electric field across the magnetic field and undergo collisions with neutrals, thus generating new bulk electrons. The electrons are in turn accelerated in the electric field and effectively ionize a sufficient amount of neutrals to enable the discharge self-sustainment regime. The model is based on the assumption about the combined classical and near-wall mechanisms of electron conductivity across the magnetic field, and is consistent with the experimental results. The obtained results represent a significant advance toward energy-efficient multipurpose magnetron discharges.

  15. Compensated Langmuir Probe Measurement of the Near-keeper Plasma of a Hollow Cathode Operating in Plume Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillefer, Zachary; Blandin, John; Szabo, James

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that oscillations of the plasma potential, over a range of frequencies (<=1 kHz--2 MHz) are related to high energy ion production in the plume of a neutralizer hollow cathode when operating in plume mode. Impact of these high energy ions with the keeper electrode face is the dominant mechanism by which electrode erosion occurs over long periods of operation (~10,000 hours). Reliable measurement of the plasma properties in this operating mode is critical to development of computational models and efforts to mitigate the erosion and maximize lifetime of these cathodes. In this work, both plume and spot mode operating conditions of a low current (<=5 A), dispenser hollow cathode have been quantitatively identified. An emissive probe was used to characterize the plasma potential oscillations in the near-keeper plasma during plume mode operation. Large amplitude fluctuations (exceeding 70 V) of the plasma potential were observed, at a fundamental frequency of 55 kHz, along with 2nd and 3rd harmonics. In order to measure the local electron energy distribution function (EEDF) during plume mode operation, a compensated Langmuir probe was constructed, using RF chokes, to allow accurate measurement of the EEDF and calculation of the electron temperature.

  16. Characterization of Downstream Ion Energy Distributions From a High Current Hollow Cathode in a Ring Cusp Discharge Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of energetic ions produced by a hollow cathodes operating at high emission currents (greater than 10 Angstroms) has been documented in the literature. As part of an ongoing effort to uncover the underlying physics of the formation of these ions, ion efflux from a high current hollow cathode operating in an ion thruster discharge chamber was investigated. Using a spherical sector electrostatic energy analyzer located downstream of the discharge cathode, the ion energy distribution over a 0 to 60 eV energy range was measured. The sensitivity of the ion energy distribution function to zenith angle was also assessed at 3 different positions: 0, 15, and 25 degrees. The measurements suggest that the majority of the ion current at the measuring point falls into the analyzer with an energy approximately equal to the discharge voltage. The ion distribution, however, was found to be quite broad. The high energy tail of the distribution function tended to grow with increasing discharge current. Sensitivity of the profiles to flow rate at fixed discharge current was also investigated. A simple model is presented that provides a potential mechanism for the production of ions with energies above the discharge voltage.

  17. Simple template fabrication of porous MnCo2O4 hollow nanocages as high-performance cathode catalysts for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y. L.; Lv, F. C.; Yu, S. C.; Xu, J.; Yang, X.; Lu, Z. G.

    2016-04-01

    Porous MnCo2O4 hollow nanocages have been fabricated via a simple template method using carbon spheres as a template. The hydrophilic surface of carbon spheres can adsorb Mn2+ and Co2+ ions simultaneously to form Mn,Co-adsorbed carbon spheres. The calcination of Mn,Co-adsorbed carbon spheres can result in porous hollow nanocages of MnCo2O4. The MnCo2O4 hollow nanocages are built by nanoscale MnCo2O4 crystals. Because of the unique porous hollow nanostructures, the resulting MnCo2O4/KB cathode shows an efficient electrocatalytic performance in LiTFSI/TEGDME electrolyte-based Li-O2 batteries. The MnCo2O4 hollow nanocages as the cathode catalysts can deliver better performance during the discharge/charge processes and good cycle stability compared with that of the pure KB carbon. The preliminary results manifest that porous MnCo2O4 hollow nanocages are promising high-performance cathode catalysts for Li-O2 batteries. This template technique is a simple, general, low-cost and controllable method and can be extended to prepare other transition metal oxide hollow nanostructures.

  18. Simple template fabrication of porous MnCo2O4 hollow nanocages as high-performance cathode catalysts for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y L; Lv, F C; Yu, S C; Xu, J; Yang, X; Lu, Z G

    2016-04-01

    Porous MnCo2O4 hollow nanocages have been fabricated via a simple template method using carbon spheres as a template. The hydrophilic surface of carbon spheres can adsorb Mn(2+) and Co(2+) ions simultaneously to form Mn,Co-adsorbed carbon spheres. The calcination of Mn,Co-adsorbed carbon spheres can result in porous hollow nanocages of MnCo2O4. The MnCo2O4 hollow nanocages are built by nanoscale MnCo2O4 crystals. Because of the unique porous hollow nanostructures, the resulting MnCo2O4/KB cathode shows an efficient electrocatalytic performance in LiTFSI/TEGDME electrolyte-based Li-O2 batteries. The MnCo2O4 hollow nanocages as the cathode catalysts can deliver better performance during the discharge/charge processes and good cycle stability compared with that of the pure KB carbon. The preliminary results manifest that porous MnCo2O4 hollow nanocages are promising high-performance cathode catalysts for Li-O2 batteries. This template technique is a simple, general, low-cost and controllable method and can be extended to prepare other transition metal oxide hollow nanostructures. PMID:26894375

  19. A simplified 461-nm laser system using blue laser diodes and a hollow cathode lamp for laser cooling of Sr

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Yosuke; Chida, Yuko; Ohtsubo, Nozomi; Aoki, Takatoshi; Takeuchi, Makoto; Kuga, Takahiro; Torii, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a simplified light source at 461 nm for laser cooling of Sr without frequency-doubling crystals but with blue laser diodes. An anti-reflection coated blue laser diode in an external cavity (Littrow) configuration provides an output power of 40 mW at 461 nm. Another blue laser diode is used to amplify the laser power up to 110 mW by injection locking. For frequency stabilization, we demonstrate modulation-free polarization spectroscopy of Sr in a hollow cathode lamp. The simplification of the laser system achieved in this work is of great importance for the construction of transportable optical lattice clocks. PMID:23822327

  20. Wavelengths and intensities of a platinum/neon hollow cathode lamp in the region 1100-4000 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reader, Joseph; Acquista, Nicolo; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Sansonetti, Jean E.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of a platinum hollow cathode lamp containing neon carrier gas was recorded photographically and photoelectrically with a 10.7 m normal-incidence vacuum spectrograph. Wavelengths and intensities were determined for about 3000 lines in the region 1100-4000 A. The uncertainty of the measured wavelengths is estimated to be + or - 0.0020 A. Ritz-type wavelengths are given for about 550 classified lines of Pt II with uncertainites varying from + or - 0.0004 A to + or - 0.0025 A. The uncertainty of the relative intensities is estimated to be about 20 percent.

  1. Hollow cathodes with BaO impregnated, porous tungsten inserts and tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Weigand, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The technology of impregnated materials is described and some inherently advantageous characteristics of impregnated cathodes are discussed. Thermionic emission measurements are presented for oxide coated and impregnated cathodes. Five cathode configurations with barium oxide impregnated porous tungsten inserts and/or tips have been fabricated and tested. Reliability, durability, and stability of operation are characterized. One of the cathodes has accumulated over 9000 operational hours, another has been cycled on and off more than 800 times.

  2. Observations of a mode transition in a hydrogen hollow cathode discharge using phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Sam Charles, Christine; Dedrick, James; Boswell, Rod; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah

    2014-07-07

    Two distinct operational modes are observed in a radio frequency (rf) low pressure hydrogen hollow cathode discharge. The mode transition is characterised by a change in total light emission and differing expansion structures. An intensified CCD camera is used to make phase resolved images of Balmer α emission from the discharge. The low emission mode is consistent with a typical γ discharge, and appears to be driven by secondary electrons ejected from the cathode surface. The bright mode displays characteristics common to an inductive discharge, including increased optical emission, power factor, and temperature of the H{sub 2} gas. The bright mode precipitates the formation of a stationary shock in the expansion, observed as a dark region adjacent to the source-chamber interface.

  3. The deposition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by means of a hollow cathode plasma jet in dc regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perekrestov, R.; Kudrna, P.; Tichý, M.

    2015-06-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles are being investigated in this work. Nanoparticles were obtained in Ar plasma on monocrystaline Si(111) substrate by means of a gas-phase deposition using a low pressure hollow cathode plasma jet. The material of the cathode is pure titanium. Oxygen was introduced separately from argon through an inlet in the chamber. The nanoparticle growth mechanism is qualitatively discussed. The morphology of the surfaces of thin films was investigated by an atomic force microscope. The chemical composition of the thin films was investigated by means of an energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A cylindrical Langmuir probe and a fiber optic thermometer was used for measurements of plasma parameters and neutral gas temperature respectively. The relationship between plasma parameters and the films’ morphology is particularly explained.

  4. Influence of Xe{sub 2}{sup +} ions on the micro-hollow cathode discharge driven by thermionic emission

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2014-04-15

    The influence of Xe{sub 2}{sup +} dimer ions and excited Xe* atoms on the hollow cathode discharge driven by electron thermionic emission is studied using two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions modeling. A comparison with the results of two-component (electrons and Xe{sup +} ions) plasma modeling showed that the presence of the Xe{sub 2}{sup +} dimer ions and excited Xe* atoms in the plasma affects the plasma parameters (density, potential, and ion fluxes toward the cathode). The influence of Xe{sub 2}{sup +} ions and Xe* atoms on the plasma sheath parameters, such as thickness and the ion velocity at the sheath edge, is analyzed.

  5. Correlation of Hollow Cathode Assembly and Plasma Contactor Data from Ground Testing and In-Space Operation on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalkeski, Scott D.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

    2001-01-01

    Charge control on the International Space Station (ISS) is currently being provided by two plasma contactor units (PCUs). The plasma contactor includes a hollow cathode assembly (HCA), power processing unit and Xe gas feed system. The hollow cathode assemblies in use in the ISS plasma contactors were designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Prequalification testing of development HCAs as well as acceptance testing of the flight HCAs is presented. Integration of the HCAs into the Boeing North America built PCU and acceptance testing of the PCU are summarized in this paper. Finally, data from the two on-orbit PCUs is presented.

  6. Doppler spectroscopy of hydrogen Balmer lines in a hollow cathode glow discharge in ammonia and argon-ammonia mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Sisovic, N. M.; Konjevic, N.

    2008-11-15

    The results of Doppler spectroscopy of hydrogen Balmer lines from a stainless steel (SS) and copper (Cu) hollow cathode (HC) glow discharge in ammonia and argon-ammonia mixture are reported. The experimental profiles in ammonia discharge are fitted well by superposing three Gaussian profiles. The half widths, in energy units, of narrow and medium Gaussians are in the ranges 0.3-0.4 eV and 3-4 eV, respectively, for both hollow cathodes what is expected on the basis of earlier electron beam{yields}NH{sub 3} experiments. The half widths of the largest Gaussian in ammonia are 46 and 55 eV for SS and Cu HC, respectively. In argon-ammonia discharge, three Gaussians are also required to fit experimental profiles. While half widths of narrow and medium Gaussians are similar to those in ammonia, the half widths of the largest Gaussians are 35 and 42 eV for SS and Cu HC, respectively. The half widths of the largest Gaussians in ammonia and in argon-ammonia mixture indicate the presence of excessive Doppler broadening.

  7. Selenium/interconnected porous hollow carbon bubbles composites as the cathodes of Li-Se batteries with high performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Fan, Long; Zhu, Yongchun; Xu, Yanhua; Liang, Jianwen; Wei, Denghu; Qian, Yitai

    2014-11-01

    A kind of Se/C nanocomposite is fabricated by dispersing selenium in interconnected porous hollow carbon bubbles (PHCBs) via a melt-diffusion method. Such PHCBs are composed of porous hollow carbon spheres with a size of ∼70 nm and shells of ∼12 nm thickness interconnected to each other. Instrumental analysis shows that the porous shell of the PHCBs could effectively disperse and sequester most of the selenium, while the inner cavity remains hollow. When evaluated as cathode materials in a carbonate-based electrolyte for Li-Se batteries, the Se/PHCBs composites exhibit significantly excellent cycling performance and a high rate capability. Especially, the Se/PHCBs composite with an optimal content of ∼50 wt% selenium (Se50/PHCBs) displays a reversible discharge capacity of 606.3 mA h g(-1) after 120 cycles at 0.1 C charge-discharge rate. As the current density increased from 0.1 to 1 C (678 mA g(-1)), the reversible capacity of the Se50/PHCBs composite can still reach 64% of the theoretical capacity (431.9 mA h g(-1)). These outstanding electrochemical features should be attributed to effective sequestration of Se in the PHCBs, as well as to the ability to accommodate volume variation and enhance the electronic transport by making Se have close contact with the carbon framework. PMID:25233292

  8. Large-area lanthanum hexaboride electron emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Hirooka, Y.; Sketchley, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    A large-area cathode assembly which is capable of continuous, high-current electron emission is described. The cathode utilizes an indirectly heated lanthanum hexaboride (LaB/sub 6/) disk as the thermionic electron emitter. The LaB/sub 6/ cathode emits over 600 A of electrons at an average of 20 A/cm/sup 2/ continuously with no observable lifetime limits to date after about 400 h of operation in a plasma discharge. Proper clasping of the LaB/sub 6/ disk is required to avoid impurity production from chemical reactions with the holder and to provide adequate support if the disk fractures during rapid thermal cycling. Modification of the LaB/sub 6/ surface composition due to preferential sputtering of boron by hydrogen and argon ions in the plasma discharge has been observed. The surface appearance is consistent with the formation of LaB/sub 4/ as a result of boron depletion. The electron emission capability of the cathode is not significantly altered by the surface change. This surface modification by preferential sputtering is not observed in hollow cathodes where the ion energy from the cathode sheath voltage is typically less than 50 V. The electron emission by the cathode has not been affected by exposure to both air and water during operation. Utilizing thick disks of this intermediate temperature cathode material results in reliable, high-current, long-lifetime electron emitter assemblies.

  9. High-performance hollow sulfur nanostructured battery cathode through a scalable, room temperature, one-step, bottom-up approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiyang; Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur is an exciting cathode material with high specific capacity of 1,673 mAh/g, more than five times the theoretical limits of its transition metal oxides counterpart. However, successful applications of sulfur cathode have been impeded by rapid capacity fading caused by multiple mechanisms, including large volume expansion during lithiation, dissolution of intermediate polysulfides, and low ionic/electronic conductivity. Tackling the sulfur cathode problems requires a multifaceted approach, which can simultaneously address the challenges mentioned above. Herein, we present a scalable, room temperature, one-step, bottom-up approach to fabricate monodisperse polymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone)-encapsulated hollow sulfur nanospheres for sulfur cathode, allowing unprecedented control over electrode design from nanoscale to macroscale. We demonstrate high specific discharge capacities at different current rates (1,179, 1,018, and 990 mAh/g at C/10, C/5, and C/2, respectively) and excellent capacity retention of 77.6% (at C/5) and 73.4% (at C/2) after 300 and 500 cycles, respectively. Over a long-term cycling of 1,000 cycles at C/2, a capacity decay as low as 0.046% per cycle and an average coulombic efficiency of 98.5% was achieved. In addition, a simple modification on the sulfur nanosphere surface with a layer of conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), allows the sulfur cathode to achieve excellent high-rate capability, showing a high reversible capacity of 849 and 610 mAh/g at 2C and 4C, respectively. PMID:23589875

  10. Assessments of Hollow Cathode Wear in the Xenon Ion Propulsion System (XIPs(c)) by Numerical Analyses and Wear Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The standard approach presently followed by NASA to qualify electric propulsion for the required mission throughput has been based largely on life tests, which can be costly and time consuming. Revised electric propulsion lifequalification approaches are being formulated that combine analytical and/or computational methods with (shorter-duration) wear tests. As a model case, a wear test is being performed at JPL to assess the lifetime of the discharge hollow cathode in the Xenon Ion Propulsion System (XIPS(c)), a 25-cm ion engine developed by L-3 Communications Electron Technologies, Inc. for commercial applications. Wear and plasma data accumulated throughout this life-assessment program are being used to validate the existing 2-D hollow cathode code OrCa2D. We find that the OrCa2D steady-state solution predicts very well the time-averaged plasma data and the keeper voltage after 5500 hrs of operation in high-power mode. When the wave motion that occurs naturally in these devices is accounted for, based on an estimate of the maximum wave amplitude, the molybdenum-keeper erosion profile observed in the XIPS(c) discharge cathode is also reproduced within a factor of two of the observation. When the same model is applied to predict the erosion of a tantalum keeper we find that erosion is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared to the molybdenum keeper due the significantly lower sputtering yield of tantalum. A tantalum keeper would therefore allow keeper lifetimes that greatly exceed the present requirements for deep-space robotic missions considered by NASA. Moreover, such large reduction of the erosion renders the largest uncertainties in the models, which are associated with the wave amplitude estimates and the electron transport model, negligible.

  11. Biochemistry-directed hollow porous microspheres: bottom-up self-assembled polyanion-based cathodes for sodium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bo; Li, Qiufeng; Liu, Baodong; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-21

    Biochemistry-directed synthesis of functional nanomaterials has attracted great interest in energy storage, catalysis and other applications. The unique ability of biological systems to guide molecule self-assembling facilitates the construction of distinctive architectures with desirable physicochemical characteristics. Herein, we report a biochemistry-directed "bottom-up" approach to construct hollow porous microspheres of polyanion materials for sodium ion batteries. Two kinds of polyanions, i.e. Na3V2(PO4)3 and Na3.12Fe2.44(P2O7)2, are employed as cases in this study. The microalgae cell realizes the formation of a spherical "bottom" bio-precursor. Its tiny core is subjected to destruction and its tough shell tends to carbonize upon calcination, resulting in the hollow porous microspheres for the "top" product. The nanoscale crystals of the polyanion materials are tightly enwrapped by the highly-conductive framework in the hollow microsphere, resulting in the hierarchical nano-microstructure. The whole formation process is disclosed as a "bottom-up" mechanism. Moreover, the biochemistry-directed self-assembly process is confirmed to play a crucial role in the construction of the final architecture. Taking advantage of the well-defined hollow-microsphere architecture, the abundant interior voids and the highly-conductive framework, polyanion materials show favourable sodium-intercalation kinetics. Both materials are capable of high-rate long-term cycling. After five hundred cycles at 20 C and 10 C, Na3V2(PO4)3 and Na(3.12)Fe2.44(P2O7)2 retain 96.2% and 93.1% of the initial capacity, respectively. Therefore, the biochemistry-directed technique provides a low-cost, highly-efficient and widely applicable strategy to produce high-performance polyanion-based cathodes for sodium ion batteries. PMID:27029436

  12. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  13. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, James Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  14. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented. PMID:24593637

  15. Observation of radio frequency ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge plasma with MgO and Al electrodes for plasma processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsu, Yasunori Matsumoto, Naoki

    2014-05-15

    Various high-density plasma sources have been proposed for plasma processing. Especially, the hollow cathode discharge is one of the powerful ones. In this work, radio-frequency (RF) driven ring-shaped hollow cathode discharges with high secondary-electron emission have been investigated, using an aluminum (Al) cathode, coated or not with magnesium oxide (MgO). The thickness of MgO thin film is approximately 200 nm. The RF discharge voltage for the coated cathode is almost the same as that for the uncoated one, in a wide range of Ar gas pressure, from 5.3 to 53.2 Pa. The results reveal that the plasma density has a peak at an Ar gas pressure of 10.6 Pa for both cathodes. The plasma density for the coated cathode is about 1.5–3 times higher than that for the uncoated one, at various gas pressures. To the contrary, the electron temperature for the coated cathode is lower than temperature obtained with the uncoated cathode, at various gas pressures. Radial profiles of electron saturation current, which is proportional to plasma flux, are also examined for a wide range of gas pressure. Radial profiles of electron temperature at various axial positions are almost uniform for both cathodes so that the diffusion process due to density gradient is dominant for plasma transport. The secondary electrons emitted from the coated cathode contribute to the improvement of the plasma flux radial profile obtained using the uncoated cathode.

  16. Scalable synthesis of Na3V2(PO4)(3)/C porous hollow spheres as a cathode for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, JF; Luo, C; Gao, T; Fan, XL; Wang, CS

    2015-01-01

    Na3V2(PO4)(3) (NVP) has been considered as a very promising cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to its typical NASICON structure, which provides an open and three dimensional (3D) framework for Na+ migration. However, the low electronic conductivity of NVP limits its rate capability and cycling ability. In this study, carbon coated hollow structured NVP/C composites are synthesized via a template-free and scalable ultrasonic spray pyrolysis process, where the carbon coated NVP particles are uniformly decorated on the inner and outer surfaces of the porous hollow carbon spheres. When evaluated as a cathode material for SIBs, the unique NVP/C porous hollow sphere cathode delivers an initial discharge capacity of 99.2 mA h g(-1) and retains 89.3 mA h g(-1) after 300 charge/discharge cycles with a very low degradation rate of 0.035% per cycle. For comparison, the NVP/C composite, prepared by the traditional sol-gel method, delivers a lower initial discharge capacity of 97.4 mA h g(-1) and decreases significantly to 71.5 mA h g(-1) after 300 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance of NVP/C porous hollow spheres is attributed to their unique porous, hollow and spherical structures, as well as the carbon-coating layer, which provides a high contact area between electrode/electrolyte, high electronic conductivity, and high mechanical strength.

  17. Hollow-cathode electrode for high-power, high-pressure discharge devices

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-08-22

    Several different cold cathode configurations are disclosed for a gas discharge device each having a plurality of grooves of selected spacing, depth and width to improve the emission of electrons in a gas discharge device. Each of the cold cathode configurations can be machined from a single piece of a selected material. Several of the configurations can be assembled with individual elements which is easily seen from the various figures. 8 figs.

  18. The influence of pressure and gas flow on size and morphology of titanium oxide nanoparticles synthesized by hollow cathode sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnarsson, Rickard; Pilch, Iris; Boyd, Robert D.; Brenning, Nils; Helmersson, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Titanium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized via sputtering of a hollow cathode in an argon atmosphere. The influence of pressure and gas flow has been studied. Changing the pressure affects the nanoparticle size, increasing approximately proportional to the pressure squared. The influence of gas flow is dependent on the pressure. In the low pressure regime (107 ≤ p ≤ 143 Pa), the nanoparticle size decreases with increasing gas flow; however, at high pressure (p = 215 Pa), the trend is reversed. For low pressures and high gas flows, it was necessary to add oxygen for the particles to nucleate. There is also a morphological transition of the nanoparticle shape that is dependent on the pressure. Shapes such as faceted, cubic, and cauliflower can be obtained.

  19. High current, low emittance, steady state electron guns with plasma cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1995-12-31

    Major limitations of plasma cathodes have been overcome in an electron gun based on extraction of superthermal electrons from a discharge characterized by a large component of high energy electrons with a low thermal spread. A grid is employed to select these electrons for extraction while retaining the bulk electrons in the discharge. Steady state extraction of electron beams corresponding to over 60% of the total arc discharge current has been observed. A perveance of over 280 microperv was reached with the extraction of 9A at 1 keV from a 6 nun aperture. Some of the characteristics of the electron beam described in this paper are very attractive for electron beam melting.

  20. Development of a Compact Ion Source with a Hot Hollow Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, N.; Demura, Y.; Imakita, S.; Kasuya, T.; Vasquez, M. R.; Wada, M.

    2011-01-01

    A compact ion source with 14 mm diameter, 30 mm long discharge region was developed. A total size of the ion source including the beam extraction system was 60 mm in diameter and 160 mm in length. A high temperature coaxial cathode consisting of thin-wall tantalum and tungsten tubes produced a discharge plasma. A source gas was supplied through the inner W tube of the coaxial cathode. A stable plasma of H2 was maintained with the discharge current of 2.0 A at 68 A cathode heating current. The optimum H2 gas pressure for ion beam extraction was 2×10-2 Pa. Hydrogen ion beam current was 120 μA (1 mA/cm2) at 2.0 A discharge current and 3.0 kV extraction voltage.

  1. Pulse ignition characterization of mercury ion thruster hollow cathode using an improved pulse ignitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.; Gruber, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation of the high voltage pulse ignition characteristics of the 8-cm mercury ion thruster neutralizer cathode identified a low rate of voltage rise and long pulse duration as desirable factors for reliable cathode starting. Cathode starting breakdown voltages were measured over a range of mercury flow rates and tip heater powers for pulses with five different rates of voltage rise. Breakdown voltage requirements for the fastest rising pulse (2.5 to 3.0 kV/microsec) were substantially higher (2 kV or more) than for the slowest rising pulse (0.3 to 0.5 kV/microsec) for the same starting conditions. The paper also describes an improved, low impedance pulse ignitor circuit which reduces power losses and eliminates problems with control and packaging associated with earlier designs.

  2. Pulse ignition characterization of mercury ion thruster hollow cathode using an improved pulse ignitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.; Gruber, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation of the high voltage pulse ignition characteristics of the 8 cm mercury ion thruster neutralizer cathode identified a low rate of voltage rise and long pulse duration as desirable factors for reliable cathode starting. Cathode starting breakdown voltages were measured over a range of mercury flow rates and tip heater powers for pulses with five different rates of voltage rise. Breakdown voltage requirements for the fastest rising pulse (2.5 to 3.0 kV/micro sec) were substantially higher (2 kV or more) than for the slowest rising pulse (0.3 to 0.5 kV/micro sec) for the same starting conditions. Also described is an improved, low impedance pulse ignitor circuit which reduces power losses and eliminates problems with control and packaging associated with earlier designs.

  3. Development of a Compact Ion Source with a Hot Hollow Cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, N.; Demura, Y.; Imakita, S.; Kasuya, T.; Vasquez, M. R. Jr.; Wada, M.

    2011-01-07

    A compact ion source with 14 mm diameter, 30 mm long discharge region was developed. A total size of the ion source including the beam extraction system was 60 mm in diameter and 160 mm in length. A high temperature coaxial cathode consisting of thin-wall tantalum and tungsten tubes produced a discharge plasma. A source gas was supplied through the inner W tube of the coaxial cathode. A stable plasma of H{sub 2} was maintained with the discharge current of 2.0 A at 68 A cathode heating current. The optimum H{sub 2} gas pressure for ion beam extraction was 2x10{sup -2} Pa. Hydrogen ion beam current was 120 {mu}A (1 mA/cm{sup 2}) at 2.0 A discharge current and 3.0 kV extraction voltage.

  4. Biochemistry-directed hollow porous microspheres: bottom-up self-assembled polyanion-based cathodes for sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bo; Li, Qiufeng; Liu, Baodong; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Biochemistry-directed synthesis of functional nanomaterials has attracted great interest in energy storage, catalysis and other applications. The unique ability of biological systems to guide molecule self-assembling facilitates the construction of distinctive architectures with desirable physicochemical characteristics. Herein, we report a biochemistry-directed ``bottom-up'' approach to construct hollow porous microspheres of polyanion materials for sodium ion batteries. Two kinds of polyanions, i.e. Na3V2(PO4)3 and Na3.12Fe2.44(P2O7)2, are employed as cases in this study. The microalgae cell realizes the formation of a spherical ``bottom'' bio-precursor. Its tiny core is subjected to destruction and its tough shell tends to carbonize upon calcination, resulting in the hollow porous microspheres for the ``top'' product. The nanoscale crystals of the polyanion materials are tightly enwrapped by the highly-conductive framework in the hollow microsphere, resulting in the hierarchical nano-microstructure. The whole formation process is disclosed as a ``bottom-up'' mechanism. Moreover, the biochemistry-directed self-assembly process is confirmed to play a crucial role in the construction of the final architecture. Taking advantage of the well-defined hollow-microsphere architecture, the abundant interior voids and the highly-conductive framework, polyanion materials show favourable sodium-intercalation kinetics. Both materials are capable of high-rate long-term cycling. After five hundred cycles at 20 C and 10 C, Na3V2(PO4)3 and Na3.12Fe2.44(P2O7)2 retain 96.2% and 93.1% of the initial capacity, respectively. Therefore, the biochemistry-directed technique provides a low-cost, highly-efficient and widely applicable strategy to produce high-performance polyanion-based cathodes for sodium ion batteries.Biochemistry-directed synthesis of functional nanomaterials has attracted great interest in energy storage, catalysis and other applications. The unique ability of

  5. A hollow cathode neutralizer for a 30-cm diameter bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Recent improvements in overall thrustor performance have imposed new constraints on neutralizer performance. The use of compensated grid extraction system requires a re-evaluation of neutralizer position. In addition a suitable control logic for the neutralizer has proven difficult. A series of tests were conducted to determine what effect neutralizer cathode geometry has on performance. The parameters investigated included orifice diameter and length, and cathode diameter. Similar tests investigated open and enclosed keeper geometries. Neutralizer position tests with compensated grids suggest positions approximately 10 cm from the accelerator and radially out of the beam envelope should result in satisfactory performance and long life. Finally operation at keeper currents of 1.5 amp has resulted in lower total neutralizer power, the elimination of tip heater power, and suitable closed loop control of the neutralizer vaporizer.

