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Sample records for employing msh2 protein

  1. Diagnostic method employing MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1998-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  2. Diagnostic method employing MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1998-11-17

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  3. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-01-07

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  4. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  5. Diagnostic method employing MSH2 nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  6. Diagnostic method employing MSH2 nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-12-02

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +}(RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  7. Proteasome inhibition rescues clinically significant unstable variants of the mismatch repair protein Msh2

    PubMed Central

    Arlow, Tim; Scott, Kristan; Wagenseller, Aubrey; Gammie, Alison

    2013-01-01

    MSH2 is required for DNA mismatch repair recognition in eukaryotes. Deleterious mutations in human MSH2 account for approximately half of the alleles associated with a common hereditary cancer syndrome. Previously, we characterized clinically identified MSH2 missense mutations, using yeast as a model system, and found that the most common cause of defective DNA mismatch repair was low levels of the variant Msh2 proteins. Here, we show that increased protein turnover is responsible for the reduced cellular levels. Increasing gene dosage of more than half of the missense alleles fully restored function. A titration experiment revealed that raising the expression level of one variant to less than wild-type levels restored mismatch repair, suggesting that overexpression is not always required to regain function. We found that the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation pathway is the major mechanism for increased turnover of the Msh2 variants and identified the primary ubiquitin ligase as San1. Deletion of San1 restored protein levels for all but one variant, but did not elevate wild-type Msh2 levels. The unstable variants interacted with San1, whereas wild-type Msh2 did not. Additionally, san1Δ suppressed the mismatch repair defect of unstable variants. Of medical significance, the clinically approved drug Bortezomib partially restored protein levels and mismatch repair function for low-level variants and reversed the resistance to cisplatin, a common chemotherapeutic. Our results provide the foundation for an innovative therapeutic regime for certain mismatch-repair-defective cancers that are refractory to conventional chemotherapies. PMID:23248292

  8. Expression of human DNA mismatch-repair protein, hMSH2, in patients with oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Huai; Chen, Hui-Zhen; Chen, Yong

    2015-01-01

    hMSH2 is one of the human DNA mismatch repair genes that plays an important role in reducing mutations and maintaining genomic stability. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression and significance of hMSH2 protein in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). The expression levels of hMSH2 in the OLP group (n=51) and control group with normal oral mucosa (NM; n=40) were detected using an immunohistochemical method and subsequently assessed. The positive rate of hMSH2 expression in the OLP group was 52.94%, while the rate was 80% in the control group, exhibiting a statistically significant difference (χ(2)=7.1993; P<0.05). However, the expression of hMSH2 in the OLP tissues was not shown to significantly correlate with the patient gender, age and type of OLP (P>0.05). In conclusion, the protein expression levels of hMSH2 in the OLP tissues were significantly reduced as compared with that in the NM tissues, indicating that hMSH2 plays a role in the development of OLP. Therefore, hMSH2 may be used as a biomarker for evaluating the cancer risk of patients with OLP. PMID:25452803

  9. Interdependence of DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1 and MSH2 in apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hassen, Samar; Ali, Akhtar A; Kilaparty, Surya P; Al-Anbaky, Qudes A; Majeed, Waqar; Boman, Bruce M; Fields, Jeremy Z; Ali, Nawab

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system consists of a number of proteins that play important roles in repair of base pair mismatch mutations and in maintenance of genomic integrity. A defect in this system can cause genetic instability, which can lead to carcinogenesis. For instance, a germline mutation in one of the mismatch repair proteins, especially MLH1 or MSH2, is responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. These MMR proteins also play an important role in the induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, altered expression of or a defect in MLH1 or MSH2 may confer resistance to anti-cancer drugs used in chemotherapy. We hypothesized that the ability of these two MMR proteins to regulate apoptosis are interdependent. Moreover, a defect in either one may confer resistance to chemotherapy by an inability to trigger apoptosis. To this end, we studied three cell lines-SW480, LoVo, and HTC116. These cell lines were selected based on their differential expression of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins. SW480 expresses both MLH1 and MSH2; LoVo expresses only MLH1 but not MSH2; HCT116 expresses only MSH2 but not MLH1 protein. MTT assays, a measure of cytotoxicity, showed that there were different cytotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, etoposide, on these cell lines, effects that were correlated with the MMR status of the cells. Cells that are deficient in MLH1 protein (HCT116 cells) were resistant to the drug. Cells that express both MLH1 and MSH2 proteins (SW480 cells) showed caspase-3 cleavage, an indicator of apoptosis. Cells that lack MLH1 (HCT116 cells) did not show any caspase-3 cleavage. Expression of full-length MLH1 protein was decreased in MMR proficient (SW480) cells during apoptosis; it remained unchanged in cells that lack MSH2 (LoVo cells). The expression of MSH2 protein remained unchanged during apoptosis both in MMR proficient (SW480) and deficient (HCT116) cells. Studies on translocation of MLH1 protein from nucleus to cytosolic fraction, an

  10. Correlation between cell cycle proteins and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis and lip cancer.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; de Oliveira, Denise Hélen Imaculada Pereira; Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate and verify the relationship between the immunoexpression of hMSH2, p53 and p21 in actinic cheilitis (AC) and lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases. Forty AC and 40 SCC cases were submitted to immunoperoxidase method and quantitatively analyzed. Expression was compared by Mann-Whitney test, Student t test or one-way ANOVA. To correlate the variables, Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. The expression of p53 and p21 showed no significant differences between histopathological grades of AC or lower lip SCC (p > 0.05). Immunoexpression of p53 was higher in SCC than in AC (p < 0.001), while p21 expression was more observed in AC when compared to SCC group (p = 0.006). The AC group revealed an inverse correlation between p53 and hMSH2 expression (r = -0.30, p = 0.006). Alterations in p53 and p21 expression suggest that these proteins are involved in lower lip carcinogenesis. Moreover, p53 and hMSH2 seem to be interrelated in early events of this process. PMID:26842232

  11. Minor Changes in Expression of the Mismatch Repair Protein MSH2 Exert a Major Impact on Glioblastoma Response to Temozolomide.

    PubMed

    McFaline-Figueroa, José L; Braun, Christian J; Stanciu, Monica; Nagel, Zachary D; Mazzucato, Patrizia; Sangaraju, Dewakar; Cerniauskas, Edvinas; Barford, Kelly; Vargas, Amanda; Chen, Yimin; Tretyakova, Natalia; Lees, Jacqueline A; Hemann, Michael T; White, Forest M; Samson, Leona D

    2015-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is often treated with the cytotoxic drug temozolomide, but the disease inevitably recurs in a drug-resistant form after initial treatment. Here, we report that in GBM cells, even a modest decrease in the mismatch repair (MMR) components MSH2 and MSH6 have profound effects on temozolomide sensitivity. RNAi-mediated attenuation of MSH2 and MSH6 showed that such modest decreases provided an unexpectedly strong mechanism of temozolomide resistance. In a mouse xenograft model of human GBM, small changes in MSH2 were sufficient to suppress temozolomide-induced tumor regression. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas to analyze mRNA expression patterns in tumors from temozolomide-treated GBM patients, we found that MSH2 transcripts in primary GBM could predict patient responses to initial temozolomide therapy. In recurrent disease, the absence of microsatellite instability (the standard marker for MMR deficiency) suggests a lack of involvement of MMR in the resistant phenotype of recurrent disease. However, more recent studies reveal that decreased MMR protein levels occur often in recurrent GBM. In accordance with our findings, these reported decreases may constitute a mechanism by which GBM evades temozolomide sensitivity while maintaining microsatellite stability. Overall, our results highlight the powerful effects of MSH2 attenuation as a potent mediator of temozolomide resistance and argue that MMR activity offers a predictive marker for initial therapeutic response to temozolomide treatment. PMID:26025730

  12. Expression of hMSH2 protein of the human DNA mismatch repair system in oral lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease of inflammatory nature and unknown etiology. It is characterized by a cell-mediated immunological response to induced antigenic change in skin and/or mucosa. The possible malignant transformation of lichen planus remains a subject of controversial discussions in the literature. hMSH2 is one of the human DNA mismatch repair (hMMR) genes and it plays an important role in reducing mutation and maintaining genomic stability. hMSH2 alterations have been reported in oral squamous cell carcinoma and there are evidences suggesting the association between oral lichen planus and squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we aim to investigate the immunolocalization of hMSH2 protein in oral lichen planus compared to oral normal mucosa epithelium. We examined the expression of hMSH2 protein by immunohistochemistry in twenty-six cases of oral lichen planus. Clinically, 12 of them were categorized into reticular subtype and 14 were atrophic/erosive. Ten cases of normal mucosa were added to the control group. Results showed that the percentage of positive cells to hMSH2 was smaller in reticular (46.54%; p=0,006) and atrophic/erosive (48.79%; p=0,028) subtypes of oral lichen planus compared to normal mucosa (61.29%). The reduced expression of hMSH2 protein in oral lichen planus suggests that this lesion is more susceptible to mutation and therefore facilitate the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:15912193

  13. MSH-2 and MLH-1 Protein Expression in Muir Torre Syndrome-Related and Sporadic Sebaceous Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Burgos, Adisbeth; Sánchez, Jorge L.; Figueroa, Luz D.; De Jesús-Monge, Wilfredo E.; Cruz-Correa, Marcia R.; González-Keelan, Carmen; Nazario, Cruz María

