#### Sample records for empirical scaling formulas

1. Empirical formula of crustal torsional oscillations

Sotani, Hajime

2016-02-01

Crustal torsional oscillations depend on not only crust properties but also the stellar mass and radius. Thus, one could extract stellar information by identifying the observed frequencies of stellar oscillations with the crustal torsional oscillations. Owing to the confinement of torsional oscillations inside the crust region of neutron stars, we successfully derive an empirical formula for the fundamental crustal torsional oscillations as a function of the stellar mass, radius, the so-called slope parameter of the nuclear symmetry energy, and the angular index of oscillations, with which one can estimate the frequencies with high accuracy. This empirical formula could be valuable in both the astrophysics and nuclear physics communities.

2. Percentage Composition and Empirical Formula--A New View.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gilbert, George L.

1998-01-01

Demonstrates the logical relationship between percentage composition and an empirical formula using a technique that depends on determining a minimum molar mass for the compound based on the mass percent of each element. (DDR)

3. An Empirical Formula From Ion Exchange Chromatography and Colorimetry.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johnson, Steven D.

1996-01-01

Presents a detailed procedure for finding an empirical formula from ion exchange chromatography and colorimetry. Introduces students to more varied techniques including volumetric manipulation, titration, ion-exchange, preparation of a calibration curve, and the use of colorimetry. (JRH)

4. Nuclear binding energy using semi empirical mass formula

Ankita, Suthar, B.

2016-05-01

In the present communication, semi empirical mass formula using the liquid drop model has been presented. Nuclear binding energies are calculated using semi empirical mass formula with various constants given by different researchers. We also compare these calculated values with experimental data and comparative study for finding suitable constants is added using the error plot. The study is extended to find the more suitable constant to reduce the error.

5. Explorations of two empirical formulas for fermion masses

Gao, Guan-Hua; Li, Nan

2016-03-01

Two empirical formulas for the lepton and quark masses (i.e. Kartavtsev's extended Koide formulas), K_l=(sum _l m_l)/(sum _lsqrt{m_l})^2=2/3 and K_q=(sum _q m_q)/(sum _qsqrt{m_q})^2=2/3, are explored in this paper. For the lepton sector, we show that K_l=2/3, only if the uncertainty of the tauon mass is relaxed to about 2σ confidence level, and the neutrino masses can consequently be extracted with the current experimental data. For the quark sector, the extended Koide formula should only be applied to the running quark masses, and K_q is found to be rather insensitive to the renormalization effects in a large range of energy scales from GeV to 10^{12} GeV. We find that K_q is always slightly larger than 2/3, but the discrepancy is merely about 5 %.

6. Empirical Formulas and the Solid State: A Proposal

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jensen, William B.

2004-01-01

A survey of introductory textbooks shows that many authors fail to connect explicitly their discussions of empirical versus molecular formulas with their latter discussions of the composition and structure of nonmolecular solids. A study proposes that some method, such as the use of quotation marks, be adopted to differentiate unambiguously…

7. Using Paperclips to Explain Empirical Formulas to Students

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nassiff, Peter; Czerwinski, Wendy A.

2014-01-01

Early in their chemistry education, students learn to do empirical formula calculations by rote without an understanding of the historical context behind them or the reason why their calculations work. In these activities, students use paperclip "atoms", construct a series of simple compounds representing real molecules, and discover,…

8. Empirical mass formula with proton-neutron interaction

1987-12-01

An atomic mass formula consisting of a gross part, and averge even-odd part and an empirical shell part is studied. The gross part is, apart from a small atomic term, taken to be the sum of nucleon rest masses. Coulomb energies and a polynomial in A1/3 and ‖N-Z‖/A. The shell part includes, in addition to proton and neutron support of nuclear magicities and the cooperative deformation effect. After the first construction of such a formula, refinements have been made in two respects. One is a separate treatment of Z=N odd-odd nuclei suggested by a quartet model, and the other is an improvement of the proton neutron interaction term. By these refinements the root-mean-square deviation of calculated masses from the 1986 Audi-Wapstra masses has been reduced from 538 keV to 460 keV.

9. Empirical mass formula with proton-neutron interaction

SciTech Connect

1987-12-10

An atomic mass formula consisting of a gross part, and averge even-odd part and an empirical shell part is studied. The gross part is, apart from a small atomic term, taken to be the sum of nucleon rest masses. Coulomb energies and a polynomial in A/sup 1/3/ and chemically bondN-Zchemically bond/A. The shell part includes, in addition to proton and neutron support of nuclear magicities and the cooperative deformation effect. After the first construction of such a formula, refinements have been made in two respects. One is a separate treatment of Z = N odd-odd nuclei suggested by a quartet model, and the other is an improvement of the proton neutron interaction term. By these refinements the root-mean-square deviation of calculated masses from the 1986 Audi-Wapstra masses has been reduced from 538 keV to 460 keV.

10. Development of an Empirical Local Magnitude Formula for Northern Oklahoma

Spriggs, N.; Karimi, S.; Moores, A. O.

2015-12-01

In this paper we focus on determining a local magnitude formula for northern Oklahoma that is unbiased with distance by empirically constraining the attenuation properties within the region of interest based on the amplitude of observed seismograms. For regional networks detecting events over several hundred kilometres, distance correction terms play an important role in determining the magnitude of an event. Standard distance correction terms such as Hutton and Boore (1987) may have a significant bias with distance if applied in a region with different attenuation properties, resulting in an incorrect magnitude. We have presented data from a regional network of broadband seismometers installed in bedrock in northern Oklahoma. The events with magnitude in the range of 2.0 and 4.5, distributed evenly across this network are considered. We find that existing models show a bias with respect to hypocentral distance. Observed amplitude measurements demonstrate that there is a significant Moho bounce effect that mandates the use of a trilinear attenuation model in order to avoid bias in the distance correction terms. We present two different approaches of local magnitude calibration. The first maintains the classic definition of local magnitude as proposed by Richter. The second method calibrates local magnitude so that it agrees with moment magnitude where a regional moment tensor can be computed. To this end, regional moment tensor solutions and moment magnitudes are computed for events with magnitude larger than 3.5 to allow calibration of local magnitude to moment magnitude. For both methods the new formula results in magnitudes systematically lower than previous values computed with Eaton's (1992) model. We compare the resulting magnitudes and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of each method. Our results highlight the importance of correct calibration of the distance correction terms for accurate local magnitude assessment in regional networks.

11. Empirical formulas for direct double ionization by bare ions: Z = - 1 to 92

DOE PAGESBeta

DuBois, R. D.; Santos, A. C. F.; Manson, S. T.

2014-11-25

Experimental cross sections and cross-section ratios reported in the literature for direct double ionization of the outer shells of helium, neon, and argon atoms resulting from bare ions ranging from protons to uranium and for antiprotons are analyzed in terms of a first- and second-order interference model originally proposed by McGuire [J. H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1153 (1982)]. Empirical formulas for the various contributions to double ionization plus information about the phase difference between the first- and second-order mechanisms are extracted from the data. Projectile and target scalings are also extracted. Total cross sections and their ratios determinedmore » using these formulas and scalings are shown to be in very good agreement with experimental data for lower-Z projectiles and impact velocities larger than 1 a.u. For very-high-Z projectiles, the amount of double ionization is overestimated, probably due to saturation of probabilities that is not accounted for in scaling formulas.« less

12. An empirical formula based on Monte Carlo simulation for diffuse reflectance from turbid media

Gnanatheepam, Einstein; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

2016-03-01

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been widely used in diagnostic oncology and characterization of laser irradiated tissue. However, still accurate and simple analytical equation does not exist for estimation of diffuse reflectance from turbid media. In this work, a diffuse reflectance lookup table for a range of tissue optical properties was generated using Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the generated Monte Carlo lookup table, an empirical formula for diffuse reflectance was developed using surface fitting method. The variance between the Monte Carlo lookup table surface and the surface obtained from the proposed empirical formula is less than 1%. The proposed empirical formula may be used for modeling of diffuse reflectance from tissue.

13. An empirical formula for gas switch breakdown delay

Martin, T. H.

An empirical scaling relationship between the mean electric field and the breakdown time has been found. Many divergent sets of data were used from breakdown experiments on power lines, laser-triggered switches, trigatrons, e-beam triggered gaps, sharp-point electrode to plane gaps, and uniform field gaps. This relationship builds on the Felsenthal and Proud data and extends their breakdown time delay (formative time) data by three orders of magnitude and into the region of interest for triggered gas switching. The data indicates that electrically triggered gaps, laser-triggered gaps, and untriggered gaps are governed by the same time-delay processes. Predictions can be made of trigger gap geometry, trigger delays, and trigger polarity effects. Breakdown delays of sub-centimeter-long to at least 8-meter-long gaps in air with either high or low field-enhanced electrodes are described by this equation. In addition, this relationship appears to be valid for a variety of gases and even accurately predicts the breakdown delay of mixtures of air and SF(sub 6).

14. A Known-to-Unknown Approach To Teach about Empirical and Molecular Formulas.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thamburaj, P. K.

2001-01-01

Points out student struggles with the determination of empirical and molecular formulas and introduces a teaching approach to increase student understanding. Uses scenarios to present the experimental data before presenting the problem. (YDS)

15. English and India's Three-Language Formula: An Empirical Perspective.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggarwal, Kailash S.

1988-01-01

A survey of 52 college students in the Sanbalpur District of Orissa (India) determined that they had favorable attitudes toward English. Students preferred English to Hindi as a link language with Oriya, and favored a two-language instead of a three-language formula in language study. (Author/LMO)

16. AN EMPIRICAL FORMULA FOR THE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF A THIN EXPONENTIAL DISC

SciTech Connect

Sharma, Sanjib; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

2013-08-20

An empirical formula for a Shu distribution function that reproduces a thin disc with exponential surface density to good accuracy is presented. The formula has two free parameters that specify the functional form of the velocity dispersion. Conventionally, this requires the use of an iterative algorithm to produce the correct solution, which is computationally taxing for applications like Markov Chain Monte Carlo model fitting. The formula has been shown to work for flat, rising, and falling rotation curves. Application of this methodology to one of the Dehnen distribution functions is also shown. Finally, an extension of this formula to reproduce velocity dispersion profiles that are an exponential function of radius is also presented. Our empirical formula should greatly aid the efficient comparison of disc models with large stellar surveys or N-body simulations.

17. A More Precise Empirical Formula for Estimating Normalized Fog Attenuation in the Millimeter-Wave Frequency Range 30 ~ 100 GHz

Mao, Xia; Liu, Yun-Long; Chen, Li-Jiang; Xue, Yu-Li

2013-04-01

At millimeter wavelengths, normalized fog attenuation (NFA) in units of (dB/km)/ (g/m3) is generally calculated by the Rayleigh approximation when working wavelengths are much larger than the average diameter of fog droplets. The calculations of the Rayleigh approximation are much less than those of Mie scattering theory, but still complex and heavy. To solve the above problem and facilitate the engineering applications of the Rayleigh approximation, a new empirical formula is discussed to estimate NFA in the frequency range 30 ~ 100 GHz and the fog common temperature range -8 ~ 20 °C. The simulation results of the new formula are compared with those got by other three empirical formulae: the Altshuler empirical formula, the Liebe empirical formula and the Zhao empirical formula. Maximal absolute value of the relative errors (MAVRE) and Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) indicate the largest deviation of estimated results and the fitting performance of an empirical formula, respectively. Comparisons show that the MAVRE of the new formula is only 4.482 %, which is much smaller than those of the other three formulae. The mean value of the Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs) of the proposed formula is 0.999943, larger than those of other methods. Additionally, relative error (RE) curves of the four empirical formulae are given at four certain temperatures -8 °C, 0 °C, 10 °C and 20 °C.

18. The Empirical Formula of Silver Sulfide: An Experiment for Introductory Chemistry

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trujillo, Carlos Alexander

2007-01-01

An experiment is described that allows students to experimentally determine an empirical formula for silver sulfide. At elevated temperatures, silver sulfide reacts in air to form silver, silver sulfate, and sulfur dioxide. At higher temperatures (960 [degree]C) silver sulfate decomposes to produce metallic silver. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

19. Patterns Exploration on Patterns of Empirical Herbal Formula of Chinese Medicine by Association Rules

PubMed Central

Huang, Li; Yuan, Jiamin; Yang, Zhimin; Xu, Fuping; Huang, Chunhua

2015-01-01

Background. In this study, we use association rules to explore the latent rules and patterns of prescribing and adjusting the ingredients of herbal decoctions based on empirical herbal formula of Chinese Medicine (CM). Materials and Methods. The consideration and development of CM prescriptions based on the knowledge of CM doctors are analyzed. The study contained three stages. The first stage is to identify the chief symptoms to a specific empirical herbal formula, which can serve as the key indication for herb addition and cancellation. The second stage is to conduct a case study on the empirical CM herbal formula for insomnia. Doctors will add extra ingredients or cancel some of them by CM syndrome diagnosis. The last stage of the study is to divide the observed cases into the effective group and ineffective group based on the assessed clinical effect by doctors. The patterns during the diagnosis and treatment are selected by the applied algorithm and the relations between clinical symptoms or indications and herb choosing principles will be selected by the association rules algorithm. Results. Totally 40 patients were observed in this study: 28 patients were considered effective after treatment and the remaining 12 were ineffective. 206 patterns related to clinical indications of Chinese Medicine were checked and screened with each observed case. In the analysis of the effective group, we used the algorithm of association rules to select combinations between 28 herbal adjustment strategies of the empirical herbal formula and the 190 patterns of individual clinical manifestations. During this stage, 11 common patterns were eliminated and 5 major symptoms for insomnia remained. 12 association rules were identified which included 5 herbal adjustment strategies. Conclusion. The association rules method is an effective algorithm to explore the latent relations between clinical indications and herbal adjustment strategies for the study on empirical herbal formulas

20. Proton-nucleus total inelastic cross sections - An empirical formula for E greater than 10 MeV

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Letaw, J. R.; Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.

1983-01-01

An empirical formula for the total inelastic cross section of protons on nuclei with charge greater than 1 is presented. The formula is valid with a varying degree of accuracy down to proton energies of 10 MeV. At high energies (equal to or greater than 2 GeV) the formula reproduces experimental data to within reported errors (about 2%).

1. Gaussian rational quadrature formulas for ill-scaled integrands

Illán González, J. R.

2009-12-01

A flexible treatment of Gaussian quadrature formulas based on rational functions is given to evaluate the integral , when f is meromorphic in a neighborhood V of the interval I and W(x) is an ill-scaled weight function. Some numerical tests illustrate the power of this approach in comparison with Gautschi's method.

2. SU-F-BRD-07: Empirical Derivation of Site-Specific Margin Formulas

SciTech Connect

Conroy, L; Smith, W; Quirk, S

2014-06-15

Purpose: To empirically derive margin formulas from existing clinical radiotherapy plans accounting for respiratory motion and setup uncertainties. Methods: We simulated realistic treatment scenarios, including respiratory motion and setup errors. Individual probability density functions (PDF) from respiratory data were used to simulate respiratory motion. Random (σ) and systematic (Σ) setup errors were modeled as Gaussian distributions. One-dimensional dose profiles were extracted from existing radiotherapy plans and convolved with respiratory PDFs and random error distributions to produce blurred dose profiles. Each blurred dose profile was then shifted 1000 times by randomly sampling the simulated systematic error distribution. Margins were determined from the distance between the simulated treatment and the original 95% isodose level. An equation was fit for each (σ, Σ) combination to derive margin formulas for 90% of the population receiving 95% dose. This methodology can be applied to different tumor sites. Here, dose profiles were extracted from partial breast 3DCRT plans in the anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Respiratory motion data was from healthy volunteers, and a clinically relevant range of random and systematic setup errors (standard deviations 1 – 4 mm) was determined from the literature. Results: The PBI margin formulas in the AP and SI directions for 95% dose coverage for 90% of the population were very similar: M= 0.68σ + 1.54Σ and M= 0.72σ + 1.50Σ, respectively. Systematic setup errors had the largest influence on required margin size, whereas realistic respiratory amplitude had minimal impact. The derived formulas resulted in a smaller systematic component than commonly-used theoretical margin recipes. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a method to derive empirical margin formulas from existing patient radiotherapy plans, incorporating realistic respiratory motion and appropriate ranges of random and

3. Universal empirical formula for optical transition energies of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes

Jamal, G. R. Ahmed; Mominuzzaman, S. M.

2016-01-01

A general empirical relation for calculating first seven optical transition energies of semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is proposed here for the first time. The proposed formula effectively relates first seven optical transition energies of semiconducting SWCNTs with their chiral indices (n, m) through exponential form containing two specific terms (n+2m) and (2n-m). Both mod 1 and mod 2 types of semiconducting tubes are considered here over a wide diameter range from 0.4 nm to 4.75 nm. It was observed that the proposed empirical relations can predict the recent experimental data of those optical transitions with high accuracy.

4. Rotational energy term in the empirical formula for the yrast energies in even-even nuclei

SciTech Connect

Ha, Eunja; Hong, S. W.

2009-03-15

We show that part of the empirical formula describing the gross features of the measured yrast energies of the natural parity even multipole states for even-even nuclei can be related to the rotational energy of nuclei. When the first term of the empirical formula, {alpha}A{sup -{gamma}}, is regarded as the rotational energy, we can better understand the results of the previous analyses of the excitation energies. We show that the values of the parameters {alpha} and {gamma} newly obtained by considering the {alpha}A{sup -{gamma}} term as the rotational energy of a rigid rotor are remarkably consistent with those values extracted from the earlier 'modified'{chi}{sup 2} analyses, in which we use the logarithms of the excitation energies in defining the 'modified'{chi}{sup 2} values.

5. Scaling theory of [Formula: see text] topological invariants.

PubMed

Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Schnyder, Andreas P

2016-09-14

For inversion-symmetric topological insulators and superconductors characterized by [Formula: see text] topological invariants, two scaling schemes are proposed to judge topological phase transitions driven by an energy parameter. The scaling schemes renormalize either the phase gradient or the second derivative of the Pfaffian of the time-reversal operator, through which the renormalization group flow of the driving energy parameter can be obtained. The Pfaffian near the time-reversal invariant momentum is revealed to display a universal critical behavior for a great variety of models examined. PMID:27400801

6. Accuracy of Population Validity and Cross-Validity Estimation: An Empirical Comparison of Formula-Based, Traditional Empirical, and Equal Weights Procedures.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

1999-01-01

Performed an empirical Monte Carlo study using predictor and criterion data from 84,808 U.S. Air Force enlistees. Compared formula-based, traditional empirical, and equal-weights procedures. Discusses issues for basic research on validation and cross-validation. (SLD)

7. Investigation of coulomb and pairing effects using new developed empirical formulas for proton-induced reaction cross sections

SciTech Connect

Tel, E. Aydin, E. G.; Aydin, A.; Kaplan, A.; Boeluekdemir, M. H.; Okuducu, S.

2010-03-15

We have investigated Coulomb and pairing effects by using new empirical formulas including the new coefficients for (p, {alpha}) at 17.9 MeV, (p, np) at 22.3 MeV, and (p, n{alpha}) at 24.8 and 28.5 MeV energies. A new formula is obtained by adjusting Levkovskii's original asymmetry parameter formula and also Tel et al. formula for proton-induced reactions. The new coefficients by using least-squares fitting method for the reactions are determined. In addition, the findings of the present study are compared with the available experimental data.

8. Empirical formula on (n,(3)He) reaction cross sections at 14.6MeV neutrons.

PubMed

Yiğit, Mustafa

2015-11-01

The systematic behavior of the cross sections of (n,(3)He) nuclear reactions has been studied by various researches at neutron energy of 14.6MeV. A new empirical formula based on the Q-value dependence of the cross sections of the investigated reaction has been proposed. The cross sections obtained from the new formula are compared with the other proposed formulae results and the experimental data. It seems that the present formula based on the Q-value dependence provides the good description for cross sections of neutron-induced (n,(3)He) nuclear reactions at 14.6MeV. PMID:26218596

9. The empirical formula determination of local magnitude for North Moluccas region

Kamaruddin, Basri; Suardi, Iman; Heryandoko, Nova; Bunaga, I. Gusti Ketut Satria

2016-05-01

The energy of local and regional earthquake is usually expressed by local magnitude. In addition, local magnitude is also useful for seismic hazard assessment. The aims of this study are to determine the empirical formula of local magnitude and the correction distance function, -log A 0, applied for North Moluccas region. This study used waveform data from the MCGA seismic network located around North Moluccas region. We collected 148 maximum amplitude data of 40 earthquake events which are recorded by 6 seismometers with range of time from December 1, 2013 till January 31, 2014, hypocentral distance from 25km till 550 km, and depth below 70 km. The results of this study are the empirical formula of local magnitude, ML = log A + 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, and the correction distance function, logA0 = 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, respectively. Also we found that the station correction values of the GLMI, LBMI, MNI, SANI, TMSI, and TNTI seismic stations were -0.057, -0.216, -0.322, 0.088, -0.494, and 0.180, respectively. Low amplification is indicated by the positive value of station correction; meanwhile high amplification is by the negative. The correction distance function of North Moluccas region is similar to the Central California region. It means that the attenuation characteristics of the two regions have similarities.

10. New empirical formula for neutron dose level at the maze entrance of 15 MV medical accelerator facilities

SciTech Connect

Kim, Hong-Suk; Jang, Ki-Won; Park, Youn-Hwan; Kwon, Jeong-Wan; Choi, Ho-Sin; Lee, Jai-Ki; Kim, Jong-Kyung

2009-05-15

An easily applicable empirical formula was derived for use in the assessment of the photoneutron dose at the maze entrance of a 15 MV medical accelerator treatment room. The neutron dose equivalent rates around the Varian medical accelerator head calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX were used as the source term in producing the base data. The dose equivalents were validated by measurements with bubble detectors. Irradiation geometry conditions expected to yield higher neutron dose rates in the maze were selected: a 20x20 cm{sup 2} irradiation field, gantry rotation plane parallel to the maze walls, and the photon beams directed to the opposite wall to the maze entrance. The neutron dose equivalents at the maze entrance were computed for 697 arbitrary single-bend maze configurations by extending the Monte Carlo calculations down to the maze entrance. Then, the empirical formula was derived by a multiple regression fit to the neutron dose equivalents at the maze entrance for all the different maze configurations. The goodness of the empirical formula was evaluated by applying it to seven operating medical accelerators of different makes. When the source terms were fixed, the neutron doses estimated from the authors' formula agreed better with the corresponding MCNPX simulations than the results of the Kersey method. In addition, compared with the Wu-McGinley formula, the authors' formula provided better estimates for the mazes with length longer than 8.5 m. There are, however, discrepancies between the measured dose rates and the estimated values from the authors' formula, particularly for the machines other than a Varian model. Further efforts are needed to characterize the neutron field at the maze entrance to reduce the discrepancies. Furthermore, neutron source terms for the machines other than a Varian model should be simulated or measured and incorporated into the formula for accurate extended application to a variety of models.

11. Application of Empirical Wave Run-Up Formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea Coast

PubMed Central

Paprotny, Dominik; Andrzejewski, Paweł; Terefenko, Paweł; Furmańczyk, Kazimierz

2014-01-01

Advanced, multidimensional models are typically applied when researching processes occurring in the nearshore. Relatively simple, empirical equations are commonly used in coastal engineering practice in order to estimate extreme wave run-up on beaches and coastal structures. However, they were mostly calibrated to the characteristics of oceanic coasts, which have different wave regime than a semi-enclosed basin like the Baltic Sea. In this paper we apply the formulas to the Polish Baltic Sea coast. The equations were adjusted to match local conditions in two test sites in Międzyzdroje and Dziwnówek, where beaches are under continuous video surveillance. Data from WAM wave model and coastal gauge stations were used, as well as precise measurements of the beaches' cross-sections. More than 600 run-up events spanning from June to December 2013 were analysed, including surges causing dune erosion. Extreme wave run-up R2% was calculated and presented as a percentage value indicating what part of the beach was inundated. The method had a root-mean-square error of 6.1 and 6.5 percentage points depending on the test site. We consider it is a fast and computationally undemanding alternative to morphodynamic models. It will constitute a part of the SatBałtyk Operating System-Shores, delivering forecasts of wave run-up on the beaches for the entire Polish coastline. PMID:25137155

12. Cardy formula for charged black holes with anisotropic scaling

Bravo-Gaete, Moisés; Gómez, Sebastián; Hassaïne, Mokhtar

2015-12-01

We first observe that for Lifshitz black holes of which the only charge is the mass, the resulting Smarr relation is a direct consequence of the Lifshitz Cardy formula. From this observation, we propose to extend the Cardy formula to the case of electrically charged Lifshitz black holes satisfying as well a Smarr relation. The expression of our formula depends on the dynamical exponent, the energy and the charge of the ground state which is played by a magnetically charged soliton obtained through a double Wick rotation. The expression also involves a factor multiplying the chemical potentials which varies in function of the electromagnetic theory considered. This factor is precisely the one that appears in the Smarr formula for charged Lifshitz black holes. We test the validity of this Cardy formula in different situations where electrically Lifshitz charged black holes satisfying a Smarr relation are known. We then extend these results to electrically charged black holes with hyperscaling violation. Finally, an example in the charged anti-de Sitter case is also provided.

13. Investigation of 14-15 MeV ( n, t) Reaction Cross-sections by Using New Evaluated Empirical and Semi-empirical Systematic Formulas

Tel, E.; Aydın, A.; Kaplan, A.; Şarer, B.

2008-09-01

In the hybrid reactor, tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. Working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross-sections are of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study we have investigated asymmetry term effect for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections at 14-15 neutron incident energy. It has been discussed the odd-even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross-sections formulas ( n, t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for ( n, t) reactions cross-sections. The obtained empirical and semi-empirical formulas by fitting two parameter for ( n, t) reactions were given. All calculated results have been compared with the experimental data and the other semi-empirical formulas.

14. Empirical formulas for direct double ionization by bare ions: $Z=-1$ to 92

SciTech Connect

DuBois, R. D.; Santos, A. C. F.; Manson, S. T.

2014-11-25

Experimental cross sections and cross-section ratios reported in the literature for direct double ionization of the outer shells of helium, neon, and argon atoms resulting from bare ions ranging from protons to uranium and for antiprotons are analyzed in terms of a first- and second-order interference model originally proposed by McGuire [J. H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1153 (1982)]. Empirical formulas for the various contributions to double ionization plus information about the phase difference between the first- and second-order mechanisms are extracted from the data. Projectile and target scalings are also extracted. Total cross sections and their ratios determined using these formulas and scalings are shown to be in very good agreement with experimental data for lower-Z projectiles and impact velocities larger than 1 a.u. For very-high-Z projectiles, the amount of double ionization is overestimated, probably due to saturation of probabilities that is not accounted for in scaling formulas.

15. On the position of the near-earth neutral sheet - A comparison of magnetic model predictions with empirical formulas

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peredo, Mauricio; Stern, David P.

1991-01-01

A detailed comparison of the near-earth neutral sheet position according to several approximations has been made. In particular, two empirical formulas for the neutral sheet location, recently derived from AMPTE/CCE data, have been compared with the corresponding positions derived from Tsyganenko's magnetic field models. Cylindrical coordinates referenced to the geodipole have been used, and the position of the neutral sheet has been identified by the reversal of the radial component of the magnetic field. The analysis reveals that, in the region X(GSM) = -9 to -5 earth radii, abs. value of Y(GSM) not greater than 5 earth radii, close agreement exists between the empirical formulas and the Tsyganenko models. Furthermore, the Tsyganenko models provide a representation for the neutral sheet position in the transition region between near-earth and distant tail models.

16. NpNn dependence of empirical formula for the lowest excitation energy of the 2+ states in even even nuclei

Jin, Guanghao; Yoon, Jin-Hee; Cha, Dongwoo

2008-03-01

We examine the effects of the additional term of the type {\\sim} e^{- \\lambda^{\\prime} N_pN_n} on the recently proposed empirical formula for the lowest excitation energy of the 2+ states in even-even nuclei. This study is motivated by the fact that this term carries the favorable dependence of the valence nucleon numbers dictated by the NpNn scheme. We show explicitly that there is not any improvement in reproducing Ex(2+1) by including the extra NpNn term. However, our study also reveals that the excitation energies Ex(2+1), when calculated by the NpNn term alone (with the mass number A dependent term), are quite comparable to those calculated by the original empirical formula.

17. Conceptual and Empirical Bases of Readability Formulas. Technical Report No. 392.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anderson, Richard C.; Davison, Alice

The problems arising from treating word and sentence complexity as the direct causes of difficulty in comprehension are surveyed in this paper from the perspective of readability formulas. The basic choices and assumptions made in the development and use of readability formulas are discussed in relation to the larger question of text…

18. An Empirical Comparison of Formulas Evaluating Early Intervention Program Impact on Development.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rosenberg, Steven A.; And Others

1987-01-01

The study evaluated developmental progress in three groups of infants (9-30 months) presenting Down syndrome (n=28), mild disability (n=16), or moderate/severe disabilities (n=16). To evaluate intervention impact, formulas that measure rate of development and change in rate of development were computed. Findings indicated rate change formulas were…

19. Students' Understanding of Chemical Formulae: A Review of Empirical Research

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2014-01-01

The fluent use of the chemical language is a major tool for successfully passing chemistry courses at school or university as well as for working as a chemist, since chemical formulae are both a descriptive and a heuristic tool. However, numerous studies have revealed remarkable difficulties of students with chemical formulae both at school and at…

20. Empirical scaling laws for coronal heating

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Golub, L.

1983-01-01

The origins and uses of scaling laws in studies of stellar outer atmospheres are reviewed with particular emphasis on the properties of coronal loops. Some evidence is presented for a fundamental structuring of the solar corona and the thermodynamics of scaling laws are discussed. It is found that magnetic field-related scaling laws can be obtained by relating coronal pressure, temperature, and magnetic field strength. Available data validate this method. Some parameters of the theory, however, must be treated as adjustable, and it is considered necessary to examine data from other stars in order to determine the validity of the parameters. Using detailed observational data, the applicability of single loop models is examined.

