Science.gov

Sample records for emotional stroop task

  1. Anxiety, emotional distraction, and attentional control in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Derakshan, Nazanin; Usher, Marius

    2016-04-01

    Using a Stroop task, we investigated the effect of task-irrelevant emotional distractors on attentional proactive control and its interaction with trait anxiety. On the basis of recent findings showing opposed neural responses in the dorsal-executive versus the ventral-emotional systems in response to emotional distractors and of the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), we hypothesized that negative distractors will result in a reduction of proactive task control in the executive system, especially for high-trait-anxious individuals. Using a computational model of the Stroop task, we derive 2 specific behavioral predictions of reduced proactive task control: increased Stroop interference and reversed Stroop facilitation. Twenty-five high- and 25 low-trait-anxious participants completed a Stroop task in which the target stimuli were preceded by brief (neutral vs. aversive) emotional distractors. While no effects of picture valence on proactive control was found in the low-anxious group, the predicted signatures of reduced proactive control were observed in the high-anxiety group. These results indicate that trait anxiety influences the interaction between irrelevant emotional stimuli and proactive control. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26571078

  2. Measuring deviant sexual interest in adolescents using the emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Price, Shelley A; Beech, Anthony R; Mitchell, Ian; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2014-10-01

    Adolescent sexual abusers are a heterogeneous group of offenders that often receive generic assessment and treatment services that are modeled on research findings from adult sex offender samples. The emotional Stroop task has been used to measure deviant sexual interest in adult samples. The purpose of the present study was to test whether the emotional Stroop task could also be used to assess deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples. Three groups of adolescents (a) sexual abusers (n = 24); (b) offending controls (n = 21); and (c) nonoffending controls (n = 21) completed two emotional Stroop tasks related to deviant sexual interest and tests of executive function. Adolescent sexual abusers were significantly slower to color-name some word stimuli than both adolescent offending controls and adolescent nonoffending controls. However, the task was unable to differentiate between the groups on most of the Stroop word categories. Very little research has been conducted with adolescent offender samples and the emotional Stroop task. Reaction time (RT) and Stroop bias outcome data for adolescent samples appear to be more unsystematic and weaker than has been observed in previous adult data. Based on potential difficulties with reading and development, the emotional Stroop task may not be a task suitable for measuring deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples. PMID:23907659

  3. Effects of Emotional Experience for Abstract Words in the Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Knol, Nathan; Pexman, Penny M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of emotional experience, a relatively new dimension of emotional knowledge that gauges the ease with which words evoke emotional experience, on abstract word processing in the Stroop task. In order to test the context-dependency of these effects, we accentuated the saliency of this dimension in Experiment 1A…

  4. How chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) perform in a modified emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Allritz, Matthias; Call, Josep; Borkenau, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The emotional Stroop task is an experimental paradigm developed to study the relationship between emotion and cognition. Human participants required to identify the color of words typically respond more slowly to negative than to neutral words (emotional Stroop effect). Here we investigated whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) would show a comparable effect. Using a touch screen, eight chimpanzees were trained to choose between two simultaneously presented stimuli based on color (two identical images with differently colored frames). In Experiment 1, the images within the color frames were shapes that were either of the same color as the surrounding frame or of the alternative color. Subjects made fewer errors and responded faster when shapes were of the same color as the frame surrounding them than when they were not, evidencing that embedded images affected target selection. Experiment 2, a modified version of the emotional Stroop task, presented subjects with four different categories of novel images: three categories of pictures of humans (veterinarian, caretaker, and stranger), and control stimuli showing a white square. Because visits by the veterinarian that include anaesthetization can be stressful for subjects, we expected impaired performance in trials presenting images of the veterinarian. For the first session, we found correct responses to be indeed slower in trials of this category. This effect was more pronounced for subjects whose last anaesthetization experience was more recent, indicating that emotional valence caused the slowdown. We propose our modified emotional Stroop task as a simple method to explore which emotional stimuli affect cognitive performance in nonhuman primates. PMID:26613593

  5. The Emotional Stroop Task: Assessing Cognitive Performance under Exposure to Emotional Content.

    PubMed

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Williams, Paul; Howard, Zachary; Mama, Yaniv; Eidels, Ami; Algom, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The emotional Stroop effect (ESE) is the result of longer naming latencies to ink colors of emotion words than to ink colors of neutral words. The difference shows that people are affected by the emotional content conveyed by the carrier words even though they are irrelevant to the color-naming task at hand. The ESE has been widely deployed with patient populations, as well as with non-selected populations, because the emotion words can be selected to match the tested pathology. The ESE is a powerful tool, yet it is vulnerable to various threats to its validity. This report refers to potential sources of confounding and includes a modal experiment that provides the means to control for them. The most prevalent threat to the validity of existing ESE studies is sustained effects and habituation wrought about by repeated exposure to emotion stimuli. Consequently, the order of exposure to emotion and neutral stimuli is of utmost importance. We show that in the standard design, only one specific order produces the ESE. PMID:27405091

  6. Effects of emotional experience for abstract words in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Siakaluk, Paul D; Knol, Nathan; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of emotional experience, a relatively new dimension of emotional knowledge that gauges the ease with which words evoke emotional experience, on abstract word processing in the Stroop task. In order to test the context-dependency of these effects, we accentuated the saliency of this dimension in Experiment 1A by blocking the stimuli such that one block consisted of the stimuli with the highest emotional experience ratings and the other block consisted of the stimuli with the lowest emotional experience ratings. We attenuated the saliency of this dimension in Experiment 1B by intermixing the stimuli. We observed slower color naming performance for words with higher emotional experience ratings only in Experiment 1A, suggesting that the dimension of emotional experience is an aspect of semantic representation for abstract words but that its influence can be modulated by context. We interpret these results more generally using Vigliocco, Meteyard, Andrews, and Kousta's (2009) framework of semantic representation, and more specifically using Cohen, Dunbar, and McClelland's (1990) model of Stroop task performance. PMID:24964820

  7. Reduction of interference effect by low spatial frequency information priming in an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Beffara, Brice; Wicker, Bruno; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Ouellet, Marc; Bret, Amélie; Molina, Maria Jesus Funes; Mermillod, Martial

    2015-01-01

    The affective prediction hypothesis assumes that visual expectation allows fast and accurate processing of emotional stimuli. The prediction corresponds to what an object is likely to be. It therefore facilitates its identification by setting aside what the object is unlikely to be. It has then been suggested that prediction might be inevitably associated with the inhibition of irrelevant possibilities concerning the object to identify. Several studies highlighted that the facilitation of emotional perception depends on low spatial frequency (LSF) extraction. However, most of them used paradigms in which only the object to identify was present in the scene. As a consequence, there have yet been no studies investigating the efficiency of prediction in the visual perception of stimuli among irrelevant information. In this study, we designed a novel priming emotional Stroop task in which participants had to identify emotional facial expressions (EFEs) presented along with a congruent or incongruent word. To further investigate the role of early extraction of LSF information in top-down prediction during emotion recognition, the target EFE was primed with the same EFE filtered in LSF or high spatial frequency (HSF). Results reveal a reduction of the Stroop interference in the LSF compared to the HSF priming condition, which supports that visual expectation, depending on early LSF information extraction, facilitates the inhibition of irrelevant information during emotion recognition. PMID:26024463

  8. Frontal EEG activation asymmetry reflects cognitive biases in anxiety: evidence from an emotional face Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Avram, Julia; Balteş, Felicia Rodica; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C

    2010-12-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has been extensively used in studies of the frontal asymmetry of emotion and motivation. This study investigated the midfrontal EEG activation, heart rate and skin conductance during an emotional face analog of the Stroop task, in anxious and non-anxious participants. In this task, the participants were asked to identify the expression of calm, fearful and happy faces that had either a congruent or incongruent emotion name written across them. Anxious participants displayed a cognitive bias characterized by facilitated attentional engagement with fearful faces. Fearful face trials induced greater relative right frontal activation, whereas happy face trials induced greater relative left frontal activation. Moreover, anxiety specifically modulated the magnitude of the right frontal activation to fearful faces, which also correlated with the cognitive bias. Therefore, these results show that frontal EEG activation asymmetry reflects the bias toward facilitated processing of fearful faces in anxiety. PMID:20607389

  9. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W; Graham, Elizabeth R; Burke, Deborah M

    2015-10-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm. PMID:26473909

  10. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Donald G.; Johnson, Laura W.; Graham, Elizabeth R.; Burke, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm. PMID:26473909

  11. Lax decision criteria lead to negativity bias: evidence from the emotional stroop task.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guofang; Xin, Ziqiang; Lin, Chongde

    2014-06-01

    Negativity bias means that negative information is usually given more emphasis than comparable positive information. Under signal detection theory, recent research found that people more frequently and incorrectly identify negative task-related words as having been presented originally than positive words, even when they were not presented. That is, people have lax decision criteria for negative words. However, the response biases for task-unrelated negative words and for emotionally important words are still unclear. This study investigated response bias for these two kinds of words. Study 1 examined the response bias for task-unrelated negative words using an emotional Stroop task. Proportions of correct recognition to negative and positive words were assessed by non-parametric signal detection analysis. Participants have lower (i.e., more lax) decision criteria for task-unrelated negative words than for positive words. Study 2 supported and expanded this result by investigating participants' response bias for highly emotional words. Participants have lower decision criteria for highly emotional words than for less emotional words. Finally, possible evolutionary sources of the response bias were discussed. PMID:25074310

  12. Use of the Modified Emotional Stroop Task to Detect Suicidality in College Population.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yeunjoo; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the usefulness of the emotional Stroop task (EST) as a behavioral marker for suicidal behaviors in a college population. Eight hundred twenty college students were asked to perform on the EST and to respond to suicide-related self-report measures. The results indicated that past suicide attempters were slower in responding to the word "suicide" as compared to nonattempters, and female past attempters showed more delayed response when their most recent attempt was made in the past 12 months. We did not find evidence that the EST could outperform the traditional self-report measures. PMID:26120771

  13. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals. PMID:26539137

  14. Is the emotional Stroop task a special case of mood induction? Evidence from sustained effects of attention under emotion.

    PubMed

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal; Algom, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sustained effects of emotion are well known in everyday experience. Surprisingly, such effects are seldom recorded in laboratory studies of the emotional Stroop task, in which participants name the color of emotion and neutral words. Color performance is more sluggish with emotion words than with neutral words, the emotional Stroop effect (ESE). The ESE is not sensitive to the order in which the two groups of words are presented, so the effect of exposure to emotion words does not extend to disrupting performance in a subsequent block with neutral words. We attribute this absence of a sustained effect to habituation engendered by excessive repetition of the experimental stimuli. In a series of four experiments, we showed that sustained effects do occur when habituation is removed, and we also showed that the massive exposure to negative stimuli within the ESE paradigm induces a commensurately negative mood. A novel perspective is offered, in which the ESE is considered a special case of mood induction. PMID:24043566

  15. A Rational Look at the Emotional Stroop Phenomenon: A Generic Slowdown, Not a Stroop Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algom, Daniel; Chajut, Eran; Lev, Shlomo

    2004-01-01

    The role of Stroop processes in the emotional Stroop effect was subjected to a conceptual scrutiny augmented by a series of experiments entailing reading or lexical decision as well as color naming. The analysis showed that the Stroop effect is not defined in the emotional Stroop task. The experiments showed that reading, lexical decision, and…

  16. Conditioning-induced attentional bias for face stimuli measured with the emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Lim, Seung-Lark; Lee, Kanghee; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Choi, June-Seek

    2009-02-01

    People with anxiety disorder display attentional bias toward threat-related objects. Using classical fear conditioning, the authors investigated the possible source of such bias in normal participants. Following differential fear conditioning in which an angry face of either male or female (conditioned stimulus: CS+) was paired with mild electric fingershock (unconditioned stimulus: US) but the angry face of the other gender and all other facial expressions unpaired (CS-), an emotional Stroop task was administered. In the Stroop task, participants were required to identify the color of the facial stimuli (red, green, blue, or yellow). Response latency was significantly longer for the CS+ angry face than the other unpaired facial stimuli (CS-). Furthermore, this acquired attentional bias was positively correlated with the level of trait-anxiety measured before the conditioning and the degree of self-reported aversiveness of the US. Our results demonstrated that attentional bias could be induced in normal individuals through a simple associative learning procedure, and the acquisition is modulated by the level of trait anxiety and the level of perceived fear of the aversive US. PMID:19186927

  17. Reactive and proactive control adjustments under increased depressive symptoms: insights from the classic and emotional-face Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Blair; Jentzsch, Ines

    2014-05-01

    The current research investigated differences in reactive and proactive cognitive control as a function of depressive symptomatology. Three participant groups with varying symptom levels (Beck Depression Inventory-II, BDI-II score) completed both the classic and an emotional-face Stroop task separately under speed and accuracy instructions. All groups made equivalent speed-accuracy trade-offs independent of task, suggesting that proactive adjustments are unaffected by depressive symptoms. Additionally, groups made equivalent reactive control adjustments (Stroop effects, congruency sequence effects) in the classic Stroop task, suggesting that these reactive control adjustments are spared across a wide range of BDI-II scorers. In contrast, the high BDI-II group displayed a selective impairment in the resolution of conflict in the emotional-face Stroop task. Thus, while proactive control and many aspects of reactive control were unaffected by the level of depressive symptoms, specific impairments occurred when current task demands required the trial-to-trial regulation of emotional processing. PMID:24070406

  18. Valence-based Word-Face Stroop task reveals differential emotional interference in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Başgöze, Zeynep; Gönül, Ali Saffet; Baskak, Bora; Gökçay, Didem

    2015-10-30

    Word-Face Stroop task creates emotional conflict between affective words and affective faces. In this task, healthy participants consistently slow down while responding to incongruent cases. Such interference related slowdown is associated with recruitment of inhibitory processes to eliminate task-irrelevant information. We created a valence-based Word-Face Stroop task, in which participants were asked to indicate whether the words in the foreground are positive, negative or neutral. Healthy participants were faster and more accurate than un-medicated patients with major depression disorder (MDD). In addition, a significant congruence by group interaction is observed: healthy participants slowed down for incongruent cases, but MDD patients did not. Furthermore, for the negative words, healthy individuals made more errors while responding to incongruent cases but MDD patients made the lowest number of errors for this category. The emotional percepts of the patients were intact, because correct response rates in word valence judgments for positive/negative words, and reaction times for happy/sad faces had similar patterns with those of controls. These findings are supported by the analytical rumination interpretation of depression: patients lose speed/accuracy in laboratory tasks due to processing load spent during continuous rumination. However, for tasks in line with their preoccupation, continual practice makes the patients more vigilant and adept. PMID:26272019

  19. Influence of Aggression on Information Processing in the Emotional Stroop Task – an Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Bertsch, Katja; Böhnke, Robina; Kruk, Menno R.; Naumann, Ewald

    2009-01-01

    Aggression is a common behavior which has frequently been explained as involving changes in higher level information processing patterns. Although researchers have started only recently to investigate information processing in healthy individuals while engaged in aggressive behavior, the impact of aggression on information processing beyond an aggressive encounter remains unclear. In an event-related potential study, we investigated the processing of facial expressions (happy, angry, fearful, and neutral) in an emotional Stroop task after experimentally provoking aggressive behavior in healthy participants. Compared to a non-provoked group, these individuals showed increased early (P2) and late (P3) positive amplitudes for all facial expressions. For the P2 amplitude, the effect of provocation was greatest for threat-related expressions. Beyond this, a bias for emotional expressions, i.e., slower reaction times to all emotional expressions, was found in provoked participants with a high level of trait anger. These results indicate significant effects of aggression on information processing, which last beyond the aggressive encounter even in healthy participants. PMID:19826616

  20. Goal Priming and the Emotional Experience of Students with and without Attention Problems: An Application of the Emotional Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Shiakalli, Maria; Georgiou, Maria; Irakleous, Ioanna; Tsigourla, Ioanna; Fragioudaki, Eirini

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study is to evaluate the emotional experience of students with (n = 52) and without attention problems (n = 272) during an achievement task. A secondary purpose of the present study is to compare students' emotional response to various stimuli, when motivated by various achievement goals. Participants were…

  1. Putting Some Feeling into It--The Conceptual and Empirical Relationships between the Classic and Emotional Stroop Tasks: Comment on Algom, Chajut, and Lev (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgleish, Tim

    2005-01-01

    D. Algom, E. Chajut, and S. Lev presented a series of definitional, conceptual, and empirical arguments in support of their conclusion that the classic and emotional Stroop effects are, in their words, "unrelated phenomena" (p. 336), such that the term emotional Stroop effect is a misnomer in reference to the relatively greater interference in ink…

  2. Distinctive amygdala subregions involved in emotion-modulated Stroop interference.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kanghee; Kim, Hyun Taek; Kim, Hackjin

    2014-05-01

    Despite the well-known role of the amygdala in mediating emotional interference during tasks requiring cognitive resources, no definite conclusion has yet been reached regarding the differential roles of functionally and anatomically distinctive subcomponents of the amygdala in such processes. In this study, we examined female participants and attempted to separate the neural processes for the detection of emotional information from those for the regulation of cognitive interference from emotional distractors by adding a temporal gap between emotional stimuli and a subsequent cognitive Stroop task. Reaction time data showed a significantly increased Stroop interference effect following emotionally negative stimuli compared with neutral stimuli, and functional magnetic resonance imaging data revealed that the anterior ventral amygdala (avAMYG) showed greater responses to negative stimuli compared with neutral stimuli. In addition, individuals who scored high in neuroticism showed greater posterior dorsal amygdala (pdAMYG) responses to incongruent compared with congruent Stroop trials following negative stimuli, but not following neutral stimuli. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrated functionally distinctive contributions of the avAMYG and pdAMYG to the emotion-modulated Stroop interference effect and suggested that the avAMYG encodes associative values of emotional stimuli whereas the pdAMYG resolves cognitive interference from emotional distractors. PMID:23543193

  3. Abnormal Neural Responses to Emotional Stimuli but Not Go/NoGo and Stroop Tasks in Adults with a History of Childhood Nocturnal Enuresis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Jilei; Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Hui; Du, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Background Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a common disorder in school-aged children. Previous studies have reported that children with NE exhibit structural, functional and neurochemical abnormalities in the brain, suggesting that children with NE may have cognitive problems. Additionally, children with NE have been shown to process emotions differently from control children. In fact, most cases of NE resolve with age. However, adults who had experienced NE during childhood may still have potential cognitive or emotion problems, and this possibility has not been thoroughly investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain functional changes in adults with a history of NE. Two groups, consisting of 21 adults with NE and 21 healthy controls, were scanned using fMRI. We did not observe a significant abnormality in activation during the Go/NoGo and Stroop tasks in adults with a history of NE compared with the control group. However, compared to healthy subjects, young adults with a history of NE mainly showed increased activation in the bilateral temporoparietal junctions, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex while looking at negative vs. neutral pictures. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that adults with a history of childhood NE have no obvious deficit in response inhibition or cognitive control but showed abnormal neural responses to emotional stimuli. PMID:26571500

  4. The interacting role of media violence exposure and aggressive-disruptive behavior in adolescent brain activation during an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Kalnin, Andrew J; Edwards, Chad R; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Hummer, Tom A; Mosier, Kristine M; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2011-04-30

    Only recently have investigations of the relationship between media violence exposure (MVE) and aggressive behavior focused on brain functioning. In this study, we examined the relationship between brain activation and history of media violence exposure in adolescents, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) with aggression were compared to investigate whether the association of MVE history and brain activation is moderated by aggressive behavior/personality. Twenty-two adolescents with a history of aggressive behavior and diagnosis of either conduct disorder or oppositional-defiant disorder (DBD sample) and 22 controls completed an emotional Stroop task during fMRI. Primary imaging results indicated that controls with a history of low MVE demonstrated greater activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and rostral anterior cingulate during the violent word condition. In contrast, in adolescents with DBD, those with high MVE exhibited decreased activation in the right amygdala, compared with those with low MVE. These findings are consistent with research demonstrating the importance of fronto-limbic structures for processing emotional stimuli, and with research suggesting that media violence may affect individuals in different ways depending on the presence of aggressive traits. PMID:21376543

  5. A Reverse Stroop Task with Mouse Tracking.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T

    2016-01-01

    In a reverse Stroop task, observers respond to the meaning of a color word irrespective of the color in which the word is printed-for example, the word red may be printed in the congruent color (red), an incongruent color (e.g., blue), or a neutral color (e.g., white). Although reading of color words in this task is often thought to be neither facilitated by congruent print colors nor interfered with incongruent print colors, this interference has been detected by using a response method that does not give any bias in favor of processing of word meanings or processing of print colors. On the other hand, evidence for the presence of facilitation in this task has been scarce, even though this facilitation is theoretically possible. By modifying the task such that participants respond to a stimulus color word by pointing to a corresponding response word on a computer screen with a mouse, the present study investigated the possibility that not only interference but also facilitation would take place in a reverse Stroop task. Importantly, in this study, participants' responses were dynamically tracked by recording the entire trajectories of the mouse. Arguably, this method provided richer information about participants' performance than traditional measures such as reaction time and accuracy, allowing for more detailed (and thus potentially more sensitive) investigation of facilitation and interference in the reverse Stroop task. These trajectories showed that the mouse's approach toward correct response words was significantly delayed by incongruent print colors but not affected by congruent print colors, demonstrating that only interference, not facilitation, was present in the current task. Implications of these findings are discussed within a theoretical framework in which the strength of association between a task and its response method plays a critical role in determining how word meanings and print colors interact in reverse Stroop tasks. PMID:27199881

  6. A Reverse Stroop Task with Mouse Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T.

    2016-01-01

    In a reverse Stroop task, observers respond to the meaning of a color word irrespective of the color in which the word is printed—for example, the word red may be printed in the congruent color (red), an incongruent color (e.g., blue), or a neutral color (e.g., white). Although reading of color words in this task is often thought to be neither facilitated by congruent print colors nor interfered with incongruent print colors, this interference has been detected by using a response method that does not give any bias in favor of processing of word meanings or processing of print colors. On the other hand, evidence for the presence of facilitation in this task has been scarce, even though this facilitation is theoretically possible. By modifying the task such that participants respond to a stimulus color word by pointing to a corresponding response word on a computer screen with a mouse, the present study investigated the possibility that not only interference but also facilitation would take place in a reverse Stroop task. Importantly, in this study, participants’ responses were dynamically tracked by recording the entire trajectories of the mouse. Arguably, this method provided richer information about participants’ performance than traditional measures such as reaction time and accuracy, allowing for more detailed (and thus potentially more sensitive) investigation of facilitation and interference in the reverse Stroop task. These trajectories showed that the mouse’s approach toward correct response words was significantly delayed by incongruent print colors but not affected by congruent print colors, demonstrating that only interference, not facilitation, was present in the current task. Implications of these findings are discussed within a theoretical framework in which the strength of association between a task and its response method plays a critical role in determining how word meanings and print colors interact in reverse Stroop tasks. PMID:27199881

  7. Investigating Hemispheric Specialization in a Novel Face--Word Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anes, Michael D.; Kruer, Jessica L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined hemispheric specialization in a lateralized Stroop facial identification task. A 2 (presentation side: left or right visual field [LVF or RVF])x2 (picture emotion: happy or angry)x3 (emotion of distractor word: happy, angry, or blank) factorial design placed the right hemispheric specialization for emotional expression processing and…

  8. Emotional Stroop Dilution: The boundary conditions of attentional capture by threat words.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Michael G; Langerak, Robin M

    2015-07-01

    It is widely believed that threatening stimuli in our environment capture attention. Much of the core evidence for attentional capture by threatening stimuli comes from the Emotional Stroop task. Yet recent evidence suggests that the Emotional Stroop task does not measure attentional capture (e.g., Algom et al., 2004). The present paper assesses whether threat words can capture attention using a modified Stroop Dilution procedure (e.g., Kahneman & Chajczyk, 1983), where attentional capture by a threat word is inferred from a reduction in color-word interference for threat words compared to non-threat words (emotional Stroop Dilution). The outcome of the present experiments indicates that threat words can capture attention, but only when task demands do not require that a word be attended. It is suggested that threat words produce (1) cognitive slowing, and influence two processes of selective attention (2) attentional capture and (3) the ability to filter irrelevant dimensions of an attended stimulus. PMID:26093219

  9. Emotional Stroop interference in trauma-exposed individuals: a contrast between two accounts.

    PubMed

    Caparos, Serge; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    In the Emotional Stroop task, trauma-exposed victims are slowed when naming the colour print of trauma-related words, showing the presence of interference. This interference has been assumed to reflect emotional reactions triggered by experience-relevant emotional content which interfere with the task. However, it may equally reflect the activation of task-competing thoughts triggered by experience-relevant semantic content, thus resulting from cognitive- rather than emotion-driven processes. This study contrasted these possibilities by measuring the relationship between Emotional Stroop interference, on the one hand, and severity of sexual-abuse experience, subjective ratings of emotionality, and working-memory measures, on the other. Whereas there was no relationship between working-memory measures and interference, providing no support for the cognitive-based account, experience severity, emotionality ratings and abuse-related interference were all positively related, providing support for the emotion-based account. These findings support the idea that the Emotional Stroop task can be used as a diagnostic tool for emotion-filtering impairment. PMID:25058628

  10. Suppressing Emotions Impairs Subsequent Stroop Performance and Reduces Prefrontal Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Rasch, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Abundant behavioral evidence suggests that the ability to self-control is limited, and that any exertion of self-control will increase the likelihood of subsequent self-control failures. Here we investigated the neural correlates underlying the aftereffects of self-control on future control processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An initial act of self-control (suppressing emotions) impaired subsequent performance in a second task requiring control (Stroop task). On the neural level, increased activity during emotion suppression was followed by a relative decrease in activity during the Stroop task in a cluster in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area engaged in the effortful implementation of control. There was no reliable evidence for reduced activity in the medial frontal cortex (MFC) including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is involved in conflict detection processes and has previously also been implicated in self-control. Follow-up analyses showed that the detected cluster in the right lateral PFC and an area in the MFC were involved in both the emotion suppression task and the Stroop task, but only the cluster in the right lateral PFC showed reduced activation after emotion suppression during the Stroop task. Reduced activity in lateral prefrontal areas relevant for the implementation of control may be a critical consequence of prior self-control exertion if the respective areas are involved in both self-control tasks. PMID:23565239

  11. Inhibition and the Validity of the Stroop Task for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Nena C.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Findings are mixed concerning inhibition in autism. Using the classic Stroop, children with autism (CWA) often outperform typically developing children (TDC). A classic Stroop and a chimeric animal Stroop were used to explore the validity of the Stroop task as a test of inhibition for CWA. During the classic Stroop, children ignored the word and…

  12. The automaticity of emotional Stroop: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Phaf, R Hans; Kan, Kees-Jan

    2007-06-01

    An automatic bias to threat is often invoked to account for colour-naming interference in emotional Stroop. Recent findings by McKenna and Sharma [(2004). Reversing the emotional Stroop effect reveals that it is not what it seems: The role of fast and slow components. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 382-392], however, cast doubt on the fast and non-conscious nature of emotional Stroop. Interference by threat words only occurred with colour naming in the trial subsequent to the threat trial (i.e., a "slow" effect), but not immediately (i.e., a "fast" effect, as would be predicted by the bias hypothesis). In a meta-analysis of 70 published emotional Stroop studies the largest effects occurred when presentation of threat words was blocked, suggesting a strong contribution by slow interference. We did not find evidence; moreover, for interference in suboptimal (less conscious) presentation conditions and the only significant effects were observed in optimal (fully conscious) conditions with high-anxious non-clinical participants and patients. The emotional Stroop effect seems to rely more on a slow disengagement process than on a fast, automatic, bias. PMID:17112461