    2009-01-01

    Background Muir-Torre Syndrome (MTS) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by the predisposition to both sebaceous neoplasm and internal malignancies. MTS-associated sebaceous neoplasms reveal mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and microsatellite instability. A significant part of MTS patients represents a phenotypic variant, the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). A strong correlation between microsatellite instability and immunostaining has been demonstrated. The early recognition of sebaceous neoplasm as part of MTS, and their differentiation from sporadic sebaceous neoplasm may have an important application in a clinical setting. The absence of MLH-1 or MSH-2 expression by immunostaining identifies tumors with mismatch repair deficiency. Objectives Our aim is to determine whether an immunohistochemical approach, targeting DNA repair proteins MSH-2 and MLH-1 in MTS-related sebaceous neoplasm and their sporadic counterparts, can be used for their identification. Methods We examined 15 sebaceous neoplasms (including 6 internal malignancy- associated sebaceous neoplasms and 8 sporadic sebaceous neoplasms) from 11 patients for the expression of MSH-2 and MLH-1 by immunohistochemistry. Results Four of 5 internal malignancy-associated sebaceous neoplasms showed loss of expression of MSH-2 or MLH-1. Correlation of the immunostaining pattern of the sebaceous neoplasms and the patients’ positive history of colon carcinoma was 80%. Seven of 8 sporadic sebaceous neoplasms showed a positive expression of MSH-2 and MLH-1. The prevalence for loss of expression of MMR proteins in sebaceous neoplasms was 38.5%. MMR immunostaining had 87.5% specificity and 80% sensitivity. Limitations This study is limited by a small sample size, and by bias selection due to the use of non nationwide data-base as the resource of cases. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that immunohistochemical testing for internal malignancy-associated sebaceous

  14. Link between immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins and clinical-epidemiological aspects of actinic cheilitis*

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies found in the literature associate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins with histologic aspects, but do not correlate it with clinical and epidemiological data. Objective To evaluate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis, correlating it with clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 40 cases. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The following clinical variables were evaluated: gender, age range, ethnicity, clinical aspect and occupational sunlight exposure. Statistical evaluation included the Student t-test, while the significance level was set at 5%. Results Greater immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was observed in females, individuals aged over 40, and mixed-race/black patients. Furthermore, the immunoexpression of these proteins was greater in actinic cheilitis with a white-colored appearance and in patients without occupational sunlight exposure. No statistical differences were observed for the variables studied. Conclusion This study uncovered variations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression upon evaluation of clinical aspects in actinic cheilitis. PMID:27579741

  15. The immunohistochemical detection of mismatch repair gene proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2): practical aspects in antigen retrieval and biotin blocking protocols.

    PubMed

    Manavis, Jim; Gilham, Peter; Davies, Ruth; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew

    2003-03-01

    The immunohistochemical detection of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins is used as a screening test with microsatellite instability for the detection of hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). The authors describe a simple and cost-effective method using a pressure cooker and microwave oven for antigen retrieval and a modified method for applying a commercial biotin blocking kit. Colorectal tumors of 20 patients of the HNPCC spectrum were included in this study. Eighty paraffin sections were cut and submitted for immunohistochemical analysis using a routine protocol and a pressure cooker protocol. Parallel sections for biotin blocking were also run, including the modified biotin block for each protocol. The sections were incubated with the following antibodies: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. All cases examined exhibited a normal expression of the MMR proteins in the nucleus and adjacent nonneoplastic tissue elements and consequently defined as having a normal expression of these proteins. Cases with tumor that exhibited a loss of the nuclear staining with the MMR proteins with a concurrent staining of the adjacent nonneoplastic cells were classified as abnormal MMR expression. The series of 20 cases using pressure cooker antigen retrieval produced superior results to the routine immunohistochemical protocol used previously in our laboratory. The modified biotin block also gave consistent results. The reproducibility and consistency of this procedure has resulted it in being used routinely for suspected HNPCC cases, both current and archival. PMID:12610360

  16. NPM-ALK mediates phosphorylation of MSH2 at tyrosine 238, creating a functional deficiency in MSH2 and the loss of mismatch repair

    PubMed Central

    Bone, K M; Wang, P; Wu, F; Wu, C; Li, L; Bacani, J T; Andrew, S E; Lai, R

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL) tumors express the characteristic oncogenic fusion protein NPM-ALK, which mediates tumorigenesis by exerting its constitutive tyrosine kinase activity on various substrates. We recently identified MSH2, a protein central to DNA mismatch repair (MMR), as a novel binding partner and phosphorylation substrate of NPM-ALK. Here, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, we report for the first time that MSH2 is phosphorylated by NPM-ALK at a specific residue, tyrosine 238. Using GP293 cells transfected with NPM-ALK, we confirmed that the MSH2Y238F mutant is not tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, transfection of MSH2Y238F into these cells substantially decreased the tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous MSH2. Importantly, gene transfection of MSH2Y238F abrogated the binding of NPM-ALK with endogenous MSH2, re-established the dimerization of MSH2:MSH6 and restored the sensitivity to DNA mismatch-inducing drugs, indicative of MMR return. Parallel findings were observed in two ALK+ALCL cell lines, Karpas 299 and SUP-M2. In addition, we found that enforced expression of MSH2Y238F into ALK+ALCL cells alone was sufficient to induce spontaneous apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings have identified NPM-ALK-induced phosphorylation of MSH2 at Y238 as a crucial event in suppressing MMR. Our studies have provided novel insights into the mechanism by which oncogenic tyrosine kinases disrupt MMR. PMID:25978431

  17. Human MLH1 Protein Participates in Genomic Damage Checkpoint Signaling in Response to DNA Interstrand Crosslinks, while MSH2 Functions in DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Vasquez, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are among the most toxic types of damage to a cell. For this reason, many ICL-inducing agents are effective therapeutic agents. For example, cisplatin and nitrogen mustards are used for treating cancer and psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) is useful for treating psoriasis. However, repair mechanisms for ICLs in the human genome are not clearly defined. Previously, we have shown that MSH2, the common subunit of the human MutSα and MutSβ mismatch recognition complexes, plays a role in the error-free repair of psoralen ICLs. We hypothesized that MLH1, the common subunit of human MutL complexes, is also involved in the cellular response to psoralen ICLs. Surprisingly, we instead found that MLH1-deficient human cells are more resistant to psoralen ICLs, in contrast to the sensitivity to these lesions displayed by MSH2-deficient cells. Apoptosis was not as efficiently induced by psoralen ICLs in MLH1-deficient cells as in MLH1-proficient cells as determined by caspase-3/7 activity and binding of annexin V. Strikingly, CHK2 phosphorylation was undetectable in MLH1-deficient cells, and phosphorylation of CHK1 was reduced after PUVA treatment, indicating that MLH1 is involved in signaling psoralen ICL-induced checkpoint activation. Psoralen ICLs can result in mutations near the crosslinked sites; however, MLH1 function was not required for the mutagenic repair of these lesions, and so its signaling function appears to have a role in maintaining genomic stability following exposure to ICL-induced DNA damage. Distinguishing the genetic status of MMR-deficient tumors as MSH2-deficient or MLH1-deficient is thus potentially important in predicting the efficacy of treatment with psoralen and perhaps with other ICL-inducing agents. PMID:18787700

  18. Ubiquitin-specific Peptidase 10 (USP10) Deubiquitinates and Stabilizes MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2) to Regulate Cellular Sensitivity to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mu; Hu, Chen; Tong, Dan; Xiang, Shengyan; Williams, Kendra; Bai, Wenlong; Li, Guo-Min; Bepler, Gerold; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-05-13

    MSH2 is a key DNA mismatch repair protein, which plays an important role in genomic stability. In addition to its DNA repair function, MSH2 serves as a sensor for DNA base analogs-provoked DNA replication errors and binds to various DNA damage-induced adducts to trigger cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Loss or depletion of MSH2 from cells renders resistance to certain DNA-damaging agents. Therefore, the level of MSH2 determines DNA damage response. Previous studies showed that the level of MSH2 protein is modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) serves as an ubiquitin E3 ligase. However, the deubiquitinating enzymes, which regulate MSH2 remain unknown. Here we report that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 10 (USP10) interacts with and stabilizes MSH2. USP10 deubiquitinates MSH2 in vitro and in vivo Moreover, the protein level of MSH2 is positively correlated with the USP10 protein level in a panel of lung cancer cell lines. Knockdown of USP10 in lung cancer cells exhibits increased cell survival and decreased apoptosis upon the treatment of DNA-methylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6-TG). The above phenotypes can be rescued by ectopic expression of MSH2. In addition, knockdown of MSH2 decreases the cellular mismatch repair activity. Overall, our results suggest a novel USP10-MSH2 pathway regulating DNA damage response and DNA mismatch repair. PMID:26975374

  19. Msh2 deficiency leads to dysmyelination of the corpus callosum, impaired locomotion, and altered sensory function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Barthelemy; Devaraju, Prakash; Janke, Laura J.; Fan, Yiping; Frase, Sharon; Eddins, Donnie; Peters, Jennifer L.; Kim, Jieun; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Evans, William E.