1. Guiding Empiric Treatment for Serious Bacterial Infections via Point of Care [Formula: see text]-Lactamase Characterization.

PubMed

Palanisami, Akilan; Khan, Shazia; Erdem, Sultan Sibel; Hasan, Tayyaba

2016-01-01

Fever is one of the most common symptoms of illness in infants and represents a clinical challenge due to the potential for serious bacterial infection. As delayed treatment for these infections has been correlated with increased morbidity and mortality, broad-spectrum [Formula: see text]-lactam antibiotics are often prescribed while waiting for microbiological lab results (1-3 days). However, the spread of antibiotic resistance via the [Formula: see text]-lactamase enzyme, which can destroy [Formula: see text]-lactam antibiotics, has confounded this paradigm; empiric antibiotic regimens are increasingly unable to cover all potential bacterial pathogens, leaving some infants effectively untreated until the pathogen is characterized. This can lead to lifelong sequela or death. Here, we introduce a fluorescent, microfluidic assay that can characterize [Formula: see text]-lactamase derived antibiotic susceptibility in 20 min with a sensitivity suitable for direct human specimens. The protocol is extensible, and the antibiotic spectrum investigated can be feasibly adapted for the pathogens of regional relevance. This new assay fills an important need by providing the clinician with hitherto unavailable point of care information for treatment guidance in an inexpensive and simple diagnostic format. PMID:27602307

2. Solar zenith angle dependence of empirical formulas between energy inputs to the ionosphere and O+ and H+ ion outflows

Kitamura, N.; Seki, K.; Keika, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Hori, T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Lund, E. J.

2014-12-01

Recent satellite observations and simulations have clarified that plasma outflows play an important role in abrupt changes in the ion composition in the plasmasheet and ring current during geomagnetic storms. Statistical studies by Strangeway et al. [2005] and Brambles et al. [2011] indicated that fluxes of ion outflows are correlated well with soft electron precipitation (precipitating electron density and electron density in the loss cone), and DC and Alfvenic Poynting fluxes using the data obtained by the FAST satellite near the cusp region in the dayside during the 24-25 September 1998 geomagnetic storm. To evaluate the correlations for H+ and O+ ions separately, we performed statistical studies using the ion composition data in addition to the ion, electron, and field data obtained by the FAST satellite during January 1998 and January 1999. The longer dataset enables us to identify empirical formulas between outflowing O+ and H+ ion fluxes and precipitating electron densities, DC and Alfvenic Poynting fluxes in a wide solar zenith angle (SZA) range (45°-145°). These empirical formulas would be useful for global magnetospheric simulations as the boundary conditions. Under dark conditions, H+ ion fluxes increases with increasing precipitating electron density, but not as much as those do under sunlit conditions. The precipitating electron density that corresponds to the H+ ion flux of ~107 /cm2/s （mapped to 1000 km altitude） decreases with increasing SZA. This SZA dependence is less clear for O+ ions as compared with H+ ions. The empirical formulas between outflowing O+ and H+ ion fluxes and DC and Alfvenic Poynting fluxes are not so strongly affected by SZA. Under sunlit conditions, the flux O+ ions tends to be larger than that of H+ ions, while H+ ions tend to become dominant under dark conditions. Intense ion (especially O+ ion) outflow events (>108 /cm2/s mapped to 1000 km altitude) mostly occurred under sunlit conditions or near the terminator.

3. Empirical scaling of antisymmetric stratified wakes

Gallet, S.; Meunier, P.; Spedding, G. R.

2006-08-01

Initially turbulent wakes of a propelled cylinder at nonzero angles of yaw to the mean flow were measured in the horizontal centerplane plane up to approximately 100 buoyancy times, where vertical velocities are very small. The profiles of mean velocity were found to be antisymmetric throughout their lifetime, with both width and maximum velocity decaying at the same rate as previously studied momentum wakes. The maximum velocity of the profile is proportional to the angle of yaw, but the width is constant. Both the mean flow and fluctuating quantities show that the late wake is self-similar, with scaling laws that are consistent with previous work on propelled and drag wakes.

4. An Alternative Empirical Formula for Positive Corona Discharge I-V Characteristics in Point-to-Plate Electrode Geometry

A. Azooz, A.; Sabah, I. Waysi

2014-03-01

Experimental data are presented for a study on the dependence of the I-V characteristics of the corona discharge on pressure and electrode spacing using point-to-plane electrode configuration. These experimental data are obtained by a fast, automatic computer data-acquisition system. The data are used to suggest an alternative dimensionally self-consistent empirical equation for the parameterization of the I-V curves. The formula eliminates the need for any prior assumptions concerning the inception voltage, as is customary in this type of work.

5. Formula-Based Public School Funding System in Victoria: An Empirical Analysis of Equity

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bandaranayake, Bandara

2013-01-01

This article explores the formula-based school funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia, where state funds are directly allocated to schools based on a range of equity measures. The impact of Victoria' funding system for education in terms of alleviating inequality and disadvantage is contentious, to say the least. It is difficult…

6. Empirical Scaling Laws of Rocket Exhaust Cratering

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Donahue, Carly M.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.

2005-01-01

When launching or landing a space craft on the regolith of a terrestrial surface, special attention needs to be paid to the rocket exhaust cratering effects. If the effects are not controlled, the rocket cratering could damage the spacecraft or other surrounding hardware. The cratering effects of a rocket landing on a planet's surface are not understood well, especially for the lunar case with the plume expanding in vacuum. As a result, the blast effects cannot be estimated sufficiently using analytical theories. It is necessary to develop physics-based simulation tools in order to calculate mission-essential parameters. In this work we test out the scaling laws of the physics in regard to growth rate of the crater depth. This will provide the physical insight necessary to begin the physics-based modeling.

7. Towards a capitation formula for competing health insurers. An empirical analysis.

PubMed

van Vliet, R C; van de Ven, W P

1992-05-01

In many countries the concept of capitating health care insurers is receiving increasing attention. The main reason is, that capitation may induce health care insurers in a competitive environment to concentrate more on cost containment. However, if the adjusters on which capitation payments are based, are too global, there may be ample room for risk selection by the insurers whilst also an unfair distribution of funds over the insurers may result, thereby undermining the objectives of capitation. The prime motivation for the present study is, that the Dutch government, as part of proposals for a new, market oriented structure of health care system, is considering to capitate insurers on the basis of global parameters like age, gender and location. Our analysis based on panel data of some 35,000 individuals, shows that the proportion of variance in annual health care expenditures that can be predicted (R2) by such a global capitation formula, is only 0.024. This is less than 1/5 of our estimate of the theoretically maximum achievable R2 which amounts to 0.138, implying the existence of abundant selection opportunities, e.g. on the basis of past expenditures or other health indicators. Alternative capitation formulae incorporating prior-year's costs and reaching about 3/5 of the maximum obtainable R2, effectively remove the profitableness of selection on the basis of past expenditures. The findings suggest, however, that selection via (chronic) health status may still be profitable to some extent. Therefore, we also analyzed data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey (N approximately 20,000) which comprised better health indicators. It appeared that a capitation formula based on the global adjusters mentioned above as well as three health status indicators and several background characteristics, yields an R2 of about 0.114, which probably accounts for 3/4 of our estimate of the maximum obtainable R2. The main conclusion is, that in the short term information on

8. Assessment of nitrate leakage and N2O emission from five environmental-friendly agricultural practices using fuzzy logic method and empirical formula.

PubMed

Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wu, Yongfeng; Wang, Qian; Luo, Liangguo

2015-06-01

Agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China has been the major environmental problem, so environmental-friendly agricultural practices (EAPs) must be promoted to improve environmental quality. However, the most suitable practices for each agricultural region must first be identified. Thus, in the presented study a fuzzy-logic method and a revised empirical formula were used to assess nitrate leakage and N2O emissions, respectively, and to compare five EAPs in Xinxiang, a major grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. The required information was collected in face-to-face interviews with 10 extension service experts from the county, using a questionnaire to explore their opinions of the EAPs currently adopted by smallholder farmers, as well as the amounts, frequencies, varieties and proportions of nitrogen fertilizers applied annually. The results indicate that reduced tillage, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations would be the most appropriate practices to initially promote on a large scale in Xinxiang. PMID:26003184

9. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.

PubMed Central

Babakus, E; Mangold, W G

1992-01-01

Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708

10. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.

PubMed

Babakus, E; Mangold, W G

1992-02-01

Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708

11. The Inter-annual Variability of Controlling Parameter of Catchment Water Balance and Its Semi-empirical Formula Based on the Budyko Hypotheses

Ning, T.; Liu, W.; Han, X.

2015-12-01

The long-term average of the controlling parameter of catchment water balance has been widely reported; however, their inter-annual variability has rarely been quantified. Besides precipitation (P) and potential evaporation(ET0), the surface condition and seasonality of climate have great impacts on inter-annual variability of catchment water balance, which can be reflected by the parameter w (in terms of Fu's equation). Two watersheds on the Loess Plateau were thus chosen to quantify their relationships. To diminish the impacts of catchment water storage on water balance, the annual water balance was firstly estimated for each water year from 1981 to 2012. Then, the annual maximum vegetation coverage (M) based on NDVI and the variation coefficient (σ) of daily wetness index (P/ET0) were used to respectively present the surface condition and the seasonal variations in the coupled water and energy, and further discuss their relationships with w. Results showed that w correlated well with M and σ, then a semi-empirical formula was developed to calculate the key parameter w on annual scale (w=1+5.99×M1.01×exp (-0.072σ), R2=0.60). The equation was further validated in some other watersheds on the Loess Plateau and proved to be superior in estimating actual evaporation (ET). Finally, the Fu's equation and the semi-empirical formula for w were combined to quantify the contributions of changes in climate (P, ET0 and σ) and surface condition (M) to ET variations. Results showed that σ and M accounted for 5.8% and -3.2% of the ET decrease for the period of 1981-1995, respectively; during 1996-2012, the contribution of σ to ET changes decreased while that of M increased by 18.9%, indicating the impacts of surface condition on catchment water balance were strengthened.

12. (p,α) Reaction Cross Sections Calculations of Fe and Ni Target Nuclei Using New Developed Semi-empirical Formula

Tel, E.; Akca, S.; Kara, A.; Yiğit, M.; Aydın, A.

2013-10-01

Iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) are important fusion structural materials in reactor technology. The gas production in the metallic structure arising from many different types of nuclear reactions has been a significant damage mechanism in structural components of fusion reactors. The hydrogen and its isotopes at high temperatures leave out of the metallic lattice but the alpha (α) particles that remain in the lattice generate helium (He) gas bubbles. In other words, the α particles can cause serious changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the fusion structural materials. In this study, the excitation functions of 54,57Fe(p,α) and 58,60,61,64Ni(p,α) reactions have been investigated in the incident proton energy range of 10-40 MeV to estimate the radiation damage effects on fusion structural materials used in the construction of the first walls and core of the reactor. The calculations of (p,α) reaction cross sections on 54,57Fe and 58,60,61,64Ni have been made by using PCROSS code and CEM95 code. The full exciton and cascade exciton model (CEM95) for pre-equilibrium calculations and Weisskopf-Ewing model for equilibrium calculations are used. Besides, the semi-empirical cross section formula with new coefficient obtained by Tel et al. (Pramana J Phys 74:931-943, 2010) has been applied for (p,α) reactions at 17.9 MeV proton incident energy.

13. Are new data suggesting a revision of the current M w and M e scaling formulas?

Bormann, Peter

2015-10-01

The paper looks first into the history of the derivation of the currently common formulas for calculating seismic moment magnitude M w and energy magnitude M e into the type of data and relationships available in these years and the parameter assumptions made. The general relationship between M w and M e is analysed and formulated in physical terms. The original M w- and M e-defining relationships are then confronted with equivalent relationships derived on the basis of rich modern magnitude data measured according to recently accepted International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) standards for (a) 20-s surface-wave data and (b) broadband body P wave data as well as M 0 and E S data based on digital broadband waveform inversion or integration. The agreement between old and new data and derived relationships is of different quality. The Richter log E S- M S relationship, which has been instrumental for deriving the current standard M w formula, could be very well reproduced with orthogonally regressed M S(20) and log E S data, provided that the latter were not corrected for source mechanism-dependent radiation. In contrast, the relationships between old and modern m B-log E S as well as m B- M S(20) data pairs deviate significantly from the respective Gutenberg and Richter relationships. Also the average E S/ M 0 ratio assumed by Kanamori when deriving his M w formula differs from those of respective recent data sets. But the various differences between old and new data and data relationships compensate each other partially when deriving related M w and M e formulas. Therefore, they do not justify the modification of the existing scaling formulas, also for very pragmatic reasons. On the other hand, most striking is the so far not yet considered and by far best correlation that exists between the IASPEI body-wave magnitude standard m B(BB) and seismic energy E S, both estimated via P wave broadband records. The scatter of the

14. Empirical evaluation of the MCMI-III personality disorder scales.

PubMed

Rossi, Gina; Hauben, Claudia; Van den Brande, Iris; Sloore, Hedwig

2003-04-01

The MCMI-III personality disorder scales were empirically validated with a sample of 870 clinical patients and inmates. Prevalence rates of personality disorders were in general lower on the MCMI-III than clinical ratings, but trait prevalence was generally higher; thus a base rate of 75 on the MCMI-III could be a guideline in the screening of trait prevalence. However, the sensitivity of some MCMI-III scales was very low. Moreover, the correlations of most personality disorder scales of the MCMI-III were significant and positive with corresponding measures on clinical ratings and MMPI-2 personality disorder scales, but these were, in general, not significantly higher than some other correlations. As a consequence the discriminant validity seems to be questionable. The MCMI-III alone cannot be used as a diagnostic inventory, but the test could be useful as a screening device as a part of a multimethod approach that allows aggregation over measures in making diagnostic decisions. PMID:12785653

15. Empirical Solar Abundance Scaling Laws of Supernova {gamma} Process Isotopes

SciTech Connect

Hayakawa, Takehito; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Shizum, Toshiyuki; Umeda, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'Ichi

2008-11-11

Analyzing the solar system abundances, we have found two empirical abundance scaling laws concerning the p- and s-nuclei with the same atomic number. They are evidence that the 27 p-nuclei are synthesized by the supernova {gamma}-process. The scalings lead to a novel concept of 'universality of {gamma}-process' that the s/p and p/p ratios of nuclei produced by individual {gamma}-processes are almost constant, respectively. We have calculated the ratios of materials produced by the {gamma}-process based on core-collapse supernova explosion models under various astrophysical conditions and found that the scalings hold for individual {gamma}-processes independent of the conditions assumed. The results further suggest an extended universality that the s/p ratios in the {gamma}-process layers are not only constant but also centered on a specific value of 3. With this specific value and the scaling of the s/p ratios, we estimate that the ratios of the s-process abundance contributions from the AGB stars to the massive stars are almost 6.7 for the s-nuclei of A>90 in the solar system.

16. Nonlinear experimental dye-doped nematic liquid crystal optical transmission spectra estimated by neural network empirical physical formulas

Yildiz, Nihat; San, Sait Eren; Köysal, Oğuz

2010-09-01

In this paper, two complementary objectives related to optical transmission spectra of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) were achieved. First, at room temperature, for both pure and dye (DR9) doped E7 NLCs, the 10-250 W halogen lamp transmission spectra (wavelength 400-1200 nm) were measured at various bias voltages. Second, because the measured spectra were inherently highly nonlinear, it was difficult to construct explicit empirical physical formulas (EPFs) to employ as transmittance functions. To avoid this difficulty, layered feedforward neural networks (LFNNs) were used to construct explicit EPFs for these theoretically unknown nonlinear NLC transmittance functions. As we theoretically showed in a previous work, a LFNN, as an excellent nonlinear function approximator, is highly relevant to EPF construction. The LFNN-EPFs efficiently and consistently estimated both the measured and yet-to-be-measured nonlinear transmittance response values. The experimentally obtained doping ratio dependencies and applied bias voltage responses of transmittance were also confirmed by LFFN-EPFs. This clearly indicates that physical laws embedded in the physical data can be faithfully extracted by the suitable LFNNs. The extraordinary success achieved with LFNN here suggests two potential applications. First, although not attempted here, these LFNN-EPFs, by such mathematical operations as derivation, integration, minimization etc., can be used to obtain further transmittance related functions of NLCs. Second, for a given NLC response function, whose theoretical nonlinear functional form is yet unknown, a suitable experimental data based LFNN-EPF can be constructed to predict the yet-to-be-measured values.

17. Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood

Gerkman, Linda

2012-07-01

The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

18. Scaling formula of ICF ignition targets and study of targets optimized in stability performance

Li, Xin; Dai, Zhensheng; Zheng, Wudi

2014-10-01

LPI and RTI are the two main ingredients affecting the success of ignition. The gas fill near the Au wall along the inner laser cone is the main region which stimulates SRS instabilities. At this region, pressure balance and energy balance between the inside and the outside of inner laser cone path are obtained. A plasma scaling model in ignition hohlraums of ICF has been developed. RTI could be described by IFAR(InFlight Aspect Ratio) according to linear theory. Considering other scaling formula in capsule, a index, SPI (Stability performance Index), has been proposed, which describes the balance between SPI and RTI. Designing of ignition targets is directed by using this index to obtain more margin for LPI and RTI.

19. Transport simulations of ITER with empirical heat diffusivity scaling

Becker, G.

1998-02-01

Radiative mantle scenarios of the ignited ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA) with argon and neon influxing are explored by computer experiments using special versions of the 1.5 dimensional (1.5-D) BALDUR predictive transport code. An empirical scaling law for the effective heat diffusivity, compatible with the ITERH92-P ELMy H mode scaling and validated against experiments, is applied. The prescribed flat density profiles, conductive heat loss across the separatrix of 200 MW and ratio τ*He/ τE,r of 10 are reached in the simulations. Self-sustained thermonuclear burn is achieved for at least 485 s. The helium ash concentrations of up to 9.5% are found to cause significant fuel dilution. Owing to the high electron density, only small argon and neon fractions of 0.07 and 0.27%, respectively, are needed. In the argon scenario, the required radiation corrected thermal energy confinement time τE,r is 4.8 s. The confinement time predicted by the local scaling law is 1.4 times longer and agrees with the global scaling prediction. With argon, the design parameters are reached by radiating 128 MW within the separatrix, thus reducing the energy flow to the divertor to 73 MW. In the neon case with its more peripheral radiation, the radiative loss within the separatrix has to be diminished. Owing to the flat profile of the fuel ion density, the neoclassical drift velocities of argon and neon are directed outwards in the whole plasma. In the argon scenario, the sensitivity of transport to the density profile shape is studied. It is found that τE,r remains almost unchanged, varying between 4.5 and 4.8 s, which is explained by an analytic expression for the thermal energy. Peaking of the electron and impurity densities does not alter the required argon concentration but causes a peaking of the radiation profiles and reduction in the temperatures. Sufficiently narrow fuel ion density profiles are shown to cause inward directed neoclassical drift velocities of argon in the

20. Scaling formulae for FEL operating in linear and non linear regime

SciTech Connect

Dattoli, G.; Mezi, L.; Segreto, A.

1995-12-31

Scaling relations for the FEL gain, including the e-beam quality effects, have been usefully exploited to design FEL devices. We propose further extension of the above formulae including high gain, inhomogeneous broadening and saturation effects. A crucial role to get these relations is the use of approximant methods generalizing the Pade procedure. We derive gain equations containing the corrections due to energy spread, emittances and field intensity. It is shown that these equations can be exploited to {open_quotes}simulate{close_quotes} the FEL evolution with an almost negligible computational effort. Comments on the role of the saturation intensity and its dependence on the e-beam quality, high gain corrections etc. are also presented.

1. Scaling up explanation generation: Large-scale knowledge bases and empirical studies

SciTech Connect

Lester, J.C.; Porter, B.W.

1996-12-31

To explain complex phenomena, an explanation system must be able to select information from a formal representation of domain knowledge, organize the selected information into multisentential discourse plans, and realize the discourse plans in text. Although recent years have witnessed significant progress in the development of sophisticated computational mechanisms for explanation, empirical results have been limited. This paper reports on a seven year effort to empirically study explanation generation from semantically rich, large-scale knowledge bases. We first describe Knight, a robust explanation system that constructs multi-sentential and multi-paragraph explanations from the Biology Knowledge Base, a large-scale knowledge base in the domain of botanical anatomy, physiology, and development. We then introduce the Two Panel evaluation methodology and describe how Knights performance was assessed with this methodology in the most extensive empirical evaluation conducted on an explanation system. In this evaluation, Knight scored within {open_quotes}half a grade{close_quote} of domain experts, and its performance exceeded that of one of the domain experts.

2. An empirical formula for calculating the output factors of electron beams from a therac 20 linear accelerator.

PubMed

Chen, F S

1988-01-01

A polynomial formula, deduced from the data published by Mills et al. [Med. Phys. 12, 473 (1985)], in predicting the relative electron beam output factors, is presented in this report. This formula contains four parameters. By choosing four measured output factors, from four field sizes normalized at the field size of (10,10), the values of these parameters can be determined. A comparison of the factors predicted with this formula and the values measured by Mills et al. shows that the differences between the field sizes of (4,4) to (30,30) are 0.5% or less in 31 out of 35 field sizes. All the 35 field sizes are within 1% for an electron beam of 20 MeV. With 6-MeV electron beams, the differences are 0.5% or less in 26 out of 35 field sizes, and 1% or less in 31 out of 35 field sizes. Those having differences greater than 1% have either a small field size (5 cm) or a large field size (20 cm). Considering that this formula requires only four accurately measured relative output factors, one can predict the factors of any field within an acceptable accuracy. The calculation is easy with a scientific hand calculator. This formula provides major improvement over the other methods which require many measurements to be taken in order to interpolate with acceptable accuracy. PMID:3136305

3. Analytical formulas for the performance scaling of quantum processors with a large number of defective gates

Nam, Y. S.; Blümel, R.

2015-10-01

Removing a single logical gate from a classical information processor renders this processor useless. This is not so for a quantum information processor. A large number of quantum gates may be removed without significantly affecting the processor's performance. In this paper, focusing on the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) and quantum adder, we show even more: Even if most of its gates are eliminated and the remaining gates are selected from a randomly generated set, the QFT, one of the most useful quantum processors, and the quantum adder, one of the most basic building blocks of a universal quantum computer, still operate with satisfactory success probability, comparable to that of a quantum computer constructed with perfect gates. We support these conclusions by first laying out a general analytical framework and then deriving analytical scaling relations, which are in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. The demonstrated robustness of the QFT and quantum adder, to the point where randomly generated quantum gates take the place of the exact gates, is an important boon for the construction of quantum computers, since it shows that stringent gate error tolerances do not have to be met to obtain satisfactory performance of the corresponding quantum processors. Our analytical techniques are powerful enough to generate asymptotic scaling laws for any gate defect model of quantum information processors and we illustrate this point by explicitly computing asymptotic analytical scaling formulas for several other defect models as well.

4. Global scale precipitation from monthly to centennial scales: empirical space-time scaling analysis, anthropogenic effects

de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun

2016-04-01

The characterization of precipitation scaling regimes represents a key contribution to the improved understanding of space-time precipitation variability, which is the focus here. We conduct space-time scaling analyses of spectra and Haar fluctuations in precipitation, using three global scale precipitation products (one instrument based, one reanalysis based, one satellite and gauge based), from monthly to centennial scales and planetary down to several hundred kilometers in spatial scale. Results show the presence - similarly to other atmospheric fields - of an intermediate "macroweather" regime between the familiar weather and climate regimes: we characterize systematically the macroweather precipitation temporal and spatial, and joint space-time statistics and variability, and the outer scale limit of temporal scaling. These regimes qualitatively and quantitatively alternate in the way fluctuations vary with scale. In the macroweather regime, the fluctuations diminish with time scale (this is important for seasonal, annual, and decadal forecasts) while anthropogenic effects increase with time scale. Our approach determines the time scale at which the anthropogenic signal can be detected above the natural variability noise: the critical scale is about 20 - 40 yrs (depending on the product, on the spatial scale). This explains for example why studies that use data covering only a few decades do not easily give evidence of anthropogenic changes in precipitation, as a consequence of warming: the period is too short. Overall, while showing that precipitation can be modeled with space-time scaling processes, our results clarify the different precipitation scaling regimes and further allow us to quantify the agreement (and lack of agreement) of the precipitation products as a function of space and time scales. Moreover, this work contributes to clarify a basic problem in hydro-climatology, which is to measure precipitation trends at decadal and longer scales and to

5. Development of Specialization Scales for the MSPI: A Comparison of Empirical and Inductive Strategies

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Porfeli, Erik J.; Richard, George V.; Savickas, Mark L.

2010-01-01

An empirical measurement model for interest inventory construction uses internal criteria whereas an inductive measurement model uses external criteria. The empirical and inductive measurement models are compared and contrasted and then two models are assessed through tests of the effectiveness and economy of scales for the Medical Specialty…

6. Metabolic scaling in animals: methods, empirical results, and theoretical explanations.

PubMed

White, Craig R; Kearney, Michael R

2014-01-01

Life on earth spans a size range of around 21 orders of magnitude across species and can span a range of more than 6 orders of magnitude within species of animal. The effect of size on physiology is, therefore, enormous and is typically expressed by how physiological phenomena scale with mass(b). When b ≠ 1 a trait does not vary in direct proportion to mass and is said to scale allometrically. The study of allometric scaling goes back to at least the time of Galileo Galilei, and published scaling relationships are now available for hundreds of traits. Here, the methods of scaling analysis are reviewed, using examples for a range of traits with an emphasis on those related to metabolism in animals. Where necessary, new relationships have been generated from published data using modern phylogenetically informed techniques. During recent decades one of the most controversial scaling relationships has been that between metabolic rate and body mass and a number of explanations have been proposed for the scaling of this trait. Examples of these mechanistic explanations for metabolic scaling are reviewed, and suggestions made for comparing between them. Finally, the conceptual links between metabolic scaling and ecological patterns are examined, emphasizing the distinction between (1) the hypothesis that size- and temperature-dependent variation among species and individuals in metabolic rate influences ecological processes at levels of organization from individuals to the biosphere and (2) mechanistic explanations for metabolic rate that may explain the size- and temperature-dependence of this trait. PMID:24692144

7. An empirical formula for calculation of range of charged particles with Z from 2 to 103 and energy from 2.5 MeV/nucleon to 500 MeV/nucleon in beryllium

Khiem, Le Hong; Trong, Tran Dinh; Tho, Nguyen Tran

2011-10-01

A new empirical formula for quick estimation of range in beryllium material of charged particles with the charge number from 2 to 103 and with energy in the range from 2.5 to 500 MeV/nucleon has been given. This formula was found based on a table of ranges measured experimentally and calculated up to 1990. It is shown that the differences between the values calculated by our formula and the values tabulated in the table is less than about 2% for all ions in the whole energy range.

8. An Empirical Comparison of Factor, Image, Component, and Scale Scores.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fava, Joseph L.; Velicer, Wayne F.

1992-01-01

Principal component, image component, three types of factor score estimates, and one scale score method were compared over different levels of variables, saturations, sample sizes, variable to component ratios, and pattern rotations. There were virtually no overall differences among methods, with the average correlation between matched scores…

9. The Empirical Development of the Normative Message Processing Scale.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aune, R. Kelly; Reynolds, Rodney A.

1994-01-01

Reports on five studies on the development, conceptual validation, and behavioral validation of the Normative Message Processing Scale (NMPS). Compares the conceptual and predictive validity of the NMPS to related trait information-processing instruments. Argues for the need to develop an instrument that distinguishes between the tendency to…

10. Axially symmetric two-body problem in general relativity. IV. Boundary conditions, time scales, and the quadrupole formula

SciTech Connect

Cooperstock, F.I.

1982-06-15

The analysis of the field equations and the conservation laws is extended into the skin boundary region which maintains the initially static configuration of the two fluid spheres. Although this leads to a correction of the gravitational-radiation energy-loss rate from a dependence of Eapprox...cap alpha../sup -4/rho/sub 0/ /sup -4/ to ..cap alpha../sup -6/rho/sub 0/ /sup -2/, the importance of the nonlinear structure-dependent terms remain and the essential conclusion, that the quadrupole formula does not apply to this problem, is unaltered. The hydrodynamic, stress-breaking, and free-fall time scales are considered. It is shown that insofar as the quadrupole-formula comparison for free-fall is concerned, only the contribution from bulk motion of the fluid spheres need be considered since tidal quadrupole deformation contributes negligibly to the quadrupole formula. With reference to our problem, it is shown that a recent derivation of the quadrupole formula for free-fall is incorrect and it is suggested that certain other derivations may be applicable only to the radiation damping of a single body.

11. Empirical analysis of scaling and fractal characteristics of outpatients

Zhang, Li-Jiang; Liu, Zi-Xian; Guo, Jin-Li

2014-01-01

The paper uses power-law frequency distribution, power spectrum analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and surrogate data testing to evaluate outpatient registration data of two hospitals in China and to investigate the human dynamics of systems that use the “first come, first served” protocols. The research results reveal that outpatient behavior follow scaling laws. The results also suggest that the time series of inter-arrival time exhibit 1/f noise and have positive long-range correlation. Our research may contribute to operational optimization and resource allocation in hospital based on FCFS admission protocols.

12. Empirical study on structural properties in temporal networks under different time scales

Chen, Duanbing

2015-12-01

Many network analyzing methods are usually based on static networks. However, temporal networks should be considered so as to investigate real complex systems deeply since some dynamics on these systems cannot be described by static networks accurately. In this paper, four structural properties in temporal networks are empirically studied, including degree, clustering coefficient, adjacent correlation, and connected component. Three real temporal networks with different time scales are analyzed in this paper, including short message, telephone, and router networks. Moreover, structural properties of these temporal networks are compared with that of corresponding static aggregation networks in the whole time window. Some essential differences of structural properties between temporal and static networks are achieved through empirical analysis. Finally, the effect of structural properties on spreading dynamics under different time scales is investigated. Some interesting results such as turning point of structure evolving time scale corresponding to certain spreading dynamics time scale from the point of view of infected scale are achieved.