  13. Word wins over face: emotional Stroop effect activates the frontal cortical network.

    PubMed

    Ovaysikia, Shima; Tahir, Khalid A; Chan, Jason L; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2011-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in higher order cognitive control of behavior. Sometimes such control is executed through suppression of an unwanted response in order to avoid conflict. Conflict occurs when two simultaneously competing processes lead to different behavioral outcomes, as seen in tasks such as the anti-saccade, go/no-go, and the Stroop task. We set out to examine whether different types of stimuli in a modified emotional Stroop task would cause similar interference effects as the original Stroop-color/word, and whether the required suppression mechanism(s) would recruit similar regions of the medial PFC (mPFC). By using emotional words and emotional faces in this Stroop experiment, we examined the two well-learned automatic behaviors of word reading and recognition of face expressions. In our emotional Stroop paradigm, words were processed faster than face expressions with incongruent trials yielding longer reaction times and larger number of errors compared to the congruent trials. This novel Stroop effect activated the anterior and inferior regions of the mPFC, namely the anterior cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus as well as the superior frontal gyrus. Our results suggest that prepotent behaviors such as reading and recognition of face expressions are stimulus-dependent and perhaps hierarchical, hence recruiting distinct regions of the mPFC. Moreover, the faster processing of word reading compared to reporting face expressions is indicative of the formation of stronger stimulus-response associations of an over-learned behavior compared to an instinctive one, which could alternatively be explained through the distinction between awareness and selective attention. PMID:21258644

  14. Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Modlin, Leslie; Wang, Lihong; Kozink, Rachel V.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Among nicotine-dependent smokers, smoking abstinence disrupts multiple cognitive and affective processes including conflict resolution and emotional information processing (EIP). However, the neurobiological basis of abstinence effects on resolving emotional interference on cognition remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate smoking abstinence effects on emotion–cognition interactions. Methods Smokers (n=17) underwent fMRI while performing an affective Stroop task (aST) over two sessions: once following 24-h abstinence and once following smoking as usual. The aST includes trials that serially present incongruent or congruent numerical grids bracketed by neutral or negative emotional distractors and view-only emotional image trials. Statistical analyses were conducted using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 cluster corrected. Results Smoking abstinence increased Stroop blood-oxygenation-level-dependent response in the right middle frontal and rostral anterior cingulate gyri. Moreover, withdrawal-induced negative affect was associated with less activation in frontoparietal regions during negative emotional information processing; whereas, during Stroop trials, negative affect predicted greater activation in frontal regions during negative, but not neutral emotional distractor trials. Conclusion Hyperactivation in the frontal executive control network during smoking abstinence may represent a need to recruit additional executive resources to meet task demands. Moreover, abstinence-induced negative affect may disrupt cognitive control neural circuitry during EIP and place additional demands on frontal executive neural resources during cognitive demands when presented with emotionally distracting stimuli. PMID:21989805

  15. Evidence for Task Conflict in the Stroop Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Liat; Henik, Avishai

    2007-01-01

    C. M. MacLeod and P. A. MacDonald (2000) suggested that congruent and incongruent Stroop stimuli cause more task conflict than neutral stimuli because the anterior cingulate cortex is more activated with these stimuli. This study investigated behavioral expression for this pattern. Experiment 1 reduced task conflict control by increasing the…

  16. Reversing the Emotional Stroop Effect Reveals That It Is Not What It Seems: The Role of Fast and Slow Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Frank P.; Sharma, Dinkar

    2004-01-01

    The relative contributions of slow and fast (online) components in a modified emotional Stroop task were evaluated. The slow component, neglected in previous research, was shown to lead to the prediction of a reversed emotional intrusion effect using pseudorandomly mixed negative and neutral stimuli. This prediction was supported in Experiments 1…

  17. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  18. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  19. Gender differences during processing of the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Mekarski, J E; Cutmore, T R; Suboski, W

    1996-10-01

    An assertion was made that "There are no sex differences in Stroop interference" (MacLeod, 1991, p. 203) in spite of some evidence to the contrary (e.g., Sarmany, 1977). To resolve the discrepancy, this study examined the nature of gender differences in the context of other variables. 6 men and 8 women were tested, using response speed and errors made as dependent measures. Independent variables were gender, perceptual input (Stroop) task, congruency of stimuli, manual response output, and trial block. Contrary to MacLeod, men were consistently slower than women over trial blocks by some 46 msec., although their error rates did not differ significantly. Response output interacted with gender, with Stroop task, and with trial block. Congruent stimuli were processed faster than incongruent ones. Differences may be ascribed to greater verbal and fine motor abilities of women and greater spatial ability of men. PMID:8902031

  20. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Color-Word, Emotional, and Specific Stroop Interference and on Self-Reported Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Sanchez-Ortuno, Montserrat; Charles, Andre; Taillard, Jacques; Valtat, Cedric; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was principally to assess the impact of sleep deprivation on interference performance in short Stroop tasks (Color-Word, Emotional, and Specific) and on subjective anxiety. Subjective sleepiness and performance on a psychomotor sustained attention task were also investigated to validate our protocol of sleep deprivation.…

  1. Skeletal Structure of Printed Words: Evidence From the Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Marom, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Do readers encode the sequencing of consonant (C) and vowel (V) phonemes (skeletal structure) in printed words? The authors used the Stroop task to examine readers' sensitivity to skeletal structure. In Experiment 1, CVC nonwords (e.g., pof) facilitated the naming of colors with congruent frames (e.g., red, a CVC word) but not with incongruent…

  2. Automatic Processing of Psychological Distance: Evidence from a Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov; Algom, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A picture-word version of the Stroop task was used to test the automatic activation of psychological distance by words carrying various senses of psychological distance: temporal (tomorrow, in a year), social (friend, enemy), and hypotheticality (sure, maybe). The pictures implied depth, with the words appearing relatively close to or distant from…

  3. Interpreting Stroop interference: an analysis of differences between task versions.

    PubMed

    Salo, R; Henik, A; Robertson, L C

    2001-10-01

    The present study investigated methodological differences between the clinical version of the Stroop Color and Word Test and the computerized single-trial version. Three experiments show that different presentations of the Stroop task can produce different levels of interference. The 1st experiment examined the effect of blocking; the 2nd experiment examined different control conditions. Greater interference in the blocked clinical version appears to result from lower response times (RTs) in the neutral condition, not from greater RTs in the incongruent condition. Experiment 3 examined the impact of shifting attention across locations while responding to Stroop stimuli. The present set of findings sheds light on the inconsistency in the clinical literature and demonstrates that the method and selection of neutral stimuli (that provide the baseline by which interference is measured) are critical because they clearly can change performance. PMID:11761035

  4. The BOLD Response during Stroop Task-Like Inhibition Paradigms: Effects of Task Difficulty and Task-Relevant Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the Stroop task propose two key mediators: the prefrontal and cingulate cortices but hints exist of functional specialization within these regions. This study aimed to examine the effect of task modality upon the prefrontal and cingulate response by examining the response to colour, number, and shape Stroop tasks whilst BOLD…

  5. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    PubMed

    Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, Pedro A; Slama, Hichem; Caspar, Emilie A; Gevers, Wim; Cleeremans, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. PMID:24130735

  6. Placebo-Suggestion Modulates Conflict Resolution in the Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, Emilie A.; Gevers, Wim; Cleeremans, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a “brain wave” machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion’s contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. PMID:24130735

  7. Stroop proactive control and task conflict are modulated by concurrent working memory load.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai; Davelaar, Eddy J; Usher, Marius

    2015-06-01

    Performance on the Stroop task reflects two types of conflict-informational (between the incongruent word and font color) and task (between the contextually relevant color-naming task and the irrelevant, but automatic, word-reading task). According to the dual mechanisms of control theory (DMC; Braver, 2012), variability in Stroop performance can result from variability in the deployment of a proactive task-demand control mechanism. Previous research has shown that when proactive control (PC) is diminished, both increased Stroop interference and a reversed Stroop facilitation (RF) are observed. Although the current DMC model accounts for the former effect, it does not predict the observed RF, which is considered to be behavioral evidence for task conflict in the Stroop task. Here we expanded the DMC model to account for Stroop RF. Assuming that a concurrent working memory (WM) task reduces PC, we predicted both increased interference and an RF. Nineteen participants performed a standard Stroop task combined with a concurrent n-back task, which was aimed at reducing available WM resources, and thus overloading PC. Although the results indicated common Stroop interference and facilitation in the low-load condition (zero-back), in the high-load condition (two-back), both increased Stroop interference and RF were observed, consistent with the model's prediction. These findings indicate that PC is modulated by concurrent WM load and serves as a common control mechanism for both informational and task Stroop conflicts. PMID:25257710

  8. Psychological distance and reaction time in a Stroop task.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Giorgio; Rivero Expósito, María del Prado; Reales Avilés, José Manuel

    2013-11-01

    Several sources of interference may simultaneously affect the onset of the well-known "Stroop effect." Among them is the semantic component, which is reflected in the gradient or semantic effect. This effect consists of an increase in the amount of interference as the semantic distance between the word and the color concept decreases. Shepard (Science 237:1317-1323, 1987) relates psychological space, measured through multidimensional scaling, to mean response times. The present investigation aims to study the function relating the semantic gradient with the psychological distance between the word and the color in a Stroop task. After measuring the gradient, we obtained the subjective rating of the degree of dissimilarity of the gradient words with the concept of "color." In our work, we show that the amount of interference in a Stroop task increases when the semantic distance from the word to the color concept decreases, and it does so exponentially. We replicated the study with different stimuli to test the robustness of the results. PMID:23729236

  9. Schizotypy and specificity of negative emotions on an emotional Stroop paradigm in the general population.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Beril; Walder, Deborah J

    2016-05-30

    Attentional-interference using emotional Stroop tasks (ESTs) is greater among individuals in the general population with positive (versus negative) schizotypal traits; specifically in response to negatively (versus positively) valenced words, potentially capturing threat-sensitivity. Variability in attentional-interference as a function of subcategories of negatively valenced words (and in relation to schizotypal traits) remains underexplored in EST studies. We examined attentional-interference across negative word subcategories (fear/anger/sadness/disgust), and in relation to positive schizotypy, among non-clinical individuals in the general population reporting varying degrees of schizotypal traits. As hypothesized, performance differed across word subcategories, though the pattern varied from expectation. Attentional-interference was greater for fear and sadness compared to anger; and analogous for fear, disgust, and sadness. In the high schizotypy group, positive schizotypal traits were directly associated with attentional-interference to disgust. Attentional-interference was comparable between high- and low-positive schizotypy. Results suggest negative emotion subcategories may differentially reflect threat-sensitivity. Disgust-sensitivity may be particularly salient in (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Findings have implications for understanding negative emotion specificity and variability in stimulus presentation modality when studying threat-related attentional-interference. Finally, disgust-related attentional-interference may serve as a cognitive correlate of (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Expanding this research to prodromal populations will help explore disgust-related attentional-interference as a potential cognitive marker of positive symptoms. PMID:27046393

  10. Depth of processing in the stroop task: evidence from a novel forced-reading condition.

    PubMed

    Eidels, Ami; Ryan, Kathryn; Williams, Paul; Algom, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the Stroop effect betrays the fact that the carrier words were read in the face of instructions to ignore them and to respond to the target ink colors. In this study, we probed the nature of this involuntary reading by comparing color performance with that in a new forced-reading Stroop task in which responding is strictly contingent on reading each and every word. We found larger Stroop effects in the forced-reading task than in the classic Stroop task and concluded that words are processed to a shallower level in the Stroop task than they are in routine voluntary reading. The results show that the two modes of word processing differ in systematic ways and are conductive to qualitatively different representations. These results can pose a challenge to the strongly automatic view of word reading in the Stroop task. PMID:24836124

  11. Hypervigilance in borderline disorder: a test with the emotional Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Arntz, A; Appels, C; Sieswerda, S

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis of cognitive theories of hypervigilance for signs of danger in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) was tested with the emotional Stroop task. BPD patients (n = 15), Cluster C personality disorder (PD) patients (n = 12), and nonpatient controls (n = 15) diagnosed with SCID-I and SCID-II interviews color-named emotional and nonemotional words presented in three colors on a personal computer screen, first in a subliminal condition (words presented for a very short, individually calibrated time followed by a mask to prevent conscious recognition of the word) and then in a supraliminal condition. Four classes of negative words were used, including three classes of BPD-specific words (negative views of others, sexual abuse-related words, negative self-descriptors) and one class of general negative words that was unrelated to BPD pathology. In contrast to the nonpatient controls, both BPD and Cluster C patients showed interference caused by supraliminally presented emotional words. There was no difference between the clinical groups and there was no evidence for specificity of the effect for certain stimulus classes. The subliminal Stroop failed to yield any significant effect. Results are interpreted as evidence for the presence of a relatively crude hypervigilance for any emotionally negative stimulus in both BPD and Cluster C PDs. PMID:11204344

  12. Attentional bias for trauma-related words: exaggerated emotional Stroop effect in Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves debilitating symptoms that can disrupt cognitive functioning. The emotional Stroop has been commonly used to examine the impact of PTSD on attentional control, but no published study has yet used it with Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans, and only one previous study has compared groups on habituation to trauma-related words. Methods We administered the emotional Stroop, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the PTSD Checklist (PCL) to 30 veterans with PTSD, 30 military controls, and 30 civilian controls. Stroop word types included Combat, Matched-neutral, Neutral, Positive and Negative. Results Compared to controls, veterans with PTSD were disproportionately slower in responding to Combat words. They were also slower and less accurate overall, did not show interference on Negative or Positive words relative to Neutral, and showed a trend for delayed but successful habituation to Combat words. Higher PCL and BDI scores also correlated with larger interference effects. Conclusions Because of its specificity in detecting attentional biases to trauma-related words, the emotional Stroop task may serve as a useful pre- and post task with intervention studies of PTSD patients. PMID:23496805

  13. Speed and Lateral Inhibition of Stimulus Processing Contribute to Individual Differences in Stroop-Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Marnix; Vedder, Anneke; Brown, Stephen B. R. E.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    The Stroop task is a popular neuropsychological test that measures executive control. Strong Stroop interference is commonly interpreted in neuropsychology as a diagnostic marker of impairment in executive control, possibly reflecting executive dysfunction. However, popular models of the Stroop task indicate that several other aspects of color and word processing may also account for individual differences in the Stroop task, independent of executive control. Here we use new approaches to investigate the degree to which individual differences in Stroop interference correlate with the relative processing speed of word and color stimuli, and the lateral inhibition between visual stimuli. We conducted an electrophysiological and behavioral experiment to measure (1) how quickly an individual’s brain processes words and colors presented in isolation (P3 latency), and (2) the strength of an individual’s lateral inhibition between visual representations with a visual illusion. Both measures explained at least 40% of the variance in Stroop interference across individuals. As these measures were obtained in contexts not requiring any executive control, we conclude that the Stroop effect also measures an individual’s pre-set way of processing visual features such as words and colors. This study highlights the important contributions of stimulus processing speed and lateral inhibition to individual differences in Stroop interference, and challenges the general view that the Stroop task primarily assesses executive control. PMID:27313555

  14. Speed and Lateral Inhibition of Stimulus Processing Contribute to Individual Differences in Stroop-Task Performance.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Vedder, Anneke; Brown, Stephen B R E; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    The Stroop task is a popular neuropsychological test that measures executive control. Strong Stroop interference is commonly interpreted in neuropsychology as a diagnostic marker of impairment in executive control, possibly reflecting executive dysfunction. However, popular models of the Stroop task indicate that several other aspects of color and word processing may also account for individual differences in the Stroop task, independent of executive control. Here we use new approaches to investigate the degree to which individual differences in Stroop interference correlate with the relative processing speed of word and color stimuli, and the lateral inhibition between visual stimuli. We conducted an electrophysiological and behavioral experiment to measure (1) how quickly an individual's brain processes words and colors presented in isolation (P3 latency), and (2) the strength of an individual's lateral inhibition between visual representations with a visual illusion. Both measures explained at least 40% of the variance in Stroop interference across individuals. As these measures were obtained in contexts not requiring any executive control, we conclude that the Stroop effect also measures an individual's pre-set way of processing visual features such as words and colors. This study highlights the important contributions of stimulus processing speed and lateral inhibition to individual differences in Stroop interference, and challenges the general view that the Stroop task primarily assesses executive control. PMID:27313555

  15. One Night of Sleep Deprivation Affects Reaction Time, but Not Interference or Facilitation in a Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Sean W.; Silva, Edward J.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Ronda, Joseph M.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2011-01-01

    The Stroop color-naming task is one of the most widely studied tasks involving the inhibition of a prepotent response, regarded as an executive function. Several studies have examined performance on versions of the Stroop task under conditions of acute sleep deprivation. Though these studies revealed effects on Stroop performance, the results…

  16. Individual but not fragile: individual differences in task control predict Stroop facilitation.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, E; Henik, A

    2013-06-01

    The Stroop effect is composed of interference and facilitation effects. The facilitation is less stable and thus many times is referred to as a "fragile effect". Here we suggest the facilitation effect is highly vulnerable to individual differences in control over the task conflict (between relevant color naming and irrelevant word reading in the Stroop task). We replicated previous findings of a significant correlation between stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) and Stroop interference, and also found a significant correlation between SSRT and the Stroop facilitation effect-participants with low inhibitory control (i.e., long SSRT) had no facilitation effect or even a reversed one. These results shed new light on the "fragile" facilitation effect and highlight the necessity of awareness of task conflict, especially in the Stroop task. PMID:23416541

  17. The locus of the emotional Stroop effect: a study with the PRP paradigm.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Markus; Augst, Susanne; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-09-01

    Stimuli that are clearly positive or negative (hence valence-laden stimuli) have the potential to interrupt unrelated task processing. A typical example is the emotional Stroop effect (ESE) in which responding to a certain task feature (e.g., color) is delayed by the presentation of task-irrelevant valent stimuli (e.g., negative pictures) compared to valence-neutral stimuli. Here we scrutinize which processes are slowed down by irrelevant but valent stimulation. In Experiment 1, participants performed in a Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) experiment with tone discrimination as Task 1 and color discrimination as Task 2. Importantly, colors in Task 2 were accompanied by valent or neutral pictures. Valent pictures delayed responding in Task 2 (thus an ESE) and this delay was additive to the time interval between tasks. In Experiment 2, task order was reversed and the ESE in Task 1 fully propagated to the Task 2 tone discrimination. These results imply that irrelevant valence-laden stimulation delays capacity-limited processes, and we suggest that this is a late perceptual process acting on stimulus categorization. PMID:24904999

  18. Automatic Processing of Psychological Distance: Evidence from a Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira; Algom, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A picture-word version of the Stroop task was used to test the automatic activation of words carrying various senses of psychological distance: temporal (tomorrow, in a year), social (friend, enemy), and hypotheticality (sure, maybe). The pictures implied depth with the words appearing relatively close or distant from the observer. The participants classified the spatial distance of words faster when the word’s implicit psychological distance matched their spatial distance (e.g., a geographically close word was classified faster when it was ‘friend’ than when it was ‘enemy’). The findings are consistent with the notion that psychological distance is accessed automatically, even when it is not directly related to people’s current goals, and suggest that psychological distance is an important dimension of meaning, common to spatial distance, temporal distance, social distance, and hypotheticality. PMID:17999574

  19. Clinical Utility of the Modified Stroop Task as a Treatment Outcome Measure: Questions Raised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jillian R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Griffiths, Rosalyn A.; Beumont, Pierre J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Data from an outpatient treatment trial for anorexia nervosa were examined to gain preliminary insights as to whether the modified Stroop colour-naming task might offer a useful measure of treatment outcome. It was hypothesised that interference for eating-, weight- and shape-related words on a modified version on the Stroop colour-naming task…

  20. Vicarious learning of children's social-anxiety-related fear beliefs and emotional Stroop bias.

    PubMed

    Askew, Chris; Hagel, Anna; Morgan, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Models of social anxiety suggest that negative social experiences contribute to the development of social anxiety, and this is supported by self-report research. However, there is relatively little experimental evidence for the effects of learning experiences on social cognitions. The current study examined the effect of observing a social performance situation with a negative outcome on children's (8 to 11 years old) fear-related beliefs and cognitive processing. Two groups of children were each shown 1 of 2 animated films of a person trying to score in basketball while being observed by others; in 1 film, the outcome was negative, and in the other, it was neutral. Children's fear-related beliefs about performing in front of others were measured before and after the film and children were asked to complete an emotional Stroop task. Results showed that social fear beliefs increased for children who saw the negative social performance film. In addition, these children showed an emotional Stroop bias for social-anxiety-related words compared to children who saw the neutral film. The findings have implications for our understanding of social anxiety disorder and suggest that vicarious learning experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of social anxiety. PMID:26098726

  1. Attachment anxiety and attentional control predict immediate and delayed emotional Stroop interference.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heidi N; Paret, Laura; Battista, Christian; Xue, Ya

    2012-04-01

    Attachment anxiety has been associated with a hyperactivating response to threat. A modified emotional Stroop task was used to investigate temporal characteristics of the threat response by assessing response latencies to interpersonally threatening words (immediate interference) and two directly subsequent neutral filler words (delayed interference). Greater immediate and delayed interference to threatening words was observed (n = 125), with higher levels of attachment anxiety associated with immediate interference to threatening cues, and lower levels with delayed interference. Thus, attachment anxiety was related to the speed at which moderate perceived threat disrupted ongoing processes under top-down attentional control. Furthermore, top-down attentional control moderated the extent to which immediate or delayed interference was observed. Among participants who demonstrated relatively stronger top-down attentional control, immediate and delayed interference to threatening cues was minimal, suggesting that results involving emotional Stroop interference were primarily attributable to participants with relatively weaker top-down attentional control. The implications of these findings are considered within the broader context of performance-based and neuroimaging research, with suggestions for future applied research. PMID:22468618

  2. Avoiding the Approach Trap: A Response Bias Theory of the Emotional Stroop Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chajut, Eran; Mama, Yaniv; Levy, Leora; Algom, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In the laboratory, people classify the color of emotion-laden words slower than they do that of neutral words, the emotional Stroop effect. Outside the laboratory, people react to features of emotion-laden stimuli or threatening stimuli faster than they do to those of neutral stimuli. A possible resolution to the conundrum implicates the…

  3. Between-task transfer of learning from spatial compatibility to a color stroop task.

    PubMed

    Marini, Maddalena; Iani, Cristina; Nicoletti, Roberto; Rubichi, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Responses to a relevant stimulus dimension are faster and more accurate when the stimulus and response spatially correspond compared to when they do not, even though stimulus position is irrelevant (Simon effect). It has been demonstrated that practicing with an incompatible spatial stimulus-response (S-R) mapping before performing a Simon task can eliminate this effect. In the present study we assessed whether a learned spatially incompatible S-R mapping can be transferred to a nonspatial conflict task, hence supporting the view that transfer effects are due to acquisition of a general "respond to the opposite stimulus value" rule. To this aim, we ran two experiments in which participants performed a spatial compatibility task with either a compatible or an incompatible mapping and then transferred, after a 5 min delay, to a color Stroop task. In Experiment 1, responses were executed by pressing one of two keys on the keyboard in both practice and transfer tasks. In Experiment 2, responses were manual in the practice task and vocal in the transfer task. The spatially incompatible practice significantly reduced the color Stroop effect only when responses were manual in both tasks. These results suggest that during practice participants develop a response-selection strategy of emitting the alternative spatial response. PMID:21592943

  4. [The asymmetry of interhemispheric interaction in reverse-stroop task].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ritsuko

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of interference on interhemispheric interaction in the reverse-stroop task. In two experiments, color-word in black ink and color-patch in red or blue ink were briefly presented to a bilateral visual-field (BVF). The participants were asked to identify the color word, ignoring the color patch. In Experiment 1, color-words written in kanji character were used as target ([Chinese character: see test] or [Chinese character: see test]). In Experiment 2, color-words written in kana character were used as target ([Chinese characters: see test] or [Chinese characters: see test]). The result in Experiment I showed that the size of the interference effect was invariant irrespective of the visual-field of the target. On the contrary, in Experiment 2, the interference effect was larger in the condition where the kana color-word was presented to left visual-field (LVF) than to right visual-field (RVF). These results suggested that the interference effect would be modulated by the dominant hemisphere for processing the target. PMID:17017721

  5. Asymmetry of congruency effects in spatial Stroop tasks can be eliminated.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunming; Proctor, Robert W

    2013-05-01

    Three experiments examined whether asymmetry in interference can be eliminated in spatial Stroop tasks. In Experiment 1, responding to arrows or location words written in Chinese and to their locations created spatial Stroop effects of similar sizes. In Experiment 2, responding to a location word embedded in an outline drawing of arrow did not yield a spatial Stroop effect, but responding to the arrow's direction did yield an effect. In Experiment 3, responding to a location word flanked by an arrow and to the arrow rather than the word produced similar sizes of spatial Stroop effects. These results show that asymmetry in spatial Stroop interference can be eliminated in some situations. Although aspects of the results are consistent with predictions of translation and dimensional overlap models, they are in closest agreement overall with an account in terms of the relative strengths of the relevant and irrelevant stimulus-response associations. PMID:23500109

  6. Evidence for Interaction between the Stop Signal and the Stroop Task Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Goldfarb, Liat; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Performance of the Stroop task reflects two conflicts--informational (between the incongruent word and ink color) and task (between relevant color naming and irrelevant word reading). The task conflict is usually not visible, and is only seen when task control is damaged. Using the stop-signal paradigm, a few studies demonstrated longer…

  7. Perception without awareness: further evidence from a Stroop priming task.

    PubMed

    Daza, M Teresa; Ortells, Juan J; Fox, Elaine

    2002-11-01

    In the present research, we examined the influence of prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) on Stroop-priming effects from masked words. Participants indicated the color of a central target, which was preceded by a 33-msec prime word followed either immediately or after a variable delay by a pattern mask. The prime word was incongruent or congruent with the target color on 75% and 25% of the trials, respectively. The words followed by an immediate mask produced reliable Stroop interference at SOAs of 300 and 400 msec but not at SOAs of 500 and 700 msec. The words followed by a delayed mask produced a reversed (i.e., facilitatory) Stroop effect, which reached significance at an SOA of 400 msec or longer, but never at the shorter 300-msec SOA. Such an differential time course of both types of Stroop priming effects provides further evidence for the existence of qualitative differences between conscious and nonconscious perceptual processes. PMID:12519028

  8. Differential Effects of Single-Dose Escitalopram on Cognitive and Affective Interference during Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Rahm, Christoffer; Liberg, Benny; Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Maria; Aspelin, Peter; Msghina, Mussie

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Our aim was to study the regulatory role of serotonin [(5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] on two key nodes in the cognitive control networks – the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We hypothesized that increasing the levels of 5-HT would preferentially modulate the activity in ACC during cognitive control during interference by negative affects compared to cognitive control during interference by a superimposed cognitive task. Methods: We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation on 11 healthy individuals, comparing the effects of the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on brain oxygenation level dependent signals in the ACC and the DLPFC using affective and cognitive counting Stroop paradigms (aStroop and cStroop). Results: Escitalopram significantly decreased the activity in rostral ACC during aStroop compared to cStroop (p < 0.05). In the absence of escitalopram, both aStroop and cStroop significantly activated ACC and DLPFC (Z ≥ 2.3, p < 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that escitalopram in a region and task specific manner modified the cognitive control networks and preferentially decreased activity induced by affective interference in the ACC. PMID:24616708

  9. The Influence of Reward Associations on Conflict Processing in the Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Ruth M.; Boehler, Carsten N.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2010-01-01

    Performance in a behavioral task can be facilitated by associating stimulus properties with reward. In contrast, conflicting information is known to impede task performance. Here we investigated how reward associations influence the within-trial processing of conflicting information using a color-naming Stroop task in which a subset of ink colors…

  10. Concurrent working memory task decreases the Stroop interference effect as indexed by the decreased theta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Tang, D; Hu, L; Zhang, L; Hitchman, G; Wang, L; Chen, A

    2014-03-14

    Working memory (WM) tasks may increase or decrease the interference effect of concurrently performed cognitive control tasks. However, the neural oscillatory correlates of this modulation effect of WM on the Stroop task are still largely unknown. In the present study, behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from 32 healthy participants during their performance of the single Stroop task and the same task with a concurrent WM task. We observed that the Stroop interference effect represented in both response times (RTs) and theta-band event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) magnitude reduced under the dual-task condition compared with the single-task condition. The reduction of interference in theta-band ERSP was further positively correlated with interference reduction in RTs, and was mainly explained by the source in the left middle frontal gyrus. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the effect of concurrent WM tasks on the reduction of the Stroop interference effect can be indexed by EEG oscillations in theta-band rhythm in the centro-frontal regions and this modulation was mediated by the reduced cognitive control under the concurrent WM task. PMID:24406438

  11. Studying hemispheric lateralization during a Stroop task by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jinyan; Sun, Bailei; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-03-01

    We measured hemodynamic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a Chinese color-word matching Stroop task using a homemade continuous-wave NIRS system. Two probes were placed separately over the left and the right PFC. Wavelet transform coherence (WTC) analysis was employed to calculate coherences between all channels of the same probe pairwise to obtain the intrahemispheric functional connectivity for each side of the PFC. The intrahemispheric functional connectivities in both sides of PFC were stronger during the incongruent task compared to that of the neutral task, but only the left intrahemispheric functional connectivity showed a significant Stroop effect. In addition to the Stroop effect, for the incongruent or the neutral task, there was also a leftward lateralization. The results indicate that, compared with traditional activation, NIRS-based connectivity is more sensitive for identifying hemispheric lateralization.