    2016-01-01

    A feature in patients with constitutional DNA-mismatch repair deficiency is agenesis of the corpus callosum, the cause of which has not been established. Here we report a previously unrecognized consequence of deficiency in MSH2, a protein known primarily for its function in correcting nucleotide mismatches or insertions and deletions in duplex DNA caused by errors in DNA replication or recombination. We documented that Msh2 deficiency causes dysmyelination of the axonal projections in the corpus callosum. Evoked action potentials in the myelinated corpus callosum projections of Msh2-null mice were smaller than wild-type mice, whereas unmyelinated axons showed no difference. Msh2-null mice were also impaired in locomotive activity and had an abnormal response to heat. These findings reveal a novel pathogenic consequence of MSH2 deficiency, providing a new mechanistic hint to previously recognized neurological disorders in patients with inherited DNA-mismatch repair deficiency. PMID:27476972

  20. The role of AtMSH2 in homologous recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Eyal; Yehuda, Elizabeth; Melamed-Bessudo, Cathy; Avivi-Ragolsky, Naomi; Levy, Avraham A

    2006-01-01

    During homologous recombination (HR), a heteroduplex DNA is formed as a consequence of strand invasion. When the two homologous strands differ in sequence, a mismatch is generated. Earlier studies showed that mismatched heteroduplex often triggers abortion of recombination and that a pivotal component of this pathway is the mismatch repair Msh2 protein. In this study, we analysed the roles of AtMSH2 in suppression of recombination in Arabidopsis. We report that AtMSH2 has a broad range of anti-recombination effects: it suppresses recombination between divergent direct repeats in somatic cells or between homologues from different ecotypes during meiosis. This is the first example of a plant gene that affects HR as a function of sequence divergence and that has an anti-recombination meiotic effect. We discuss the implications of these results for plant improvement by gene transfer across species. PMID:16311517

  1. Is MSH2 a breast cancer susceptibility gene?

    PubMed

    Wong, Ee Ming; Tesoriero, Andrea A; Pupo, Gulietta M; McCredie, Margaret R E; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Mann, Graham J; Goldgar, David E; Southey, Melissa C

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the DNA mismatch repair gene MSH2 lead to increased replication error and microsatellite instability and account for a substantial proportion of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome). A recent international collaborative genome-wide linkage scan (GWS) for breast cancer susceptibility loci found some evidence for there being a breast cancer susceptibility gene in a genomic region on chromosome 2p close to MSH2. We sought to investigate the possibility that mutations in MSH2 might explain the multiple cases of breast cancer in some families that were included in the international GWS. DNA samples from the affected probands of 59 multiple-case breast cancer families, many of whom gave LOD scores >0.5 in the MSH2 region, were screened for large genomic alterations in MSH2 via the Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) assay and for coding region mutations via exonic sequencing. Several of the families also contained cases of colorectal cancer in addition to breast cancer and had been included in the GWS that had identified a positive LOD score on chromosome 2p. Using MLPA, c.1236C > T was identified in one proband but this variant was not predicted to create an alternate acceptor/donor site within exon 7 MSH2 using in silico analyses. A c.1734T > C was identified in a second proband via exonic sequencing but testing of the variant in other family members did not support segregation of this variant with disease. Extensive screening of 59 multiple-case breast cancer families did not identify any coding region mutations or larger genomic alterations in MSH2 that might implicate MSH2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. PMID:17922223

  2. Germline mutation analysis of MLH1 and MSH2 in Malaysian Lynch syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Zahary, Mohd Nizam; Kaur, Gurjeet; Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Singh, Harjinder; Naik, Venkatesh R; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protein expression profile of mismatch repair (MMR) genes in suspected cases of Lynch syndrome and to characterize the associated germline mutations. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples was performed to determine the protein expression profile of MMR protein. Germline mutation screening was carried out on peripheral blood samples. The entire exon regions of MLH1 and MSH2 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, screened by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and analyzed by DNA sequencing to characterize the germline mutations. RESULTS: Three out of 34 tissue samples (8.8%) and four out of 34 tissue samples (11.8%) showed loss of nuclear staining by immunohistochemistry, indicating the absence of MLH1 and MSH2 protein expression in carcinoma cells, respectively. dHPLC analysis followed by DNA sequencing showed these samples to have germline mutations of MSH2 gene. However, no deleterious mutations were identified in any of the 19 exons or coding regions of MLH1 gene, but we were able to identify MLH1 promoter polymorphism, -93G > A (rs1800734), in 21 out of 34 patients (61.8%). We identified one novel mutation, transversion mutation c.2005G > C, which resulted in a missense mutation (Gly669Arg), a transversion mutation in exon 1, c.142G > T, which resulted in a nonsense mutation (Glu48Stop) and splice-site mutation, c.2006-6T > C, which was adjacent to exon 13 of MSH2 gene. CONCLUSION: Germline mutations were identified in four Malaysian Lynch syndrome patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue proved to be a good pre-screening test before proceeding to germline mutation analysis of DNA MMR genes. PMID:22371642

  3. hMSH2 is the most commonly mutated MMR gene in a cohort of Greek HNPCC patients

    PubMed Central

    Apessos, A; Mihalatos, M; Danielidis, I; Kallimanis, G; Agnantis, N J; Triantafillidis, J K; Fountzilas, G; Kosmidis, P A; Razis, E; Georgoulias, V A; Nasioulas, G

    2005-01-01

    Germline mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in DNA mismatch repair are responsible for the autosomal dominantly inherited cancer predisposition syndrome hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). We describe here analysis of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in nine Greek families referred to our centre for HNPCC. A unique disease-causing mutation has been identified in seven out of nine (78%) families. The types of mutations identified are nonsense (five out of seven) (hMLH1: E557X, R226X; hMSH2: Q158X, R359X and R711X), a 2 bp deletion (hMSH2 1704_1705delAG) and a 2.2 kb Alu-mediated deletion encompassing exon 3 of the hMSH2 gene. The majority of mutations identified in this cohort are found in hMSH2 (77.7%). Furthermore, four of the mutations identified are novel. Finally, a number of novel benign variations were observed in both genes. This is the first report of HNPCC analysis in the Greek population, further underscoring the differences observed in the various geographic populations. PMID:15655560

  4. A truncated hMSH2 transcript occurs as a common variant in the population: implications for genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Xia, L; Shen, W; Ritacca, F; Mitri, A; Madlensky, L; Berk, T; Cohen, Z; Gallinger, S; Bapat, B

    1996-05-15

    Germline mutations of the hMSH2 gene are responsible for many cases of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. While screening for hMSH2 gene mutations in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer kindreds, we observed that a previously reported germline mutation is in fact a common, alternatively spliced variant in the population. Using RT-PCR and the protein truncation test, the hMSH2 exon 13 deletion variant was found in more than 90% of individuals. The exon 13 deletion transcript was only present in lymphocyte RNA, no abnormalities were detected in genomic DNA flanking exon 13, and the deletion transcript is apparently not translated. These findings highlight further that caution should be exercised in providing genetic risk assessment on the basis of currently used germline mutation detection strategies. PMID:8625301

  5. Down-regulation of MSH2 expression by an Hsp90 inhibitor enhances pemetrexed-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Chiu, Hsien-Chun; Jian, Yi-Jun; Jian, Yun-Ting; Chen, Chien-Yu; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wo, Ting-Yu; Huang, Yi-Jhen; Tseng, Sheng-Chieh; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Elevated heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression has been linked to poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The multitargeted antifolate pemetrexed has demonstrated certain clinical activities against NSCLC. However, the efficacy of the combination of pemtrexed and Hsp90 inhibitor to prolong the survival of patients with NSCLC still remains unclear. Human MutS homolog 2 (MSH2), a crucial element of the highly conserved DNA mismatch repair system, and defects or polymorphisms of MSH2 have been found in lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pemetrexed on NSCLC cell lines (H520 and H1703) and found that treatment with this drug at 20-50 µM increased the MSH2 mRNA and protein levels in a MKK3/6-p38 MAPK signal activation-dependent manner. Furthermore, the knockdown of MSH2 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of MSH2 or the blockage of p38 MAPK activation by SB202190 enhanced the cytotoxicity of pemetrexed. Combining the drug treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in an enhanced pemetrexed-induced cytotoxic effect, accompanied with the reduction of MSH2 protein and mRNA levels. The expression of constitutively active MKK6 (MKK6E) or HA-p38 MAPK vectors significantly rescued the decreased p38 MAPK activity, and restored the MSH2 protein levels and cell survival in NSCLC cells co-treated with pemetrexed and Hsp90 inhibitor. In this study, we have demonstrated that down-regulation of the MKK3/6-p38 MAPK signal with the subsequent reduction of MSH2 enhanced the cytotoxic effect of pemetrexed in H520 and H1703 cells. The results suggest a potential future benefit of combining pemetrexed and the Hsp90 inhibitor to treat lung cancer. PMID:24530475

  6. Novel Mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 Genes in Mexican Patients with Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Ortiz, Jose Miguel; Ayala-Madrigal, María de la Luz; Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Maciel-Gutiérrez, Víctor; Franco-Topete, Ramón Antonio; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Pérez-Carbonell, Lucia; Rhees, Jennifer; Gutiérrez-Angulo, Melva

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lynch Syndrome (LS) is characterized by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. This syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is characterized by early onset colorectal cancer (CRC) and extracolonic tumors. The aim of this study was to identify mutations in MMR genes in three Mexican patients with LS. Methods. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed as a prescreening method to identify absent protein expression. PCR, Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (dHPLC), and Sanger sequencing complemented the analysis. Results. Two samples showed the absence of nuclear staining for MLH1 and one sample showed loss of nuclear staining for MSH2. The mutations found in MLH1 gene were c.2103+1G>C in intron 18 and compound heterozygous mutants c.1852_1854delAAG (p.K618del) and c.1852_1853delinsGC (p.K618A) in exon 16. In the MSH2 gene, we identified mutation c.638dupT (p.L213fs) in exon 3. Conclusions. This is the first report of mutations in MMR genes in Mexican patients with LS and these appear to be novel. PMID:27247567