13. New Evaluated Semi-Empirical Formula Using Optical Model for 14-15 MeV ( n, t) Reaction Cross Sections

Tel, E.; Durgu, C.; Aydın, A.; Bölükdemir, M. H.; Kaplan, A.; Okuducu, Ş.

2009-12-01

In the next century the world will face the need for new energy sources. Nuclear fusion can be one of the most attractive sources of energy from the viewpoint of safety and minimal environmental impact. Fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2 and thus will not contribute to global warming or acid rain. Achieving acceptable performance for a fusion power system in the areas of economics, safety and environmental acceptability, is critically dependent on performance of the blanket and diverter systems which are the primary heat recovery, plasma purification, and tritium breeding systems. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. The hybrid reactor is a combination of the fusion and fission processes. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross-sections are of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study, we have calculated non-elastic cross-sections by using optical model for ( n, t) reactions at 14-15 MeV energy. We have investigated the excitation function character and reaction Q-values depending on the asymmetry term effect for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have obtained new coefficients for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have suggested semi-empirical formulas including optical model nonelastic effects by fitting two parameters for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections at 14-15 MeV. We have discussed the odd-even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross-sections formulas ( n, t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for ( n, t) reactions cross-sections. The obtained cross-section formulas

14. A novel method to produce nonlinear empirical physical formulas for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals: Feedforward neural network approach

Yildiz, Nihat; San, Sait Eren; Okutan, Mustafa; Kaya, Hüseyin

2010-04-01

Among other significant obstacles, inherent nonlinearity in experimental physical response data poses severe difficulty in empirical physical formula (EPF) construction. In this paper, we applied a novel method (namely layered feedforward neural network (LFNN) approach) to produce explicit nonlinear EPFs for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals (NLCs). Our motivation was that, as we showed in a previous theoretical work, an appropriate LFNN, due to its exceptional nonlinear function approximation capabilities, is highly relevant to EPF construction. Therefore, in this paper, we obtained excellently produced LFNN approximation functions as our desired EPFs for above-mentioned highly nonlinear response data of NLCs. In other words, by using suitable LFNNs, we successfully fitted the experimentally measured response and predicted the new (yet-to-be measured) response data. The experimental data (response versus input) were diffraction and dielectric properties versus bias voltage; and they were all taken from our previous experimental work. We conclude that in general, LFNN can be applied to construct various types of EPFs for the corresponding various nonlinear physical perturbation (thermal, electronic, molecular, electric, optical, etc.) data of doped NLCs.

15. Understanding Participation in E-Learning in Organizations: A Large-Scale Empirical Study of Employees

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Garavan, Thomas N.; Carbery, Ronan; O'Malley, Grace; O'Donnell, David

2010-01-01

Much remains unknown in the increasingly important field of e-learning in organizations. Drawing on a large-scale survey of employees (N = 557) who had opportunities to participate in voluntary e-learning activities, the factors influencing participation in e-learning are explored in this empirical paper. It is hypothesized that key variables…

16. Comparing Multidimensional and Continuum Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Empirical Examination of the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stewart, Jeffrey; Batty, Aaron Olaf; Bovee, Nicholas

2012-01-01

Second language vocabulary acquisition has been modeled both as multidimensional in nature and as a continuum wherein the learner's knowledge of a word develops along a cline from recognition through production. In order to empirically examine and compare these models, the authors assess the degree to which the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS;…

17. Neural network consistent empirical physical formula construction for density functional theory based nonlinear vibrational absorbance and intensity of 6-choloronicotinic acid molecule

Yildiz, Nihat; Karabacak, Mehmet; Kurt, Mustafa; Akkoyun, Serkan

2012-05-01

Being directly related to the electric charge distributions in a molecule, the vibrational spectra intensities are both experimentally and theoretically important physical quantities. However, these intensities are inherently highly nonlinear and of complex pattern. Therefore, in particular for unknown detailed spatial molecular structures, it is difficult to make ab initio intensity calculations to compare with new experimental data. In this respect, we very recently initiated entirely novel layered feedforward neural network (LFNN) approach to construct empirical physical formulas (EPFs) for density functional theory (DFT) vibrational spectra of some molecules. In this paper, as a new and far improved contribution to our novel molecular vibrational spectra LFNN-EPF approach, we constructed LFFN-EPFs for absorbances and intensities of 6-choloronicotinic acid (6-CNA) molecule. The 6-CNA data, borrowed from our previous study, was entirely different and much larger than the vibrational intensity data of our formerly used LFNN-EPF molecules. In line with our another previous work which theoretically proved the LFNN relevance to EPFs, although the 6-CNA DFT absorbance and intensity were inherently highly nonlinear and sharply fluctuating in character, still the optimally constructed train set LFFN-EPFs very successfully fitted the absorbances and intensities. Moreover, test set (i.e. yet-to-be measured experimental data) LFNN-EPFs consistently and successfully predicted the absorbance and intensity data. This simply means that the physical law embedded in the 6-CNA vibrational data was successfully extracted by the LFNN-EPFs. In conclusion, these vibrational LFNN-EPFs are of explicit form. Therefore, by various suitable operations of mathematical analysis, they can be used to estimate the electronic charge distributions of the unknown molecule of the significant complexity. Additionally, these estimations can be combined with those of theoretical DFT atomic polar

18. Infant Formula

MedlinePlus

... it okay to feed my baby formula? Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for your ... will probably recommend a formula made from cow's milk. Some formulas are iron-fortified. This means they ...

19. The scale-dependent market trend: Empirical evidences using the lagged DFA method

Li, Daye; Kou, Zhun; Sun, Qiankun

2015-09-01

In this paper we make an empirical research and test the efficiency of 44 important market indexes in multiple scales. A modified method based on the lagged detrended fluctuation analysis is utilized to maximize the information of long-term correlations from the non-zero lags and keep the margin of errors small when measuring the local Hurst exponent. Our empirical result illustrates that a common pattern can be found in the majority of the measured market indexes which tend to be persistent (with the local Hurst exponent > 0.5) in the small time scale, whereas it displays significant anti-persistent characteristics in large time scales. Moreover, not only the stock markets but also the foreign exchange markets share this pattern. Considering that the exchange markets are only weakly synchronized with the economic cycles, it can be concluded that the economic cycles can cause anti-persistence in the large time scale but there are also other factors at work. The empirical result supports the view that financial markets are multi-fractal and it indicates that deviations from efficiency and the type of model to describe the trend of market price are dependent on the forecasting horizon.

20. K-shell and total ionization cross sections following electron-molecule collisions: An empirical scaling law

SciTech Connect

Fremont, F.; Hajaji, A.; Chesnel, J.-Y.

2006-11-15

Collisions between electrons and various molecular targets (H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 3}H{sub 4}, N{sub 2}) at projectile energies above the K-shell ionization threshold of the molecule have been investigated experimentally. From electron emission spectra, relative total ionization cross section {sigma}{sub t} and K-shell ionization cross section {sigma}{sub K} are determined. The ratio {sigma}{sub K}/{sigma}{sub t} is then deduced for each target as a function of the projectile energy and compared with those evaluated in the case of atomic targets. Strong differences between atomic and molecular targets are observed in the slope of the ratio at the highest projectile energies. These differences are explained using the well-known Kim-Rudd formula developed for atomic targets. In the projectile energy range we explored, we develop a simple empirical scaling law for the ratio {sigma}{sub K}/{sigma}{sub t} as a function of the projectile energy.

1. Theoretical and empirical scale dependency of Z-R relationships: Evidence, impacts, and correction

Verrier, Sébastien; Barthès, Laurent; Mallet, Cécile

2013-07-01

Estimation of rainfall intensities from radar measurements relies to a large extent on power-laws relationships between rain rates R and radar reflectivities Z, i.e., Z = a*R^b. These relationships are generally applied unawarely of the scale, which is questionable since the nonlinearity of these relations could lead to undesirable discrepancies when combined with scale aggregation. Since the parameters (a,b) are expectedly related with drop size distribution (DSD) properties, they are often derived at disdrometer scale, not at radar scale, which could lead to errors at the latter. We propose to investigate the statistical behavior of Z-R relationships across scales both on theoretical and empirical sides. Theoretically, it is shown that claimed multifractal properties of rainfall processes could constrain the parameters (a,b) such that the exponent b would be scale independent but the prefactor a would be growing as a (slow) power law of time or space scale. In the empirical part (which may be read independently of theoretical considerations), high-resolution disdrometer (Dual-Beam Spectropluviometer) data of rain rates and reflectivity factors are considered at various integration times comprised in the range 15 s - 64 min. A variety of regression techniques is applied on Z-R scatterplots at all these time scales, establishing empirical evidence of a behavior coherent with theoretical considerations: a grows as a 0.1 power law of scale while b decreases more slightly. The properties of a are suggested to be closely linked to inhomogeneities in the DSDs since extensions of Z-R relationships involving (here, strongly nonconstant) normalization parameters of the DSDs seem to be more robust across scales. The scale dependence of simple Z = a*R^b relationships is advocated to be a possible source of overestimation of rainfall intensities or accumulations. Several ways for correcting such scaling biases (which can reach >15-20% in terms of relative error) are suggested

2. Systems-Pharmacology Dissection of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Saffron Formula Reveals Multi-scale Treatment Strategy for Cardiovascular Diseases.

PubMed

Liu, Jianling; Mu, Jiexin; Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Fu, Yingxue; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai; Wang, Yonghua

2016-01-01

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been regarding as "the world's first killer" of human beings in recent years owing to the striking morbidity and mortality, the involved molecular mechanisms are extremely complex and remain unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adheres to the aim of combating complex diseases from an integrative and holistic point of view, which has shown effectiveness in CVDs therapy. However, system-level understanding of such a mechanism of multi-scale treatment strategy for CVDs is still difficult. Here, we developed a system pharmacology approach with the purpose of revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms exemplified by a famous compound saffron formula (CSF) in treating CVDs. First, by systems ADME analysis combined with drug targeting process, 103 potential active components and their corresponding 219 direct targets were retrieved and some key interactions were further experimentally validated. Based on this, the network relationships among active components, targets and diseases were further built to uncover the pharmacological actions of the drug. Finally, a "CVDs pathway" consisted of several regulatory modules was incorporated to dissect the therapeutic effects of CSF in different pathological features-relevant biological processes. All this demonstrates CSF has multi-scale curative activity in regulating CVD-related biological processes, which provides a new potential way for modern medicine in the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:26813334

3. Systems-Pharmacology Dissection of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Saffron Formula Reveals Multi-scale Treatment Strategy for Cardiovascular Diseases

PubMed Central

Liu, Jianling; Mu, Jiexin; Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Fu, Yingxue; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai; Wang, Yonghua

2016-01-01

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been regarding as “the world’s first killer” of human beings in recent years owing to the striking morbidity and mortality, the involved molecular mechanisms are extremely complex and remain unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adheres to the aim of combating complex diseases from an integrative and holistic point of view, which has shown effectiveness in CVDs therapy. However, system-level understanding of such a mechanism of multi-scale treatment strategy for CVDs is still difficult. Here, we developed a system pharmacology approach with the purpose of revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms exemplified by a famous compound saffron formula (CSF) in treating CVDs. First, by systems ADME analysis combined with drug targeting process, 103 potential active components and their corresponding 219 direct targets were retrieved and some key interactions were further experimentally validated. Based on this, the network relationships among active components, targets and diseases were further built to uncover the pharmacological actions of the drug. Finally, a “CVDs pathway” consisted of several regulatory modules was incorporated to dissect the therapeutic effects of CSF in different pathological features-relevant biological processes. All this demonstrates CSF has multi-scale curative activity in regulating CVD-related biological processes, which provides a new potential way for modern medicine in the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:26813334

4. Intrinsic multi-scale analysis: a multi-variate empirical mode decomposition framework

PubMed Central

Looney, David; Hemakom, Apit; Mandic, Danilo P.

2015-01-01

A novel multi-scale approach for quantifying both inter- and intra-component dependence of a complex system is introduced. This is achieved using empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which, unlike conventional scale-estimation methods, obtains a set of scales reflecting the underlying oscillations at the intrinsic scale level. This enables the data-driven operation of several standard data-association measures (intrinsic correlation, intrinsic sample entropy (SE), intrinsic phase synchrony) and, at the same time, preserves the physical meaning of the analysis. The utility of multi-variate extensions of EMD is highlighted, both in terms of robust scale alignment between system components, a pre-requisite for inter-component measures, and in the estimation of feature relevance. We also illuminate that the properties of EMD scales can be used to decouple amplitude and phase information, a necessary step in order to accurately quantify signal dynamics through correlation and SE analysis which are otherwise not possible. Finally, the proposed multi-scale framework is applied to detect directionality, and higher order features such as coupling and regularity, in both synthetic and biological systems. PMID:25568621

5. Exploring the Multi-Scale Statistical Analysis of Ionospheric Scintillation via Wavelets and Empirical Mode Decomposition

Piersanti, Mirko; Materassi, Massimo; Spogli, Luca; Cicone, Antonio; Alberti, Tommaso

2016-04-01

Highly irregular fluctuations of the power of trans-ionospheric GNSS signals, namely radio power scintillation, are, at least to a large extent, the effect of ionospheric plasma turbulence, a by-product of the non-linear and non-stationary evolution of the plasma fields defining the Earth's upper atmosphere. One could expect the ionospheric turbulence characteristics of inter-scale coupling, local randomness and high time variability to be inherited by the scintillation on radio signals crossing the medium. On this basis, the remote sensing of local features of the turbulent plasma could be expected as feasible by studying radio scintillation. The dependence of the statistical properties of the medium fluctuations on the space- and time-scale is the distinctive character of intermittent turbulent media. In this paper, a multi-scale statistical analysis of some samples of GPS radio scintillation is presented: the idea is that assessing how the statistics of signal fluctuations vary with time scale under different Helio-Geophysical conditions will be of help in understanding the corresponding multi-scale statistics of the turbulent medium causing that scintillation. In particular, two techniques are tested as multi-scale decomposition schemes of the signals: the discrete wavelet analysis and the Empirical Mode Decomposition. The discussion of the results of the one analysis versus the other will be presented, trying to highlight benefits and limits of each scheme, also under suitably different helio-geophysical conditions.

6. LETTER: Empirical scaling law for the effective heat diffusivity in ELMy H mode plasmas

Becker, G.

1996-04-01

Predictive code simulations of high density scenarios of ITER and other reactor-grade devices require an experimentally validated scaling relation for the one-fluid effective heat diffusivity chi in the ELMy H mode regime. A comprehensive empirical chi scaling compatible with the ITERH92-P ELMy H mode scaling of the thermal energy confinement time is presented. It follows from a power law ansatz for chi and integration of the single-fluid energy equation and recovers all the exponents of the global confinement law. The numerical factor of the global scaling is used to calibrate the heat diffusivity. The dependences of chi on the temperature and temperature gradient, connected with the power degradation of confinement, are inferred from profile information of a high density H mode discharge. The scaling law obtained is successfully tested against JET, ASDEX and ASDEX Upgrade H mode discharges covering a wide parameter range. It is found to predict the strong rise of the experimental chi profiles with increasing effective radius

7. An empirical scaling law for improved confinement in reversed-field pinch plasmas

Yagi, Y.; Koguchi, H.; Hirano, Y.; Sakakita, H.; Frassinetti, L.

2005-02-01

A database of the confinement properties of the toroidal pinch experiment (TPE) series reversed-field pinch (RFP) devices was established, and an empirical scaling law for the energy confinement time, τE, was deduced for a consistently selected set of the database (Yagi Y. et al 2003 Nucl. Fusion 43 1787). The scaling for τE [TPE-scaling; \\smash{\\tau _E \\sim a^{1.7} I_p^{0.8} (I_p/N)^{0.3} \\Theta ^{3}} ], in particular, is a power law similar to that predicted on the basis of the tearing modes, as a function of the plasma minor radius (a), plasma current (Ip), and Ip/N, where N is the column density. On the other hand, the TPE-scaling has a strong dependence on the pinch parameter, Θ, namely τE ~ Θ3. Recently, we have investigated the database of the improved confinement in the pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD). We show that the TPE-scaling agrees well with the improved τE in the PPCD database, because of its strong Θ dependence. Namely, Θ3 is a factor of merit for RFP plasmas. We discuss why this agreement is obtained in spite of the general difference between the underlying transport mechanisms of the standard and PPCD discharges. We also show that this improvement, represented by Θ3, is related to the increase in magnetic shear with Θ.

8. Empirical validation of the InVEST water yield ecosystem service model at a national scale.

PubMed

Redhead, J W; Stratford, C; Sharps, K; Jones, L; Ziv, G; Clarke, D; Oliver, T H; Bullock, J M

2016-11-01

A variety of tools have emerged with the goal of mapping the current delivery of ecosystem services and quantifying the impact of environmental changes. An important and often overlooked question is how accurate the outputs of these models are in relation to empirical observations. In this paper we validate a hydrological ecosystem service model (InVEST Water Yield Model) using widely available data. We modelled annual water yield in 22 UK catchments with widely varying land cover, population and geology, and compared model outputs with gauged river flow data from the UK National River Flow Archive. Values for input parameters were selected from existing literature to reflect conditions in the UK and were subjected to sensitivity analyses. We also compared model performance between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data sourced from global- and UK-scale datasets. We then tested the transferability of the results within the UK by additional validation in a further 20 catchments. Whilst the model performed only moderately with global-scale data (linear regression of modelled total water yield against empirical data; slope=0.763, intercept=54.45, R(2)=0.963) with wide variation in performance between catchments, the model performed much better when using UK-scale input data, with closer fit to the observed data (slope=1.07, intercept=3.07, R(2)=0.990). With UK data the majority of catchments showed <10% difference between measured and modelled water yield but there was a minor but consistent overestimate per hectare (86m(3)/ha/year). Additional validation on a further 20 UK catchments was similarly robust, indicating that these results are transferable within the UK. These results suggest that relatively simple models can give accurate measures of ecosystem services. However, the choice of input data is critical and there is a need for further validation in other parts of the world. PMID:27395076

9. An empirical model relating U.S. monthly hail occurrence to large-scale meteorological environment

Allen, John T.; Tippett, Michael K.; Sobel, Adam H.

2015-03-01

An empirical model relating monthly hail occurrence to the large-scale environment has been developed and tested for the United States (U.S.). Monthly hail occurrence for each 1°×1° grid box is defined as the number of hail events that occur there during a month; a hail event consists of a 3 h period with at least one report of hail larger than 1 in. The model is derived using climatological annual cycle data only. Environmental variables are taken from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR; 1979-2012). The model includes four environmental variables convective precipitation, convective available potential energy, storm relative helicity, and mean surface to 90 hPa specific humidity. The model differs in its choice of variables and their relative weighting from existing severe weather indices. The model realistically matches the annual cycle of hail occurrence both regionally and for the contiguous U.S. (CONUS). The modeled spatial distribution is also consistent with the observed hail climatology. However, the westward shift of maximum hail frequency during the summer months is delayed in the model relative to observations, and the model has a lower frequency of hail just east of the Rocky Mountains compared to observations. Year-to-year variability provides an independent test of the model. On monthly and annual time scales, the model reproduces observed hail frequencies. Overall model trends are small compared to observed changes, suggesting that further analysis is necessary to differentiate between physical and nonphysical trends. The empirical hail model provides a new tool for exploration of connections between large-scale climate and severe weather.

10. An empirical model of heliospheric cosmic ray modulation on long-term time scale

Asvestari, Eleanna; Usoskin, Ilya G.

2016-03-01

Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) entering the heliosphere are subject to modulation processes due to variable solar magnetic activity. Finding a relationship between cosmic-ray variations and the heliospheric parameters is important for reconstruction of solar activity in the past. Here, we develop a semi-empirical model describing the heliospheric modulation of GCRs in terms of heliospheric parameters such as the open solar magnetic flux, the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet and the polarity of the large scale solar magnetic field. Our model is fitted using annual data obtained for the period 1976-2013, which includes the very weak solar minimum during 2008-2010. The model shows a good agreement with the data, and therefore, can be used for reconstructions of the modulation potential at different levels of solar activity. The model's validity is also tested using the cosmogenic radionuclides 14C and 10Be stored in terrestrial archives. The tilt angle used to fit the parameters in our semi-empirical modulation model is reconstructed by a mathematical model described here.

11. Near-infrared for on-line determination of quality parameter of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles): From lab investigation to pilot-scale extraction process

PubMed Central

Li, Yang; Shi, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhisheng; Guo, Mingye; Xu, Bing; Pan, Xiaoning; Ma, Qun; Qiao, Yanjiang

2015-01-01

Background: Extraction process of dried flowers of formula particles should be investigated from lab investigation to pilot-scale because of good water absorbing capacity and obscure active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) dissolution. Objective: Reliable analysis of on-line near-infrared (NIR) technique and novel application in fascinating modern, traditional Chinese medicine production (formula particles) was proved. Materials and Methods: The extraction process of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles) was used as an example, the rutin was regarded as API. On-line NIR technology was used to monitor the variation of rutin in the extraction process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to determine the content of rutin during the extraction process. The sample set was selected by Kennard-Stone (KS) algorithm. Different pretreatment methods were compared. The synergy interval partial least square (SiPLS) algorithm was applied. Chemometrics indicators and multivariate detection limits method were mutually used to assess the model. Results: According to both errors α (0.05) and β (0.05), rutin content could be detected by on-line NIR, which was more than 0.181 mg/mL. Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of NIR for on-line determination of rutin in the pilot-scale extraction process of S. japonica. L. It provided technical support for the NIR application in the extraction process of formula particles. PMID:25709204

12. Characteristics of Turbulence-driven Plasma Flow and Origin of Experimental Empirical Scalings of Intrinsic Rotation

SciTech Connect

Wang, W. X.; Hahm, T. S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W. M.; Lee, W. W.; Diamond, P. H.

2011-03-20

Toroidal plasma flow driven by turbulent torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation is shown to recover the observed key features of intrinsic rotation in experiments. Specifically, the turbulence-driven intrinsic rotation scales close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current, qualitatively reproducing empirical scalings obtained from a large experimental data base. The effect of magnetic shear on the symmetry breaking in the parallel wavenumber spectrum is identified. The origin of the current scaling is found to be the enhanced kll symmetry breaking induced by increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The physics origin for the linear dependence of intrinsic rotation on the pressure gradient comes from the fact that both turbulence intensity and the zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving the residual stress, are increased with the strength of the turbulence drives, which are R/LTe and R/Lne for the collisionless trapped electron mode (CTEM). Highlighted results also include robust radial pinches in toroidal flow, heat and particle transport driven by CTEM turbulence, which emerge "in phase", and are shown to play important roles in determining plasma profiles. Also discussed are experimental tests proposed to validate findings from these gyrokinetic simulations.

13. Scaling for Robust Empirical Modeling and Predictions of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) from Diverse Wetland Ecosystems

Ishtiaq, K. S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

2014-12-01

We developed a scaling-based, simple empirical model for spatio-temporally robust prediction of the diurnal cycles of wetland net ecosystem exchange (NEE) by using an extended stochastic harmonic algorithm (ESHA). A reference-time observation from each diurnal cycle was utilized as the scaling parameter to normalize and collapse hourly observed NEE of different days into a single, dimensionless diurnal curve. The modeling concept was tested by parameterizing the unique diurnal curve and predicting hourly NEE of May to October (summer growing and fall seasons) between 2002-12 for diverse wetland ecosystems, as available in the U.S. AmeriFLUX network. As an example, the Taylor Slough short hydroperiod marsh site in the Florida Everglades had data for four consecutive growing seasons from 2009-12; results showed impressive modeling efficiency (coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.66) and accuracy (ratio of root-mean-square-error to the standard deviation of observations, RSR = 0.58). Model validation was performed with an independent year of NEE data, indicating equally impressive performance (R2 = 0.68, RSR = 0.57). The model included a parsimonious set of estimated parameters, which exhibited spatio-temporal robustness by collapsing onto narrow ranges. Model robustness was further investigated by analytically deriving and quantifying parameter sensitivity coefficients and a first-order uncertainty measure. The relatively robust, empirical NEE model can be applied for simulating continuous (e.g., hourly) NEE time-series from a single reference observation (or a set of limited observations) at different wetland sites of comparable hydro-climatology, biogeochemistry, and ecology. The method can also be used for a robust gap-filling of missing data in observed time-series of periodic ecohydrological variables for wetland or other ecosystems.

14. Empirical evidence for multi-scaled controls on wildfire size distributions in California

Povak, N.; Hessburg, P. F., Sr.; Salter, R. B.

2014-12-01

Ecological theory asserts that regional wildfire size distributions are examples of self-organized critical (SOC) systems. Controls on SOC event-size distributions by virtue are purely endogenous to the system and include the (1) frequency and pattern of ignitions, (2) distribution and size of prior fires, and (3) lagged successional patterns after fires. However, recent work has shown that the largest wildfires often result from extreme climatic events, and that patterns of vegetation and topography may help constrain local fire spread, calling into question the SOC model's simplicity. Using an atlas of >12,000 California wildfires (1950-2012) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), we fit four different power-law models and broken-stick regressions to fire-size distributions across 16 Bailey's ecoregions. Comparisons among empirical fire size distributions across ecoregions indicated that most ecoregion's fire-size distributions were significantly different, suggesting that broad-scale top-down controls differed among ecoregions. One-parameter power-law models consistently fit a middle range of fire sizes (~100 to 10000 ha) across most ecoregions, but did not fit to larger and smaller fire sizes. We fit the same four power-law models to patch size distributions of aspect, slope, and curvature topographies and found that the power-law models fit to a similar middle range of topography patch sizes. These results suggested that empirical evidence may exist for topographic controls on fire sizes. To test this, we used neutral landscape modeling techniques to determine if observed fire edges corresponded with aspect breaks more often than expected by random. We found significant differences between the empirical and neutral models for some ecoregions, particularly within the middle range of fire sizes. Our results, combined with other recent work, suggest that controls on ecoregional fire size distributions are multi-scaled and likely are not purely SOC. California

15. Empirical behavior of a world stock index from intra-day to monthly time scales

Breymann, W.; Lüthi, D. R.; Platen, E.

2009-10-01

Most of the papers that study the distributional and fractal properties of financial instruments focus on stock prices or foreign exchange rates. This typically leads to mixed results concerning the distributions of log-returns and some multi-fractal properties of exchange rates, stock prices, and regional indices. This paper uses a well diversified world stock index as the central object of analysis. Such index approximates the growth optimal portfolio, which is demonstrated under the benchmark approach, it is the ideal reference unit for studying basic securities. When denominating this world index in units of a given currency, one measures the movements of the currency against the entire market. This provides a least disturbed observation of the currency dynamics. In this manner, one can expect to disentangle, e.g., the superposition of the two currencies involved in an exchange rate. This benchmark approach to the empirical analysis of financial data allows us to establish remarkable stylized facts. Most important is the observation that the repeatedly documented multi-fractal appearance of financial time series is very weak and much less pronounced than the deviation of the mono-scaling properties from Brownian-motion type scaling. The generalized Hurst exponent H(2) assumes typical values between 0.55 and 0.6. Accordingly, autocorrelations of log-returns decay according to a power law, and the quadratic variation vanishes when going to vanishing observation time step size. Furthermore, one can identify the Student t distribution as the log-return distribution of a well-diversified world stock index for long time horizons when a long enough data series is used for estimation. The study of dependence properties, finally, reveals that jumps at daily horizon originate primarily in the stock market while at 5min horizon they originate in the foreign exchange market. The principal message of the empirical analysis is that there is evidence that a diffusion model

16. Development and Validation of the Controller Acceptance Rating Scale (CARS): Results of Empirical Research

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lee, Katharine K.; Kerns, Karol; Bone, Randall

2001-01-01

The measurement of operational acceptability is important for the development, implementation, and evolution of air traffic management decision support tools. The Controller Acceptance Rating Scale was developed at NASA Ames Research Center for the development and evaluation of the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool. CARS was modeled after a well-known pilot evaluation rating instrument, the Cooper-Harper Scale, and has since been used in the evaluation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, developed by MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. In this paper, we provide a discussion of the development of CARS and an analysis of the empirical data collected with CARS to examine construct validity. Results of intraclass correlations indicated statistically significant reliability for the CARS. From the subjective workload data that were collected in conjunction with the CARS, it appears that the expected set of workload attributes was correlated with the CARS. As expected, the analysis also showed that CARS was a sensitive indicator of the impact of decision support tools on controller operations. Suggestions for future CARS development and its improvement are also provided.

17. Formula Budgeting

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gardner, John C.

1974-01-01

Presents the mathematical formula devised by George O. Weber on budgeting for physical plants of colleges and universities. Uses four functions of administration, maintenance (operational), housekeeping/custodial, and grounds as a base. (Author/MLF)

18. Improved Jänecke mass formula

He, Z.; Bao, M.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

2014-11-01

In this paper we improve an empirical mass formula constructed by Jänecke and collaborators. This formula is enlightened by the Garvey-Kelson mass relations. The new version of the Jänecke formula reproduces 2275 atomic masses with neutron number N ≥10 and proton number Z ≥6 , at an average accuracy of 128 keV, by employing 576 parameters. The predictive power of our formula is exemplified by comparison with predicted results of other mass models.

19. Fishy Formulas.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bosch, William; Sizzo, Jennifer; Curtis, Anita; Klein, Shannon; Micale, Cheryl; Lin, E-Sin

1997-01-01

Describes an activity presented in sports fishing magazines on developing a formula that predicts the weight in pounds of a game fish given its length in inches by using a TI-83 graphing calculator. Highlights the importance of using real-life problems and mathematical explorations. (ASK)

20. Formula Estimation of Cross-Validated Multiple Correlation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schmitt, Neal

A review of cross-validation shrinkage formulas is presented which focuses on the theoretical and practical problems in the use of various formulas. Practical guidelines for use of both formulas and empirical cross-validation are provided. A comparison of results using these formulas in a range of situations is then presented. The result of these…

1. Validation of Empirically Derived Rating Scales for a Story Retelling Speaking Test

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie

2013-01-01

In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…

2. Expectancy Theory Predictions and Behaviorally Anchored Scales of Motivation: An Empirical Test of Engineers

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ivancevich, John M.