  12. Multiple levels of control in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Bugg, Julie M; Jacoby, Larry L; Toth, Jeffrey P

    2008-12-01

    Multiple levels of control may be used in service of reducing Stroop interference. One is list-wide, whereby interference is reduced strategically in lists that include disproportionately more incongruent trials. A second, item-specific control is observed when proportion congruence is manipulated at the level of items. Item-specific control reduces interference for mostly incongruent relative to mostly congruent items. First, we show that item-specific control may drive both list-wide and item-specific proportion congruence effects (Experiment 1). We then show that item-specific control affects Stroop interference similarly when a single feature (a word) as opposed to a feature combination (a word+font type) signals proportion congruence (Experiment 2). Although this suggests that font type offers little advantage for controlling Stroop interference beyond the word, a novel, font-specific proportion congruence effect is observed in Experiment 3, indicating that font type can be used to control interference. These findings support the idea that multiple levels of control are used in reducing Stroop interference. PMID:19015507

  13. Grapheme-color synesthesia interferes with color perception in a standard Stroop task.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, F M; Aben, H P; Smits, M; Röder, C H

    2014-01-31

    This study examined the proposed automatic and involuntary nature of synesthetic experiences in grapheme-color synesthetes by comparing behavioral and blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses in a synesthetic and a standard version of the Stroop task. Clear interference effects in terms of slower reaction times and stronger BOLD responses in the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ) were found in synesthetes performing the synesthetic version of the Stroop task. Surprisingly, less interference was found in synesthetes compared with controls performing the standard Stroop task. This smaller interference effect, expressed as the difference in reaction time between incongruent and neutral stimuli, was explained in terms of experienced interference during the neutral condition of the Stroop task in synesthetes. This was confirmed by stronger BOLD responses in the RCZ for synesthetes specifically in the neutral condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show different performance of synesthetes in a standard Stroop task and the presented data can be seen as strong evidence for the automatic and involuntary nature of synesthetic experiences. PMID:24269938

  14. Comparing the Neural Correlates of Conscious and Unconscious Conflict Control in a Masked Stroop Priming Task

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun; Bailey, Kira; Xiang, Ling; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have suggested that conflict control can occur in the absence of consciousness, the brain mechanisms underlying unconscious and conscious conflict control remain unclear. The current study used a rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design to collect data from 24 participants while they performed a masked Stroop priming task under both conscious and unconscious conditions. The results revealed that the fronto-parietal conflict network, including medial frontal cortex (MFC), left and right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), was activated by both conscious and unconscious Stroop priming, even though in MFC and left DLPFC the activations elicited by unconscious Stroop priming were smaller than conscious Stroop priming. The findings provide evidence for the existence of quantitative differences between the neural substrates of conscious and unconscious conflict control. PMID:27378890

  15. Exploring relations between task conflict and informational conflict in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Entel, Olga; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Shahar, Nitzan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we tested the proposal that the Stroop task involves two conflicts--task conflict and informational conflict. Task conflict was defined as the latency difference between color words and non-letter neutrals, and manipulated by varying the proportion of color words versus non-letter neutrals. Informational conflict was defined as the latency difference between incongruent and congruent trials and manipulated by varying the congruent-to-incongruent trial ratio. We replicated previous findings showing that increasing the ratio of incongruent-to-congruent trials reduces the latency difference between the incongruent and congruent condition (i.e., informational conflict), as does increasing the proportion of color words (i.e., task conflict). A significant under-additive interaction between the two proportion manipulations (congruent vs. incongruent and color words vs. neutrals) indicated that the effects of task conflict and informational conflict were not additive. By assessing task conflict as the contrast between color words and neutrals, we found that task conflict existed in all of our experimental conditions. Under specific conditions, when task conflict dominated behavior by explaining most of the variability between congruency conditions, we also found negative facilitation, thus demonstrating that this effect is a special case of task conflict. PMID:25420632

  16. Viewing images of snakes accelerates making judgements of their colour in humans: red snake effect as an instance of 'emotional Stroop facilitation'.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Masahiro; Isomura, Tomoko; Masataka, Nobuo

    2014-11-01

    One of the most prevalent current psychobiological notions about human behaviour and emotion suggests that prioritization of threatening stimuli processing induces deleterious effects on task performance. In order to confirm its relevancy, 108 adults and 25 children were required to name the colour of images of snakes and flowers, using the pictorial emotional Stroop paradigm. When reaction time to answer the colour of each stimulus was measured, its value was found to decrease when snake images were presented when compared with when flower images were presented. Thus, contrary to the expectation from previous emotional Stroop paradigm research, emotions evoked by viewing images of snakes as a biologically relevant threatening stimulus were found to be likely to exert a facilitating rather than interfering effect on making judgements of their colour. PMID:26064551

  17. Viewing images of snakes accelerates making judgements of their colour in humans: red snake effect as an instance of ‘emotional Stroop facilitation’

    PubMed Central

    Shibasaki, Masahiro; Isomura, Tomoko; Masataka, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    One of the most prevalent current psychobiological notions about human behaviour and emotion suggests that prioritization of threatening stimuli processing induces deleterious effects on task performance. In order to confirm its relevancy, 108 adults and 25 children were required to name the colour of images of snakes and flowers, using the pictorial emotional Stroop paradigm. When reaction time to answer the colour of each stimulus was measured, its value was found to decrease when snake images were presented when compared with when flower images were presented. Thus, contrary to the expectation from previous emotional Stroop paradigm research, emotions evoked by viewing images of snakes as a biologically relevant threatening stimulus were found to be likely to exert a facilitating rather than interfering effect on making judgements of their colour. PMID:26064551

  18. Distinguishing Response Conflict and Task Conflict in the Stroop Task: Evidence from Ex-Gaussian Distribution Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauser, Marco; Hubner, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that performance in the Stroop task is influenced by response conflict as well as task conflict. The present study investigated the idea that both conflict types can be isolated by applying ex-Gaussian distribution analysis which decomposes response time into a Gaussian and an exponential component. Two experiments were…

  19. Stop interfering: Stroop task conflict independence from informational conflict and interference.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Goldfarb, Liat; Usher, Marius; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Performance of the Stroop task reflects two conflicts-informational (between the incongruent word and ink colour) and task (between relevant colour naming and irrelevant word reading). This is supported by findings showing that the anterior cingulate cortex is more activated by congruent and incongruent stimuli than by nonword neutral stimuli. Previously, researchers demonstrated behavioural evidence for task conflict-a reverse facilitation effect under a reduced task conflict control condition. The boundary conditions of this Stroop reverse facilitation effect are not yet clear. The current study aimed to investigate whether task conflict arises, and task control is needed, whenever there are two possible tasks, even if the irrelevant task cannot mislead one to give erroneous responses (i.e., stimuli do not contain an informational conflict). To this end, in both experiments no incongruent stimuli were presented. In Experiment 1, participants conducted a Stroop task with a high proportion of nonword neutrals and with a neutral/congruent cue in 50% of the trials. In Experiment 2, the nonword neutral was replaced by a real non-colour-word. We found the reverse facilitation effect in the noncued trials of Experiment 1. Moreover, as expected, this effect was eliminated when a noncolour neutral word that induced task conflict was used (Experiment 2). We conclude that task conflict control is reactively activated whenever there are at least two possible tasks, even in the absence of any possibility of informational conflict. PMID:23163896

  20. Evidence for interaction between the stop signal and the Stroop task conflict.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Goldfarb, Liat; Henik, Avishai

    2013-04-01

    Performance of the Stroop task reflects two conflicts--informational (between the incongruent word and ink color) and task (between relevant color naming and irrelevant word reading). The task conflict is usually not visible, and is only seen when task control is damaged. Using the stop-signal paradigm, a few studies demonstrated longer stop-signal reaction times for incongruent trials than for congruent trials. This indicates interaction between stopping and the informational conflict. Here we suggest that "zooming in" on task-control failure trials will reveal another interaction--between stopping and task conflict. To examine this suggestion, we combined stop-signal and Stroop tasks in the same experiment. When participants' control failed and erroneous responses to a stop signal occurred, a reverse facilitation emerged in the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and this was eliminated using methods that manipulated the emergence of the reverse facilitation (Experiment 2). Results from both experiments were replicated when all stimuli were used in the same task (Experiment 3). In erroneous response trials, only the task conflict increased, not the informational conflict. These results indicate that task conflict and stop-signal inhibition share a common control mechanism that is dissociable from the control mechanism activated by the informational conflict. PMID:22390293

  1. Temporal Constraints of the Word Blindness Posthypnotic Suggestion on Stroop Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parris, Benjamin A.; Dienes, Zoltan; Hodgson, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigated possible temporal constraints on the posthypnotic word blindness suggestion effect. In a completely within-subjects and counterbalanced design 19 highly suggestible individuals performed the Stroop task both with and without a posthypnotic suggestion that they would be unable to read the word dimension of the Stroop…

  2. Integrating Speech and Iconic Gestures in a Stroop-Like Task: Evidence for Automatic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Spencer D.; Creigh, Peter; Bartolotti, James

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a link between language and action in the brain. The present study investigates the strength of this neural relationship by focusing on a potential interface between the two systems: cospeech iconic gesture. Participants performed a Stroop-like task in which they watched videos of a man and a woman speaking and…

  3. Successful smoking cessation is associated with prefrontal cortical function during a Stroop task: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Krönke, Klaus-Martin; Wolff, Max; Benz, Annika; Goschke, Thomas

    2015-10-30

    Although many smokers try to quit, relatively few are successful in their attempts. Here we investigated whether the ability to quit smoking is related to behavioral and neural measures of cognitive control. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study with a counting Stroop task was used to measure cognitive control in ex-smokers (N=10) who had successfully quit smoking and smokers (N=10) who continuously failed to quit smoking. Behavioral results showed a significant Stroop effect in ex-smokers and smokers. Ex-smokers exhibited less Stroop interference, indicating superior cognitive control compared with smokers. Furthermore, when incongruent trials were contrasted with congruent trials, ex-smokers showed stronger BOLD activity than smokers in the right superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex. Although the present study does not permit us to draw strong conclusions regarding causality, the results suggest that successful smoking cessation may be mediated by superior cognitive control. PMID:26321462

  4. The Complex Pre-Execution Stage of Auditory Cognitive Control: ERPs Evidence from Stroop Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bo; Wang, Xunda; Ma, Lin; Li, Liang; Li, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control has been extensively studied from Event-Related Potential (ERP) point of view in visual modality using Stroop paradigms. Little work has been done in auditory Stroop paradigms, and inconsistent conclusions have been reported, especially on the conflict detection stage of cognitive control. This study investigated the early ERP components in an auditory Stroop paradigm, during which participants were asked to identify the volume of spoken words and ignore the word meanings. A series of significant ERP components were revealed that distinguished incongruent and congruent trials: two declined negative polarity waves (the N1 and the N2) and three declined positive polarity wave (the P1, the P2 and the P3) over the fronto-central area for the incongruent trials. These early ERP components imply that both a perceptual stage and an identification stage exist in the auditory Stroop effect. A 3-stage cognitive control model was thus proposed for a more detailed description of the human cognitive control mechanism in the auditory Stroop tasks. PMID:26368570

  5. Neural correlates of stimulus and response interference in a 2-1 mapping stroop task.

    PubMed

    Chen, Antao; Bailey, Kira; Tiernan, Brandy N; West, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Two sources of interference (i.e., stimulus and response) are believed to contribute to the Stroop interference effect. Some neurophysiological evidence reveals that different neuro-cognitive processes are related to stimulus and response interference in the Stroop and related tasks. However, other evidence indicates that similar patterns of neural recruitment may be associated with these two types interference. Given these discrepant findings, the current study used a 2-1 mapping Stroop task in combination with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the neural correlates of stimulus and response interference. The response time data revealed that stimulus interference was constant across the response time distribution. In contrast, response interference increased in magnitude across the response time distribution for all but the slowest trials. The stimulus-locked ERP data revealed that early and later modulations of the medial frontal negativity may be sensitive to response interference, but not stimulus interference. These data also revealed that the conflict slow potential (SP) over the parietal and right lateral frontal regions was sensitive to both stimulus and response interference; in contrast, the conflict SP over the left lateral frontal region was only sensitive to response interference. Together the stimulus- and response-locked data lead to the conclusion that the parietal region is primarily involved in response selection in the Stroop task, and that the lateral frontal regions may participate in response monitoring and conflict adaption. PMID:21356252

  6. Perceptual conflict-induced late positive complex in a modified Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Li, Guochao; Wang, Suiping; Duan, Yixing; Zhu, Zude

    2013-05-10

    To investigate the functional significance of the late positive complex (LPC) in the Stroop task, the present study recruited 22 participants and had them report the color of words in the classical Stroop task and the rotation state of words in a Rotation judgment task. Color words whose ink color was either congruent (CON) or incongruent (INCON) with the word's meaning were presented in both tasks. Consistent with previous studies, the N450 and LPC were observed in the Stroop task, accompanied by slowed reaction time (RT) in the INCON condition compared with the CON condition. Notably, a larger LPC was observed in the INCON condition than in the CON condition in the Rotation task, while RT and accuracy were comparable between the two conditions. Because the incongruence between ink color and word meaning was independent from the response, and neither influenced accuracy nor RT in the Rotation task, the results suggested that the LPC may have resulted from the perceptual conflict between ink color and word meaning. PMID:23416898

  7. A developmental fMRI study of the Stroop color-word task.

    PubMed

    Adleman, Nancy E; Menon, Vinod; Blasey, Christine M; White, Christopher D; Warsofsky, Ilana S; Glover, Gary H; Reiss, Allan L

    2002-05-01

    We used fMRI to investigate developmental changes in brain activation during a Stroop color-word interference task. A positive correlation was observed between age and Stroop-related activation (n = 30) in the left lateral prefrontal cortex, the left anterior cingulate, and the left parietal and parieto-occipital cortices. No regions showed a negative correlation between activation and age. We further investigated age-related differences by stratifying the sample into three age groups: children (ages 7-11), adolescents (ages 12-16), and young adults (ages 18-22). Young adult subjects (n = 11) displayed significant activation in the inferior and middle frontal gyri bilaterally, the left anterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior and superior parietal lobules. Between-group comparisons revealed that young adults had significantly greater activation than adolescent subjects (n = 11) in the left middle frontal gyrus and that young adults showed significantly greater activation than children (n = 8) in the anterior cingulate and left parietal and parieto-occipital regions, as well as in the left middle frontal gyrus. Compared to children, both adult and adolescent subjects exhibited significantly greater activation in the parietal cortex. Adult and adolescent groups, however, did not differ in activation for this region. Together, these data suggest that Stroop task-related functional development of the parietal lobe occurs by adolescence. In contrast, prefrontal cortex function contributing to the Stroop interference task continues to develop into adulthood. This neuromaturational process may depend on increased ability to recruit focal neural resources with age. Findings from this study, the first developmental fMRI investigation of the Stroop interference task, provide a template with which normal development and neurodevelopmental disorders of prefrontal cortex function can be assessed. PMID:11969318

  8. Disentangling fast and slow attentional influences of negative and taboo spoken words in the emotional Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bertels, Julie; Kolinsky, Régine

    2016-09-01

    Although the influence of the emotional content of stimuli on attention has been considered as occurring within trial, recent studies revealed that the presentation of such stimuli would also involve a slow component. The aim of the present study was to investigate fast and slow effects of negative (Exp. 1) and taboo (Exp. 2) spoken words. For this purpose, we used an auditory variant of the emotional Stroop paradigm in which each emotional word was followed by a sequence of neutral words. Replicating results from our previous study, we observed slow but no fast effects of negative and taboo words, which we interpreted as reflecting difficulties to disengage attention from their emotional dimension. Interestingly, while the presentation of a negative word only delayed the processing of the immediately subsequent neutral word, slow effects of taboo words were long-lasting. Nevertheless, such attentional effects were only observed when the emotional words were presented in the first block of trials, suggesting that once participants develop strategies to perform the task, attention-grabbing effects of emotional words disappear. Hence, far from being automatic, the occurrence of these effects would depend on participants' attentional set. PMID:26197360

  9. An integrated utility-based model of conflict evaluation and resolution in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Chuderski, Adam; Smolen, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive control allows humans to direct and coordinate their thoughts and actions in a flexible way, in order to reach internal goals regardless of interference and distraction. The hallmark test used to examine cognitive control is the Stroop task, which elicits both the weakly learned but goal-relevant and the strongly learned but goal-irrelevant response tendencies, and requires people to follow the former while ignoring the latter. After reviewing the existing computational models of cognitive control in the Stroop task, its novel, integrated utility-based model is proposed. The model uses 3 crucial control mechanisms: response utility reinforcement learning, utility-based conflict evaluation using the Festinger formula for assessing the conflict level, and top-down adaptation of response utility in service of conflict resolution. Their complex, dynamic interaction led to replication of 18 experimental effects, being the largest data set explained to date by 1 Stroop model. The simulations cover the basic congruency effects (including the response latency distributions), performance dynamics and adaptation (including EEG indices of conflict), as well as the effects resulting from manipulations applied to stimulation and responding, which are yielded by the extant Stroop literature. PMID:26751852

  10. Age-related trends in Stroop and conflicting motor response task findings.

    PubMed

    Nichelli, Francesca; Scala, Gabriella; Vago, Chiara; Riva, Daria; Bulgheroni, Sara

    2005-10-01

    Inhibition problems are reportedly at the heart of several childhood pathologies and learning disorders, but few instruments are available for their in-depth investigation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the development of a capacity to inhibit automatic responses in young and middle childhood. For this purpose, 100 children between 6 and 11 years old were administered two tests that measure executive inhibition: an animal Stroop task (in a paper-and-pencil version of the computerized original proposed by Wright and colleagues in 2003) and a conflicting motor response task. Our results indicate that performance clearly improves in both tests during the course of a child's development and the data obtained with the paper-and-pencil animal Stroop task overlap with those obtained with the computerized version. When the task calls for a stronger inhibitory control (the incongruent situation in the Stroop task and in the opposite condition in the conflicting motor response test) the trend of the response times is less homogeneous, peaking in the youngest and oldest age brackets considered. The positivity and significance of the correlation coefficients between the two tests also suggest that the two measures are tapping cognitive abilities that are developing in a parallel fashion. PMID:16306018

  11. fNIRS-based investigation of the Stroop task after TBI.

    PubMed

    Plenger, Patrick; Krishnan, Kamini; Cloud, Matthew; Bosworth, Chris; Qualls, Devin; Marquez de la Plata, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate neural changes during a Stroop task among individuals with TBI using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Thirteen healthy controls and 14 patients with moderate to severe TBI were included in this study. Oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) was recorded every tenth of a second using a 52-channel fNIRS unit. Data were acquired using a block design during a Stroop task (i.e., Condition A = Dot Color Naming, Condition B = Incongruent Condition). Visual stimuli were presented on a computer monitor. Behaviorally, response accuracy was similar between groups for condition A, but the TBI group made more errors than the control group during condition B. During condition A, the patient group demonstrated significant increases in HbO within bilateral frontal regions compared to controls (p < 0.01). When examining the Stroop interference effect (B-A), controls showed increased HbO in bilateral frontal lobes and left inferior parietal region suggesting increased neural response to increased cognitive demand, whereas no differences were detected among the TBI group (p < 0.05). No between group differences in latency of HbO response was observed during either condition. While the TBI group performed as accurately as controls on the simpler dot color naming condition of the Stroop task, neural activity was greater within the frontal lobes during this relatively simple task among the TBI group suggesting neural inefficiency. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of neural activity related to the interference effect was not different among patients, suggesting the neural demand for the simpler task was comparable to that of the more cognitive demanding task among the TBI sample. The results suggest that fNIRS can identify frontal lobe inefficiency in TBI commonly observed with fMRI. PMID:26058665

  12. Towards a ternary NIRS-BCI: single-trial classification of verbal fluency task, Stroop task and unconstrained rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schudlo, Larissa C.; Chau, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The majority of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain-computer interface (BCI) studies have investigated binary classification problems. Limited work has considered differentiation of more than two mental states, or multi-class differentiation of higher-level cognitive tasks using measurements outside of the anterior prefrontal cortex. Improvements in accuracies are needed to deliver effective communication with a multi-class NIRS system. We investigated the feasibility of a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports mental states corresponding to verbal fluency task (VFT) performance, Stroop task performance, and unconstrained rest using prefrontal and parietal measurements. Approach. Prefrontal and parietal NIRS signals were acquired from 11 able-bodied adults during rest and performance of the VFT or Stroop task. Classification was performed offline using bagging with a linear discriminant base classifier trained on a 10 dimensional feature set. Main results. VFT, Stroop task and rest were classified at an average accuracy of 71.7% ± 7.9%. The ternary classification system provided a statistically significant improvement in information transfer rate relative to a binary system controlled by either mental task (0.87 ± 0.35 bits/min versus 0.73 ± 0.24 bits/min). Significance. These results suggest that effective communication can be achieved with a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports VFT, Stroop task and rest via measurements from the frontal and parietal cortices. Further development of such a system is warranted. Accurate ternary classification can enhance communication rates offered by NIRS-BCIs, improving the practicality of this technology.

  13. Attentional control adjustments in Eriksen and Stroop task performance can be independent of response conflict.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Martijn J M; Roelofs, Ardi

    2011-06-01

    In the Eriksen flanker and colour-word Stroop tasks, the response time (RT) difference between incongruent and congruent trials is smaller following incongruent trials than following congruent trials: the "Gratton effect" (Gratton, Coles, & Donchin, 1992). According to the prevailing conflict-monitoring theory (Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, & Cohen, 2001), the Gratton effect reflects attentional control adjustment following response conflict on incongruent trials. However, because previous studies compared incongruent and congruent trials, it remains unclear to what extent the Gratton effect is driven by incongruent rather than congruent trials. To resolve this issue, we included neutral trials in addition to incongruent and congruent trials in the Eriksen (Experiment 1) and Stroop (Experiment 2) tasks. Participants responded manually and vocally in both tasks. Moreover, we assessed responding to Stroop stimuli that were preceded by neutral cues or by incongruent- or congruent-predicting cues (Experiment 3). In all three experiments, the RT difference between incongruent and congruent trials was larger for postcongruent trials than for postincongruent and postneutral trials. These findings suggest that control adjustments can be independent of response conflict, challenging conflict-monitoring theory. PMID:21113864

  14. Cueing task goals and earning money: Relatively high monetary rewards reduce failures to act on goals in a Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Aarts, Henk

    2010-01-01

    We examined the role of monetary rewards in failures to act on goals in a Stroop task. Based on recent developments in theorizing on the interplay between rewards and cognitive control, we hypothesized that relatively high monetary rewards enhance the focus and stability of a cued task goal compared to low monetary rewards, and hence cause a reduction in failures to act on current task goals under circumstances that warrant top–down goal implementation. To test this, participants received a modified version of the Stroop task, in which they were either briefly cued with the goal of naming the color or meaning of targets on a trial-by-trial basis. After goal cuing, but before presenting the target, either a low or high reward cue was presented. Results showed that higher rewards produced a general speed-up. More importantly, Stroop interference on error rates was lower in the high reward condition compared to the low reward condition, revealing that the rewards enhanced focus and stability of the cued goal. These results provide support for theorizing that reward processing modulates utility assessment of current goals by affecting attention to facilitate goal-directed behavior. PMID:20651907

  15. Cueing task goals and earning money: Relatively high monetary rewards reduce failures to act on goals in a Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Veling, Harm; Aarts, Henk

    2010-06-01

    We examined the role of monetary rewards in failures to act on goals in a Stroop task. Based on recent developments in theorizing on the interplay between rewards and cognitive control, we hypothesized that relatively high monetary rewards enhance the focus and stability of a cued task goal compared to low monetary rewards, and hence cause a reduction in failures to act on current task goals under circumstances that warrant top-down goal implementation. To test this, participants received a modified version of the Stroop task, in which they were either briefly cued with the goal of naming the color or meaning of targets on a trial-by-trial basis. After goal cuing, but before presenting the target, either a low or high reward cue was presented. Results showed that higher rewards produced a general speed-up. More importantly, Stroop interference on error rates was lower in the high reward condition compared to the low reward condition, revealing that the rewards enhanced focus and stability of the cued goal. These results provide support for theorizing that reward processing modulates utility assessment of current goals by affecting attention to facilitate goal-directed behavior. PMID:20651907

  16. Can the "musical stroop" task replace the classical stroop task? Commentary on “The musical Stroop effect: Opening a new avenue to research on automatisms” by l. Grégoire, P. Perruchet, and B. Poulin-Charronnat (Experimental Psychology, 2013, vol. 60, pp. 269–278).