  6. Production of High Energy Ions Near an Ion Thruster Discharge Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Ira; Mikellides, I. G.; Goebel, D. M.; Jameson, K. K.; Wirz, R.; Polk, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Several researchers have measured ions leaving ion thruster discharge chambers with energies far greater than measured discharge chamber potentials. Presented in this paper is a new mechanism for the generation of high energy ions and a comparison with measured ion spectra. The source of high energy ions has been a puzzle because they not only have energies in excess of measured steady state potentials, but as reported by Goebel et. al. [1], their flux is independent of the amplitude of time dependent plasma fluctuations. The mechanism relies on the charge exchange neutralization of xenon ions accelerated radially into the potential trough in front of the discharge cathode. Previous researchers [2] have identified the importance of charge exchange in this region as a mechanism for protecting discharge cathode surfaces from ion bombardment. This paper is the first to identify how charge exchange in this region can lead to ion energy enhancement.

  7. Sulfur/graphitic hollow carbon sphere nano-composite as a cathode material for high-power lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Eon Sung; Kim, Min-Seop; Cho, Won Il; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2013-08-01

    The intrinsic low conductivity of sulfur which leads to a low performance at a high current rate is one of the most limiting factors for the commercialization of lithium-sulfur battery. Here, we present an easy and convenient method to synthesize a mono-dispersed hollow carbon sphere with a thin graphitic wall which can be utilized as a support with a good electrical conductivity for the preparation of sulfur/carbon nano-composite cathode. The hollow carbon sphere was prepared from the pyrolysis of the homogenous mixture of the mono-dispersed spherical silica and Fe-phthalocyanine powder in elevated temperature. The composite cathode was manufactured by infiltrating sulfur melt into the inner side of the graphitic wall. The electrochemical cycling shows a capacity of 425 mAh g-1 at 3 C current rate which is more than five times larger than that for the sulfur/carbon black nano-composite prepared by simple ball milling.

  8. Search for a ''3.5-eV isomer'' in {sup 229}Th in a hollow-cathode electric discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Inamura, T. T.; Haba, H.

    2009-03-15

    A hollow-cathode electric discharge, a well-established source in optical spectroscopy, was used to populate the ''3.5-eV isomer'' in {sup 229}Th with use of nuclear excitation by electron transition (NEET). The radiochemically purest {sup 229}Th sample was loaded into the hollow cathode in which the electric discharge excited the {sup 229}Th to atomic states some of which could be expected to lie close to the excitation energy of the sought isomer. Although there remain some uncertainties, our experiments indicate that the isomer was populated by NEET and its {alpha} decay observed after switching off the electric discharge with a corresponding isomer half-life 1 min < or approx. T{sub 1/2}{sup m} < or approx. 3 min. From the present NEET condition, the isomer appears to lie between 3 eV and 7 eV. The probability of the isomer population by NEET is discussed.

  9. A contribution to spectroscopic diagnostics and cathode sheath modeling of micro-hollow gas discharge in argon

    SciTech Connect

    Cvejic, M.; Spasojevic, Dj.; Sisovic, N. M.; Konjevic, N.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, the hydrogen Balmer beta line shape from a micro-hollow gas discharge (MHGD) in argon with traces of hydrogen is used for simultaneous diagnostics of plasma and cathode sheath (CS) parameters. For this purpose, a simple model of relevant processes responsible for the line broadening is introduced and applied to the Balmer beta profile recorded from a MHGD generated in the microhole (diameter 100 {mu}m at narrow side and 130 {mu}m at wider side) of a gold-alumina-gold sandwich in the pressure range (100-900 mbar). The electron number density N{sub e} in the range (0.4-4.5) x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} is determined from the width of the central part of the Balmer beta line profile, while, from the extended wings of the Balmer beta profile, induced by dc Stark effect, the next three parameters are determined: the average value E{sub a} of electric field strength in the CS in the range (16-95 kV/cm), the electric field strength E{sub 0} at the cathode surface in the range (32-190 kV/cm), and the CS thickness z{sub g} in the range (18-70 {mu}m). All four MHGD parameters, N{sub e}, E{sub a}, E{sub 0}, and z{sub g}, compare reasonably well with results of the modeling experiment by M. J. Kushner [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 1633 (2005)]. The results for N{sub e} are compared with other emission experiments.

  10. Use of multiwavelength emission from hollow cathode lamp for measurement of state resolved atom density of metal vapor produced by electron beam evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, A.; Dikshit, B.; Bhatia, M. S.; Mago, V. K.

    2008-09-15

    State resolved atom population of metal vapor having low-lying metastable states departs from equilibrium value. It needs to be experimentally investigated. This paper reports the use of hollow cathode lamp based atomic absorption spectroscopy technique to measure online the state resolved atom density (ground and metastable) of metal vapor in an atomic beam produced by a high power electron gun. In particular, the advantage of availability of multiwavelength emission in hollow cathode lamp is used to determine the atom density in different states. Here, several transitions pertaining to a given state have also been invoked to obtain the mean value of atom density thereby providing an opportunity for in situ averaging. It is observed that at higher source temperatures the atoms from metastable state relax to the ground state. This is ascribed to competing processes of atom-atom and electron-atom collisions. The formation of collision induced virtual source is inferred from measurement of atom density distribution profile along the width of the atomic beam. The total line-of-sight average atom density measured by absorption technique using hollow cathode lamp is compared to that measured by atomic vapor deposition method. The presence of collisions is further supported by determination of beaming exponent by numerically fitting the data.

  11. Use of multiwavelength emission from hollow cathode lamp for measurement of state resolved atom density of metal vapor produced by electron beam evaporation.

    PubMed

    Majumder, A; Dikshit, B; Bhatia, M S; Mago, V K

    2008-09-01

    State resolved atom population of metal vapor having low-lying metastable states departs from equilibrium value. It needs to be experimentally investigated. This paper reports the use of hollow cathode lamp based atomic absorption spectroscopy technique to measure online the state resolved atom density (ground and metastable) of metal vapor in an atomic beam produced by a high power electron gun. In particular, the advantage of availability of multiwavelength emission in hollow cathode lamp is used to determine the atom density in different states. Here, several transitions pertaining to a given state have also been invoked to obtain the mean value of atom density thereby providing an opportunity for in situ averaging. It is observed that at higher source temperatures the atoms from metastable state relax to the ground state. This is ascribed to competing processes of atom-atom and electron-atom collisions. The formation of collision induced virtual source is inferred from measurement of atom density distribution profile along the width of the atomic beam. The total line-of-sight average atom density measured by absorption technique using hollow cathode lamp is compared to that measured by atomic vapor deposition method. The presence of collisions is further supported by determination of beaming exponent by numerically fitting the data. PMID:19044405

  12. Operating characteristics of a hollow-cathode neutralizer for 5 and 8 centimeter-diameter electron bombardment mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Thin-tip 0.3-cm-outside-diameter hollow-cathode neutralizers were used to investigate causes of neutralizer tip erosion experienced in thruster endurance tests. Bell-jar tests indicated that neutralizers with new rolled tantalum foil inserts coated with an emissive mixture eroded very little over the neutral flow rates investigated (3 to 10 mA) for simulated 5- and 8-cm-diameter thruster neutralizer conditions. Tip erosion rates of neutralizers operated with no insert or emissive mixture increased by two orders of magnitude for both configurations as the neutral flow rate decreased. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharge plasma from neutralizers operated with inserts coated with the emissive mixture detected tungsten at all neutral flow rates for both thruster neutralizer conditions. The only source of tungsten was the tip. Therefore, detection of tungsten indicated neutralizer tip erosion. Barium, an element of the emissive mixture, was detected at low neutral flow rates for the 5-cm-diameter thruster neutralizer operating condition only.

  13. TiO2 nanoparticle detection by means of laser beam scattering in a hollow cathode plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perekrestov, R.; Kudrna, P.; Tichý, M.; Khalakhan, I.; Myshkin, V. F.

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles in a plasma plume of a hollow cathode plasma jet is being studied in this work. The method is based on the detection of light from a laser beam scattered on nanoparticles by three detectors: a photodiode, an optical spectrometer and a digital photo camera. The Rayleigh–Mie theory was used as a basis for the description of the results. Two lasers with wavelengths of 446 and 661 nm were used as light sources. 2D maps of the scattered light intensity were assembled from photo camera pictures at different discharge parameters. Dependencies of the signal intensity on the O2 flow rate and wavelength are discussed. Direct measurements of particle size on the substrate were carried out by means of a scanning electron microscope in order to verify the agreement of results with the theory. Aside from nanoparticles we detected TiO2 columnar structures in the deposited samples. Crystalline structure of the samples was investigated using x-ray diffraction analysis.

  14. In-situ monitoring of actinides and rare earth elements by electrothermal hollow cathode discharge spectrometry. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Edelson, M.C.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes an Electrothermal Hollow Cathode Discharge Spectrometry (ET-HCDS) source being constructed for the analytical determination of actinides and rare earth elements. This work was initiated with the support of the Office of Safeguards and Security; the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration began funding work in this area in mid-FY1992 and the work is continuing into FY1993 with funds from both sources. Special features of this instrument should permit it to be used for the determination of individual isotopic species, which is important for safeguard`s materials control and accountancy. ET-HCDS can be achieved using compact instrumentation suitable for use in field laboratories. The technique is capable of determining a suite of environmentally-important species, such as the actinides and the heavy metals, in a variety of physical forms (e.g., in solution, as found on air particulates, or in soils). ET-HCDS should be capable of very sensitive analyses and should require very small samples (e.g., microgram). Since ET-HCDS is possible in an air atmosphere (at reduced pressures), it may be useful for the real-time determination of hazardous materials, both radioactive and non radioactive, contained in dusts released during waste retrieval operations; ET-HCDS should also be useful for the rapid and sensitive analysis of metals in soils.

  15. Studies on laser-assisted Penning ionization by the optogalvanic effect in Ne/Eu hollow cathode discharge.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K; Kumar, P; Dixit, S K; Nakhe, S V

    2015-02-01

    Laser-assisted Penning ionization (LAPI) is detected in a Ne/Eu hollow cathode (HC) discharge lamp using the pulsed optogalvanic (OG) method. In the Ne/Eu discharge, doubly ionized europium excited energy levels Eu[4f(7)(P(7/2,5/2)6)] lie within the thermal limit (∼kT) from the laser-excited neon's energy level [2p(5)(P3/202)3p or 2p(8) (in Paschen notation)] lying at 149,848  cm(-1). Therefore, Penning ionization (PI) of europium atoms likely to occur into its highly excited ionic states is investigated. To probe the PI of europium, the temporal profiles of its counterpart neon OG signal are studied as a function of discharge current for the transitions (1s(4)→2p(8)) and (1s(2)→2p(2)), corresponding to 650.65 and 659.89 nm wavelengths, respectively. It is observed that PI of europium alters the overall discharge characteristics significantly and, hence, modifies the temporal profile of the OG signals accordingly. The quasi-resonant ionizing energy transfer collisions between laser-excited Ne 2p(8) atoms and electronically excited europium P(9/2)10 atoms are used to explain the LAPI mechanism. Such LAPI studies carried out in HC discharge could be useful for the discharge of a metal-vapor laser with appropriate Penning mixtures. PMID:25967764

  16. Spectroscopic studies of neutral erbium in a hollow cathode lamp: Electronic temperature and two-step optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Patricia; Victor, Alessandro R.; Santos, Jhonatha R. dos; Barreta, Luiz F. N.; Destro, Marcelo G.; Sbampato, Maria Esther; Neri, Jose W.; Silveira, Carlos A. B.

    2016-04-01

    This work reports the results obtained through spectroscopic studies developed on an erbium-neon hollow cathode lamp. First, emission spectra were obtained in order to estimate the electronic temperature of neutral erbium, which is an important plasma parameter for the calculation of atomic population in different energy levels. It was identified seven pairs of lines that can be used to estimate the electronic temperature of this metal by the two-line Boltzmann method. After these experiments, using the laser multistep excitation technique, three transitions for the first step excitation from the erbium ground state and eight transitions corresponding to the second step were observed. Four of these eight second steps correspond to erbium lines that were not reported in the literature before: 599.44 nm (17,157.31 → 33,844 cm- 1), 603.65 nm (17,073.80 → 33,635 cm- 1), 597.48 nm (17,029.06 → 33,761 cm- 1) and 597.56 nm (17,029.06 → 33,759 cm- 1).

  17. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bolat, Sami Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-15

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH{sub 3} PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} ambient.

  18. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect

    Bolat, S. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B.; Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N.; Okyay, A. K. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2014-06-16

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250 °C. GaN thin films are grown at 200 °C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3 nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3 V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250 °C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  19. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; et al

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) withmore » highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.« less

  20. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) with highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.

  1. Characterization and modelling of the steady state and transients of modulated hollow cathode discharges of nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, M.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I.

    2002-11-01

    This work describes a systematic experimental study and kinetic modelling of the steady state and the transients associated with the turn-on and turn-off of a NO hollow cathode discharge. The local charge density and mean electron energy have been determined with a double Langmuir probe. Time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electron bombardment quadrupole mass spectrometry with ionization by electron impact have been used to measure the gas temperature and the concentrations of the stable molecules present in the discharge: the precursor, NO, the major products, N2, O2, and the minor species NO2 and N2O. Emission spectroscopy has been employed to study the time behaviour of the very reactive nitrogen and oxygen atoms. A model based on a reduced set of kinetic equations including electron dissociation, gas-phase reactions, and gas-surface processes gives a global account of the measured data. From the time-resolved results, electron impact dissociation rate constants for some of the involved species under the conditions of the experiment are estimated. This model is compared with that obtained in previous works on N2O plasmas.

  2. Modification of polyethylene powder with an organic precursor in a spiral conveyor by hollow cathode glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quitzau, M.; Wolter, M.; Zaporojtchenko, V.; Kersten, H.; Faupel, F.

    2010-06-01

    Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) films were deposited on polyethylene (PE, (C2H4)n) powder by hollow cathode glow discharge. The reactive species in different HMDSO/Ar plasmas were studied by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Increasing the HMDSO fraction in the gas mixture additional compounds like CHx, OH, SiC and SiO can be identified. After deposition the formed silicon and carbon containing groups (C-O, C=O, SiC and SiO) on the PE powder surface have been analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Changes in wettability depending on the HMDSO fraction were investigated by contact angle measurements (CAM). The free surface energy of the PE powder decreases with increasing HMDSO fraction in the process gas and encapsulation of the powder particles occurs. An aging effect of the plasma treated PE surface was observed depending on the process gas composition. The higher the HMDSO fraction the less is the aging effect of the plasma treated PE surface.

  3. The effects of a realistic hollow cathode plasma contactor model on the simulation of bare electrodynamic tether systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blash, Derek M.

    The region known as Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) has become populated with artificial satellites and space debris since humanities initial venture into the region. This has turned LEO into a hazardous region. Since LEO is very valuable to many different countries, there has been a push to prevent further buildup and talk of even deorbiting spent satellites and debris already in LEO. One of the more attractive concepts available for deorbiting debris and spent satellites is a Bare Electrodynamic Tether (BET). A BET is a propellantless propulsion technique in which two objects are joined together by a thin conducting material. When these tethered objects are placed in LEO, the tether sweeps across the magnetic field lines of the Earth and induces an electromotive force (emf) along the tether. Current from the space plasma is collected on the bare tether under the action of the induced emf, and this current interacts with the Earth's magnetic field to create a drag force that can be used to deorbit spent satellites and space debris. A Plasma Contactor (PC) is used to close the electrical circuit between the BET and the ionospheric plasma. The PC requires a voltage and, depending on the device, a gas flow to emit electrons through a plasma bridge to the ionospheric plasma. The PC also can require a plasma discharge electrode and a heater to condition the PC for operation. These parameters as well as the PC performance are required to build an accurate simulation of a PC and, therefore, a BET deorbiting system. This thesis focuses on the development, validation, and implementation of a simulation tool to model the effects of a realistic hollow cathode PC system model on a BET deorbit system.

  4. Dependence of gain and laser power for Cu-II 780.8-nm transition on the diameter of a segmented hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Szalai, L.; Donko, Z.; Rozsa, K.; Tobin, R.C.

    1995-08-01

    The dependence of laser performance and discharge characteristics on the diameter of a segmented hollow cathode discharge for the Cu-II 780.8 nm transition is presented. This transition has a special importance since its upper level is common to potential CW VUV laser transitions (150--170 nm). Laser tubes with internal diameters of 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm were investigated. Decreasing the diameter resulted in an increased gain for a given current (up to 100%/m in the 2-mm diameter, 5-cm-long tube at 1-A current). The highest output power was obtained from the large-diameter tubes (20 mW from a 5-cm-long, 5-mm-diameter tube at 2-A current, without optimizing the output coupler). This work is a part of a series of investigations aimed at the optimization of the segmented hollow cathode discharge which has already been found to be the most efficient type of discharge for cathode sputtered metal ion lasers.

  5. On a focal point instability in (B3Πg - C3Πu)N2 optogalvanic circuit with hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencheva, V.

    2016-03-01

    The (B3Πg, v = 0 - C3 Πu, v = 0) N2 dynamic optogalvanic signals have been registered illuminating an Al hollow cathode lamp with a pulsed N2 laser generating at the wavelength of 337.1nm. The dynamic optogalvanic signal (DOGS) at certain discharge current of 8 mA is a harmonic oscillator due to a focal point instability produced by our optogalvanic circuit. This damped harmonic oscillator can be described as a solution of linear second order homogeneous differential equation. The oscillation frequency is estimated from the registered DOGS using Fourier synthesis. The analytical description of the damped harmonic DOGS is obtained.

  6. Pulsed electromagnetic gas accelleration. [incorporation of hollow cathode in plasma discharge and suitability determination of MPD discharge as plasmadynamic laser source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Direct measurement with thermocouples of the power deposited in the anode of a multi-megawatt magnetoplasmadynamic discharge has shown the fractional anode power to decrease from 50% at 200 kW to 10% at 20 MW. Using local measurements of current density, electric potential, and electron temperature, the traditional model for heat conduction to the anode is found to be inadequate. Other experiments in which the voltage-current characteristics and exhaust velocities of MPD arcs using Plexiglas and boron nitride chamber insulators and various mass injection configurations show that ablation can affect nominal accelerator operation in several distinct ways. The incorporation of a hollow cathode in a 7 kA plasma discharge has shown that a stable current attachment can be realized in the cavity without the aid of cathode heaters, keeper electrodes, or emissive coatings.

  7. Ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal synthesis of hollow Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Wang, Jun; Jia, Haiping; Kloepsch, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Beltrop, Kolja; Li, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Mn-based Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode materials are prepared by a solvothermal method combined with post annealing process. Environmentally friendly ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as both structure-directing agent and fluorine source is used to prepare hollow polyhedron MnF2 precursor. Both target materials Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode have the morphology of the MnF2 precursor. The Mn2O3 anode using carboxymethyl cellulose as binder could deliver slight better electrochemical performance than the one using poly (vinyldifluoride) as binder. The former has an initial charge capacity of 800 mAh g-1 at a current density of 101.8 mA g-1, and exhibits no obvious capacity decay for 150 cycles at 101.8 mA g-1. The LiMn2O4 cathode material prepared with molten salt assistant could display much better electrochemical performance than the one prepared without molten salt assistance. In particular, it has an initial discharge capacity of 117.5 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.5C and good rate capability. In the field of lithium ion batteries, both the Mn2O3 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode materials could exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance due to the well formed morphology based on the ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal method.

  8. Absolute number density calibration of the absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283. 3-nm resonance line from a high-intensity lead hollow cathode lamp and the calculated effect of argon pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, J.W.; McClean, R.E. ); Oldenborg, R.C. )

    1991-03-21

    The absolute number density calibration for the absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283.3-nm resonance line from a high-intensity lead hollow cathode lamp (Photron superlamp) is determined and found to be the same as that of a standard hollow cathode lamp. Comparisons of the calibrations to theoretical calculations are found to be quite satisfactory. The effects of argon pressures in the absorption cell on the calibration are examined theoretically by using a simple Lorentzian broadening and shifting model. These calculations show the expected reduction in sensitivity and increasing linearity of Beer-Lambert plots with increasing argon pressure.

  9. Observation of even-parity autoionization states of uranium by three-colour photoionization optogalvanic spectroscopy in U-Ne hollow cathode discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, P. K.; Seema, A. U.; Das, R. C.; Shah, M. L.; Dev, Vas; Suri, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    Three-colour three-step photoionization spectroscopy of uranium has been performed in a U-Ne hollow cathode discharge tube by temporally resolving three-colour photoionization optogalvanic (PIOG) signal from the normal optogalvanic (OG) signal using three tunable pulsed dye lasers. U-Ne hollow cathode discharge tube has been used as a source of uranium atomic vapours and photoionization detector. Using this technique, photoionization spectra of uranium have been investigated systematically in the energy region 52,150-52,590cm-1, through three different excitation pathways, originating from its ground state, 0cm-1(5Lo6). By analysing the three-colour photoionization spectra sixty new even-parity autoionization resonances of uranium have been identified and their probable total angular momentum (J) values have been assigned according to the J-momentum selection rule. The J-value of five autoionization resonances, which have been observed either through all three excitation pathways or through two different excitation pathways where J-value of the second excited levels differs by two, has been assigned uniquely.

  10. Performance of the FOS and GHRS Pt/(Cr)-Ne Hollow-cathode Lamps after their Return from Space and Comparison with Archival Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerber, Florian; Lindler, Don; Bristow, Paul; Lembke, Dominik; Nave, Gillian; Reader, Joseph; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Heap, Sara R.; Rosa, Michael R.; Wood, H. John

    2006-01-01

    The Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are collaborating to study hollow cathode calibration lamps as used onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As part of the STIS Calibration Enhancement (STIS-CE) Project we are trying to improve our understanding of the performance of hollow cathode lamps and the physical processes involved in their long term operation. The original flight lamps from the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) and the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) are the only lamps that have ever been returned to Earth after extended operation in space. We have taken spectra of all four lamps using NIST s 10.7-m normal-incidence spectrograph and Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) optimized for use in the ultraviolet (UV). These spectra, together with spectra archived from six years of on-orbit operations and pre-launch spectra, provide a unique data set - covering a period of about 20 years - for studying aging effects in these lamps. Our findings represent important lessons for the choice and design of calibration sources and their operation in future UV and optical spectrographs in space.

  11. Sulfur/graphitic hollow carbon sphere nano-composite as a cathode material for high-power lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eon Sung; Kim, Min-Seop; Cho, Won Il; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2013-01-01

    The intrinsic low conductivity of sulfur which leads to a low performance at a high current rate is one of the most limiting factors for the commercialization of lithium-sulfur battery. Here, we present an easy and convenient method to synthesize a mono-dispersed hollow carbon sphere with a thin graphitic wall which can be utilized as a support with a good electrical conductivity for the preparation of sulfur/carbon nano-composite cathode. The hollow carbon sphere was prepared from the pyrolysis of the homogenous mixture of the mono-dispersed spherical silica and Fe-phthalocyanine powder in elevated temperature. The composite cathode was manufactured by infiltrating sulfur melt into the inner side of the graphitic wall. The electrochemical cycling shows a capacity of 425 mAh g-1 at 3 C current rate which is more than five times larger than that for the sulfur/carbon black nano-composite prepared by simple ball milling. PMID:23914902

  12. Studies on the optogalvanic effect and isotope-selective excitation of ytterbium in a hollow cathode discharge lamp using a pulsed dye laser.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Jitendra; Prakash, Om; Saini, Vinod K; Dixit, Sudhir K; Nakhe, Shankar V

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents studies on the pulsed optogalvanic effect and isotope-selective excitation of Yb 555.648 nm (0 cm(-1) → 17 992.007 cm(-1)) and 581.067 nm (17 992.007 cm(-1) → 35 196.98 cm(-1)) transitions, in a Yb/Ne hollow cathode lamp. The Yb atoms were excited by narrow linewidth (500-1000 MHz) Rh110 and Rh6G dye based pulsed lasers. Optogalvanic signal inversion for ground state transition at 555.648 nm was observed beyond a hollow cathode discharge current of 8.5 mA, in contrast to normal optogalvanic signal at 581.067 nm up to maximum current of 14 mA. The isotope-selective excitation studies of Yb were carried out by recording Doppler limited optogalvanic signals as a function of dye laser wavelength. For the 581.067 nm transition, three even isotopes, (172)Yb, (174)Yb, and (176)Yb, and one odd isotope, (171)Yb, were clearly resolved. These data were compared with selective isotope excitation by 10 MHz linewidth continuous-wave dye laser. For 555.648 nm transition, isotopes were not clearly resolved, although isotope peaks of low modulation were observed. PMID:24067634

  13. Fabrication of Various V2O5 Hollow Microspheres as Excellent Cathode for Lithium Storage and the Application in Full Cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaochuan; Zhai, Yanjun; Zhu, Lin; He, Yanyan; Li, Aihua; Guo, Chunli; Xu, Liqiang

    2016-07-13

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) has attracted interesting attention as cathode material for LIBs because of its stable crystal structure and high theoretical specific capacity. However, the low rate performance and poor long-term cycling stability of V2O5 limit its applications. In order to improve its battery performance, various V2O5 hollow microspheres including a yolk-shell structure, double-shell structure, triple-shell structure, and hierarchical hollow superstructures have been selectively prepared. The obtained hierarchical V2O5 hollow microspheres (HVHS) exhibit a high capacity of 123 mAh g(-1) at 20 C (1 C = 147 mA g(-1)) in the range of 2.5-4.0 V, and 73.5 mAh g(-1) can be reached after 3000 cycles. HVHS also display good cycling performance in the range of 2.0-4.0 V. Moreover, the V2O5//Li4Ti5O12 full cell was successfully assembled, which exhibits an excellent performance of 139.5 mAh g(-1) between 1.0 and 2.5 V at a current density of 147 mA g(-1), and a high capacity of 106 mAh g(-1) remained after 100 cycles, indicating the good cycling performance and promising application of the full cell. PMID:27322775

  14. The plasma properties and electron emission characteristics of near-zero differential resistance of hollow cathode-based plasma contactors with a discharge chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Kan; Farnell, Casey C.; Williams, John D.

    2014-08-15

    The formation of electron emission-bias voltage (I-V) characteristics of near-zero differential resistance in the cathodic plasma contactor for bare electrodynamic tether applications, based on a hollow cathode embedded in a ring-cusp ionization stage, is studied. The existence of such an I-V regime is important to achieve low impedance performance without being affected by the space plasma properties for a cathodic plasma contactor. Experimental data on the plasma structure and properties downstream from the ionization stage are presented as functions of the xenon flow rate and the electron emission current. The electrons were emitted from the cathode to the cylindrical vacuum chamber wall (r = 0.9 m) under ≈10{sup −5 }Torr of vacuum pressure. The ring-cusp configuration selected for the plasma contactor created a 125-Gauss axial field near the cathode orifice, along with a large-volume 50-Gauss magnitude pocket in the stage. A baseline ion energy cost of ≈300 eV/ion was measured in the ionization stage when no electrons were emitted to the vacuum chamber wall. In addition, the anode fall growth limited the maximum propellant unitization to below ≈75% in the discharge loss curves for this ion stage. Detailed measurements on the plasma properties were carried out for the no-electron emission and 3 A emission conditions. The experimental data are compared with 1-D models, and the effectiveness of the model is discussed. The four key issues that played important roles in the process of building the near-zero different resistance I-V regime are: a significant amount of ionization by the emission electrons, a decrease in the number of reflected electrons in the plume, the electron-temperature increment, and low initial ion energy at the source outlet.