1976-01-01

A behaviorally specific motivational effort rating scale was developed and tested. The organizational specific scale results were examined and compared to those generated from the Landy and Guion scale. It was found that the organizationally specific and engineer relevant scale is a better predictor of two types of expectancies. (Author)

3. Quantitative prediction of intestinal metabolism in humans from a simplified intestinal availability model and empirical scaling factor.

PubMed

Kadono, Keitaro; Akabane, Takafumi; Tabata, Kenji; Gato, Katsuhiko; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Teramura, Toshio

2010-07-01

This study aimed to establish a practical and convenient method of predicting intestinal availability (F(g)) in humans for highly permeable compounds at the drug discovery stage, with a focus on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. We constructed a "simplified F(g) model," described using only metabolic parameters, assuming that passive diffusion is dominant when permeability is high and that the effect of transporters in epithelial cells is negligible. Five substrates for CYP3A4 (alprazolam, amlodipine, clonazepam, midazolam, and nifedipine) and four for both CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (nicardipine, quinidine, tacrolimus, and verapamil) were used as model compounds. Observed fraction of drug absorbed (F(a)F(g)) values for these compounds were calculated from in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, whereas in vitro intestinal intrinsic clearance (CL(int,intestine)) was determined using human intestinal microsomes. The CL(int,intestine) for the model compounds corrected with that of midazolam was defined as CL(m,index) and incorporated into a simplified F(g) model with empirical scaling factor. Regardless of whether the compound was a P-gp substrate, the F(a)F(g) could be reasonably fitted by the simplified F(g) model, and the value of the empirical scaling factor was well estimated. These results suggest that the effects of P-gp on F(a) and F(g) are substantially minor, at least in the case of highly permeable compounds. Furthermore, liver intrinsic clearance (CL(int,liver)) can be used as a surrogate index of intestinal metabolism based on the relationship between CL(int,liver) and CL(m,index). F(g) can be easily predicted using a simplified F(g) model with the empirical scaling factor, enabling more confident selection of drug candidates with desirable PK profiles in humans. PMID:20354105

4. Investigating Invariant Item Ordering in Personality and Clinical Scales: Some Empirical Findings and a Discussion

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meijer, Rob R.; Egberink, Iris J. L.

2012-01-01

In recent studies, different methods were proposed to investigate invariant item ordering (IIO), but practical IIO research is an unexploited field in questionnaire construction and evaluation. In the present study, the authors explored the usefulness of different IIO methods to analyze personality scales and clinical scales. From the authors'…

5. The Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale: Empirical Validation with Two Latino/Latina Samples.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zea, Maria Cecilia; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Birman, Dina; Buki, Lydia P.

2003-01-01

Two studies were conducted to develop and examine internal consistencies and validate the Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale. Findings indicated good internal reliabilities for all 3 subscales. Adequate concurrent validity was established with length of residence in the United States. The scale also showed adequate convergent and…

6. Evaluating Empirical Relationships among Prediction, Measurement, and Scaling Invariance. Research Report. ETS RR-11-06

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moses, Tim

2011-01-01

The purpose of this study was to consider the relationships of prediction, measurement, and scaling invariance when these invariances were simultaneously evaluated in psychometric test data. An approach was developed to evaluate prediction, measurement, and scaling invariance based on linear and nonlinear prediction, measurement, and scaling…

7. A Quick Guide to Readability Formulas.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cramer, Eugene H.

1978-01-01

Six of the most widely used readability scales are briefly reviewed and their original source cited: the Dale-Chall Readability Formula, the Flesch "Reading Ease" Formula, the Fog Index, the Fry Readability Graph, the SMOG Grading Plan, and the Spache Readability Formula. (SJL)

8. Mixed land use and obesity: an empirical comparison of alternative land use measures and geographic scales

PubMed Central

Yamada, Ikuho; Brown, Barbara B.; Smith, Ken R.; Zick, Cathleen D.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Fan, Jessie X.

2011-01-01

Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Walkable neighborhoods, characterized as having the 3Ds of walkability (population Density, land use Diversity, and pedestrian-friendly Design), have been identified as a potentially promising factor to prevent obesity for their residents. Past studies examining the relationship between obesity and walkability vary in geographic scales of neighborhood definitions and methods of measuring the 3Ds. To better understand potential influences of these sometimes arbitrary choices, we test how four types of alternative measures of land use diversity measured at three geographic scales relate to body mass index for 4960 Salt Lake County adults. Generalized estimation equation models demonstrate that optimal diversity measures differed by gender and geographic scale and that integrating walkability measures at different scales improved the overall performance of models. PMID:22665941

9. An Empirical Research on the Factors Impacting the Development Scale of Chinese Higher Education

Bin, Xu; Liang, Xu

Since the reform and opening up, especially since the 1990s, Chinese higher education has achieved great development. Especially in recent years, various universities ceaselessly expanding enrolment and constructing new campus of higher education. Therefore, the scale of higher education is expanding. But blindly expanding higher education scale will also bring about tremendous risks, so, higher education development scale and its influence factors become a focus of economic research and education. In this paper, we, first, put forward the background and meaning of researching higher education development. Secondly, according to both domestic and overseas research results of higher education, we screened influence factors of higher education development and made use of statistical methods to analyze the data of related indicators. Finally, we carried out the analysis and summary on the above-mentioned calculation result.

10. An Empirical Relation between the Large-scale Magnetic Field and the Dynamical Mass in Galaxies

Tabatabaei, F. S.; Martinsson, T. P. K.; Knapen, J. H.; Beckman, J. E.; Koribalski, B.; Elmegreen, B. G.

2016-02-01

The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields as well as the influence of the magnetic fields on the evolution of galaxies are unknown. Though not without challenges, the dynamo theory can explain the large-scale coherent magnetic fields that govern galaxies, but observational evidence for the theory is so far very scarce. Putting together the available data of non-interacting, non-cluster galaxies with known large-scale magnetic fields, we find a tight correlation between the integrated polarized flux density, SPI, and the rotation speed, vrot, of galaxies. This leads to an almost linear correlation between the large-scale magnetic field \\bar{B} and vrot, assuming that the number of cosmic-ray electrons is proportional to the star formation rate, and a super-linear correlation assuming equipartition between magnetic fields and cosmic rays. This correlation cannot be attributed to an active linear α-Ω dynamo, as no correlation holds with global shear or angular speed. It indicates instead a coupling between the large-scale magnetic field and the dynamical mass of the galaxies, \\bar{B}˜ \\{M}{{dyn}}0.25-0.4. Hence, faster rotating and/or more massive galaxies have stronger large-scale magnetic fields. The observed \\bar{B}-{v}{{rot}} correlation shows that the anisotropic turbulent magnetic field dominates \\bar{B} in fast rotating galaxies as the turbulent magnetic field, coupled with gas, is enhanced and ordered due to the strong gas compression and/or local shear in these systems. This study supports a stationary condition for the large-scale magnetic field as long as the dynamical mass of galaxies is constant.

11. Empirical Correlates and Expanded Interpretation of the MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scale 3 (Cynicism)

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ingram, Paul B.; Kelso, Kristy M.; McCord, David M.

2011-01-01

The recent release of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has received much attention from the clinical psychology community. Particular concerns have focused on Restructured Clinical Scale 3 (RC3; Cynicism). This article briefly reviews the major criticisms and responses regarding the restructuring of…

12. Enhancing Learning in Introductory Computer Science Courses through SCALE: An Empirical Study

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verginis, I.; Gogoulou, A.; Gouli, E.; Boubouka, M.; Grigoriadou, M.

2011-01-01

The work presented in this paper aims to support and promote the learning process in introductory computer science courses through the Web-based, adaptive, activity-oriented learning environment known as Supporting Collaboration and Adaptation in a Learning Environment (SCALE). The environment engages students actively in the learning process and…

13. An Empirical Analysis of an Alternative Configuration of the Academic Motivation Scale

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Kenneth J.; Davy, Jeanette A.; Rosenberg, Donald L.

2012-01-01

The purpose of this study was to examine an alternative configuration of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), a psychometric instrument used as a measure of academic motivation in various academic environments. The analyses utilised data from a convenience sample of 2354 business students, broken into two random subsamples of 1177 cases.…

14. Work Adjustment Theory: An Empirical Test Using a Fuzzy Rating Scale.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

1992-01-01

A fuzzy graphic rating scale elicited work preferences and job perceptions of 166 (of 170) Australian bank employees. Correspondence between preferences and perceptions correlated significantly with job satisfaction. Satisfaction and performance related to tenure intentions; this relation was higher for poorer performers. (SK)

15. The MATS-1 Risk Assessment Scale: Summary of Methodological Concerns and an Empirical Validation.

PubMed

Helmus, Leslie; Thornton, David

2016-04-01

Recently, Wollert and colleagues proposed that sex offender recidivism estimates should be stratified by age and they developed an age-stratified scale called the MATS-1 (Multisample Age-Stratified Table of Sexual Recidivism). The purpose of this article is to highlight concerns with the development of the MATS-1 and to validate the scale using 3,510 sex offenders from 14 unique samples. Concerns with the scale's development fall into three categories: approximations leading to considerable loss of precision, absence of appropriate statistical tests, and the use of inappropriate statistical techniques. The predictive accuracy of the MATS-1 (Area Under the Curve [AUC] = .663) was significantly lower than Static-99R (AUC = .708). The MATS-1 also significantly underestimated recidivism for some offenders. Both the relative and absolute predictive properties of the MATS-1 were not stable across samples. We conclude that the MATS-1 is not appropriate to use for applied risk assessment. Proposals are made for alternate ways to develop risk scales using the age-stratification method. PMID:24743657

16. Perceived Usability Evaluation of Learning Management Systems: Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scale

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Orfanou, Konstantina; Tselios, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Christos

2015-01-01

Perceived usability affects greatly student's learning effectiveness and overall learning experience, and thus is an important requirement of educational software. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a well-researched and widely used questionnaire for perceived usability evaluation. However, surprisingly few studies have used SUS to evaluate the…

17. The Authentic Personality: A Theoretical and Empirical Conceptualization and the Development of the Authenticity Scale

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wood, Alex M.; Linley, P. Alex; Maltby, John; Baliousis, Michael; Joseph, Stephen

2008-01-01

This article describes the development of a measure of dispositional authenticity and tests whether authenticity is related to well-being, as predicted by several counseling psychology perspectives. Scales were designed to measure a tripartite conception of authenticity, comprising self-alienation, authentic living, and accepting external…

18. An Academic Formulas List: New Methods in Phraseology Research

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Ellis, Nick C.

2010-01-01

This research creates an empirically derived, pedagogically useful list of formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing, comparable with the Academic Word List (Coxhead 2000), called the Academic Formulas List (AFL). The AFL includes formulaic sequences identified as (i) frequent recurrent patterns in corpora of written and spoken language,…

19. A review and empirical study of the composite scales of the Das–Naglieri cognitive assessment system

PubMed Central

McCrea, Simon M

2009-01-01

Alexander Luria’s model of the working brain consisting of three functional units was formulated through the examination of hundreds of focal brain-injury patients. Several psychometric instruments based on Luria’s syndrome analysis and accompanying qualitative tasks have been developed since the 1970s. In the mid-1970s, JP Das and colleagues defined a specific cognitive processes model based directly on Luria’s two coding units termed simultaneous and successive by studying diverse cross-cultural, ability, and socioeconomic strata. The cognitive assessment system is based on the PASS model of cognitive processes and consists of four composite scales of Planning–Attention–Simultaneous–Successive (PASS) devised by Naglieri and Das in 1997. Das and colleagues developed the two new scales of planning and attention to more closely model Luria’s theory of higher cortical functions. In this paper a theoretical review of Luria’s theory, Das and colleagues elaboration of Luria’s model, and the neural correlates of PASS composite scales based on extant studies is summarized. A brief empirical study of the neuropsychological specificity of the PASS composite scales in a sample of 33 focal cortical stroke patients using cluster analysis is then discussed. Planning and simultaneous were sensitive to right hemisphere lesions. These findings were integrated with recent functional neuroimaging studies of PASS scales. In sum it was found that simultaneous is strongly dependent on dual bilateral occipitoparietal interhemispheric coordination whereas successive demonstrated left frontotemporal specificity with some evidence of interhemispheric coordination across the prefrontal cortex. Hence, support for the validity of the PASS composite scales was found as well as for the axiom of the independence of code content from code type originally specified in 1994 by Das, Naglieri, and Kirby. PMID:22110322

20. Utility-Scale Solar 2014. An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

SciTech Connect

Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim

2015-09-01

Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MWAC – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.

1. Solar-terrestrial conditions during Sundial-86 and empirical modelling of the global-scale ionospheric response

Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Wilkinson, P.; Abdu, M. A.; Roelof, E.; Hanbaba, R.

1990-06-01

Covering the period from September 22 through October 4, 1986, the Sundial-86 Solar-Minimum Equinoctial Campaign studied the behavior of the global-scale ionosphere. The period covered the most quiet (Q1) and second most disturbed (D2) days of the entire month of September, with the disturbed conditions triggered by a high-speed solar wind stream. Ionospheric responses were monitored by the Sundial network of nearly 70 stations distributed approximately in three longitudinal domains; and global maps of f0F2 results were compared with the 'predictions' of the International Reference Ionosphere modified to include an empirical specification of auroral oval boundaries and associated high-latitude morphological domains. Comparisons that included regions in the polar cap, diffuse auroral oval, mid-latitude trough, equatorial anomaly, and the sunrise/sunset terminator showed good agreement between the hourly 8-day-averaged ionospheric observations and the model.

2. The Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale: An empirical investigation

PubMed Central

Rosen, L.D.; Whaling, K.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Rokkum, J.

2015-01-01

Current approaches to measuring people’s everyday usage of technology-based media and other computer-related activities have proved to be problematic as they use varied outcome measures, fail to measure behavior in a broad range of technology-related domains and do not take into account recently developed types of technology including smartphones. In the present study, a wide variety of items, covering a range of up-to-date technology and media usage behaviors. Sixty-six items concerning technology and media usage, along with 18 additional items assessing attitudes toward technology, were administered to two independent samples of individuals, comprising 942 participants. Factor analyses were used to create 11 usage subscales representing smartphone usage, general social media usage, Internet searching, e-mailing, media sharing, text messaging, video gaming, online friendships, Facebook friendships, phone calling, and watching television in addition to four attitude-based subscales: positive attitudes, negative attitudes, technological anxiety/dependence, and attitudes toward task-switching. All subscales showed strong reliabilities and relationships between the subscales and pre-existing measures of daily media usage and Internet addiction were as predicted. Given the reliability and validity results, the new Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale was suggested as a method of measuring media and technology involvement across a variety of types of research studies either as a single 60-item scale or any subset of the 15 subscales. PMID:25722534

3. Macropore flow at the field scale: predictive performance of empirical models and X-ray CT analyzed macropore characteristics

Naveed, M.; Moldrup, P.; Schaap, M.; Tuller, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Vögel, H.-J.; Wollesen de Jonge, L.

2015-11-01

Predictions of macropore flow is important for maintaining both soil and water quality as it governs key related soil processes e.g. soil erosion and subsurface transport of pollutants. However, macropore flow currently cannot be reliably predicted at the field scale because of inherently large spatial variability. The aim of this study was to perform field scale characterization of macropore flow and investigate the predictive performance of (1) current empirical models for both water and air flow, and (2) X-ray CT derived macropore network characteristics. For this purpose, 65 cylindrical soil columns (6 cm diameter and 3.5 cm height) were extracted from the topsoil (5 to 8.5 cm depth) in a 15 m × 15 m grid from an agricultural loamy field located in Silstrup, Denmark. All soil columns were scanned with an industrial CT scanner (129 μm resolution) and later used for measurements of saturated water permeability, air permeability and gas diffusivity at -30 and -100 cm matric potentials. Distribution maps for both water and air permeabilities and gas diffusivity reflected no spatial correlation irrespective of the soil texture and organic matter maps. Empirical predictive models for both water and air permeabilities showed poor performance as they were not able to realistically capture macropore flow because of poor correlations with soil texture and bulk density. The tested empirical model predicted well gas diffusivity at -100 cm matric potential, but relatively failed at -30 cm matric potential particularly for samples with biopore flow. Image segmentation output of the four employed methods was nearly the same, and matched well with measured air-filled porosity at -30 cm matric potential. Many of the CT derived macropore network characteristics were strongly interrelated. Most of the macropore network characteristics were also strongly correlated with saturated water permeability, air permeability, and gas diffusivity. The correlations between macropore

4. Quantifying and qualifying terroir: Empirical evidence linking climate, vineyards, and people across scales

Nicholas, Kimberly

2014-05-01

Climate affects the geographic range, yield, price, and biochemical composition of winegrapes. At the regional scale, historical climate and yield data were successfully used to develop simple models of crop yields using two or three monthly climate parameters for twelve major California crops, including winegrapes. These crop models were used to project the impact of future climate change on crop yields, showing that greater warming would increasingly push highly suitable areas for viticulture outside of their current range. Correlating temperature with price for Pinot noir throughout its growing range in California demonstrated higher prices for grapes grown in cooler climates, whereas prices dropped off rapidly above a ripening temperature threshold, indicating the vulnerability of grape price to climate change. At the vineyard scale, a three-year field study of eleven Pinot noir vineyards in California's North Coast showed that warm temperatures early in the growing season were correlated with increased phenolic compounds (anthocyanins and tannins), which likely benefits wine quality, but warmer periods later in the ripening process appeared to offset these effects. At the microclimate scale, high light intensities were measured on Pinot noir fruit in vertically shoot positioned vineyards, indicating a potential for changing canopy management to provide more optimal ripening conditions. Vineyards are highly managed, and there are many opportunities for viticulturists to shape the micro- and meso-climate that vines experience, thereby influencing the biophysical drivers of terroir through their site selection and vineyard planting and farming choices. An analysis of the precision agriculture and management strategies used by winegrowers in California and Australia showed that growers tend to rely more on short-term farming actions for adapting to environmental stresses; these may have considerable potential to enhance adaptive capacity, and are easier to

5. Attitude Toward Ambiguity: Empirically Robust Factors in Self-Report Personality Scales.

PubMed

Lauriola, Marco; Foschi, Renato; Mosca, Oriana; Weller, Joshua

2016-06-01

Two studies were conducted to examine the factor structure of attitude toward ambiguity, a broad personality construct that refers to personal reactions to perceived ambiguous stimuli in a variety of context and situations. Using samples from two countries, Study 1 mapped the hierarchical structure of 133 items from seven tolerance-intolerance of ambiguity scales (N = 360, Italy; N = 306, United States). Three major factors-Discomfort with Ambiguity, Moral Absolutism/Splitting, and Need for Complexity and Novelty-were recovered in each country with high replicability coefficients across samples. In Study 2 (N = 405, Italian community sample; N =366, English native speakers sample), we carried out a confirmatory analysis on selected factor markers. A bifactor model had an acceptable fit for each sample and reached the construct-level invariance for general and group factors. Convergent validity with related traits was assessed in both studies. We conclude that attitude toward ambiguity can be best represented a multidimensional construct involving affective (Discomfort with Ambiguity), cognitive (Moral Absolutism/Splitting), and epistemic (Need for Complexity and Novelty) components. PMID:25818603

6. Complexity of the Taskless Mind at Different Time-Scales: an Empirically Weighted Approach to Decomposition and Measurement

Aven, John L.; Mandell, Arnold J.; Holroyd, Tom; Coppola, Richard

2011-04-01

The neurodynamical state of an eyes closed at rest' subject is an area of keen interest in the neuroscience community due to Raichle's field changing concept of the Default Mode Network [1]. The dynamic analysis of neurobiologically derived data commonly involves the computation of distributional measures and time-frequency transforms, and more recently the use of ergodic measures. However, many of the methods used in these computations rely upon questionable assumptions such as stationarity or approximate linearity. The Empirical Mode Decomposition of Huang et al.., [2], which preserves nonlinearity and non-stationarity, has led to alternative signal processing techniques. We append to this growing set of techniques a well-defined class of Weighting Functionals, WF. The strength is that they are easily applied to any number of time-frequency transforms and ergodic/complexity measurements because the WFs rescale all the results according to the proportion of energy contained at the individual time-scales. The application to er-godic/complexity measurements has not been addressed in the context of Intrinsic Mode Functions, and is done so here for the first time. Our interest is to take these methods and demonstrate time dependence of the signal across multiple time-scales in the comparison of normal controls and a variety of psychopathological and neuropathological conditions.

7. Revisiting the dimensional structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): empirical evidence for a general factor

PubMed Central

2011-01-01

therefore not be used empirically as sub-scales (raw scores). An all-encompassing scale seems better suited and continuing its use in clinical practice and applied research should be encouraged. PMID:21689442

8. Evidencing Tight Bound States' in the Hydrogen Atom:. Empirical Manipulation of Large-Scale XD in Violation of QED

Amoroso, Richard L.; Vigier, Jean-Pierre

2013-09-01

In this work we extend Vigier's recent theory of tight bound state' (TBS) physics and propose empirical protocols to test not only for their putative existence, but also that their existence if demonstrated provides the 1st empirical evidence of string theory because it occurs in the context of large-scale extra dimensionality (LSXD) cast in a unique M-Theoretic vacuum corresponding to the new Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM) cosmological paradigm. Physicists generally consider spacetime as a stochastic foam containing a zero-point field (ZPF) from which virtual particles restricted by the quantum uncertainty principle (to the Planck time) wink in and out of existence. According to the extended de Broglie-Bohm-Vigier causal stochastic interpretation of quantum theory spacetime and the matter embedded within it is created annihilated and recreated as a virtual locus of reality with a continuous quantum evolution (de Broglie matter waves) governed by a pilot wave - a super quantum potential' extended in HAM cosmology to be synonymous with the a force of coherence' inherent in the Unified Field, UF. We consider this backcloth to be a covariant polarized vacuum of the (generally ignored by contemporary physicists) Dirac type. We discuss open questions of the physics of point particles (fermionic nilpotent singularities). We propose a new set of experiments to test for TBS in a Dirac covariant polarized vacuum LSXD hyperspace suggestive of a recently tested special case of the Lorentz Transformation put forth by Kowalski and Vigier. These protocols reach far beyond the recent battery of atomic spectral violations of QED performed through NIST.

9. Simple formula for estimating airplane ceilings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diehl, Walter S

1922-01-01

The aeronautical engineer often has occasion to estimate the absolute ceiling of an airplane for which a detailed performance calculation is out of the question. In such cases it is customary to use either empirical performance charts or formulae. The performance charts given in several of the recent works on aeronautics are satisfactory so long as the airplane under consideration does not depart too far from the average in its characteristics. The formulae, with one exception, are no better. Given here is that exception, with indications of which terms of the formula may be neglected without seriously affecting the results, thus simplifying the task.

10. Molecular Formulas of Organic Compounds: The Nitrogen Rule and Degree of Unsaturation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pellegrin, Valdo

1983-01-01

Demonstrates nitrogen rule and formula for calculating number of rings plus double bonds of any common organic compound. Calculation of degree of unsaturation (DU) by an empirical formula using successive modifications to the molecular formula, mathematical calculation of DU, and demonstration of the Euler formula are considered. (JN)

11. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

MedlinePlus

... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

12. Infant formulas - overview

MedlinePlus

... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

13. Infant formulas - overview

MedlinePlus

... meet all their nutritional needs. Infant formulas include powders, concentrated liquids, and ready-to-use forms. ... it. Reflux formulas are pre-thickened with rice starch. They are usually needed only for infants with ...

14. Designing State Aid Formulas

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2009-01-01

This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

15. The Texas Formula System.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Steen, Ralph W.; And Others

Explained and illustrated is the formula funding system used for colleges and universities in Texas. This system is considerably more complicated than the formulas used in other states. Data for institutions in the state system for fiscal 1978 are presented; actual appropriations are used rather than requests, and formula-produced amounts are…

16. Readability Formulas as Applied to College Economics Textbooks.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McConnell, Campbell R.

1982-01-01

Determines from empirical information on the application of four readability formulas to a group of widely used college economics textbooks that there is no consistency in the absolute reading levels or the rank orderings of these books. (AEA)

17. A Semi-Empirical Multi-Scale Dynamic Monte Carlo Model of Organic Photovoltaic Performance in RIR-MAPLE Bulk Heterojunction Films

A semi-empirical method for investigating the performance of OPVs in resonant infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) films is explored. Emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE offers a unique experimental backdrop for investigating trends through simulation and gaining a better understanding of how different thin film characteristics impact OPV device performance. A novel multi-scale formulation of the Dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) model is developed based on observable morphology features. Specifically, using confocal microscopy, we observe the presence of micro-scale regimes of pure materials and nano-scale regions of the composite blend. This enables us to assign weighted percentages to DMC implementations on two different scales: the microscale and nanoscale regions. In addition to this, we use input simulation parameters acquired by characterization of as-deposited films. The semi-empirical multi-scale model presented serves as a unique simulation opportunity for exploring different properties of RIR-MAPLE deposited OPVs, their effects on OPV performance and potential design routes for improving device efficiencies. This work was supported, in part, by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-10-1-0481 and the NSF Triangle MRSEC on Soft Matter.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miller, Roy G

1927-01-01

The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

19. Stature estimation formulae for Nigerians.

PubMed

Didia, Blessing C; Nduka, Ethelbert C; Adele, Okechukwu

2009-01-01

In stature estimation, long limbs and the stature formula of Trotter and Gleser easily come to mind. In the recent past, a lot of workers have established formulae specific to their populations using whole length of limbs, fragmented bones, circumference of long bones, and even length of the vertebrae. We have in this work used tibia length, height of subjects, and the regression models to establish formulae specific to Nigerians. We measured height and tibia length of 200 (96 male and 104 female) adult Nigerians. The tibia length was measured from upper limit of the medial condoyle to the tip of medial malleolus using a measuring tape calibrated in meters while the height of individuals were also measured using meter scales. All measurements were made by one person, to avoid interobserver error, and repeatedly until a constant value is obtained. We obtained general formulae for males and females which compares favorably with that of Duyar and Pelin, and can be relied upon. PMID:19018931

20. Selected Baking Formulas.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bogdany, Melvin

This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

1. Storm-scale ring current morphology inferred from high-resolution empirical magnetic field modeling: storms driven by CMEs, CIRs, and those containing sawtooth and SMC events

Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Ohtani, S.; Vandegriff, J. D.

2012-12-01

In spite of several decades of intense investigations, the detailed structure and dynamics of the magnetospheric currents remains unclear especially during disturbed periods associated with magnetic storms and substorms. Until recently, empirical magnetic field models were strongly limited because they were built using predefined, hand-made current structures. New capabilities in the empirical reconstruction of the storm-scale current morphology and its evolution have become possible in the new-generation empirical model, TS07D, where the distribution of storm-scale equatorial currents is determined by regular basis function expansions and is largely dictated by data. We discuss the results of TS07D-based empirical reconstruction of the magnetospheric currents for differing global conditions. Firstly, we examine storms produced by two different drivers, Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR), and secondly, we examine storms containing two different magnetospheric convection states, those containing quasi-periodic sawtooth events and Steady Magnetospheric Convection (SMC) intervals. A distinctive feature of CME-driven storms is the hook-shaped current developing in the main phase, which combines features of ring and tail currents, while CIR-driven storms are featured by the belt-shaped current and strong reduction of the strength of field-aligned currents. Storms containing sawtooth injections are characterized by the formation of the equatorial storm-time current with an unusually broad radial extension, far beyond geosynchronous orbit across all local times. SMC periods are distinguished by a higher total pressure in the inner magnetosphere extending to larger distances with the appropriate changes in the equatorial currents and their closure paths. New data analysis opportunities offered by the APL-hosted model interface, including run-on-request case studies, the database of pre-processed model coefficients and radiation belt

2. Empirical Correlates of Low Scores on MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical Scales in a Sample of University Students

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Tellegen, Auke; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

2012-01-01

In the present study, the authors explored the meaning of low scores on the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) scales. Using responses of a sample of university students (N = 811), the authors examined whether low (T less than 39), within-normal-limits (T = 39-64), and high (T greater than 65) score levels on the RC scales are…

3. The Learning Loss Scale as an Assessment Tool: An Empirical Examination of Convergent Validity with Performative Measures

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hooker, John; Denker, Katherine

2014-01-01

Higher education has placed an increasingly greater value on assessment. The Learning Loss Scale may be an appropriate tool to assess learning across disciplines. In this paper, we review the culture of assessment, conceptualizations of cognitive learning, the Learning Loss Scale, and a theoretical explanation, and then we test this measure to…

4. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

MedlinePlus

... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

5. Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rygiel, Mary Ann

1982-01-01

Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)

6. Correlation between long-term marine temperature time series from the eastern and western English Channel: Scaling analysis using empirical mode decomposition

Derot, Jonathan; Schmitt, François Guillaume; Gentilhomme, Valérie; Morin, Pascal

2016-05-01

High-frequency temperature fluctuations recorded in the English Channel are compared using two long-term autonomous underwater monitoring stations at less than 20-min time resolution. Measurements were taken from 2005 to 2011 from two systems 460 km apart in the western and eastern parts of the English Channel. Spectral analysis reveals similar statistical behaviors, with approximate 5/3 spectra and several forcing frequencies in relation to tidal and daily cycles. A co-spectra study reveals a transition scale of 11 days. The influence of this scale is also visible though Time-Dependent Intrinsic Correlation analysis (TDIC)-a recently introduced cross-correlation analysis based on Empirical mode decomposition. This helps to spatialize high-frequency temporal records at a fixed location.

7. Optimizing multi-resolution segmentation scale using empirical methods: Exploring the sensitivity of the supervised discrepancy measure Euclidean distance 2 (ED2)

Witharana, Chandi; Civco, Daniel L.