  7. Family history characteristics, tumor microsatellite instability and germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations in hereditary colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bapat, B V; Madlensky, L; Temple, L K; Hiruki, T; Redston, M; Baron, D L; Xia, L; Marcus, V A; Soravia, C; Mitri, A; Shen, W; Gryfe, R; Berk, T; Chodirker, B N; Cohen, Z; Gallinger, S

    1999-02-01

    Recent characterization of the molecular genetic basis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer provides an important opportunity for identification of individuals and their families with germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. Cancer family history criteria that accurately define hereditary colorectal cancer are necessary for cost-effective testing for germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. The present report describes the results of analysis of 33 colorectal cancer cases/families that satisfy our modified family history criteria (Mount Sinai criteria) for colorectal cancer. Fourteen of these families met the more stringent Amsterdam criteria. Germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations were identified by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the protein truncation test, and confirmed by sequencing. Microsatellite instability analysis was performed on available tumors from affected patients. MSH2 or MLH1 mutations were detected in 8 of 14 Amsterdam criteria families and in 5 of the remaining 19 cases/families that only satisfied the Mount Sinai criteria. Three of the latter families had features of the Muir-Torre syndrome. A high level of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) was detected in almost all (16/18) colorectal cancers from individuals with MSH2 and MLH1 mutations, and infrequently (1/21) in colorectal cancer specimens from cases without detectable mutations. Families with germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations tended to have individuals affected at younger ages and with multiple tumors. The Amsterdam criteria are useful, but not sufficient, for detecting hereditary colorectal cancer families with germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations, since a proportion of cases and families with mutations in mismatch repair genes will be missed. Further development of cancer family history criteria are needed, using unbiased prospectively collected cases, to define more accurately those who will benefit from MSH2 and MLH1 mutation analysis. PMID:10190329

  8. Mismatch recognition-coupled stabilization of Msh2-Msh6 in an ATP-bound state at the initiation of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Antony, Edwin; Hingorani, Manju M

    2003-07-01

    Mismatch repair proteins correct errors in DNA via an ATP-driven process. In eukaryotes, the Msh2-Msh6 complex recognizes base pair mismatches and small insertion/deletions in DNA and initiates repair. Both Msh2 and Msh6 proteins contain Walker ATP-binding motifs that are necessary for repair activity. To understand how these proteins couple ATP binding and hydrolysis to DNA binding/mismatch recognition, the ATPase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 was examined under pre-steady-state conditions. Acid-quench experiments revealed that in the absence of DNA, Msh2-Msh6 hydrolyzes ATP rapidly (burst rate = 3 s(-1) at 20 degrees C) and then undergoes a slow step in the pathway that limits catalytic turnover (k(cat) = 0.1 s(-1)). ATP is hydrolyzed similarly in the presence of fully matched duplex DNA; however, in the presence of a G:T mismatch or +T insertion-containing DNA, ATP hydrolysis is severely suppressed (rate = 0.1 s(-1)). Pulse-chase experiments revealed that Msh2-Msh6 binds ATP rapidly in the absence or in the presence of DNA (rate = 0.1 microM(-1) s(-1)), indicating that for the Msh2-Msh6.mismatched DNA complex, a step after ATP binding but before or at ATP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step in the pathway. Thus, mismatch recognition is coupled to a dramatic increase in the residence time of ATP on Msh2-Msh6. This mismatch-induced, stable ATP-bound state of Msh2-Msh6 likely signals downstream events in the repair pathway. PMID:12820877

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi MSH2: Functional analyses on different parasite strains provide evidences for a role on the oxidative stress response☆

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Priscila C.; Silva, Viviane G.; Furtado, Carolina; Machado-Silva, Alice; DaRocha, Wanderson D.; Peloso, Eduardo F.; Gadelha, Fernanda R.; Medeiros, Marisa H.G.; Lana, Gustavo de Carvalho; Chen, Ying; Barnes, Rebecca L.; Passos-Silva, Danielle Gomes; McCulloch, Richard; Machado, Carlos Renato; Teixeira, Santuza M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Components of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway are major players in processes known to generate genetic diversity, such as mutagenesis and DNA recombination. Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease has a highly heterogeneous population, composed of a pool of strains with distinct characteristics. Studies with a number of molecular markers identified up to six groups in the T. cruzi population, which showed distinct levels of genetic variability. To investigate the molecular basis for such differences, we analyzed the T. cruzi MSH2 gene, which encodes a key component of MMR, and showed the existence of distinct isoforms of this protein. Here we compared cell survival rates after exposure to genotoxic agents and levels of oxidative stress-induced DNA in different parasite strains. Analyses of msh2 mutants in both T. cruzi and T. brucei were also used to investigate the role of Tcmsh2 in the response to various DNA damaging agents. The results suggest that the distinct MSH2 isoforms have differences in their activity. More importantly, they also indicate that, in addition to its role in MMR, TcMSH2 acts in the parasite response to oxidative stress through a novel mitochondrial function that may be conserved in T. brucei. PMID:21073906

  10. Characterization of Insertion Mutations in the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Msh1 and Msh2 Genes: Evidence for Separate Mitochondrial and Nuclear Functions

    PubMed Central

    Reenan, RAG.; Kolodner, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The MSH1 and MSH2 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are predicted to encode proteins that are homologous to the Escherichia coli MutS and Streptococcus pneumoniae HexA proteins and their homologs. Disruption of the MSH1 gene caused a petite phenotype which was established rapidly. A functional MSH1 gene present on a single-copy centromere plasmid was incapable of rescuing the established msh1 petite phenotype. Analysis of msh1 strains demonstrated that mutagenesis and large-scale rearrangement of mitochondrial DNA had occurred. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of msh1 yeast revealed an aberrant distribution of mtDNA. Haploid msh2 mutants displayed an increase of 85-fold in the rate of spontaneous mutation to canavanine resistance. Sporulation of homozygous msh2/msh2 diploids gave rise to a high level of lethality which was compounded during increased vegetative growth prior to sporulation. msh2 mutations also affected gene conversion of two HIS4 alleles. The his4x mutation, lying near the 5' end of the gene, was converted with equal frequency in both wild-type and msh2 strains. However, many of the events in the msh2 background were post-meiotic segregation (PMS) events (46.4%) while none (<0.25%) of the aberrant segregations in wild type were PMS events. The his4b allele, lying 1.6 kb downstream of his4x, was converted at a 10-fold higher frequency in the msh2 background than in the corresponding wild-type strain. Like the his4x allele, his4b showed a high level of PMS (30%) in the msh2 background compared to the corresponding wild-type strain where no (<0.26%) PMS events were observed. These results indicate that MSH1 plays a role in repair or stability of mtDNA and MSH2 plays a role in repair of 4-bp insertion/deletion mispairs in the nucleus. PMID:1334021

  11. Msh2 deficiency leads to chromosomal abnormalities, centrosome amplification, and telomere capping defect

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong; Liu, Yie

    2006-01-01

    Msh2 is a key mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene and mutations or deficiencies in mammalian Msh2 gene result in microsatellite instability (MSI+) and the development of cancer. Here, we report that primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in the murine MMR gene Msh2 (Msh2-/-) showed a significant increase in chromosome aneuploidy, centrosome amplification, and defective mitotic spindle organization and unequal chromosome segregation. Although Msh2-/- mouse tissues or primary MEFs had no apparent change in telomerase activity, telomere length, or recombination at telomeres, Msh2-/- MEFs showed an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA. These data suggest that MSH2 helps to maintain genomic stability through the regulation of the centrosome and normal telomere capping in vivo and that defects in MMR can contribute to oncogenesis through multiple pathways.

  12. MSH2 Dysregulation Is Triggered by Proinflammatory Cytokine Stimulation and Is Associated with Liver Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Eso, Yuji; Takai, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Tomonori; Inuzuka, Tadashi; Horie, Takahiro; Ono, Koh; Uemoto, Shinji; Lee, Kyeryoung; Edelmann, Winfried; Chiba, Tsutomu; Marusawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation predisposes to tumorigenesis in various organs by potentiating a susceptibility to genetic aberrations. The mechanism underlying the enhanced genetic instability through chronic inflammation, however, is not clear. Here, we demonstrated that TNFα stimulation induced transcriptional downregulation of MSH2, a member of the mismatch repair family, via NF-κB-dependent miR-21 expression in hepatocytes. Liver cancers developed in ALB-MSH2(-) (/) (-)AID(+), ALB-MSH2(-) (/) (-), and ALB-AID(+) mice, in which MSH2 is deficient and/or activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) is expressed in cells with albumin-producing hepatocytes. The mutation signatures in the tumors developed in these models, especially ALB-MSH2(-) (/) (-)AID(+) mice, closely resembled those of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Our findings demonstrated that inflammation-mediated dysregulation of MSH2 may be a mechanism of genetic alterations during hepatocarcinogenesis. Cancer Res; 76(15); 4383-93. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27261510