    PubMed

    Zakay, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The musical Stroop task is analyzed and compared to the classical Stroop task. The analysis indicates that the two tasks differ in the following significant characteristics: ecological validity, the interrelations between the two perceptual dimensions involved, the nature of the automatic process and the existence of a potential Garner interference. It is concluded that the musical task has no advantage over the classical task. PMID:24449651

  17. Cognitive control and schizophrenia: The greatest reliability of the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Laurenson, Charlotte; Gorwood, Philip; Orsat, Manuel; Lhuillier, Jean-Paul; Le Gall, Didier; Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane

    2015-05-30

    Three components of cognitive inhibition were compared in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Nineteen patients with schizophrenia were compared to 30 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and educational level. Cognitive inhibition was examined by (i) access to relevant information (Reading with distraction task), (ii) suppression of no longer relevant information (Trail Making Test B), and (iii) restraint of cognitive resources to relevant information (Stroop Test, Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Go/No-Go Test). Beck Depression Inventory, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were also used. Compared to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia and stabilized for at least 6 months were slower in the inhibition condition at the Stroop task, read more distractors at the RWD, and made more perseverative errors at the TMT, even after controlling for age, Mini-Mental State Examination score, information speed processing, and accuracy. This difference remained significant after taking into account the level of depressive symptoms and the severity of psychotic symptoms. In multivariate analyses, only the Stroop interference index explained cognitive inhibition deficit in patients with schizophrenia. The abnormal cognitive inhibition process observed in patients with schizophrenia could therefore concerns the ability to restraint, rather than the access or the suppression processes. PMID:25800118

  18. Oxytocin impedes the effect of the word blindness post-hypnotic suggestion on Stroop task performance.

    PubMed

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan; Bate, Sarah; Gothard, Stace

    2014-07-01

    The ability to enhance sensitivity to relevant (post)hypnotic suggestions has implications for creating clinically informed analogues of psychological and neuropsychological conditions and for the use of hypnotic interventions in psychological and medical conditions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of oxytocin inhalation on a post-hypnotic suggestion that previously has been shown to improve the selectivity of attention in the Stroop task. In a double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects study, medium hypnotizable individuals performed the Stroop task under normal conditions and when they had been given a post-hypnotic suggestion that they would perceive words as meaningless symbols. In line with previous research, Stroop interference was substantially reduced by the suggestion in the placebo condition. However, contrary to expectations, oxytocin impeded the effect of the word blindness suggestion on performance. The results are explained in terms of the requirement for the re-implementation of the word blindness suggestion on a trial-by-trial basis and the need to sustain activation of the suggestion between trials. The findings contrast with a recent study showing a beneficial effect of oxytocin on sensitivity to (post)hypnotic suggestions but are consistent with findings showing a detrimental effect of oxytocin on memory processes. PMID:23620599

  19. The Effect of a Stroop-like Task on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Pia Bucci, Maria; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loic

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a secondary task on concurrent postural control was explored in twenty-one dyslexic children (mean age: 10.4±0.3 years). Data were compared with twenty age-matched non-dyslexic children. As a secondary task, a modified Stroop test was used, in which words were replaced with pictures of fruits. The postural control of children was recorded in standard Romberg condition as the children were asked to name the colour of fruits appearing consecutively on a computer screen. Two conditions were tested: a congruent condition, in which the fruit was drawn in its natural ripe colour, and a non-congruent colour condition (NC), in which the fruit was drawn in three abnormal colours. A fixating condition was used as baseline. We analyzed the surface, length and mean speed of the center of pressure and measured the number of correct responses in the Stroop-like tasks. Dyslexic children were seen to be significantly more unstable than non-dyslexic ones. For both groups of children, the secondary task significantly increased postural instability in comparison with the fixating condition. The number of correct responses in the modified Stroop task was significantly higher in the non-dyslexic than in the dyslexic group. The postural instability observed in dyslexic children is in line with the cerebellar hypothesis and supports the idea of a deficit in automatic performance in such children. Furthermore, in accordance with cross domain competition model, our findings show that attentional resources are used to a greater extent by the secondary task than in controlling body stability. PMID:24205028

  20. Stability control during the performance of a simultaneous obstacle avoidance and auditory Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Worden, Timothy A; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2016-02-01

    Navigation through complex environments requires a greater degree of control and attentional resources from the central nervous system to ensure postural stability and efficient goal completion as compared to quiet standing or unobstructed walking. Furthermore, when a cognitive task is also performed in a dual-task scenario, additional resources may be required. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of performing a concurrent cognitive (auditory Stroop task) and complex locomotor task (with a stationary or dynamic obstacle) on frontal plane stability control quantified using a margin of stability (MOS) measure. Fourteen healthy young adults performed 40 dual-task trials (randomized in a balanced design for auditory Stroop congruency and obstacle movement). Results indicated that frontal plane MOS was greatest for the obstacle crossing step and was greater for the dynamic obstacle as compared to the stationary obstacle. Conversely, frontal plane MOS was the smallest for the pre-crossing step, indicating that this point in the obstacle stepping strategy may be the least stable. No effect of cognitive task difficulty was observed for any of the experimental conditions, providing support for a 'posture-first' strategy. These findings suggest that an increase in stability is prioritized for the obstacle crossing step, potentially at the expense of reduced stability in the step immediately preceding the obstacle. These results have implications for better understanding how the CNS controls stability at different events during the obstacle crossing strategy in a complex environment. PMID:26487180

  1. Stroop interference in a delayed match-to-sample task: evidence for semantic competition.

    PubMed

    Sturz, Bradley R; Green, Marshall L; Locker, Lawrence; Boyer, Ty W

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of the source of the Stroop interference effect continue to pervade the literature. Semantic competition posits that interference results from competing semantic activation of word and color dimensions of the stimulus prior to response selection. Response competition posits that interference results from competing responses for articulating the word dimension vs. the color dimension at the time of response selection. We embedded Stroop stimuli into a delayed match-to-sample (DMTS) task in an attempt to test semantic and response competition accounts of the interference effect. Participants viewed a sample color word in black or colored fonts that were congruent or incongruent with respect to the color word itself. After a 5 s delay, participants were presented with two targets (i.e., a match and a foil) and were instructed to select the correct match. We probed each dimension independently during target presentations via color targets (i.e., two colors) or word targets (i.e., two words) and manipulated whether the semantic content of the foil was related to the semantic content of the irrelevant sample dimension (e.g., word sample "red" in blue font with the word "red" as the match and the word "blue" as the foil). We provide evidence for Stroop interference such that response times (RTs) increased for incongruent trials even in the presence of a response option with semantic content unrelated to the semantic content of the irrelevant sample dimension. Accuracy also deteriorated during the related foil trials. A follow-up experiment with a 10 s delay between sample and targets replicated the results. Results appear to provide converging evidence for Stroop interference in a DMTS task in a manner that is consistent with an explanation based upon semantic competition and inconsistent with an explanation based upon response competition. PMID:24298264

  2. Prefrontal responses to Stroop tasks in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder assessed by functional near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yennu, Amarnath; Tian, Fenghua; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; J Gatchel, Robert; Woon, Fu Lye; Liu, Hanli

    2016-01-01

    Studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showing attentional deficits have implicated abnormal activities in the frontal lobe. In this study, we utilized multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate selective attention-related hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex among 15 combat-exposed war-zone veterans with PTSD and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. While performing the incongruent Stroop task, healthy controls showed significant activations in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) compared to baseline readings. This observation is consistent with previously reported results. In comparison, subjects with PTSD failed to activate left LPFC during the same Stroop task. Our observations may implicate that subjects with PTSD experienced difficulty in overcoming Stroop interference. We also observed significant negative correlation between task reaction times and hemodynamic responses from left LPFC during the incongruent Stroop task in the PTSD group. Regarding the methodology used in this study, we have learned that an appropriate design of Stroop paradigms is important for meeting an optimal cognitive load which can lead to better brain image contrasts in response to Stroop interference between healthy versus PTSD subjects. Overall, the feasibility of fNIRS for studying and mapping neural correlates of selective attention and interference in subjects with PTSD is reported. PMID:27452397

  3. Prefrontal responses to Stroop tasks in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder assessed by functional near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yennu, Amarnath; Tian, Fenghua; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; J. Gatchel, Robert; Woon, Fu Lye; Liu, Hanli

    2016-07-01

    Studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showing attentional deficits have implicated abnormal activities in the frontal lobe. In this study, we utilized multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate selective attention-related hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex among 15 combat-exposed war-zone veterans with PTSD and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. While performing the incongruent Stroop task, healthy controls showed significant activations in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) compared to baseline readings. This observation is consistent with previously reported results. In comparison, subjects with PTSD failed to activate left LPFC during the same Stroop task. Our observations may implicate that subjects with PTSD experienced difficulty in overcoming Stroop interference. We also observed significant negative correlation between task reaction times and hemodynamic responses from left LPFC during the incongruent Stroop task in the PTSD group. Regarding the methodology used in this study, we have learned that an appropriate design of Stroop paradigms is important for meeting an optimal cognitive load which can lead to better brain image contrasts in response to Stroop interference between healthy versus PTSD subjects. Overall, the feasibility of fNIRS for studying and mapping neural correlates of selective attention and interference in subjects with PTSD is reported.

  4. Prefrontal responses to Stroop tasks in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder assessed by functional near infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yennu, Amarnath; Tian, Fenghua; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; J. Gatchel, Robert; Woon, Fu Lye; Liu, Hanli

    2016-01-01

    Studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showing attentional deficits have implicated abnormal activities in the frontal lobe. In this study, we utilized multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate selective attention-related hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex among 15 combat-exposed war-zone veterans with PTSD and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. While performing the incongruent Stroop task, healthy controls showed significant activations in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) compared to baseline readings. This observation is consistent with previously reported results. In comparison, subjects with PTSD failed to activate left LPFC during the same Stroop task. Our observations may implicate that subjects with PTSD experienced difficulty in overcoming Stroop interference. We also observed significant negative correlation between task reaction times and hemodynamic responses from left LPFC during the incongruent Stroop task in the PTSD group. Regarding the methodology used in this study, we have learned that an appropriate design of Stroop paradigms is important for meeting an optimal cognitive load which can lead to better brain image contrasts in response to Stroop interference between healthy versus PTSD subjects. Overall, the feasibility of fNIRS for studying and mapping neural correlates of selective attention and interference in subjects with PTSD is reported. PMID:27452397

  5. When Stroop helps Piaget: An inter-task positive priming paradigm in 9-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Linzarini, A; Houdé, O; Borst, G

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether inhibitory control is domain general or domain specific in school children, we asked 40 9-year-old children to perform an inter-task priming paradigm in which they responded to Stroop items on the primes and to Piaget number conservation items on the probes. The children were more efficient in the inhibition of a misleading "length-equals-number" heuristic in the number conservation task if they had successfully inhibited a previous prepotent reading response in the Stroop task. This study provides evidence that the inhibitory control ability of school children generalizes to distinct cognitive domains, that is, verbal for the Stroop task and logico-mathematical for Piaget's number conservation task. PMID:26086072

  6. Conceptual response distance and intervening keys distinguish action goals in the Stroop color-identification task.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Proctor, Robert W

    2014-10-01

    In previous studies, a physical response-distance effect was found in the two-choice Stroop color-identification task, with the Stroop effect being larger when the two response keys were physically close together than when they were far apart. In the present study, we found a conceptual response-distance effect, with the Stroop effect being larger when the response keys were conceptually close (labeled as "5" and "6") than when they were conceptually far (labeled as "1" and "9"). Moreover, a response-distance effect due to pure physical distance was not evident; rather, the effect was found only when additional keys were placed between the two far response keys. These results are in agreement with a view that response keys are coded as action goals, with farther conceptual distance and additional keys helping distinguish the action goals. The results are difficult to reconcile with accounts that place emphasis on the physical separation of the effectors or their inanimate extensions. PMID:24578092

  7. Modulations of the executive control network by stimulus onset asynchrony in a Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Manipulating task difficulty is a useful way of elucidating the functional recruitment of the brain’s executive control network. In a Stroop task, pre-exposing the irrelevant word using varying stimulus onset asynchronies (‘negative’ SOAs) modulates the amount of behavioural interference and facilitation, suggesting disparate mechanisms of cognitive processing in each SOA. The current study employed a Stroop task with three SOAs (−400, -200, 0 ms), using functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate for the first time the neural effects of SOA manipulation. Of specific interest were 1) how SOA affects the neural representation of interference and facilitation; 2) response priming effects in negative SOAs; and 3) attentional effects of blocked SOA presentation. Results The results revealed three regions of the executive control network that were sensitive to SOA during Stroop interference; the 0 ms SOA elicited the greatest activation of these areas but experienced relatively smaller behavioural interference, suggesting that the enhanced recruitment led to more efficient conflict processing. Response priming effects were localized to the right inferior frontal gyrus, which is consistent with the idea that this region performed response inhibition in incongruent conditions to overcome the incorrectly-primed response, as well as more general action updating and response preparation. Finally, the right superior parietal lobe was sensitive to blocked SOA presentation and was most active for the 0 ms SOA, suggesting that this region is involved in attentional control. Conclusions SOA exerted both trial-specific and block-wide effects on executive processing, providing a unique paradigm for functional investigations of the cognitive control network. PMID:23902451

  8. Selective Inhibition and Naming Performance in Semantic Blocking, Picture-Word Interference, and Color-Word Stroop Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Martin, Randi C.; Meyer, Antje S.

    2015-01-01

    In 2 studies, we examined whether explicit distractors are necessary and sufficient to evoke selective inhibition in 3 naming tasks: the semantic blocking, picture-word interference, and color-word Stroop task. Delta plots were used to quantify the size of the interference effects as a function of reaction time (RT). Selective inhibition was…

  9. An electrophysiological investigation of preparatory attentional control in a spatial Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Stern, Emily R; Mangels, Jennifer A

    2006-06-01

    Top-down attentional control is required when subjects must attend to one of multiple conflicting stimulus features, such as in the Stroop task. Performance may be improved when such control is implemented in advance of stimulus presentation, yet few studies have examined this issue. Our investigation employed a spatial Stroop task with a manual response, allowing us to focus on the effects of preparatory attention on verbal processing when it is the less automatic attribute. A letter cue (P or W) presented for 2200 msec instructed subjects to respond on the basis of the position or meaning of a word (up, down, left, right) placed in an incongruent position relative to center. Event-related potentials recorded during pre- and poststimulus periods were analyzed as a function of reaction time to the target stimulus (fast vs. slow) in order to differentiate neural activity associated with more or less successful implementation of control. During the prestimulus period, fast responses to subsequent targets were associated with enhanced slow-wave activity over right frontal and bilateral central-parietal regions. During the poststimulus period, fast word trials were uniquely associated with an enhanced inferior temporal negativity (ITN) from 200 to 600 msec. More importantly, a correlation between frontal prestimulus activity and the poststimulus ITN suggested that frontal preparatory activity played a role in facilitating conceptual processing of the verbal stimulus when it arrived, providing an important link between preparatory attention and mechanisms that improve performance in the face of conflict. PMID:16839306

  10. Studying hemispheric lateralization during a Stroop task through near-infrared spectroscopy-based connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jinyan; Sun, Bailei; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a developing and promising functional brain imaging technology. Developing data analysis methods to effectively extract meaningful information from collected data is the major bottleneck in popularizing this technology. In this study, we measured hemodynamic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a color-word matching Stroop task using NIRS. Hemispheric lateralization was examined by employing traditional activation and novel NIRS-based connectivity analyses simultaneously. Wavelet transform coherence was used to assess intrahemispheric functional connectivity. Spearman correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between behavioral performance and activation/functional connectivity, respectively. In agreement with activation analysis, functional connectivity analysis revealed leftward lateralization for the Stroop effect and correlation with behavioral performance. However, functional connectivity was more sensitive than activation for identifying hemispheric lateralization. Granger causality was used to evaluate the effective connectivity between hemispheres. The results showed increased information flow from the left to the right hemispheres for the incongruent versus the neutral task, indicating a leading role of the left PFC. This study demonstrates that the NIRS-based connectivity can reveal the functional architecture of the brain more comprehensively than traditional activation, helping to better utilize the advantages of NIRS.

  11. Task appraisals, emotions, and performance goal orientation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Cynthia D; Minbashian, Amirali; Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. PMID:23276116

  12. Distinguishing Target From Distractor in Stroop, Picture-Word, and Word-Word Interference Tasks.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Xenia; Treccani, Barbara; Mulatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Lexical selection-both during reading aloud and speech production-involves selecting an intended word, while ignoring irrelevant lexical activation. This process has been studied by the use of interference tasks. Examples are the Stroop task, where participants ignore the written color word and name the color of the ink, picture-word interference tasks, where participants name a picture while ignoring a super-imposed written word, or word-word interference (WWI) tasks, where two words are presented and the participants need to respond to only one, based on an pre-determined visual feature (e.g., color, position). Here, we focus on the WWI task: it is theoretically impossible for existing models to explain how the cognitive system can respond to one stimulus and block the other, when they are presented by the same modality (i.e., they are both words). We describe a solution that can explain performance on the WWI task: drawing on the literature on visual attention, we propose that the system creates an object file for each perceived object, which is continuously updated with increasingly complete information about the stimulus, such as the task-relevant visual feature. Such a model can account for performance on all three tasks. PMID:26696927

  13. Distinguishing Target From Distractor in Stroop, Picture–Word, and Word–Word Interference Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Schmalz, Xenia; Treccani, Barbara; Mulatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Lexical selection—both during reading aloud and speech production—involves selecting an intended word, while ignoring irrelevant lexical activation. This process has been studied by the use of interference tasks. Examples are the Stroop task, where participants ignore the written color word and name the color of the ink, picture–word interference tasks, where participants name a picture while ignoring a super-imposed written word, or word–word interference (WWI) tasks, where two words are presented and the participants need to respond to only one, based on an pre-determined visual feature (e.g., color, position). Here, we focus on the WWI task: it is theoretically impossible for existing models to explain how the cognitive system can respond to one stimulus and block the other, when they are presented by the same modality (i.e., they are both words). We describe a solution that can explain performance on the WWI task: drawing on the literature on visual attention, we propose that the system creates an object file for each perceived object, which is continuously updated with increasingly complete information about the stimulus, such as the task-relevant visual feature. Such a model can account for performance on all three tasks. PMID:26696927

  14. Positive mood and executive function: evidence from stroop and fluency tasks.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Louise H; Bull, Rebecca; Adams, Ewan; Fraser, Lisa

    2002-03-01

    Contrasting predictions have been made about the effects of positive mood states on the performance of frontal lobe tests that tap executive functions such as inhibition, switching, and strategy use. It has been argued that positive mood is likely to improve some cognitive processes, particularly those dependent on the frontal cortex and anterior cingulate of the brain. However, there is some evidence that happy mood may impair executive functioning. The current experiments investigated the effects of positive mood on Stoop and fluency tests, which are frequently used to assess executive function. Positive mood impaired performance on a switching condition of the Stroop test, but improved performance on a creative uses test of fluency. The effect of positive mood on an executive task may therefore depend on whether a task is inherently motivating or is impaired by diffuse semantic activation. PMID:12899364

  15. Dexamphetamine normalises electrophysiological activity in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder during the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, S L; McNair, N A; Kirk, I J; Waldie, K E

    2007-10-01

    A case study was conducted to investigate whether dexamphetamine enhances interference control in an adult with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Continuous electroencephalography was recorded both on and off dexamphetamine during performance on a Stroop task. An age-, gender- and IQ-matched control also completed the same task. Event related potentials for the control participant revealed a positive potential to incongruent stimuli between 270 and 440 ms, whereas for the participant with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder off medication, the reverse polarity was observed in a later time window. Following administration of dexamphetamine, however, the event-related potentials for the incongruent condition closely resembled those in the control, suggesting that dexamphetamine successfully normalises electroencephalographic activity. PMID:18781428

  16. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Prefrontal Cortical Function in Nondeprived Smokers Performing the Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiansong; Mendrek, Adrianna; Cohen, Mark S; Monterosso, John; Simon, Sara; Jarvik, Murray; Olmstead, Richard; Brody, Arthur L; Ernst, Monique; London, Edythe D

    2010-01-01

    Some reports indicate that cigarette smoking can help smokers focus attention, even when they have not abstained from smoking for a substantial period of time (eg, >1 h). Understanding the mechanisms by which smoking affects attention may help in designing smoking cessation treatments. Thirteen nonsmokers and nine smokers participated in two tests of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During fMRI, the participants performed the Stroop Task. There was a 15-min break between the two tests. During the break, each smoker smoked one cigarette. For smokers, the first test began 45–60 min after the last cigarette of ad libitum smoking. The differences in BOLD signal changes between Stroop conditions (ie, incongruent minus congruent) showed a group × test interaction in the right precentral sulcus, including the putative human frontal eye field (FEF). Smokers, but not nonsmokers, showed greater changes (relative to rest) in BOLD signal in the incongruent than in the congruent condition in the first fMRI test but not in the second. Even after brief abstinence from smoking, therefore, smokers exhibit compromised functional efficiency in the right FEF and adjacent precentral sulcus in a test of selective attention; and smoking ameliorates this condition. PMID:17164821

  17. Selective inhibition and naming performance in semantic blocking, picture-word interference, and color-word Stroop tasks.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Martin, Randi C; Meyer, Antje S

    2015-11-01

    In 2 studies, we examined whether explicit distractors are necessary and sufficient to evoke selective inhibition in 3 naming tasks: the semantic blocking, picture-word interference, and color-word Stroop task. Delta plots were used to quantify the size of the interference effects as a function of reaction time (RT). Selective inhibition was operationalized as the decrease in the size of the interference effect as a function of naming RT. For all naming tasks, mean naming RTs were significantly longer in the interference condition than in the control condition. The slopes of the interference effects for the longest naming RTs correlated with the magnitude of the mean interference effect in both the semantic blocking task and the picture-word interference task, suggesting that selective inhibition was involved to reduce the interference from strong semantic competitors either invoked by a single explicit competitor or strong implicit competitors in picture naming. However, there was no correlation between the slopes and the mean interference effect in the Stroop task, suggesting less importance of selective inhibition in this task despite explicit distractors. Whereas the results of the semantic blocking task suggest that an explicit distractor is not necessary for triggering inhibition, the results of the Stroop task suggest that such a distractor is not sufficient for evoking inhibition either. PMID:26030631

  18. The neural dynamic mechanisms of asymmetric switch costs in a combined Stroop-task-switching paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shanshan; Hitchman, Glenn; Tan, Jinfeng; Zhao, Yuanfang; Tang, Dandan; Wang, Lijun; Chen, Antao

    2015-01-01

    Switch costs have been constantly found asymmetrical when switching between two tasks of unequal dominance. We used a combined Stroop-task-switching paradigm and recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to explore the neural mechanism underlying the phenomenon of asymmetrical switch costs. The results revealed that a fronto-central N2 component demonstrated greater negativity in word switch (cW) trials relative to word repeat (wW) trials, and both First P3 and P3b components over the parieto-central region exhibited greater positivity in color switch (wC) trials relative to color repeat (cC) trials, whereas a contrasting switch-related fronto-central SP effect was found to have an opposite pattern for each task. Moreover, the time-frequency analysis showed a right-frontal lower alpha band (9-11 Hz) modulation in the word task, whereas a fronto-central upper alpha band (11-13 Hz) modulation was exclusively found in the color task. These results provide evidence for dissociable neural processes, which are related to inhibitory control and endogenous control, contributing to the generation of asymmetrical switch costs. PMID:25989933

  19. Unconscious context-specific proportion congruency effect in a stroop-like task.

    PubMed

    Panadero, A; Castellanos, M C; Tudela, P

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is a central topic of interest in psychology and cognitive neuroscience and has traditionally been associated with consciousness. However, recent research suggests that cognitive control may be unconscious in character. The main purpose of our study was to further explore this area of research focusing on the possibly unconscious nature of the conflict adaptation effect, specifically the context-specific proportion congruency effect (CSPCE), by using a masked Stroop-like task where the proportion of congruency was associated to various masks. We used electrophysiological measures to analyze the neural correlates of the CSPCE. Results showed evidence of an unconscious CSPCE in reaction times (RTs) and the N2 and P3 components. In addition, the P2 component evoked by both target and masks indicated that the proportion of congruency was processed earlier than the congruency between the color word and the ink color of the target. Taken together, our results provided evidence pointing to an unconscious CSPCE. PMID:25460239

  20. Dissociated stimulus and response conflict effect in the Stroop task: evidence from evoked brain potentials and brain oscillations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingting; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Juan, Chi-Hung; Wang, Lin; Wang, Suiping; Zhu, Zude

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is a classic paradigm that can be used to examine cognitive control as it contains conditions with and without interference. Cumulative evidence suggests that both stimulus and response conflict contribute to the Stroop interference effect. However, it remains unclear whether there are dissociable event-related potential (ERP) or frequency band-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) power changes associated with stimulus conflict and response conflict. To investigate potential markers for each form of conflict, we applied a Stroop 2-1 mapping task in 20 healthy young adults. Results showed that a negative deflection in the 350-500ms time window (N450) and a positive deflection in the 600-900ms time window (late positive component, LPC) were associated with response conflict and stimulus conflict, respectively. Time-frequency analyses found that both stimulus and response conflict induced theta band power changes and that response conflict additionally induced a beta band power change. These results indicate that stimulus and response conflict in the Stroop task are associated with different ERP effects and brain oscillatory features. PMID:25511611

  1. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Du, Fenglei; Wang, Chunjie; Liu, Yuqiu; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-h/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a 2-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and event related potential (ERP) recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC) (NC task) or the physical size (PC task) of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1) and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component) time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children. PMID:26042012

  2. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Du, Fenglei; Wang, Chunjie; Liu, Yuqiu; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-h/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a 2-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and event related potential (ERP) recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC) (NC task) or the physical size (PC task) of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1) and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component) time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children. PMID:26042012

  3. Cognitive Manifestations of Drinking-Smoking Associations: Preliminary Findings with a Cross-Primed Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jason A.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite tremendous growth in research examining the role of cognitive bias in addictive behaviors, scant consideration has been paid to the close association between smoking and drinking behavior. This study sought to determine whether an association between smoking and drinking could be observed at an implicit level using a novel cognitive bias task, as well as characterize the relationship between performance on this task and clinically relevant variables (i.e., heaviness of use/dependence). Methods Individuals (N = 51) with a range of smoking and drinking patterns completed a modified Stroop task in which participants identified the color of drinking, smoking and neutral words that were each preceded by drinking, smoking or neutral picture primes. Participants also provided information regarding the heaviness of their smoking and drinking behavior and completed self-report measures of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Results Response times to smoking and drinking words were significantly slowed following the presentation of either smoking or drinking picture primes. This effect did not differ across subgroups. However, the strength of the coupling between smoking and drinking prime effects was greater among heavier drinkers, who also exhibited a concordant looser coupling of the effects of smoking and drinking primes on smoking words. Conclusions Associations between smoking and drinking can be observed at an implicit level and may be strongest for heavier drinkers. PMID:25561386

  4. Competition between rhythmic and linguistic organization in a sentence-rhythm Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Getz, Laura M; Salona, Priyanka; Yu, Minhong; Kubovy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We provide a test of Patel's [( 2003 ). Language, music, syntax and the brain. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 674-681] shared syntactic integration resources hypothesis by investigating the competition between determinants of rhythmic parsing and linguistic parsing using a sentence-rhythm Stroop task. We played five-note rhythm patterns in which each note is replaced with a spoken word of a five-word sentence and asked participants to indicate the starting point of the rhythm while they disregarded which word would normally be heard as the first word of the sentence. In Study 1, listeners completed the task in their native language. In Study 2, we investigated whether this competition is weakened if the sentences were in a listener's non-native language. In Study 3, we investigated how much language mastery is necessary to obtain the effects seen in Studies 1 and 2. We demonstrate that processing resources for rhythmic parsing and linguistic parsing overlap with one another, particularly when the task is demanding. We also show that the tendency for language to bias processing does not require deep knowledge of the language. PMID:25747914

  5. Intentional and Reactive Inhibition During Spoken-Word Stroop Task Performance in People With Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Malcolm R.; Spencer, Kristie A.; Kendall, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The integrity of selective attention in people with aphasia (PWA) is currently unknown. Selective attention is essential for everyday communication, and inhibition is an important part of selective attention. This study explored components of inhibition—both intentional and reactive inhibition—during spoken-word production in PWA and in controls who were neurologically healthy (HC). Intentional inhibition is the ability to suppress a response to interference, and reactive inhibition is the delayed reactivation of a previously suppressed item. Method Nineteen PWA and 20 age- and education-matched HC participated in a Stroop spoken-word production task. This task allowed the examination of intentional and reactive inhibition by evoking and comparing interference, facilitation, and negative priming effects in different contexts. Results Although both groups demonstrated intentional inhibition, PWA demonstrated significantly more interference effects. PWA demonstrated no significant facilitation effects. HC demonstrated significant reverse facilitation effects. Neither group showed significant evidence of reactive inhibition, though both groups showed similar individual variability. Conclusions These results underscore the challenge interference presents for PWA during spoken-word production, indicating diminished intentional inhibition. Although reactive inhibition was not different between PWA and HC, PWA showed difficulty integrating and adapting to contextual information during language tasks. PMID:25674773