2014-01-01

Multiresolution segmentation (MRS) has proven to be one of the most successful image segmentation algorithms in the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) framework. This algorithm is relatively complex and user-dependent; scale, shape, and compactness are the main parameters available to users for controlling the algorithm. Plurality of segmentation results is common because each parameter may take a range of values within its parameter space or different combinations of values among parameters. Finding optimal parameter values through a trial-and-error process is commonly practiced at the expense of time and labor, thus, several alternative supervised and unsupervised methods for supervised automatic parameter setting have been proposed and tested. In the case of supervised empirical assessments, discrepancy measures are employed for computing measures of dissimilarity between a reference polygon and an image object candidate. Evidently the reliability of the optimal-parameter prediction heavily relies on the sensitivity of the segmentation quality metric. The idea behind pursuing optimal parameter setting is that, for instance, a given scale setting provides image object candidates different from the other scale setting; thus, by design the supervised quality metric should capture this difference. In this exploratory study, we selected the Euclidean distance 2 (ED2) metric, a recently proposed supervised metric, whose main design goal is to optimize the geometrical discrepancy (potential segmentation error (PSE)) and arithmetic discrepancy between image objects and reference polygons (number-of segmentation ratio (NSR)) in two dimensional Euclidean space, as a candidate to investigate the validity and efficacy of empirical discrepancy measures for finding the optimal scale parameter setting of the MRS algorithm. We chose test image scenes from four different space-borne sensors with varying spatial resolutions and scene contents and systematically

8. Empirical Validation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Fresco, David M.; Hart, Trevor A.; Turk, Cynthia L.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Liebowitz, Michael R.

2005-01-01

The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE; M. R. Leary, 1983a) is often used to assess fear of negative evaluation, the core feature of social anxiety disorder. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties in large samples of socially anxious patients. Although the BFNE yields a single total score, confirmatory factor…

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

March, Robert H.

1993-01-01

Uses projectile motion to explain the two roots found when using the quadratic formula. An example is provided for finding the time of flight for a projectile which has a negative root implying a negative time of flight. This negative time of flight also has a useful physical meaning. (MVL)

10. The Formula Essay Reconsidered

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haluska, Jan

2012-01-01

Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

11. Research Timeline: Formulaic language

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wray, Alison

2013-01-01

Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

12. Detailed empirical study of the term structure of interest rates. Emergence of power laws and scaling laws

Alderweireld, Thomas; Nuyts, Jean

2004-01-01

The technique of Padé approximants, introduced in a previous work, is applied to extended recent data on the distribution of variations of interest rates compiled by the Federal Reserve System in the US. It is shown that new power laws and new scaling laws emerge for any maturity not only as a function of the Lag but also as a function of the average inital rate. This is especially true for the one year maturity where critical forms and critical exponents are obtained. This suggests future work in the direction of constructing a theory of variations of interest rates at a more “microscopic” level.

13. Prediction of empirical properties using direct pore-scale simulation of straining through 3D microtomography images of porous media

Mirabolghasemi, Maryam; Prodanović, Maša; DiCarlo, David; Ji, Hongyu

2015-10-01

Understanding the mechanisms of filtration through porous media is relevant in many engineering applications ranging from waste water treatment and aquifer contamination in environmental engineering to estimating the permeability reduction in near wellbore region during drilling or water re-injection in petroleum engineering. In this paper we present a pore-scale approach that models straining through the pore structures extracted from X-ray tomographic images of rock and grain pack samples from the first principles, enabling the examination of current macroscopic models. While continuum models are widely used for fast prediction of the retention profiles and permeability of the host porous medium, they require a number of phenomenological parameters which are derived from matching experimental results. One of these parameters is the rate of entrapment, which is the sink term in the advection-diffusion equation. Here we find the constitutive relationship for the rate of entrapment as a product of the filtration coefficient, velocity, and concentration and validate it by comparing with core flood experiments. Results show that the pore-scale simulation gives close approximations of filtration coefficient when pore bridging and straining are the main particle capture mechanisms.

14. On the topologic structure of economic complex networks: Empirical evidence from large scale payment network of Estonia

Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri

2016-09-01

This paper presents the first topological analysis of the economic structure of an entire country based on payments data obtained from Swedbank. This data set is exclusive in its kind because around 80% of Estonia's bank transactions are done through Swedbank, hence, the economic structure of the country can be reconstructed. Scale-free networks are commonly observed in a wide array of different contexts such as nature and society. In this paper, the nodes are comprised by customers of the bank (legal entities) and the links are established by payments between these nodes. We study the scaling-free and structural properties of this network. We also describe its topology, components and behaviors. We show that this network shares typical structural characteristics known in other complex networks: degree distributions follow a power law, low clustering coefficient and low average shortest path length. We identify the key nodes of the network and perform simulations of resiliency against random and targeted attacks of the nodes with two different approaches. With this, we find that by identifying and studying the links between the nodes is possible to perform vulnerability analysis of the Estonian economy with respect to economic shocks.

15. Mokken scale analysis of mental health and well-being questionnaire item responses: a non-parametric IRT method in empirical research for applied health researchers

PubMed Central

2012-01-01

Background Mokken scaling techniques are a useful tool for researchers who wish to construct unidimensional tests or use questionnaires that comprise multiple binary or polytomous items. The stochastic cumulative scaling model offered by this approach is ideally suited when the intention is to score an underlying latent trait by simple addition of the item response values. In our experience, the Mokken model appears to be less well-known than for example the (related) Rasch model, but is seeing increasing use in contemporary clinical research and public health. Mokken's method is a generalisation of Guttman scaling that can assist in the determination of the dimensionality of tests or scales, and enables consideration of reliability, without reliance on Cronbach's alpha. This paper provides a practical guide to the application and interpretation of this non-parametric item response theory method in empirical research with health and well-being questionnaires. Methods Scalability of data from 1) a cross-sectional health survey (the Scottish Health Education Population Survey) and 2) a general population birth cohort study (the National Child Development Study) illustrate the method and modeling steps for dichotomous and polytomous items respectively. The questionnaire data analyzed comprise responses to the 12 item General Health Questionnaire, under the binary recoding recommended for screening applications, and the ordinal/polytomous responses to the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Results and conclusions After an initial analysis example in which we select items by phrasing (six positive versus six negatively worded items) we show that all items from the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) – when binary scored – were scalable according to the double monotonicity model, in two short scales comprising six items each (Bech’s “well-being” and “distress” clinical scales). An illustration of ordinal item analysis confirmed that all 14

16. Universal fitting formulae for baryon oscillation surveys

Blake, Chris; Parkinson, David; Bassett, Bruce; Glazebrook, Karl; Kunz, Martin; Nichol, Robert C.

2006-01-01

The next generation of galaxy surveys will attempt to measure the baryon oscillations in the clustering power spectrum with high accuracy. These oscillations encode a preferred scale which may be used as a standard ruler to constrain cosmological parameters and dark energy models. In this paper we present simple analytical fitting formulae for the accuracy with which the preferred scale may be determined in the tangential and radial directions by future spectroscopic and photometric galaxy redshift surveys. We express these accuracies as a function of survey parameters such as the central redshift, volume, galaxy number density and (where applicable) photometric redshift error. These fitting formulae should greatly increase the efficiency of optimizing future surveys, which requires analysis of a potentially vast number of survey configurations and cosmological models. The formulae are calibrated using a grid of Monte Carlo simulations, which are analysed by dividing out the overall shape of the power spectrum before fitting a simple decaying sinusoid to the oscillations. The fitting formulae reproduce the simulation results with a fractional scatter of 7 per cent (10 per cent) in the tangential (radial) directions over a wide range of input parameters. We also indicate how sparse-sampling strategies may enhance the effective survey area if the sampling scale is much smaller than the projected baryon oscillation scale.

17. Small-Scale Drop-Size Variability: Empirical Models for Drop-Size-Dependent Clustering in Clouds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Larsen, Michael L.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

2005-01-01

By analyzing aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds, it has been shown in a companion paper that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear scale l decreases as l(sup D(r)), where 0 less than or equals D(r) less than or equals 1. This paper shows striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models illustrate strong drop clustering, especially with larger drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents D(r). The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics, including how fast rain can form. For radiative transfer theory, clustering of large drops enhances their impact on the cloud optical path. The clustering phenomenon also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally larger than that measured in situ.

18. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

SciTech Connect

Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

2013-08-31

Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the

19. Introducing Chemical Formulae and Equations.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dawson, Chris; Rowell, Jack

1979-01-01

Discusses when the writing of chemical formula and equations can be introduced in the school science curriculum. Also presents ways in which formulae and equations learning can be aided and some examples for balancing and interpreting equations. (HM)

20. Lyapunov, singular and bred vectors in a multi-scale system: an empirical exploration of vectors related to instabilities

Norwood, Adrienne; Kalnay, Eugenia; Ide, Kayo; Yang, Shu-Chih; Wolfe, Christopher

2013-06-01

We compute and compare the three types of vectors frequently used to explore the instability properties of dynamical models, namely Lyapunov vectors (LVs), singular vectors (SVs) and bred vectors (BVs) in two systems, using the Wolfe-Samelson (2007 Tellus A 59 355-66) algorithm to compute all of the Lyapunov vectors. The first system is the Lorenz (1963 J. Atmos. Sci. 20 130-41) three-variable model. Although the leading Lyapunov vector, LV1, grows fastest globally, the second Lyapunov vector, LV2, which has zero growth globally, often grows faster than LV1 locally. Whenever this happens, BVs grow closer to LV2, suggesting that in larger atmospheric or oceanic models where several instabilities can grow in different areas of the world, BVs will grow toward the fastest growing local unstable mode. A comparison of their growth rates at different times shows that all three types of dynamical vectors have the ability to predict regime changes and the duration of the new regime based on their growth rates in the last orbit of the old regime, as shown for BVs by Evans et al (2004 Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 520-4). LV1 and BVs have similar predictive skill, LV2 has a tendency to produce false alarms, and even LV3 shows that maximum decay is also associated with regime change. Initial and final SVs grow much faster and are the most accurate predictors of regime change, although the characteristics of the initial SVs are strongly dependent on the length of the optimization window. The second system is the toy ‘ocean-atmosphere’ model developed by Peña and Kalnay (2004 Nonlinear Process. Geophys. 11 319-27) coupling three Lorenz (1963 J. Atmos. Sci. 20 130-41) systems with different time scales, in order to test the effects of fast and slow modes of growth on the dynamical vectors. A fast ‘extratropical atmosphere’ is weakly coupled to a fast ‘tropical atmosphere’ which is, in turn, strongly coupled to a slow ‘ocean’ system, the latter coupling imitating the

1. Budget Formulas and Model Building.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cope, Robert G.

Selected budget formulas currently in use for university operations are described as a background for examining a budgetary model that would provide for the integration of separate formulas. Data on the formulas were collected from states with system-wide coordinating boards that are responsible for budgetary reviews. The most common formula…

2. A scoping study to identify opportunities to advance the ethical implementation and scale-up of HIV treatment as prevention: priorities for empirical research

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Background Despite the evidence showing the promise of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) in reducing HIV incidence, a variety of ethical questions surrounding the implementation and “scaling up” of TasP have been articulated by a variety of stakeholders including scientists, community activists and government officials. Given the high profile and potential promise of TasP in combatting the global HIV epidemic, an explicit and transparent research priority-setting process is critical to inform ongoing ethical discussions pertaining to TasP. Methods We drew on the Arksey and O’Malley framework for conducting scoping review studies as well as systematic approaches to identifying empirical and theoretical gaps within ethical discussions pertaining to population-level intervention implementation and scale up. We searched the health science database PubMed to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles on ethical and implementation issues pertaining to TasP. We included English language articles that were published after 2009 (i.e., after the emergence of causal evidence within this field) by using search terms related to TasP. Given the tendency for much of the criticism and support of TasP to occur outside the peer-reviewed literature, we also included grey literature in order to provide a more exhaustive representation of how the ethical discussions pertaining to TasP have and are currently taking place. To identify the grey literature, we systematically searched a set of search engines, databases, and related webpages for keywords pertaining to TasP. Results Three dominant themes emerged in our analysis with respect to the ethical questions pertaining to TasP implementation and scale-up: (a) balancing individual- and population-level interests; (b) power relations within clinical practice and competing resource demands within health care systems; (c) effectiveness considerations and socio-structural contexts of HIV treatment experiences within broader

3. Identification of embedded mathematical formulas in PDF documents using SVM

Lin, Xiaoyan; Gao, Liangcai; Tang, Zhi; Hu, Xuan; Lin, Xiaofan

2012-01-01

With the tremendous popularity of PDF format, recognizing mathematical formulas in PDF documents becomes a new and important problem in document analysis field. In this paper, we present a method of embedded mathematical formula identification in PDF documents, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The method first segments text lines into words, and then classifies each word into two classes, namely formula or ordinary text. Various features of embedded formulas, including geometric layout, character and context content, are utilized to build a robust and adaptable SVM classifier. Embedded formulas are then extracted through merging the words labeled as formulas. Experimental results show good performance of the proposed method. Furthermore, the method has been successfully incorporated into a commercial software package for large-scale e-Book production.

4. Some special features of Wigner’s mass formula for nuclei

SciTech Connect

Nurmukhamedov, A. M.

2014-12-15

Experimental data on anomalous values of the empirical function b(A) in Wigner’s mass formula are presented, the application of Student’s t criterion in experimentally proving the restoration of Wigner’s SU(4) symmetry in nuclei is validated, and a physical interpretation of the basic parameter of the empirical function a(A) in Wigner’s mass formula is given.

5. The Elusive Universal Post-Mortem Interval Formula

SciTech Connect

2011-01-01

The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen, as being three of the four primary drivers for human decomposition. It is hoped that worldwide application of these formulas to environments and situations not readily studied in Tennessee will result in interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and law enforcement personnel that will allow for future refinements of these models leading to increased accuracy.

6. Needs-Based Resource Allocation in Education via Formula Funding of Schools.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ross, Kenneth N., Ed.; Levacic, Rosalind, Ed.

This book explores a range of conceptual, methodological, and empirical issues concerned with the application of needs-based resource allocation in education via formula funding of schools. The notion of "needs-based formula funding" employed in this discussion refers to the impartial application of an agreed set of explicit rules to allocate…

7. Social-Emotional Well-Being and Resilience of Children in Early Childhood Settings--PERIK: An Empirically Based Observation Scale for Practitioners

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mayr, Toni; Ulich, Michaela

2009-01-01

Compared with the traditional focus on developmental problems, research on positive development is relatively new. Empirical research in children's well-being has been scarce. The aim of this study was to develop a theoretically and empirically based instrument for practitioners to observe and assess preschool children's well-being in early…

Peherstorfer, Franz

2008-12-01

First we discuss briefly our former characterization theorem for positive interpolation quadrature formulas (abbreviated qf), provide an equivalent characterization in terms of Jacobi matrices, and give links and applications to other qf, in particular to Gauss-Kronrod quadratures and recent rediscoveries. Then for any polynomial t_n which generates a positive qf, a weight function (depending on n ) is given with respect to which t_n is orthogonal to mathbb{P}_{n-1} . With the help of this result an asymptotic representation of the quadrature weights is derived. In general the asymptotic behaviour is different from that of the Gaussian weights. Only under additional conditions do the quadrature weights satisfy the so-called circle law. Corresponding results are obtained for positive qf of Radau and Lobatto type.

9. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

2009-09-01

We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives.

10. On generalized averaged Gaussian formulas

Spalevic, Miodrag M.

2007-09-01

We present a simple numerical method for constructing the optimal (generalized) averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas which are the optimal stratified extensions of Gauss quadrature formulas. These extensions exist in many cases in which real positive Kronrod formulas do not exist. For the Jacobi weight functions w(x)equiv w^{(alpha,beta)}(x)D(1-x)^alpha(1+x)^beta ( alpha,beta>-1 ) we give a necessary and sufficient condition on the parameters alpha and beta such that the optimal averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas are internal.

11. WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States

PubMed Central

Kent, George

2006-01-01

Background The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. Discussion The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food. Summary There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out. PMID:16722534

12. Analyses of multiplicity distributions with η c and Bose-Einstein correlations at LHC by means of generalized Glauber-Lachs formula

Mizoguchi, Takuya; Biyajima, Minoru

2010-12-01

Using the negative binomial distribution (NBD) and the generalized Glauber-Lachs (GGL) formula, we analyze the data on charged multiplicity distributions with pseudo-rapidity cutoffs η c at 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV by ALICE Collaboration and at 0.2, 0.54, and 0.9 TeV by UA5 Collaboration. We confirm that the KNO scaling holds among the multiplicity distributions with η c =0.5 at sqrt{s} = 0.2-2.36 TeV and estimate the energy dependence of a parameter 1/ k in NBD and parameters 1/ k and γ (the ratio of the average value of the coherent hadrons to that of the chaotic hadrons) in the GGL formula. Using empirical formulas for the parameters 1/ k and γ in the GGL formula, we predict the multiplicity distributions with η c =0.5 at 7 and 14 TeV. Data on the second order Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC) at 0.9 TeV by ALICE Collaboration and 0.9 and 2.36 TeV by CMS Collaboration are also analyzed based on the GGL formula. Prediction for the third order BEC at 0.9 and 2.36 TeV are presented. Moreover, the information entropy is discussed.

13. A note on generalized averaged Gaussian formulas

Spalevic, Miodrag

2007-11-01

We have recently proposed a very simple numerical method for constructing the averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas. These formulas exist in many more cases than the real positive Gauss?Kronrod formulas. In this note we try to answer whether the averaged Gaussian formulas are an adequate alternative to the corresponding Gauss?Kronrod quadrature formulas, to estimate the remainder term of a Gaussian rule.

14. Scales

MedlinePlus

Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

15. A Formula for Writing Poetry.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evans, Peter O.

1983-01-01

Presents the formula for writing poetry as containing three elements: the content of the poet's mind; the poetic medium--language; and the creative spark that fuses experience and language, or content and medium, into poetry. (MM)

16. A Salary Formula for Principals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gilbert, Michael B.

1975-01-01

When each administrative salary contract is negotiated individually, inequities creep in, many administrators feel. This article suggests a formula for determining principals' salaries based on education and experience, days of work, and responsibilities. (Editor)

17. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hakstian, A. Ralph

1973-01-01

Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

18. Heron's Remarkable Triangle Area Formula.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oliver, Bernard M.

1993-01-01

Presents Heron's original geometric proof to his formula to calculate the area of a triangle. Attempts to improve on this proof by supplying a chain of reasoning that leads quickly from premises to the conclusion. (MDH)

19. Summation formulae on trigonometric functions

Wang, Xin; Zheng, De-Yin

2007-11-01

Trigonometric sums over the angles equally distributed on the upper half plane are investigated systematically. Their generating functions and explicit formulae are established through the combination of the formal power series method and partial fraction decompositions.

20. An energy loss straggling formula

Novković, D.; Subotić, K.; Milošević, Z.; Manić, S.; Stojanović, M.

1994-12-01

The analytical formulae for straggling widths were obtained solving Symon's equations for the second and third order central moments of the straggling distributions in non-relativistic approximation, enabling prediction of peak widths and asymmetry parameters of charged particle energy loss distributions for thick targets. The respective calculations based on these formulae were found to be in good agreement with experimental values for particle energy losses of light ions up to 70% of the nominal projectile energy value.

1. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

MedlinePlus

... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

2. The Implications of Fiscal Incentives on Identification Rates and Placement in Special Education: Formulas for Influencing Best Practice

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mahitivanichcha, Kanya; Parrish, Thomas

2005-01-01

This article explores possible fiscal incentives associated with various state formulas for allocating special education funds and the degree to which such incentives affect special education. First we review empirical and contextual evidence in the literature that addresses the relationship between funding formulas and special education…

3. An improved bootstrap current formula for edge pedestal plasma

Hager, Robert; Chang, C.-S.

2014-10-01

An improved version of a bootstrap current formula based on the results of the neoclassical guiding-center particle-in-cell code XGC0 is presented. The original formula improved the accuracy of the predicted bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the ion orbit width can be comparable to the pressure gradient scale length, the passing particle region is narrow, and the ions experience orbit loss. We improved two aspects of this formula. We corrected the asymptotic behavior of the bootstrap current coefficients at higher collisionality from what was inherited from the Sauter formula. We also improved the jumpy aspect-ratio dependence of the transition between an enhanced (NSTX) and reduced (DIII-D) bootstrap current regime found by Koh et al. In addition, we elucidate the physical origins of the improvement and of the difference from a local analysis that includes the importance of finite ion orbit excursion effects on the electron current in the edge pedestal.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Olson, Arthur V.

Four readability formulas were analyzed to determine the reading grade equivalence of instructional materials at the middle grades and above: the Dale-Chall formula, the Gunning-Fog Index, the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, and the McLaughlin SMOG Grading. In addition, Spache and Wheeler/Smith formulas were analyzed for evaluating primary grade…

5. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132 and 17.182, manufacturers shall file quantitative formulas for all preparations for which they intend...

6. 27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula information. 25.57... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.57 Formula information. (a) Ingredient information. (1) For each formula you must list each separate ingredient and the specific...

7. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD...

8. Testing Linear Temporal Logic Formulae on Finite Execution Traces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

We present an algorithm for efficiently testing Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulae on finite execution traces. The standard models of LTL are infinite traces, reflecting the behavior of reactive and concurrent systems which conceptually may be continuously alive. In most past applications of LTL. theorem provers and model checkers have been used to formally prove that down-scaled models satisfy such LTL specifications. Our goal is instead to use LTL for up-scaled testing of real software applications. Such tests correspond to analyzing the conformance of finite traces against LTL formulae. We first describe what it means for a finite trace to satisfy an LTL property. We then suggest an optimized algorithm based on transforming LTL formulae. The work is done using the Maude rewriting system. which turns out to provide a perfect notation and an efficient rewriting engine for performing these experiments.

9. Modular forms and a generalized Cardy formula in higher dimensions

Shaghoulian, Edgar

2016-06-01

We derive a formula which applies to conformal field theories on a spatial torus and gives the asymptotic density of states solely in terms of the vacuum energy on a parallel plate geometry. The formula follows immediately from global scale and Lorentz invariance, but to our knowledge has not previously been made explicit. It can also be understood from the fact that log Z on T2×Rd -1 transforms as the absolute value of a nonholomorphic modular form of weight d -1 , which we show. The results are extended to theories which violate Lorentz invariance and hyperscaling but maintain a scaling symmetry. The formula is checked for the cases of a free scalar, free Maxwell gauge field, and free N =4 super Yang-Mills. The case of a Maxwell gauge field gives Casimir's original calculation of the electromagnetic force between parallel plates in terms of the entropy of a photon gas.

10. Developing the Vertex Formula Meaningfully

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nebesniak, Amy L.; Burgoa, A. Aaron

2015-01-01

As teachers working with students in entry-level algebra classes, authors Amy Nebesniak and A. Aaron Burgoa realized that their instruction was a major factor in how their students viewed mathematics. They often presented students with abstract formulas that seemed to appear out of thin air. One instance occurred while they were teaching students…

11. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

Du, Yi-Jian; Teng, Fei; Wu, Yong-Shi

2016-05-01

In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl supports the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula produces the Parke-Taylor formula for MHV Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for MHV gravitational amplitudes, with an arbitrary number of external gluons/gravitons. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly Möbius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other ( n - 3)! - 1 solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes. Our results reveal a mysterious feature of the CHY formalism that in Yang-Mills and gravity theory, solutions of scattering equations, involving only external momenta, somehow know about the configuration of external polarizations of the scattering amplitudes.

12. Formulas for determining rotational constants

Guelachvili, G.

This document is part of Subvolume B Linear Triatomic Molecules', Part 9, of Volume 20 Molecular Constants mostly from Infrared Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein Group II Molecules and Radicals'. Part of the introduction, it states formulas for determining rotational constants, band center, band origin, and quadrupole coupling. Specific comments relate to BHO (HBO) and COS (OCS).

13. Financial Formulas for Library Networks.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hayes, Phoebe F.

Formulas for the fiscal support of library networks are discussed against the perspective of present patterns of library funding. Provisions for financing current cooperative library programs are illustrative of the problems which might be encountered in networks. Several proposals for network development have been concerned with and provide some…

14. Elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula based on X-ray measurements with a synthetic paraffinic oil

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1973-01-01

An empirical elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula for heavily loaded contacts based upon X-ray film thickness measurements made with a synthetic paraffinic oil is presented. The deduced relation was found to adequately reflect the high load dependence exhibited by the measured minimum film thickness data at high Hertizian contact stresses, that is, above 1.04 x 10 to the ninth N/sq m (150,000 psi). Comparisons were made with the numerical results from a theoretical isothermal film thickness formula. The effects of changes in contact geometry, material, and lubricant properties on the form of the empirical model are also discussed.

15. Formula for the rms blur circle radius of Wolter telescope based on aberration theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shealy, David L.; Saha, Timo T.

1990-01-01

A formula for the rms blur circle for Wolter telescopes has been derived using the transverse ray aberration expressions of Saha (1985), Saha (1984), and Saha (1986). The resulting formula for the rms blur circle radius over an image plane and a formula for the surface of best focus based on third-, fifth-, and seventh-order aberration theory predict results in good agreement with exact ray tracing. It has also been shown that one of the two terms in the empirical formula of VanSpeybroeck and Chase (1972), for the rms blur circle radius of a Wolter I telescope can be justified by the aberration theory results. Numerical results are given comparing the rms blur radius and the surface of best focus vs the half-field angle computed by skew ray tracing and from analytical formulas for grazing incidence Wolter I-II telescopes and a normal incidence Cassegrain telescope.

16. Generalized design formulas for low energy electromagnetic quads

SciTech Connect

Liska, D.J.

1994-06-01

This technical note is the result of the quadrupole magnet design efforts that went into the development of proposals for large high-powered linear accelerators such as the Accelerator for Production of Tritium (APT), Accelerator for Base Conversion (of Plutonium) (ABC), and Accelerator for Treatment of (radioactive) Waste (ATW). In all these applications it was necessary to develop designs for numerous (hundreds) of electromagnetic quadrupoles (EMQs). EMQs are required since long-term reliability, radiation damage potential, and large aperture dictate against the use of permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) for these powerful machines. One object of the magnet design effort was to provide a quick, reliable, and easy means of converting raw physics requirements (magnetic impulse, focal length, and boretube aperture) into realistic electrical, cooling, facility interface, and mechanical specifications and configurations--in other words, to easily convert physics requirements to a reliable design that could be drawn on paper, shown to vendors, and presented to peer review committees as a well-developed and believable concept. The empirical formulas that were derived have been gathered together in this technical note. They will be useful for other designers interested in an easy way of coming up with a rather complete mechanical as well as electrical and magnetic design for EMQs. Included are lab tests of designs derived from these formulas and comparisons with other real EMQ designs. These demonstrate the good accuracy of the empirical formulas.

17. Scale

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schaffhauser, Dian

2009-01-01

The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

18. The analysis of predictability of recent alpha decay formulae and the alpha partial half-lives of some exotic nuclei

SciTech Connect

Dasgupta-Schubert, N.; Reyes, M. A.; Tamez, V. A.

2009-04-20

Alpha decay is one of the two main decay modes of the heaviest nuclei, (SHE), and constitutes one of the dominant decay modes of highly neutron deficient medium mass nuclei ('exotics'). Thus identifying and characterizing the alpha decay chains form a crucial part of the identification of SHE. We report the extension of the previously developed method for the detailed and systematic investigation of the reliability of the three main extant analytical formulae of alpha decay half-lives: the generalized liquid drop model based formula of Royer et al. (FR), the Sobiczewski modified semi-empirical Viola-Seaborg formula (VSS) and the recent phenomenological formula of Sobiczewski and Parkhomenko (SP)

19. Blackhole formula and example relativity

Shin, Philip

Black hole formula 1) Second dimension (x,y) f(x)=y Energy E=m*c2 2) Third dimension (x,y,z) really x=y=z Black hole formula Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) As mass go the velocity of light, mass become black hole so there are energy as multiply by mass. Example relativity When E=m*c2 1) Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) 2) 3*c*Root(c2)=3*c*Root(E/m)=3*c2 From 1) to 2) as an example, As velocity is faster, mass increased. It means when velocity is increased, sec(time) is slower, and m(distance) is increased. The number is good to study physics.

20. Trace formula for broken symmetry

SciTech Connect

Creagh, S.C.

1996-05-01

We derive a trace formula for systems that exhibit an approximate continuous symmetry. It interpolates between the sum over continuous families of periodic orbits that holds in the case of exact continuous symmetry, and the discrete sum over isolated orbits that holds when the symmetry is completely broken. It is based on a simple perturbation expansion of the classical dynamics, centered around the case of exact symmetry, and gives an approximation to the usual Gutzwiller formula when the perturbation is large. We illustrate the computation with some 2-dimensional examples: the deformation of the circular billiard into an ellipse, and anisotropic and anharmonic perturbations of a harmonic oscillator. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

1. Discretization formulas for unstructured grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baumeister, Kenneth J.

1988-01-01

The Galerkin weighted residual technique using linear triangular weight functions is employed to develop finite difference formula in cartesian coordinates for the Laplacian operator, first derivative operators and the function for unstructured triangular grids. The weighted residual coefficients associated with the weak formulation of the Laplacian operator are shown to agree with the Taylor series approach on a global average. In addition, a simple algorithm is presented to determine the Voronoi (finite difference) area of an unstructured grid.

2. Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?

PubMed

Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan

2016-01-01

Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence. PMID:27336594

3. Composition formulas of binary eutectics

Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.

2015-12-01

The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism.

4. Composition formulas of binary eutectics.

PubMed

Ma, Y P; Dong, D D; Dong, C; Luo, L J; Wang, Q; Qiang, J B; Wang, Y M

2015-01-01

The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1(st)-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)(1 or 3). A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618

5. Composition formulas of binary eutectics

PubMed Central

Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.

2015-01-01

The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618

6. Using empirical measurements of tree branching architecture to scale whole-tree metabolism along a 4000 m elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and Amazon

Bentley, L. P.; Shenkin, A.; Enquist, B.; Malhi, Y.