  13. Expression of MLH1 and MSH2 in urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Laleh; Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated microsatellite instability in urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis by lack of immunohistochemical staining for MLH1 and MSH2. The study included 44 cases of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis obtained from radical nephroureterectomy specimens at our institution. We evaluated the loss of nuclear immunohistochemical staining of MLH1 and MSH2. Eight of 44 (18 %) patients had negative MLH1 expression and 25/44 (57 %) patients had negative MSH2 expression. Six of 8 (75 %) patients with negative MLH1 expression were male and 2/8 (25 %) patients were female. Nineteen of 25 (75 %) patients with negative MSH2 expression were male, and 6/25 (24 %) patients were female. Seven of 8 (88 %) cases with negative MLH1 expression were high-grade urothelial carcinoma, and 21/25 (84 %) cases with negative MSH2 expression were high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twenty-one of 44 (48 %) cases had an inverted growth pattern, of which 3/21 (14 %) cases had negative MLH1 expression and 14/21 (67 %) cases had negative MSH2 expression. Our study showed that microsatellite instability based on negative expression of MLH1 and MSH2 was more common in male patients with high-grade urothelial carcinoma. There is a strong correlation between inverted growth pattern and negative MSH2 expression. Microsatellite instability testing should be performed in patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma and may have prognostic value. PMID:24874052

  14. Four novel MSH2 / MLH1 gene mutations in portuguese HNPCC families.

    PubMed

    Isidro, G; Veiga, I; Matos, P; Almeida, S; Bizarro, S; Marshall, B; Baptista, M; Leite, J; Regateiro, F; Soares, J; Castedo, S; Boavida, M G

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is considered to be determined by germline mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, especially MSH2 and MLH1. While screening for mutations in these two genes in HNPCC portuguese families, 3 previously unreported MSH2 and 1 MLH1 mutations have been identified in families meeting strict Amsterdam criteria. Hum Mutat 15:116, 2000. PMID:10612836

  15. Parotid Sebaceous Carcinoma in Patient with Muir Torre Syndrome, Caused by MSH2 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, Iyer Vishwas; Di Palma, Silvana; Smith, C E T; McCoombe, A

    2016-09-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma of parotid gland are extremely rare with only 29 cases reported so far. The development of parotid sebaceous carcinoma in association with mutation in the mismatch repair gene that causes Muir Torre Syndrome (MTS), a subset of Lynch Syndrome, is still unclear. This study describes such a case and reviews the literature to see if an association between parotid sebaceous carcinoma and multiple visceral malignancies seen in Lynch Syndrome has ever been described. MTS represents a small subset of the Hereditary Non Polyposis Colorectal Carcinoma family, thought to be a subtype of Lynch Syndrome, where patients are prone to develop multiple visceral cancers involving gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract along with sebaceous and non-sebaceous tumours of the skin. MTS is a rare hereditary, autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by Microsatellite Instability and defect in DNA mismatch repair protein. The germline mutation involves mostly hMSH2 and hMLH1 genes. In MTS the skin of the head and neck area with the periocular region in particular, is affected but sebaceous carcinomas of the parotid associated with visceral malignancies has not yet been reported in literature. Here we report an index case of sebaceous carcinoma of parotid gland in a patient with MTS. PMID:26577210

  16. PCNA and Msh2-Msh6 Activate an Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease Pathway Required for Exo1-independent Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Goellner, Eva M.; Smith, Catherine E.; Campbell, Christopher S.; Hombauer, Hans; Desai, Arshad; Putnam, Christopher D.; Kolodner, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genetic evidence has implicated multiple pathways in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) downstream of mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment, including Exonuclease 1 (Exo1) dependent and independent pathways. We identified 14 mutations in POL30, which encodes PCNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, specific to Exo1-independent MMR. The mutations identified affected amino acids at three distinct sites on the PCNA structure. Multiple mutant PCNA proteins had defects either in trimerization and Msh2-Msh6 binding or in activation of the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease that initiates excision during MMR. The latter class of mutations led to hyper-accumulation of repair intermediate Mlh1-Pms1 foci and were enhanced by an msh6 mutation that disrupted the Msh2-Msh6 interaction with PCNA. These results reveal a central role for PCNA in the Exo1-independent MMR pathway and suggest that Msh2-Msh6 localizes PCNA to repair sites after mispair recognition to activate the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease for initiating Exo1-dependent repair or for driving progressive excision in Exo1-independent repair. PMID:24981171

  17. Cadmium inhibits mismatch repair by blocking the ATPase activity of the MSH2-MSH6 complex.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sreeparna; Flores-Rozas, Hernan

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd2+) is a known carcinogen that inactivates the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. In this study, we have tested the effect of Cd2+ exposure on the enzymatic activity of the mismatch binding complex MSH2-MSH6. Our results indicate that Cd2+ is highly inhibitory to the ATP binding and hydrolysis activities of MSH2-MSH6, and less inhibitory to its DNA mismatch binding activity. The inhibition of the ATPase activity appears to be dose and exposure time dependent. However, the inhibition of the ATPase activity by Cd2+ is prevented by cysteine and histidine, suggesting that these residues are essential for the ATPase activity and are targeted by Cd2+. A comparison of the mechanism of inhibition with N-ethyl maleimide, a sulfhydryl group inhibitor, indicates that this inhibition does not occur through direct inactivation of sulfhydryl groups. Zinc (Zn2+) does not overcome the direct inhibitory effect of Cd2+ on the MSH2-MSH6 ATPase activity in vitro. However, the increase in the mutator phenotype of yeast cells exposed to Cd2+ was prevented by excess Zn2+, probably by blocking the entry of Cd2+ into the cell. We conclude that the inhibition of MMR by Cd2+ is through the inactivation of the ATPase activity of the MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer, resulting in a dominant negative effect and causing a mutator phenotype. PMID:15746000

  18. Classifying MLH1 and MSH2 variants using bioinformatic prediction, splicing assays, segregation, and tumor characteristics.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Sven; Buchanan, Daniel D; Barker, Melissa; Jaskowski, Lesley; Walsh, Michael D; Birney, Genevieve; Woods, Michael O; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Brown, Melissa A; Tavtigian, Sean V; Goldgar, David E; Young, Joanne P; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2009-05-01

    Reliable methods for predicting functional consequences of variants in disease genes would be beneficial in the clinical setting. This study was undertaken to predict, and confirm in vitro, splicing aberrations associated with mismatch repair (MMR) variants identified in familial colon cancer patients. Six programs were used to predict the effect of 13 MLH1 and 6 MSH2 gene variants on pre-mRNA splicing. mRNA from cycloheximide-treated lymphoblastoid cell lines of variant carriers was screened for splicing aberrations. Tumors of variant carriers were tested for microsatellite instability and MMR protein expression. Variant segregation in families was assessed using Bayes factor causality analysis. Amino acid alterations were examined for evolutionary conservation and physicochemical properties. Splicing aberrations were detected for 10 variants, including a frameshift as a minor cDNA product, and altered ratio of known alternate splice products. Loss of splice sites was well predicted by splice-site prediction programs SpliceSiteFinder (90%) and NNSPLICE (90%), but consequence of splice site loss was less accurately predicted. No aberrations correlated with ESE predictions for the nine exonic variants studied. Seven of eight missense variants had normal splicing (88%), but only one was a substitution considered neutral from evolutionary/physicochemical analysis. Combined with information from tumor and segregation analysis, and literature review, 16 of 19 variants were considered clinically relevant. Bioinformatic tools for prediction of splicing aberrations need improvement before use without supporting studies to assess variant pathogenicity. Classification of mismatch repair gene variants is assisted by a comprehensive approach that includes in vitro, tumor pathology, clinical, and evolutionary conservation data. PMID:19267393

  19. Classifying MLH1 and MSH2 variants using bioinformatic prediction, splicing assays, segregation and tumor characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sven; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Barker, Melissa; Jaskowski, Lesley; Walsh, Michael D.; Birney, Genevieve; Woods, Michael O.; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Brown, Melissa A.; Tavtigian, Sean V.; Goldgar, David E.; Young, Joanne P.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable methods for predicting functional consequences of variants in disease genes would be beneficial in the clinical setting. This study was undertaken to predict, and confirm in vitro, splicing aberrations associated with mismatch repair (MMR) variants identified in familial colon cancer patients. Six programs were used to predict the effect of 13 MLH1 and 6 MSH2 gene variants on pre-mRNA splicing. mRNA from cycloheximide-treated lymphoblastoid cell lines of variant carriers was screened for splicing aberrations. Tumors of variant carriers were tested for microsatellite instability and MMR protein expression. Variant segregation in families was assessed using Bayes factor causality analysis. Amino acid alterations were examined for evolutionary conservation and physicochemical properties. Splicing aberrations were detected for ten variants, including a frameshift as a minor cDNA product, and altered ratio of known alternate splice products. Loss of splice sites was well predicted by splice site prediction programs SpliceSiteFinder (90%) and NNSPLICE (90%), but consequence of splice site loss was less accurately predicted. No aberrations correlated with ESE predictions for the nine exonic variants studied. Seven of eight missense variants had normal splicing (88%), but only one was a substitution considered neutral from evolutionary/physicochemical analysis. Combined with information from tumor and segregation analysis, and literature review, 16/19 variants were considered clinically relevant. Bioinformatic tools for prediction of splicing aberrations need improvement before use without supporting studies to assess variant pathogenicity. Classification of mismatch repair gene variants is assisted by a comprehensive approach which includes in vitro, tumor pathology, clinical, and evolutionary conservation data. PMID:19267393

  20. MicroRNA-21 induces resistance to 5-fluorouracil by down-regulating human DNA MutS homolog 2 (hMSH2).

    PubMed

    Valeri, Nicola; Gasparini, Pierluigi; Braconi, Chiara; Paone, Alessio; Lovat, Francesca; Fabbri, Muller; Sumani, Khlea M; Alder, Hansjuerg; Amadori, Dino; Patel, Tushar; Nuovo, Gerard J; Fishel, Richard; Croce, Carlo M