  15. The plasma properties and electron emission characteristics of near-zero differential resistance of hollow cathode-based plasma contactors with a discharge chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Kan; Farnell, Casey C.; Williams, John D.

    2014-08-01

    The formation of electron emission-bias voltage (I-V) characteristics of near-zero differential resistance in the cathodic plasma contactor for bare electrodynamic tether applications, based on a hollow cathode embedded in a ring-cusp ionization stage, is studied. The existence of such an I-V regime is important to achieve low impedance performance without being affected by the space plasma properties for a cathodic plasma contactor. Experimental data on the plasma structure and properties downstream from the ionization stage are presented as functions of the xenon flow rate and the electron emission current. The electrons were emitted from the cathode to the cylindrical vacuum chamber wall (r = 0.9 m) under ≈10-5 Torr of vacuum pressure. The ring-cusp configuration selected for the plasma contactor created a 125-Gauss axial field near the cathode orifice, along with a large-volume 50-Gauss magnitude pocket in the stage. A baseline ion energy cost of ≈300 eV/ion was measured in the ionization stage when no electrons were emitted to the vacuum chamber wall. In addition, the anode fall growth limited the maximum propellant unitization to below ≈75% in the discharge loss curves for this ion stage. Detailed measurements on the plasma properties were carried out for the no-electron emission and 3 A emission conditions. The experimental data are compared with 1-D models, and the effectiveness of the model is discussed. The four key issues that played important roles in the process of building the near-zero different resistance I-V regime are: a significant amount of ionization by the emission electrons, a decrease in the number of reflected electrons in the plume, the electron-temperature increment, and low initial ion energy at the source outlet.

  16. Destructive physical analysis of hollow cathodes from the Deep Space 1 Flight spare ion engine 30,000 hr life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Destructive physical analysis of the discharge and neutralizer hollow cathode assemblies from the Deep Space 1 Flight Spare 30,000 Hr life test was performed to characterize physical and chemical evidence of operationally induced effects after 30,372 hours of operation with beam extraction. Post-test inspection of the discharge-cathode assembly was subdivided into detailed analyses at the subcomponent level. Detailed materials analysis and optical inspection of the insert, orifice plate, cathode tube, heater, keeper assembly, insulator, and low-voltage propellant isolator were performed. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEW analyses were used to determine the extent and composition of regions of net deposition and erosion of both the discharge and neutralizer inserts. A comparative approach with an un-operated 4:1:1 insert was used to determine the extent of impregnate material depletion as a function of depth from the ID surface and axial position from the orifice plate. Analysis results are compared and contrasted with those obtained from similar analyses on components from shorter term tests, and provide insight regarding the prospect for successful longer-term operation consistent with SOA ion engine program life objectives at NASA.

  17. Baffle aperture design study of hollow cathode equipped ion thrusters. M.S. Thesis Technical Report, 1 Dec. 1979 - 1 Oct. 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R., Jr.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple theoretical model which can be used as an aid in the design of the baffle aperture region of a hollow cathode equipped ion thruster was developed. An analysis of the ion and electron currents in both the main and cathode discharge chambers is presented. From this analysis a model of current flow through the aperture, which is required as an input to the design model, was developed. This model was verified experimentally. The dominant force driving electrons through the aperture was the force due to the electrical potential gradient. The diffusion process was modeled according to the Bolm diffusion theory. A number of simplifications were made to limit the amount of detailed plasma information required as input to the model to facilitate the use of the model in thruster design. This simplified model gave remarkably consistant results with experimental results obtained with a given thruster geometry over substantial changes in operating conditions. The model was uncertain to about a factor of two for different thruster cathode region geometries. The design usefulness was limited by this factor of two uncertainty and by the accuracy to which the plasma parameters required as inputs to the model were specified.

  18. Hollow Plasma in a Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-11-30

    A ring cathode for a pulsed, high-current, multi-spot cathodic arc discharge was placed inside a pulsed magnetic solenoid. Photography is used to evaluate the plasma distribution. The plasma appears hollow for cathode positions close the center of the solenoid, and it is guided closer to the axis when the cathode is away from the center.

  19. Design simulations for a small emittance 2.7-cell photo-cathode rf-gun in jector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongzhang, Huang

    1997-05-01

    In order to produce the electron bunch with small emittance which is the key issue in the so-called SASE studies, the design studies on a two-and-half cell photocathode rf-gun has been conducted. The rf gun injector is optimized by using the code of Par mela. As a main result, the optimum is found to be a 2.7-cell cavity. The geometry and the coupling scheme of the requested cavity is studied in more detail with the codes of Mafia and Superfish. The beam iris of each cells is enlarged in order to wide n the mode separations. For the purpose of cancelling the influence of the coupling iris upon the field symmetry, the so-called symmetrical double-side input coupler is studied. The coupler will be assembled to the second cell and the critical matchin g has been achieved in the Mafia-T3 simulation. With this cavity, the final normalized rms emittance reaches the value of 0.81πmm-mrad at a charge of 1nC in the Parmela simulation.

  20. The Infrared Spectrum of Uranium Hollow Cathode Lamps from 850 nm to 4000 nm: Wavenumbers and Line Identifications from Fourier Transform Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Lawler, James E.; Nave, Gillian; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2011-08-01

    We provide new measurements of wavenumbers and line identifications of 10, 100 U I and U II near-infrared (NIR) emission lines between 2500 cm-1 and 12, 000 cm-1 (4000-850 nm) using archival Fourier transform spectrometer spectra from the National Solar Observatory. This line list includes isolated uranium lines in the Y, J, H, K, and L bands (0.9-1.1 μm, 1.2-1.35 μm, 1.5-1.65 μm, 2.0-2.4 μm, and 3.0-4.0 μm, respectively), and provides six times as many calibration lines as thorium in the NIR spectral range. The line lists we provide enable inexpensive, commercially available uranium hollow cathode lamps to be used for high-precision wavelength calibration of existing and future high-resolution NIR spectrographs.

  1. Characterization of TiO x film prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using a multi-jet hollow cathode plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Korzec, Dariusz; Aoki, Toru; Engemann, Jurgen; Hatanaka, Yoshinori

    2001-05-01

    The high rate deposition of TiO x film at low temperature was achieved by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a source material. The multi-jet hollow cathode plasma source was used to generate the high-density plasma, which was showered toward the substrate. The emission spectra suggest that oxygen radicals play an important role for dissociation of the source material and for yielding the precursors. The high deposition rate up to 50 nm/min was achieved by this process. The as-deposited films are completely amorphous. They consist of structures with complex bondings including both tetrahedral and octahedral components. Though they have such complex bondings, the hydrophilicity of the PECVD film is excellent comparing to that of the annealed crystalline anatase structure. It seems that the PECVD using the multi-jet plasma source is promising for fabrication of hydrophilic TiO x films in low-temperature process.

  2. High rate deposition of photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} films with high activity by hollow cathode gas-flow sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Iwabuchi, Yoshinori; Yoshikawa, Masato; Sato, Yasushi; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2008-07-15

    Photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} films were deposited by a hollow cathode gas-flow sputtering method using two Ti metal targets mounted parallel to each other. The Ar and O{sub 2} flow rates were 3000 and 0-50 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP), respectively, and total gas pressure during the deposition was maintained at 45 Pa. The highest deposition rate for the photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} films was 162 nm/min at 30 SCCM of O{sub 2} flow. The as-deposited films and postannealed films, annealed in air at 300 deg. C for 1 h, were used to carry out photocatalytic decomposition of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO). In particular, the postannealed films showed extremely high photocatalytic activity compared to the photocatalytic activity of films deposited by conventional reactive sputtering.

  3. THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850 nm to 4000 nm: WAVENUMBERS AND LINE IDENTIFICATIONS FROM FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Lawler, James E.; Nave, Gillian

    2011-08-01

    We provide new measurements of wavenumbers and line identifications of 10, 100 U I and U II near-infrared (NIR) emission lines between 2500 cm{sup -1} and 12, 000 cm{sup -1} (4000-850 nm) using archival Fourier transform spectrometer spectra from the National Solar Observatory. This line list includes isolated uranium lines in the Y, J, H, K, and L bands (0.9-1.1 {mu}m, 1.2-1.35 {mu}m, 1.5-1.65 {mu}m, 2.0-2.4 {mu}m, and 3.0-4.0 {mu}m, respectively), and provides six times as many calibration lines as thorium in the NIR spectral range. The line lists we provide enable inexpensive, commercially available uranium hollow cathode lamps to be used for high-precision wavelength calibration of existing and future high-resolution NIR spectrographs.

  4. Atlas of the spectrum of a platinum/neon hollow-cathode reference lamp in the region 1130-4330 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sansonetti, Jean E.; Reader, Joseph; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Acquista, Nicolo

    1992-01-01

    The spectrum of a platinum hollow-cathode lamp containing neon carrier gas was recorded photographically and photoelectrically with a 10.7 m normal-incidence vacuum spectrograph. Wavelengths and intensities were determined for about 5600 lines in the region 1130-4330 A. An atlas of the spectrum is given, with the spectral lines marked and their intensities, wavelengths, and classifications listed. Lines of impurity species are also identified. The uncertainty of the photographically measured wavelengths is estimated to be +/- 0.0020 A. The uncertainty of lines measured in the photoelectric scans is 0.01 A for wavelengths shorter than 2030 A and 0.02 A for longer wavelengths. Ritz-type wavelengths are given for many of the classified lines of Pt II with uncertainties varying from +/- 0.0004 to +/- 0.0025 A. The uncertainty of the relative intensities is estimated to be about 20 percent.

  5. [Atomic/ionic fluorescence in microwave plasma torch discharge with excitation of high current and microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp: Ca atomic/ionic fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhen-bin; Liang, Feng; Yang, Peng-yuan; Jin, Qin-han; Huang, Ben-li

    2002-02-01

    A system of atomic and ionic fluorescence spectrometry in microwave plasma torch (MPT) discharge excited by high current microsecond pulsed hollow cathode lamp (HCMP HCL) has been developed. The operation conditions for Ca atomic and ionic fluorescence spectrometry have been optimized. Compared with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in argon microwave induced plasma (MIP) and MPT with the excitation of direct current and conventional pulsed HCL, the system with HCMP HCL excitation can improve AFS and ionic fluorescence spectrometry (IFS) detection limits in MPT atomizer and ionizer. Detection limits (3 sigma) with HCMP HCL-MPT-AFS/IFS are 10.1 ng.mL-1 for Ca I 422.7 nm, 14.6 ng.mL-1 for Ca II 393.4 nm, and 37.4 ng.mL-1 for Ca II 396.8 nm, respectively. PMID:12940030

  6. Graphene-Coated Hollow Fiber Membrane as the Cathode in Anaerobic Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactors - Effect of Configuration and Applied Voltage on Performance and Membrane Fouling.

    PubMed

    Werner, Craig M; Katuri, Krishna P; Hari, Ananda Rao; Chen, Wei; Lai, Zhiping; Logan, Bruce E; Amy, Gary L; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2016-04-19

    Electrically conductive, graphene-coated, hollow-fiber porous membranes were used as cathodes in anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactors (AnEMBRs) operated at different applied voltages (0.7 and 0.9 V) using a new rectangular reactor configuration compared to a previous tubular design (0.7 V). The onset of biofouling was delayed and minimized in rectangular reactors operated at 0.9 V compared to those at 0.7 V due to higher rates of hydrogen production. Maximum transmembrane pressures for the rectangular reactor were only 0.10 bar (0.7 V) or 0.05 bar (0.9 V) after 56 days of operation compared to 0.46 bar (0.7 V) for the tubular reactor after 52 days. The thickness of the membrane biofouling layer was approximately 0.4 μm for rectangular reactors and 4 μm for the tubular reactor. Higher permeate quality (TSS = 0.05 mg/L) was achieved in the rectangular AnEMBR than that in the tubular AnEMBR (TSS = 17 mg/L), likely due to higher current densities that minimized the accumulation of cells in suspension. These results show that the new rectangular reactor design, which had increased rates of hydrogen production, successfully delayed the onset of cathode biofouling and improved reactor performance. PMID:26691927

  7. Materials characterization of impregnated W and W-Ir cathodes after oxygen poisoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.

    2015-05-01

    Electric thrusters use hollow cathodes as the electron source for generating the plasma discharge and for beam neutralization. These cathodes contain porous tungsten emitters impregnated with BaO material to achieve a lower surface work function and are operated with xenon propellant. Oxygen contaminants in the xenon plasma can poison the emitter surface, resulting in a higher work function and increased operating temperature. This could lead directly to cathode failure by preventing discharge ignition or could accelerate evaporation of the BaO material. Exposures over hundreds of hours to very high levels of oxygen can result in increased temperatures, oxidation of the tungsten substrate, and the formation of surface layers of barium tungstates. In this work, we present results of a cathode test in which impregnated tungsten and tungsten-iridium emitters were operated with 100 ppm of oxygen in the xenon plasma for several hundred hours. The chemical and morphological changes were studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and laser profilometry. The results provide strong evidence that high concentrations of oxygen accelerate the formation of tungstate layers in both types of emitters, a phenomenon not inherent to normal cathode operation. Deposits of pure tungsten were observed on the W-Ir emitter, indicating that tungsten is preferentially removed from the surface and transported in the insert plasma. A W-Ir cathode surface will therefore evolve to a pure W composition, eliminating the work function benefit of W-Ir. However, the W-Ir emitter exhibited less erosion and redeposition at the upstream end than the pure W emitter.

  8. High-current-density, high brightness cathodes for free electron laser applications

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.C. . Palo Alto Microwave Tube Div.)

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics: brightness and emittance of electron beams and cathodes; general requirements for cathodes in high brightness electron guns; candidate cathode types; plasma and field emission cathodes; true field emission cathodes; oxide cathodes; lanthanum hexaborides cathodes; laser driven thermionic cathodes; laser driven photocathodes; impregnated porous tungsten dispenser cathodes; and choice of best performing cathode types.

  9. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays.

  10. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, S.E.

    1998-03-03

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays. 11 figs.

  11. Electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation properties of AlN thin films grown by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuntas, Halit; Bayrak, Turkan; Kizir, Seda; Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were deposited at 200 °C, on p-type silicon substrates utilizing a capacitively coupled hollow-cathode plasma source integrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. The structural properties of AlN were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, by which we confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite single-phase crystalline structure. The films exhibited an optical band edge around ∼5.7 eV. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of the AlN films were measured via a spectroscopic ellipsometer. In addition, to investigate the electrical conduction mechanisms and dielectric properties, Al/AlN/p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated, and current density–voltage and frequency dependent (7 kHz–5 MHz) dielectric constant measurements (within the strong accumulation region) were performed. A peak of dielectric loss was observed at a frequency of 3 MHz and the Cole–Davidson empirical formula was used to determine the relaxation time. It was concluded that the native point defects such as nitrogen vacancies and DX centers formed with the involvement of Si atoms into the AlN layers might have influenced the electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation properties of the plasma-assisted ALD grown AlN films.

  12. Nitrogen incorporation in saturated aliphatic C6-C8 hydrocarbons and ethanol in low-pressure nitrogen plasma generated by a hollow cathode discharge ion source.

    PubMed

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek T; Chen, Lee Chuin; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi; Yamabe, Shinichi

    2016-06-01

    Ion/molecule reactions of saturated hydrocarbons (n-hexane, cyclohexane, n-heptane, n-octane and isooctane) in 28-Torr N2 plasma generated by a hollow cathode discharge ion source were investigated using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. It was found that the ions with [M+14](+) were observed as the major ions (M: sample molecule). The exact mass analysis revealed that the ions are nitrogenated molecules, [M+N](+) formed by the reactions of N3 (+) with M. The reaction, N3 (+) + M → [M+N](+) + N2 , were examined by the density functional theory calculations. It was found that N3 (+) abstracts the H atom from hydrocarbon molecules leading to the formation of protonated imines in the forms of R'R″CNH2 (+) (i.e. C-H bond nitrogenation). This result is in accord with the fact that elimination of NH3 is the major channel for MS/MS of [M+N](+) . That is, nitrogen is incorporated in the C-H bonds of saturated hydrocarbons. No nitrogenation was observed for benzene and acetone, which was ascribed to the formation of stable charge-transfer complexes benzene⋅⋅⋅⋅N3 (+) and acetone⋅⋅⋅⋅N3 (+) revealed by density functional theory calculations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27270868

  13. Absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283. 3-nm resonant line from a lead hollow cathode lamp. An absolute number density calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, J.W. ); Oldenborg, R.C.; Baughcum, S.L. )

    1989-10-19

    An accurate absolute number density calibration curve for absorption by gaseous lead atoms of the 283.3-nm resonant line from a typical lead hollow cathode lamp is reported. This calibration shows the usual curvature in the Beer-Lambert plot for atomic absorption at moderate to high absorbances that is commonly attributed to self-absorption leading to line reversal in the source and/or preferential absorption at the line center when the absorber temperature is not much greater than the source Doppler temperature. A theoretical calculation utilizing a Doppler-limited Fourier transform spectrum of the 283.3-nm emission from the lamp and a tabulated value of the absorption cross section and accounting for the isotopic and nuclear hyperfine components in both the emission and absorption due to naturally occurring lead quantitatively reproduces the experimental calibration curve without any parameter adjustments. It is found that the curvature in the Beer-Lambert plot has more to do with the fact that the absorbing and emitting atoms are a mixture of isotopes giving several isotopic and nuclear hyperfine transitions at slightly different frequencies than it does with preferential absorption at line centers.

  14. Amorphous-diamond electron emitter

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven

    2001-01-01

    An electron emitter comprising a textured silicon wafer overcoated with a thin (200 .ANG.) layer of nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (a:D-N), which lowers the field below 20 volts/micrometer have been demonstrated using this emitter compared to uncoated or diamond coated emitters wherein the emission is at fields of nearly 60 volts/micrometer. The silicon/nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (Si/a:D-N) emitter may be produced by overcoating a textured silicon wafer with amorphous-diamond (a:D) in a nitrogen atmosphere using a filtered cathodic-arc system. The enhanced performance of the Si/a:D-N emitter lowers the voltages required to the point where field-emission displays are practical. Thus, this emitter can be used, for example, in flat-panel emission displays (FEDs), and cold-cathode vacuum electronics.

  15. Performance of field emission cathodes in xenon environments

    SciTech Connect

    Marrese, C.M.; Polk, J.E.; Jensen, K.L.; Gallimore, A.D.; Spindt, C.; Fink, R.L.; Tolt, Z.L.; Palmer, W.D.

    1999-07-01

    Field emission (FE) cathodes are currently being considered to supply electrons in electric propulsion systems for propellant ionization and ion beam neutralization. Hollow cathodes with thermionic electron emitters typically used with Hall and ion thrusters require propellant and heaters for operation. Therefore there are lower limits on their size and power. Because FE cathodes do not require propellant or heaters they can be used with small and micropropulsion systems. The primary concern with integrating these two technologies is cathode lifetime. An FE cathode must be capable of operation in a plasma environment where xenon pressures exceed 2 x 10{sup {minus}6} Torr. Experiments were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to evaluate the performance of silicon and molybdenum microtip field emission array cathodes, and carbon film cathodes in xenon pressures up to 2 x 10{sup {minus}5} Torr. Experimental and modeling results were used to determine energy thresholds for sputtering silicon and molybdenum by xenon ions. Experiments and theoretical results are presented for performance degradation in xenon environments.

  16. Investigation of Laser Output Power Saturation in the He-Cu+ IR Hollow Cathode Discharge Laser by Experiments and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaerts, A.; Gijbels, R.; Grozeva, M.; Sabotinov, N.

    Saturation in the laser output power at high electrical currents is experimentally observed for a He-Cu+ IR HCD laser. To investigate which mechanisms might be responsible for the laser power saturation, a modeling network is developed for a helium-argon-copper hollow cathode discharge (HCD), and is applied to the conditions for which saturation is observed. Typical calculation results, such as the potential distribution, the densities of the various plasma species, the sputtering flux and the ionization degree of copper, are presented as a function of electrical current. The calculated densities of electrons, Cu atoms and Cu+ ions, as well as the sputtering flux and the ionization degree of copper, increase with electrical current, whereas the He+ ion density is found to be constant. The laser output power itself cannot yet be predicted by the model, due to insufficient knowledge about the relevant populating and depopulating processes of the upper and lower laser levels and the corresponding cross sections. However, the model can make predictions on the production of the upper laser level (by asymmetric charge transfer between Cu atoms and He+ ions). The latter is found to increase less rapidly with current at higher values of the electrical current, which is attributed to the rise in gas temperature at higher electrical currents, and it suggests a certain degree of saturation in the laser output power. However, full saturation in the production rate of the upper laser level was not obtained with our calculations. Hence, the observed laser power saturation at high currents is probably also due to (i) either increasing depopulation of the upper laser level, or (ii) increasing population of the lower laser level, resulting in a drop in the population inversion.

  17. Planar-focusing cathodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.; Noonan, J.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    Conventional {pi}-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and usually requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design. We have proposed a method for performing emittance compensation using a cathode-region focusing scheme. This technique allows the focusing strength to be adjusted somewhat independently of the on-axis field strength. Beam dynamics calculations indicate performance should be comparable to presently in-use emittance compensation schemes, with a simpler configuration and fewer possibilities for emittance degradation due to the focusing optics. There are several potential difficulties with this approach, including cathode material selection, cathode heating, and peak fields in the gun. We hope to begin experimenting with a cathode of this type in the near future, and several possibilities exist for reducing the peak gradients to more acceptable levels.

  18. Diagnostics of N2 Ar plasma mixture excited in a 13.56 MHz hollow cathode discharge system: application to remote plasma treatment of polyamide surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloum, S.; Naddaf, M.; Alkhaled, B.

    2008-02-01

    N2-x% Ar plasma gas mixture, generated in a hollow cathode RF discharge system, has been characterized by both optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and double Langmuir probe, as a function of experimental parameters: total pressure (5-33 Pa), and different fractions of argon (7 <= x <= 80), at a constant applied RF power of 300 W. N2 dissociation degree has been investigated qualitatively by both the actinometry method and the ratio I_N/I_{N_2} of the atomic nitrogen line emission intensity at 672.3 nm to the vibrational band (0-0) of the N2 second positive system at 337.1 nm. Both methods showed that the increase in argon fraction enhances the dissociation of N2, with a maximum at x = 50 for the pressure of 5 Pa, although the two methods give two opposite trends as a function of total pressure. Spectroscopic measurements showed that the vibrational temperature of the N2 second positive system increases with both argon fraction and total pressure increase, it lies between 4900 and 12 300 K. Langmuir probe measurements showed that, in the remote zone, the electron temperature falls in the range 1.57-1.75 eV, the N_{2}^{+} density varies between 5 × 109 and 1.4 × 1010 cm-3 and that both the plasma ionization degree and electron temperature increase towards the source. In addition, the process of plasma-polyamide (PA) surface interaction, in the remote plasma zone, has been studied through OES analysis during plasma treatment of PA to monitor the possible emissions due to the polymer etching. An increase in atomic nitrogen line (672.3 nm) intensity is obtained, atomic carbon line (833.52 nm) and the band emission (0-0) from the CN (B 2Σ+-X 2Σ+) violet system were observed. The PA surface modification has been confirmed through the improvement of its hydrophilic character as the water contact angle measured after the plasma treatment significantly decreased.

  19. The Quantum Efficiency and Thermal Emittance of Metal Photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, David H.; Schmerge, John F.; /SLAC

    2009-03-04

    Modern electron beams have demonstrated the brilliance needed to drive free electron lasers at x-ray wavelengths, with the principle improvements occurring since the invention of the photocathode gun. The state-of-the-art normalized emittance electron beams are now becoming limited by the thermal emittance of the cathode. In both DC and RF photocathode guns, details of the cathode emission physics strongly influence the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance. Therefore improving cathode performance is essential to increasing the brightness of beams. It is especially important to understand the fundamentals of cathode quantum efficiency and thermal emittance. This paper investigates the relationship between the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance of metal cathodes using the Fermi-Dirac model for the electron distribution. We derive the thermal emittance and its relationship to the quantum efficiency, and compare our results to those of others.

  20. Optical characteristics of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N thin films deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, Eda; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Kemal Okyay, Ali

    2014-05-15

    Gallium nitride (GaN), aluminum nitride (AlN), and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films have been deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition at 200 °C on c-plane sapphire and Si substrates. The dependence of film structure, absorption edge, and refractive index on postdeposition annealing were examined by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, respectively. Well-adhered, uniform, and polycrystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) GaN, AlN, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films were prepared at low deposition temperature. As revealed by the x-ray diffraction analyses, crystallite sizes of the films were between 11.7 and 25.2 nm. The crystallite size of as-deposited GaN film increased from 11.7 to 12.1 and 14.4 nm when the annealing duration increased from 30 min to 2 h (800 °C). For all films, the average optical transmission was ∼85% in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectrum. The refractive indices of AlN and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N were lower compared to GaN thin films. The refractive index of as-deposited films decreased from 2.33 to 2.02 (λ = 550 nm) with the increased Al content x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), while the extinction coefficients (k) were approximately zero in the VIS spectrum (>400 nm). Postdeposition annealing at 900 °C for 2 h considerably lowered the refractive index value of GaN films (2.33–1.92), indicating a significant phase change. The optical bandgap of as-deposited GaN film was found to be 3.95 eV, and it decreased to 3.90 eV for films annealed at 800 °C for 30 min and 2 h. On the other hand, this value increased to 4.1 eV for GaN films annealed at 900 °C for 2 h. This might be caused by Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation and following phase change. The optical bandgap value of as-deposited Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films decreased from 5.75 to 5.25 eV when the x values decreased from 1 to 0.68. Furthermore, postdeposition annealing did not

  1. Shielding in ungated field emitter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. R.; Jensen, K. L.; Shiffler, D. A.; Petillo, J. J.

    2015-05-01

    Cathodes consisting of arrays of high aspect ratio field emitters are of great interest as sources of electron beams for vacuum electronic devices. The desire for high currents and current densities drives the cathode designer towards a denser array, but for ungated emitters, denser arrays also lead to increased shielding, in which the field enhancement factor β of each emitter is reduced due to the presence of the other emitters in the array. To facilitate the study of these arrays, we have developed a method for modeling high aspect ratio emitters using tapered dipole line charges. This method can be used to investigate proximity effects from similar emitters an arbitrary distance away and is much less computationally demanding than competing simulation approaches. Here, we introduce this method and use it to study shielding as a function of array geometry. Emitters with aspect ratios of 102-104 are modeled, and the shielding-induced reduction in β is considered as a function of tip-to-tip spacing for emitter pairs and for large arrays with triangular and square unit cells. Shielding is found to be negligible when the emitter spacing is greater than the emitter height for the two-emitter array, or about 2.5 times the emitter height in the large arrays, in agreement with previously published results. Because the onset of shielding occurs at virtually the same emitter spacing in the square and triangular arrays, the triangular array is preferred for its higher emitter density at a given emitter spacing. The primary contribution to shielding in large arrays is found to come from emitters within a distance of three times the unit cell spacing for both square and triangular arrays.

  2. Shielding in ungated field emitter arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J. R.; Jensen, K. L.; Shiffler, D. A.; Petillo, J. J.