  6. Contingency learning is not affected by conflict experience: Evidence from a task conflict-free, item-specific Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Levin, Yulia; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    A contingency learning account of the item-specific proportion congruent effect has been described as an associative stimulus-response learning process that has nothing to do with controlling the Stroop conflict. As supportive evidence, contingency learning has been demonstrated with response conflict-free stimuli, such as neutral words. However, what gives rise to response conflict and to Stroop interference in general is task conflict. The present study investigated whether task conflict can constitute a trigger or, alternatively, a booster to the contingency learning process. This was done by employing a "task conflict-free" condition (i.e., geometric shapes) and comparing it with a "task conflict" condition (i.e., neutral words). The results showed a significant contingency learning effect in both conditions, refuting the possibility that contingency learning is triggered by the presence of a task conflict. Contingency learning was also not enhanced by the task conflict experience, indicating its complete insensitivity to Stroop conflict(s). Thus, the results showed no evidence that performance optimization as a result of contingency learning is greater under conflict, implying that contingency learning is not recruited to assist the control system to overcome conflict. PMID:26720099

  7. Attention and Facilitation: Converging Information versus Inadvertent Reading in Stroop Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2010-01-01

    Disagreement exists about whether color-word Stroop facilitation is caused by converging information (e.g., Cohen et al., 1990; Roelofs, 2003) or inadvertent reading (MacLeod & MacDonald, 2000). Four experiments tested between these hypotheses by examining Stroop effects on response time (RT) both within and between languages. Words cannot be read…

  8. It is not what you expect: dissociating conflict adaptation from expectancies in a Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Luis; Méndez, Amavia

    2013-02-01

    In conflict tasks, congruency effects are modulated by the sequence of preceding trials. This modulation effect has been interpreted as an influence of a proactive mechanism of adaptation to conflict (Botvinick, Nystrom, Fissell, Carter, & Cohen, 1999), but the possible contribution of explicit expectancies to this adaptation effect remains unclear. The present study shows that it is possible to dissociate explicit expectancies from sequential adaptation effects in a Stroop task, in conditions in which feature repetitions are avoided, and in which the response-to-stimulus interval is set to 0 ms. We found a progressive adaptation effect that depends on the congruency of the previous series of trials, rather than exclusively on the preceding trial. This effect is independent from explicit expectancies (Experiment 1), and can even contradict these expectancies when participants are presented with informative patterns favoring either repeating or alternating congruency (Experiments 2a and 2b). The existence of a progressive adaptation effect independent from explicit expectancies and from repetition priming challenges the idea that conflict adaptation acts always on a top-down basis (Notebaert, Gevers, Verbruggen, & Liefooghe, 2006), and it rather indicates the existence of automatic sources of sequential adaptation, including the adaptation to the lack of conflict. Implications of these results on current understanding of some empirical phenomena of cognitive control, such as that of proportion of congruency, will be highlighted. PMID:22428671

  9. Electrophysiological Explorations of the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence from a Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Coderre, Emily L.; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to exhibit a performance advantage on executive control tasks, outperforming their monolingual counterparts. Although a wealth of research has investigated this ‘bilingual advantage’ behaviourally, electrophysiological correlates are lacking. Using EEG with a Stroop task that manipulated the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of word and colour presentation, the current study addressed two facets of the bilingual advantage. The possibility that bilinguals experience superior conflict processing relative to monolinguals (a ‘conflict-specific advantage’) was investigated by comparing behavioural interference effects as well as the amplitude of the Ninc, a conflict-related ERP component occurring from approximately 300–500 ms after the onset of conflict. In contrast, the hypothesis that bilinguals experience domain-general, conflict-independent enhancements in executive processing (a ‘non-conflict-specific advantage’) was evaluated by comparing the control condition (symbol strings) between groups. There was some significant, but inconsistent, evidence for a conflict-specific bilingual advantage. In contrast, strong evidence emerged for a non-conflict-specific advantage, with bilinguals demonstrating faster RTs and reduced ERP amplitudes on control trials compared to monolinguals. Importantly, when the control stimulus was presented before the colour, ERPs to control trials revealed group differences before the onset of conflict, suggesting differences in the ability to ignore or suppress distracting irrelevant information. This indicates that bilinguals experience superior executive processing even in the absence of conflict and semantic salience, and suggests that the advantage extends to more efficient proactive management of the environment. PMID:25068723

  10. The Pictorial Fire Stroop: A Measure of Processing Bias for Fire-Related Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher-Duffy, Joanne; MacKay, Sherri; Duffy, Jim; Sullivan-Thomas, Meara; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Fire interest is a risk factor for firesetting. This study tested whether a fire-specific emotional Stroop task can effectively measure an information-processing bias for fire-related stimuli. Clinic-referred and nonreferred adolescents (aged 13-16 years) completed a pictorial "Fire Stroop," as well as a self-report fire interest questionnaire and…

  11. Modulation of brain activity during a Stroop inhibitory task by the kind of cognitive control required.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Julien; D'Ostilio, Kevin; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    This study used a proportion congruency manipulation in the Stroop task in order to investigate, at the behavioral and brain substrate levels, the predictions derived from the Dual Mechanisms of Control (DMC) account of two distinct modes of cognitive control depending on the task context. Three experimental conditions were created that varied the proportion congruency: mostly incongruent (MI), mostly congruent (MC), and mostly neutral (MN) contexts. A reactive control strategy, which corresponds to transient interference resolution processes after conflict detection, was expected for the rare conflicting stimuli in the MC context, and a proactive strategy, characterized by a sustained task-relevant focus prior to the occurrence of conflict, was expected in the MI context. Results at the behavioral level supported the proactive/reactive distinction, with the replication of the classic proportion congruent effect (i.e., less interference and facilitation effects in the MI context). fMRI data only partially supported our predictions. Whereas reactive control for incongruent trials in the MC context engaged the expected fronto-parietal network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex, proactive control in the MI context was not associated with any sustained lateral prefrontal cortex activations, contrary to our hypothesis. Surprisingly, incongruent trials in the MI context elicited transient activation in common with incongruent trials in the MC context, especially in DLPFC, superior parietal lobe, and insula. This lack of sustained activity in MI is discussed in reference to the possible involvement of item-specific rather than list-wide mechanisms of control in the implementation of a high task-relevant focus. PMID:22911806

  12. Brain Activity toward Gaming-Related Cues in Internet Gaming Disorder during an Addiction Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifen; Lin, Xiao; Zhou, Hongli; Xu, Jiaojing; Du, Xiaoxia; Dong, Guangheng

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Attentional bias for drug-related stimuli is a key characteristic for drug addiction. Characterizing the relationship between attentional bias and brain reactivity to Internet gaming-related stimuli may help in identifying the neural substrates that critical to Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Methods: 19 IGD and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they were performing an addiction Stroop task. Results: Compared with HC group, IGD subjects showed higher activations when facing Internet gaming-related stimuli in regions including the inferior parietal lobule, the middle occipital gyrus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These brain areas were thought to be involved in selective attention, visual processing, working memory and cognitive control. Discussion and Conclusions: The results demonstrated that compared with HC group, IGD subjects show impairment in both visual and cognitive control ability while dealing with gaming-related words. This finding might be helpful in understanding the underlying neural basis of IGD. PMID:27242623

  13. Is handwriting constrained by phonology? Evidence from Stroop tasks with written responses and Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Damian, Markus F; Qu, Qingqing

    2013-01-01

    To what extent is handwritten word production based on phonological codes? A few studies conducted in Western languages have recently provided evidence showing that phonology contributes to the retrieval of graphemic properties in written output tasks. Less is known about how orthographic production works in languages with non-alphabetic scripts such as written Chinese. We report a Stroop study in which Chinese participants wrote the color of characters on a digital graphic tablet; characters were either neutral, or homophonic to the target (congruent), or homophonic to an alternative (incongruent). Facilitation was found from congruent homophonic distractors, but only when the homophone shared the same tone with the target. This finding suggests a contribution of phonology to written word production. A second experiment served as a control experiment to exclude the possibility that the effect in Experiment 1 had an exclusively semantic locus. Overall, the findings offer new insight into the relative contribution of phonology to handwriting, particularly in non-Western languages. PMID:24146660

  14. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  15. The Effect of Delayed Responding on Stroop-Like Task Performance among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Derek E.; Fosco, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Forty-four preschoolers completed 2 conditions of a Stroop-like procedure (e.g., saying "boat" for car and "car" for boat) that differed in whether a 3-s delay was imposed before responding. The test card was visible during the delay period for half of the children and occluded for the other children. Preschoolers' interference control was…

  16. Bilingualism and Adult Differences in Inhibitory Mechanisms: Evidence from a Bilingual Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed Zied, Kefi; Phillipe, Allain; Karine, Pinon; Valerie, Havet-Thomassin; Ghislaine, Aubin; Arnaud, Roy; Didier, Le Gall

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation examined the functioning of inhibitory mechanisms in younger and older bilinguals using a bilingual version of the Stroop test. The study predicted different patterns of age related decline in inhibitory mechanisms (inter- and intralingual interference) in bilinguals depending on their level of proficiency. Consistent…

  17. Negative Priming within a Stroop Task in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Their Siblings, and Independent Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Hanna; Oades, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Negative priming (NP) is the slowed response to a stimulus that was previously ignored. Response times in NP task conditions were compared with the interference provided by congruent/incongruent stimuli in a Stroop condition in the same task in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their unaffected…

  18. Electrophysiological correlates related to the conflict adaptation effect in an emotional conflict task.

    PubMed

    Xue, Song; Ren, Guofang; Kong, Xia; Liu, Jia; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have provided some evidence of the neural basis of the emotional conflict adaptation effect. However, the neural time-course is largely unknown. Therefore, a face-word Stroop task was used in the present study to explore the neural dynamics of the emotional conflict control effect, using event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data showed a robust emotional conflict adaptation effect, and there was an interaction between previous trials and current trials for RT. There were two ERP components (N450 and conflict SP) that might be related to trial congruency. The N450 results showed both a main effect of current trial congruency and an interaction between previous trials and current trials, which might be related to successful conflict adaptation. The SP results only showed the main effect of current trial congruency, which might be associated with post-response monitoring. PMID:25459295

  19. Reduced prefrontal cortex activation in the color-word Stroop task for Chinese dyslexic children: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinyan; Zhai, Jiahuan; Song, Ranran; Zou, Li; Gong, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral studies have investigated the performance of children with developmental dyslexia in conflict resolution, a function connected with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) closely. However, little is known about the prefrontal activation in conflict resolution for dyslexic children. In the present study, the involvement of the PFC in resolving conflict was evaluated for Chinese dyslexic children by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The NIRS instrument is a portable, continuous-wave system and can measure concentration changes of hemodynamic parameters (including oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin). Considering better sensitivity, the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) was chosen to indicate the prefrontal activation. Ten dyslexic children and 11 normal children were recruited to perform the Chinese-character color-word Stroop task, which included the neutral and color (incongruent) tasks. In behavioral performance, both groups showed significant Stroop effect, longer response time or higher error rate for the color task. In particular, the Stroop interference effect was marginally larger for dyslexic children than normal children in response time. What's more, the two groups showed distinct pattern of oxy-Hb activation during the Stroop tasks. The normal group recruited the bilateral PFC to perform the tasks, while the dyslexic group couldn't activate the bilateral PFC in the difficult color task. Moreover, significantly less color Stroop effect was found in the left PFC for the dyslexic group, showing their disability in coping with the Stroop interference. These findings suggest that the PFC is dysfunctional in conflict resolution for Chinese dyslexic children and that NIRS can be an effective tool in neurological research and clinical application.

  20. Behavioral and electrophysiological investigation of semantic and response conflict in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Augustinova, Maria; Silvert, Laetitia; Ferrand, Ludovic; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Flaudias, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    By combining the semantic Stroop paradigm (e.g., Klein in American Journal of Psychology 77:576-588, 1964) with a single-letter coloring (SLC) procedure (e.g., Besner et al. in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 4:221-225, 1997), this research investigated whether the frequently reported Stroop-related event-related potential (ERP) effect arising about 400 ms after stimulus onset (Ninc) is sensitive to the semantic and/or the response conflict. Consistent with our past findings (e.g., Augustinova et al. in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 17:827-833, 2010), SLC speeded up reaction times for standard-incongruent items only, indicating that SLC reduced the response conflict that these (but not color-associated and neutral) items involve. Ninc amplitudes were more negative for standard-incongruent and color-associated than for color-neutral items. Importantly, this difference was not modulated by SLC. Hence, the behavioral and ERP results conjointly suggest that the Stroop-related Ninc is sensitive to semantic rather than to response and/or general conflict. PMID:25092389

  1. The developmental pattern of stimulus and response interference in a color-object Stroop task: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Jongen, Ellen MM; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2008-01-01

    interference effect. Conclusion Although processes of stimulus interference control as measured with the color-object Stroop task seem to reach mature levels relatively early in childhood (6–7 years), development of response interference control appears to continue into late adolescence as 10–12 year-olds were still more susceptible to errors of response interference than adults. PMID:18775060

  2. The effect of orthographic and emotional neighbourhood in a colour categorization task.

    PubMed

    Camblats, Anna-Malika; Mathey, Stéphanie

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether and how the strength of reading interference in a colour categorization task can be influenced by lexical competition and the emotional characteristics of words not directly presented. Previous findings showed inhibitory effects of high-frequency orthographic and emotional neighbourhood in the lexical decision task. Here, we examined the effect of orthographic neighbour frequency according to the emotional valence of the higher-frequency neighbour in an emotional orthographic Stroop paradigm. Stimuli were coloured neutral words that had either (1) no orthographic neighbour (e.g. PISTIL [pistil]), (2) one neutral higher-frequency neighbour (e.g. tirade [tirade]/TIRAGE [draw]) or (3) one negative higher-frequency neighbour (e.g. idiome [idiom]/IDIOTE [idiotic]). The results showed that colour categorization times were longer for words with no orthographic neighbour than for words with one neutral neighbour of higher frequency and even longer when the higher-frequency neighbour was neutral rather than negative. Thus, it appears not only that the orthographic neighbourhood of the coloured stimulus words intervenes in a colour categorization task, but also that the emotional content of the neighbour contributes to response times. These findings are discussed in terms of lexical competition between the stimulus word and non-presented orthographic neighbours, which in turn would modify the strength of reading interference on colour categorization times. PMID:26553271

  3. Adaptation to recent conflict in the classical color-word Stroop-task mainly involves facilitation of processing of task-relevant information.

    PubMed

    Purmann, Sascha; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect). These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4α), while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA). Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information. PMID:25784868

  4. Adaptation to recent conflict in the classical color-word Stroop-task mainly involves facilitation of processing of task-relevant information

    PubMed Central

    Purmann, Sascha; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect). These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4α), while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA). Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information. PMID:25784868

  5. Processing of task-irrelevant emotional faces impacted by implicit sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ming; Cai, Mengfei; Zhou, Renlai

    2015-12-01

    Attentional load may be increased by task-relevant attention, such as difficulty of task, or task-irrelevant attention, such as an unexpected light-spot in the screen. Several studies have focused on the influence of task-relevant attentional load on task-irrelevant emotion processing. In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine the impact of task-irrelevant attentional load on task-irrelevant expression processing. Eighteen participants identified the color of a word (i.e. the color Stroop task) while a picture of a fearful or a neutral face was shown in the background. The task-irrelevant attentional load was increased by regularly presented congruence trials (congruence between the color and the meaning of the word) in the regular condition because implicit sequence learning was induced. We compared the task-irrelevant expression processing between the regular condition and the random condition (the congruence and incongruence trials were presented randomly). Behaviorally, reaction times for the fearful face condition were faster than the neutral faces condition in the random condition, whereas no significant difference was found in the regular condition. The event-related potential results indicated enhanced positive amplitudes in P2, N2, and P3 components relative to neutral faces in the random condition. In comparison, only P2 differed significantly for the two types of expressions in the regular condition. The study showed that attentional load increased by implicit sequence learning influenced the late processing of task-irrelevant expression. PMID:26445285

  6. The Effects of First- and Second-Language Proficiency on Conflict Resolution and Goal Maintenance in Bilinguals: Evidence from Reaction Time Distributional Analyses in a Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    By administering a Stroop task to college-student bilinguals varied in self-rated first- (L1) and second-language (L2) proficiency, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiencies on selective attention performance. We conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants' reaction time…

  7. Nonautomatic emotion perception in a dual-task situation.

    PubMed

    Tomasik, Dave; Ruthruff, Eric; Allen, Philip A; Lien, Mei-Ching

    2009-04-01

    Are emotions perceived automatically? Two psychological refractory period experiments were conducted to ascertain whether emotion perception requires central attentional resources. Task 1 required an auditory discrimination (tone vs. noise), whereas Task 2 required a discrimination between happy and angry faces. The difficulty of Task 2 was manipulated by varying the degree of emotional expression. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between Task 1 and Task 2 was also varied. Experiment 1 revealed additive effects of SOA and Task 2 emotion-perception difficulty. Experiment 2 replicated the additive relationship with a stronger manipulation of emotion-perception difficulty. According to locus-of-slack logic, our participants did not process emotional expressions while central resources were devoted to Task 1. We conclude that emotion perception is not fully automatic. PMID:19293095

  8. Broca's region and Visual Word Form Area activation differ during a predictive Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Skakkebæk, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Competing theories attempt to explain the function of Broca's area in single word processing. Studies have found the region to be more active during processing of pseudo words than real words and during infrequent words relative to frequent words and during Stroop (incongruent) color words compared to Non-Stroop (congruent) words. Two related theories explain these findings as reflecting either "cognitive control" processing in the face of conflicting input or a linguistic prediction error signal, based on a predictive coding approach. The latter implies that processing cost refers to violations of expectations based on the statistical distributions of input. In this fMRI experiment we attempted to disentangle single word processing cost originating from cognitive conflict and that stemming from predictive expectation violation. Participants (N = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent vs congruent colors). One of the colors, however, was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and frequency effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study frequency effects across modalities. We found significant behavioral effects of both incongruency and frequency. A significant effect (p < .05 FWE) of incongruency was found in Broca's region, but no effect of frequency was observed and no interaction. Conjoined effects of incongruency and frequency were found in parietal regions as well as in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). No interaction between perceptual modality and frequency was found in VWFA suggesting that the region is not strictly visual. These findings speak against a strong version of the prediction error processing hypothesis in Broca's region. They support the idea that prediction error processes in the intermediate timeframe are allocated to more posterior parts of the brain. PMID:26478962

  9. Effects of Concurrent Music Listening on Emotional Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Rodger; Robinson, Johanna; Mulhall, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Increased processing time for threatening stimuli is a reliable finding in emotional Stroop tasks. This is particularly pronounced among individuals with anxiety disorders and reflects heightened attentional bias for perceived threat. In this repeated measures study, 35 healthy participants completed a randomized series of Stroop tasks involving…

  10. What automaticity deficit? Activation of lexical information by readers with dyslexia in a rapid automatized naming Stroop-switch task.

    PubMed

    Jones, Manon W; Snowling, Margaret J; Moll, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with nondyslexic readers. We combined the RAN task with a Stroop-switch manipulation to test the automaticity of dyslexic and nondyslexic readers' lexical access directly within a fluency task. Participants named letters in 10 × 4 arrays while eye movements and speech responses were recorded. Upon fixation, specific letter font colors changed from black to a different color, whereupon the participant was required to rapidly switch from naming the letter to naming the letter color. We could therefore measure reading group differences on "automatic" lexical processing, insofar as it was task-irrelevant. Readers with dyslexia showed obligatory lexical processing and a timeline for recognition that was overall similar to typical readers, but a delay emerged in the output (naming) phase. Further delay was caused by visual-orthographic competition between neighboring stimuli. Our findings outline the specific processes involved when researchers speak of "impaired automaticity" in dyslexic readers' fluency, and are discussed in the context of the broader literature in this field. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414305

  11. Cross-Modal Stimulus Conflict: The Behavioral Effects of Stimulus Input Timing in a Visual-Auditory Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Park, Christina J.; Roberts, Kenneth C.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-modal processing depends strongly on the compatibility between different sensory inputs, the relative timing of their arrival to brain processing components, and on how attention is allocated. In this behavioral study, we employed a cross-modal audio-visual Stroop task in which we manipulated the within-trial stimulus-onset-asynchronies (SOAs) of the stimulus-component inputs, the grouping of the SOAs (blocked vs. random), the attended modality (auditory or visual), and the congruency of the Stroop color-word stimuli (congruent, incongruent, neutral) to assess how these factors interact within a multisensory context. One main result was that visual distractors produced larger incongruency effects on auditory targets than vice versa. Moreover, as revealed by both overall shorter response times (RTs) and relative shifts in the psychometric incongruency-effect functions, visual-information processing was faster and produced stronger and longer-lasting incongruency effects than did auditory. When attending to either modality, stimulus incongruency from the other modality interacted with SOA, yielding larger effects when the irrelevant distractor occurred prior to the attended target, but no interaction with SOA grouping. Finally, relative to neutral-stimuli, and across the wide range of the SOAs employed, congruency led to substantially more behavioral facilitation than did incongruency to interference, in contrast to findings that within-modality stimulus-compatibility effects tend to be more evenly split between facilitation and interference. In sum, the present findings reveal several key characteristics of how we process the stimulus compatibility of cross-modal sensory inputs, reflecting stimulus processing patterns that are critical for successfully navigating our complex multisensory world. PMID:23638149

  12. Dopamine β-hydroxylase gene associates with stroop color-word task performance in Han Chinese children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ning; Shuai, Lan; Chen, Yun; Liu, Lu; Li, Hai-mei; Li, Ze-hua; Yang, Li; Qian, Qiu-jin; Tang, Yi-lang; Cubells, Joseph F; Wang, Yu-feng

    2011-09-01

    The cognitive deficits observed in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are candidate endophenotypes for genetic association studies. Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH) converts dopamine to norepinephrine, and its activity is under strong genetic control. Prior studies suggest association between ADHD and DBH gene. The present study examined associations between a putative functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at DBH with performance on the Stroop task in patients with ADHD and in healthy control subjects. A total of 812 Han Chinese youths with DSM-IV ADHD and 233 unaffected controls were included in the study. Comprehensive phenotype data were collected, including performance on a series of Stroop interference tests examining inhibition of response to interfering stimuli. DBH SNP -1021C/T was genotyped using the 5'-exonuclease (TaqMan®) method. Compared to unaffected controls, children with ADHD performed significantly worse in all categories of the Stroop test. In ADHD cases, DBH genotype at -1021C/T significantly associates with reaction times of incongruent color word parts but not the interference times, with TT genotype performing significantly better in both reaction time and interference time than other two genotype groups. DBH genotype did not associate with cognitive performance in unaffected controls or in the combined group. DBH genotype at -1021C/T associates with differences in performance on the Stroop task in children with ADHD. PMID:21761554

  13. Active Inhibition of a Distractor Word: The Distractor Precue Benefit in the Stroop Color-Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated attentional control through active inhibition of the identity of the distractor. Adapting a Stroop paradigm, the distractor word was presented in advance and made to disappear, followed by the presentation of a Stroop stimulus. Participants were instructed to inhibit the distractor in order to reduce its…

  14. Temporal dissociation of components of cognitive control dysfunction in severe TBI: ERPs and the cued-Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Perlstein, William M; Larson, Michael J; Dotson, Vonetta M; Kelly, Kiesa G

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive control comprises two essential interactive component processes: a regulative component supporting the activation and implementation of control and an evaluative component that monitors the need for regulative control and signals when adjustments in control are necessary. Survivors of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience cognitive control impairments, but the specific nature of these impairments is poorly characterized. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) acquired in the context of a trial-by-trial task-switching version of the Stroop task we temporally dissociated the regulative and evaluative processes in order to shed light on the potential roles of these components in TBI-related cognitive control impairment. Behaviorally, TBI patients showed a specific performance deficit suggestive of a failure to implement cognitive control in the service of processing conflict information. ERP findings showed that TBI patients were impaired in both the implementation of control and subsequent detection and processing of conflict. TBI patients were also impaired on a measure of working memory capacity, a measure that correlated with the ability to implement regulative control and overcome conflict. These findings suggest that patients with predominantly chronic severe TBI patients are impaired on both regulative and evaluative components of cognitive control, and may have implications for the design and evaluation of behavioral and pharmacological remediation strategies. PMID:15979655

  15. Using a pictorial-modified stroop task to explore the sexual interests of sexual offenders against children.

    PubMed

    Ciardha, Caoilte Ó; Gormley, Michael

    2012-04-01

    The results of two studies are reported examining the utility of a pictorial-modified Stroop task (P-MST) in the assessment of sexual interest in a sample of nonoffending participants and of sexual offenders against children. A mixed factorial design was adopted for both. Nine gay and 12 straight participants took part in the first study which found that participants typically had attentional bias on the P-MST that was in line with their stated sexual interests. Twenty four sexual offenders against children and 24 control participants took part in the second study. Again results indicated that the task was tapping into the participants' stated sexual interests. Furthermore, extrafamilial offenders and offenders with an admitted sexual interest in children demonstrated the greatest mean bias for child stimuli relative to adult stimuli. A cautious interpretation of the results was recommended, given the sample size in the study, the heterogeneity of the sample, differences in cognitive speed among offenders and controls and other methodological caveats. PMID:21903978

  16. Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of glutamate in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: anterior cingulate activity during a color-word Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Reggie; Neufeld, Richard W J; Schaefer, Betsy; Densmore, Maria; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Peter C; Théberge, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glutamate abnormalities have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-fMRS), it is possible to monitor glutamate dynamically in the activated brain areas, which has yet to be reported in schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that subjects with schizophrenia would have weaker glutamatergic responses in the anterior cingulate to a color-word Stroop Task. AIMS: The aim of this study was to gain insight into the health of GLU neurotransmission and the GLU-GLN cycle in SZ using a 1H-fMRS protocol. Methods: Spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate of 16 participants with schizophrenia, 16 healthy controls and 16 participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) while performing the Stroop task in a 7T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. 1H-fMRS spectra were acquired for 20 min in which there were three 4-min blocks of cross fixation interleaved with two 4-min blocks of the Stroop paradigm. Results: A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect of time for glutamate concentrations of all groups (P<0.001). The healthy control group increased glutamate concentrations in the first run of the Stroop task (P=0.006) followed by a decrease in the recovery period (P=0.007). Neither the schizophrenia (P=0.107) nor MDD (P=0.081) groups had significant glutamate changes in the first run of the task, while the schizophrenia group had a significant increase in glutamine (P=0.005). The MDD group decreased glutamate concentrations in the second run of the task (P=0.003), as did all the groups combined (P=0.003). Conclusions: 1H-fMRS data were successfully acquired from psychiatric subjects with schizophrenia and mood disorder using a cognitive paradigm for the first time. Future study designs should further elucidate the glutamatergic response to functional activation in schizophrenia. PMID:27336037

  17. What Klein’s “Semantic Gradient” Does and Does Not Really Show: Decomposing Stroop Interference into Task and Informational Conflict Components

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Yulia; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The present study suggests that the idea that Stroop interference originates from multiple components may gain theoretically from integrating two independent frameworks. The first framework is represented by the well-known notion of “semantic gradient” of interference and the second one is the distinction between two types of conflict – the task and the informational conflict – giving rise to the interference (MacLeod and MacDonald, 2000; Goldfarb and Henik, 2007). The proposed integration led to the conclusion that two (i.e., orthographic and lexical components) of the four theoretically distinct components represent task conflict, and the other two (i.e., indirect and direct informational conflict components) represent informational conflict. The four components were independently estimated in a series of experiments. The results confirmed the contribution of task conflict (estimated by a robust orthographic component) and of informational conflict (estimated by a strong direct informational conflict component) to Stroop interference. However, the performed critical review of the relevant literature (see General Discussion), as well as the results of the experiments reported, showed that the other two components expressing each type of conflict (i.e., the lexical component of task conflict and the indirect informational conflict) were small and unstable. The present analysis refines our knowledge of the origins of Stroop interference by providing evidence that each type of conflict has its major and minor contributions. The implications for cognitive control of an automatic reading process are also discussed. PMID:26955363