    2010-12-01

    The overexpression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is linked to a number of human tumors including colorectal cancer, where it appears to regulate the expression of tumor suppressor genes including p21, phosphatase and tensin homolog, TGFβ receptor II, and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 -associated X protein. Here we demonstrate that miR-21 targets and down-regulates the core mismatch repair (MMR) recognition protein complex, human mutS homolog 2 (hMSH2) and 6 (hMSH6). Colorectal tumors that express a high level of miR-21 display reduced hMSH2 protein expression. Cells that overproduce miR-21 exhibit significantly reduced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced G2/M damage arrest and apoptosis that is characteristic of defects in the core MMR component. Moreover, xenograft studies demonstrate that miR-21 overexpression dramatically reduces the therapeutic efficacy of 5-FU. These studies suggest that the down-regulation of the MMR mutator gene associated with miR-21 overexpression may be an important clinical indicator of therapeutic efficacy in colorectal cancer. PMID:21078976

  1. MicroRNA-21 induces resistance to 5-fluorouracil by down-regulating human DNA MutS homolog 2 (hMSH2)

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Nicola; Gasparini, Pierluigi; Braconi, Chiara; Paone, Alessio; Lovat, Francesca; Fabbri, Muller; Sumani, Khlea M.; Alder, Hansjuerg; Amadori, Dino; Patel, Tushar; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Fishel, Richard; Croce, Carlo M.

    2010-01-01

    The overexpression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is linked to a number of human tumors including colorectal cancer, where it appears to regulate the expression of tumor suppressor genes including p21, phosphatase and tensin homolog, TGFβ receptor II, and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 -associated X protein. Here we demonstrate that miR-21 targets and down-regulates the core mismatch repair (MMR) recognition protein complex, human mutS homolog 2 (hMSH2) and 6 (hMSH6). Colorectal tumors that express a high level of miR-21 display reduced hMSH2 protein expression. Cells that overproduce miR-21 exhibit significantly reduced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced G2/M damage arrest and apoptosis that is characteristic of defects in the core MMR component. Moreover, xenograft studies demonstrate that miR-21 overexpression dramatically reduces the therapeutic efficacy of 5-FU. These studies suggest that the down-regulation of the MMR mutator gene associated with miR-21 overexpression may be an important clinical indicator of therapeutic efficacy in colorectal cancer. PMID:21078976

  2. Molecular Analysis of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer in the United States: High Mutation Detection Rate among Clinically Selected Families and Characterization of an American Founder Genomic Deletion of the MSH2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Anja; Barrows, Alicia; Wijnen, Juul Th.; van der Klift, Heleen; Franken, Patrick F.; Verkuijlen, Paul; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Geugien, Marjan; Jaghmohan-Changur, Shantie; Breukel, Cor; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Morreau, Hans; van Puijenbroek, Marjo; Burn, John; Coronel, Stephany; Kinarski, Yulia; Okimoto, Ross; Watson, Patrice; Lynch, Jane F.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Lynch, Henry T.; Fodde, Riccardo

    2003-01-01

    The identification of germline mutations in families with HNPCC is hampered by genetic heterogeneity and clinical variability. In previous studies, MSH2 and MLH1 mutations were found in approximately two-thirds of the Amsterdam-criteria–positive families and in much lower percentages of the Amsterdam-criteria–negative families. Therefore, a considerable proportion of HNPCC seems not to be accounted for by the major mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Does the latter result from a lack of sensitivity of mutation detection techniques, or do additional genes underlie the remaining cases? In this study we address these questions by thoroughly investigating a cohort of clinically selected North American families with HNPCC. We analyzed 59 clinically well-defined U.S. families with HNPCC for MSH2, MLH1, and MSH6 mutations. To maximize mutation detection, different techniques were employed, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, Southern analysis, microsatellite instability, immunohistochemistry, and monoallelic expression analysis. In 45 (92%) of the 49 Amsterdam-criteria–positive families and in 7 (70%) of the 10 Amsterdam-criteria–negative families, a mutation was detected in one of the three analyzed MMR genes. Forty-nine mutations were in MSH2 or MLH1, and only three were in MSH6. A considerable proportion (27%) of the mutations were genomic rearrangements (12 in MSH2 and 2 in MLH1). Notably, a deletion encompassing exons 1–6 of MSH2 was detected in seven apparently unrelated families (12% of the total cohort) and was subsequently proven to be a founder. Screening of a second U.S. cohort with HNPCC from Ohio allowed the identification of two additional kindreds with the identical founder deletion. In the present study, we show that optimal mutation detection in HNPCC is achieved by combining accurate and expert clinical selection with an extensive mutation detection strategy. Notably, we identified a common North American deletion in MSH2, accounting

  3. Structural, molecular and cellular functions of MSH2 and MSH6 during DNA mismatch repair, damage signaling and other noncanonical activities

    PubMed Central

    Edelbrock, Michael A.; Kaliyaperumal, Saravanan; Williams, Kandace J.

    2013-01-01

    The field of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) has rapidly expanded after the discovery of the MutHLS repair system in bacteria. By the mid 1990s yeast and human homologues to bacterial MutL and MutS had been identified and their contribution to hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome) was under intense investigation. The human MutS homologue 6 protein (hMSH6), was first reported in 1995 as a G:T binding partner (GTBP) of hMSH2, forming the hMutSα mismatch-binding complex. Signal transduction from each DNA-bound hMutSα complex is accomplished by the hMutLα heterodimer (hMLH1 and hPMS2). Molecular mechanisms and cellular regulation of individual MMR proteins are now areas of intensive research. This review will focus on molecular mechanisms associated with mismatch binding, as well as emerging evidence that MutSα and in particular, MSH6, is a key protein in MMR-dependent DNA damage response and communication with other DNA repair pathways within the cell. MSH6 is unstable in the absence of MSH2, however it is the DNA lesion-binding partner of this heterodimer. MSH6, but not MSH2, has a conserved Phe-X-Glu motif that recognizes and binds several different DNA structural distortions, initiating different cellular responses. hMSH6 also contains the nuclear localization sequences required to shuttle hMutSα into the nucleus. For example, upon binding to O6meG:T, MSH6 triggers a DNA damage response that involves altered phosphorylation within the N-terminal disordered domain of this unique protein. While many investigations have focused on MMR as a post-replication DNA repair mechanism, MMR proteins are expressed and active in all phases of the cell cycle. There is much more to be discovered about regulatory cellular roles that require the presence of MutSα and, in particular, MSH6. PMID:23391514

  4. Prevalence of Pathological Germline Mutations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 Genes in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dandan; Hu, Fulan; Wang, Fan; Cui, Binbin; Dong, Xinshu; Zhang, Wencui; Lin, Chunqing; Li, Xia; Wang, Da; Zhao, Yashuang

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of pathological germline mutations in colorectal cancer has been widely studied, as germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 confer a high risk of colorectal cancer. However, because the sample size and population of previous studies are very different from each other, the conclusions still remain controversial. In this paper, Databases such as PubMed were applied to search for related papers. The data were imported into Comprehensive Meta-Analysis V2, which was used to estimate the weighted prevalence of hMLH1 and hMSH2 pathological mutations and compare the differences of prevalence among different family histories, ethnicities and related factors. This study collected and utilized data from 102 papers. In the Amsterdam-criteria positive group, the prevalence of pathological germline mutations of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes was 28.55% (95%CI 26.04%–31.19%) and 19.41% (95%CI 15.88%–23.51%), respectively, and the prevalence of germline mutations in hMLH1/hMSH2 was 15.44%/10.02%, 20.43%/13.26% and 15.43%/11.70% in Asian, American multiethnic and European/Australian populations, respectively. Substitution mutations accounted for the largest proportion of germline mutations (hMLH1: 52.34%, hMSH2: 43.25%). The total prevalence of mutations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in Amsterdam-criteria positive, Amsterdam-criteria negative and sporadic colorectal cancers was around 45%, 25% and 15%, respectively, and there were no obvious differences in the prevalence of germline mutations among different ethnicities. PMID:23526924

  5. Sequence context effect for hMSH2-hMSH6 mismatch-dependent activation

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Anthony; Johnson, Christopher N.; Germann, Markus W.; Fishel, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Numerous DNA mismatches and lesions activate MutS homologue (MSH) ATPase activity that is essential for mismatch repair (MMR). We have found that a mismatch embedded in a nearest-neighbor sequence context containing symmetric 3′-purines (2 × 3′-purines) enhanced, whereas symmetric 3′-pyrimidines (2 × 3′-pyrimidines) reduced, hMSH2-hMSH6 ATPase activation. The 3′-purine/pyrimidine effect was most evident for G-containing mispairs. A similar trend pervaded mismatch binding (KD) and the melting of unbound oligonucleotides (Tm; ΔG). However, these latter measures did not accurately predict the hierarchy of MSH ATPase activation. NMR studies of imino proton lifetime, solvent accessibility, and NOE connectivity suggest that sequence contexts that provoke improved MSH-activation displayed enhanced localized DNA flexibility: a dynamic DNA signature that may account for the wide range of lesions that activate MSH functions. PMID:19237577

  6. Cadmium inhibits mismatch repair by blocking the ATPase activity of the MSH2–MSH6 complex

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sreeparna; Flores-Rozas, Hernan