2014-12-01

Plant scaling models use measurements of architecture (i.e., length, width, and order of branch or xylem segments) to ultimately predict whole-plant metabolism via mass and water-use allometries. The application of plant scaling models is broad, and holds potential to simplify forest modelling efforts. However little is known regarding the influence of the environment (e.g., temperature, light, etc) on variation in branching architecture traits and how this variation affects scaling. Furthermore, scaling model assumptions of a self-similar and symmetric branching network have not been extensively tested, especially in tropical forests. As such, it is still unclear to what extent tree communities can be approximated by simple geometrical models, and where important functional divergences from theory exist. Here we analyse novel tree architecture data from diverse species along a 4000m elevational gradient spanning the Andes to the Amazon in Peru. Specifically, we calculate and compare inter- and intra-specific scaling exponents related to branch segment length and width within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Preliminary results indicate that branching architecture significantly varies among and within species especially with respect to light environments. As such, we explore the role of light in driving tree geometry by also analysing differences in light environment and crown shape. Then, we attempt to link branch architecture and crown shape. Using 6 branch-level and whole-tree traits (path length fraction, crown depth, crown width, crown volume, crown depth/width and crown width/depth) we are able to cluster 68 species of trees into 6 unique groups related to architecture and explain ~60% variability in these data. In the future, it will be important to relate these architectural groups to variation in leaf-level traits and physiology. Lastly, we discuss the implications of using these results to understand tropical forest responses to environmental change.

7. Scales

ScienceCinema

Murray Gibson

2010-01-08

Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

8. Scales

SciTech Connect

Murray Gibson

2007-04-27

Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

9. Formulaic Sequences and Perceived Oral Proficiency: Putting a Lexical Approach to the Test

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boers, Frank; Eyckmans, June; Kappel, Jenny; Stengers, Helene; Demecheleer, Murielle

2006-01-01

This study reports a small-scale experiment that was set up to estimate the extent to which (i) the use of formulaic sequences (standardized phrases such as collocations and idiomatic expressions) can help learners come across as proficient L2 speakers and (ii) an instructional method that emphasizes "noticing" of L2 formulaic sequences can help…

10. Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

2010-01-01

The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

11. Experimental scaling law for mass ablation rate from a Sn plasma generated by a 1064 nm laser

SciTech Connect

Burdt, Russell A.; Yuspeh, Sam; Najmabadi, Farrokh; Sequoia, Kevin L.; Tao Yezheng; Tillack, Mark S.

2009-08-01

The ablation depth in planar Sn targets irradiated with a pulsed 1064 nm laser was investigated over laser intensities from 3x10{sup 11} to 2x10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}. The ablation depth was measured by irradiating a thin layer of Sn evaporated onto a Si wafer, and looking for signatures of Si ions in the expanding plasma with spectroscopic and particle diagnostics. It was found that ablation depth scales with laser intensity to the (5/9)th power, which is consistent with analytical models of steady-state laser ablation, as well as empirical formulae from previous studies of mass ablation rate in overlapping parameter space. In addition, the scaling of mass ablation rate with atomic number of the target as given by empirical formulae in previous studies using targets such as C and Al, are shown to remain valid for the higher atomic number of the target (Z=50) used in these experiments.

12. Formulae for TAR and SAR calculation for Co-60 beam.

PubMed

Tripathi, U B

1980-04-01

Tissue-air ratio (TAR) and scatter-air ratio (SAR) are very important concepts in radiation dosimetry. In absence of any analytical relation for computation of these quantities a number of empirical equations have been fitted to experimentally measured data. This paper describes the derivation of analytical formulae from first principles. The resultant equations are very simple and can even be evaluated with the help of a slide rule. The computed values of TAR and SAR agree within 1% with the experimental data of Gupta and Cunningham (1966). PMID:7368231

13. 28 CFR 38.2 - Formula grants.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formula grants. 38.2 Section 38.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EQUAL TREATMENT FOR FAITH-BASED ORGANIZATIONS § 38.2 Formula... cooperative agreement funded by a formula or block grant from the Department. As used in this section,...

14. 27 CFR 24.196 - Formula required.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.196... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.196 Formula required. Before producing any special natural wine, the proprietor shall receive approval of the formula by which it is...

15. 27 CFR 20.101 - Drafting formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drafting formulas. 20.101... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process Approval Policies § 20.101 Drafting formulas. (a) In preparing Form 5150.19, the...

16. 27 CFR 24.201 - Formula required.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.201... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.201 Formula required. Before producing any agricultural wine, the proprietor shall obtain an approval of the formula and process by...

17. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make grants...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award...

18. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

19. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formulas. 455.31 Section 455.31 Energy... § 455.31 Allocation formulas. (a) Financial assistance for conducting technical assistance programs for... this section. (c) The allocation factor (K) shall be determined by the formula: EC14NO91.086 where,...

20. 27 CFR 26.31 - Formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula. 26.31 Section 26... States From Areas Other Than Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands § 26.31 Formula. (a) The amount of excise.... The formula shall be as follows: (1) Multiply the total excise taxes collected on rum brought into...

1. 25 CFR 273.31 - Distribution formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution formula. 273.31 Section 273.31 Indians... formula. (a) Funds shall be distributed to eligible contractors based upon the number of eligible Indian... formula. (b) The Assistant Secretary may make exceptions to the provisions of paragraph (a) of...

2. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements § 574.130 Formula allocations. (a) Data sources. HUD will allocate funds based on the number of cases...

3. 27 CFR 24.211 - Formula required.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.211... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.211 Formula required. The proprietor who desires to produce wine other than standard wine shall first obtain approval of the formula...

4. 27 CFR 19.452 - Formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... Denaturation § 19.452 Formulas. Spirits shall be denatured in accordance with formulas as authorized in 27 CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas. 19.452 Section 19.452 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...

5. 27 CFR 20.91 - Formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula. 20.91 Section 20... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.91 Formula. (a) Each article made with specially denatured spirits shall be made in accordance...

6. 5 CFR 1315.17 - Formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formulas. 1315.17 Section 1315.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT PAYMENT § 1315.17 Formulas. (a) Rebate formula. (1) Agencies shall determine credit card payment dates based on an analysis of the...

7. The Funding of Community Colleges: Formulas & Governance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mullin, Christopher M.; Honeyman, David S.

2008-01-01

This study identified governing state entities charged with the development of a funding formula for community colleges. Analysis of the data revealed that 40 states utilized a funding formula. Twenty-one states had a "Higher Education" entity with governing control of the formula, 5 states had a "Community College" entity with distinct funding…

8. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

9. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

10. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

11. Algebraic Formulas for Areas between Curves.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gabai, Hyman

1982-01-01

Korean secondary school students preparing for college learn about a simple algebraic formula for area bounded by a parabola and line. The approach does not seem well-known among American students. It is noted that, while the formula derivations rely on integration, algebra students could use the formulas without proofs. (MP)

12. Exponential Formulae and Effective Operations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mielnik, Bogdan; Fernandez, David J. C.

1996-01-01

One of standard methods to predict the phenomena of squeezing consists in splitting the unitary evolution operator into the product of simpler operations. The technique, while mathematically general, is not so simple in applications and leaves some pragmatic problems open. We report an extended class of exponential formulae, which yield a quicker insight into the laboratory details for a class of squeezing operations, and moreover, can be alternatively used to programme different type of operations, as: (1) the free evolution inversion; and (2) the soft simulations of the sharp kicks (so that all abstract results involving the kicks of the oscillator potential, become realistic laboratory prescriptions).

13. [Infant formulas and soy protein-based formulas: current data].

PubMed

Bocquet, A; Bresson, J L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M L; Ghisolfi, J; Goulet, O; Putet, G; Rieu, D; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

2001-11-01

For many years soy bean-based formulas (SBBF) were the only dietary product used for infants with cow's milk intolerance. At the present time, their place in infant nutrition is reduced as a result of the availability of new dietary products without lactose and/or cow's milk proteins and the recognition of soy bean protein allergy. There is no evidence that SBBF have any efficiency in infant colic. SBBF have no indication in the prevention of allergy, nor in premature infants' nutrition. Their main indication is the feeding of infants of vegetarian parents who do not want to use cow's milk products. Studies have shown that SBBF contain large quantities of phytoestrogens, particularly isoflavone. Because of experimental data suggesting a possible deleterious effect of phytoestrogens on the neuroendocrine maturation, the reduction of their content in SBBF must be considered. PMID:11760676

14. Integral formula for the effective diffusion coefficient in two-dimensional channels

Kalinay, Pavol

2016-07-01

The effective one-dimensional description of diffusion in two-dimensional channels of varying cross section is revisited. The effective diffusion coefficient D (x ) , extending Fick-Jacobs equation, depending on the longitudinal coordinate x , is derived here without use of scaling of the transverse coordinates. The result of the presented method is an integral formula for D (x ) , calculating its value at x as an integral of contributions from the neighboring positions x' depending on h (x') , a function shaping the channel. Unlike the standard formulas based on the scaling, the new proposed formula also describes D (x ) correctly near the cusps, or in wider channels.

15. Formulaic Language in Alzheimer’s Disease

PubMed Central

Bridges, Kelly Ann; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

2013-01-01

Background Studies of productive language in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have focused on formal testing of syntax and semantics but have directed less attention to naturalistic discourse and formulaic language. Clinical observations suggest that individuals with AD retain the ability to produce formulaic language long after other cognitive abilities have deteriorated. Aims This study quantifies production of formulaic expressions in the spontaneous speech of individuals with AD. Persons with early- and late-onset forms of the disease were compared. Methods & Procedures Conversational language samples of individuals with early- (n = 5) and late-onset (n = 6) AD and healthy controls (n = 5) were analyzed to determine whether formulaic language, as measured by the number of words in formulaic expressions, differs between groups. Outcomes & Results Results indicate that individuals with AD, regardless of age of onset, used significantly more formulaic expressions than healthy controls. The early- and late-onset AD groups did not differ on formulaic language measures. Conclusions These findings contribute to a dual process model of cerebral function, which proposes differing processing principles for formulaic and novel expressions. In this model, subcortical areas, which remain intact into late in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, play an important role in the production of formulaic language. Applications to clinical practice include identifying preserved formulaic language and providing informed counseling to patient and family. PMID:24187417

16. An Empirical Expression to Predict the Resonant Frequencies of Archimedean Spirals

PubMed Central

Hooker, Jerris W.; Ramaswamy, Vijaykumar; Arora, Rajendra K.; Edison, Arthur S.; Withers, Richard S.; Nast, Robert E.; Brey, William W.

2015-01-01

This work presents an empirical formula to accurately determine the frequencies of the fundamental and higher order resonances of an Archimedean spiral in a uniform dielectric medium in the absence of a ground plane. The formula is based on method-of-moments simulations which have been experimentally validated. This empirical formula is widely applicable to a broad range of spirals from thin-ring to disk-shaped (ratio of inner to outer radii 0 to 1), with 10 or more turns. PMID:26556910

17. Cottingham formula and nucleon polarisabilities

Gasser, J.; Hoferichter, M.; Leutwyler, H.; Rusetsky, A.

2015-08-01

The difference between the electromagnetic self-energies of proton and neutron can be calculated with the Cottingham formula, which expresses the self-energies as an integral over the electroproduction cross sections - provided the nucleon matrix elements of the current commutator do not contain a fixed pole. We show that, under the same proviso, the subtraction function occurring in the dispersive representation of the virtual Compton forward scattering amplitude is determined by the cross sections. The representation in particular leads to a parameter-free sum rule for the nucleon polarisabilities. We evaluate the sum rule for the difference between the electric polarisabilities of proton and neutron by means of the available parameterisations of the data and compare the result with experiment.

18. Cosmological parallax-distance formula

Singal, Ashok K.

2015-09-01

The standard cosmological parallax-distance formula, as found in the literature, including text-books and reference books on cosmology, requires a correction. This correction stems from the fact that in the standard text-book derivation it has been ignored that any chosen baseline in a gravitationally bound system does not partake in the cosmological expansion. Though the correction is available in the literature for some time, the text-books still continue to use the older, incorrect formula, and its full implications are not yet fully realized. Apart from providing an alternate correct, closed-form expression that is more suitable and convenient for computations for certain limiting cases of FRW () world models, we also demonstrate how one can compute parallax distance for the currently favored flat-space accelerating-universe (, ) cosmologies. Further, we show that the correction in parallax distance at large redshifts could amount to a factor of three or even more. Moreover, even in an infinite universe the parallax distance does not increase indefinitely with redshift and that even the farthest possible observable point may have a finite parallax angle, a factor that needs to be carefully taken into account when using distant objects as the background field against which the parallax of a foreground object is to be measured. Some other complications that could arise in parallax measurements of a distant source, like that due to the deflection of incoming light by the gravitation field of the Sun and other planetary bodies in the solar system, are pointed out.

19. Law of Empires.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Martz, Carlton

2001-01-01

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

20. 27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.225 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved... voluntarily surrendered. Any person holding such a formula is not required to submit a new formula. If...

1. 27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... formulas. 26.55 Section 26.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.55 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form... surrendered. Any person holding such a formula is not required to submit a new formula. If an approved...

2. Empirical conversion between teleseismic magnitudes (mb and Ms) and moment magnitude (Mw) at the Global, Euro-Mediterranean and Italian scale

Lolli, B.; Gasperini, P.; Vannucci, G.

2014-11-01

We analysed the conversion problem between teleseismic magnitudes (Ms and mb) provided by the Seismological Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre and moment magnitudes (Mw) provided by online moment tensor (MT) catalogues using the chi-square general orthogonal regression method (CSQ) that, differently from the ordinary least-square regression method (OLS), accounts for the measurement errors of both the predictor and response variables. To account for the non-linearity of the relationships, we used two types of curvilinear models: (i) the exponential model (EXP), recently proposed by the authors of the Global Catalogue sponsored by the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Foundation and (ii) a connected bilinear (CBL) model, similar to that proposed by Ekström & Dziewonski, where two different linear trends at low and high magnitudes are connected by an arc of circle that preserves the continuity of the function and of its first derivative at the connecting points. For Ms, we found that the regression curves computed for a global data set (GBL) are likely to be biased by the incompleteness of global MT catalogues for Mw <5.0-5.5. In fact, the GBL curves deviate significantly from a similar regression curve computed for a Euro-Mediterranean data set (MED) integrated with the data provided by two regional MT catalogues including many more events with Mw < 5.0-5.5. The GLB regression curves overestimate the Mw proxies computed from Ms up to 0.5 magnitude units. Hence for computing Mw proxies at the global scale of Ms ≤ 5.5, we suggest to adopt the coefficients obtained from the MED regression. The analysis of the frequency-magnitude relationship of the resulting Mw proxy catalogues confirms the validity of this choice as the behaviour of b­-value as a function of cut-off magnitude of the GBL data set is much more stable using such approach. The incompleteness of Mw's provided from MT global catalogues also affects the mb GBL data set but in this case the

3. Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formulas.

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chen, C.-L.

1983-01-01

A new general rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formula is presented, utilizing a method similar to, but more accurate than one previously developed. The previously developed formula was based on the average depth-duration ratio of about 40% and the mean depth-frequency ratio of 1.48. It is shown that this formula is only a particular form of the writer's more general formulation. -from Author

4. Fluid mechanical scaling of impact craters in unconsolidated granular materials

Miranda, Colin S.; Dowling, David R.

2015-11-01

A single scaling law is proposed for the diameter of simple low- and high-speed impact craters in unconsolidated granular materials where spall is not apparent. The scaling law is based on the assumption that gravity- and shock-wave effects set crater size, and is formulated in terms of a dimensionless crater diameter, and an empirical combination of Froude and Mach numbers. The scaling law involves the kinetic energy and speed of the impactor, the acceleration of gravity, and the density and speed of sound in the target material. The size of the impactor enters the formulation but divides out of the final empirical result. The scaling law achieves a 98% correlation with available measurements from drop tests, ballistic tests, missile impacts, and centrifugally-enhanced gravity impacts for a variety of target materials (sand, alluvium, granulated sugar, and expanded perlite). The available measurements cover more than 10 orders of magnitude in impact energy. For subsonic and supersonic impacts, the crater diameter is found to scale with the 1/4- and 1/6-power, respectively, of the impactor kinetic energy with the exponent crossover occurring near a Mach number of unity. The final empirical formula provides insight into how impact energy partitioning depends on Mach number.

5. Efficient formulas for efficiency correction of cumulants

Kitazawa, Masakiyo

2016-04-01

Formulas connecting cumulants of particle numbers observed with efficiency losses with the original ones are derived based on the binomial model. These formulas can be applied to quantities given by a linear combination of particle numbers observed with different efficiencies in a compact form. Compared with the presently suggested ones based on factorial moments, these formulas would drastically reduce the numerical cost for the efficiency corrections when the order of the cumulant and the number of different efficiencies are large. The efficiency correction with realistic pT-dependent efficiency would be carried out with the aid of these formulas.

6. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

PubMed

Lönnerdal, Bo

2012-01-01

Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

7. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section 74.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a)...

8. 38 CFR 9.12 - Reinsurance formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reinsurance formula. 9.12 Section 9.12 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SERVICEMEMBERS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.12 Reinsurance formula. The allocation...

9. Lewis Carroll's Formula for Calendar Calculating.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spitz, Herman H.

1993-01-01

This paper presents Lewis Carroll's formula for mentally calculating the day of the week of a given date. The paper concludes that such formulas are too complex for individuals of low intelligence to learn by themselves, and thus "idiots savants" who perform such calendar calculations must be using other systems. (JDD)

10. Alternative Derivations for the Poisson Integral Formula

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chen, J. T.; Wu, C. S.

2006-01-01

Poisson integral formula is revisited. The kernel in the Poisson integral formula can be derived in a series form through the direct BEM free of the concept of image point by using the null-field integral equation in conjunction with the degenerate kernels. The degenerate kernels for the closed-form Green's function and the series form of Poisson…

11. A Choice of a New Funding Formula

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hancock, Kenneth

2008-01-01

This report examines the fiscal neutrality of three funding formulas that have been proposed to replace the current funding formula for Oklahoma's common schools in an attempt to have greater equity in the distribution of funds to the various districts. Using data from SY-03 to SY-07, calculations of state aid for the 540- districts and fiscal…

12. 27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.26...

13. 27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... requirements. (a) General. An approved formula is required to blend, mix, purify, refine, compound, or...

14. 27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... requirements. (a) General. An approved formula is required to blend, mix, purify, refine, compound, or...

15. 27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.26...

16. Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity.

PubMed

Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek

2016-01-01

Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m(2) for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients' mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children. PMID:27323883

17. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

MedlinePlus

... months. Here are some ways you can save money on infant formula . ... Here are a few ways to save money on infant formula: DO NOT buy just one type of baby bottle at first. Try a few different types to see which kind ...

18. 28 CFR 38.2 - Formula grants.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formula grants. 38.2 Section 38.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EQUAL TREATMENT FOR FAITH-BASED ORGANIZATIONS § 38.2 Formula grants. (a) Religious organizations are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization, to participate in any Department program for which...

19. Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity

PubMed Central

Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek

2016-01-01

Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m2 for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients’ mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children. PMID:27323883

20. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

1. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

2. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

3. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

4. 10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...

5. Review of "Weighted Student Formula Yearbook 2009"

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Baker, Bruce

2009-01-01

The new "Weighted Student Formula Yearbook 2009" from the Reason Foundation provides a simple framework for touting the successes of states and urban school districts that grant greater fiscal autonomy to schools. The report defines the Weighted Student Formula (WSF) reform extremely broadly, presenting a variety of reforms under the WSF umbrella.…

6. Formulas in Physics Have a "Standard" Form

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moelter, Matthew J.; Jackson, Martin

2012-01-01

We discuss the importance of the ordering of symbols in physics formulas and identify implicit conventions that govern the "standard" form for how formulas are written and interpreted. An important part of writing and reading this form is understanding distinctions among constants, parameters, and variables. We delineate these conventions and…

7. The health implications of soy infant formula

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soy formula (SF) has been fed to millions of infants worldwide. It has been shown to promote growth and development as well as milk-based formula (MF) does. Controversy has developed over the adequacy and safety of SF. Most concerns are based on in vivo and in vitro data that raise the possibility o...

8. Formulas for sediment porosity and settling velocity

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The formulas of Komura (1963) and Han et al. (1981) for the initial porosity of sediment deposits were tested using data sets collected in different countries and regions. It was found that Komura’s formula slightly underestimates the dry density for sand and gravel deposits and overestimates those ...

9. Using Programmable Calculators to Evaluate Complicated Formulas.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Snover, Stephen L.; Spikell, Mark A.

The application of the programmable calculator to evaluating complicated formulas is illustrated by considering the formula for finding the area of any triangle when only the lengths of the three sides are known. Other advantages of the programmable calculator are discussed such as freeing the student to explore more challenging problems and…

10. Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hancock, Kenneth

2015-01-01

This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…

11. Teaching Structural Formulas in Chemistry: How Students Relate Structural Formulas to the Solubility of Substances.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goedhart, Martin; van Duin, Yvonne

Structural formulas give professional chemists information about physical and chemical properties of corresponding compounds. In chemistry education at secondary schools, structural formulas are introduced in the context of chemical bonding. Structural formulas are not introduced as representations of the properties of chemical compounds. This…

12. The NIHR collaboration for leadership in applied health research and care (CLAHRC) for greater manchester: combining empirical, theoretical and experiential evidence to design and evaluate a large-scale implementation strategy

PubMed Central

2011-01-01

Background In response to policy recommendations, nine National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) were established in England in 2008, aiming to create closer working between the health service and higher education and narrow the gap between research and its implementation in practice. The Greater Manchester (GM) CLAHRC is a partnership between the University of Manchester and twenty National Health Service (NHS) trusts, with a five-year mission to improve healthcare and reduce health inequalities for people with cardiovascular conditions. This paper outlines the GM CLAHRC approach to designing and evaluating a large-scale, evidence- and theory-informed, context-sensitive implementation programme. Discussion The paper makes a case for embedding evaluation within the design of the implementation strategy. Empirical, theoretical, and experiential evidence relating to implementation science and methods has been synthesised to formulate eight core principles of the GM CLAHRC implementation strategy, recognising the multi-faceted nature of evidence, the complexity of the implementation process, and the corresponding need to apply approaches that are situationally relevant, responsive, flexible, and collaborative. In turn, these core principles inform the selection of four interrelated building blocks upon which the GM CLAHRC approach to implementation is founded. These determine the organizational processes, structures, and roles utilised by specific GM CLAHRC implementation projects, as well as the approach to researching implementation, and comprise: the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework; a modified version of the Model for Improvement; multiprofessional teams with designated roles to lead, facilitate, and support the implementation process; and embedded evaluation and learning. Summary Designing and evaluating a large-scale implementation

13. Consistent Numerical Expressions for Precession Formulae.

Soma, M.

The precession formulae by Lieske et al. (1977) have been used since 1984 for calculating apparent positions and reducing astrometric observations of celestial objects. These formulae are based on the IAU (1976) Astronomical Constants, some of which deviate from their recently determined values. They are also derived using the secular variations of the ecliptic pole from Newcomb's theory, which is not consistent with the recent planetary theories. Accordingly Simon et al. (1994) developed new precession formulae using the recently determined astronomical constants and also being based on the new planetary theory VSOP87. There are two differing definitions of the ecliptic: ecliptic in the inertial sense and ecliptic in the rotating sense (Standish 1981). The ecliptic given by the VSOP87 theory is that in the inertial sense, but the value for obliquity Simon et al. used is the obliquity in the rotating sense. Therefore their precession formulae has inconsistency. This paper gives corrections for consistent precession formulae.

14. The Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and superconductivity

SciTech Connect

Vargas-Paredes, Alfredo A.; Doria, Mauro M.; Neto, Jose Abdala Helayeel

2013-01-15

We derive the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula for the two-component order parameter superconductor, which provides a twofold view of the kinetic energy of the superconductor. For the one component order parameter superconductor we review the connection between the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and the Ginzburg-Landau theory. For the two-component case we claim that this formula opens a venue to describe inhomogeneous superconducting states intertwined by spin correlations and charged dislocation. In this case the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula displays local rotational and electromagnetic gauge symmetry (SU(2) Circled-Times U(1)) and relies on local commuting momentum and spin operators. The order parameter lives in a space with curvature and torsion described by Elie Cartan geometrical formalism. The Lichnerowickz-Weitzenboeck formula leads to first order differential equations that are a three-dimensional version of the Seiberg-Witten equations.

15. A `fractal'' modification of Torricelli's formula

Maramathas, Athanasios J.; Boudouvis, Andreas G.

2010-03-01

A modification is proposed of Torricelli’s (1608-1647) formula for the velocity of water discharging from a small hole at the bottom of a large tank filled with fractal solid material. The new formula takes proper account of the mechanical energy losses due to flow in the solid matrix, thus expanding the area of validity of the classical Torricelli’s formula. Moreover, it offers a convenient alternative to Darcy’s law for estimating the discharge rate from an aquifer. The new formula was derived from laboratory experiments, with a low-Reynolds number discharge flow (Darcian flow). It was tested in a natural karst aquifer where the flow is non-Darcian, at Almiros spring on the island of Crete (Greece). In both cases, the predictive capability of the modified formula is established.

16. Estimating the Coefficient of Cross-validity in Multiple Regression: A Comparison of Analytical and Empirical Methods.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Hines, Constance V.

1996-01-01

The accuracy of three analytical formulas for shrinkage estimation and four empirical techniques were investigated in a Monte Carlo study of the coefficient of cross-validity in multiple regression. Substantial statistical bias was evident for all techniques except the formula of M. W. Brown (1975) and multicross-validation. (SLD)

17. 27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas disapproved for... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.137 Formulas disapproved for drawback. A formula may be disapproved for drawback either because it does not prescribe appropriate ingredients...

18. 27 CFR 21.52 - Formula No. 27.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27. 21.52... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.52 Formula No. 27. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

19. 27 CFR 21.45 - Formula No. 20.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.45... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.45 Formula No. 20. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

20. 27 CFR 21.44 - Formula No. 19.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 19. 21.44... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.44 Formula No. 19. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

1. 27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27-B. 21.54... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.54 Formula No. 27-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

2. 27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B. 21.36... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

3. 27 CFR 17.122 - Amended or revised formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... formulas. 17.122 Section 17.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.122 Amended or revised formulas. Except as provided in this section, amended or revised formulas are considered to be new formulas and shall be numbered...

4. 27 CFR 21.38 - Formula No. 4.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 4. 21.38... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.38 Formula No. 4. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol, or to...

5. 27 CFR 21.24 - Formula No. 20.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.24 Formula No. 20. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of ethyl alcohol of not less than 195...

6. 27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ink general-use formula..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is...

7. 27 CFR 25.56 - Filing of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 25.56... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.56 Filing of formulas. (a) What are the general requirements for filing a formula? (1) You must file your formula in writing....

8. 27 CFR 21.46 - Formula No. 22.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 22. 21.46... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.46 Formula No. 22. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

9. 27 CFR 21.70 - Formula No. 39-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 39-A. 21.70... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.70 Formula No. 39-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

10. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

11. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

12. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

13. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

14. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

15. The Processing on Different Types of English Formulaic Sequences

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qian, Li

2015-01-01

Formulaic sequences are found to be processed faster than their matched novel phrases in previous studies. Given the variety of formulaic types, few studies have compared processing on different types of formulaic sequences. The present study explored the processing among idioms, speech formulae and written formulae. It has been found that in…

16. 27 CFR 21.55 - Formula No. 28-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 28-A. 21.55... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.55 Formula No. 28-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

17. 27 CFR 21.67 - Formula No. 38-D.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 38-D. 21.67... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.67 Formula No. 38-D. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

18. 27 CFR 21.66 - Formula No. 38-C.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 38-C. 21.66... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.66 Formula No. 38-C. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

19. 27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.64 Formula No. 37. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

20. The Parisi Formula has a Unique Minimizer

Auffinger, Antonio; Chen, Wei-Kuo

2015-05-01

In 1979, Parisi (Phys Rev Lett 43:1754-1756, 1979) predicted a variational formula for the thermodynamic limit of the free energy in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and described the role played by its minimizer. This formula was verified in the seminal work of Talagrand (Ann Math 163(1):221-263, 2006) and later generalized to the mixed p-spin models by Panchenko (Ann Probab 42(3):946-958, 2014). In this paper, we prove that the minimizer in Parisi's formula is unique at any temperature and external field by establishing the strict convexity of the Parisi functional.

1. Experimental study on Qizhu formula for modulating survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis, in MGC-803 gastric cancer cells

PubMed Central

WEN, HAO; WANG, XIAOHUA; SHAN, ZHAOWEI

2014-01-01

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of Qizhu formula, a Chinese medicinal empirical formula, in modulating the action of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis, in MGC-803 gastric cancer cells. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were applied to detect the effect of varying concentrations of Qizhu formula in the modulation of the expression of survivin in MGC-803 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The western blot analysis results demonstrated that Qizhu formula exerted no significant effects on the protein expression of the β-actin housekeeping gene, whereas it exerted a significant inhibitory effect on the protein expression of the apoptosis-related survivin gene at concentrations of 250 μg/ml and, particularly, 500 μg/ml. RT-PCR was used to detect the effect of Qizhu formula on survivin mRNA in MGC-803 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The ratio of survivin/β-actin in the 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide and the 125, 250 and 500 μg/ml groups of Qizhu formula was 0.4543, 0.4025, 0.2415 and 0.2235, respectively. Therefore, Qizhu formula exerted a distinct inhibitory effect on the mRNA expression of survivin in MGC-803 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, Qizhu formula may modulate the apoptosis of MGC-803 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, which is associated with the downregulation of survivin mRNA and protein expression. PMID:24772318

2. [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Spoken Word Processing: Evidence from Divided Attention Paradigm.

PubMed

Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour

2016-10-01

The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language ([Formula: see text] and second language ([Formula: see text] spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of these bilinguals. The other goal is to explore the effects of attention manipulation on implicit retrieval of perceptual and conceptual properties of spoken [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words. In so doing, the participants performed auditory word priming and semantic priming as memory tests in their [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. In a half of the trials of each experiment, they carried out the memory test while simultaneously performing a secondary task in visual modality. The results revealed that effects of auditory word priming and semantic priming were present when participants processed [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words in full attention condition. Attention manipulation could reduce priming magnitude in both experiments in [Formula: see text]. Moreover, [Formula: see text] word retrieval increases the reaction times and reduces accuracy on the simultaneous secondary task to protect its own accuracy and speed. PMID:26643309

3. Some Simple Computational Formulas for Multiple Regression

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aiken, Lewis R., Jr.