  18. Is there a genuine advantage to the upper part of words during lexical access? Evidence from the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Pilar; Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María

    2014-07-01

    A number of recent visual-word recognition and reading experiments have concluded that the upper part of words is more important for lexical access than is the lower part, which conforms with Huey's (1908) observation. Here, we examined whether this phenomenon may simply be due to the fact that words in Indo-European languages tend to have a higher number of confusable letters in the lower than in the upper part. We manipulated the letter ambiguity of the upper and lower parts of words in two experiments in which we asked participants to report the presentation color of the upper and lower parts of color words and noncolor words, and in a baseline condition, of strings of &s (Stroop task). In Experiment 1, the lower part of noncolor words was more ambiguous than the upper part (upward-unbalanced words), whereas in Experiment 2, the ambiguities of the two parts of the noncolor words were similar (balanced words). For the upward-unbalanced noncolor words, the magnitude of lexical interference (relative to the baseline condition) was greater for the upper than for the lower part. Critically, the differences vanished when this factor was controlled (i.e., balanced words; Exp. 2). Thus, the apparent bias in favor of the upper part of words can be parsimoniously described as an idiosyncratic feature of the words' component letters. PMID:24408533

  19. The Pictorial Fire Stroop: a measure of processing bias for fire-related stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gallagher-Duffy, Joanne; MacKay, Sherri; Duffy, Jim; Sullivan-Thomas, Meara; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2009-11-01

    Fire interest is a risk factor for firesetting. This study tested whether a fire-specific emotional Stroop task can effectively measure an information-processing bias for fire-related stimuli. Clinic-referred and nonreferred adolescents (aged 13-16 years) completed a pictorial "Fire Stroop," as well as a self-report fire interest questionnaire and several control tasks. Results showed (a) comparatively greater fire-specific attentional bias among referred adolescent firesetters, (b) a negative relationship between Fire Stroop attentional bias and self-reported fire interest, and (c) positive correspondence between Fire Stroop attentional bias and self-reported firesetting frequency. These findings suggest that instruments that measure an automatic bias for fire-specific stimuli may usefully supplement self-report measures in the assessment and understanding of firesetting behavior. PMID:19707868

  20. It Is Not What You Expect: Dissociating Conflict Adaptation from Expectancies in a Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Luis; Mendez, Amavia

    2013-01-01

    In conflict tasks, congruency effects are modulated by the sequence of preceding trials. This modulation effect has been interpreted as an influence of a proactive mechanism of adaptation to conflict (Botvinick, Nystrom, Fissell, Carter, & Cohen, 1999), but the possible contribution of explicit expectancies to this adaptation effect remains…

  1. Age-related effects on event-related brain potentials in a congruence/incongruence judgment color-word Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Zurrón, Montserrat; Lindín, Mónica; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We examined the event-related brain potentials elicited by color-word stimuli in a Stroop task in which healthy participants (young and old) had to judge whether the meaning and the color of the stimulus were congruent or incongruent. The Stroop effect occurred in both age groups, with longer reaction times in the older group than in the young group for both types of stimuli, but no difference in the number of errors made by either group. Although the N2 and P3b latencies were longer in the older than in the younger group, there were no differences between groups in the latencies of earlier event-related potential components, and therefore the age-related processing slowing is not generalized. The frontal P150 amplitude was larger, and the parietal P3b amplitude was smaller, in the older than in the younger group. Furthermore, the P3b amplitude was maximal at frontal locations in older participants and at parietal locations in young participants. The age-related increase in perceptual resources and the posterior-to-anterior shift in older adults support adaptive reorganization of the neural networks involved in the processing of this Stroop-type task. PMID:24987369

  2. Revealing List-Level Control in the Stroop Task by Uncovering Its Benefits and a Cost

    PubMed Central

    Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Scullin, Michael K.; Braver, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    Interference is reduced in mostly incongruent relative to mostly congruent lists. Classic accounts of this list-wide proportion congruence effect assume that list-level control processes strategically modulate word reading. Contemporary accounts posit that reliance on the word is modulated poststimulus onset by item-specific information (e.g., proportion congruency of the word). To adjudicate between these accounts, we used novel designs featuring neutral trials. In two experiments, we showed that the list-wide proportion congruence effect is accompanied by a change in neutral trial color-naming performance. Because neutral words have no item-specific bias, this pattern can be attributed to list-level control. Additionally, we showed that list-level attenuation of word reading led to a cost to performance on a secondary prospective memory task but only when that task required processing of the irrelevant, neutral word. These findings indicate that the list-wide proportion congruence effect at least partially reflects list-level control and challenge purely item-specific accounts of this effect. PMID:21767049

  3. Automatic perception and synaesthesia: evidence from colour and photism naming in a stroop-negative priming task.

    PubMed

    Lupiáñez, Juan; Callejas, Alicia

    2006-02-01

    It is widely assumed that synaesthetic perception is highly automatic, as shown by Stroop test. Furthermore, it has been shown that, although automatic, it can be suppressed leading to Negative Priming (NP). However, these assumptions have not been consistently investigated, as not many papers have measured Stroop in synaesthesia, and only one used a NP procedure. Two experiments were carried out in a female synaesthete (MA), and 13 control participants, in which numbers and letters were displayed in colours either congruent or incongruent with MA's photisms. In contrast to control participants, MA showed significant Stroop effect both when naming the colours and when naming the photisms (slower RT when naming a colour or photism that was incongruently coloured versus congruently coloured). For comparison, we also report a control experiment in which the first letters of colour names were displayed in either congruent (e.g., B in blue) or incongruent (e.g., B in red) colours. Significant Stroop and NP effects were found when a control group named the displayed colour of these letters. The synaesthesic Stroop effect shown by MA was greater than that observed in the Control Experiment when MA was to name the displayed colour, but smaller when she was to name the photism of the stimuli. Regarding NP, MA showed an effect similar to that observed in the Control Experiment, but only when she was to name the photisms of the stimuli. Altogether, these results show that synaesthetic perception is highly automatic and difficult to inhibit. PMID:16683494

  4. Task relevance regulates the interaction between reward expectation and emotion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ping; Kang, Guanlan

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the impact of reward expectation on the processing of emotional facial expression using a cue-target paradigm. A cue indicating the reward condition of each trial (incentive vs. non-incentive) was followed by the presentation of a picture of an emotional face, the target. Participants were asked to discriminate the emotional expression of the target face in Experiment 1, to discriminate the gender of the target face in Experiment 2, and to judge a number superimposed on the center of the target face as even or odd in Experiment 3, rendering the emotional expression of the target face as task relevant in Experiment 1 but task irrelevant in Experiments 2 and 3. Faster reaction times (RTs) were observed in the monetary incentive condition than in the non-incentive condition, demonstrating the effect of reward on facilitating task concentration. Moreover, the reward effect (i.e., RTs in non-incentive conditions versus incentive conditions) was larger for emotional faces than for neutral faces when emotional expression was task relevant but not when it was task irrelevant. The findings suggest that top-down incentive motivation biased attentional processing toward task-relevant stimuli, and that task relevance played an important role in regulating the influence of reward expectation on the processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:24553754

  5. The neural mechanisms of semantic and response conflicts: an fMRI study of practice-related effects in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhencai; Lei, Xu; Ding, Cody; Li, Hong; Chen, Antao

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there are separate neural mechanisms underlying semantic and response conflicts in the Stroop task. However, the practice effects of these conflicts need to be elucidated and the possible involvements of common neural mechanisms are yet to be established. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a 4-2 mapping practice-related Stroop task to determine the neural substrates under these conflicts. Results showed that different patterns of brain activations are associated with practice in the attentional networks (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC)) for both conflicts, response control regions (e.g., inferior frontal junction (IFJ), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/insula, and pre-supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA)) for semantic conflict, and posterior cortex for response conflict. We also found areas of common activation in the left hemisphere within the attentional networks, for the early practice stage in semantic conflict and the late stage in "pure" response conflict using conjunction analysis. The different practice effects indicate that there are distinct mechanisms underlying these two conflict types: semantic conflict practice effects are attributable to the automation of stimulus processing, conflict and response control; response conflict practice effects are attributable to the proportional increase of conflict-related cognitive resources. In addition, the areas of common activation suggest that the semantic conflict effect may contain a partial response conflict effect, particularly at the beginning of the task. These findings indicate that there are two kinds of response conflicts contained in the key-pressing Stroop task: the vocal-level (mainly in the early stage) and key-pressing (mainly in the late stage) response conflicts; thus, the use of the subtraction method for the exploration of semantic and response conflicts

  6. Emotional Verbal Fluency: A New Task on Emotion and Executive Function Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sass, Katharina; Fetz, Karolina; Oetken, Sarah; Habel, Ute; Heim, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The present study introduces “Emotional Verbal Fluency” as a novel (partially computerized) task, which is aimed to investigate the interaction between emotionally loaded words and executive functions. Verbal fluency tasks are thought to measure executive functions but the interaction with emotional aspects is hardly investigated. In the current study, a group of healthy subjects (n = 21, mean age 25 years, 76% females) were asked to generate items that are either part of a semantic category (e.g., plants, toys, vehicles; standard semantic verbal fluency) or can trigger the emotions joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The results of the task revealed no differences between performance on semantic and emotional categories, suggesting a comparable task difficulty for healthy subjects. Hence, these first results on the comparison between semantic and emotional verbal fluency seem to highlight that both might be suitable for examining executive functioning. However, an interaction was found between the category type and repetition (first vs. second sequence of the same category) with larger performance decrease for semantic in comparison to emotional categories. Best performance overall was found for the emotional category “joy” suggesting a positivity bias in healthy subjects. To conclude, emotional verbal fluency is a promising approach to investigate emotional components in an executive task, which may stimulate further research, especially in psychiatric patients who suffer from emotional as well as cognitive deficits. PMID:25379243

  7. Long-term habitual physical activity is associated with lower distractibility in a Stroop interference task in aging: Behavioral and ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with compromised executive control functions. Several lines of evidence point to beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition which indicate that regular physical activity may counteract the age-related decline of some executive functions. Here, we investigate the effects of lifelong physical activity (about 50 years) on interference processing in two matched groups of 20 physically high active and 20 low active healthy older men using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a low interference block of the Stroop task, participants had to indicate the meaning of color-words, while color was either compatible or incompatible with the meaning. In the high interference block, participants were asked to respond according to the ink color of the word and to ignore its meaning. Physically active seniors showed faster reaction times, lower individual variability in reaction times, and higher accuracy compared to low active seniors, particularly in the high interference block. This result was confirmed in the classic paper-and-pencil version of the Stroop task showing higher interference score in the low active than high active individuals. ERPs revealed a shorter latency of the P2 and generally more negative amplitudes of the fronto-central N2 and N450 components in the high active group compared to the low active group. The amount of interference was negatively correlated with objectively measured fitness and self-reported physical activity. The positive effect of physical fitness on interference processing in the behavioral data was related to N2 and N450 amplitudes. Taken together, this suggests that seniors reporting long-term physical activity may exhibit generally enhanced activity in the frontal cortex which enables more efficient interference resolution in the Stroop task. PMID:26160263

  8. Children's and Adults' Automatic Processing of Proportion in a Stroop-Like Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ying; Hu, Qingfen; Wu, Di; Yang, Shuqi

    2015-01-01

    This current study examined human children's and adults' automatic processing of proportion using a Stroop-like paradigm. Preschool children and university students compared the areas of two sectors that varied not only in absolute areas but also in the proportions they occupied in their original rounds. A congruity effect was found in…

  9. Active inhibition of a distractor word: the distractor precue benefit in the Stroop color-naming task.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2011-06-01

    The current study investigated attentional control through active inhibition of the identity of the distractor. Adapting a Stroop paradigm, the distractor word was presented in advance and made to disappear, followed by the presentation of a Stroop stimulus. Participants were instructed to inhibit the distractor in order to reduce its interference. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that the distractor precue facilitated Stroop color naming by reducing Stroop interference. Experiment 3 demonstrated beneficial effects of the distractor precue when congruent trials were introduced. Experiment 4 showed that the distractor precue benefit was observed when the cue and target were in different forms. Experiment 5 indicated that if the item used as the cue became the target, naming it took longer in order to overcome the inhibitory effect. Experiment 6 demonstrated that the benefit of the distractor precue was not observed when the cue was uninformative. Finally, Experiment 7 demonstrated that active inhibition required working-memory resources to operate. This study suggests that the best explanation for the distractor precue benefit is the active inhibition account. PMID:21480743

  10. Korean Facial Emotion Recognition Tasks for Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Bahk, Yong-Chun; Jang, Seon-Keong; Lee, Jee Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite the fact that facial emotion recognition (FER) tasks using Western faces should be applied with caution to non-Western participants or patients, there are few psychometrically sound and validated FER tasks featuring Easterners' facial expressions for emotions. Thus, we aimed to develop and establish the psychometric properties of the Korean Facial Emotion Identification Task (K-FEIT) and the Korean Facial Emotion Discrimination Task (K-FEDT) for individuals with schizophrenia. Methods The K-FEIT and K-FEDT were administered to 42 Korean individuals with schizophrenia to evaluate their psychometric properties. To test the convergent and divergent validities, the Social Behavior Sequencing Task (SBST) and hinting task were administered as social-cognitive measures, and the Trail Making Test (TMT)-A and -B were administered as neurocognitive measures. Results Average accuracy on the K-FEIT and K-FEDT were 63% and 74%, respectively, and internal consistencies of the K-FEIT and K-FEDT were 0.82 and 0.95, respectively. The K-FEIT and K-FEDT were significantly correlated with SBST and Hinting Task, but not with TMT-A and B. Conclusion Following replication studies in a larger sample, the K-FEIT and K-FEDT are expected to facilitate future studies targeting facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia in Korea. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25866525

  11. Intelligence, but Not Emotional Intelligence, Predicts Iowa Gambling Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaree, Heath A.; Burns, Kevin J.; DeDonno, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a famous and frequently-used neuropsychological task that is thought to reflect real-world decision-making. There has been some debate, however, about the degree to which the IGT involves cold (cognitive) versus hot (emotional) processing. The present study incorporated 68 healthy individuals and used measures of…

  12. Emotional Intelligence, Personality, and Task-Induced Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gerald; Emo, Amanda K.; Funke, Gregory; Zeidner, Moshe; Roberts, Richard D.; Costa, Paul T.; Schulze, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) may predict stress responses and coping strategies in a variety of applied settings. This study compares EI and the personality factors of the Five Factor Model (FFM) as predictors of task-induced stress responses. Participants (N = 200) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 task conditions, 3 of which were designed to be…

  13. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals of conflict processing in the Chinese-character Stroop task: a simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and event-related potential study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-09-01

    A dual-modality method combining continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and event-related potentials (ERPs) was developed for the Chinese-character color-word Stroop task, which included congruent, incongruent, and neutral stimuli. Sixteen native Chinese speakers participated in this study. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were monitored simultaneously by NIRS and ERP. The hemodynamic signals were represented by relative changes in oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentration, whereas the electrophysiological signals were characterized by the parameters P450, N500, and P600. Both types of signals measured at four regions of the PFC were analyzed and compared spatially and temporally among the three different stimuli. We found that P600 signals correlated significantly with the hemodynamic parameters, suggesting that the PFC executes conflict-solving function. Additionally, we observed that the change in deoxy-Hb concentration showed higher sensitivity in response to the Stroop task than other hemodynamic signals. Correlation between NIRS and ERP signals revealed that the vascular response reflects the cumulative effect of neural activities. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that this new dual-modality method is a useful approach to obtaining more information during cognitive and physiological studies.

  14. Emotional task management: neural correlates of switching between affective and non-affective task-sets

    PubMed Central

    Reeck, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    Although task-switching has been investigated extensively, its interaction with emotionally salient task content remains unclear. Prioritized processing of affective stimulus content may enhance accessibility of affective task-sets and generate increased interference when switching between affective and non-affective task-sets. Previous research has demonstrated that more dominant task-sets experience greater switch costs, as they necessitate active inhibition during performance of less entrenched tasks. Extending this logic to the affective domain, the present experiment examined (a) whether affective task-sets are more dominant than non-affective ones, and (b) what neural mechanisms regulate affective task-sets, so that weaker, non-affective task-sets can be executed. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants categorized face stimuli according to either their gender (non-affective task) or their emotional expression (affective task). Behavioral results were consistent with the affective task dominance hypothesis: participants were slower to switch to the affective task, and cross-task interference was strongest when participants tried to switch from the affective to the non-affective task. These behavioral costs of controlling the affective task-set were mirrored in the activation of a right-lateralized frontostriatal network previously implicated in task-set updating and response inhibition. Connectivity between amygdala and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was especially pronounced during cross-task interference from affective features. PMID:25552571

  15. Emotional reactivity and awareness of task performance in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mograbi, Daniel C; Brown, Richard G; Salas, Christian; Morris, Robin G

    2012-07-01

    Lack of awareness about performance in tasks is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, clinical anecdotes have suggested that patients may show emotional or behavioural responses to the experience of failure despite reporting limited awareness, an aspect which has been little explored experimentally. The current study investigated emotional reactions to success or failure in tasks despite unawareness of performance in Alzheimer's disease. For this purpose, novel computerised tasks which expose participants to systematic success or failure were used in a group of Alzheimer's disease patients (n=23) and age-matched controls (n=21). Two experiments, the first with reaction time tasks and the second with memory tasks, were carried out, and in each experiment two parallel tasks were used, one in a success condition and one in a failure condition. Awareness of performance was measured comparing participant estimations of performance with actual performance. Emotional reactivity was assessed with a self-report questionnaire and rating of filmed facial expressions. In both experiments the results indicated that, relative to controls, Alzheimer's disease patients exhibited impaired awareness of performance, but comparable differential reactivity to failure relative to success tasks, both in terms of self-report and facial expressions. This suggests that affective valence of failure experience is processed despite unawareness of task performance, which might indicate implicit processing of information in neural pathways bypassing awareness. PMID:22609573

  16. On the validity of the autobiographical emotional memory task for emotion induction.

    PubMed

    Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    The Autobiographical Emotional Memory Task (AEMT), which involves recalling and writing about intense emotional experiences, is a widely used method to experimentally induce emotions. The validity of this method depends upon the extent to which it can induce specific desired emotions (intended emotions), while not inducing any other (incidental) emotions at different levels across one (or more) conditions. A review of recent studies that used this method indicated that most studies exclusively monitor post-writing ratings of the intended emotions, without assessing the possibility that the method may have differentially induced other incidental emotions as well. We investigated the extent of this issue by collecting both pre- and post-writing ratings of incidental emotions in addition to the intended emotions. Using methods largely adapted from previous studies, participants were assigned to write about a profound experience of anger or fear (Experiment 1) or happiness or sadness (Experiment 2). In line with previous research, results indicated that intended emotions (anger and fear) were successfully induced in the respective conditions in Experiment 1. However, disgust and sadness were also induced while writing about an angry experience compared to a fearful experience. Similarly, although happiness and sadness were induced in the appropriate conditions, Experiment 2 indicated that writing about a sad experience also induced disgust, fear, and anger, compared to writing about a happy experience. Possible resolutions to avoid the limitations of the AEMT to induce specific discrete emotions are discussed. PMID:24776697

  17. Emotion-based learning: insights from the Iowa Gambling Task

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Oliver H.; Bowman, Caroline H.; Shanker, Shanti; Davies, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the cognitive and/or emotional basis of complex decision-making, and the related phenomenon of emotion-based learning, has been heavily influenced by the Iowa Gambling Task. A number of psychological variables have been investigated as potentially important in understanding emotion-based learning. This paper reviews the extent to which humans are explicitly aware of how we make such decisions; the biasing influence of pre-existing emotional labels; and the extent to which emotion-based systems are anatomically and functionally independent of episodic memory. Review of literature suggests that (i) an aspect of conscious awareness does appear to be readily achieved during the IGT, but as a relatively unfocused emotion-based “gut-feeling,” akin to intuition; (ii) Several studies have manipulated the affective pre-loading of IGT tasks, and make it clear that such labeling has a substantial influence on performance, an experimental manipulation similar to the phenomenon of prejudice. (iii) Finally, it appears that complex emotion-based learning can remain intact despite profound amnesia, at least in some neurological patients, a finding with a range of potentially important clinical implications: in the management of dementia; in explaining infantile amnesia; and in understanding of the possible mechanisms of psychotherapy. PMID:24711796

  18. Schizophrenia and the stroop effect.

    PubMed

    Henik, Avishai; Salo, Ruth

    2004-03-01

    Conflict between irrelevant words and relevant colors in the Stroop task creates interference, long considered a measure of how well individuals focus attention. In the traditional card version of the Stroop task, schizophrenia patients exhibit increased interference, consistent with the distractibility they exhibit in everyday life. In contrast, on other versions of the Stroop task they show augmented facilitation (faster responding to congruent than to neutral trials). We suggest that schizophrenia patients possess adequate attentional resources to avoid interference when each letter string is presented individually but face difficulty when delays are imposed and multiple attentional demands appear. Although psychiatric symptomatology may contribute to different patterns of performance, there is no evidence that medication modulates this. PMID:15191641

  19. Pupillary Stroop effects

    PubMed Central

    Ørbo, Marte; Holmlund, Terje; Miozzo, Michele

    2010-01-01

    We recorded the pupil diameters of participants performing the words’ color-naming Stroop task (i.e., naming the color of a word that names a color). Non-color words were used as baseline to firmly establish the effects of semantic relatedness induced by color word distractors. We replicated the classic Stroop effects of color congruency and color incongruency with pupillary diameter recordings: relative to non-color words, pupil diameters increased for color distractors that differed from color responses, while they reduced for color distractors that were identical to color responses. Analyses of the time courses of pupil responses revealed further differences between color-congruent and color-incongruent distractors, with the latter inducing a steep increase of pupil size and the former a relatively lower increase. Consistent with previous findings that have demonstrated that pupil size increases as task demands rise, the present results indicate that pupillometry is a robust measure of Stroop interference, and it represents a valuable addition to the cognitive scientist’s toolbox. PMID:20865297

  20. Reverse Stroop Effects with Untranslated Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blais, Chris; Besner, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Translation accounts have argued that the presence of a Stroop effect in the context of a nonvocal untranslated response is caused by verbal mediation. In its simplest form, color-labeled buttons are translated into a verbal code that interferes with color responses. On this logic, in the reverse Stroop task (identify the word; ignore the color),…

  1. A Strategy-Based Interpretation of Stroop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Marsha C.

    2005-01-01

    Most accounts of the Stroop effect (Stroop, 1935) emphasize its negative aspect, namely, that in particular situations, processing of an irrelevant stimulus dimension interferes with participants' performance of the instructed task. In contrast, this paper emphasizes the fact that, even with that interference, participants actually can (and…

  2. Cognitive Flexibility in ASD; Task Switching with Emotional Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Marieke; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) show daily cognitive flexibility deficits, but laboratory data are unconvincing. The current study aimed to bridge this gap. Thirty-one children with ASD (8-12 years) and 31 age- and IQ-matched typically developing children performed a gender emotion switch task. Unannounced switches and complex…

  3. Effect of Normal Aging and of Mild Cognitive Impairment on Event-Related Potentials to a Stroop Color-Word Task.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Goicoa, Marta; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando; Zurrón, Montserrat

    2016-04-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 84 adults (51 to 87 years old) with the aim of exploring the effects of aging (middle-aged and older groups) and cognitive status (healthy or with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI) on the neural functioning associated with stimulus and response processing in a Stroop color-word task. An interference (or Stroop) effect was observed in the Reaction Time (RT), and the RT and number of errors results were consistent with the age-related decline in performance. Cognitive status did not affect the behavioral performance of the task, but age and cognitive status affected several ERP parameters. Aging was associated with a) slowing of the neural processing of the stimuli (P150, N2, and P3b latencies were longer), b) greater activation of the motor cortex for response preparation (LRP-R amplitude was larger), and c) use of more neural resources for cognitive control of stimuli (N2 amplitude was larger to the congruent and incongruent stimuli than to the colored X-strings, in the older group). Independent of age, aMCI dedicated more neural resources to processing the irrelevant dimension of the stimulus (they showed a greater difference than the control participants between the P3b amplitude to the colored X-strings and to the congruent/incongruent stimuli) and showed a deficit in the selection and preparation of the motor response (with smaller LRP-S and LRP-R amplitudes). Furthermore, the middle-aged aMCI participants evaluated and classified both congruent and incongruent stimuli more slowly (they showed longer P3b latencies) relative to middle-aged controls. PMID:27079705

  4. Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing

    PubMed Central

    Paulmann, Silke; Bleichner, Martin; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP) component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli). Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content) spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing. PMID:23801973

  5. An investigation of the value of spin-echo-based fMRI using a Stroop color-word matching task and EPI at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Norris, David G; Zysset, Stefan; Mildner, Toralf; Wiggins, Christopher J

    2002-03-01

    This study examines the value of spin-echo-based fMRI for cognitive studies at the main magnetic field strength of 3 T using a spin-echo EPI (SE-EPI) sequence and a Stroop color-word matching task. SE-EPI has the potential advantage over conventional gradient-echo EPI (GE-EPI) that signal losses caused by dephasing through the slice are not present, and hence although image distortion will be the same as for an equivalent GE-EPI sequence, signal voids will be eliminated. The functional contrast in SE-EPI will be lower than for GE-EPI, as static dephasing effects do not contribute. As an auxiliary experiment interleaved diffusion-weighted and non-diffusion-weighted SE-EPI was performed in the visual cortex to further elucidate the mechanims of functional contrast. In the Stroop experiment activation was detected in all areas previously found using GE-EPI. Additional frontopolar and ventral frontomedian activations were also found, which could not be detected using GE-EPI. The experiments from visual cortex indicated that at 3 T the BOLD signal change has contributions from the extravascular space and larger blood vessels in roughly equal amounts. In comparison with GE-EPI the absence of static dephasing effects would seem to result in a superior intrinsic spatial resolution. In conclusion the sensitivity of SE-EPI at 3 T is sufficient to make it the method of choice for fMR studies that require a high degree of spatial localization or where the requirement is to detect activation in regions affected by strong susceptibility gradients. PMID:11848715

  6. Emotion Regulation Strategies Can Predict Task-Switching Abilities in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Amara; Khan, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    This study examined task-switching abilities and emotion regulation strategies in euthymic bipolar patients (EBP). Forty EBP and 40 healthy individuals performed face categorization tasks where they switched between emotion and non-emotion (i.e., gender) features among faces and completed emotion regulation questionnaire (Gross and John, 2003). Subject groups showed substantial differences in task-switching abilities and emotion regulation strategies: (1) there was a dissociation between emotion and gender classification in EBP. The switch cost was larger [i.e., higher reaction times (RTs) on switch as compared to no-switch trials] for gender categorization as compared to the emotion categorization task. In contrast, such asymmetries were absent among healthy participants. The differential pattern of task switching reflected functional disturbances in frontotemporal neural system and an attentional bias to emotion features of the faces in EBP. This suggests that when a euthymic bipolar patient is preoccupied with emotion recognition, an instruction to perform gender categorization results in greater cost on RTs. (2) In contrast to healthy individuals, EBP reported more frequent use of emotion suppression and lesser use of cognitive reappraisal as emotion regulation strategy. (3) Emotion regulation was found to be a significant predictor of task-switching abilities. It is argued that task switching deficits rely on maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in EBP specifically when tasks of emotional significance are involved. PMID:25386129

  7. Proactive and reactive control during emotional interference and its relationship to trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Krug, Marie K; Carter, Cameron S

    2012-10-24

    In classic Stroop paradigms, increasing the proportion of control-demanding incongruent trials results in strategic adjustments in behavior and implementation of cognitive control processes. We manipulated expectancy for incongruent trials in an emotional facial Stroop task to investigate the behavioral and neural effects of proportion manipulation in a cognitively demanding task with emotional stimuli. Subjects performed a high expectancy (HE) task (65% incongruent trials) and a low expectancy (LE) task (35% incongruent trials) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As in standard Stroop tasks, behavioral interference was reduced in the emotional facial Stroop HE task compared to the LE task. Functional MRI data revealed a switch in cognitive control strategy, from a reactive, event-related activation of a medial and lateral cognitive control network and right amygdala in the LE task to a proactive, sustained activation of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in the HE task. Higher trait anxiety was associated with impairment (slower response time and decreased accuracy) as well as reduced activity in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, and orbitofrontal cortex in the HE task on high conflict trials with task-irrelevant emotional information, suggesting that individual differences in anxiety may be associated with expectancy-related strategic control adjustments, particularly when emotional stimuli must be ignored. PMID:22960116

  8. Implicit attention to negative social, in contrast to nonsocial, words in the Stroop task differs between individuals high and low in loneliness: Evidence from event-related brain microstates.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Balogh, Stephen; Cacioppo, John T

    2015-09-01

    Being on the social perimeter is not only sad, it is dangerous. Our evolutionary model of the effects of perceived social isolation (loneliness) on the brain as well as a growing body of behavioral research suggests that loneliness promotes short-term self-preservation, including an increased implicit vigilance for social, in contrast to nonsocial, threats. However, this hypothesis has not been tested previously in a neuroimaging study. We therefore used high density EEG and a social Stroop interference task to test the hypothesis that implicit attention to negative social, in contrast to nonsocial, Words in the Stroop task differs between individuals high versus low in loneliness and to investigate the brain dynamics of implicit processing for negative social (vs nonsocial) stimuli in lonely individuals, compared to nonlonely individuals (N = 70). The present study provides the first evidence that negative social stimuli are differentiated from negative nonsocial stimuli more quickly in the lonely than nonlonely brains. Given the timing of this differentiation in the brain and the fact that participants were performing a Stroop task, these results also suggest that these differences reflect implicit rather than explicit attentional differences between lonely and nonlonely individuals. Source estimates were performed for purposes of hypothesis generation regarding underlying neural mechanisms, and the results implicated the neural circuits reminiscent of orienting and executive control aspects of attention as contributing to these differences. Together, the results are in accord with the evolutionary model of loneliness. PMID:26195152

  9. Real-time tracking of motor response activation and response competition in a Stroop task in young children: a lateralized readiness potential study.