    2015-05-18

    Cathodes consisting of arrays of high aspect ratio field emitters are of great interest as sources of electron beams for vacuum electronic devices. The desire for high currents and current densities drives the cathode designer towards a denser array, but for ungated emitters, denser arrays also lead to increased shielding, in which the field enhancement factor β of each emitter is reduced due to the presence of the other emitters in the array. To facilitate the study of these arrays, we have developed a method for modeling high aspect ratio emitters using tapered dipole line charges. This method can be used to investigate proximity effects from similar emitters an arbitrary distance away and is much less computationally demanding than competing simulation approaches. Here, we introduce this method and use it to study shielding as a function of array geometry. Emitters with aspect ratios of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} are modeled, and the shielding-induced reduction in β is considered as a function of tip-to-tip spacing for emitter pairs and for large arrays with triangular and square unit cells. Shielding is found to be negligible when the emitter spacing is greater than the emitter height for the two-emitter array, or about 2.5 times the emitter height in the large arrays, in agreement with previously published results. Because the onset of shielding occurs at virtually the same emitter spacing in the square and triangular arrays, the triangular array is preferred for its higher emitter density at a given emitter spacing. The primary contribution to shielding in large arrays is found to come from emitters within a distance of three times the unit cell spacing for both square and triangular arrays.

  3. EMITTANCE COMPENSATION FOR MAGNETIZED BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    KEWISCH,J.; CHANG, X.

    2007-06-25

    Emittance compensation is a well established technique for minimizing the emittance of an electron beam from a RF photo-cathode gun. Longitudinal slices of a bunch have a small emittance, but due to the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and time dependent RF fields they are not focused in the same way, so that the direction of their phase ellipses diverges in phase space and the projected emittance is much larger. Emittance compensation reverses the divergence. At the location where the slopes of the phase ellipses coincide the beam is accelerated, so that the space charge forces are reduced. A recipe for emittance compensation is given in. For magnetized beams (where the angular momentum is non-zero) such emittance compensation is not sufficient because variations in the slice radius lead to variations in the angular speed and therefore to an increase of emittance in the rotating game. We describe a method and tools for a compensation that includes the beam magnetization.

  4. Hierarchical LiMn2O4 Hollow Cubes with Exposed {111} Planes as High-Power Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Cao, Chuanbao; Zhang, Junting; Wang, Lin; Ma, Xilan; Xu, Xingyan

    2016-08-01

    Hierarchical LiMn2O4 hollow cubes with exposed {111} planes have been synthesized using cube-shaped MnCO3 precursors, which are fabricated through a facile co-precipitation reaction. Without surface modification, the as-prepared LiMn2O4 exhibits excellent cyclability and superior rate capability. Surprisingly, even over 70% of primal discharge capacity can be maintained for up to 1000 cycles at 50 C, and with only about 72 s of discharge time the as-prepared materials can deliver initial discharge capacity of 96.5 mA h g(-1). What is more, the materials have 98.4% and 90.7% capacity retentions for up to 100 cycles at 5 C under the temperatures of 25 and 60 °C, respectively. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the unique hierarchical and interior hollow structure, exposed {111} planes, and high-quality crystallinity. PMID:27400369

  5. Invited article: physical and chemical analyses of impregnated cathodes operated in a plasma environment.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Anita; Kulleck, James; Hill, Norm; Ohlinger, Wayne

    2008-11-01

    Destructive analyses of impregnated-cathode assemblies from an ion thruster life test were performed to characterize erosion and degradation after 30,472 h of operation. Post-test inspection of each cathode included examination of the emitter (insert), orifice plate, cathode tube, heater, anode assembly, insulator, and propellant isolator. The discharge-cathode assembly experienced significant erosion due to ion sputtering from the discharge plasma. The keeper electrode plate was removed and the heater and orifice plate were heavily eroded at the conclusion of the test. Had the test continued, these processes would likely have led to cathode failure. The discharge cathode insert experienced significant tungsten transport and temperature dependent barium oxide depletion within the matrix. Using barium depletion semiempirical relations developed by Palluel and Shroff, it is estimated that 25,000 h of operation remained in the discharge insert at the conclusion of the test. In contrast, the neutralizer insert exhibited significantly less tungsten transport and barium oxide depletion consistent with its lower current operation. The neutralizer was estimated to have 140,000 h of insert life remaining at the conclusion of the test. Neither insert had evidence of tungstate or oxide layer formation, previously known to have impeded cathode ignition and operation in similar long duration hollow-cathode tests. The neutralizer cathode was in excellent condition at the conclusion of the test with the exception of keeper tube erosion from direct plume-ion impingement, a previously underappreciated life-limiting mechanism. The most critical finding from the test was a power dependent deposition process within the neutralizer-cathode orifice. The process manifested at low-power operation and led to the production of energetic ions in the neutralizer plume, a potential life-limiting process for the neutralizer. Subsequent return of the engine and neutralizer operation to full

  6. Invited Article: Physical and chemical analyses of impregnated cathodes operated in a plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Kulleck, James; Hill, Norm; Ohlinger, Wayne

    2008-11-01

    Destructive analyses of impregnated-cathode assemblies from an ion thruster life test were performed to characterize erosion and degradation after 30 472 h of operation. Post-test inspection of each cathode included examination of the emitter (insert), orifice plate, cathode tube, heater, anode assembly, insulator, and propellant isolator. The discharge-cathode assembly experienced significant erosion due to ion sputtering from the discharge plasma. The keeper electrode plate was removed and the heater and orifice plate were heavily eroded at the conclusion of the test. Had the test continued, these processes would likely have led to cathode failure. The discharge cathode insert experienced significant tungsten transport and temperature dependent barium oxide depletion within the matrix. Using barium depletion semiempirical relations developed by Palluel and Shroff, it is estimated that 25 000 h of operation remained in the discharge insert at the conclusion of the test. In contrast, the neutralizer insert exhibited significantly less tungsten transport and barium oxide depletion consistent with its lower current operation. The neutralizer was estimated to have 140 000 h of insert life remaining at the conclusion of the test. Neither insert had evidence of tungstate or oxide layer formation, previously known to have impeded cathode ignition and operation in similar long duration hollow-cathode tests. The neutralizer cathode was in excellent condition at the conclusion of the test with the exception of keeper tube erosion from direct plume-ion impingement, a previously underappreciated life-limiting mechanism. The most critical finding from the test was a power dependent deposition process within the neutralizer-cathode orifice. The process manifested at low-power operation and led to the production of energetic ions in the neutralizer plume, a potential life-limiting process for the neutralizer. Subsequent return of the engine and neutralizer operation to full

  7. Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow microspheres as anode and carbon fiber as cathode for high performance quantum dot and dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy, Veerappan; Kong, Eui-Hyun; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Jang, Hyun Myung; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2014-02-01

    Cauliflower-like tin oxide (SnO2) hollow microspheres (HMS) sensitized with multilayer quantum dots (QDs) as photoanode and alternative stable, low-cost counter electrode are employed for the first time in QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow spheres mainly consist of 50 nm-sized agglomerated nanoparticles; they possess a high internal surface area and light scattering in between the microspheres and shell layers. This makes them promising photoanode material for both QDSCs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are used for QD-sensitizing the SnO2 microspheres. Additionally, carbon-nanofiber (CNF) with a unique structure is used as an alternative counter electrode (CE) and compared with the standard platinum (Pt) CE. Their electrocatalytic properties are measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and Tafel-polarization. Under 1 sun illumination, solar cells made with hollow SnO2 photoanode sandwiched with the stable CNF CE showed a power conversion efficiency of 2.5% in QDSCs and 3.0% for DSCs, which is quite promising with the standard Pt CE (QDSCs: 2.1%, and DSCs: 3.6%).Cauliflower-like tin oxide (SnO2) hollow microspheres (HMS) sensitized with multilayer quantum dots (QDs) as photoanode and alternative stable, low-cost counter electrode are employed for the first time in QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Cauliflower-like SnO2 hollow spheres mainly consist of 50 nm-sized agglomerated nanoparticles; they possess a high internal surface area and light scattering in between the microspheres and shell layers. This makes them promising photoanode material for both QDSCs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are used for QD-sensitizing the SnO2 microspheres. Additionally, carbon-nanofiber (CNF) with a

  8. International Space Station Cathode Life Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    Four hollow cathode assembly (HCA) life tests were initiated at operating conditions simulating on-orbit operation of the International Space Station plasma contactor. The objective of these tests is to demonstrate the mission-required 18,000 hour lifetime with high-fidelity development model HCAS. HCAs are operated with a continuous 6 sccm xenon flow rate and 3 A anode current. On-orbit emission current requirements are simulated with a square waveform consisting of 50 minutes at a 2.5 A emission current and 40 minutes with no emission current. One HCA test was terminated after approximately 8,000 hours so that a destructive analysis could be performed. The analysis revealed no life-limiting processes and the ultimate lifetime was projected to be greater than the mission requirement. Testing continues for the remaining three HCAs which have accumulated approximately 8,000 hours, 10,000 hours, and 11,000 hours, respectively, as of June 1997. Anode and bias voltages, strong indicators of cathode electron emitter condition, are within acceptable ranges and have exhibited no life- or performance-limiting phenomena to date.

  9. Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a small particle selective emitter for converting thermal energy into narrow band radiation with high efficiency. The small particle selective emitter is used in combination with a photovoltaic array to provide a thermal to electrical energy conversion device. An energy conversion apparatus of this type is called a thermo-photovoltaic device. In the first embodiment, small diameter particles of a rare earth oxide are suspended in an inert gas enclosed between concentric cylinders. The rare earth oxides are used because they have the desired property of large emittance in a narrow wavelength band and small emittance outside the band. However, it should be emphasized that it is the smallness of the particles that enhances the radiation property. The small particle selective emitter is surrounded by a photovoltaic array. In an alternate embodiment, the small particle gas mixture is circulated through a thermal energy source. This thermal energy source can be a nuclear reactor, solar receiver, or combustor of a fossil fuel.

  10. Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

  11. Effects of an Internally-Mounted Cathode on Hall Thruster Plume Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofer, Richard R.; Johnson, Lee K.; Goebel, Dan M.; Fitzgerald, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of cathode position on the plume properties of an 8 kW BHT-8000 Busek Hall thruster are discussed. Experiments were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in a vacuum chamber suitable for the development and qualification of high-power Hall thrusters. Multi-mode Hall thruster operation was demonstrated at operating conditions ranging from 200-500 V discharge voltage, 10-40 A discharge current, and 2-8 kW discharge power. Reductions in plume divergence and increased near-field plume symmetries were found to result from the use of an internally-mounted cathode instead of the traditional externally-mounted configuration. High-current hollow cathodes developed at JPL utilizing lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) emitters were also demonstrated. Discharge currents up to 100 A were achieved with the cathode operating alone and up to 40 A during operation with the Hall thruster. LaB6 cathodes were investigated because of their potential to reduce overall system cost and risk due to less stringent xenon purity and handling requirements.

  12. Hollow Retroreflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A hollow retroreflector is a mirror-like instrument that reflects light and other radiations back to the source. After developing a hollow retroreflector for NASA's Apollo-Soyuz mission, PLX, Inc. continued to expand the technology and develop a variety of retroreflector systems. The Lateral Transfer Hollow Retroreflector maintains precise separation, at any wavelength, of incoming and existing beams regardless of their orientation. It can be used as an instrument or as a component of an optical system. In the laboratory, it offers a new efficient means of beam positioning. In other applications, it connects laser resonators, aligns telescope mirrors and is useful in general boresighting and alignment.

  13. Endurance testing of downstream cathodes on a low-power MPD thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, J. A.; Rose, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A low-power MPD thruster with downstream cathode was tested for endurance with a series of hollow cathode designs. Failure modes and failure mechanisms were identified. A new hollow cathode (with rod inserts) has emerged which shows promise for long life. The downstream positioning of the cathode was also changed from an on-axis location to an off-axis location. Data are presented for a 1332-hour life test of this new hollow cathode located at the new off-axis location. Xenon propellant was used.

  14. Intrinsic emittance reduction in transmission mode photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeri; Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    High quantum efficiency (QE) and low emittance electron beams provided by multi-alkali photocathodes make them of great interest for next generation high brightness photoinjectors. Spicer's three-step model well describes the photoemission process; however, some photocathode characteristics such as their thickness have not yet been completely exploited to further improve the brightness of the generated electron beams. In this work, we report on the emittance and QE of a multi-alkali photocathode grown onto a glass substrate operated in transmission and reflection modes at different photon energies. We observed a 20% reduction in the intrinsic emittance from the reflection to the transmission mode operation. This observation can be explained by inelastic electron-phonon scattering during electrons' transit towards the cathode surface. Due to this effect, we predict that thicker photocathode layers will further reduce the intrinsic emittance of electron beams generated by photocathodes operated in transmission mode.

  15. Carbon Nanotubes as Thermionic Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutfy, R. O.; Samandi, M.; Moravsky, A.; Strange, S.

    2004-02-01

    Thermionic converters are an interesting option for lightweight and long-life power generators due to a number of compelling advantages, including all solid construction, no moving parts, and waste heat rejection at high temperature. An experimental set up has been built that allows the screening of thermionic coatings and new nanomaterials from room temperature to 2000 K in high vacuum and at gap sizes as small as 1 μm. A new class of very high temperature compatible materials, carbon nanotubes, has been investigated for their performance as cathodes. Seven different types of carbon nanotubes have been screened as thermionic emitter cathodes and compared to tungsten and nitrogen doped diamond. It has been found that some carbon nanotubes combine excellent temperature stability with good thermal emission performance. Yet, other carbon nanotubes exhibited exceptional combined thermal and field enhanced emission performance.

  16. Asymmetrical field emitter

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  17. Thermionic emission cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Misumi, A.; Saito, S.

    1981-07-21

    A thermionic emission cathode comprising a base metal made of nickel-tungsten series alloy, for example an alloy comprising 90 to 70% by weight of nickel and 10 to 30% by weight of tungsten, and an emitter layer, which is formed on the base, made from a mixture of tungsten powder or nickel-tungsten alloy powder comprising 90 to 70% by weight of nickel and 10 to 30% by weight of tungsten, Ba/sub 3/Wo/sub 6/ powder and (C) zirconium powder or ZrH/sub 2/ powder, and if necessary interposing a powder layer between the base and the emitter layer, said powder layer having the same composition as the base metal and a particle size of 1 to 10 ..mu..m sealed on the surface of the base with a distribution density of 0.5 to 5.0 mg/cm/sup 2/, can be applied to both directly and indirectly heated type cathodes. Said cathode has such advantages as being able to be miniaturized and to have high current density.

  18. Spindt cold cathode electron gun development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spindt, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A thin film field emission cathode array and an electron gun based on this emitter array are summarized. Fabricating state of the art cathodes for testing at NASA and NRL, advancing the fabrication technology, developing wedge shaped emitters, and performing emission tests are covered. An anistropic dry etching process (reactive ion beam etching) developed that leads to increasing the packing density of the emitter tips to about 5 x 10 to the 6th power/square cm. Tests with small arrays of emitter tips having about 10 tips has demonstrated current densities of over 100 A/sq cm. Several times using cathodes having a packing density of 1.25 x 10 to the 6th power tips/sq cm. Indications are that the higher packing density achievable with the dry etch process may extend this capability to the 500 A/sq cm range and beyond. The wedge emitter geometry was developed and shown to produce emission. This geometry can (in principle) extend the current density capability of the cathodes beyond the 500 A/sq cm level. An emission microscope was built and tested for use with the cathodes.

  19. A knife-edge array field emission cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.

    1994-08-01

    many cathode applications require a new type of cathode that is able to produce short pulsed electron beams at high emission current. Gated field emitter arrays of micrometer size are recognized as candidates to meet this need and have become the research focus of vacuum microelectronics. Existing fabrication methods produce emitters that are limited either in frequency response or in current emission. One reason is that the structure of these emitters are not sufficiently optimized. In this study, the author investigated the factors that affect the performance of field emitters. An optimum emitter structure, the knife-edge field emitter array, was developed from the analysis. Large field enhancement factor, large effective emission area, and small emitter capacitance are the advantages of the structure. The author next explored various options of fabricating the knife-edge emitter structure. He proposed a unique thin film process procedure and developed the fabrication techniques to build the emitters on (110) silicon wafers. Data from the initial cathode tests showed very low onset voltages and Fowler-Nordheim type emission. Emission simulation based on the fabricated emitter structure indicated that the knife-edge emitter arrays have the potential to produce high performance in modulation frequency and current emission. Several fabrication issues that await further development are discussed and possible solutions are suggested.

  20. Experimental results of a single emittance compensation solenoidal magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.T.; Miller, R.H.; Wang, X.J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Skaritka, J.

    1997-07-01

    A new iron dominated single emittance compensation solenoidal magnet was designed to be integrated with the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell S-Band Photocathode rf Gun. This emittance compensated photoinjector is now in operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility. It has produced a 0.329 {+-} 0.012 pC, {tau}{sub 95%} = 10.9 psec electron bunches with a normalized rms transverse emittance of {epsilon}{sub n,rms} = 1.17 {+-} 0.16 {pi} mm mrad. POISSON field maps were used with PARMELA to optimize the emittance compensation solenoidal magnet design. Magnetic field measurements show that at the cathode plane B{sub z} {le} 10 G for a peak magnetic field of B{sub z,max} = 3 kG. Which is in agreement with POISSON simulation. A single emittance compensation solenoidal magnet will produces an initial angular momentum of the electron bunch that manifests itself in a initial magnetic emittance term that cannot be eliminated. This magnetic emittance {epsilon}{sub n,rms}{sup mag} scales as 0.010 {pi} mm mrad/G as the cathode, which is in agreement with PARMELA simulations. Experimental beam dynamics results are presented that shows relative angular rotation and spot size as a function of cathode magnetic field. These results are compared to theory.

  1. Emittance Theory for Thin Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of high temperature garnet materials such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) doped with rare earths are currently being investigated as selective emitters. This paper presents a radiative transfer analysis of the thin film emitter. From this analysis the emitter efficiency and power density are calculated. Results based on measured extinction coefficients for erbium-YAG and holmium-YAG are presented. These results indicated that emitter efficiencies of 50 percent and power densities of several watts/sq cm are attainable at moderate temperatures (less than 1750 K).

  2. Flickering of thoriated and lanthanized tungsten cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoebing, Thomas; Hermanns, Patrick; Bergner, Andre; Ruhrmann, Cornelia; Traxler, Hannes; Wesemann, Ingmar; Mentel, Juergen; Awakowicz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Tungsten cathodes in HID-lamps are commonly doped with rare earth oxides to reduce the work function Φ. A popular dopant ThO2 decreases Φ from 4.55 eV to 3.0 eV and, therewith, reduces the cathode temperature. La2O3-cathodes seem to represent an alternative, since the reduction of Φ is comparable to that of thoriated cathodes. But a temporally unstable arc attachment can be observed at cathodes doped with La2O3. At thoriated cathodes, this flickering can also be detected, but less pronounced. It is attributed to a temporal increase of Φ, induced by a transient shortage of La at the cathode tip. The arc attachment moves from the tip to colder areas of the cathode, where a high amount of La is present. Reasons for a temporal increase of Φ can be attributed to an insufficient transport of oxides from the interior of the cathode and an insufficient return of vaporized La by an ion current from the arc plasma to the cathode. Enrichments of La/Th compounds are formed on the cathode surface providing emitter material in case of a shortage at the tip. Cathode coverage and diffusion in the interior of the electrode, ThO2- and La2O3-electrodes behave differently. Differences and their influence on the stability of the arc will be presented.

  3. Cathode R&D for Future Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.H.; Bazarov, I.; Dunham, B.; Harkay, K.; Hernandez-Garcia; Legg, R.; Padmore, H.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wan, W.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-05-26

    This paper reviews the requirements and current status of cathodes for accelerator applications, and proposes a research and development plan for advancing cathode technology. Accelerator cathodes need to have long operational lifetimes and produce electron beams with a very low emittance. The two principal emission processes to be considered are thermionic and photoemission with the photocathodes being further subdivided into metal and semi-conductors. Field emission cathodes are not included in this analysis. The thermal emittance is derived and the formulas used to compare the various cathode materials. To date, there is no cathode which provides all the requirements needed for the proposed future light sources. Therefore a three part research plan is described to develop cathodes for these future light source applications.

  4. Emittance Theory for Cylindrical Fiber Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1998-01-01

    A fibrous rare earth selective emitter is approximated as an infinitely long, cylinder. The spectral emittance, e(sub x), is obtained L- by solving the radiative transfer equations with appropriate boundary conditions and uniform temperature. For optical depth, K(sub R), where alpha(sub lambda), is the extinction coefficient and R is the cylinder radius, greater than 1 the spectral emittance depths, K(sub R) alpha(sub lambda)R, is nearly at its maximum value. There is an optimum cylinder radius, R(sub opt) for maximum emitter efficiency, n(sub E). Values for R(sub opt) are strongly dependent on the number of emission bands of the material. The optimum radius decreases slowly with increasing emitter temperature, while the maximum efficiency and useful radiated power increase rapidly with increasing, temperature.

  5. Emittance Theory for Cylindrical Fiber Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1998-01-01

    A fibrous rare earth selective emitter is approximated as an infinitely long cylinder. The spectral emittance, epsilon(lambda), is obtained by solving the radiative transfer equations with appropriate boundary conditions and uniform temperature. For optical depths, Kappa(R) = alpha(lambda)R, where alpha(lambda) is the extinction coefficient and R is the cylinder radius, greater than 1 the spectral emittance is nearly at its maximum value. There is an optimum cylinder radius, R(opt), for maximum emitter efficiency, eta(E). Values for R(opt) are strongly dependent on the number of emission bands of the material. The optimum radius decreases slowly with increasing emitter temperature, while the maximum efficiency and useful radiated power increase rapidly with increasing temperature.

  6. Long-Life/Low-Power Ion-Gun Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    New cathode has form of hollow tube through which gas enters region of high electron density, produced by electric discharge with auxiliary electrode referred to as "keeper." Ion-gun cathode emits electrons that bombard gas in chamber. Ions accelerated out of source are used to dope semiconductor material.

  7. Floating emitter solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chih, Sah (Inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A front surface contact floating emitter solar cell transistor is provided in a semiconductor body (n-type), in which floating emitter sections (p-type) are diffused or implanted in the front surface. Between the emitter sections, a further section is diffused or implanted in the front surface, but isolated from the floating emitter sections, for use either as a base contact to the n-type semiconductor body, in which case the section is doped n+, or as a collector for the adjacent emitter sections.

  8. Thermal limit to the intrinsic emittance from metal photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun Nasiatka, J.; Wan, Weishi; Karkare, Siddharth; Padmore, Howard A.; Smedley, John

    2015-09-28

    Measurements of the intrinsic emittance and transverse momentum distributions obtained from a metal (antimony thin film) photocathode near and below the photoemission threshold are presented. Measurements show that the intrinsic emittance is limited by the lattice temperature of the cathode as the incident photon energy approaches the photoemission threshold. A theoretical model to calculate the transverse momentum distributions near this photoemission threshold is presented. An excellent match between the experimental measurements and the theoretical calculations is demonstrated. These measurements are relevant to low emittance electron sources for Free Electron Lasers and Ultrafast Electron Diffraction experiments.

  9. Numerical study on rectangular microhollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    He Shoujie; Ouyang Jiting; He Feng; Li Shang

    2011-03-15

    Rectangular microhollow cathode discharge in argon is investigated by using two-dimensional time-dependent self-consistent fluid model. The electric potential, electric field, particle density, and mean electron energy are calculated. The results show that hollow cathode effect can be onset in the present configuration, with strong electric field and high mean electron energy in the cathode fall while high density and quasineutral plasma in the negative glow. The potential well and electric filed reversal are formed in the negative glow region. It is suggested that the presence of large electron diffusion flux necessitates the field reversal and potential well.

  10. Field-emission cathodes of glass-insulated microwire

    SciTech Connect

    Donika, F.G.; Miglei, D.F.; Smyslov, V.V.

    1987-08-01

    A method is described for fabricating field-emission cathodes in glass insulation. Cathodes with nickel and germanium emitters have packing densities of 10/sup 2/-10/sup 4/ pieces/mm/sup 2/ and point radii of curvature of 0.1-1 ..mu..m.

  11. Development program on a Spindt cold-cathode electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spindt, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    A thin film field emission cathode (TFFEC) array and a cold cathode electron gun based on the emitter were developed. A microwave tube gun that uses the thin film field emission cathode as an electron source is produced. State-of-the-art cathodes were fabricated and tested. The tip-packing density of the arrays were increased thereby increasing the cathode's current density capability. The TFFEC is based on the well known field emission effect and was conceived to exploit the advantages of that phenomenon while minimizing the difficulties associated with conventional field emission structures, e.g. limited life and high voltage requirements. Field emission follows the Fowler-Nordheim equation.

  12. Correlation of cathode parameters of high power grid tubes with material characteristics of cathode-grid units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikova, Irina P.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Usanov, Dmitry A.

    2005-09-01

    One way to increase the longevity of dispenser cathodes is based on reducing the Barium evaporation. This can be achieved by the decrease of the reaction "activity" of the emitter impregnant with the porous tungsten (W) body, which supplies free Barium from the interior of the porous cathode to its surface.

  13. Cathode Effects in Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Granstedt, E.M.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-09-12

    Stable operation of a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) has been achieved using a hot wire cathode, which functions as a controllable electron emission source. It is shown that as the electron emission from the cathode increases with wire heating, the discharge current increases, the plasma plume angle reduces, and the ion energy distribution function shifts toward higher energies. The observed effect of cathode electron emission on thruster parameters extends and clarifies performance improvements previously obtained for the overrun discharge current regime of the same type of thruster, but using a hollow cathode-neutralizer. Once thruster discharge current saturates with wire heating, further filament heating does not affect other discharge parameters. The saturated values of thruster discharge parameters can be further enhanced by optimal placement of the cathode wire with respect to the magnetic field.

  14. Cathode effects in cylindrical Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Granstedt, E. M.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-11-15

    Stable operation of a cylindrical Hall thruster has been achieved using a hot wire cathode, which functions as a controllable electron emission source. It is shown that as the electron emission from the cathode increases with wire heating, the discharge current increases, the plasma plume angle reduces, and the ion energy distribution function shifts toward higher energies. The observed effect of cathode electron emission on thruster parameters extends and clarifies performance improvements previously obtained for the overrun discharge current regime of the same type of thruster, but using a hollow cathode neutralizer. Once thruster discharge current saturates with wire heating, further filament heating does not affect other discharge parameters. The saturated values of thruster discharge parameters can be further enhanced by optimal placement of the cathode wire with respect to the magnetic field.

  15. Design of a High Field Stress, Velvet Cathode for the Flash X-Ray (FXR) Induction Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T; Brown, C; Fleming, D; Kreitzer, B; Lewis, K; Ong, M; Zentler, J

    2007-06-08

    A new cathode design has been proposed for the Flash X-Ray (FXR) induction linear accelerator with the goal of lowering the beam emittance. The original design uses a conventional Pierce geometry and applies a peak field of 134 kV/cm (no beam) to the velvet emission surface. Voltage/current measurements indicate that the velvet begins emitting near this peak field value and images of the cathode show a very non-uniform distribution of plasma light. The new design has a flat cathode/shroud profile that allows for a peak field stress of 230 kV/cm on the velvet. The emission area is reduced by about a factor of four to generate the same total current due to the greater field stress. The relatively fast acceleration of the beam, approximately 2.5 MeV in 10 cm, reduces space charge forces that tend to hollow the beam for a flat, non-Pierce geometry. The higher field stress achieved with the same rise time is expected to lead to an earlier and more uniform plasma formation over the velvet surface. Simulations and initial testing are presented.

  16. Photonically Engineered Incandescent Emitter

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2005-03-22

    A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

  17. Photonically engineered incandescent emitter

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2003-08-26

    A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

  18. Limits to Electron Beam Emittance from Stochastic Coulomb Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman-Smith, Christopher; Padmore, Howard A.; Wan, Weishi

    2008-08-22

    Dense electron beams can now be generated on an ultrafast timescale using laser driven photo-cathodes and these are used for a range of applications from ultrafast electron defraction to free electron lasers. Here we determine a lower bound to the emittance of an electron beam limited by fundamental stochastic Coulomb interactions.