1974-01-01

Short-cut formulas are presented for direct computation of the beta weights, the standard errors of the beta weights, and the multiple correlation coefficient for multiple regression problems involving three independent variables and one dependent variable. (Author)

4. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

MedlinePlus

... use a different liner with each feeding, which costs more. If your baby needs special formula because ... see if your insurance will help cover the cost. Not all health plans offer this coverage, but ...

5. Generalized Doppler Formula in a Nonstatic Universe

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gross, Peter G.

1977-01-01

Derives the general Doppler formula in a nonstatic universe using assumptions of special relativity, homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. Examples of applications to physical cosmology are given. (SL)

6. Weighing Things Up: A Closer Look at "U.S. News & World Report"'s Ranking Formulas

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clarke, Marguerite

2004-01-01

Since their first appearance in 1983, the "U.S. News & World Report" rankings of colleges and graduate schools have generated much debate. This article takes a closer look at the "U.S. News" ranking formulas and finds an empirical basis for critics' concerns. The article begins with an overview of the rankings, followed by a discussion of the…

7. A Summation Formula for Macdonald Polynomials

de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael

2016-03-01

We derive an explicit sum formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our expression contains multiple sums over the symmetric group and uses the action of Hecke generators on the ring of polynomials. In the special cases {t = 1} and {q = 0}, we recover known expressions for the monomial symmetric and Hall-Littlewood polynomials, respectively. Other specializations of our formula give new expressions for the Jack and q-Whittaker polynomials.

8. Parametric Improper Integrals, Wallis Formula and Catalan Numbers

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.

2012-01-01

We present a sequence of improper integrals, for which a closed formula can be computed using Wallis formula and a non-straightforward recurrence formula. This yields a new integral presentation for Catalan numbers.

9. 27 CFR 26.54 - Filing and disposition of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.54 Filing and disposition of formulas. Formulas required...

10. A Connection Formula for the q-Confluent Hypergeometric Function

Morita, Takeshi

2013-07-01

We show a connection formula for the q-confluent hypergeometric functions {}_2ϕ_1(a,b;0;q,x). Combining our connection formula with Zhang's connection formula for {}_2ϕ_0(a,b;-;q,x), we obtain the connection formula for the q-confluent hypergeometric equation in the matrix form. Also we obtain the connection formula of Kummer's confluent hypergeometric functions by taking the limit qto 1^{-} of our connection formula.

11. EMPIRE ULTIMATE EXPANSION: RESONANCES AND COVARIANCES.

SciTech Connect

HERMAN,M.; MUGHABGHAB, S.F.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; ROCHMAN, D.; PIGNI, M.T.; KAWANO, T.; CAPOTE, R.; ZERKIN, V.; TRKOV, A.; SIN, M.; CARSON, B.V.; WIENKE, H. CHO, Y.-S.

2007-04-22

The EMPIRE code system is being extended to cover the resolved and unresolved resonance region employing proven methodology used for the production of new evaluations in the recent Atlas of Neutron Resonances. Another directions of Empire expansion are uncertainties and correlations among them. These include covariances for cross sections as well as for model parameters. In this presentation we concentrate on the KALMAN method that has been applied in EMPIRE to the fast neutron range as well as to the resonance region. We also summarize role of the EMPIRE code in the ENDF/B-VII.0 development. Finally, large scale calculations and their impact on nuclear model parameters are discussed along with the exciting perspectives offered by the parallel supercomputing.

12. On the Proper Estimation of the Confidence Interval for the Design Formula of Blast-Induced Vibrations with Site Records

Yan, W. M.; Yuen, Ka-Veng

2015-01-01

Blast-induced ground vibration has received much engineering and public attention. The vibration is often represented by the peak particle velocity (PPV) and the empirical approach is employed to describe the relationship between the PPV and the scaled distance. Different statistical methods are often used to obtain the confidence level of the prediction. With a known scaled distance, the amount of explosives in a planned blast can then be determined by a blast engineer when the PPV limit and the confidence level of the vibration magnitude are specified. This paper shows that these current approaches do not incorporate the posterior uncertainty of the fitting coefficients. In order to resolve this problem, a Bayesian method is proposed to derive the site-specific fitting coefficients based on a small amount of data collected at an early stage of a blasting project. More importantly, uncertainty of both the fitting coefficients and the design formula can be quantified. Data collected from a site formation project in Hong Kong is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. It is shown that the proposed method resolves the underestimation problem in one of the conventional approaches. The proposed approach can be easily conducted using spreadsheet calculation without the need for any additional tools, so it will be particularly welcome by practicing engineers.

13. Non-Empirical Confirmation

Dawid, Richard

2016-06-01

In fundamental physics today, some theories are taken to be probably viable despite a lack of strong (or any) empirical confirmation. This situation suggests, I argue, an extension of the concept of theory confirmation that allows for confirmation by observations that are not predicted by the theory in question. "Non-empirical confirmation", as I call the latter form of confirmation, plays a more conspicuous role today than in earlier periods of physics. It has always constituted a significant albeit implicit element of the assessment of physical theory, however, that has not been adequately accounted for in canonical reconstructions of the scientific method. The talk discusses the core argumentative structure of non-empirical confirmation, analyses the concept’s reliance on the empirical testability of the theories in question and addresses some worries that have been raised in its regard.

14. [Empiric treatment of pyelonephritis].

PubMed

Iarovoĭ, S K; Shimanovskiĭ, N L; Kareva, E N

2011-01-01

The article analyses the most typical clinical situations in empirical treatment of pyelonephritis including situations with comorbid severe diseases: decompensated diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, HIV-infection. Choice of antibacterial medicines for empiric treatment of pyelonephritis is based on the results of the latest studies of antibioticoresistance of pyelonephritis pathogens as well as on specific features of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibacterial drugs. PMID:21815461

15. Bellco Formula Domus Home Care System.

PubMed

Trewin, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

There are certain characteristics in a dialysis machine that would be desirable for use in home and limited care environments. These features relate to safety, ease of use, consideration of physical space, and reliability. The Bellco Formula Domus Home Care System was designed to meet all these requirements. Bellco's philosophy of patient treatment centers on global biocompatibility. This is evident in the design of the Formula Domus Home Care System. It has the smallest hydraulic fluid pathway of any dialysis machine on the market. Formula is capable of preparing ultrapure dialysate. The ultrafiltration measurement mechanism, the patented Coriolis flow meter, measures the mass of the dialysate, not the volume. For this reason it is the only dialysis machine that detects actual backfiltration, not just the theoretical possibility of it based on transmembrane pressure. The Coriolis flow meter also ensures that dialysate flow is a true single pass. The operator interface is a single window operating control. It is possible to select up to 14 different languages. There is an online help key to assist patients with troubleshooting. Programmable start-up and shutdown times save time for the patient. Formula is the only dialysis machine to offer a backup battery feature. Formula is capable of communicating with any software available. The focus on global biocompatibility ensures the best quality dialysis treatments for a population of patients who will likely remain on dialysis for a longer period of time than conventional dialysis patients. PMID:15043621

16. Complex dynamics and empirical evidence (Invited Paper)

Delli Gatti, Domenico; Gaffeo, Edoardo; Giulioni, Gianfranco; Gallegati, Mauro; Kirman, Alan; Palestrini, Antonio; Russo, Alberto

2005-05-01

Standard macroeconomics, based on a reductionist approach centered on the representative agent, is badly equipped to explain the empirical evidence where heterogeneity and industrial dynamics are the rule. In this paper we show that a simple agent-based model of heterogeneous financially fragile agents is able to replicate a large number of scaling type stylized facts with a remarkable degree of statistical precision.

17. A New Sample Size Formula for Regression.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brooks, Gordon P.; Barcikowski, Robert S.

The focus of this research was to determine the efficacy of a new method of selecting sample sizes for multiple linear regression. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to study both empirical predictive power rates and empirical statistical power rates of the new method and seven other methods: those of C. N. Park and A. L. Dudycha (1974); J. Cohen…

18. Funding Formulas for California Schools III: An Analysis of Governor Brown's Weighted Pupil Funding Formula

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

2012-01-01

In his 2012-13 budget Governor Brown proposed a new system for allocating state revenue among California school districts. By all accounts the current system is complex and opaque. In contrast, the proposed system--a weighted pupil funding formula--is simple and transparent. Using the PPIC School Finance Model, we compare how this formula would…

19. Regionalization of the Turc-Mezentsev water balance formula

Lebecherel, Laure; Andréassian, Vazken

2013-04-01

The Turc-Mezentsev water balance formula (Turc, 1954; Mezentsev, 1955) is widely used because of its simplicity and its efficiency: Q/P=1-1/[1+(P/E0)**n]**(1/n) With: Q-streamflow, P-catchment precipitation and E0-reference evaporation, all in mm/yr. Several studies have used it recently as a tool to study the sensitivity of runoff to climate change (Dooge, 1992; Choudhury, 1999; Arora, 2002; Donohue et al., 2011). Other studies have focused on investigating the links between its parameter(s) and environmental properties (Oudin et al., 2008; Potter and Zhang, 2009; Roderick and Farquhar, 2011). There is however no consensus on where in the formula exogenous information (i.e. catchment properties beyond P and E0) should be introduced. Here, we use a large set of 609 French catchments and discuss four options of regionalization, based on either (i) the formula's relative error, (ii) the formula's absolute error, (iii) a correcting factor of the aridity index and (iv) the shape factor (parameter n) of the formula. Here, regionalization is understood in its geographical meaning, i.e. we wish to make use of the regional coherence of the formula's residuals or parameters to improve its predictive efficiency. These regional options are tested in an ungaged catchment context, i.e. regional values (of residuals or parameters) are computed from neighbor catchments. In this study, we compare the four alternatives in terms of efficiency and robustness, i.e. on how their performance degrades when the hydrometric network density is reduced. We show that although several mathematical solutions seem close, using a correcting factor of the aridity index has definite advantages. We also discuss perspectives beyond geographical regionalization, i.e. prospects for a physical regionalization. References Arora, V.K., 2002. The use of the aridity index to assess climate change effect on annual runoff. Journal of Hydrology, 265: 164-177. Choudhury, B.J., 1999. Evaluation of an empirical

20. 78 FR 6316 - Empire Pipeline, Inc. (Empire); Notice of Filing

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2013-01-30

... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Empire Pipeline, Inc. (Empire); Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 29, 2012 Empire Pipeline Company (Empire) submitted a request for a waiver of the...

1. Ewens sampling formulae with and without selection

Huillet, Thierry

2007-09-01

We shall first consider the random Dirichlet partitioning of the interval into n fragments at temperature [theta]>0. Using calculus for Dirichlet integrals, pre-asymptotic versions of the Ewens sampling formulae from finite Dirichlet partitions follow up. From these preliminaries, straightforward proofs of the usual sampling formulae from random proportions with Poisson-Dirichlet (PD)([gamma]) distribution can be obtained, while considering the Kingman limit n[NE pointing arrow][infinity], [theta][south east arrow]0, with n[theta]=[gamma]>0. In this manuscript, the Gibbs version of the Dirichlet partition with symmetric selection is considered. By use of similar series expansion calculus for Dirichlet integrals, closed-form expressions of Ewens sampling formulae in the presence of selection are obtained; special types of Bell polynomials are shown to be involved.

2. A simplification of the Kovarik formula

Chen, Yan-Ni; Du, Hong-Ke; Pang, Yong-Feng

2007-07-01

Let P,Q be two idempotents on a Hilbert space. Z.V. Kovarik (Z.V. Kovarik, Similarity and interpolation between projectors, Acta Sci. Math. (Szeged) 39 (1977) 341-351) showed that when P+Q-I is invertible, the formula K(P,Q)=P(P+Q-I)-2Q gives the only idempotent such that , , where and denote the nullspace and the range of a bounded linear operator T on a Hilbert space, respectively. This formula was later extended to the context of Banach algebras and used in 1983 by J. Esterle to show that two homotopic idempotents may always be connected by a polynomial idempotent valued path. In the present paper, we give a simplification of Kovarik's original formula and one natural generalization of it.

3. Mass formula for quasi-black holes

SciTech Connect

Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

2008-12-15

A quasi-black hole, either nonextremal or extremal, can be broadly defined as the limiting configuration of a body when its boundary approaches the body's quasihorizon. We consider the mass contributions and the mass formula for a static quasi-black hole. The analysis involves careful scrutiny of the surface stresses when the limiting configuration is reached. It is shown that there exists a strict correspondence between the mass formulas for quasi-black holes and pure black holes. This perfect parallelism exists in spite of the difference in derivation and meaning of the formulas in both cases. For extremal quasi-black holes the finite surface stresses give zero contribution to the total mass. This leads to a very special version of Abraham-Lorentz electron in general relativity in which the total mass has pure electromagnetic origin in spite of the presence of bare stresses.

4. An empirical relationship for homogenization in single-phase binary alloy systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.; Stein, B. A.

1979-01-01

A semiempirical formula is developed for describing the extent of interaction between constituents in single-phase binary alloy systems with planar, cylindrical, or spherical interfaces. The formula contains two parameters that are functions of mean concentration and interface geometry of the couple. The empirical solution is simple, easy to use, and does not involve sequential calculations, thereby allowing quick estimation of the extent of interactions without lengthy calculations. Results obtained with this formula are in good agreement with those from a finite-difference analysis.

5. Assessment of Palm Press Fibre and Sawdust-Based Substrate Formulas for Efficient Carpophore Production of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer

PubMed Central

Chiejina, Nneka Virginia

2015-01-01

Development of efficient substrate formulas to improve yield and shorten production time is one of the prerequisites for commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms. In this study, fifteen substrate formulas consisting of varying ratios of palm press fibre (PPF), mahogany sawdust (MS), Gmelina sawdust, wheat bran (WB), and fixed proportions of 1% calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and 1% sucrose were assessed for efficient Lentinus squarrosulus production. Proximate compositions of mushrooms produced on the different substrate formulas were also analysed and compared. Substrate formulations containing 85% PPF, 13% WB, 1% CaCO3, and 1% sucrose were found to produce the highest carpophore yield, biological efficiency and size (206.5 g/kg, 61.96%, and 7.26 g, respectively). Days to production (first harvest) tended to increase with an increase in the amount of WB in the substrate formulas, except for PPF based formulas. The addition of WB in amounts equivalent to 8~18% in substrate formulas containing 80~90% PPF resulted in a decrease in the time to first harvest by an average of 17.7 days compared to 80~90% MS with similar treatment. Nutritional content of mushrooms was affected by the different substrate formulas. Protein content was high for mushrooms produced on formulas containing PPF as the basal substrate. Thus, formulas comprising PPF, WB, CaCO3, and sucrose at 85% : 13% : 1% : 1%) respectively could be explored as starter basal ingredients for efficient large scale production of L. squarrosulus. PMID:26839507

6. 27 CFR 21.23 - Formula No. 19.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 19. 21.23... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.23 Formula No. 19. To every 100 gallons of ethyl alcohol of not less than 160 proof add:...

7. 24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating fund formula. 990.110... DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Purpose, Applicability, Formula, and Definitions § 990.110 Operating fund formula. (a) General formula. (1) The amount of annual contributions...

8. 27 CFR 24.81 - Filing of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 24.81... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 24.81 Filing of formulas. The proprietor shall on each formula filed designate all ingredients and, if required,...

9. 27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer shall submit a formula on TTB Form 5154.1 for each self-manufactured ingredient made with...

10. 27 CFR 21.22 - Formula No. 18.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 18. 21.22... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.22 Formula No. 18. To every 100 gallons of ethyl alcohol of not less than 160 proof add:...

11. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

12. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

13. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

14. 27 CFR 21.53 - Formula No. 27-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27-A. 21.53 Section 21.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.53 Formula No....

15. 27 CFR 21.68 - Formula No. 38-F.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 38-F. 21.68 Section 21.68 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.68 Formula No....

16. 27 CFR 21.41 - Formula No. 13-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 13-A. 21.41 Section 21.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.41 Formula No....

17. 27 CFR 21.40 - Formula No. 12-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 12-A. 21.40 Section 21.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.40 Formula No....

18. 27 CFR 21.47 - Formula No. 23-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 23-A. 21.47 Section 21.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.47 Formula No....

19. 27 CFR 21.32 - Formula No. 1.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 1. 21.32 Section 21.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.32 Formula No. 1....

20. 27 CFR 21.59 - Formula No. 32.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 32. 21.59 Section 21.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.59 Formula No. 32....

1. 27 CFR 21.57 - Formula No. 30.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 30. 21.57 Section 21.57 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.57 Formula No. 30....

2. 27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62 Section 21.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No....

3. 27 CFR 21.41 - Formula No. 13-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 13-A. 21.41 Section 21.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.41 Formula No....

4. 27 CFR 21.57 - Formula No. 30.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 30. 21.57 Section 21.57 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.57 Formula No. 30....

5. 27 CFR 21.41 - Formula No. 13-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 13-A. 21.41 Section 21.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.41 Formula No....

6. 27 CFR 21.59 - Formula No. 32.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 32. 21.59 Section 21.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.59 Formula No. 32....

7. 27 CFR 21.59 - Formula No. 32.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 32. 21.59 Section 21.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.59 Formula No. 32....

8. 27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62 Section 21.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No....

9. 27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62 Section 21.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No....

10. 27 CFR 21.57 - Formula No. 30.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 30. 21.57 Section 21.57 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.57 Formula No. 30....

11. 27 CFR 21.40 - Formula No. 12-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 12-A. 21.40 Section 21.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.40 Formula No....

12. 27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 23-F. 21.48 Section 21.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.48 Formula No....

13. 27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69 Section 21.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.69 Formula No. 39....

14. 27 CFR 21.63 - Formula No. 36.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 36. 21.63 Section 21.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.63 Formula No. 36....

15. 27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69 Section 21.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.69 Formula No. 39....

16. 27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 23-F. 21.48 Section 21.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.48 Formula No....

17. 27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 23-F. 21.48 Section 21.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.48 Formula No....

18. 27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 23-F. 21.48 Section 21.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.48 Formula No....

19. 27 CFR 21.59 - Formula No. 32.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 32. 21.59 Section 21.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.59 Formula No. 32....

20. 27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62 Section 21.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No....

1. 27 CFR 21.40 - Formula No. 12-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 12-A. 21.40 Section 21.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.40 Formula No....

2. 27 CFR 21.47 - Formula No. 23-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 23-A. 21.47 Section 21.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.47 Formula No....

3. 27 CFR 21.41 - Formula No. 13-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 13-A. 21.41 Section 21.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.41 Formula No....

4. 27 CFR 21.57 - Formula No. 30.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 30. 21.57 Section 21.57 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.57 Formula No. 30....

5. 27 CFR 21.32 - Formula No. 1.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 1. 21.32 Section 21.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.32 Formula No. 1....

6. 27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 23-F. 21.48 Section 21.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.48 Formula No....

7. 27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69 Section 21.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.69 Formula No. 39....

8. 27 CFR 21.75 - Formula No. 40-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 40-A. 21.75 Section 21.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.75 Formula No....

9. 27 CFR 21.71 - Formula No. 39-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 39-B. 21.71 Section 21.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.71 Formula No....

10. 27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No....

11. 27 CFR 21.74 - Formula No. 40.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 40. 21.74 Section 21.74 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.74 Formula No. 40....

12. 27 CFR 21.63 - Formula No. 36.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 36. 21.63 Section 21.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.63 Formula No. 36....

13. 27 CFR 21.76 - Formula No. 40-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 40-B. 21.76 Section 21.76 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.76 Formula No....

14. Lewis Carroll's formula for calendar calculating.

PubMed

Spitz, H H

1994-03-01

One of the extraordinary skills occasionally displayed by individuals of low intelligence (so-called idiots savants) is the ability to name, within seconds, the day of the week for any given date, sometimes over a range of centuries. A number of scholarly papers contain references to formulas that can be used in making this calculation, but none cites one of the earliest published methods, that of Lewis Carroll. However, formulas such as Carroll's are too complex to be self-taught by idiots savants and, consequently, cannot account for their remarkable performance. Alternative explanatory hypotheses were briefly discussed. PMID:8192906

15. Lead content of milk and infant formula

SciTech Connect

Walker, B.

1980-03-01

Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

16. Pesin's Entropy Formula for Systems Between and

Tian, Xueting

2014-09-01

In this article we give a new observation of Pesin's entropy formula, motivated from Mañé's proof of (Ergod Theory Dyn Sys 1:95-102, 1981). Let be a compact Riemann manifold and be a diffeomorphism on . If is an -invariant probability measure which is absolutely continuous relative to Lebesgue measure and nonuniformly-Hlder-continuous(see Definition 1.1), then we have Pesin's entropy formula, i.e., the metric entropy satisfies where are the Lyapunov exponents at with respect to Nonuniformly-H lder-continuous is a new notion from probabilistic perspective weaker than

17. Semiclassical trace formulas for noninteracting identical particles

Sakhr, Jamal; Whelan, Niall D.

2003-06-01

We extend the Gutzwiller trace formula to systems of noninteracting identical particles. The standard relation for isolated orbits does not apply since the energy of each particle is separately conserved causing the periodic orbits to occur in continuous families. The identical nature of the particles also introduces discrete permutational symmetries. We exploit the formalism of Creagh and Littlejohn [Phys. Rev. A 44, 836 (1991)], who have studied semiclassical dynamics in the presence of continuous symmetries, to derive many-body trace formulas for the full and symmetry-reduced densities of states. Numerical studies of the three-particle cardioid billiard are used to explicitly illustrate and test the results of the theory.

18. Gaussian quadrature formulae for arbitrary positive measures.

PubMed

Fernandes, Andrew D; Atchley, William R

2006-01-01

We present computational methods and subroutines to compute Gaussian quadrature integration formulas for arbitrary positive measures. For expensive integrands that can be factored into well-known forms, Gaussian quadrature schemes allow for efficient evaluation of high-accuracy and -precision numerical integrals, especially compared to general ad hoc schemes. In addition, for certain well-known density measures (the normal, gamma, log-normal, Student's t, inverse-gamma, beta, and Fisher's F) we present exact formulae for computing the respective quadrature scheme. PMID:19455218

19. Connection formulas for thermal density functional theory

Pribram-Jones, A.; Burke, K.

2016-05-01

The adiabatic connection formula of ground-state density functional theory relates the correlation energy to a coupling-constant integral over a purely potential contribution, and is widely used to understand and improve approximations. The corresponding formula for thermal density functional theory is cast as an integral over temperatures instead, ranging upward from the system's physical temperature. We also show how to relate different correlation components to each other, either in terms of temperature or coupling-constant integrations. We illustrate our results on the uniform electron gas.

20. Validation of a new formula for mean arterial pressure calculation: the new formula is superior to the standard formula.

PubMed

Razminia, Mansour; Trivedi, Atul; Molnar, Janos; Elbzour, Monther; Guerrero, Mayra; Salem, Yasser; Ahmed, Aziz; Khosla, Sandeep; Lubell, David L

2004-12-01

Mean arterial pressure (MAP) has traditionally been derived from systolic and diastolic pressures, weighted 1/3 systolic and 2/3 diastolic. No correction is made for the increasing time dominance of systole with increasing heart rates. In a previous study, we developed a new and more accurate heart rate-corrected MAP formula from central aorta pressure determinations in a large number of patients: MAP = DP + [0.33 + (HR x 0.0012)] x [PP] where SP and DP are systolic and diastolic pressure and HR is heart rate. The current study validates the new MAP formula in the same patient at increasing paced heart rates. A central aorta catheter was used to obtain computer-determined systolic, diastolic, and MAP in 12 patients. Values were obtained at baseline and then at increasing right atrial paced heart rates. The new and standard MAP formula-derived values were compared with computer-determined values. The new formula showed a much closer correlation with the computer-derived values for MAP. Standard MAP calculations for MAP can easily be improved by inclusion of a heart rate factor. PMID:15558774

1. The use of permeation tube device and the development of empirical formula for accurate permeation rate

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the accuracy of permeation tube (PT) devices using a calibration gas generator system to measure permeation rate (PR) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Calibration gas standards of benzene, toluene, and m-xylene (BTX) were produced from...

2. Integral formula for the effective diffusion coefficient in two-dimensional channels.

PubMed

Kalinay, Pavol

2016-07-01

The effective one-dimensional description of diffusion in two-dimensional channels of varying cross section is revisited. The effective diffusion coefficient D(x), extending Fick-Jacobs equation, depending on the longitudinal coordinate x, is derived here without use of scaling of the transverse coordinates. The result of the presented method is an integral formula for D(x), calculating its value at x as an integral of contributions from the neighboring positions x^{'} depending on h(x^{'}), a function shaping the channel. Unlike the standard formulas based on the scaling, the new proposed formula also describes D(x) correctly near the cusps, or in wider channels. PMID:27575072

3. Bridging scales with thermodynamics: from nano to macro

Kjelstrup, Signe; Schnell, Sondre K.; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Simon, Jean-Marc; Bardow, Andre; Bedeaux, Dick; Trinh, Thuat

2014-06-01

We have recently developed a method to calculate thermodynamic properties of macroscopic systems by extrapolating properties of systems of molecular dimensions. Appropriate scaling laws for small systems were derived using the method for small systems thermodynamics of Hill, considering surface and nook energies in small systems of varying sizes. Given certain conditions, Hill's method provides the same systematic basis for small systems as conventional thermodynamics does for large systems. We show how the method can be used to compute thermodynamic data for the macroscopic limit from knowledge of fluctuations in the small system. The rapid and precise method offers an alternative to current more difficult computations of thermodynamic factors from Kirkwood-Buff integrals. When multiplied with computed Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, agreement is found between computed predictions and experiments of the Fick diffusion coefficients for several binary systems. Diffusion coefficients were obtained by linking the Green-Kubo formulae to the Onsager coefficients. The formulae were used to improve/disprove empirical formulae for diffusion coefficients.

4. Adolescent Formula Literature and Its Promiscuous Progeny.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stanek, Lou Willett

This paper discusses the history and effect of popular culture generally and of the adolescent formula novel specifically. Seven primary characteristics of art as popular culture are that the work is accessible, easy to understand, conventional in form, not shocking in content, expressive of common and appropriate values, relative to some element…

5. The Economic Vitality Formula of Success

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Konopnicki, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

An economic vitality formula of success can be accomplished by creating partnerships between local career and technical education (CTE), and workforce development and economic development entities. Student industry certifications; dynamic partnerships; programs and projects focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and…

6. 28 CFR 38.2 - Formula grants.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formula grants. 38.2 Section 38.2... grants. (a) Religious organizations are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization, to... religious character or affiliation. As used in this section, “program” refers to a grant, contract,...

7. Trinomial Formula, Pascal- and Sierpinski-Pyramid

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zeitler, H.

2002-01-01

Stimulated by a picture of a Sierpinski-pyramid and an article by Stewart, students were asked about a connection between this pyramid and the well-known trinomial formula. The results of all the work done with students are presented in this note. (Contains 8 figures.)

8. Beyond the Formula: Students Becoming Writers.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dobler, Judith

To become writers, students must see themselves as writers and be treated as writers by their teachers. Students need to find the motivation to go beyond formulas, to grapple with messy, often inchoate ideas, to find their own particular angle of vision. What rhetoricians call "invention" or "discovery" is difficult to pin down. Without a system…

9. 27 CFR 19.348 - Formula requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula requirements. 19.348 Section 19.348 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... 5100.51 as provided in §§ 5.26 and 5.27 of this chapter before a proprietor may: (a) Blend, mix,...

10. 27 CFR 19.348 - Formula requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula requirements. 19.348 Section 19.348 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Filing...

11. 27 CFR 19.348 - Formula requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula requirements. 19.348 Section 19.348 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Filing...

12. 27 CFR 19.348 - Formula requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula requirements. 19.348 Section 19.348 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... 5100.51 as provided in §§ 5.26 and 5.27 of this chapter before a proprietor may: (a) Blend, mix,...

13. Implementing Gilbert's PIP Formula in the Workplace.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cardinale, Loretta A.

Gilbert (1978) developed a Potential for Improving Performance (PIP) formula based on worth, value, and cost. Worth related the value of a performance to its cost. The PIP related the worth of exemplary performance to the worth of average performance. This offered an opportunity for improvement by making appropriate changes through training or…

14. 25 CFR 273.31 - Distribution formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distribution formula. 273.31 Section 273.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.31...

15. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Formula allocations. 574.130 Section 574.130 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

16. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under § 92.101;...

17. Nevada's College Funding Formula under Attack

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

2005-01-01

Community College of Southern Nevada (CCSN) President Richard Carpenter has criticized the state's college funding formula, saying it penalizes southern Nevada students--particularly minorities. Carpenter said he hopes lawmakers will alter a complex equation that leads to a discrepancy in funding between CCSN and other institutions, including…

18. Stability and Equity in Education Finance Formulas.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fox, William; Murray, Matthew; Price, Patricia A.

2002-01-01

Examines the effectiveness of new funding formula included in major education reform legislation passed by the Tennessee legislature in early 1990s. Finds unanticipated outcomes. For example, while the variance in per-pupil spending among districts is smaller than before the legislation, the gap between the per-pupil spending of one-third of the…

19. 27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Supplemental or Form 5110.38 shall remain in effect until revoked, superseded, or voluntarily surrendered....

20. 5 CFR 1315.17 - Formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

...) Rebate formula. (1) Agencies shall determine credit card payment dates based on an analysis of the total... offered by the card issuer with the corresponding daily basis points of the government's Current Value of Funds (CVF) rate. If the basis points offered by the card issuer are greater than the daily basis...

1. 5 CFR 1315.17 - Formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

...) Rebate formula. (1) Agencies shall determine credit card payment dates based on an analysis of the total... offered by the card issuer with the corresponding daily basis points of the government's Current Value of Funds (CVF) rate. If the basis points offered by the card issuer are greater than the daily basis...

2. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

PubMed

Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

2016-03-01

Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. PMID:26471520

3. United Formula for the Friction Factor in the Turbulent Region of Pipe Flow

PubMed Central

Li, Shuolin; Huai, Wenxin

2016-01-01

Friction factor is an important element in both flow simulations and river engineering. In hydraulics, studies on the friction factor in turbulent regions have been based on the concept of three flow regimes, namely, the fully smooth regime, the fully rough regime, and the transitional regime, since the establishment of the Nikuradze’s chart. However, this study further demonstrates that combining the friction factor with Reynolds number yields a united formula that can scale the entire turbulent region. This formula is derived by investigating the correlation between friction in turbulent pipe flow and its influencing factors, i.e., Reynolds number and relative roughness. In the present study, the formulae of Blasius and Stricklerare modified to rearrange the implicit model of Tao. In addition, we derive a united explicit formula that can compute the friction factor in the entire turbulent regimes based on the asymptotic behavior of the improved Tao’s model. Compared with the reported formulae of Nikuradze, the present formula exhibits higher computational accuracy for the original pipe experiment data of Nikuradze. PMID:27136099

4. United Formula for the Friction Factor in the Turbulent Region of Pipe Flow.

PubMed

Li, Shuolin; Huai, Wenxin

2016-01-01

Friction factor is an important element in both flow simulations and river engineering. In hydraulics, studies on the friction factor in turbulent regions have been based on the concept of three flow regimes, namely, the fully smooth regime, the fully rough regime, and the transitional regime, since the establishment of the Nikuradze's chart. However, this study further demonstrates that combining the friction factor with Reynolds number yields a united formula that can scale the entire turbulent region. This formula is derived by investigating the correlation between friction in turbulent pipe flow and its influencing factors, i.e., Reynolds number and relative roughness. In the present study, the formulae of Blasius and Stricklerare modified to rearrange the implicit model of Tao. In addition, we derive a united explicit formula that can compute the friction factor in the entire turbulent regimes based on the asymptotic behavior of the improved Tao's model. Compared with the reported formulae of Nikuradze, the present formula exhibits higher computational accuracy for the original pipe experiment data of Nikuradze. PMID:27136099

5. Empires of the Mind

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jackson, Shirley Ann

2007-01-01

In this article, the author discusses the challenge of educating students for service and leadership in this flat and integrated world, yet asymmetrical and unstable. She says that the future is now and educators have the opportunity and responsibility to create the environments that foster the empires of the mind, and to ensure that the future…

6. Empirical Research without Certainty

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Floden, Robert E.

2009-01-01

In this essay, Robert Floden reviews three recent volumes in the Philosophy, Theory, and Educational Research series that address the philosophical implications of three "isms"-- postpositivism, pragmatism, and poststructuralism--for empirical educational research. These volumes, written by D.C. Phillips, Gert J.J. Biesta, and Michael A. Peters,…

7. Empirical quantum mechanics

Nishimura, Hirokazu

1996-06-01

Machida and Namiki developed a many-Hilbert-spaces formalism for dealing with the interaction between a quantum object and a measuring apparatus. Their mathematically rugged formalism was polished first by Araki from an operator-algebraic standpoint and then by Ozawa for Boolean quantum mechanics, which approaches a quantum system with a compatible family of continuous superselection rules from a notable and perspicacious viewpoint. On the other hand, Foulis and Randall set up a formal theory for the empirical foundation of all sciences, at the hub of which lies the notion of a manual of operations. They deem an operation as the set of possible outcomes and put down a manual of operations at a family of partially overlapping operations. Their notion of a manual of operations was incorporated into a category-theoretic standpoint into that of a manual of Boolean locales by Nishimura, who looked upon an operation as the complete Boolean algebra of observable events. Considering a family of Hilbert spaces not over a single Boolean locale but over a manual of Boolean locales as a whole, Ozawa's Boolean quantum mechanics is elevated into empirical quantum mechanics, which is, roughly speaking, the study of quantum systems with incompatible families of continuous superselection rules. To this end, we are obliged to develop empirical Hilbert space theory. In particular, empirical versions of the square root lemma for bounded positive operators, the spectral theorem for (possibly unbounded) self-adjoint operators, and Stone's theorem for one-parameter unitary groups are established.

8. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hubbard, Timothy L.

2010-01-01

The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

9. Verification of concentration time formulae accuracy in Southern Brazil

Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Tassi, Rutineia

2016-04-01

The time of concentration (TC) of an urban catchment is a fundamental watershed parameter used to compute the peak discharge and/or in the hydrological simulation of sewer systems. In the lack of hydrological data for its estimative, several empirical formulae are used, however, almost none of them have been verified in Brazil leading to large uncertainties in the correct value. In this light, were tested several formulae such as the proposed by Kirpich (and a modifications of this equation proposed by the National Transport Bureau of Brazil (DNIT)), U.S. Corps. Of Engineers, Pasini, Dooge , Johnstone , Ventura and Ven T Chow as they are used in Brazil. The verification was accomplished against measured data in 5 sub-basins situated in the Dilúvio basin, a semi urbanized watershed that contains the most developed area of the city of Porto Alegre. All the rainfall stations were active in the period from late 1970's until early 1980's due to the existence of Projeto Dilúvio but today, however, only two of them are still in operation. Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul with a population of approximately 1.6 million inhabitants, the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area, with almost 4,5 million inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). The city is situated in a humid subtropical climate with high and regular precipitation throughout the year. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and an occasional tropical storm, hurricane or cyclone. The results showed an error of around 70% for half of the formulas, with a tendency to underestimate TC values. Among the tested methods, Johnstone had the best overall result, with an average error of 25%, well far from the second, Dooge, with 43% of average error. The best results were obtained in only one basin, Dilúvio, the largest one, with an area of 25km², with an error of just 3% for Modified Kirpich, and

10. Effects of neurological damage on production of formulaic language

PubMed Central

Sidtis, D.; Canterucci, G.; Katsnelson, D.

2014-01-01

Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous speech of stroke patients with left, right, or subcortical damage. Four subjects were interviewed and their speech samples compared to normal speakers. Raters classified formulaic expressions as speech formulae, fillers, sentence stems, and proper nouns. Results demonstrated that brain damage affected novel and formulaic language competence differently, with a significantly smaller proportion of formulaic expressions in subjects with right or subcortical damage compared to left hemisphere damaged or healthy speakers. These findings converge with previous studies that support the proposal of a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit in the management of formulaic expressions, based on a dual-process model of language incorporating novel and formulaic language use. PMID:19382014

11. Empirical model of whistler anisotropy instability

SciTech Connect

Yoon, Peter H.; Seough, Jung Joon; Lee, Junggi; An, Junmo; Lee, Jae Ok

2011-10-15

Empirical formulae for the real frequency and growth rate associated with the whistler anisotropy instability are obtained. The electrons are assumed to have an anisotropic distribution function, with Maxwellian parallel distribution. Under such an assumption complex roots of the dispersion relation depend only on two dimensionless parameters, namely, the temperature anisotropy factor A = T{sub perpendiculare}/T{sub ||e} - 1, where T{sub perpendiculare} and T{sub ||e} are the perpendicular and parallel electron temperatures, respectively, and parallel electron beta, {beta}{sub ||} = (8{pi}nT{sub ||e}/B{sup 2}){sup 1/2}, where n and B are the plasma density and magnetic field intensity, respectively. Comparison against exact numerical roots show that analytical formulae describe the whistler instability over a wide range of parallel electron beta and temperature anisotropy factor. The present result may be useful for circumstances in which the use of exact numerical roots becomes impractical, such as in the radiation belt quasi-linear transport coefficient calculation.

12. COMPARISON OF CHILDREN'S FOLLOW-ON INSTANT POWDERED COW'S MILK FORMULA, BUFFALO MILK FORMULA AND CHICKEN-BASED FORMULA ON ENAMEL MICROHARDNESS OF BOVINE TEETH IN VITRO.

PubMed

Vongsavan, Kadkao; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Surarit, Rudee

2016-03-01

Dental caries are a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of children's follow-on instant powdered cow's milk formula, buffalo milk formula and a chicken-based formula on microhardness of bovine enamel with artificial caries-like lesions. Forty bovine teeth were each placed in acrylic blocks and the enamel surfaces were polished to create flat 5 x 5 millimeter surfaces. The teeth surfaces were then demineralized using 0.1M lactic acid (pH 4.5) to achieve an enamel microhardness of 35-65 Vickers Hardness Numbers (VHN). All specimens were then randomly allocated into one of 4 groups (n=10/group). For remineralization, each group was soaked in a different kind of milk formula for 2 hours at 37°C except group 1 which was a negative control (artificial saliva) group. Group 2 was soaked in Murrah™ buffalo milk formula (a positive control ), group 3 in S-26-Promil-Gold™ (cow's milk formula) and group 4 in a chicken-based formula (Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University). The microhardness of the specimens was then measured again. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and paired t-test with a 95% confidence interval. After exposure to the formula, the mean VHN for each study group was significantly higher (paired t-test, p < 0.05) except for group 1 (p = 0.345). The mean VHN for the the Murrah™ buffalo milk formula, the chicken-based formula and the S-26-Promil-Gold™ formula group were not significantly different from each other (one-way ANOVA, p > 0.05). In conclusion, S-26-Promil-Gold™ follow-on cow milk formula, Murrah™ buffalo milk formula and the chicken-based formula all increased bovine enamel microhardness after soaking for 2 hours. PMID:27244971

13. Matrix product formula for Macdonald polynomials

Cantini, Luigi; de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael

2015-09-01

We derive a matrix product formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our results are obtained by constructing polynomial solutions of deformed Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, which arise by considering representations of the Zamolodchikov-Faddeev and Yang-Baxter algebras in terms of t-deformed bosonic operators. These solutions are generalized probabilities for particle configurations of the multi-species asymmetric exclusion process, and form a basis of the ring of polynomials in n variables whose elements are indexed by compositions. For weakly increasing compositions (anti-dominant weights), these basis elements coincide with non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our formulas imply a natural combinatorial interpretation in terms of solvable lattice models. They also imply that normalizations of stationary states of multi-species exclusion processes are obtained as Macdonald polynomials at q = 1.

14. Semiclassical trace formulas for noninteracting identical particles.

PubMed

Sakhr, Jamal; Whelan, Niall D

2003-06-01

We extend the Gutzwiller trace formula to systems of noninteracting identical particles. The standard relation for isolated orbits does not apply since the energy of each particle is separately conserved causing the periodic orbits to occur in continuous families. The identical nature of the particles also introduces discrete permutational symmetries. We exploit the formalism of Creagh and Littlejohn [Phys. Rev. A 44, 836 (1991)], who have studied semiclassical dynamics in the presence of continuous symmetries, to derive many-body trace formulas for the full and symmetry-reduced densities of states. Numerical studies of the three-particle cardioid billiard are used to explicitly illustrate and test the results of the theory. PMID:16241332

15. Inclusion probability with dropout: an operational formula.

PubMed

Milot, E; Courteau, J; Crispino, F; Mailly, F

2015-05-01

In forensic genetics, a mixture of two or more contributors to a DNA profile is often interpreted using the inclusion probabilities theory. In this paper, we present a general formula for estimating the probability of inclusion (PI, also known as the RMNE probability) from a subset of visible alleles when dropouts are possible. This one-locus formula can easily be extended to multiple loci using the cumulative probability of inclusion. We show that an exact formulation requires fixing the number of contributors, hence to slightly modify the classic interpretation of the PI. We discuss the implications of our results for the enduring debate over the use of PI vs likelihood ratio approaches within the context of low template amplifications. PMID:25559642

16. Pizzetti Formulae for Stiefel Manifolds and Applications

Coulembier, Kevin; Kieburg, Mario

2015-10-01

Pizzetti's formula explicitly shows the equivalence of the rotation invariant integration over a sphere and the action of rotation invariant differential operators. We generalize this idea to the integrals over real, complex, and quaternion Stiefel manifolds in a unifying way. In particular, we propose a new way to calculate group integrals and try to uncover some algebraic structures which manifest themselves for some well-known cases like the Harish-Chandra integral. We apply a particular case of our formula to an Itzykson-Zuber integral for the coset . This integral naturally appears in the calculation of the two-point correlation function in the transition of the statistics of the Poisson ensemble and the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble in random matrix theory.

17. Some inversion formulas for the cone transform

Terzioglu, Fatma

2015-11-01

Several novel imaging applications have lead recently to a variety of Radon type transforms, where integration is made over a family of conical surfaces. We call them cone transforms (in 2D they are also called V-line or broken ray transforms). Most prominently, they are present in the so called Compton camera imaging that arises in medical diagnostics, astronomy, and lately in homeland security applications. Several specific incarnations of the cone transform have been considered separately. In this paper, we address the most general (and overdetermined) cone transform, obtain integral relations between cone and Radon transforms in {{{R}}}n, and a variety of inversion formulas. In many applications (e.g., in homeland security), the signal to noise ratio is very low. So, if overdetermined data is collected (as in the case of Compton imaging), attempts to reduce the dimensionality might lead to essential elimination of the signal. Thus, our main concentration is on obtaining formulas involving overdetermined data.

18. A flood-flow formula for Connecticut

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bigwood, B.L.; Thomas, M.P.

1955-01-01

A study of the frequency and magnitude of floods within the Connecticut area is contained in this report. Annual flood discharges for 44 stream-gaging stations whose records range in length from l0 to 40 years are presented and a regional flood-frequency relationship developed based upon the ratios of all floods to the mean annual flood at each of these locations. Definition of this curve for floods of larger recurrence intervals is based upon historical studies of extraordinary floods which have occurred within the area. For ungaged areas, the mean annual flood value may be determined by use of a flood-flow formula based upon the topographic characteristics of drainage area and basin slope. The development of this formula also is included.

19. Average prime-pair counting formula

Korevaar, Jaap; Riele, Herman Te

2010-04-01

Taking r>0 , let π_{2r}(x) denote the number of prime pairs (p, p+2r) with p≤ x . The prime-pair conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood (1923) asserts that π_{2r}(x)˜ 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) with an explicit constant C_{2r}>0 . There seems to be no good conjecture for the remainders ω_{2r}(x)=π_{2r}(x)- 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) that corresponds to Riemann's formula for π(x)-{li}(x) . However, there is a heuristic approximate formula for averages of the remainders ω_{2r}(x) which is supported by numerical results.

20. A Generalized Formula to Determine Pythagorean Triples

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mohapatra, Amar Kumar; Prakash, Nupur

2010-01-01

This note proposes a unique solutions to find out the value of x, y and z which satisfies the equation x[superscript 2] + y[superscript 2] = z[superscript 2]. The uniqueness of the proposed formulae is to find the total number of y's and z's at a given value of x. The value of y and z can be calculated by factoring x[superscript 2] or…

1. Algorithm 699 - A new representation of Patterson's quadrature formulae

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Krogh, Fred T.; Van Snyder, W.

1991-01-01

A method is presented to reduce the number of coefficients necessary to represent Patterson's quadrature formulae. It also reduces the amount of storage necessary for storing function values, and produces slightly smaller error in evaluating the formulae.

2. Infant formula, past and future: opportunities for improvement.

PubMed

Lo, C W; Kleinman, R E

1996-04-01

Infant formulas provide nutritional support to health infants that promotes growth and development equivalent to that in healthy infants fed human milk. Formula-fed infants are not as well protected against infections, and there remain infants whose health, growth, and development may not be supported optimally by either the formulas currently available or human milk. Some infants may be better supported by genetically engineered formulas that contain immunity-enhancing antibodies or antigens. Formulas that contain cytokines promoting epithelial cell growth and integrity may be protective against necrotizing enterocolitis. Formulas containing proteins with genetically excluded allergenic epitopes or formulas with tolerogenic peptides may be useful in treating allergic diseases of suppressing the development of autoimmune disorders later in life. Formulas with genetically engineered biologically active substances might increase the absorption of nutrients in infants with compromised absorption or digestion, enhance host immunity and mucosal integrity, and, potentially militate or protect against the risk of disease. PMID:8599333

3. 27 CFR 25.58 - New and superseding formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.58 New and... special method of manufacture that requires the filing of a formula; or (6) Change the contribution...

4. SU-E-T-439: An Improved Formula of Scatter-To-Primary Ratio for Photon Dose Calculation

SciTech Connect

Zhu, T

2014-06-01

Purpose: Scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) is an important dosimetric quantity that describes the contribution from the scatter photons in an external photon beam. The purpose of this study is to develop an improved analytical formula to describe SPR as a function of circular field size (r) and depth (d) using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Methods: MC simulation was performed for Mohan photon spectra (Co-60, 4, 6, 10, 15, 23 MV) using EGSNRC code. Point-spread scatter dose kernels in water are generated. The scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) is also calculated using MC simulation as a function of field size for circular field size with radius r and depth d. The doses from forward scatter and backscatter photons are calculated using a convolution of the point-spread scatter dose kernel and by accounting for scatter photons contributing to dose before (z'd) reaching the depth of interest, d, where z' is the location of scatter photons, respectively. The depth dependence of the ratio of the forward scatter and backscatter doses is determined as a function of depth and field size. Results: We are able to improve the existing 3-parameter (a, w, d0) empirical formula for SPR by introducing depth dependence for one of the parameter d0, which becomes 0 for deeper depths. The depth dependence of d0 can be directly calculated as a ratio of backscatter-to-forward scatter doses for otherwise the same field and depth. With the improved empirical formula, we can fit SPR for all megavoltage photon beams to within 2%. Existing 3-parameter formula cannot fit SPR data for Co-60 to better than 3.1%. Conclusion: An improved empirical formula is developed to fit SPR for all megavoltage photon energies to within 2%.

5. Determination of 50% endpoint titer using a simple formula.

PubMed

Ramakrishnan, Muthannan Andavar

2016-05-12

Two commonly used methods for calculating 50% endpoint using serial dilutions are Spearman-Karber method and Reed and Muench method. To understand/apply the above formulas, moderate statistical/mathematical skills are necessary. In this paper, a simple formula/method for calculating 50% endpoints has been proposed. The formula yields essentially similar results as those of the Spearman-Karber method. The formula has been rigorously evaluated with several samples. PMID:27175354

6. Determination of 50% endpoint titer using a simple formula

PubMed Central

Ramakrishnan, Muthannan Andavar

2016-01-01

Two commonly used methods for calculating 50% endpoint using serial dilutions are Spearman-Karber method and Reed and Muench method. To understand/apply the above formulas, moderate statistical/mathematical skills are necessary. In this paper, a simple formula/method for calculating 50% endpoints has been proposed. The formula yields essentially similar results as those of the Spearman-Karber method. The formula has been rigorously evaluated with several samples. PMID:27175354

7. 27 CFR 21.37 - Formula No. 3-C.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 3-C. 21.37 Section 21.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.37 Formula No. 3-C....

8. 27 CFR 21.33 - Formula No. 2-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 2-B. 21.33 Section 21.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.33 Formula No. 2-B....

9. 27 CFR 21.35 - Formula No. 3-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 3-A. 21.35 Section 21.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.35 Formula No. 3-A....

10. 27 CFR 21.33 - Formula No. 2-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 2-B. 21.33 Section 21.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.33 Formula No. 2-B....

11. 27 CFR 21.35 - Formula No. 3-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 3-A. 21.35 Section 21.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.35 Formula No. 3-A....

12. 27 CFR 21.33 - Formula No. 2-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 2-B. 21.33 Section 21.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.33 Formula No. 2-B....

13. 27 CFR 21.37 - Formula No. 3-C.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 3-C. 21.37 Section 21.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.37 Formula No. 3-C....

14. Counterexamples on Jumarie's two basic fractional calculus formulae

Liu, Cheng-shi

2015-05-01

Jumarie proposed a modified Riemann-Liouville derivative definition and gave two basic fractional calculus formulae (u (t) v (t)) (α) =u (α) (t) v (t) + u (t)v (α) (t) and (f (u (t))) (α) = fu‧ u (α) (t) . We give two counterexamples to show that Jumarie's two formulae are not true. Respectively, all results obtained in references by using Jumarie's these two formulae are incorrect. In the end, we give the corresponding formulae.

15. Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.

PubMed

Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao

2014-06-01

Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study. PMID:24621269

16. 5 CFR 838.305 - OPM computation of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OPM computation of formulas. 838.305... Employee Annuities § 838.305 OPM computation of formulas. (a) A court order directed at employee annuity is... the employee annuity; or (iii) A formula that does not contain any variables whose values are...

17. 27 CFR 21.3 - Stocks of discontinued formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... formulas. 21.3 Section 21.3 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM General Provisions § 21.3 Stocks of discontinued formulas. Denaturers, or specially denatured spirits dealers or users, having on hand stocks...

18. 20 CFR 225.3 - PIA computation formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PIA computation formulas. 225.3 Section 225.3... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS General § 225.3 PIA computation formulas. (a) General. PIA's are generally computed under one of two normal formulas determined by the employee's eligibility year. In addition,...

19. 45 CFR 1321.37 - Intrastate funding formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intrastate funding formula. 1321.37 Section 1321... funding formula. (a) The State agency, after consultation with all area agencies in the State, shall develop and use an intrastate funding formula for the allocation of funds to area agencies under this...

20. 27 CFR 20.93 - Changes to formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes to formulas. 20.93... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.93 Changes to formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

1. 40 CFR 72.95 - Allowance deduction formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance deduction formula. 72.95... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Compliance Certification § 72.95 Allowance deduction formula. The following formula shall be used to determine the total number of allowances to be deducted for the calendar...

2. 24 CFR 570.406 - Formula miscalculation grants.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula miscalculation grants. 570... Grants § 570.406 Formula miscalculation grants. (a) General. Grants under this section will be made to... section. (b) Application. Since the grant is to correct a technical error in the formula amount...

3. 48 CFR 32.304-3 - Asset formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asset formula. 32.304-3... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Loan Guarantees for Defense Production 32.304-3 Asset formula. (a) Under..., by use of an asset formula, to an amount that does not exceed a specified percentage (90 percent...

4. 27 CFR 26.197 - Furnishing formula to consignee.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Furnishing formula to... Custody to Internal Revenue Bond § 26.197 Furnishing formula to consignee. Prior to the first shipment... formula covering such spirits to the appropriate TTB officer, and to the proprietor of each...

5. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

6. 42 CFR 51.3 - Formula for determining allotments.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Formula for determining allotments. 51.3 Section 51....3 Formula for determining allotments. The Secretary shall make allotments to eligible Systems from amounts apportioned each year under the Act on the basis of a formula prescribed by the Secretary...

7. 27 CFR 26.53 - Changes of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes of formulas. 26.53... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.53 Changes of formulas. Any change in the ingredients composing a...

8. 5 CFR 838.504 - OPM computation of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OPM computation of formulas. 838.504... Refunds of Employee Contributions § 838.504 OPM computation of formulas. (a) A court order directed at a... contributions; or (3) A formula that does not contain any variables whose values are not readily...

9. 27 CFR 26.223 - Changes of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes of formulas. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.223 Changes of formulas. Any change in the ingredients composing...

10. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

11. 27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: 29.75 gallons of ethyl acetate having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not...

12. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

13. 27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: 29.75 gallons of ethyl acetate having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not...

14. 27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: 29.75 gallons of ethyl acetate having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not...

15. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

16. 27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62... and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No. 35-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: 4.25 gallons of ethyl acetate having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not...

17. 27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: 29.75 gallons of ethyl acetate having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not...

18. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

19. Illinois' School Funding Formula--A Mathematical and Geometrical Analysis.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toenjes, Laurence A.

1982-01-01

Compares Illinois' funding formula with a mathematical model for resource compensating formulas. Describes the variables used (including district enrollment, wealth, tax effort, and state guaranteed valuation). Uses graphs to illustrate varying equity effects of the formula for K-12, K-8, and high school districts, both statewide and in selected…

20. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

1. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

2. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

3. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

4. 27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...

5. 27 CFR 19.187 - Adoption of formulas.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 19... After Original Qualification § 19.187 Adoption of formulas. (a) Forms 5110.38. The adoption by a... the appropriate TTB officer. The application shall list the formulas for adoption by (1)...

6. 45 CFR 1321.37 - Intrastate funding formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intrastate funding formula. 1321.37 Section 1321... funding formula. (a) The State agency, after consultation with all area agencies in the State, shall develop and use an intrastate funding formula for the allocation of funds to area agencies under this...

7. 45 CFR 1321.37 - Intrastate funding formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Intrastate funding formula. 1321.37 Section 1321... funding formula. (a) The State agency, after consultation with all area agencies in the State, shall develop and use an intrastate funding formula for the allocation of funds to area agencies under this...

8. 45 CFR 1321.37 - Intrastate funding formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Intrastate funding formula. 1321.37 Section 1321... funding formula. (a) The State agency, after consultation with all area agencies in the State, shall develop and use an intrastate funding formula for the allocation of funds to area agencies under this...

9. Infant formula increases bone turnover favoring bone formation

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the first year of life, the major infant food choices have traditionally been breast milk (BM), cow's milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF). Studies examining the effects of infant formula on early life skeletal development are extremely limited. We have enrolled 120 healthy 6-month-old infants ...

10. Effects of Neurological Damage on Production of Formulaic Language

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sidtis, Diana; Canterucci, Gina; Katsnelson, Dora

2009-01-01

Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous…

11. 24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...

12. 24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...

13. 24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...

14. 24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...

15. 27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64 Section 21.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... and Authorized Uses § 21.64 Formula No. 37. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

16. 27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... substantially change the color, flavor, or character, separation of beer into different components, reverse... required for different products? (1) You must file a separate formula for approval for each different... is my formula approval valid? Your formula approved under this section remains in effect until:...

17. 27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...

18. Certain summation and transformation formulas for generalized hypergeometric series

Miller, Allen R.

2009-09-01

We derive summation formulas for generalized hypergeometric series of unit argument, one of which upon specialization reduces to Minton's summation theorem. As an application we deduce a reduction formula for a certain Kampé de Fériet function that in turn provides a Kummer-type transformation formula for the generalized hypergeometric function pFp(x).

19. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO,...

20. 27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ink general-use formula. 20.115 Section 20.115 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas...

1. 27 CFR 24.303 - Formula wine record.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula wine record. 24.303 Section 24.303 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.303 Formula wine record. A proprietor who produces beverage formula wine shall...

2. 27 CFR 21.72 - Formula No. 39-C.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 39-C. 21.72... and Authorized Uses § 21.72 Formula No. 39-C. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One....Lotions and creams (hand, face, and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures....

3. 27 CFR 21.75 - Formula No. 40-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 40-A. 21.75... and Authorized Uses § 21.75 Formula No. 40-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One....Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures. 122.Toilet waters and colognes. 141.Shampoos....

4. 27 CFR 21.71 - Formula No. 39-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 39-B. 21.71... and Authorized Uses § 21.71 Formula No. 39-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Two..., and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures. 122.Toilet waters and...

5. 27 CFR 21.71 - Formula No. 39-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 39-B. 21.71... and Authorized Uses § 21.71 Formula No. 39-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Two..., and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures. 122.Toilet waters and...

6. 27 CFR 21.72 - Formula No. 39-C.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 39-C. 21.72... and Authorized Uses § 21.72 Formula No. 39-C. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One....Lotions and creams (hand, face, and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures....

7. 27 CFR 21.72 - Formula No. 39-C.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 39-C. 21.72... and Authorized Uses § 21.72 Formula No. 39-C. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One....Lotions and creams (hand, face, and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures....

8. 27 CFR 21.71 - Formula No. 39-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 39-B. 21.71... and Authorized Uses § 21.71 Formula No. 39-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Two..., and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures. 122.Toilet waters and...

9. 27 CFR 21.76 - Formula No. 40-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 40-B. 21.76... and Authorized Uses § 21.76 Formula No. 40-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One..., face, and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures. 122.Toilet waters...

10. 27 CFR 21.72 - Formula No. 39-C.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 39-C. 21.72... and Authorized Uses § 21.72 Formula No. 39-C. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One....Lotions and creams (hand, face, and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures....

11. 27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... formula may be disapproved for drawback either because it does not prescribe appropriate ingredients in... medicine, a medicinal preparation, a food product, a flavor, a flavoring extract, nor a perfume. The formula for a disapproved product may be used as an intermediate product formula under § 17.126....

12. 27 CFR 21.72 - Formula No. 39-C.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 39-C. 21.72... and Authorized Uses § 21.72 Formula No. 39-C. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One....Lotions and creams (hand, face, and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures....

13. 27 CFR 21.76 - Formula No. 40-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 40-B. 21.76... and Authorized Uses § 21.76 Formula No. 40-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One..., face, and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures. 122.Toilet waters...

14. 27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... formula may be disapproved for drawback either because it does not prescribe appropriate ingredients in... medicine, a medicinal preparation, a food product, a flavor, a flavoring extract, nor a perfume. The formula for a disapproved product may be used as an intermediate product formula under § 17.126....

15. 27 CFR 21.76 - Formula No. 40-B.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 40-B. 21.76... and Authorized Uses § 21.76 Formula No. 40-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One..., face, and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures. 122.Toilet waters...

16. 27 CFR 21.74 - Formula No. 40.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 40. 21.74... and Authorized Uses § 21.74 Formula No. 40. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add 1/8..., face, and body). 114.Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures. 122.Toilet waters...

17. 27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69... and Authorized Uses § 21.69 Formula No. 39. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: Nine... scalp preparations. 112.Bay rum. 113.Lotions and creams (hand, face, and body). 121.Perfume and...

18. 27 CFR 21.75 - Formula No. 40-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 40-A. 21.75... and Authorized Uses § 21.75 Formula No. 40-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One....Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures. 122.Toilet waters and colognes. 141.Shampoos....

19. 27 CFR 21.75 - Formula No. 40-A.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 40-A. 21.75... and Authorized Uses § 21.75 Formula No. 40-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One....Deodorants (body). 121.Perfumes and perfume tinctures. 122.Toilet waters and colognes. 141.Shampoos....

20. 27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... formula may be disapproved for drawback either because it does not prescribe appropriate ingredients in... medicine, a medicinal preparation, a food product, a flavor, a flavoring extract, nor a perfume. The formula for a disapproved product may be used as an intermediate product formula under § 17.126....