    PubMed

    Szucs, Dénes; Soltész, Fruzsina; Bryce, Donna; Whitebread, David

    2009-11-01

    The ability to select an appropriate motor response by resolving competition among alternative responses plays a major role in cognitive performance. fMRI studies suggest that the development of this skill is related to the maturation of the frontal cortex that underlies the improvement of motor inhibition abilities. However, fMRI cannot characterize the temporal properties of motor response competition and motor activation in general. We studied the development of the time course of resolving motor response competition. To this end, we used the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), an ERP measure, for tracking correct and incorrect motor cortex activation in children in real time. Fourteen children and 14 adults took part in an animal-size Stroop task where they selected between two animals, presented simultaneously on the computer screen, which was larger in real life. In the incongruent condition, the LRP detected stronger and longer lasting incorrect response activation in children than in adults. LRP results could explain behavioral congruency effects, the generally longer RT in children than in adults and the larger congruency effect in children than in adults. In contrast, the peak latency of ERP waves, usually associated with stimulus processing speed, could explain neither of the above effects. We conclude that the development of resolving motor response competition, relying on motor inhibition skills, is a crucial factor in child development. Our study demonstrates that the LRP is an excellent tool for studying motor activation in children. PMID:19296726

  10. Do task-irrelevant direction-associated motion verbs affect action planning? Evidence from a Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; Lachmair, Martin; de la Vega, Irmgard; De Filippis, Monica; Kaup, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Does simply seeing a word such as rise activate upward responses? The present study is concerned with bottom-up activation of motion-related experiential traces. Verbs referring to an upward or downward motion (e.g., rise/fall) were presented in one of four colors. Participants had to perform an upward or downward hand movement (experiments 1 and 2a/2b) or a stationary up or down located keypress response (experiment 3) according to font color. In all experiments, responding was faster if the word's immanent motion direction matched the response (e.g., upward/up response in case of rise); however, this effect was strongest in the experiments requiring an actual upward or downward response movement (experiments 1 and 2a/2b). These findings suggest bottom-up activation of motion-related experiential traces, even if the task does not demand lexical access or focusing on a word's meaning. PMID:22427242

  11. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  12. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Francesca M. M.; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with “up” responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  13. Impaired executive functions in subjects with frequent nightmares as reflected by performance in different neuropsychological tasks.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Pajkossy, Péter; Horváth, Klára; Bódizs, Róbert

    2012-04-01

    Nightmare disorder is a prevalent parasomnia characterized by vivid and highly unpleasant dream experiences during night time sleep. The neural background of disturbed dreaming was proposed to be associated with impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic functioning during REM sleep. We hypothesized that the impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic functioning in subjects with frequent nightmares would be reflected at the behavioral level during waking tasks as well. 35-35 Subjects with frequent nightmares and matched controls participated in Study 1, involving an Emotional Go/NoGo, an Emotional Stroop task, and a Verbal Fluency task. Nightmare subjects exhibited longer reaction times in the Emotional Go/NoGo and Emotional Stroop tasks. Moreover, they committed more perseveration errors and showed less fluent word generation in the Verbal Fluency task. Nightmare subjects showed an overall slowing irrespective of the valence of the stimuli. While the effects of sleep quality and waking anxiety were associated to these deficits in some cases, these factors could not solely explain the difference between the two groups. In Study 2, 17 subjects with frequent nightmares and 18 controls were compared by a Color-word and an Emotional, block design Stroop task in order to avoid the slow effects of emotional interference potentially caused by previous items. Nightmare subjects were characterized by an overall slowing in the Emotional Stroop task, irrespective of the valence of the stimuli. In the Color-word Stroop task, nightmare subjects were not significantly slower in comparison with controls. Our results suggest that individuals with frequent nightmares are impaired in executive tasks involving the suppression of task-irrelevant semantic representations. PMID:22305923

  14. Goal-directed behavior under emotional distraction is preserved by enhanced task-specific activation.

    PubMed

    Wessa, Michèle; Heissler, Janine; Schönfelder, Sandra; Kanske, Philipp

    2013-03-01

    Despite the distracting effects of emotional stimuli on concurrent task performance, humans are able to uphold goal-directed behavior. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that this effect is due to the enhanced recruitment of task-specific neural resources. In a two-step functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we first localized those areas involved in mental arithmetics by contrasting arithmetic problems with a number detection task. The resulting activation maps were then used as masks in a second experiment that compared the effects of neutral and emotional distracter images on mental arithmetics. We found increased response times in the emotional distracter condition, accompanied by enhanced activation in task-specific areas, including superior parietal cortex, dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. This activation increase correlated with larger behavioral impairment through emotional distraction. Similar error rates in both conditions indicate that cognitive task performance is preserved through enhanced recruitment of task-specific neural resources when emotional distracter stimuli are present. PMID:22302842

  15. Emotional Facilitation Effect in the Picture-Word Interference Task: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Baolin; Xin, Shuai; Jin, Zhixing; Hu, Yu; Li, Yang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we aimed to verify the emotional facilitation effect in the picture-word interference task using event-related potentials. Twenty-one healthy subjects were asked to categorize the emotional valences of pictures accompanied by emotionally congruent, either centrally or laterally positioned Chinese words. For both the foveal and…

  16. Memory for Emotional Words in the First and the Second Language: Effects of the Encoding Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferre, Pilar; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Fraga, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Emotional words are better remembered than neutral words in the first language. Ferre, Garcia, Fraga, Sanchez-Casas and Molero (2010) found this emotional effect also for second language words by using an encoding task focused on emotionality. The aim of the present study was to test whether the same effect can also be observed with encoding tasks…

  17. The Adaptation and Validation of the Emotion Matching Task for Preschool Children in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso-Alberca, Natalia; Vergara, Ana I.; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Johnson, Stacy R.; Izard, Carroll E.

    2012-01-01

    The Emotion Matching Task (EMT; Izard, Haskins, Schultz, Trentacosta, & King, 2003) was developed to assess emotion knowledge in preschoolers and was demonstrated to show adequate convergent and predictive validity in an American sample (Morgan, Izard, & King, 2010). In light of the need for valid measures for assessing emotion knowledge in…

  18. Reward expectation regulates brain responses to task-relevant and task-irrelevant emotional words: ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ping; Wang, Di; Ji, Liyan

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effect of reward expectation on the processing of emotional words in two experiments using event-related potentials (ERPs). A cue indicating the reward condition of each trial (incentive vs non-incentive) was followed by the presentation of a negative or neutral word, the target. Participants were asked to discriminate the emotional content of the target word in Experiment 1 and to discriminate the color of the target word in Experiment 2, rendering the emotionality of the target word task-relevant in Experiment 1, but task-irrelevant in Experiment 2. The negative bias effect, in terms of the amplitude difference between ERPs for negative and neutral targets, was modulated by the task-set. In Experiment 1, P31 and early posterior negativity revealed a larger negative bias effect in the incentive condition than that in the non-incentive condition. However, in Experiment 2, P31 revealed a diminished negative bias effect in the incentive condition compared with that in the non-incentive condition. These results indicate that reward expectation improves top-down attentional concentration to task-relevant information, with enhanced sensitivity to the emotional content of target words when emotionality is task-relevant, but with reduced differential brain responses to emotional words when their content is task-irrelevant. PMID:26245838

  19. The Addiction-Stroop Test: Theoretical Considerations and Procedural Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Pothos, Emmanuel M.

    2006-01-01

    Decisions about using addictive substances are influenced by distractions by addiction-related stimuli, of which the user might be unaware. The addiction-Stroop task is a paradigm used to assess this distraction. The empirical evidence for the addiction-Stroop effect is critically reviewed, and meta-analyses of alcohol-related and smoking-related…

  20. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing. PMID:24681402

  1. Midbrain-Driven Emotion and Reward Processing in Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Oehring, E M; Jung, Y-C; Sullivan, E V; Hawkes, W C; Pfefferbaum, A; Schulte, T

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with impaired control over emotionally motivated actions, possibly associated with abnormalities in the frontoparietal executive control network and midbrain nodes of the reward network associated with automatic attention. To identify differences in the neural response to alcohol-related word stimuli, 26 chronic alcoholics (ALC) and 26 healthy controls (CTL) performed an alcohol-emotion Stroop Match-to-Sample task during functional MR imaging. Stroop contrasts were modeled for color-word incongruency (eg, word RED printed in green) and for alcohol (eg, BEER), positive (eg, HAPPY) and negative (eg, MAD) emotional word content relative to congruent word conditions (eg, word RED printed in red). During color-Stroop processing, ALC and CTL showed similar left dorsolateral prefrontal activation, and CTL, but not ALC, deactivated posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus. An interaction revealed a dissociation between alcohol-word and color-word Stroop processing: ALC activated midbrain and parahippocampal regions more than CTL when processing alcohol-word relative to color-word conditions. In ALC, the midbrain region was also invoked by negative emotional Stroop words thereby showing significant overlap of this midbrain activation for alcohol-related and negative emotional processing. Enhanced midbrain activation to alcohol-related words suggests neuroadaptation of dopaminergic midbrain systems. We speculate that such tuning is normally associated with behavioral conditioning to optimize responses but here contributed to automatic bias to alcohol-related stimuli. PMID:23615665

  2. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  3. An Asymmetric Stroop/Reverse-Stroop Interference Phenomenon in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yongning; Hakoda, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether participants with ADHD showed a deficit in Stroop/reverse-Stroop interference by comparing them to non-ADHD participants. Method: A group with ADHD, primarily inattentive type (n = 15), and a paired non-ADHD group (n = 15) completed the group version of the Stroop/reverse-Stroop test. Results: Asymmetric interference…

  4. To Stroop or not to Stroop: Sex-related differences in brain-behavior associations during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are linked with optimal cognitive and social-emotional development. Despite behavioral evidence of sex differences in early childhood EF, little is known about potential sex differences in corresponding brain-behavior associations. The present study examined changes in 4-year-olds' 6-9 Hz EEG power in response to increased executive processing demands (i.e., "Stroop-like" vs. "non-Stroop" day-night tasks). Although there were no sex differences in task performance, an examination of multiple scalp electrode sites revealed that boys exhibited more widespread changes in EEG power as compared to girls. Further, multiple regression analyses controlling for maternal education and non-EF performance indicated that individual differences in boys' and girls' EF performance were associated with different frontal neural correlates (i.e., different frontal scalp sites and different measures of EEG power). These data reveal valuable information concerning sex differences in the neural systems underlying executive processing during early childhood. PMID:26681615

  5. Brain mechanism of Stroop interference effect in Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiang; Luo, Yuejia; Wang, Quanhong; Zhang, Fenghua; Zhang, Qinglin

    2006-02-01

    Event-related brain potentials were measured when 11 healthy Chinese subjects finished Chinese Characters Stroop tasks. The behavioral data showed that the Stroop task yielded a robust Stroop interference effect as indexed by longer RT for incongruent than congruent color words. Scalp ERP analysis revealed the neurophysiological substrate of the interference effect: a greater negativity in the incongruent as compared to the congruent was found between 350 and 550 ms poststimulus over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole source analysis (BESA software) of the difference wave (incongruent-congruent) indicated that a generator localized in prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributed to this effect, possibly related to conflict processing and response selection. The results provided electrophysiologic evidences of the brain and cognitive mechanism of Stroop interference effect in Chinese characters and suggested that the difference between Chinese characters and English words had influence on temporal patterns of the Stroop interference effect. PMID:16443198

  6. University Students' Emotion During Online Search Task: A Multiple Achievement Goal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingming

    2016-07-01

    Endorsing a multiple goal perspective, students' academic emotions were examined with different goal profiles while solving learning tasks online. One hundred and seven Chinese undergraduates were classified based on the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework into three groups: Mastery-approach-focused, Approach-oriented, and Avoidance-oriented group. Participants' emotional states were assessed immediately prior to the task and following the task. Prior to the task, the Avoidance-oriented group reported significantly higher levels of deactivated negative emotion (i.e., bored and confused) than the Approach-oriented group. The Mastery-approach-focused group reported significantly higher levels of activated positive emotions (i.e., excited and eager) than the Avoidance-oriented group after the task. Within each group, all three groups followed a similar emotion change pattern prior versus after the search task in deactivated positive emotion, with a significant increase. In addition, the Mastery-approach-focused group also reported a significantly higher level of happiness after completing the task, whereas the other two groups did not report much change. The Avoidance-oriented group also reported a significant drop in the feeling of excitement, eagerness, anxiety, and nervousness; whereas, the Approach-oriented group reported a significantly higher level of confusion after the task was finished. Implications of the findings are further discussed. PMID:26914815

  7. Stroop interference in adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Michael J; Elmasry, Hannah-May

    2015-01-01

    Prior research on developmental dyslexia using Stroop tasks with young participants has found increased interference in participants with dyslexia relative to controls. Here we extend these findings to adult participants, and introduce a novel test of Stroop incongruity, whereby the color names appeared on an object colored in the incongruent color. The results imply that impaired inhibitory and executive attentional mechanisms are still deficient in adults with dyslexia and that other forms of attentional mechanisms, such as object-based attention, might also be impaired in dyslexia. Dyslexia arises not only from deficits in phonological processing, but from attentional mechanisms as well. PMID:24814960

  8. Simultaneous Masking in a Dichotic Emotion Detection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Soraggi, Mariana; Brake, Brandy; Wood, Heather-Dawn

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the possible role of ceiling effects in producing laterality effects of small magnitude in dichotic emotion detection. Twenty two right-handed undergraduate students participated in the present experiment. They were required to detect the presence of a target emotion in the expressions tones of happiness, sadness,…

  9. Research on Multirobot Pursuit Task Allocation Algorithm Based on Emotional Cooperation Factor

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Baofu; Chen, Lu; Wang, Hao; Dai, Shuanglu; Zhong, Qiubo

    2014-01-01

    Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots' individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm. PMID:25152925

  10. A Drawing Task to Assess Emotion Inference in Language-Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vendeville, Nathalie; Blanc, Nathalie; Brechet, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies investigating the ability of children with language impairment (LI) to infer emotions rely on verbal responses (which can be challenging for these children) and/or the selection of a card representing an emotion (which limits the response range). In contrast, a drawing task might allow a broad spectrum of responses without…

  11. Perceiving emotion: towards a realistic understanding of the task

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Roddy

    2009-01-01

    A decade ago, perceiving emotion was generally equated with taking a sample (a still photograph or a few seconds of speech) that unquestionably signified an archetypal emotional state, and attaching the appropriate label. Computational research has shifted that paradigm in multiple ways. Concern with realism is key. Emotion generally colours ongoing action and interaction: describing that colouring is a different problem from categorizing brief episodes of relatively pure emotion. Multiple challenges flow from that. Describing emotional colouring is a challenge in itself. One approach is to use everyday categories describing states that are partly emotional and partly cognitive. Another approach is to use dimensions. Both approaches need ways to deal with gradual changes over time and mixed emotions. Attaching target descriptions to a sample poses problems of both procedure and validation. Cues are likely to be distributed both in time and across modalities, and key decisions may depend heavily on context. The usefulness of acted data is limited because it tends not to reproduce these features. By engaging with these challenging issues, research is not only achieving impressive results, but also offering a much deeper understanding of the problem. PMID:19884146

  12. How Mood and Task Complexity Affect Children's Recognition of Others’ Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Andrew J.; Rennels, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies examined how mood affects children's accuracy in matching emotional expressions and labels (label-based tasks). This study was the first to assess how induced mood (positive, neutral, or negative) influenced 5- to 8-year-olds’ accuracy and reaction time using both context-based tasks, which required inferring a character's emotion from a vignette, and label-based tasks. Both tasks required choosing one of four facial expressions to respond. Children responded more accurately to label-based questions relative to context-based questions at 5 to 7 years of age, but showed no differences at 8 years of age, and when the emotional expression being identified was happiness, sadness, or surprise, but not disgust. For the context-based questions, children were more accurate at inferring sad and disgusted emotions compared to happy and surprised emotions. Induced positive mood facilitated 5-year-olds’ processing (decreased reaction time) in both tasks compared to induced negative and neutral moods. Results demonstrate how task type and children's mood influence children's emotion processing at different ages. PMID:24489442

  13. Emotional reactivity and cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks: a comparison between four rat strains

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cognitive function might be affected by the subjects' emotional reactivity. We assessed whether behavior in different tests of emotional reactivity is correlated with performance in aversively motivated learning tasks, using four strains of rats generally considered to have a different emotional reactivity. Methods The performance of male Brown Norway, Lewis, Fischer 344, and Wistar Kyoto rats in open field (OF), elevated plus-maze (EPM), and circular light-dark preference box (cLDB) tasks, which are believed to provide measures of emotional reactivity, was evaluated. Spatial working and reference memory were assessed in two aversively motivated learning and memory tasks: the standard and the "repeated acquisition" versions of the Morris water maze escape task, respectively. All rats were also tested in a passive avoidance task. At the end of the study, levels of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-HT turnover in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were determined. Results Strain differences showed a complex pattern across behavioral tests and serotonergic measures. Fischer 344 rats had the poorest performance in both versions of the Morris water escape task, whereas Brown Norway rats performed these tasks very well but the passive avoidance task poorly. Neither correlation analysis nor principal component analysis provided convincing support for the notion that OF, EPM, and cLDB tasks measure the same underlying trait. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that the level of emotional reactivity modulates cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks. Concepts such as "emotional reactivity" and "learning and memory" cannot adequately be tapped with only one behavioral test. Our results emphasize the need for multiple testing. PMID:20003525

  14. Amygdala alterations during an emotional conflict task in women recovered from anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor

    2016-02-28

    The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is not completely understood, but research suggests that alterations in brain circuits related to cognitive control and emotion are central. The aim of this study was to explore neural responses to an emotional conflict task in women recovered from AN. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural responses to an emotional conflict task in 22 women recovered from AN and 21 age-matched healthy controls. The task involved categorizing affective faces while ignoring affective words. Face and word stimuli were either congruent (non-conflict) or incongruent (conflict). Brain responses to emotional conflict did not differ between groups. However, in response to emotional non-conflict, women recovered from AN relative to healthy controls showed significantly less activation in the bilateral amygdala. Specifically, while emotional non-conflict evoked significant activations of the amygdala in healthy controls, recovered AN women did not show such activations. Similar significant group differences were also observed in the hippocampus and basal ganglia. These results suggest that women recovered from AN are characterized by alterations within emotion-related brain circuits. Recovered women's absence of amygdala and hippocampus activation during non-conflict trials possibly reflects an impaired ability to process emotional significant stimuli. PMID:26778366

  15. ERP Correlates of Target-Distracter Differentiation in Repeated Runs of a Continuous Recognition Task with Emotional and Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treese, Anne-Cecile; Johansson, Mikael; Lindgren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    The emotional salience of faces has previously been shown to induce memory distortions in recognition memory tasks. This event-related potential (ERP) study used repeated runs of a continuous recognition task with emotional and neutral faces to investigate emotion-induced memory distortions. In the second and third runs, participants made more…

  16. Emotion-Based Learning on a Simplified Card Game: The Iowa and Bangor Gambling Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Caroline H.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2004-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been widely used in the assessment of neurological patients with frontal lesions. Emphasis has been placed on the complexity of the task (i.e., four decks of varying contingency pattern) with the suggestion that the participant must use emotion-based learning to deal with a complex decision-making process. The…

  17. Balancing emotional processing with ongoing cognitive activity: the effects of task modality on intrusions and rumination

    PubMed Central

    Curci, Antonietta; Soleti, Emanuela; Lanciano, Tiziana; Doria, Valentina; Rimé, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we aimed to show that competition for resources between post-emotional processes and the execution of a cognitive task will result in two possible effects: (1) an impairment of the cognitive task in the short run and (2) an elongation of intrusions and rumination in the long run. The outcome of this competition is influenced by the interaction of the modality (verbal vs. visuospatial) of cognitive tasks run in the aftermath of an emotional experience and the nature (verbal vs. visuospatial) of the same experience. Non-clinical participants were given a working memory task (OSPAN vs. an analog Visual task) before and after the presentation of negative vs. neutral material (a novel excerpt in Experiment 1 and a video clip in Experiment 2). Intrusions and rumination were measured after a 24-h delay. Rumination was also assessed immediately after the experimental induction. Results showed that exposure to verbal negative material impaired verbal performance (Experiment 1); by contrast, exposure to visual negative material impaired both verbal and visuospatial performance (Experiment 2). Intrusions were only affected by the emotional valence of the original experience, while performing a visuospatial task resulted in enhanced rumination only after exposure to verbal emotional material. The findings of both experiments suggest that emotional processing spreads over time in balance with ongoing cognitive activities, and, in such a balance, the visuospatial processing mode tends to prevail over verbal engagements. PMID:26379598

  18. Neural correlates of emotional intelligence in a visual emotional oddball task: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Dan, Orrie; Zysberg, Leehu

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed at identifying potential behavioral and neural correlates of Emotional Intelligence (EI) by using scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). EI levels were defined according to both self-report questionnaire and a performance-based ability test. We identified ERP correlates of emotional processing by using a visual-emotional oddball paradigm, in which subjects were confronted with one frequent standard stimulus (a neutral face) and two deviant stimuli (a happy and an angry face). The effects of these faces were then compared across groups with low and high EI levels. The ERP results indicate that participants with high EI exhibited significantly greater mean amplitudes of the P1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP components in response to emotional and neutral faces, at frontal, posterior-parietal and occipital scalp locations. P1, P2 and N2 are considered indexes of attention-related processes and have been associated with early attention to emotional stimuli. The later P3 component has been thought to reflect more elaborative, top-down, emotional information processing including emotional evaluation and memory encoding and formation. These results may suggest greater recruitment of resources to process all emotional and non-emotional faces at early and late processing stages among individuals with higher EI. The present study underscores the usefulness of ERP methodology as a sensitive measure for the study of emotional stimuli processing in the research field of EI. PMID:25265320

  19. Anterior cingulate cortex hypoactivations to an emotionally salient task in cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Tomasi, Dardo; Carrillo, Jean Honorio; Maloney, Thomas; Woicik, Patricia A.; Wang, Ruiliang; Telang, Frank; Volkow, Nora D.

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive processing characterize drug addicted individuals as compared with healthy controls. However, impaired behavioral performance or task disengagement may be crucial factors. We hypothesized that ACC hypoactivations would be documented in groups matched for performance on an emotionally salient task. Seventeen individuals with current cocaine use disorders (CUD) and 17 demographically matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to engage the ACC. Despite lack of group differences in objective or subjective task-related performance, CUD showed more ACC hypoactivations throughout this emotionally salient task. Nevertheless, intensity of emotional salience contributed to results: (i) CUD with the largest rostroventral ACC [Brodmann Area (BA) 10, 11, implicated in default brain function] hypoactivations to the most salient task condition (drug words during the highest available monetary reward), had the least task-induced cocaine craving; (ii) CUD with the largest caudal-dorsal ACC (BA 32) hypoactivations especially to the least salient task condition (neutral words with no reward) had the most frequent current cocaine use; and (iii) responses to the most salient task condition in both these ACC major subdivisions were positively intercorrelated in the controls only. In conclusion, ACC hypoactivations in drug users cannot be attributed to task difficulty or disengagement. Nevertheless, emotional salience modulates ACC responses in proportion to drug use severity. Interventions to strengthen ACC reactivity or interconnectivity may be beneficial in enhancing top-down monitoring and emotion regulation as a strategy to reduce impulsive and compulsive behavior in addiction. PMID:19478067

  20. Coloring only a single letter does not eliminate color-word interference in a vocal-response Stroop task: automaticity revealed.

    PubMed

    Marmurek, Harvey H C

    2003-04-01

    The presence of an interference effect in naming the print color of color words (J. R. Stroop, 1935) suggests that responses associated with the irrelevant-word dimension of the display are activated involuntarily. In the present study, the author examined the conditions under which coloring a single letter in a word reduced interference in vocal responding (D. Kahneman & A. Henik, 1981) or eliminated it in manual responding (D. Besner, J. A. Stolz, & C. Boutilier, 1997). In Experiment 1, color-word interference was significant under vocal responding for the Besner et al. displays. In Experiment 2, the author replicated the Kahneman and Henik effect with the Besner et al. stimuli. The results of Experiment 3 showed that semantic effects are not eliminated by coloring only a single letter. Coloring a single letter does not prevent the activation of the irrelevant-word dimension of the colored color word. PMID:12773021

  1. The Role of Emotions and Task Significance in Virtual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noteborn, Gwen; Carbonell, Katerina Bohle; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Gijselaers, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the role of emotions in a virtual world (Second Life) through students' level of enjoyment and boredom and their influence on students' achievement level. The virtual world was an educational tool used to fully immerse students in the content of the course. In addition to supporting prior research on the importance of task…

  2. A novel task assessing intention and emotion attribution: Italian standardization and normative data of the Story-based Empathy Task.