  19. NEXIS Reservoir Cathode 2000 Hour Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Polk, Jay; Goebel, Dan; Ohlinger, Wayne; Hill, D. Norm

    2004-01-01

    The current design of the Nuclear Electric Xenon Ion System (NEXIS) employs a reservoir cathode as both the discharge and neutralizer cathode to meet the 10 yr thruster design life. The main difference between a reservoir cathode and a conventional discharge cathode is the source material (barium-containing compound) is contained within a reservoir instead of in an impregnated insert in the hollow tube. However, reservoir cathodes do not have much life test history associated with them. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of using a reservoir cathode as an integral part of the NEXIS ion thruster, a 2000 hr life test was performed. Several proof-of-concept (POC) reservoir cathodes were built early in the NEXIS program to conduct performance testing as well as life tests. One of the POC cathodes was sent to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) where it was tested for 2000 hrs in a vacuum chamber. The cathode was operated at the NEXIS design point of 25 A discharge current and a xenon flow rate of 5.5 sccm during the 2000 hr test. The cathode performance parameters, including discharge current, discharge voltage, keeper current; keeper voltage, and flow rate were monitored throughout test. Also, the temperature upstream of cathode heater, the temperature downstream of the cathode heater, and the temperature of the orifice plate were monitored throughout the life of the test. The results of the 2000 hr test will be described in this paper. Included in the results will be time history of discharge current, discharge voltage, and flow rate. Also, a time history of the cathode temperature will be provided.

  20. Photoelectron linear accelerator for producing a low emittance polarized electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U.; Clendenin, James E.; Kirby, Robert E.

    2004-06-01

    A photoelectron linear accelerator for producing a low emittance polarized electric beam. The accelerator includes a tube having an inner wall, the inner tube wall being coated by a getter material. A portable, or demountable, cathode plug is mounted within said tube, the surface of said cathode having a semiconductor material formed thereon.

  1. Low pressure glow discharge in a system with hollow electrode at floating potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babinov, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the research of the low pressure gas discharge in a system with hollow electrode at the floating potential. The main characteristic features of the discharge distinguishing it from the glow discharge with hollow cathode are described. The studied type of discharge has good perspective to use in the plasma emission systems allowing to reach high current efficiency of the ion sources.

  2. Sharpening of field emitter tips using high-energy ions

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.

    1999-11-30

    A process for sharpening arrays of field emitter tips of field emission cathodes, such as found in field-emission, flat-panel video displays. The process uses sputtering by high-energy (more than 30 keV) ions incident along or near the longitudinal axis of the field emitter to sharpen the emitter with a taper from the tip or top of the emitter down to the shank of the emitter. The process is particularly applicable to sharpening tips of emitters having cylindrical or similar (e.g., pyramidal) symmetry. The process will sharpen tips down to radii of less than 12 nm with an included angle of about 20 degrees. Because the ions are incident along or near the longitudinal axis of each emitter, the tips of gated arrays can be sharpened by high-energy ion beams rastered over the arrays using standard ion implantation equipment. While the process is particularly applicable for sharpening of arrays of field emitters in field-emission flat-panel displays, it can be effectively utilized in the fabrication of other vacuum microelectronic devices that rely on field emission of electrons.

  3. Cathodic arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2003-10-29

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.

  4. Diamond fiber field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B.; Coates, Don M.; Devlin, David J.; Eaton, David F.; Silzars, Aris K.; Valone, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

  5. Analysis of cathode geometry to minimize cathode erosion in direct current microplasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Causa, Federica; Ghezzi, Francesco; Caniello, Roberto; Grosso, Giovanni; Dellasega, David

    2012-12-15

    Microplasma jets are now widely used for deposition, etching, and materials processing. The present study focuses on the investigation of the influence of cathode geometry on deposition quality, for microplasma jet deposition systems in low vacuum. The interest here is understanding the influence of hydrogen on sputtering and/or evaporation of the electrodes. Samples obtained with two cathode geometries with tapered and rectangular cross-sections have been investigated experimentally by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy. Samples obtained with a tapered-geometry cathode present heavy contamination, demonstrating cathode erosion, while samples obtained with a rectangular-cross-section cathode are free from contamination. These experimental characteristics were explained by modelling results showing a larger radial component of the electric field at the cathode inner wall of the tapered cathode. As a result, ion acceleration is larger, explaining the observed cathode erosion in this case. Results from the present investigation also show that the ratio of radial to axial field components is larger for the rectangular geometry case, thus, qualitatively explaining the presence of micro-hollow cathode discharge over a wide range of currents observed in this case. In the light of the above findings, the rectangular cathode geometry is considered to be more effective to achieve cleaner deposition.

  6. Cathode degradation and erosion in high pressure arc discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, T. L.; Nakanishi, S.

    1984-01-01

    The various processes which control cathode erosion and degradation were identified and evaluated. A direct current arc discharge was established between electrodes in a pressure-controlled gas flow environment. The cathode holder was designed for easy testing of various cathode materials. The anode was a water cooled copper collector electrode. The arc was powered by a dc power supply with current and voltage regulated cross-over control. Nitrogen and argon were used as propellants and the materials used were two percent thoriated tungsten, barium oxide impregnated porous tungsten, pure tungsten and lanthanum hexaboride. The configurations used were cylindrical solid rods, wire bundles supported by hollow molybdenum tubes, cylindrical hollow tubes, and hollow cathodes of the type used in ion thrusters. The results of the mass loss tests in nitrogen indicated that pure tungsten eroded at a rate more than 10 times faster than the rates of the impregnated tungsten materials. It was found that oxygen impurities of less than 0.5 percent in the nitrogen increased the mass loss rate by a factor of 4 over high purity nitrogen. At power levels less than 1 kW, cathode size and current level did not significantly affect the mass loss rate. The hollow cathode was found to be operable in argon and in nitrogen only at pressures below 400 and 200 torr, respectively.

  7. Cathode degradation and erosion in high pressure arc discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, T. L.; Nakanishi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The various processes which control cathode erosion and degradation were identified and evaluated. A direct current arc discharge was established between electrodes in a pressure-controlled gas flow environment. The cathode holder was designed for easy testing of various cathode materials. The anode was a water cooled copper collector electrode. The arc was powered by a dc power supply with current and voltage regulated cross-over control. Nitrogen and argon were used as propellants and the materials used were two percent thoriated tungsten, barium oxide impregnated porous tungsten, pure tungsten and lanthanum hexaboride. The configurations used were cylindrical solid rods, wire bundles supported by hollow molybdenum tubes, cylindrical hollow tubes, and hollow cathodes of the type used in ion thrusters. The results of the mass loss tests in nitrogen indicated that pure tungsten eroded at a rate more than 10 times faster than the rates of the impregnated tungsten materials. It was found that oxygen impurities of less than 0.5 percent in the nitrogen increased the mass loss rate by a factor of 4 over high purity nitrogen. At power levels less than 1 kW, cathode size and current level did not significantly affect the mass loss rate. The hollow cathode was found to be operable in argon and in nitrogen only at pressures below 400 and 200 torr, respectively.

  8. Reduction of Thermal Emittance by using P-polarized Laser at Oblique Incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang,D.; Park, S.; Park, J.; Parc, Y.; Wang, X.

    2006-01-01

    High charge low emittance electron beam is crucial for the 4th generation light source. Conventionally the beam is generated by photoinjector with laser illuminating the cathode at nearly normal incidence. In this paper attention was called to the use of laser at oblique incidence, which we believe, may be more beneficial. It is found that when the laser illuminates the cathode at oblique incidence, the quantum efficiency (QE) and thermal emittance show strong dependence on incidence angle and polarization state. By using p-polarized laser at oblique incidence, surface photoemission is initiated by the presence of the normal electric field which results in a higher QE and lower thermal emittance. With this technique, the increase in QE by almost 5 times and the reduction of thermal emittance by 40% should be quite expectable for a Copper photo-cathode with atomically smooth surface.

  9. Beam emittance from ARPES for photoinjectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkay, Katherine; Spentzouris, Linda; Nemeth, Karoly; Droubay, Timothy; Chambers, Scott; Joly, Alan; Hess, Wayne

    2014-03-01

    A commonly-used beam emittance measurement for photoinjector sources involves accelerating a low-charge beam to a few megavolts in an electron gun, then using a pepper-pot emittance diagnostic to image the transverse charge distribution. The emission distribution at the cathode surface could in principle be deduced through simulations, but cannot be measured directly with this method. In the quest to develop ultra-bright photoinjectors, it would be advantageous to be able to measure the emission distribution directly, and use this as a screening process to characterize different photocathode candidates. Angle-resolved photoemission sepctroscopy (ARPES), used widely in surface science, has been proposed [H. Padmore (private communication)] as a method to measure the photocathode intrinsic emittance. A promising novel photocathode, a thin layer of MgO on Ag was recently fabricated and ARPES measurements were carried out [T.C. Droubay et al., PRL (in press)]. The analysis of these data and resulting emittance will be presented. Implications for its use in simulations and design of future photoinjectors will also be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Science (DE-AC02-06CH11357) and the National Science Foundation (No. PHY-0969989). The measurements were carried out at the EMSL user facility at PNNL.

  10. Low-emittance uniform density Cs sup + sources for heavy ion fusion accelerators studies

    SciTech Connect

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Garvey, T.; Johnson, R.; Chupp, W.

    1991-04-01

    Low-emittance (high-brightness) Cs{sup +} thermionic sources were developed for the heavy ion induction linac experiment MBE-4 at LBL. The MBE-4 linac accelerates four 10 mA beams from 200 ke V to 900 ke V while amplifying the current up to a factor of nine. Recent studies of the transverse beam dynamics suggested that characteristics of the injector geometry were contributing to the normalized transverse emissions growth. Phase-space and current density distribution measurements of the beam extracted from the injector revealed overfocusing of the outermost rays causing a hollow density profile. We shall report on the performance of a 5 mA scraped beam source (which eliminates the outermost beam rays in the diode) and on the design of an improved 10 mA source. The new source is based on EGUN calculations which indicated that a beam with good emissions and uniform current density could be obtained by modifying the cathode Pierce electrodes and using a spherical emitting surface. The measurements of the beam current density profile on a test stand were found to be in agreement with the numerical simulations. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Analytical study on emittance growth caused by roughness of a metallic photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2015-05-01

    The roughness of a photocathode could lead to an additional uncorrelated divergence of the emitted electrons and therefore to an increased thermal emittance. To calculate the emittance growth due to the cathode roughness, people usually choose a simple 2D sinusoidal surface model to avoid mathematical complexity. In this paper, we demonstrate an analytical method, which is inspired by the point spread function that has been widely used in radiation imaging field, to accurately evaluate the emittance growth due to the random roughness of a real-life cathode. Both analytical and numerical studies are performed. Our analytical formulas clearly reveal the relationship between the surface roughness and the emittance growth. Both analytical and numerical results surprisingly show that in the typical 3D random surface case, the influence of the surface roughness on the emittance growth is much smaller than the 2D sinusoidal case with typical roughness properties, however with roughness properties which are matched to the 3D case, the emittance growth conditions in these two cases are very similar. Even with applied electric field strength up to 120 MV /m , the total emittance growth is still below 10%. It implies that the large emittance growth (50%-100%) observed on metallic cathodes in some experiments, which is generally believed to be the result of the electric field on the rough surface, might be due to some other reasons.

  12. Emittance Studies of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 Cell Photocathode RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.T.; Wang, X.J.; Miller, R.H.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Pellegrini, C.; Sheehan, J.; Skaritka, J.; Winick, H.; Woodle, M.; Yakimenko, V.; /Brookhaven

    2011-09-09

    The symmetrized 1.6 cell S-band photocathode gun developed by the BNL/SLAC/UCLA collaboration is in operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). A novel emittance compensation solenoid magnet has also been designed, built and is in operation at the ATF. These two subsystems form an emittance compensated photoinjector used for beam dynamics, advanced acceleration and free electron laser experiments at the ATF. The highest acceleration field achieved on the copper cathode is 150 MV/m, and the guns normal operating field is 130 MV/m. The maximum rf pulse length is 3 {mu}s. The transverse emittance of the photoelectron beam were measured for various injection parameters. The 1 nC emittance results are presented along with electron bunch length measurements that indicated that at above the 400 pC, space charge bunch lengthening is occurring. The thermal emittance, {epsilon}{sub o}, of the copper cathode has been measured.

  13. Portable emittance measurement device

    SciTech Connect

    Liakin, D.; Seleznev, D.; Orlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Kropachev, G.; Kulevoy, T.; Yakushin, P.

    2010-02-15

    In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the portable emittance measurements device is developed. It provides emittance measurements both with ''pepper-pot'' and ''two slits'' methods. Depending on the method of measurements, either slits or pepper-pot mask with scintillator are mounted on the two activators and are installed in two standard Balzer's cross chamber with CF-100 flanges. To match the angle resolution for measured beam, the length of the stainless steel pipe between two crosses changes is adjusted. The description of the device and results of emittance measurements at the ITEP ion source test bench are presented.

  14. The emittance concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, J. D.

    1992-04-01

    An informal descriptive account is first given of the emittance concept and its underlying physical basis. This is followed by a discussion of the connection between emittance and entropy, and a number of questions relating to problems of current interest concerning such topics as emittance growth and equipartition between different degrees of freedom are raised. Although no new results are obtained, it is hoped that the discussion may be helpful in the search for new insights. The paper differs from that presented at the conference, and contains ideas which arose in discussion with T. P. Wangler at Los Alamos after the conference.

  15. Low Emittance Electron Beam Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhoplav, Rodion

    2006-04-01

    We have studied the properties of a low emittance electron beam produced by laser pulses incident onto an rf gun photocathode. The experiments were carried out at the A0 photoinjector at Fermilab. Such beam studies are necessary for fixing the design of new Linear Colliders as well as for the development of Free Electron Lasers. An overview of the A0 photoinjector is given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 we describe the A0 photoinjector laser system. A stable laser system is imperative for reliable photoinjector operation. After the recent upgrade, we have been able to reach a new level of stability in the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the pulse amplitude, and of the temporal and transverse profiles. In Chapter 3 we present a study of transverse emittance versus the shape of the photo-cathode drive-laser pulse. For that purpose a special temporal profile laser shaping device called a pulse-stacker was developed. In Chapter 4 we discuss longitudinal beam dynamics studies using a two macro-particle bunch; this technique is helpful in analyzing pulse compression in the magnetic chicane, as well as velocity bunching effects in the rf-gun and the 9-cell accelerating cavity. In Chapter 5 we introduce a proposal for laser acceleration of electrons. We have developed a laser functioning on the TEM*{sub 01} mode, a mode with a longitudinal electric field component which is suitable for such a process. Using this technique at energies above 40 MeV, one would be able to observe laser-based acceleration.

  16. Characterization of a radio frequency hollow electrode discharge at low gas pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahadi, Amir Mohammad; Trottenberg, Thomas; Rehders, Stefan; Strunskus, Thomas; Kersten, Holger; Faupel, Franz

    2015-08-01

    A radio frequency (RF) hollow discharge configuration is presented, which makes use of a combination of RF plasma generation and the hollow cathode effect. The system was especially designed for the treatment of nanoparticles, plasma polymerization, and nanocomposite fabrication. The process gas streams through the plasma in the inner of the cylindrical electrode system. In the here presented measurements, pure argon and argon with oxygen admixtures are exemplarily used. The discharge is characterized by probe measurements in the effluent, electrical measurements of the discharge parameters, and visual observations of the plasma glow. It is found that the RF fluctuations of the plasma potential are weak. The plasma potential resembles the one of a DC hollow cathode discharge, the RF hollow electrode acts as a cathode due to the self-bias, and a high voltage sheath forms in its inner cylinder.

  17. Characterization of a radio frequency hollow electrode discharge at low gas pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Ahadi, Amir Mohammad; Rehders, Stefan; Strunskus, Thomas; Faupel, Franz; Trottenberg, Thomas; Kersten, Holger

    2015-08-15

    A radio frequency (RF) hollow discharge configuration is presented, which makes use of a combination of RF plasma generation and the hollow cathode effect. The system was especially designed for the treatment of nanoparticles, plasma polymerization, and nanocomposite fabrication. The process gas streams through the plasma in the inner of the cylindrical electrode system. In the here presented measurements, pure argon and argon with oxygen admixtures are exemplarily used. The discharge is characterized by probe measurements in the effluent, electrical measurements of the discharge parameters, and visual observations of the plasma glow. It is found that the RF fluctuations of the plasma potential are weak. The plasma potential resembles the one of a DC hollow cathode discharge, the RF hollow electrode acts as a cathode due to the self-bias, and a high voltage sheath forms in its inner cylinder.

  18. DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

    2005-10-09

    We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

  19. A series of tufted carbon fiber cathodes designed for different high power microwave sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lie; Li, Limin; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wen, Jianchun; Liu, Yonggui

    2008-06-01

    We report the fabrication technique of tufted carbon fiber cathodes for different microwave sources. Three carbon fiber cathodes were constructed, including a planar cathode, an annular cathode, and a cylindrical cathode for radial emission. Experimental investigations on these cathodes were performed in a reflex triode virtual cathode oscillator (vircator), a backward wave oscillator (BWO), and a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO), respectively. The pulse duration of microwave emission from the reflex triode vircator was lengthened by using the planar carbon fiber cathode. In the BWO with the annular carbon fiber cathode, the uniform electron beam with a kA/cm(2) current density was observed. In addition, carbon fiber has great promise as field emitter for MILOs. These results show that the carbon fiber cathodes can be utilized for electron emission in high power diodes with different structures. PMID:18601423

  20. A series of tufted carbon fiber cathodes designed for different high power microwave sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lie; Li, Limin; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wen, Jianchun; Liu, Yonggui

    2008-06-01

    We report the fabrication technique of tufted carbon fiber cathodes for different microwave sources. Three carbon fiber cathodes were constructed, including a planar cathode, an annular cathode, and a cylindrical cathode for radial emission. Experimental investigations on these cathodes were performed in a reflex triode virtual cathode oscillator (vircator), a backward wave oscillator (BWO), and a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO), respectively. The pulse duration of microwave emission from the reflex triode vircator was lengthened by using the planar carbon fiber cathode. In the BWO with the annular carbon fiber cathode, the uniform electron beam with a kA /cm2 current density was observed. In addition, carbon fiber has great promise as field emitter for MILOs. These results show that the carbon fiber cathodes can be utilized for electron emission in high power diodes with different structures.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Thruster Cathode Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crofton, Mark

    2004-11-01

    Advanced ion propulsion technologies are being developed under the Nuclear Electric Xenon Ion System (NEXIS) program for use in outer planet exploration. A revolutionary approach to thruster cathode design is dictated by the very high lifetime and propellant throughput requirements for nuclear electric applications. In conventional dispenser hollow cathodes used in thrusters, processes leading to depletion, inadequate transport, or insufficient production of barium are among those limiting the lifetime. A reservoir hollow cathode is being developed to address each of these failure mechanisms, exploiting four design variables - matrix material, source material, geometry, and thermal design - to essentially eliminate established failure modes. The very long anticipated lifetime necessitates new life validation methods to augment or replace the conventional lifetest approach. One important tool for quickly evaluating design changes is the ability to measure barium density inside a hollow cathode and/or in the plume. The dependence of barium density on temperature and other factors is an extremely important indicator of cathode health, particularly if the ratio Ba:BaO is also obtained. Comparison of barium production for reservoir and conventional cathodes will enable an assessment of the efficacy of reservoir designs and the goal of reducing barium consumption at a given emission current level. This study describes benchmark measurements made on a conventional cathode previously operated in a 20-kW NEXIS laboratory engine. Data on cathode operation and life-limiting processes were obtained through direct, real-time monitoring of atoms and molecules. A high-resolution, tunable laser system was employed to detect absorption of the low-density barium atoms inside the cathode. The plume was monitored also, using a quadrupole mass spectrometer to monitor multiple species and measure ion charge ratios. Data obtained with retarding potential analyzers or other means are

  2. Composite and diamond cold cathode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, M.S.; Wheeland, C.L.; Ramacher, K.; Doyle, E.

    1996-12-31

    Cold-cathode technology for Crossed-Field Amplifiers (CFAs) has not changed significantly over the last thirty years. The material typically used for cold cathode CFAs is either platinum (Pt) or beryllium (Be), although numerous other materials with higher secondary electron emission ratios have been tested. Beryllium cathodes display higher secondary emission ratios, {approximately} 3.4, than Pt, but require a partial pressure of oxygen to maintain a beryllium oxide (BeO) surface layer. These dispensers limit the life of the CFA, both directly, due to oxygen-source filament burnout, and indirectly, by the production of undesirable gases which adversely affect the performance of the CFA. In an attempt to reduce or eliminate the required oxygen dispenser output level, cathodes were constructed from three varieties of Be/BeO composite material and tested in L-4808s, standard forward-wave AEGIS CFAs. Diamond and diamond-like carbons are desirable as cathode materials because of their extremely high secondary electron emission ratio, greater than 20, but their use has previously been prohibitive because of cost, available, and physical characteristics. Because of recent advances in diamond growth technology it is now possible to deposit thin layers of diamond on a variety of geometric objects. In coordination with Penn State University four annular diamond emitters have been fabricated. The diamond emitters will be tested in a standard AEGIS CFA, both under vacuum and with a partial pressure of hydrogen.

  3. Development of knife-edge field emission cathodes on (110) silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo; Barasch, E. F.; Mazumdar, T.; McIntyre, P. M.; Pang, Y.; Trost, H.-J.

    1993-04-01

    Knife-edge field emission cathodes have been fabricated on (110) silicon wafers. The emitter structure consists of an array of razor shaped silicon knife edges standing up on silicon substrates. The radii of the sharp edges seen with SEM are less than 250 Å; the height of the knife edges is 5 to 8 μm; and the gate-emitter spacing is ˜0.1 μm. Because of the very small gate-emitter spacing and the large height/width ratio of the emitter, the structure resembles an optimized emitter geometry concluded from our study. The fabrication process and results are presented.

  4. Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium and a mixture of uranium and plutonium for use as a fresh blanket and core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is deposited from the anode baskets in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium collection efficiency enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing for enhanced trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scraped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two.

  5. Cancer from internal emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-10-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of {sup 226}Ra or medical injections of {sup 224}Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes.

  6. Physics of thermionic dispenser cathode aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R. T.

    2003-11-01

    A dispenser cathode life model (DCLM) was originally published in 1984. More recent life test data have substantiated the basic physics used in the DCLM. However, re-evaluation of the model with this latest data alters the numerical parameters used in the model. The most important modification is the incorporation of the shape factor, α, in the emission equation, so that accurate descriptions of the cathode activity curves (i.e., current versus temperature) can be made as a function of cathode age. The original model was fit only to the cathode current as a function of time for a fixed operating temperature. This revision fits the cathode activity curves as a function of both time and cathode temperature. Variation in cathode current as a function of temperature is quite dependent upon the underlying physics, and gives a better measure of how the internal parameters, such as work function and knee position and knee shape change with time. Knowing these details provides a more accurate measure of how the cathode current at the operating point will change over time. The modification made to the emission equation in this revision incorporates the shape factor, α, which is a single number that describes the shape of the cathode activity curves. The shape factor is found to be dependent on time: The knee softens and rounds with age. Even though the shape factor was originally introduced as an empirical factor, I will present a theoretical model for the shape factor that provides some insight into its physical interpretation. This theory will show that it can be related to the thermodynamics of the emitter surface. The re-evaluation of the DCLM, based on the latest life data, and including the theory for the shape factor yields a longer life expectancy for the M-type dispenser cathode then was predicted by the original more conservative life model. The DCLM matches the observed life data more accurately.

  7. RFI emitter location techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using Doppler techniques for determining the location of ground based emitters causing radio frequency interference with low orbiting satellites. An error analysis indicates that it is possible to find the emitter location within an error range of 2 n.mi. The parameters which determine the required satellite receiver characteristic are discussed briefly along with the non-real time signal processing which may by used in obtaining the Doppler curve. Finally, the required characteristics of the satellite antenna are analyzed.

  8. Study of the Electric Field Screening Effect on Low Number of Carbon Fiber Field Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wilkin; Shiffler, Don; Lacour, Matthew; Golby, Ken; Knowles, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Field emitter arrays have the potential to provide high current density, low voltage operation, and high pulse repetition for radar and communication. It is well known that packing density of the field emitter arrays significantly affects the emission current.1 Previously we conducted experiments using two- and four-cathode configurations. Here we extend our previous work and present experimental results for nine cathodes in a square and cylindrical configuration. The experiments used nine cathodes with variable spacing to investigate the effect of electric field screening on current emission. Emission characteristic is compared for the case of two, four and nine field emitters with different spacing. Particle-in-cell simulations are performed to compare with the experiments. Work supported by an LRIR from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  9. Investigation of the flickering of La2O3 and ThO2 doped tungsten cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoebing, T.; Hermanns, P.; Bergner, A.; Ruhrmann, C.; Traxler, H.; Wesemann, I.; Knabl, W.; Mentel, J.; Awakowicz, P.

    2015-07-01

    Short-arc lamps are equipped with tungsten electrodes due to their ability to withstand a high thermal load during operation. Nominal currents of more than one hundred amperes lead to a cathode tip temperature near the melting point of tungsten. To reduce the electrode temperature and, thereby, to increase the maintenance of such lamps, ThO2 or tentatively La2O3 are added to the electrode material. They generate a reduced work function by establishing a monolayer of emitter atoms on the tungsten surface. Emitter enrichments on the lateral surface of doped cathodes are formed. They are traced back to transport mechanisms of emitter oxides in the interior of the electrode and on the electrode surface in dependence of the electrode temperature and to the redeposition of vaporized and ionized emitter atoms onto the cathode tip by the electric field in front. The investigation is undertaken by means of glow discharge mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscope images, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and through measurements of the optical surface emissivity. The effect of emitter enrichments on the stability of the arc attachment is presented by means of temporally resolved electrode temperature measurements and by measurements of the luminous flux from the cathode-near plasma. They show that the emitter enrichments on the lateral surface of the cathode are attractive for the arc attachment if the emitter at the cathode tip is depleted. In this case, it moves along the lateral surface from the cathode tip to sections of the cathode with a reduced work function. It induces a temporary variation of the cathode tip temperature and of the light intensity from the cathode-near plasma, a so-called flickering. In particular, in case of lanthanated cathodes, strong flickering is observed.

  10. FACET Emittance Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  11. Intrinsic Emittance Reduction of an Electron Beam from Metal Photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hauri, C. P.; Ganter, R.; Le Pimpec, F.; Trisorio, A.; Ruchert, C.; Braun, H. H.

    2010-06-11

    Electron beams in modern linear accelerators are now becoming limited in brightness by the intrinsic emittance of the photocathode electron source. Therefore it becomes important for large scale facilities such as free electron lasers to reduce this fundamental limit. In this Letter we present measurements of the intrinsic emittance for different laser wavelength (from 261 to 282 nm) and for different photocathode materials such as Mo, Nb, Al, Cu. Values as low as 0.41{+-}0.03 mm{center_dot}mrad/mm laser spot size (rms) were measured for a copper photocathode illuminated with a 282 nm laser wavelength. The key element for emittance reduction is a uv laser system which allows adjustment of the laser photon energy to match the effective work function of the cathode material and to emit photoelectrons with a lower initial kinetic energy. The quantum efficiency over the explored wavelength range varies by less than a factor of 3.

  12. Influence of emitter ring manufacturing tolerances on electron beam quality of high power gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagonakis, Ioannis Gr.; Illy, Stefan; Thumm, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    A sensitivity analysis of manufacturing imperfections and possible misalignments of the emitter ring in the gyrotron cathode structure on the electron beam quality has been performed. It has been shown that a possible radial displacement of the emitter ring of the order of few tens of microns can cause dramatic effects on the beam quality and therefore the gyrotron operation. Two different design approaches are proposed in order to achieve an electron beam which is less sensitive to manufacturing imperfections.