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd2+) is a known carcinogen that inactivates the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. In this study, we have tested the effect of Cd2+ exposure on the enzymatic activity of the mismatch binding complex MSH2–MSH6. Our results indicate that Cd2+ is highly inhibitory to the ATP binding and hydrolysis activities of MSH2–MSH6, and less inhibitory to its DNA mismatch binding activity. The inhibition of the ATPase activity appears to be dose and exposure time dependent. However, the inhibition of the ATPase activity by Cd2+ is prevented by cysteine and histidine, suggesting that these residues are essential for the ATPase activity and are targeted by Cd2+. A comparison of the mechanism of inhibition with N-ethyl maleimide, a sulfhydryl group inhibitor, indicates that this inhibition does not occur through direct inactivation of sulfhydryl groups. Zinc (Zn2+) does not overcome the direct inhibitory effect of Cd2+ on the MSH2–MSH6 ATPase activity in vitro. However, the increase in the mutator phenotype of yeast cells exposed to Cd2+ was prevented by excess Zn2+, probably by blocking the entry of Cd2+ into the cell. We conclude that the inhibition of MMR by Cd2+ is through the inactivation of the ATPase activity of the MSH2–MSH6 heterodimer, resulting in a dominant negative effect and causing a mutator phenotype. PMID:15746000

  7. Distinct Phenotypes Caused by Mutation of MSH2 in Trypanosome Insect and Mammalian Life Cycle Forms Are Associated with Parasite Adaptation to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bolderson, Jason; Campos, Priscila C.; Miranda, Julia B.; Alves, Ceres L.; Machado, Carlos R.; McCulloch, Richard; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background DNA repair mechanisms are crucial for maintenance of the genome in all organisms, including parasites where successful infection is dependent both on genomic stability and sequence variation. MSH2 is an early acting, central component of the Mismatch Repair (MMR) pathway, which is responsible for the recognition and correction of base mismatches that occur during DNA replication and recombination. In addition, recent evidence suggests that MSH2 might also play an important, but poorly understood, role in responding to oxidative damage in both African and American trypanosomes. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the involvement of MMR in the oxidative stress response, null mutants of MSH2 were generated in Trypanosoma brucei procyclic forms and in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms. Unexpectedly, the MSH2 null mutants showed increased resistance to H2O2 exposure when compared with wild type cells, a phenotype distinct from the previously observed increased sensitivity of T. brucei bloodstream forms MSH2 mutants. Complementation studies indicated that the increased oxidative resistance of procyclic T. brucei was due to adaptation to MSH2 loss. In both parasites, loss of MSH2 was shown to result in increased tolerance to alkylation by MNNG and increased accumulation of 8-oxo-guanine in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, indicating impaired MMR. In T. cruzi, loss of MSH2 also increases the parasite capacity to survive within host macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results indicate MSH2 displays conserved, dual roles in MMR and in the response to oxidative stress. Loss of the latter function results in life cycle dependent differences in phenotypic outcomes in T. brucei MSH2 mutants, most likely because of the greater burden of oxidative stress in the insect stage of the parasite. PMID:26083967

  8. Conversion Analysis for Mutation Detection in MLH1 and MSH2 in Patients With Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Graham; Lindor, Noralane M.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Moskow, John; Steelman, Scott; Buzin, Carolyn H.; Sommer, Steve S.; Collins, Christine E.; Butz, Malinda; Aronson, Melyssa; Gallinger, Steven; Barker, Melissa A.; Young, Joanne P.; Jass, Jeremy R.; Hopper, John L.; Diep, Anh; Bapat, Bharati; Salem, Michael; Seminara, Daniela; Haile, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Context The accurate identification and interpretation of germline mutations in mismatch repair genes in colorectal cancer cases is critical for clinical management. Current data suggest that mismatch repair mutations are highly heterogeneous and that many mutations are not detected when conventional DNA sequencing alone is used. Objective To evaluate the potential of conversion analysis compared with DNA sequencing alone to detect heterogeneous germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 in colorectal cancer patients. Design, Setting, and Participants Multicenter study with patients who participate in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Mutation analyses were performed in participant samples determined to have a high probability of carrying mismatch repair germline mutations. Samples from a total of 64 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer cases, 8 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer–like cases, and 17 cases diagnosed prior to age 50 years were analyzed from June 2002 to June 2003. Main Outcome Measures Classification of family members as carriers or noncarriers of germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6; mutation data from conversion analysis compared with genomic DNA sequencing. Results Genomic DNA sequencing identified 28 likely deleterious exon mutations, 4 in-frame deletion mutations, 16 missense changes, and 22 putative splice site mutations. Conversion analysis identified all mutations detected by genomic DNA sequencing—plus an additional exon mutation, 12 large genomic deletions, and 1 exon duplication mutation—yielding an increase of 33% (14/42) in diagnostic yield of deleterious mutations. Conversion analysis also showed that 4 of 16 missense changes resulted in exon skipping in transcripts and that 17 of 22 putative splice site mutations affected splicing or mRNA transcript stability. Conversion analysis provided an increase of 56% (35/63) in the diagnostic yield of genetic testing compared with genomic DNA sequencing alone. Conclusions

  9. UMD-MLH1/MSH2/MSH6 databases: description and analysis of genetic variations in French Lynch syndrome families

    PubMed Central

    Grandval, Philippe; Fabre, Aurélie J.; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Buisine, Marie-Pierre; Ferrari, Anthony; Wang, Qing; Béroud, Christophe; Olschwang, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease caused by germ line heterozygous mutations mainly involving the MSH2, MLH1 and MSH6 genes that belong to the DNA MisMatch Repair (MMR) genes family. The French network counting the 16 licensed laboratories involved in Lynch syndrome genetic testing developed three locus-specific databases with the UMD® software (www.umd.be/MLH1/, www.umd.be/MSH2/ and www.umd.be/MSH6/) that presently contain a total of 7047 sequence variations including 707 distinct variations of a priori unknown functional significance (VUS) that were identified through complete mutation screening or targeted predictive testing. Mutation carriers are at high risk for developing early-onset colorectal and endometrial adenocarcinomas. Consensus clinical guidelines have been proposed, allowing the efficient detection of curable lesions. The major challenge of genetic testing is to reliably classify the genomic variations in those patients who seek genetic counseling. Combining the interactive tools of the software, the relevant published data and mainly original information produced by the French MisMatch Repair network, the UMD-MLH1/MSH2/MSH6 databases provide interpretation data for the 707 VUS that were classified according to the IARC 5-Class system. These public databases are regularly updated to improve the classification of all registered VUS, exploring their role in cancer pre-disposition based on structural and functional approaches. PMID:23729658

  10. Crosstalk between MSH2–MSH3 and polβ promotes trinucleotide repeat expansion during base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yanhao; Budworth, Helen; Beaver, Jill M.; Chan, Nelson L. S.; Zhang, Zunzhen; McMurray, Cynthia T.; Liu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Studies in knockout mice provide evidence that MSH2–MSH3 and the BER machinery promote trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion, yet how these two different repair pathways cause the mutation is unknown. Here we report the first molecular crosstalk mechanism, in which MSH2–MSH3 is used as a component of the BER machinery to cause expansion. On its own, pol β fails to copy TNRs during DNA synthesis, and bypasses them on the template strand to cause deletion. Remarkably, MSH2–MSH3 not only stimulates pol β to copy through the repeats but also enhances formation of the flap precursor for expansion. Our results provide direct evidence that MMR and BER, operating together, form a novel hybrid pathway that changes the outcome of TNR instability from deletion to expansion during the removal of oxidized bases. We propose that cells implement crosstalk strategies and share machinery when a canonical pathway is ineffective in removing a difficult lesion. PMID:27546332

  11. High proportion of large genomic rearrangements in hMSH2 in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families of the Basque Country.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Ojembarrena, Enrique; Beristain, Elena; Errasti, Javier; Viguera, Noelia; Tejada Minguéz, Maria-Isabel

    2007-10-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), which represents the most common form of inherited colorectal cancer, results from germline alterations of the mismatch repair genes MSH2, MLH1 and MSH6. Rearrangements of MSH2 and MLH1 are involved in at least 10% and 4.3%, respectively, of the HNPCC families fulfilling the Amsterdam (AMS) criteria. We applied a recently developed method, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), to study MLH1/MSH2 copy number changes in 29 unrelated Basque Country HNPCC families. We detected six different genomic rearrangements in total (6/29=20.69%), four in MSH2 gene (13.79%), and two in MLH1 gene. All of the MSH2 rearrangements were genomic deletions involving several exons. The MLH1 rearrangements were initially detected as one deletion of exon 18 and one deletion of exon 19, but after sequencing analysis, these deletions were not confirmed and corresponded to base pair mutations. We conclude that MLPA is an excellent tool for detecting exon copy number changes in MLH1 and MSH2 in the DNA from HNPCC patients, although all detected rearrangements should be confirmed by an independent molecular methodology. Furthermore, our results in the Basque Country show higher percentages of rearrangements than previously published by other authors. PMID:17582678

  12. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the Trypanosoma cruzi MSH2 gene support the existence of three phylogenetic lineages presenting differences in mismatch-repair efficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Augusto-Pinto, Luiz; Teixeira, Santuza M R; Pena, Sérgio D J; Machado, Carlos Renato