    PubMed

    Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Iannaccone, Sandro; Marcone, Alessandra; Realmuto, Sabrina; Lettieri, Giada; Perani, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano F

    2015-10-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM), the process by which an individual imputes mental states to himself and others, is presently considered as a multidimensional cognitive domain, with two main facets (i.e., cognitive and affective ToM) accounting, respectively, for the ability to understand others' intention (intention attribution-IA) and emotions (emotion attribution-EA). Despite the large amount of literature investigating the behavioural and neural bases of mentalizing abilities in neurological conditions, there is still a lack of validated neuropsychological tools specifically designed to assess such skills. Here, we report the normative data of the Story-Based Empathy Task (SET), a non-verbal test developed for the assessment of intention and emotion attribution in the neurodegenerative conditions characterized by the impairment of social-emotional abilities. It is an easy-to-administer task including 18 stimuli, sub-grouped into two experimental conditions assessing, respectively, the ability to infer others' intentions (SET-IA) and emotions (SET-EA), compared to a control condition of causal inference (SET-CI). Normative data were collected in 136 Italian subjects pooled across subgroups homogenous for age (range 20-79 years), sex, and education (at least 5 years). The results show a detrimental effect of age and a beneficial effect of education on both the global score and each subscale, for which we provide correction grids. This new task could be a useful tool to investigate both affective and cognitive aspects of ToM in the course of disorders of socio-emotional behaviour, such as the fronto-temporal dementia spectrum. PMID:26072203

  3. Emotion has no impact on attention in a change detection flicker task

    PubMed Central

    Bendall, Robert C. A.; Thompson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Past research provides conflicting findings regarding the influence of emotion on visual attention. Early studies suggested a broadening of attentional resources in relation to positive mood. However, more recent evidence indicates that positive emotions may not have a beneficial impact on attention, and that the relationship between emotion and attention may be mitigated by factors such as task demand or stimulus valence. The current study explored the effect of emotion on attention using the change detection flicker paradigm. Participants were induced into positive, neutral, and negative mood states and then completed a change detection task. A series of neutral scenes were presented and participants had to identify the location of a disappearing item in each scene. The change was made to the center or the periphery of each scene and it was predicted that peripheral changes would be detected quicker in the positive mood condition and slower in the negative mood condition, compared to the neutral condition. In contrast to previous findings emotion had no influence on attention and whilst central changes were detected faster than peripheral changes, change blindness was not affected by mood. The findings suggest that the relationship between emotion and visual attention is influenced by the characteristics of a task, and any beneficial impact of positive emotion may be related to processing style rather than a “broadening” of attentional resources. PMID:26539141

  4. The effects of a distracting N-back task on recognition memory are reduced by negative emotional intensity.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Luciano G; Pottage, Claire L; Brown, Charity; Morrison, Catriona M; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated. PMID:25330251

  5. The Effects of a Distracting N-Back Task on Recognition Memory Are Reduced by Negative Emotional Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Buratto, Luciano G.; Pottage, Claire L.; Brown, Charity; Morrison, Catriona M.; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated. PMID:25330251

  6. Evaluation of a novel translational task for assessing emotional biases in different species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael H; Hardcastle, Chloë; Munafò, Marcus R; Robinson, Emma S J

    2012-06-01

    Changes in the processing of emotional information are key features of affective disorders. Neuropsychological tests based on emotional faces or words are used to detect emotional/affective biases in humans, but these tests are not applicable to animal species. In the present study, we investigated whether a novel affective tone discrimination task (ATDT), developed to study emotion-related behaviour in rats, could also be used to quantify changes in affective states in humans. To date, the methods used in human neuropsychology have not been applicable to animal experiments. Participants completed a training session in which they learnt to discriminate specific tone frequencies and to correctly respond in order to gain emotionally valenced outcomes, to obtain rewards (money), or to avoid punishment (an aversive sound clip). During a subsequent test session, additional ambiguous probe tones were presented at frequencies intermediate between the reward and avoidance paired tones. At the end of the task, participants completed self-report questionnaires. All participants made more avoidance responses to the most ambiguous tone cues, suggesting a bias towards avoidance of punishment. Individual differences in the degrees of bias observed were correlated with anxiety measures, suggesting the task's sensitivity to differences in state anxiety within a healthy population. Further studies in clinical populations will be necessary to assess the task's sensitivity to pathological anxiety states. These data suggest that this affective tone discrimination task provides a novel method to study cognitive affective biases in different species, including humans, and offers a novel assessment to study anxiety. PMID:22183974

  7. Reduced Stroop Interference for Opponent Colors May Be Due to Input Factors: Evidence from Individual Differences and a Neural Network Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeng, Bruno; Torstein, Lag; Brennen, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs…

  8. Vegetative effects of Stroop-test solving and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Suter, T W; Bättig, K

    1982-01-01

    The vegetative effects of cigarette smoking were investigated in 28 male smokers required to answer STROOP stimuli and in 16 smokers tested under yoked conditions. The smoking effects were considerably more pronounced in the yoked group than in the task solving groups. Psychophysiological reactivity to solving the STROOP task only tented to be influenced by smoking. A possible role for the reinforcing effects of smoking in this type of experiment can therefore be seen more in the vegetative activation preparatory to coping with the task than in the modulation of the task-induced vegetative responses. PMID:7183087

  9. Stroop-Like Effects for Monkeys and Humans: Processing Speed or Strength of Association?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Stroop-like effects have been found using a variety of paradigms and subject groups. In the present investigation, 6 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and 28 humans exhibited Stroop-like interference and facilitation in a relative-numerousness task. Monkeys, like humans, processed the meanings of the numerical symbols automatically, despite the fact that these meanings were irrelevant to task performance. These data also afforded direct comparison of interpretations of the Stroop effect in terms of processing speed versus association strength. These findings were consistent with parallel-processing models of Stroop-like interference proposed elsewhere, but not with processing-speed accounts posited frequently to explain the effect.

  10. The Influence of Task-Irrelevant Flankers Depends on the Composition of Emotion Categories.

    PubMed

    Schulte Holthausen, Barbara; Regenbogen, Christina; Turetsky, Bruce I; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition usually takes place in a social context, where faces are surrounded by other stimuli. These can act as distracting flankers which impair recognition. Previous work has suggested that flankers expressing negative emotions distract more than positive ones. However, the various negative emotions differ in their relative impact and it is unclear whether all negative emotions are equally distracting. We investigated the impact of three negative (angry, fearful, sad) and one positive (happy) facial flanker conditions on target recognition in an emotion discrimination task. We examined the effect of the receiver's gender, and the impact of two different temporal delays between flanker and target onset, as stimulus onset asynchrony is assumed to affect distractor strength. Participants identified and rated the emotional intensity of target faces surrounded by either face (emotional and neutral) or non-face flankers. Target faces were presented either simultaneously with the flankers, or delayed by 300 ms. Contrary to our hypothesis, negative flankers did not exert stronger distraction effects than positive or neutral flankers. However, happy flankers reduced recognition performance. Results of a follow-up experiment with a balanced number of emotion categories (one positive, one negative and one neutral flanker condition) suggest that the distraction effect of emotional flankers depends on the composition of the emotion categories. Additionally, congruency effects were found to be valence-specific and overruled by threat stimuli. Females responded more quickly and rated targets in happy flankers as less intense. This indicates a gender difference in emotion processing, with greater sensitivity to facial flankers in women. Targets were rated as more intense when they were presented without a temporal delay, possibly due to a stronger flanker contrast. These three experiments show that an exceptional processing of threat-related flanker stimuli depends on

  11. The Influence of Task-Irrelevant Flankers Depends on the Composition of Emotion Categories

    PubMed Central

    Schulte Holthausen, Barbara; Regenbogen, Christina; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition usually takes place in a social context, where faces are surrounded by other stimuli. These can act as distracting flankers which impair recognition. Previous work has suggested that flankers expressing negative emotions distract more than positive ones. However, the various negative emotions differ in their relative impact and it is unclear whether all negative emotions are equally distracting. We investigated the impact of three negative (angry, fearful, sad) and one positive (happy) facial flanker conditions on target recognition in an emotion discrimination task. We examined the effect of the receiver’s gender, and the impact of two different temporal delays between flanker and target onset, as stimulus onset asynchrony is assumed to affect distractor strength. Participants identified and rated the emotional intensity of target faces surrounded by either face (emotional and neutral) or non-face flankers. Target faces were presented either simultaneously with the flankers, or delayed by 300 ms. Contrary to our hypothesis, negative flankers did not exert stronger distraction effects than positive or neutral flankers. However, happy flankers reduced recognition performance. Results of a follow-up experiment with a balanced number of emotion categories (one positive, one negative and one neutral flanker condition) suggest that the distraction effect of emotional flankers depends on the composition of the emotion categories. Additionally, congruency effects were found to be valence-specific and overruled by threat stimuli. Females responded more quickly and rated targets in happy flankers as less intense. This indicates a gender difference in emotion processing, with greater sensitivity to facial flankers in women. Targets were rated as more intense when they were presented without a temporal delay, possibly due to a stronger flanker contrast. These three experiments show that an exceptional processing of threat-related flanker stimuli depends on

  12. After-training emotional interference may modulate sequence awareness in a serial reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Onal-Hartmann, Cigdem; Fiorio, Mirta; Gentner, Reinhard; Zeller, Daniel; Pauli, Paul; Classen, Joseph

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of emotional interference on consolidation of sequential learning. In different sessions, 6 groups of subjects were initially trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). To modulate consolidation of the newly learned skill, subjects were exposed, after the training, to 1 of 3 (positive, negative or neutral) different classes of emotional stimuli which consisted of a set of emotional pictures combined with congruent emotional musical pieces or neutral sound. Emotional intervention for each subject group was done in 2 different time intervals (either directly after the training session or 6 h later). After a 72 h post-training interval, each group was retested on the SRTT. Re-test performance was evaluated in terms of response times and accuracy during execution of a target sequence. Emotional intervention did not influence either response times or accuracy of re-testing SRTT target task performance, both variables sensitive to implicit knowledge acquired during SRTT training. However, explicit awareness of sequence knowledge after 72 h was enhanced when negative stimuli had been applied at 0 h after training. These findings suggest that consolidation of explicit aspects of procedural learning may be more responsive toward emotional interference than implicit aspects. PMID:22430186

  13. Biological substrates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescence during an emotional go-nogo task

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Todd A.; Tottenham, Nim; Galvan, Adriana; Voss, Henning U.; Glover, Gary H.; Casey, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a transition period from childhood to adulthood that is often characterized by emotional instability. This period is also a time of increased incidence of anxiety and depression underscoring the importance of understanding biological substrates of behavioral and emotion regulation during adolescence. Developmental changes in the brain in concert with individual predispositions for anxiety may underlie the increased risk for poor outcomes reported during adolescence. We tested the hypothesis that difficulties in regulating behavior in emotional contexts in adolescents may be due to competition between heightened activity in subcortical emotional processing systems and immature top-down prefrontal systems. Individual differences in emotional reactivity may put some teens at greater risk during this sensitive transition in development. Methods We examined the association between emotion regulation, and frontoamygdala circuitry in 60 children, adolescents, and adults using an emotional go/nogo paradigm. We went beyond examining the magnitude of neural activity and focused on neural adaptation within this circuitry across time using fMRI. Results Adolescents showed exaggerated amygdala activity relative to children and adults. This age-related difference decreased with repeated exposures to the stimuli, and individual differences in self-ratings of anxiety predicted the extent of adaptation or habituation in amygdala. Individuals with higher trait anxiety showed less habituation over repeated exposures. This failure to habituate was associated with less functional connectivity between ventral prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Conclusions These findings suggest that exaggerated emotional reactivity during adolescence may increase the need for top-down control and put individuals with less control at greater risk for poor outcomes. PMID:18452757

  14. Response confidence for emotion perception in schizophrenia using a Continuous Facial Sequence Task.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Woznica, Aneta; Andreou, Christina; Köther, Ulf

    2012-12-30

    Deficits in emotion perception and overconfidence in errors are well-documented in schizophrenia but have not been examined concurrently. The present study aimed to fill this gap. Twenty-three schizophrenia patients and twenty-nine healthy subjects underwent a Continuous Facial Sequence Task (CFST). The CFST comprised two blocks: a female (1st block) and a male protagonist (2nd block) displayed the six basic emotions postulated by Ekman as well as two more complex mental states and a neutral expression. Participants were first asked to identify the affect displayed by the performer and then to judge their response confidence. No group differences emerged regarding overall emotion perception. Follow-up analyses showed that patients were less correct in detecting some negative emotions but performed better for neutral or positive emotions. Regarding confidence, incorrect decisions in patients were associated with higher confidence than in controls (statistical trend level, moderate effect size). Patients displayed significant overconfidence in errors for negative emotions. In addition, patients were more prone to high-confident errors for emotions that were displayed in weak emotional intensity. While the study supports the view that the examination of confidence adds unique information to our understanding of social cognition, several methodological limitations render its findings preliminary. PMID:22920792

  15. Differential effects of emotionally versus neutrally cued autobiographical memories on performance of a subsequent cognitive task: effects of task difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kymberly D.; Erickson, Kristine; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2012-01-01

    Attention is a limited resource, and in order to improve processing of the attended information, competing processes must be suppressed. Although it is well established that an experimentally induced change in mood state comprises one type of competing process that can impair performance on a subsequent task, no study has investigated whether an emotionally valenced autobiographical memory (AM) also can alter performance on a subsequent task. We therefore examined the effects of AM recall on cognitive performance. Healthy participants (n = 20 per experiment) recalled AMs in response to positive, negative, and neutral cue words. Following each AM participants completed a simple perceptual task (Experiment 1) or solved moderately difficult subtraction problems (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1 participants performed less accurately following exposure to positive or negative versus neutral cue words (ps < 0.001), and also were less accurate following negative versus positive cue words (p < 0.001). In Experiment 2, in contrast, no difference in accuracy or response times reached statistical significance. Performance accuracy even trended toward being higher following exposure to negative versus neutral cue words (p = 0.08). The results of Experiment 1 suggested that recalling emotionally salient AMs reduces the attention directed toward a simple continuous performance task administered immediately following the AM task, conceivably due to persistent contemplation of the AM. The negative results of Experiment 2 suggested that the effect of AMs on attention was attenuated, however, by increasing the difficulty of the subsequent task. Our results have implications for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), as performing cognitively demanding tasks may allow them to attenuate the impairing effects of negative rumination on cognition. PMID:23060823

  16. Chronic pain patients are impaired on an emotional decision-making task.

    PubMed

    Apkarian, A Vania; Sosa, Yamaya; Krauss, Beth R; Thomas, P Sebastian; Fredrickson, Bruce E; Levy, Robert E; Harden, R Norman; Chialvo, Dante R

    2004-03-01

    Chronic pain can result in anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life. However, its effects on cognitive abilities have remained unclear although many studies attempted to psychologically profile chronic pain. We hypothesized that performance on an emotional decision-making task may be impaired in chronic pain since human brain imaging studies show that brain regions critical for this ability are also involved in chronic pain. Chronic back pain (CBP) patients, chronic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients, and normal volunteers (matched for age, sex, and education) were studied on the Iowa Gambling Task, a card game developed to study emotional decision-making. Outcomes on the gambling task were contrasted to performance on other cognitive tasks. The net number of choices made from advantageous decks after subtracting choices made from disadvantageous decks on average was 22.6 in normal subjects (n = 26), 13.4 in CBP patients (n = 26), and -9.5 in CRPS patients (n = 12), indicating poor performance in the patient groups as compared to the normal controls (P < 0.004). Only pain intensity assessed during the gambling task was correlated with task outcome and only in CBP patients (r = -0.75, P < 0.003). Other cognitive abilities, such as attention, short-term memory, and general intelligence tested normal in the chronic pain patients. Our evidence indicates that chronic pain is associated with a specific cognitive deficit, which may impact everyday behavior especially in risky, emotionally laden, situations. PMID:15109516

  17. Children's Moral Emotion Attribution in the Happy Victimizer Task: The Role of Response Format.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; López-Pérez, Belén; Ambrona, Tamara; Rodríguez-Cano, Sonia; Dellaria, Giulia; Smith, Gary; Wilson, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in the happy victimizer tradition indicated that preschool and early elementary school children attribute positive emotions to the violator of a moral norm, whereas older children attribute negative (moral) emotions. Cognitive and motivational processes have been suggested to underlie this developmental shift. The current research investigated whether making the happy victimizer task less cognitively demanding by providing children with alternative response formats would increase their attribution of moral emotions and moral motivation. In Study 1, 93 British children aged 4-7 years old responded to the happy victimizer questions either in a normal condition (where they spontaneously pointed with a finger), a wait condition (where they had to wait before giving their answers), or an arrow condition (where they had to point with a paper arrow). In Study 2, 40 Spanish children aged 4 years old responded to the happy victimizer task either in a normal or a wait condition. In both studies, participants' attribution of moral emotions and moral motivation was significantly higher in the conditions with alternative response formats (wait, arrow) than in the normal condition. The role of cognitive abilities for emotion attribution in the happy victimizer task is discussed. PMID:26508562

  18. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  19. Implicit Emotional Biases in Decision Making: The Case of the Iowa Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Andrea; Fum, Danilo

    2008-01-01

    Many authors have endorsed the hypothesis that previous emotional experiences may exert a covert influence on behavior, but some findings and replications of the original studies challenged this view. We investigated this topic by carrying out an experiment with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), where a dissociation procedure was adopted to…

  20. Social priming of dyslexia and reduction of the Stroop effect: what component of the Stroop effect is actually reduced?

    PubMed

    Augustinova, Maria; Ferrand, Ludovic

    2014-03-01

    Recently, Goldfarb, Aisenberg, and Henik (2011) showed that in a manual format of the Stroop task, dyslexia priming eliminates the normal magnitude of the interference-based Stroop-like findings otherwise exhibited by individuals participating in such research. Goldfarb et al. (2011) consequently concluded that the effect of word reading in a Stroop task (i.e., one automatic behavior) can be effectively controlled through an automatic instruction "do not read" (i.e., another automatic behavior). The present study further investigated these ideas by examining when and how dyslexia priming controls different processes involved in a Stroop task. To this end, the original finding was first replicated (Experiment 1) and subsequently extended to the vocal (instead of manual) response modality to examine whether previously reported eliminations of the Stroop effect persist with this response format (i.e., format producing larger Stroop effects). Since past work (e.g., Augustinova & Ferrand, 2012a; Brown, Joneleit et al., 2002; Ferrand & Augustinova, 2013) had suggested that various interventions were likely to reduce (rather than eliminate) the interference-based Stroop-like findings with vocal responses, a further aim of these experiments was to identify the component of these findings that dyslexia priming actually reduces. To this end, the effects of this intervention were examined in a more fine-grained variant of the Stroop task that distinguished between interference resulting from task-irrelevant processes involved in computing the lexical and semantic representations of the word (i.e., a written distractor to ignore) and task-relevant processes involved in the selection of a response (i.e., a color target to name) that are both involved in this task. In line with our past work (e.g., Augustinova & Ferrand, 2012a; Ferrand & Augustinova, 2013), the results of two experiments (Experiments 2 and 3) showed that in the vocal format, dyslexia priming reduces but does not

  1. How does Stroop interference change with practice? A reappraisal from the musical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Laurent; Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte

    2015-03-01

    Most earlier studies investigating the evolution of the Stroop effect with the amount of reading practice have reported data consistent with an inverted U-shaped curve, whereby the Stroop effect appears early during reading acquisition, reaches a peak after 2 or 3 years of practice, and then continuously decreases until adulthood. The downward component of the curve suggests that skilled performers would be able to control their performance better than less-skilled performers. However, in these studies, the level of reading practice entirely coincides with age due to obvious practical and ethical constraints, and it is possible that the observed reduction in the Stroop interference is due to a growing ability of older children to inhibit nonrelevant information. In the present study, word reading, as source of interference, was replaced by note naming in musicians. The major advantage is that musical training can be easily decoupled from age. In 2 experiments exploiting the musical Stroop paradigm (Grégoire, Perruchet, & Poulin-Charronnat, 2013), we observed an early appearance of the interference effect, as reported for the color-word and picture-word Stroop tasks, but we did not replicate the inverted U-shaped curve. Experiment 2 revealed a linear and positive relation between the amplitude of the musical Stroop effect and the amount of musical practice across 5 years of musical training. These results suggest that reading practice in itself does not lead to increased control over reading and that the usual pattern of results is most likely due to the strong correlation between age and reading practice. PMID:25068858

  2. The Influence of Stimulus Discriminability on Young Children's Interference Control in the Stroop-Like Happy-Sad Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluell, Alexandra M.; Montgomery, Derek E.

    2014-01-01

    The day-night paradigm, where children respond to a pair of pictures with opposite labels for a series of trials, is a widely used measure of interference control. Recent research has shown that a happy-sad variant of the day-night task was significantly more difficult than the standard day-night task. The present research examined whether the…

  3. Age-Related Decrements in Stroop Color Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Nancy B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administered a modified Stroop Color-Word Test to healthy males (N=80) aged 21-90 years as part of a study of neuropsychological functioning. Results showed differences on simple reading tasks; however, significant age effects were observed for the color naming and interference tasks. (LLL)

  4. Dissociating task difficulty from incongruence in face-voice emotion integration

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Rebecca; Latinus, Marianne; Noguchi, Takao; Garrod, Oliver; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In the everyday environment, affective information is conveyed by both the face and the voice. Studies have demonstrated that a concurrently presented voice can alter the way that an emotional face expression is perceived, and vice versa, leading to emotional conflict if the information in the two modalities is mismatched. Additionally, evidence suggests that incongruence of emotional valence activates cerebral networks involved in conflict monitoring and resolution. However, it is currently unclear whether this is due to task difficulty—that incongruent stimuli are harder to categorize—or simply to the detection of mismatching information in the two modalities. The aim of the present fMRI study was to examine the neurophysiological correlates of processing incongruent emotional information, independent of task difficulty. Subjects were scanned while judging the emotion of face-voice affective stimuli. Both the face and voice were parametrically morphed between anger and happiness and then paired in all audiovisual combinations, resulting in stimuli each defined by two separate values: the degree of incongruence between the face and voice, and the degree of clarity of the combined face-voice information. Due to the specific morphing procedure utilized, we hypothesized that the clarity value, rather than incongruence value, would better reflect task difficulty. Behavioral data revealed that participants integrated face and voice affective information, and that the clarity, as opposed to incongruence value correlated with categorization difficulty. Cerebrally, incongruence was more associated with activity in the superior temporal region, which emerged after task difficulty had been accounted for. Overall, our results suggest that activation in the superior temporal region in response to incongruent information cannot be explained simply by task difficulty, and may rather be due to detection of mismatching information between the two modalities. PMID:24294196

  5. [Stroop test and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Grapperon, J; Delage, M

    1999-01-01

    Utilization of the Stroop test with schizophrenic subjects is reviewed from 32 studies published since 1960. This test, in which subject has to name the color of color-words which are congruent or incongruent, is much used as a selective attention test. Its specific disturbance in schizophrenics would confirm the overload of consciousness with unsignificant non filtered information, probably due to lowering of frontal functions. Stroop effect is not always raised in these patients, especially when general slowing is taken into account. Technical differences modify the test power and can explain contradictory results. The thought disorder symptom seems the most correlated with the results of the test, and particular sensitiveness of paranoïd form has been argued. Neuroleptics do not seem to act on Stroop effect. Factors explaining the great variability of patients in this test are not fully put in light. One hypothesis, already raised, is that the test is linked to a particular attentional constitutional aptitude, and whose relations with the illness are to be explained. PMID:10205734

  6. Unconsciously controlled processing: the Stroop effect reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Besner, D; Stolz, J A

    1999-09-01

    The Stroop effect is widely considered to be compelling evidence that an acquired skill such as reading is "automatic" in the sense that lexical/semantic analyses of single words cannot be prevented, even when they are irrelevant and harmful to the task at hand. This view is challenged by a series of three experiments in which the presence/absence of a Stroop effect depends on (1) whether all of the target elements are colored or not, in conjunction with (2) whether the target and the spatially distinct color word distractor belong to the same domain or not. A framework is offered in which domain-specific encoding algorithms play a major role. Skilled word recognition is typically unconscious, but is characterized better as contextually controlled, rather than "automatic." PMID:12198783

  7. Prestimulus default mode activity influences depth of processing and recognition in an emotional memory task.

    PubMed

    Soravia, Leila M; Witmer, Joëlle S; Schwab, Simon; Nakataki, Masahito; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Henke, Katharina; Federspiel, Andrea; Jann, Kay

    2016-03-01

    Low self-referential thoughts are associated with better concentration, which leads to deeper encoding and increases learning and subsequent retrieval. There is evidence that being engaged in externally rather than internally focused tasks is related to low neural activity in the default mode network (DMN) promoting open mind and the deep elaboration of new information. Thus, reduced DMN activity should lead to enhanced concentration, comprehensive stimulus evaluation including emotional categorization, deeper stimulus processing, and better long-term retention over one whole week. In this fMRI study, we investigated brain activation preceding and during incidental encoding of emotional pictures and on subsequent recognition performance. During fMRI, 24 subjects were exposed to 80 pictures of different emotional valence and subsequently asked to complete an online recognition task one week later. Results indicate that neural activity within the medial temporal lobes during encoding predicts subsequent memory performance. Moreover, a low activity of the default mode network preceding incidental encoding leads to slightly better recognition performance independent of the emotional perception of a picture. The findings indicate that the suppression of internally-oriented thoughts leads to a more comprehensive and thorough evaluation of a stimulus and its emotional valence. Reduced activation of the DMN prior to stimulus onset is associated with deeper encoding and enhanced consolidation and retrieval performance even one week later. Even small prestimulus lapses of attention influence consolidation and subsequent recognition performance. PMID:26663662

  8. Emotional effect on cognitive control in implicit memory tasks in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal a potential effect of emotion on cognitive control in the implicit memory task with emotionally neutral and unpleasant words in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia using a 3.0 T functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls underwent the fMRI. fMRI data were obtained while the participants performed the implicit memory tasks with emotionally neutral and unpleasant words. During the implicit memory retrieval with emotionally neutral words, the predominant activation areas observed in patients in contrast to healthy controls included the precuneus, superior parietal gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). In the implicit memory retrieval with unpleasant words, patients with schizophrenia showed dominant activities in the superior and middle temporal gyri, fusiform gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, and insula as well as precuneus, superior parietal gyrus, and dlPFC. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes in the dlPFC were correlated positively with the scores of the negative symptoms under the PANSS during implicit memory retrieval with unpleasant words in patients with schizophrenia. These findings would be useful to understand the neural mechanisms related to general impairment of cognitive and emotional functions commonly observed in schizophrenia. PMID:26103120

  9. Neural Correlates of Trait Rumination During an Emotion Interference Task in Women With PTSD.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Katherine R; Bruce, Steven E; Koucky, Ellen M; Artime, Tiffany M; Wojtalik, Jessica A; Brown, Wilson J; Sheline, Yvette I

    2016-08-01

    Rumination, defined as repetitive, negative, self-focused thinking, is hypothesized to be a transdiagnostic factor that is associated with depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Theory has suggested that in individuals with PTSD, rumination serves as a cognitive avoidance factor that contributes to the maintenance of symptoms by inhibiting the cognitive and emotional processing of the traumatic event, subsequently interfering with treatment engagement and outcome. Little is known about the neural correlates of rumination in women with PTSD. The current study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural correlates during an emotion interference task of self-reported rumination in women with PTSD. Women with PTSD (39 participants) were recruited at a university-based trauma clinic and completed a clinical evaluation that included measures of PTSD symptoms, rumination, and depressive symptoms, as well as a neuroimaging session in which the participants were administered an emotion interference task. There was a significant relationship between self-reported rumination and activity in the right orbital frontal cortex, BA 11; t(37) = 5.62, p = .004, k = 46 during the task. This finding suggested that women with PTSD, who had higher levels of rumination, may experience greater difficulty inhibiting negative emotional stimuli compared to women with lower levels of rumination. PMID:27472504

  10. The Stroop Revisited: A Meta-Analysis of Interference Control in AD/HD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mourik, Rosa; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: An inhibition deficit, including poor interference control, has been implicated as one of the core deficits in AD/HD. Interference control is clinically measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the strength of an interference deficit in AD/HD as measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task…