  13. Development of plasma cathode electron guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oks, Efim M.; Schanin, Peter M.

    1999-05-01

    The status of experimental research and ongoing development of plasma cathode electron guns in recent years is reviewed, including some novel upgrades and applications to various technological fields. The attractiveness of this kind of e-gun is due to its capability of creating high current, broad or focused beams, both in pulsed and steady-state modes of operation. An important characteristic of the plasma cathode electron gun is the absence of a thermionic cathode, a feature which leads to long lifetime and reliable operation even in the presence of aggressive background gas media and at fore-vacuum gas pressure ranges such as achieved by mechanical pumps. Depending on the required beam parameters, different kinds of plasma discharge systems can be used in plasma cathode electron guns, such as vacuum arcs, constricted gaseous arcs, hollow cathode glows, and two kinds of discharges in crossed E×B fields: Penning and magnetron. At the present time, plasma cathode electron guns provide beams with transverse dimension from fractional millimeter up to about one meter, beam current from microamperes to kiloamperes, beam current density up to about 100 A/cm2, pulse duration from nanoseconds to dc, and electron energy from several keV to hundreds of keV. Applications include electron beam melting and welding, surface treatment, plasma chemistry, radiation technologies, laser pumping, microwave generation, and more.

  14. Effect of Temperature Gradient on Thick Film Selective Emitter Emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Good, Brian S.; Clark, Eric B.; Chen, Zheng

    1997-01-01

    A temperature gradient across a thick (greater than or equal to .1 mm) film selective emitter will produce a significant reduction in the spectral emittance from the no temperature gradient case. Thick film selective emitters of rare earth doped host materials such as yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) are examples where temperature gradient effects are important. In this paper a model is developed for the spectral emittance assuming a linear temperature gradient across the film. Results of the model indicate that temperature gradients will result in reductions the order of 20% or more in the spectral emittance.

  15. Hollow spherical supramolecular dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Percec, Virgil; Peterca, Mihai; Dulcey, Andrés E; Imam, Mohammad R; Hudson, Steven D; Nummelin, Sami; Adelman, Peter; Heiney, Paul A

    2008-10-01

    The synthesis of a library containing 12 conical dendrons that self-assemble into hollow spherical supramolecular dendrimers is reported. The design principles for this library were accessed by development of a method that allows the identification of hollow spheres, followed by structural and retrostructural analysis of their Pm3n cubic lattice. The first hollow spherical supramolecular dendrimer was made by replacing the tapered dendron, from the previously reported tapered dendritic dipeptide that self-assembled into helical pores, with its constitutional isomeric conical dendron. This strategy generated a conical dendritic dipeptide that self-assembled into a hollow spherical supramolecular dendrimer that self-organizes in a Pm3n cubic lattice. Other examples of hollow spheres were assembled from conical dendrons without a dipeptide at their apex. These are conical dendrons originated from tapered dendrons containing additional benzyl ether groups at their apex. The inner part of the hollow sphere assembled from the dipeptide resembles the path of a spherical helix or loxodrome and, therefore, is chiral. The spheres assembled from other conical dendrons are nonhelical, even when they contain stereocenters on the alkyl groups from their periphery. Functionalization of the apex of the conical dendrons with diethylene glycol allowed the encapsulation of LiOTf and RbOTf in the center of the hollow sphere. These experiments showed that hollow spheres function as supramolecular dendritic capsules and therefore are expected to display functions complementary to those of other related molecular and supramolecular structures. PMID:18771261

  16. Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode

    DOEpatents

    Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1997-07-22

    A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two. 12 figs.

  17. Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Eddie C.; Miller, William E.; Laidler, James J.

    1997-01-01

    A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two.

  18. Ir-coated dispenser cathode for CRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Sakae; Yakabe, Toru; Matsumoto, Sadao; Miyazaki, Daisuke; Yoshii, Tsuyoshi

    1990-12-01

    A compact dispenser cathode has been developed for application to CRTs. A cathode emitter, comprising BaO, CaO, and Al2O3 in a molar ratio of 4:1:1, was impregnated into a porous tungsten pellet. An intermetallic compound of tungsten and iridium was formed on the cathode pellet. Heater ratings were 6.3 V x 0.2 A. Emission characteristics were measured by using color CRTs. As a result, a cathode peak loading of 15 A/sq cm was ensured in the space-charge region. Furthermore, life tests with a peak loading of 7.5 A/sq cm were conducted over 10,000 h. The decrease in emission current after 10 000 h was within only 10 percent of the initial value. Reliability of cathode performance was assured in terms of breakdown potential between the heater and the cathode, emission characteristics, life performance, grid emission, and the drift in cutoff potential. In addition, the effects of the coating thickness on the emission characteristics are discussed.

  19. Microwave-Assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of VO2 Hollow Spheres and Their Conversion into V2O5 Hollow Spheres with Improved Lithium Storage Capability.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Zhong, Li; Li, Ming; Luo, Yuanyuan; Li, Guanghai

    2016-01-22

    Monodispersed hierarchically structured V2O5 hollow spheres were successfully obtained from orthorhombic VO2 hollow spheres, which are in turn synthesized by a simple template-free microwave-assisted solvothermal method. The structural evolution of VO2 hollow spheres has been studied and explained by a chemically induced self-transformation process. The reaction time and water content in the reaction solution have a great influence on the morphology and phase structure of the resulting products in the solvothermal reaction. The diameter of the VO2 hollow spheres can be regulated simply by changing vanadium ion content in the reaction solution. The VO2 hollow spheres can be transformed into V2O5 hollow spheres with nearly no morphological change by annealing in air. The nanorods composed of V2O5 hollow spheres have an average length of about 70 nm and width of about 19 nm. When used as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, the V2O5 hollow spheres display a diameter-dependent electrochemical performance, and the 440 nm hollow spheres show the highest specific discharge capacity of 377.5 mAhg(-1) at a current density of 50 mAg(-1) , and are better than the corresponding solid spheres and nanorod assemblies. PMID:26749240

  20. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  1. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Henning, S.A.

    1990-12-31

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800--1200{mu} diameter and 100--300{mu} wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  2. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Henning, Sten A.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800-1200 .mu. diameter and 100-300 .mu. wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  3. Nonintercepting emittance monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; James, M.B.; Sheppard, J.C.

    1983-08-01

    A nonintercepting emittance monitor is a helpful device for measuring and improving particle beams in accelerators and storage rings as it allows continuous monitoring of the beam's distribution in phase space, and perhaps closed loop computer control of the distributions. Stripline position monitors are being investigated for use as nonintercepting emittance monitors for a beam focused by a FODO array in the first 100 meters of our linear accelerator. The technique described here uses the signal from the four stripline probes of a single position monitor to measure the quadrupole mode of the wall current in the beam pipe. This current is a function of the quadrupole moment of the beam, sigma/sup 2//sub x/ - sigma/sup 2//sub y/. In general, six independent measurements of the quadrupole moment are necessary to determine the beam emittance. This technique is dependent on the characteristically large variations of sigma/sup 2//sub x/ - sigma/sup 2//sub y/ in a FODO array. It will not work in a focusing system where the beam is round at each focusing element.

  4. Experimental optimization of the 6-dimentional electron beam emittance at the NSLS SDL

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, H.J.; Murphy, J.; Shen,Y.; Tang,C.X.; Wang,X.J.

    2011-05-13

    Experimental optimization of the 6-dimensional electron beam emittance generated by a Magnesium (Mg) photocathode RF gun is presented in this report. A new electron beam optimization algorithm for a low charge (<100 pC) beam was experimentally demonstrated; where the electron beam velocity bunching inside the RF gun plays a critical role, and the transverse emittance as a function of the laser-RF timing jitter was experimentally characterized for the first time. A 20 pC electron beam was optimized to have a normalized slice emittance of 0.15 mm mrad and a longitudinal projected emittance of 3.9 ps keV. Furthermore, the upper limit of the measured thermal emittance - 0.5 mm mrad per mm of the rms laser size, is about 50% lower than the theoretical prediction for a Mg cathode (Qian et al., 2010) [1].

  5. Investigation of Endurance Performance of Carbon Nanotube Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Nanako; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Ohkawa, Yasushi; Nishida, Shin-Ichiro; Kitamura, Shoji

    The Aerospace Research and Development Directorate of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is considering a demonstration of electrodynamic tether (EDT) systems in low Earth orbit (LEO). Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have some advantages as electron sources compared to conventional Spindt type emitters, and so are expected to be useful in EDT systems. Experiments to investigate the durability of CNT cathodes in a space environment had been conducted in a diode mode, but it was found that electron extraction tests, in which the cathode with a gate electrode is used, are necessary to evaluate the endurance of CNTs more accurately. In this paper, we conducted long duration operating tests of a cathode with a gate. It was found that there was almost no change in cathode performance at current densities below 100 A/m2 even after the cathode was operated for over 500 hours in the high vacuum environment.

  6. Rare earth garnet selective emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, R.A.; Chubb, D.L.; Farmer, S.C.; Good, B.S.

    1994-09-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon{sub {lambda}}) approximately equal to 0.74, ((4)l{sub 15/2}) - ((4)l{sub 13/2}), for Er-YAG and epsilon{sub {lambda}} approximately equal to 0.65, ((5)l{sub 7})-((5)l{sub 8}) for (Ho-YAG) at excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in the thermophotovoltaics (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper the authors present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. This paper presents normal spectral emittance, epsilon{sub {lambda}} measurements of holmium (Ho), and erbium (Er) doped YAG thin film selective emitters at 1500 K, and compares those results with the theoretical spectral emittance.

  7. Rare earth garnet selective emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approximately equal to 0.74, ((4)l(sub 15/2)) - ( (4)l(sub13/2)), for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approximately equal to 0.65, ((5)l(sub 7))-((5)l(sub 8)) for Ho-YAG) at excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in the thermophotovoltaics (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. This paper presents normal spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda), measurements of holmium (Ho), and erbium (Er) doped YAG thin film selective emitters at 1500 K, and compares those results with the theoretical spectral emittance.

  8. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers

    DOEpatents

    Langry, Kevin C; Farmer, Joseph C

    2015-04-28

    A method, according to one embodiment, includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode.

  9. Hollow-Fiber Clinostat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Miller, Teresa Y.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    Hollow-fiber clinostat, is bioreactor used to study growth and other behavior of cells in simulated microgravity. Cells under study contained in porous hollow fiber immersed in culture medium inside vessel. Bores in hollow fiber allow exchange of gases, nutrients, and metabolic waste products between living cells and external culture media. Hollow fiber lies on axis of vessel, rotated by motor equipped with torque and speed controls. Desired temperature maintained by operating clinostat in standard tissue-culture incubator. Axis of rotation made horizontal or vertical. Designed for use with conventional methods of sterilization and sanitation to prevent contamination of specimen. Also designed for asepsis in assembly, injection of specimen, and exchange of medium.

  10. Arrays of Bundles of Carbon Nanotubes as Field Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Bronkowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Experiments have shown that with suitable choices of critical dimensions, planar arrays of bundles of carbon nanotubes (see figure) can serve as high-current-density field emitter (cold-cathode) electron sources. Whereas some hot-cathode electron sources must be operated at supply potentials of thousands of volts, these cold-cathode sources generate comparable current densities when operated at tens of volts. Consequently, arrays of bundles of carbon nanotubes might prove useful as cold-cathode sources in miniature, lightweight electron-beam devices (e.g., nanoklystrons) soon to be developed. Prior to the experiments, all reported efforts to develop carbon-nanotube-based field-emission sources had yielded low current densities from a few hundred microamperes to a few hundred milliamperes per square centimeter. An electrostatic screening effect, in which taller nanotubes screen the shorter ones from participating in field emission, was conjectured to be what restricts the emission of electrons to such low levels. It was further conjectured that the screening effect could be reduced and thus emission levels increased by increasing the spacing between nanotubes to at least by a factor of one to two times the height of the nanotubes. While this change might increase the emission from individual nanotubes, it would decrease the number of nanotubes per unit area and thereby reduce the total possible emission current. Therefore, to maximize the area-averaged current density, it would be necessary to find an optimum combination of nanotube spacing and nanotube height. The present concept of using an array of bundles of nanotubes arises partly from the concept of optimizing the spacing and height of field emitters. It also arises partly from the idea that single nanotubes may have short lifetimes as field emitters, whereas bundles of nanotubes could afford redundancy so that the loss of a single nanotube would not significantly reduce the overall field emission.

  11. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daojing; Yang, Peidong; Kim, Woong; Fan, Rong

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  12. Low Emittance Guns for the ILC Polarized Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.E.; Brachmann, A.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R.E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R.H.; Wang, J.W.; Zhou, F.; /SLAC

    2006-12-01

    Polarized electron beams generated by DC guns are routinely available at several accelerators including JLAB, Mainz and SLAC. These guns operate with a cathode bias on the order of -100 kV. To minimize space charge effects, relatively long bunches are generated at the gun and then compressed longitudinally external to the gun just before and during initial acceleration. For linear colliders, this compression is accomplished using a combination of rf bunchers. For the basic design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 120 kV DC photocathode gun is used to produce a series of nanosecond bunches that are each compressed by two sub-harmonic bunchers (SHBs) followed by an L-band buncher and capture section. The longitudinal bunching process results in a significantly higher emittance than produced by the gun alone. While high-energy experiments using polarized beams are not generally sensitive to the source emittance, there are several benefits to a lower source emittance including a simpler more efficient injector system and a lower radiation load during transport especially at bends as at the damping ring. For the ILC, the SHBs could be eliminated if the voltage of the gun is raised sufficiently. Simulations using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) package indicate that a cathode bias voltage of {ge}200 kV should allow both SHBs to be operated at 433 or even 650 MHz, while {ge}500 kV would be required to eliminate the SHBs altogether. Simulations can be used to determine the minimum emittance possible if the injector is designed for a given increased voltage. A possible alternative to the DC gun is an rf gun. Emittance compensation, routinely used with rf guns, is discussed for higher-voltage DC guns.

  13. Low Emittance Guns for the ILC Polarized Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J. E.; Brachmann, A.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R. E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R. H.; Wang, J. W.; Zhou, F.

    2007-06-13

    Polarized electron beams generated by DC guns are routinely available at several accelerators including JLAB, Mainz and SLAC. These guns operate with a cathode bias on the order of -100 kV. To minimize space charge effects, relatively long bunches are generated at the gun and then compressed longitudinally external to the gun just before and during initial acceleration. For linear colliders, this compression is accomplished using a combination of rf bunchers. For the basic design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 120 kV DC photocathode gun is used to produce a series of nanosecond bunches that are each compressed by two sub-harmonic bunchers (SHBs) followed by an L-band buncher and capture section. The longitudinal bunching process results in a significantly higher emittance than produced by the gun alone. While high-energy experiments using polarized beams are not generally sensitive to the source emittance, there are several benefits to a lower source emittance including a simpler more efficient injector system and a lower radiation load during transport especially at bends as at the damping ring. For the ILC, the SHBs could be eliminated if the voltage of the gun is raised sufficiently. Simulations using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) package indicate that a cathode bias voltage of {>=}200 kV should allow both SHBs to be operated at 433 or even 650 MHz, while {>=}500 kV would be required to eliminate the SHBs altogether. Simulations can be used to determine the minimum emittance possible if the injector is designed for a given increased voltage. A possible alternative to the DC gun is an rf gun. Emittance compensation, routinely used with rf guns, is discussed for higher-voltage DC guns.

  14. Nanotube cathodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  15. Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres formed through a self-templating solid-gas interface reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Jie Song Xubo; Zhang Yaohua; Li Yan; Li Xingguo; Pu Yikang

    2007-01-15

    Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by simply heating aluminum nanoparticles in ammonia at 1000 deg. C. The as-synthesized sphere shells are polycrystalline with cavity diameters ranging from 15 to 100 nm and shell thickness from 5 to 15 nm. The formation mechanism can be explained by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, which results from the difference in diffusion rates between aluminum and nitrogen. The Al nanoparticles served as both reactant and templates for the hollow sphere formation. The effects of precursor particle size and temperature were also investigated in terms of product morphology. Room temperature cathode luminescence spectrum of the nanosized hollow spheres showed a broad emission band centered at 415 nm, which is originated from oxygen related luminescence centers. The hollow structure survived a 4-h heat treatment at 1200 deg. C, exhibiting excellent thermal stability. - Graphical abstract: Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by nitridation of aluminum nanoparticles at 1000 deg. C using ammonia.

  16. Electric Field Screening by the Proximity of Two Knife-Edge Field Emitters of Finite Width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, P.; Tang, W.; Lau, Y. Y.; Hoff, B.

    2015-11-01

    Field emitter arrays have the potential to provide high current density, low voltage operation, and high pulse repetition for radar and communication. It is well known that packing density of the field emitter arrays significantly affect the emission current. Previously we calculated analytically the electric field profile of two-dimensional knife-edge cathodes with arbitrary separation by using a Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. Here we extend this previous work to include the finite width of two identical emitters. From the electric field profile, the field enhancement factor, thereby the severity of the electric field screening, are determined. It is found that for two identical emitters with finite width, the magnitude of the electric field on the knife-edge cathodes depends strongly on the ratio h / a and h / r , where h is the height of the knife-edge cathode, 2a is the distance between the cathodes, and 2 r represents their width. Particle-in-cell simulations are performed to compare with the analytical results on the emission current distribution. P. Y. Wong was supported by a Directed Energy Summer Scholar internship at Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, and by AFRL Award No. FA9451-14-1-0374.

  17. Investigation of the flickering of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ThO{sub 2} doped tungsten cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoebing, T.; Hermanns, P.; Bergner, A.; Ruhrmann, C.; Mentel, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Traxler, H.; Wesemann, I.; Knabl, W.

    2015-07-14

    Short-arc lamps are equipped with tungsten electrodes due to their ability to withstand a high thermal load during operation. Nominal currents of more than one hundred amperes lead to a cathode tip temperature near the melting point of tungsten. To reduce the electrode temperature and, thereby, to increase the maintenance of such lamps, ThO{sub 2} or tentatively La{sub 2}O{sub 3} are added to the electrode material. They generate a reduced work function by establishing a monolayer of emitter atoms on the tungsten surface. Emitter enrichments on the lateral surface of doped cathodes are formed. They are traced back to transport mechanisms of emitter oxides in the interior of the electrode and on the electrode surface in dependence of the electrode temperature and to the redeposition of vaporized and ionized emitter atoms onto the cathode tip by the electric field in front. The investigation is undertaken by means of glow discharge mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscope images, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and through measurements of the optical surface emissivity. The effect of emitter enrichments on the stability of the arc attachment is presented by means of temporally resolved electrode temperature measurements and by measurements of the luminous flux from the cathode-near plasma. They show that the emitter enrichments on the lateral surface of the cathode are attractive for the arc attachment if the emitter at the cathode tip is depleted. In this case, it moves along the lateral surface from the cathode tip to sections of the cathode with a reduced work function. It induces a temporary variation of the cathode tip temperature and of the light intensity from the cathode-near plasma, a so-called flickering. In particular, in case of lanthanated cathodes, strong flickering is observed.

  18. Development program on a cold cathode electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spindt, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype electron gun with a field emitter cathode capable of producing 95 mA in a 1/4 mm diameter beam at 12 kV was produced. Achievement of this goal required supporting studies in cathode fabrication, cathode performance, gun design, cathode mounting and gun fabrication. A series of empirical investigations advanced fabrication technology: More stable emitters were produced and multiple cone failure caused by chain reaction discharges were reduced. The cathode is capable of producing well over 95 mA, but a substantial collector development effort was required to demonstrate emission levels in the 100 mA region. Space charge problems made these levels difficult to achieve. Recommendations are made for future process and materials investigation. Electron gun designs were modeled and tested. A pair of two-electrode gun structures were fabricated and tested; one gun was delivered to NASA. Cathodes were pretested up to 100 mA at SRI and delivered to NASA for test in the gun structure.

  19. Progress on diamond amplified photo-cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Kewisch, J.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wu, Q.; Muller, E.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-28

    Two years ago, we obtained an emission gain of 40 from the Diamond Amplifier Cathode (DAC) in our test system. In our current systematic study of hydrogenation, the highest gain we registered in emission scanning was 178. We proved that our treatments for improving the diamond amplifiers are reproducible. Upcoming tests planned include testing DAC in a RF cavity. Already, we have designed a system for these tests using our 112 MHz superconducting cavity, wherein we will measure DAC parameters, such as the limit, if any, on emission current density, the bunch charge, and the bunch length. The diamond-amplified photocathode, that promises to support a high average current, low emittance, and a highly stable electron beam with a long lifetime, is under development for an electron source. The diamond, functioning as a secondary emitter amplifies the primary current, with a few KeV energy, that comes from the traditional cathode. Earlier, our group recorded a maximum gain of 40 in the secondary electron emission from a diamond amplifier. In this article, we detail our optimization of the hydrogenation process for a diamond amplifier that resulted in a stable emission gain of 140. We proved that these characteristics are reproducible. We now are designing a system to test the diamond amplifier cathode using an 112MHz SRF gun to measure the limits of the emission current's density, and on the bunch charge and bunch length.

  20. The Smokey Hollow Community The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Smokey Hollow Community - The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  1. Smokey Hollow Ethnographic Landscape Circa 1955 The Smokey Hollow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Smokey Hollow Ethnographic Landscape Circa 1955 - The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  2. Group-III Nitride Field Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensaoula, Abdelhak; Berishev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Field-emission devices (cold cathodes) having low electron affinities can be fabricated through lattice-mismatched epitaxial growth of nitrides of elements from group III of the periodic table. Field emission of electrons from solid surfaces is typically utilized in vacuum microelectronic devices, including some display devices. The present field-emission devices and the method of fabricating them were developed to satisfy needs to reduce the cost of fabricating field emitters, make them compatible with established techniques for deposition of and on silicon, and enable monolithic integration of field emitters with silicon-based driving circuitry. In fabricating a device of this type, one deposits a nitride of one or more group-III elements on a substrate of (111) silicon or other suitable material. One example of a suitable deposition process is chemical vapor deposition in a reactor that contains plasma generated by use of electron cyclotron resonance. Under properly chosen growth conditions, the large mismatch between the crystal lattices of the substrate and the nitride causes strains to accumulate in the growing nitride film, such that the associated stresses cause the film to crack. The cracks lie in planes parallel to the direction of growth, so that the growing nitride film becomes divided into microscopic growing single-crystal columns. The outer ends of the fully-grown columns can serve as field-emission tips. By virtue of their chemical compositions and crystalline structures, the columns have low work functions and high electrical conductivities, both of which are desirable for field emission of electrons. From examination of transmission electron micrographs of a prototype device, the average column width was determined to be about 100 nm and the sharpness of the tips was determined to be characterized by a dimension somewhat less than 100 nm. The areal density of the columns was found to about 5 x 10(exp 9)/sq cm . about 4 to 5 orders of magnitude

  3. Verification of high efficient broad beam cold cathode ion source.

    PubMed

    Abdel Reheem, A M; Ahmed, M M; Abdelhamid, M M; Ashour, A H

    2016-08-01

    An improved form of cold cathode ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of stainless steel hollow cylinder anode and stainless steel cathode disc, which are separated by a Teflon flange. The electrical discharge and output characteristics have been measured at different pressures using argon, nitrogen, and oxygen gases. The ion exit aperture shape and optimum distance between ion collector plate and cathode disc are studied. The stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current have been obtained using grid exit aperture. It was found that the optimum distance between ion collector plate and ion exit aperture is equal to 6.25 cm. The cold cathode ion source is used to deposit aluminum coating layer on AZ31 magnesium alloy using argon ion beam current which equals 600 μA. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques used for characterizing samples before and after aluminum deposition. PMID:27587108

  4. Verification of high efficient broad beam cold cathode ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Reheem, A. M.; Ahmed, M. M.; Abdelhamid, M. M.; Ashour, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    An improved form of cold cathode ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of stainless steel hollow cylinder anode and stainless steel cathode disc, which are separated by a Teflon flange. The electrical discharge and output characteristics have been measured at different pressures using argon, nitrogen, and oxygen gases. The ion exit aperture shape and optimum distance between ion collector plate and cathode disc are studied. The stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current have been obtained using grid exit aperture. It was found that the optimum distance between ion collector plate and ion exit aperture is equal to 6.25 cm. The cold cathode ion source is used to deposit aluminum coating layer on AZ31 magnesium alloy using argon ion beam current which equals 600 μA. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques used for characterizing samples before and after aluminum deposition.

  5. Emittance growth in intense beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Mills, R.S.; Crandall, K.R.

    1987-03-01

    Recent progress in the study of high-current, low-emittance, charged-particle beams may have a significant influence in the design of future linear accelerators and beam-transport systems for higher brightness applications. Three space-charge-induced rms-emittance-growth mechanisms are now well established: (1) charge-density redistribution, (2) kinetic-energy exchange toward equipartitioning, and (3) coherent instabilities driven by periodic focusing systems. We report the results from a numerical simulation study of emittance in a high-current radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator, and present a new semiempirical equation for the observed emittance growth, which agrees well with the emittance growth predicted from numerical simulation codes.

  6. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOEpatents

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  7. Sintered wire cathode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  8. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  9. Operation of an ungated diamond field-emission array cathode in a L-band radiofrequency electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Brau, C. A.; Gabella, W. E.; Ivanov, B.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Choi, B. K.; Blomberg, B.; Mihalcea, D.; Panuganti, H.; Jarvis, J.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J.

    2014-06-30

    We report on the operation of a field-emitter-array cathode in a conventional L-band radio-frequency electron source. The cathode consisted of an array of ∼10{sup 6} diamond tips on pyramids. Maximum current on the order of 15 mA was reached and the cathode did not show appreciable signs of fatigue after weeks of operation. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristics, transverse beam density, and current stability are discussed.

  10. Mode transition of microhollow cathode sustained discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shoujie; jing, Ha; Zhang, Zhao; Ouyang, Jiting; Li, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of microhollow cathode sustained discharge are investigated using a fully self-consistent fluid model. The evolutions of discharge current, electric potential, electron density, the axial and radial electric fields, and ionization rates are simulated at 100 Torr. The interaction between the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) and the microhollow cathode sustained discharge (MCSD) is also investigated. Results show that the mode transition is related to the distance d between the first anode and the second anode. When the distance is large (e.g. d  =  2 mm), a complete discharge process comprises five stages. These stages are Townsend mode, the transition from mainly axial electric field to mainly radial electric field, the formation of the hollow cathode effect, the formation of microcathode sustained discharge, and stable discharge. The influence of MHCD on MCSD is prior to the influence of MCSD on MHCD. By contrast, when d is very small (e.g. d  =  0.3 mm), the influence of MHCD on MCSD is posterior to the influence of MCSD on MHCD.

  11. Pressed boride cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolski, W.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental studies of emission cathodes made from lanthanum, yttrium, and gadolinium hexaborides are presented. Maximum thermal emission was obtained from lanthanum hexaboride electrodes. The hexaboride cathodes operated stably under conditions of large current density power draw, at high voltages and poor vacuum. A microtron electron gun with a lanthanum hexaboride cathode is described.

  12. Field electron emission from pencil-drawn cold cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiangtao; Yang, Bingjun; Liu, Xiahui; Yang, Juan; Yan, Xingbin

    2016-05-01

    Field electron emitters with flat, curved, and linear profiles are fabricated on flexible copy papers by direct pencil-drawing method. This one-step method is free of many restricted conditions such as high-temperature, high vacuum, organic solvents, and multistep. The cold cathodes display good field emission performance and achieve high emission current density of 78 mA/cm2 at an electric field of 3.73 V/μm. The approach proposed here would bring a rapid, low-cost, and eco-friendly route to fabricate but not limited to flexible field emitter devices.

  13. ROLE OF DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTERS IN HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    RAO, T.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

    2005-09-20

    In this paper we explore the possibility of using diamond secondary emitter in a high average current electron injector to amplify the current from the photocathode and to isolate the cathode and the injector from each other to increase the life time of the cathode and preserve the performance of the injector. Secondary electron yield of 225 and current density of 0.8 a/cm{sup 2} have been measured in the transmission mode from type 2 a natural diamond. Although the diamond will be heated during normal operation in the injector, calculations indicate that by cryogenically cooling the diamond, the temperature gradient along the diamond can be maintained within the acceptable range. The electron energy and temporal distributions are expected to be narrow from this device resulting in high brightness beams. Plans are underway to measure the SEY in emission mode, fabricate photocathode-diamond capsule and test diamond and capsule in superconducting RF injector.

  14. Emittance and Phase Space Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Alternative chicane-type beam lines are proposed for exact emittance exchange between horizontal phase space (x; x{prime}) and longitudinal phase space (z; {delta}). Methods to achieve exact phase space exchanges, i.e. mapping x to z, x{prime} to {delta}, z to x and {delta} to x{prime} are suggested. Methods to mitigate the thick-lens effect of the transverse cavity on emittance exchange are discussed. Some applications of the phase space exchanger and the feasibility of an emittance exchange experiment with the proposed chicane-type beam line at SLAC are discussed.

  15. Space charge effects on the current-voltage characteristics of gated field emitter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, K. L.; Kodis, M. A.; Murphy, R. A.; Zaidman, E. G.

    1997-07-01

    Microfabricated field emitter arrays (FEAs) can provide the very high electron current densities required for rf amplifier applications, typically on the order of 100 A/cm2. Determining the dependence of emission current on gate voltage is important for the prediction of emitter performance for device applications. Field emitters use high applied fields to extract current, and therefore, unlike thermionic emitters, the current densities can exceed 103A/cm2 when averaged over an array. At such high current densities, space charge effects (i.e., the influence of charge between cathode and collector on emission) affect the emission process or initiate conditions which can lead to failure mechanisms for field emitters. A simple model of a field emitter will be used to calculate the one-dimensional space charge effects on the emission characteristics by examining two components: charge between the gate and anode, which leads to Child's law, and charge within the FEA unit cell, which gives rise to a field suppression effect which can exist for a single field emitter. The predictions of the analytical model are compared with recent experimental measurements designed to assess space charge effects and predict the onset of gate current. It is shown that negative convexity on a Fowler-Nordheim plot of Ianode(Vgate) data can be explained in terms of field depression at the emitter tip in addition to reflection of electrons by a virtual cathode created when the anode field is insufficient to extract all of the current; in particular, the effects present within the unit cell constitute a newly described effect.

  16. Post-Removal Examination of GTF Cathode #2

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, R.

    2005-01-12

    This photo-cathode (PC), GTF Cathode No.2, was removed from the GTF in October, 2000. It was characterized in September, 1999 by G. Mulhollan and me (Report entitled ''A Brief Report on a Brief Examination of the Electropolished GTF Cathode'', LCLS-TN-99-10). The cathode conditions and results of that exam were: (1) The cathode was conventionally machined and cleaned in the SLAC Plating Shop. (2) The machining process left a central defect (400 microns diameter) which was not removed by electropolishing. (3) The electropolished surface was ''orange-peeled'', typical of excessive polishing. (4) Secondary electron microscopy (SEM) examination showed numerous 10 micron-diameter etch pits and a small number of copper surface particles. Operation of this cathode in the GTF exhibited ''hollow-beam'' behavior, suggesting that the central defect may have been responsible for non-normal emergence of the photo-emitted beam. No laser cleaning of the cathode was done, so all arc features are due to breakdowns. Post-removal analysis consisted of low-magnification digital camera pictures (taken with glancing-incidence tungsten white light illumination, to emphasize particles/pitting) and SEM. All images are available in digital (TIFF) form. Also available is a Power Point presentation of the results. Contact me for either. These image files are high-resolution and, thus, large in size. A 200K low-resolution contact sheet of a few images is attached to this report. Images are referred to by file name.

  17. Beam emittance measurements in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski,A.; Bazilevsky, A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nemesure, S.; Russo, t.; Steski, D.; Sivertz, M.

    2009-05-04

    The RHIC proton polarimeters can operate in scanning mode, giving polarization profiles and transverse beam intensity profile (beam emittance) measurements. The polarimeters function as wire scanners, providing a very good signal/noise ratio and high counting rate. This allows accurate bunch-by-bunch emittance measurements during fast target sweeps (<1 s) through the beam. Very thin carbon strip targets make these measurements practically non-destructive. Bunch by bunch emittance measurements are a powerful tool for machine set-up; in RHIC, individual proton beam transverse emittances can only be measured by CNI polarimeter scans. We discuss the consistency of these measurements with Ionization Profile Monitors (IPMs) and vernier scan luminosity measurements. Absolute accuracy limitations and cross-calibration of different techniques are also discussed.

  18. Axis-1 diode simulations I: standard 2-inch cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2011-01-11

    The standard configuration of the DARHT Axis-I diode features a 5.08-cm diameter velvet emitter mounted in the flat surface of the cathode shroud. The surface of the velvet is slightly recessed {approx}2.5 mm. This configuration produces a 1.75 kA beam when a 3.8-MV pulse is applied to the anode-cathode (AK) gap. This note addresses some of the physics of this diode through the use of finite-element simulations.

  19. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wanli; Fabbri, Jason D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-04-10

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  20. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wanli; Fabbri, Jason D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2013-10-29

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  1. Effect of thermionic cathode heating current self-magnetic field on gaseous plasma generator characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatin, I. V.; Akhmadeev, Yu. H.; Koval, N. N.

    2015-10-01

    The performance capabilities of the PINK, a plasma generator with a thermionic cathode mounted in the cavity of a hollow cathode, depending for its operation on a non-self-sustained low-pressure gas discharge have been investigated. It has been shown that when a single-filament tungsten cathode 2 mm in diameter is used and the peak filament current is equal to or higher than 100 A, the self-magnetic field of the filament current significantly affects the discharge current and voltage waveforms. This effect is due to changes in the time and space distributions of the emission current density from the hot cathode. When the electron mean free path is close to the characteristic dimensions of the thermionic cathode, the synthesized plasma density distribution is nonuniform and the cathode is etched nonuniformly. The cathode lifetime in this case is 8-12 h. Using a cathode consisting of several parallel-connected tungsten filaments ˜0.8 mm in diameter moderates the effect of the self-magnetic field of the filament current and nearly doubles the cathode lifetime. The use of this type of cathode together with a discharge igniting electrode reduces the minimum operating pressure in the plasma generator to about one third of that required for the generator operation with a single-filament cathode (to 0.04 Pa).

  2. Effect of thermionic cathode heating current self-magnetic field on gaseous plasma generator characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lopatin, I V; Akhmadeev, Yu H; Koval, N N

    2015-10-01

    The performance capabilities of the PINK, a plasma generator with a thermionic cathode mounted in the cavity of a hollow cathode, depending for its operation on a non-self-sustained low-pressure gas discharge have been investigated. It has been shown that when a single-filament tungsten cathode 2 mm in diameter is used and the peak filament current is equal to or higher than 100 A, the self-magnetic field of the filament current significantly affects the discharge current and voltage waveforms. This effect is due to changes in the time and space distributions of the emission current density from the hot cathode. When the electron mean free path is close to the characteristic dimensions of the thermionic cathode, the synthesized plasma density distribution is nonuniform and the cathode is etched nonuniformly. The cathode lifetime in this case is 8-12 h. Using a cathode consisting of several parallel-connected tungsten filaments ∼0.8 mm in diameter moderates the effect of the self-magnetic field of the filament current and nearly doubles the cathode lifetime. The use of this type of cathode together with a discharge igniting electrode reduces the minimum operating pressure in the plasma generator to about one third of that required for the generator operation with a single-filament cathode (to 0.04 Pa). PMID:26520947

  3. Effect of thermionic cathode heating current self-magnetic field on gaseous plasma generator characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatin, I. V. Akhmadeev, Yu. H.; Koval, N. N.

    2015-10-15

    The performance capabilities of the PINK, a plasma generator with a thermionic cathode mounted in the cavity of a hollow cathode, depending for its operation on a non-self-sustained low-pressure gas discharge have been investigated. It has been shown that when a single-filament tungsten cathode 2 mm in diameter is used and the peak filament current is equal to or higher than 100 A, the self-magnetic field of the filament current significantly affects the discharge current and voltage waveforms. This effect is due to changes in the time and space distributions of the emission current density from the hot cathode. When the electron mean free path is close to the characteristic dimensions of the thermionic cathode, the synthesized plasma density distribution is nonuniform and the cathode is etched nonuniformly. The cathode lifetime in this case is 8–12 h. Using a cathode consisting of several parallel-connected tungsten filaments ∼0.8 mm in diameter moderates the effect of the self-magnetic field of the filament current and nearly doubles the cathode lifetime. The use of this type of cathode together with a discharge igniting electrode reduces the minimum operating pressure in the plasma generator to about one third of that required for the generator operation with a single-filament cathode (to 0.04 Pa)

  4. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

    2012-03-01

    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  5. Visible Spectrum Incandescent Selective Emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Sonsight Inc.

    2004-04-30

    The purpose of the work performed was to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel bi-layer selective emitter. Selective emitters are incandescent radiant bodies with emissivities that are substantially larger in a selected part of the radiation spectrum, thereby significantly shifting their radiated spectral distribution from that of a blackbody radiating at the same temperature. The major research objectives involved answering the following questions: (1) What maximum VIS/NIR radiant power and emissivity ratios can be attained at 2650 K? (2) What is the observed emitter body life and how does its performance vary with time? (3) What are the design tradeoffs for a dual heating approach in which both an internally mounted heating coil and electrical resistance self-heating are used? (4) What are the quantitative improvements to be had from utilizing a bi-layer emitter body with a low emissivity inner layer and a partially transmissive outer layer? Two approaches to obtaining selective emissivity were investigated. The first was to utilize large optical scattering within an emitter material with a spectral optical absorption that is much greater within the visible spectrum than that within the NIR. With this approach, an optically thick emitter can radiate almost as if optically thin because essentially, scattering limits the distance below the surface from which significant amounts of internally generated radiation can emerge. The performance of thin emitters was also investigated (for optically thin emitters, spectral emissivity is proportional to spectral absorptivity). These emitters were fabricated from thin mono-layer emitter rods as well as from bi-layer rods with a thin emitter layer mounted on a substrate core. With an initially estimated energy efficiency of almost three times that of standard incandescent bulbs, a number of energy, economic and environmental benefits such as less energy use and cost, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, and no mercury contamination

  6. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, T.P.

    1991-11-26

    A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

  7. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-07-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications.

  8. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  9. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

  10. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications. PMID:23820511

  11. Study of electron current extraction from a radio frequency plasma cathode designed as a neutralizer for ion source applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanbakhsh, Sina; Satir, Mert; Celik, Murat

    2016-02-01

    Plasma cathodes are insert free devices that are developed to be employed as electron sources in electric propulsion and ion source applications as practical alternatives to more commonly used hollow cathodes. Inductively coupled plasma cathodes, or Radio Frequency (RF) plasma cathodes, are introduced in recent years. Because of its compact geometry, and simple and efficient plasma generation, RF plasma source is considered to be suitable for plasma cathode applications. In this study, numerous RF plasma cathodes have been designed and manufactured. Experimental measurements have been conducted to study the effects of geometric and operational parameters. Experimental results of this study show that the plasma generation and electron extraction characteristics of the RF plasma cathode device strongly depend on the geometric parameters such as chamber diameter, chamber length, orifice diameter, orifice length, as well as the operational parameters such as RF power and gas mass flow rate.

  12. Study of electron current extraction from a radio frequency plasma cathode designed as a neutralizer for ion source applications.

    PubMed

    Jahanbakhsh, Sina; Satir, Mert; Celik, Murat

    2016-02-01

    Plasma cathodes are insert free devices that are developed to be employed as electron sources in electric propulsion and ion source applications as practical alternatives to more commonly used hollow cathodes. Inductively coupled plasma cathodes, or Radio Frequency (RF) plasma cathodes, are introduced in recent years. Because of its compact geometry, and simple and efficient plasma generation, RF plasma source is considered to be suitable for plasma cathode applications. In this study, numerous RF plasma cathodes have been designed and manufactured. Experimental measurements have been conducted to study the effects of geometric and operational parameters. Experimental results of this study show that the plasma generation and electron extraction characteristics of the RF plasma cathode device strongly depend on the geometric parameters such as chamber diameter, chamber length, orifice diameter, orifice length, as well as the operational parameters such as RF power and gas mass flow rate. PMID:26932094

  13. Low-temperature thermionic emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved photodelineatable cathode material is disclosed comprising a combination of triple carbonate (TC) and a hydrocarbon polymeric photoresist PR. A mixture of TC powder and PR is applied to a cathode by spraying, spinning or dipping and is then subjected to activation at a temperature from about 800.degree. C up to the melting temperature. The cathodes can be activated at a temperature as low as 800.degree. C and still deliver a 0-field, temperature-limited current density of 750 milliamperes per sq. centimeter at 600.degree. C. If a pattern is desired, the coating is exposed through a suitable mask to actinic light to harden the photoresist in the desired areas. Following exposure, the exposed image areas are developed and the unexposed portions of the coating are removed with solvent. When dry, the cathode is ready for activation.

  14. Erosion of thermionic cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchinsky, Valerian

    2013-09-01

    Two types of the thermionic cathodes are used in industry: a) Tungsten (doped with thoria or pure) cathodes burning in a unreactive gas, and b) Thermo-chemical cathodes, such as a Hafnium cathode burning in oxygen plasma gas (mostly used plasma cutting). Both types of the cathodes experience cycle (arc on/off) erosion and constant current erosion. Available experimental data for both types of cathodes and both types of erosions (constant current and cycling) are presented and discussed. Based on the model the constant current erosion rate is calculated. Comparison of the results of the calculations with the experimental data show reasonable agreement. Existing hypotheses on cycling erosion are also discussed. For the Tungsten cathode, it is suggested that the start erosion is mainly due to the cold cathode mode (vacuum arc mode) of the arc operation that takes place just after the arc ignition. The presented estimation doesn't contradict this hypothesis. For the Hafnium cathode, the model of the ``open can'' erosion is supported by recently published observations.

  15. Note: Arc discharge plasma source with plane segmented LaB6 cathode.

    PubMed

    Akhmetov, T D; Davydenko, V I; Ivanov, A A; Kreter, A; Mishagin, V V; Savkin, V Ya; Shulzhenko, G I; Unterberg, B

    2016-05-01

    A plane cathode composed of close-packed hexagonal LaB6 (lanthanum hexaboride) segments is described. The 6 cm diameter circular cathode is heated by radiation from a graphite foil flat spiral. The cathode along with a hollow copper anode is used for the arc discharge plasma production in a newly developed linear plasma device. A separately powered coil located around the anode is used to change the magnetic field strength and geometry in the anode region. Different discharge regimes were realized using this coil. PMID:27250481

  16. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers

    DOEpatents

    Langry, Kevin C.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-08

    According to one embodiment, a system includes a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst coupled to the hollow fiber, an anode extending along at least part of a length of the structure, and a cathode extending along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode. In another embodiment, a method includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure on an opposite side as the anode.

  17. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Daniel T.

    1990-01-01

    A support is provided for use in a thermionic converter to support an end an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially at its temperatures changes. The emitter end (34) is supported by a spring structure (44) that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure (42) fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element (74) at the front end, a larger metal main support (76) at the rear end that is attached to the housng, and with a ceramic layer (80) between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer (120) captured between the Belleville springs.

  18. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Daniel T.

    1990-01-01

    A support is provided for use in a therminonic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end (34) is supported by a spring structure (44) that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure (42) fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element (74) at the front end, a larger metal main support (76) at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer (80) between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer (120) captured between the Belleville springs.

  19. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

    SciTech Connect

    McHenry, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    The US Naval Academy (USNA) has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the high temperature requirements necessary for high system efficiency. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design.

  20. Emittance concept and growth mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1996-05-01

    The authors present an introduction to the subjects of emittance and space-charge effects in charged-particle beams. This is followed by a discussion of three important topics that are at the frontier of this field. The first is a simple model, describing space-charge-induced emittance growth, which yields scaling formulas and some physical explanations for some of the surprising results. The second is a discussion of beam halo, an introduction to the particle-core model, and a brief summary of its results. The third topic is an introduction to the hypothesis of equipartitioning for collisionless particle beams.

  1. Emittance concept and growth mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1996-06-01

    We present an introduction to the subjects of emittance and space-charge effects in charged-particle beams. This is followed by a discussion of three important topics that are at the frontier of this field. The first is a simple model, describing space-charge-induced emittance growth, which yields scaling formulas and some physical explanations for some of the surprising results. The second is a discussion of beam halo, an introduction to the particle-core model, and a brief summary of its results. The third topic is an introduction to the hypothesis of equipartitioning for collisionless particle beams. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Improved Dispenser Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Lou

    2006-01-01

    Variations in emission current from dispenser cathodes can be caused by variations in temperature and work function over the surface. This paper described research to reduce these variations using improved mechanical designs and controlled porosity cathodes made from sintered tungsten wires. The program goal is to reduce current emission variations to less than 5% over the surface of magnetron injection guns operating temperature limited.

  3. Mercury - the hollow planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury is turning out to be a planet characterized by various kinds of endogenous hole (discounting impact craters), which are compared here. These include volcanic vents and collapse features on horizontal scales of tens of km, and smaller scale depressions ('hollows') associated with bright crater-floor deposits (BCFD). The BCFD hollows are tens of metres deep and kilometres or less across and are characteristically flat-floored, with steep, scalloped walls. Their form suggests that they most likely result from removal of surface material by some kind of mass-wasting process, probably associated with volume-loss caused by removal (via sublimation?) of a volatile component. These do not appear to be primarily a result of undermining. Determining the composition of the high-albedo bluish surface coating in BCFDs will be a key goal for BepiColombo instruments such as MIXS (Mercury Imaging Xray Spectrometer). In contrast, collapse features are non-circular rimless pits, typically on crater floors (pit-floor craters), whose morphology suggests collapse into void spaces left by magma withdrawal. This could be by drainage of either erupted lava (or impact melt) or of shallowly-intruded magma. Unlike the much smaller-scale BCFD hollows, these 'collapse pit' features tend to lack extensive flat floors and instead tend to be close to triangular in cross-section with inward slopes near to the critical angle of repose. The different scale and morphology of BCFD hollows and collapse pits argues for quite different modes of origin. However, BCFD hollows adjacent to and within the collapse pit inside Scarlatti crater suggest that the volatile material whose loss was responsible for the growth of the hollows may have been emplaced in association with the magma whose drainage caused the main collapse. Another kind of volcanic collapse can be seen within a 25 km-wide volcanic vent outside the southern rim of the Caloris basin (22.5° N, 146.1° E), on a 28 m/pixel MDIS NAC image

  4. The base metal of the oxide-coated cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poret, F.; Roquais, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    The oxide-coated cathode has been the most widely used electron emitter in vacuum electronic devices. From one manufacturing company to another the emissive oxide is either a double—Ba, Sr—or a triple—Ba, Sr, Ca—oxide, having always the same respective compositions. Conversely, the base metal composition is very often proprietary because of its importance in the cathode emission performances. The present paper aims at explaining the operation of the base metal through a review. After a brief introduction, the notion of activator is detailed along with their diffusivities and their associated interfacial compounds. Then, the different cathode life models are described prior to few comments on the composition choice of a base metal. Finally, the specificities of the RCA/Thomson "bimetal" base metal are presented with a discussion on the optimized composition choice illustrated by a long-term life-test of five different melts.

  5. Cathode interface studies of polymer light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiontek, Stephen; Tzolov, Marian

    2010-03-01

    Efficient injection of charge carriers is a key factor for successful operation of any electronic device and especially of devices with non-crystalline or wide band gap active material. Our study concentrates on the cathode interface of light emitting devices with a conjugated polymer as light emitter. We apply two principally different methods for the cathode deposition, physical and chemical, in order to fundamentally understand if in addition to the commonly accepted notion for the matching of the work functions also material modification takes place. The completed devices are studies by steady-state electrical measurements, impedance spectroscopy, current and emission lifetime measurements, and electroluminescence spectroscopy. The morphology of the cathodes is studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and the formation of additional phases by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The results help to define ways for more cost efficient fabrication of light emitting devices with applications in displays, electronic newspapers, room illumination, etc.

  6. Highly reliable field electron emitters produced from reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2014-02-14

    Highly reliable field electron emitters were developed using a formulation for reproducible damage-free carbon nanotube (CNT) composite pastes with optimal inorganic fillers and a ball-milling method. We carefully controlled the ball-milling sequence and time to avoid any damage to the CNTs, which incorporated fillers that were fully dispersed as paste constituents. The field electron emitters fabricated by printing the CNT pastes were found to exhibit almost perfect adhesion of the CNT emitters to the cathode, along with good uniformity and reproducibility. A high field enhancement factor of around 10,000 was achieved from the CNT field emitters developed. By selecting nano-sized metal alloys and oxides and using the same formulation sequence, we also developed reliable field emitters that could survive high-temperature post processing. These field emitters had high durability to post vacuum annealing at 950 °C, guaranteeing survival of the brazing process used in the sealing of field emission x-ray tubes. We evaluated the field emitters in a triode configuration in the harsh environment of a tiny vacuum-sealed vessel and observed very reliable operation for 30 h at a high current density of 350 mA cm(-2). The CNT pastes and related field emitters that were developed could be usefully applied in reliable field emission devices. PMID:24434798

  7. Hollow Polyimide Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A shaped article composed of an aromatic polyimide has a hollow, essentially spherical structure and a particle size of about 100 to about 1500 micrometers, a density of about 1 to about 6 pounds/cubic foot and a volume change of 1 to about 20% by a pressure treatment of 30 psi for 10 minutes at room temperature. A syntactic foam, made of a multiplicity of the shaped articles which are bonded together by a matrix resin to form an integral composite structure, has a density of about 3 to about 30 pounds/cubic feet and a compression strength of about 100 to about 1400 pounds/sq inch.

  8. Hollow Polyimide Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A shaped article composed of an aromatic polyimide has a hollow, essentially spherical structure and a particle size of about 100 to about 1500 microns, a density of about I to about 6 pounds/ft3 and a volume change of 1 to about 20% by a pressure treatment of 30 psi for 10 minutes at room temperature. A syntactic foam, made of a multiplicity of the shaped articles which are bounded together by a matrix resin to form an integral composite structure, has a density of about 3 to about 30 pounds/cu ft and a compression strength of about 100 to about 1400 pounds/sq in.

  9. Hollow Polyimide Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A shaped article composed of an aromatic polyimide has a hollow, essentially spherical structure and a particle size of about 100 to about 1500 microns a density of about 1 to about 6 pounds/cubic ft and a volume change of 1 to about 20 percent by a pressure treatment of 30 psi for 10 minutes at room temperature. A syntactic foam, made of a multiplicity of the shaped articles which are bonded together by a matrix resin to form an integral composite structure, has a density of about 3 to about 30 pounds/cubic ft and a compression strength 2 of about 100 to about 1400 pounds/sq in.

  10. Using Multispectral Imaging to Measure Temperature Profiles and Emissivity of Large Thermionic Dispenser, Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Simmons; C.M. Fortgang; D.B. Holtkamp

    2001-09-01

    Thermionic dispenser cathodes are widely used in modern high-power microwave tubes. Use of these cathodes has led to significant improvement in performance. In recent years these cathodes have been used in electron linear accelerators (LINACs), particularly in induction LINACs, such as the Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Relativistic Test Accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. For induction LINACs, the thermionic dispenser cathode provides greater reproducibility, longer pulse lengths, and lower emittance beams than does a field emission cathode. Los Alamos National Laboratory is fabricating a dual-axis X-ray radiography machine called dual-axis radiograph hydrodynamic test (DARHT). The second axis of DARHT consists of a 2-kA, 20-MeV induction LINAC that uses a 3.2-MeV electron gun with a tungsten thermionic-dispenser cathode. Typically the DARHT cathode current density is 10 A/cm{sup 2} at 1050 C. Under these conditions current density is space-charge limited, which is desirable since current density is independent of temperature. At lower temperature (the temperature-limited regime) there are variations in the local current density due to a nonuniform temperature profile. To obtain the desired uniform current density associated with space-charge limited operation, the coolest area on the cathode must be at a sufficiently high temperature so that the emission is space-charge limited. Consequently, the rest of the cathode is emitting at the same space-charge-limited current density but is at a higher temperature than necessary. Because cathode lifetime is such a strong function of cathode temperature, there is a severe penalty for nonuniformity in the cathode temperature. For example, a temperature increase of 50 C means cathode lifetime will decrease by a factor of at least four. Therefore, we are motivated to measure the temperature profiles of our large-area cathodes.

  11. Ultra Low Emittance Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson,J.

    2008-06-23

    This paper outlines the special issues for reaching sub-nm emittance in a storage ring. Effects of damping wigglers, intra-beam scattering and lifetime issues, dynamic aperture optimization, control of optics, and their interrelations are covered in some detail. The unique choices for the NSLS-II are given as one example.

  12. A multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun and its electron beam analysis in self and trigger breakdown modes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Jadon, Arvind Singh; Pal, Udit Narayan; Rahaman, Hasibur; Prakash, Ram

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, a pseudospark discharge based multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun is reported which has been operated separately in self and trigger breakdown modes using two different gases, namely, argon and hydrogen. The beam current and beam energy have been analyzed using a concentric ring diagnostic arrangement. Two distinct electron beams are clearly seen with hollow cathode and conductive phases. The hollow cathode phase has been observed for ∼50 ns where the obtained electron beam is having low beam current density and high energy. While in conductive phase it is high current density and low energy electron beam. It is inferred that in the hollow cathode phase the beam energy is more for the self breakdown case whereas the current density is more for the trigger breakdown case. The tailor made operation of the hollow cathode phase electron beam can play an important role in microwave generation. Up to 30% variation in the electron beam energy has been achieved keeping the same gas and by varying the breakdown mode operations. Also, up to 32% variation in the beam current density has been achieved for the trigger breakdown mode at optimized trigger position by varying the gas type. PMID:27036773

  13. A multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun and its electron beam analysis in self and trigger breakdown modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Jadon, Arvind Singh; Pal, Udit Narayan; Rahaman, Hasibur; Prakash, Ram

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, a pseudospark discharge based multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun is reported which has been operated separately in self and trigger breakdown modes using two different gases, namely, argon and hydrogen. The beam current and beam energy have been analyzed using a concentric ring diagnostic arrangement. Two distinct electron beams are clearly seen with hollow cathode and conductive phases. The hollow cathode phase has been observed for ˜50 ns where the obtained electron beam is having low beam current density and high energy. While in conductive phase it is high current density and low energy electron beam. It is inferred that in the hollow cathode phase the beam energy is more for the self breakdown case whereas the current density is more for the trigger breakdown case. The tailor made operation of the hollow cathode phase electron beam can play an important role in microwave generation. Up to 30% variation in the electron beam energy has been achieved keeping the same gas and by varying the breakdown mode operations. Also, up to 32% variation in the beam current density has been achieved for the trigger breakdown mode at optimized trigger position by varying the gas type.

  14. Formation of stable direct current microhollow cathode discharge by venturi gas flow system for remote plasma source in atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ki Wan; Lee, Tae Il; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Noh, Joo Hyon; Baik, Hong Koo; Song, Kie Moon

    2008-02-11

    We introduce a microhollow cathode configuration with venturi gas flow to ambient air in order to obtain glow discharge at atmospheric pressure. Stable microhollow cathode discharge was formed in a 200 {mu}m diameter at 9 mA and the optimum value of gas velocityxdiameter for hollow cathode effect was obtained in our system. In order to confirm hollow cathode effect, we measured the enhancement of E/N strength for 200 {mu}m (0.31 m{sup 2}/s) and 500 {mu}m (0.78 m{sup 2}/s) air discharge at 8 mA under the velocity of 156 m/s. As a result, an increase of 46.7% in E/N strength of the discharge of 200 {mu}m hole was obtained compare to that of 500 {mu}m.

  15. Estimation of Metal-Deposited Field Emitters for the Micro Vacuum Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Inoue, Kazunori; Nagao, Masayoshi; Sasaki, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takashi; Gotoh, Yasuhito

    1993-03-01

    The material dependence on the emission characterisitics of metal-deposited field emitters has been investigated in order to determine the cathode material suitable for vacuum microelectronics devices. It is shown that the relationships between the intercepts and the slopes of the experimental F-N plots give the apparent differences of the materials even though the radii of the apices are not equal among the emitters. We derive the modified F-N equation from the experimental values and the semi-empirical assumption as a linear variation of the work function with electrical field due to an adsorption effect. From this equation we calculate the emitting area, the radius of the emitter apex and the work function.

  16. The anodic emitter effect and its inversion demonstrated by temperature measurements at doped and undoped tungsten electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoebing, T.; Bergner, A.; Hermanns, P.; Mentel, J.; Awakowicz, P.

    2016-04-01

    The admixture of a small amount of emitter oxides, e.g. \\text{Th}{{\\text{O}}2} , \\text{L}{{\\text{a}}2}{{\\text{O}}3} or \\text{C}{{\\text{e}}2}{{\\text{O}}3} to tungsten generates the so-called emitter effect. It reduces the work function of tungsten cathodes, that are applied in high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. After leaving the electrode bulk and moving to the surface, a monolayer of Th, La, or Ce atoms is formed on the surface, which reduces the effective work function ϕ. Depending on the coverage of the electrode, the effective reduction in ϕ is subjected to the thermal desorption of the monolayer from the hot electrode surface. The thermal desorption of emitter atoms from the cathode is compensated not only by the supply from the interior of the electrode and by surface diffusion of the emitter material to its tip, but also to a large extent by a repatriation of the emitter ions from the plasma by the strong electric field in front of the cathode. Yet, an emitter ion current from the arc discharge to the anode may only be present, if the anode is cold enough to refrain from thermionic emission. Therefore, the ability of emitter oxides to reduce the temperature of tungsten anodes is only given for a moderate temperature so that the thermal desorption is low and an additional ion current is present in front of the anode. A higher electrode temperature leads to their evaporation and to an inversion of the emitter effect, which increases the temperature of the respective anodes in comparison with pure tungsten anodes. Within this article, the emitter effect of doped tungsten anodes and the transition to its inversion is investigated for thoriated, lanthanated, and ceriated tungsten electrodes by measurements of the electrode temperature in dependence on the discharge current. It is shown for a lanthanated and a ceriated anode that the emitter effect is sustained by an ion current at anode temperatures at which the thermal evaporation of emitter material

  17. Positron Acceleration by Plasma Wakefields Driven by a Hollow Electron Beam.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neeraj; Antonsen, T M; Palastro, J P

    2015-11-01

    A scheme for positron plasma wakefield acceleration using hollow or donut-shaped electron driver beams is studied. An annular-shaped, electron-free region forms around the hollow driver beam, creating a favorable region (longitudinal field is accelerating and transverse field is focusing) for positron acceleration. For Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET)-like parameters, the hollow beam driver produces accelerating gradients on the order of 10  GV/m. The accelerating gradient increases linearly with the total charge in the driver beam. Simulations show acceleration of a 23-GeV positron beam to 35.4 GeV with a maximum energy spread of 0.4% and very small emittance over a plasma length of 140 cm is possible. PMID:26588391

  18. Evaluation of an Electrochromic Device for Variable Emittance in Simulated Space Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puterbaugh, Rebekah L.; Mychkovsky, Alexander G.; Ponnappan, Rengasamy; Kislov, Nikolai

    2005-02-01

    Unprotected skin and external surfaces of a spacecraft in earth orbit may experience temperature variations from -50°C to +100°C during exposure to cold space or sun. As a result, thermal management of spacecraft becomes extremely important. One latest trend is to provide flexibility and control in the thermal design that involves variable emittance surfaces consisting of electrochromic (EC) coatings. For investigational purposes, a sample electrochromic device is evaluated for variable emittance in simulated space conditions. A vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen circulated blackbody shroud is employed to simulate space conditions. The 63.5 × 63.5 mm test sample supplied by a small business research firm is mounted on an aluminum plate heated by an electrical resistance heater. The sample is thermally insulated by a heat shield from all surroundings excluding the active front surface facing the shroud. The heat shield is uniformly maintained at the sample temperature using an independent circuit of resistance heaters and temperature controllers. A steady state energy balance is applied to the test sample to determine the emittance as a function of temperature and DC bias voltage applied across the anode and cathode. Tests were performed to verify the switchability from high to low emittance states and vice versa. The difference between the high and low emittance values (Δɛ) obtained in the present calorimetric measurement is compared with the data obtained from FTIR measurements performed by the supplier of the EC sample. Results obtained in the present experiments compare closely with supplier data and prove the effectiveness of the variable emittance sample in space conditions. The validity of the calorimetric experiment is confirmed by testing materials with known emittances, such as black paint and polished metals. Error analysis of the system predicts an emittance accuracy of ±5% at sample temperatures in the range of -50°C to 100°C.

  19. Lightweight Cathodes For Nickel Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    Lightweight cathodes for rechargeable nickel-based electrochemical cells undergoing development. In cathodes, mats of nickel fibers are substrates providing structural support of, and electrical contact with, active cathode material. Offers specific energies greater than sintered nickel plaque cathodes. Electrodes used in rechargeable batteries for applications in which weight major concern, including laptop computers, cellular phones, flashlights, soldiers' backpacks, and electric vehicles.

  20. Flat Panel Light Source with Lateral Gate Structure Based on SiC Nanowire Field Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youh, Meng-Jey; Tseng, Chun-Lung; Jhuang, Meng-Han; Chiu, Sheng-Cheng; Huang, Li-Hu; Gong, Jyun-An; Li, Yuan-Yao

    2015-06-01

    A field-emission light source with high luminance, excellent luminance uniformity, and tunable luminance characteristics with a novel lateral-gate structure is demonstrated. The lateral-gate triode structure comprises SiC nanowire emitters on a Ag cathode electrode and a pair of Ag gate electrodes placed laterally on both sides of the cathode. The simple and cost-effective screen printing technique is employed to pattern the lateral-gates and cathode structure on soda lime glass. The area coverage of the screen-printed cathode and gates on the glass substrate (area: 6 × 8 cm2) is in the range of 2.04% - 4.74% depending on the set of cathode-gate electrodes on the substrate. The lateral-gate structure with its small area coverage exhibits a two-dimensional luminance pattern with high brightness and good luminance uniformity. A maximum luminance of 10952 cd/cm2 and a luminance uniformity of >90% can be achieved with a gate voltage of 500 V and an anode voltage of 4000 V, with an anode current of 1.44 mA and current leakage to the gate from the cathode of about 10%.

  1. Flat Panel Light Source with Lateral Gate Structure Based on SiC Nanowire Field Emitters.

    PubMed

    Youh, Meng-Jey; Tseng, Chun-Lung; Jhuang, Meng-Han; Chiu, Sheng-Cheng; Huang, Li-Hu; Gong, Jyun-An; Li, Yuan-Yao

    2015-01-01

    A field-emission light source with high luminance, excellent luminance uniformity, and tunable luminance characteristics with a novel lateral-gate structure is demonstrated. The lateral-gate triode structure comprises SiC nanowire emitters on a Ag cathode electrode and a pair of Ag gate electrodes placed laterally on both sides of the cathode. The simple and cost-effective screen printing technique is employed to pattern the lateral-gates and cathode structure on soda lime glass. The area coverage of the screen-printed cathode and gates on the glass substrate (area: 6 × 8 cm(2)) is in the range of 2.04% - 4.74% depending on the set of cathode-gate electrodes on the substrate. The lateral-gate structure with its small area coverage exhibits a two-dimensional luminance pattern with high brightness and good luminance uniformity. A maximum luminance of 10,952 cd/cm(2) and a luminance uniformity of >90% can be achieved with a gate voltage of 500 V and an anode voltage of 4000 V, with an anode current of 1.44 mA and current leakage to the gate from the cathode of about 10%. PMID:26042359

  2. Flat Panel Light Source with Lateral Gate Structure Based on SiC Nanowire Field Emitters

    PubMed Central

    Youh, Meng-Jey; Tseng, Chun-Lung; Jhuang, Meng-Han; Chiu, Sheng-Cheng; Huang, Li-Hu; Gong, Jyun-An; Li, Yuan-Yao

    2015-01-01

    A field-emission light source with high luminance, excellent luminance uniformity, and tunable luminance characteristics with a novel lateral-gate structure is demonstrated. The lateral-gate triode structure comprises SiC nanowire emitters on a Ag cathode electrode and a pair of Ag gate electrodes placed laterally on both sides of the cathode. The simple and cost-effective screen printing technique is employed to pattern the lateral-gates and cathode structure on soda lime glass. The area coverage of the screen-printed cathode and gates on the glass substrate (area: 6 × 8 cm2) is in the range of 2.04% – 4.74% depending on the set of cathode-gate electrodes on the substrate. The lateral-gate structure with its small area coverage exhibits a two-dimensional luminance pattern with high brightness and good luminance uniformity. A maximum luminance of 10952 cd/cm2 and a luminance uniformity of >90% can be achieved with a gate voltage of 500 V and an anode voltage of 4000 V, with an anode current of 1.44 mA and current leakage to the gate from the cathode of about 10%. PMID:26042359

  3. Cathodes - Technological review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkouk, Charaf; Nestler, Tina

    2014-06-01

    Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) was already used in the first commercialized Li-ion battery by SONY in 1990. Still, it is the most frequently used cathode material nowadays. However, LiCoO2 is intrinsically unstable in the charged state, especially at elevated temperatures and in the overcharged state causing volume changes and transport limitation for high power batteries. In this paper, some technological aspects with large impact on cell performance from the cathode material point of view will be reviewed. At first it will be focused on the degradation processes and life-time mechanisms of the cathode material LiCoO2. Electrochemical and structural results on commercial Li-ion batteries recorded during the cycling will be discussed. Thereafter, advanced nanomaterials for new cathode materials will be presented.

  4. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi

    2013-04-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. PMID:23325336

  5. Catalytic hollow spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The improved, heterogeneous catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitably formed of a shell (12) of metal such as aluminum having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be, itself, catalytic or the catalyst can be coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  6. Catalytic, hollow, refractory spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Improved, heterogeneous, refractory catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitable formed of a shell (12) of refractory such as alumina having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be itself catalytic or a catalytically active material coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  7. Catalytic hollow spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The improved, heterogeneous catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitably formed of a shell (12) of metal such as aluminum having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be, itself, catalytic or the catalyst can be coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  8. Development of potassium ion conducting hollow glass fibers. [potassium sulfur battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium ion conducting glasses, chemically resistant to potassium, potassium sulfide and sulfur, were made and their possible utility as the membrane material for a potassium/sulfur battery was evaluated. At least one satisfactory candidate was found. It possesses an electrical resistance which makes it usable as a membrane in the form of a fine hollow fiber. It's chemical and electrochemical resistances are excellent. The other aspects of the possible potassium sulfur battery utilizing such fine hollow fibers, including the header (or tube sheet) and a cathode current collector were studied. Several cathode materials were found to be satisfactory. None of the tube sheet materials studied possessed all the desired properties. Multi-fiber cells had very limited life-time due to physical failure of fibers at the fiber/tube sheet junctions.

  9. Robust, easily shaped, and epoxy-free carbon-fiber-aluminum cathodes for generating high-current electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lie; Li, Limin; Wen, Jianchun; Wan, Hong

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the construction of carbon-fiber-aluminum (CFA) cathode by squeezing casting and its applications for generating high-current electron beams to drive high-power microwave sources. The fabrication process avoided using epoxy, a volatile deteriorating the vacuum system. These cathodes had a higher hardness than conventional aluminum, facilitating machining. After surface treatment, carbon fibers became the dominator determining emission property. A multineedle CFA cathode was utilized in a triode virtual cathode oscillator (vircator), powered by a ˜450 kV, ˜400 ns pulse. It was found that 300-400 MW, ˜250 ns microwave was radiated at a dominant frequency of 2.6 GHz. Further, this cathode can endure high-current-density emission without detectable degradation in performance as the pulse shot proceeded, showing the robust nature of carbon fibers as explosive emitters. Overall, this new class of cold cathodes offers a potential prospect of developing high-current electron beam sources.

  10. Arcjet Cathode Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  11. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  12. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

    SciTech Connect

    McHenry, R.S.; Harper, M.J.; Lindler, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    The United States Naval Academy, under interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The design was constrained by the physical geometry and photovoltaic cell type of the DOE TPV generator so that a cylindrical emitter at 1,756 K (2,700 F) was dictated. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the DOE requirements. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design. The concept of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion dates to the 1960s and has been the subject of broad research effort. This is a direct energy conversion process that converts thermal energy into electricity with only photonic coupling. The process offers high theoretical efficiency, versatile application as a primary or secondary power cycle, and a number of operational advantages resulting from the lack of a working substance or moving parts.

  14. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  15. Three Dimensional Effects on Virtual Cathode Formation in Electron Guns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valfells, Agust

    2001-10-01

    Recent experiments at the University of Maryland using photoemission from a dispenser cathode have yielded some interesting results regarding the effects of the area of emission and of the ratio between the pulse length and the gap transit time on the amount of current that may be drawn from an electron gun before a virtual cathode forms. The experiments show that a much higher current density may be drawn from a short pulse or limited emitter area than is anticipated by the Child-Langmuir limiting current. There is also evidence that the current may be increased even after virtual cathode formation, which leads one to distinguish between a limiting current density and a current density critical for virtual cathode formation. The experiments have also yielded some interesting results on the longitudinal structure of the current pulse passed through the anode. Some empirical and theoretical scaling laws regarding the formation of virtual cathodes in an electron gun will be presented. This work was motivated by the needs of the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), where we wish to generate pulses that are well-localized in time and space.

  16. Influence of thin porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer on aluminum cathode to the H{sub a}lpha line shape in glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Steflekova, V.; Sisovic, N. M.; Konjevic, N.

    2009-06-01

    The results of the Balmer alfa line shape study in a plane cathode-hollow anode Grimm discharge with aluminum (Al) cathode covered with thin layer of porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are presented. The comparison with same line profile recorded with pure Al cathode shows lack of excessive Doppler broadened line wings, which are always detected in glow discharge with metal cathode. The effect is explained by the lack of strong electric field in the cathode sheath region, which is missing in the presence of thin oxide layer in, so called, spray discharge.

  17. Hollow Retroreflectors Offer Solid Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A technician who lead a successful team of scientists, engineers, and other technicians in the design, fabrication, and characterization of cryogenic retroreflectors for the NASA Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) mission to Saturn, developed a hollow retroreflector technology while working at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. With 16 years of NASA experience, the technician teamed up with another NASA colleague and formed PROSystems, Inc., of Sharpsburg, Maryland, to provide the optics community with an alternative source for precision hollow retroreflectors. The company's hollow retroreflectors are front surface glass substrates assembled to provide many advantages over existing hollow retroreflectors and solid glass retroreflectors. Previous to this new technology, some companies chose not to use hollow retroreflectors due to large seam widths and loss of signal. The "tongue and groove" facet design of PROSystems's retroreflector allows for an extremely small seam width of .001 inches. Feedback from users is very positive regarding this characteristic. Most of PROSystems's primary customers mount the hollow retroreflectors in chrome steel balls for laser tracker targets in applications such as automobile manufacturing and spacecraft assembly.

  18. Cathode materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus Mohanty, Debasish Li, Jianlin Wood, David L.

    2014-06-16

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO{sub 2} cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  19. Cathode materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Claus; Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Wood, David L.

    2014-06-01

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO2 cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  20. Rotating dipole and quadrupole field for a multiple cathode system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.; Meng, W.; Pikin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skarita, J.; Wang, E.; Wu, Q.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-28

    A multiple cathode system has been designed to provide the high average current polarized electron bunches for the future electron-ion collider eRHIC [1]. One of the key research topics in this design is the technique to generate a combined dipole and quadrupole rotating field at high frequency (700 kHz). This type of field is necessary for combining bunches from different cathodes to the same axis with minimum emittance growth. Our simulations and the prototype test results to achieve this will be presented. The future eRHIC project, next upgrade of EHIC, will be the first electron-heavy ion collider in the world. For polarized-electron and polarized proton collisions, it requires a polarized electron source with high average current ({approx}50 mA), short bunch ({approx}3 mm), emittance of about 20 {micro}m and energy spread of {approx}1% at 10 MeV. The state-of-art polarized electron cathode can generate average current of about more than 1 mA, but much less than 50 mA. The current is limited by the quantum efficiency, lifetime, space charge and ultra-high vacuum requirement of the polarized cathode. A possible approach to achieve the 50 mA beam is to employ multiple cathodes, such as 20 cathodes, and combine the multiple bunched beams from cathodes to the same axis. We name it as 'Gatling gun' because its operations bear similarity to a multi-barrel Gatling gun. The electron spin direction is not affected by electric field but will follow to the direction of the magnetic bending. This requires that, to preserve the spin polarization from cathode, the fixed bending field after the solenoid and the rotating bending field in combiner must be either a pair of electric bendings or a pair of magnetic bendings. We choose the scheme with a pair of magnetic bendings because it is much easier than the scheme with a pair of electric bendings at our 200 keV electron energy level.

  1. Thermionic cathode life test studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R.; Elmer, P.

    1980-01-01

    An update on the life testing of commerical, high current density impregnated tungsten cathodes is presented. The B-type cathodes, operated at a current density of 2 A/cm2 and a cathode temperature of 1100 C have now been run satisfactorily for more than four years. The M-cathode, at the same current density but at an operating temperature of only 1010 C, have been tested for more than three years. The M-cathodes show no degradation in current over their present operating life whereas the current from the B-cathodes degrade about 6 percent after four years of operation.

  2. Hollow fiber catalytic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yi Hua; Moser, W.; Shelekhin, A.; Pien, Shyhing

    1993-09-01

    The objective of the present research is to investigate the possibility of the enhancement of the H{sub 2}S thermal decomposition in the IGCC system by employing the hollow fiber catalytic membrane reactor. To accomplish the objective, the following major components in the analysis of the high temperature membrane reactor must be investigated: high-temperature stability of the porous glass membrane; catalytic properties of MoS{sub 2} and of the porous glass membrane; catalytic decomposition of H{sub 2}S in a packed bed reactor; catalytic decomposition of 100%, 8.6%, and 1.1% H{sub 2}S gas mixtures in the membrane reactor. The study has been shown that the conversion of the H{sub 2}S can be increased in the packed bed membrane reactor compared to the equilibrium conversion on the shell side. The development of a mathematical model for the proposed process is in progress. The model will enable optimization of the H{sub 2}S decomposition. These conditions include selectivity factors and pressure drop across the membrane.

  3. Evaluations of the stability of sheathless electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitters using electrochemical techniques.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, S; Svedberg, T M; Pettersson, J; Björefors, T F; Markides, K; Nyholm, L

    2001-10-01

    The processes that cause the failure of sheathless electrospray ionization (ESI) emitters, based on different kinds of gold coatings on fused-silica capillaries, are described and explained. The methods chosen for this study include electrochemical methods, ICPMS analysis of the electrolytes used, SEM studies, and electrospray experiments. Generally, the failure occurs by loss of the conductive coating. It is shown that emitters with sputter-coated gold lose their coatings because of mechanical stress caused by the gas evolution accompanying water oxidation or reduction. Emitters with gold coatings on top of adhesion layers of chromium and nickel alloy withstand this mechanical stress and have excellent durability when operating as cathodes. When operating as anodes, the adhesion layer is electrochemically dissolved through the gold film, and the gold film then flakes off. It is shown that the conductive coating behaves as a cathode even in the positive electrospray mode when the magnitude of a superimposed reductive electrophoretic current exceeds that of the oxidative electrospray current. Fairy-dust coatings developed in our laboratory (see Barnidge, D. R.; etal.Anal. Chem. 1999, 71, 4115-4118,) bygluing gold dust onto the emitter, are unaffected by the mechanical stress due to gas evolution. When oxidized, the fairy-dust coatings show an increased surface roughness and decreased conductivities due to the formation of gold oxide. The resistance of this oxide layer is however negligible in comparison with that of the gas phase in ESI. Furthermore, since no flaking and only negligible electrochemical etching of gold was found, practically unlimited emitter lifetimes may be achieved with fairy-dust coatings. PMID:11605837

  4. Emittance measurements of RCG coated Shuttle tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouslog, Stanley A.; Cunnington, George R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The spectral and total normal emittance of the Reaction Cured Glass (RCG) coating used on Shuttle tiles has been measured for surface temperatures of 300 to 1905 K. These measurements were made on two virgin and two flown Shuttle tile samples. Room temperature directional emittance data were also obtained and used to determine the total hemispherical emittance of RCG as a function of temperature. The data obtained from this calculation indicate that the total hemispherical emittance decreases from a room temperature value of 0.83 to a value of 0.76 at 1905 K. The flown Shuttle tiles exhibited a change in the spectral distribution of emittance compared to that of the virgin tile, but no significant trends in the total emittance from a virgin to a flown tile could be established.

  5. Emittance growth from radiation fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, M.

    1985-12-01

    As an electron bunch travels through a transport system, fluctuations in the energy loss of individual electrons cause the size of the bunch to grow. A calculation is given of the quantum-induced growth of the emittance of a beam in one transverse coordinate, making the following approximations: (1) that the transport system is linear; (2) that there is no coupling between the two transverse motions; and (3) that the radiation effects can be described by their values on the central design trajectory. This last assumption means that systems are considered in which the quantum effects from bending magnets are much larger than from the focusing lenses.

  6. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  7. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  8. Filtered cathodic arc source

    SciTech Connect

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    Disclosed is a continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45{degrees} to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  9. Emittance Growth in the NLCTA First Chicane

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    In this paper, the emittance growth in the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator) first chicane region is evaluated by simulation studies. It is demonstrated that the higher order fields of the chicane dipole magnet and the dipole corrector magnet (which is attached on the quadrupoles) are the main contributions for the emittance growth, especially for the case with a large initial emittance ({gamma}{epsilon}{sub 0} = 5 {micro}m for instance). These simulation results agree with the experimental observations.

  10. Nanostructured ultrafast silicon-tip optical field-emitter arrays.

    PubMed

    Swanwick, Michael E; Keathley, Phillip D; Fallahi, Arya; Krogen, Peter R; Laurent, Guillaume; Moses, Jeffrey; Kärtner, Franz X; Velásquez-García, Luis F

    2014-09-10

    Femtosecond ultrabright electron sources with spatially structured emission are an enabling technology for free-electron lasers, compact coherent X-ray sources, electron diffractive imaging, and attosecond science. In this work, we report the design, modeling, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a novel ultrafast optical field emission cathode comprised of a large (>100,000 tips), dense (4.6 million tips·cm(-2)), and highly uniform (<1 nm tip radius deviation) array of nanosharp high-aspect-ratio silicon columns. Such field emitters offer an attractive alternative to UV photocathodes while providing a direct means of structuring the emitted electron beam. Detailed measurements and simulations show pC electron bunches can be generated in the multiphoton and tunneling regime within a single optical cycle, enabling significant advances in electron diffractive imaging and coherent X-ray sources on a subfemtosecond time scale, not possible before. At high charge emission yields, a slow rollover in charge is explained as a combination of the onset of tunneling emission and the formation of a virtual cathode. PMID:25075552

  11. A novel thin film dispenser cathode for thermionic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadil, K. R.; King, D. B.; Ruffner, J. A.

    2001-02-01

    A thin film dispenser or micro-dispenser cathode can be generated using standard RF sputtering deposition technology. These films are compositionally modulated structures based on W and a multi-component Ba oxide. Annealing to temperatures from 900 to 1300 K results in Ba reduction, transport and diffusion across the emitter surface. A finite temperature range exists (<1200 K) where a uniform Re coating can be retained at the emitter surface. The metallic coating results in a nearly homogeneous work function based on emission characteristics. These films produce stable emission at higher temperatures (>=1200 K) where the uniform Re coating is lost. Analysis of emission properties yield a work function of 2.2 eV and an apparent emission coefficient of 6 A.cm-2.K-2 after annealing to 1200 K. This high apparent emission coefficient yields a film suitable for milliwatt power generation applications. Microminiature Thermionic Converters (MTCs) are one potential application for these films. .

  12. Directional emittance corrections for thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wright, Robert E., Jr.; Puram, Chith K.; Alderfer, David W.

    1992-01-01

    A simple measurement technique for measuring the variation of directional emittance of surfaces at various temperatures using commercially available radiometric IR imaging systems was developed and tested. This technique provided the integrated value of directional emittance over the spectral bandwidth of the IR imaging system. The directional emittance of flat black lacquer and red stycast, an epoxy resin, measured using this technique were in good agreement with the predictions of the electromagnetic theory. The data were also in good agreement with directional emittance data inferred from directional reflectance measurements made on a spectrophotometer.

  13. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  14. First Operation of an Ungated Diamond Field-Emission Array Cathode in a L-Band Radiofrequency Electron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Brau, C. A.; Choi, B. K.; Blomberg, B.; Gabella, W. E.; Ivanov, B.; Jarvis, J.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Mihalcea, D.; Panuganti, S.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J.

    2014-06-30

    We report on the first successful operation of a field-emitter-array cathode in a conventional L-band radio-frequency electron source. The cathode consisted of an array of $\\sim 10^6$ diamond diamond tips on pyramids. Maximum current on the order of 15~mA were reached and the cathode did not show appreciable signs of fatigue after weeks of operation. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristics, transverse beam density, and current stability are discussed. Numerical simulations of the beam dynamics are also presented.

  15. Muon Cooling—emittance exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Zohreh

    2001-05-01

    Muon Cooling is the key factor in building of a Muon collider, (to a less degree) Muon storage ring, and a Neutrino Factory. Muon colliders potential to provide a probe for fundamental particle physics is very interesting, but may take a considerable time to realize, as much more work and study is needed. Utilizing high intensity Muon sources-Neutrino Factories, and other intermediate steps are very important and will greatly expand our abilities and confidence in the credibility of high energy muon colliders. To obtain the needed collider luminosity, the phase-space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The Ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. We note that, the ionization losses results not only in damping, but also heating. The use of alternating solenoid lattices has been proposed, where the emittance are large. We present an overview of the cooling and discuss formalism, solenoid magnets and some beam dynamics.

  16. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  17. Carbon-nanotube-embedded novel three-dimensional alumina microchannel cold cathodes for high electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelaboyina, Raghunandan; Lahiri, Indranil; Choi, Wonbong

    2010-04-01

    The present work describes a comprehensive design and scalable micro-fabrication technique for the production of novel 3D cathodes, consisting of chemical-vapor-deposition-grown high-density multi-wall carbon nanotubes along the walls of alumina microchannels. Under high DC and AC electric fields, the 3D cathodes displayed significantly high and moderately stable emission current of ~ 5.25 and ~ 14 mA, respectively. The inherent advantages of the 3D microchannel geometry for cold cathodes are higher emitter area, less ion bombardment and robustness under high voltage conditions. The 3D cathodes are envisioned to offer an entirely new class of miniature electron sources for high current vacuum microelectronics.

  18. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer having a cold cathode ionization source

    DOEpatents

    Felter, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  19. RECENT PROGRESS ON THE DIAMOND AMPLIFIED PHOTO-CATHODE EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BURRILL, A.; GRIMES, J.; RAO, T.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.; WU, Q.

    2007-06-25

    We report recent progress on the Diamond Amplified Photo-cathode (DAP). The use of a pulsed electron gun provides detailed information about the DAP physics. The secondary electron gain has been measured under various electric fields. We have achieved gains of a few hundred in the transmission mode and observed evidence of emission of electrons from the surface. A model based on recombination of electrons and holes during generation well describes the field dependence of the gain. The emittance measurement system for the DAP has been designed, constructed and is ready for use. The capsule design of the DAP is also being studied in parallel.

  20. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.