    2003-01-01

    We have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mismatch-repair gene TcMSH2 from Trypanosoma cruzi. Phylogenetic inferences based on the SNPs, confirmed by RFLP analysis of 32 strains, showed three distinct haplogroups, denominated A, B, and C. Haplogroups A and C presented strong identity with the previously described T. cruzi lineages I and II, respectively. A third haplogroup (B) was composed of strains presenting hybrid characteristics. All strains from a haplogroup encoded the same specific protein isoform, called, respectively, TcMHS2a, TcMHS2b, and TcMHS2c. The classification into haplogroups A, B, and C correlated with variation in the efficiency of mismatch repair in these cells. When microsatellite loci of strains representative of each haplogroup were analyzed after being cultured in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, new microsatellite alleles were definitely seen in haplogroups B and C, while no evidence of microsatellite instability was found in haplogroup A. Also, cells from haplogroups B and C were considerably more resistant to cisplatin treatment, a characteristic known to be conferred by deficiency of mismatch repair in eukaryotic cells. Altogether, our data suggest that strains belonging to haplogroups B and C may have decreased mismatch-repair ability when compared with strains assigned to the haplogroup A lineage. PMID:12750325

  13. Racial differences in MLH1 and MSH2 mutation: an analysis of yellow race and white race based on the InSiGHT database.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenqian; Liu, Lei; Chen, Jian; Jin, Ke; Jiang, Fan; Liu, Fangqi; Fan, Rong; Cheng, Zhe; Shen, Meng; Xue, Chenyi; Cai, Sanjun; Xu, Ye; Nan, Peng

    2010-12-01

    MLH1 and MSH2 mutations underlie 90% of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) mutations. The International Society of Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors (InSiGHT) has established an international database of mutations associated with HNPCC. Based on the InSiGHT database and the original references that reported the mutations, we analyzed the distributions of MLH1 and MSH2 mutations in yellow race and white race respectively and compared them subsequently. We found: (1) the distributions of mutation individuals in exon 1, 17 and 19 of MLH1 gene and in exon 2 of MSH2 gene showed significant differences between the two race groups (p < 0.05); (2) the distributions of mutation types in exon 2, 7 and 18 of MLH1 and exon 10 and 16 of MSH2 showed significant differences (p < 0.05); and (3) three mutations (c.649C > T, c.1625A > T and c.1721T > C) in MLH1 and five mutations (c.23C > T, c.187dupG, c.505A > G, c.1168C > T and c.2211-6T > C) in MSH2 have much higher frequency in yellow race than those in white race. Furthermore, three mutations (c.1453G > C, c.1742C > T and c.1758dupC) in MLH1 and two mutations (c.1255C > A and c.1886A > G) in MSH2 were only found in yellow race, which implies that specific mutations in yellow race need more attention when screening mutations in these two genes. PMID:21155023

  14. A study on MSH2 and MLH1 mutations in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families from the Basque Country, describing four new germline mutations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Beristain, Elena; Ojembarrena, Enrique; Errasti, Jose; Mujika, Karmele; Viguera, Noelia; Tejada, Maria Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome underlies between 2 and 5% of all colorectal cancer. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition due to mutations in the mismatch repair genes. Fifty-four non-related index cases, 21 of them fulfilling Amsterdam criteria I or II, were studied. Ten (10/21 = 47.6%) different pathological mutations were found in this group, two of which had not previously been reported--one in MLH1 and the other in MSH2-. In the remaining patients, we also found another family with one of these new mutations, and four additional changes, two of which were also new--a pathological change in MSH2 and a second change of uncertain significance in MLH1-, while the other two changes had already been reported. Of all mutations, eight were found in MSH2 (8/15 = 53.3%) and seven in MLH1 (7/15 = 46.6%), suggesting a slightly greater involvement of MSH2 in HNPCC than MLH1 in our population, in contrast to the results reported by other authors. PMID:19760518

  15. Multiple epithelial and nonepithelial tumors in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: characterization of germline and somatic mutations of the MSH2 gene and heterogeneity of replication error phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui-Len; Chao, Chung-Faye; Ding, Dah-Ching; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chang, Cheng-Chang; Lai, Hung-Chen; Yu, Mu-Hsien; Liu, Hang-Seng; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2004-09-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal inherited cancer syndrome characterized by germline plus somatic mutations of DNA mismatch repair genes and familial clustering of cancers of colorectum and other visceral organs. So far, to our knowledge, there has been no proof of nonepithelial tumors in association with HNPCC. Here we report on a MSH2 frameshift HNPCC family with a carrier found to have multiple primary tumors, including endometrial hyperplasia, ovarian adenocarcinoma, skin cavernous hemangioma, and skin dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). We studied the replication error (RER) phenotype in noncoding (Bat-26, Bat-25, D2S123, D5S346, and D17S250) and coding (MSH3, MSH6, BAX, and TGFBR2 genes) DNA sequences, and characterized the germline and somatic mutations of the MSH2 gene in the tumors described above and in endometrial carcinomas from two of her affected siblings. RER was observed in an order of hyperplasic endometrium (6/10 markers), ovarian carcinoma (5/10 markers), endometrial carcinomas (4/9 and 3/10), DFSP (2/9 markers), and cavernous hemangioma (2/10 markers). All the tumors showed the same germline mutation of G5-->G6 frameshift at 183-187 and polymorphism of C1168T in a heterozygous pattern. In an endometrial carcinoma, deletion of the second allele of MSH2 was evident. Heterogeneous RER patterns were noted in multiple primary tumors of the same individual and in premalignant and malignant endometrial tumors from different individuals. The study demonstrated the two hits of the hMSH(2) gene as well as intra- and interindividual variations of RER phenotypes in HNPCC. The first characterized nonepithelial tumors in HNPCC seem to carry a limited panel of RER, including a framesift at the (A)(10) tract of TGFBR2. PMID:15350299

  16. MSH2 c.1452–1455delAATG Is a Founder Mutation and an Important Cause of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer in the Southern Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tsun Leung; Wai Chan, Yee; Ho, Judy W. C.; Chan, Celine; Chan, Annie S. Y.; Chan, Emily; Lam, Polly W. Y.; Wah Tse, Chun; Cheong Lee, Kam; Wai Lau, Chi; Gwi, Elaine; Yi Leung, Suet; Yuen, Siu Tsan

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) accounts for ∼2% of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and is the most common hereditary CRC syndrome. We have previously reported a high incidence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations in young Hong Kong Chinese with CRC. Ongoing studies at the Hereditary Gastrointestinal Cancer Registry in Hong Kong have revealed a unique germline MSH2 c.1452–1455delAATG mutation that has not been reported in other ethnic groups. Detailed analysis showed that this specific MSH2 mutation constituted 21% of all germline MMR gene mutations and 36% of all MSH2 germline mutations identified. We designed a specific PCR-based diagnostic test on paraffin-embedded tissues and identified this germline mutation in 2 (1.5%) of 138 consecutive patients with early-onset CRC (<46 years of age at diagnosis). Haplotype analysis was performed using 11 microsatellite markers located between D2S391 and D2S123. All 10 families had the same disease haplotype, suggesting a founder effect. These 10 families all originated from the Chinese province of Guangdong, which historically included Hong Kong. It is the most populous of the Chinese provinces, with a population of >93 million. Further analysis suggested that this founder mutation may date back to between 22 and 103 generations ago. The identification of this MSH2 founder mutation has important implications for the design of mutation-detection strategies for the southern Chinese population. Since there were major emigrations from Hong Kong and Guangdong province during the 19th and 20th centuries, this finding is also significant for Chinese communities worldwide. PMID:15042510

  17. Immunohistochemistry for hMLH1 and hMSH2: a practical test for DNA mismatch repair-deficient tumors.

    PubMed

    Marcus, V A; Madlensky, L; Gryfe, R; Kim, H; So, K; Millar, A; Temple, L K; Hsieh, E; Hiruki, T; Narod, S; Bapat, B V; Gallinger, S; Redston, M

    1999-10-01

    Inactivation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair genes, most commonly human mutL homologue 1 (hMLH1) or human mutS homologue 2 (hMSH2), is a recently described alternate pathway in cancer development and progression. The resulting genetic instability is characterized by widespread somatic mutations in tumor DNA, and is termed high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Although described in a variety of tumors, mismatch repair deficiency has been studied predominantly in colorectal carcinoma. Most MSI-H colorectal carcinomas are sporadic, but some occur in patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), and are associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. Until now, the identification of MSI-H cancers has required molecular testing. To evaluate the role of immunohistochemistry as a new screening tool for mismatch repair-deficient neoplasms, the authors studied the expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2, using commercially available monoclonal antibodies, in 72 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors that had been tested previously for microsatellite instability. They compared immunohistochemical patterns of 38 MSI-H neoplasms, including 16 cases from HNPCC patients with known germline mutations in hMLH1 or hMSH2, with 34 neoplasms that did not show microsatellite instability. Thirty-seven of 38 MSI-H neoplasms were predicted to have a mismatch repair gene defect, as demonstrated by the absence of hMLH1 and/or hMSH2 expression. This included correspondence with all 16 cases with germline mutations. All 34 microsatellite-stable cancers had intact staining with both antibodies. These findings clearly demonstrate that immunohistochemistry can discriminate accurately between MSI-H and microsatellite-stable tumors, providing a practical new technique with important clinical and research applications. PMID:10524526

  18. Germline MLH1 and MSH2 mutational spectrum including frequent large genomic aberrations in Hungarian hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families: Implications for genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Janos; Kovacs, Marietta E; Olah, Edith

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the prevalence of germline MLH1 and MSH2 gene mutations and evaluate the clinical characteristics of Hungarian hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families. METHODS: Thirty-six kindreds were tested for mutations using conformation sensitive gel electrophoreses, direct sequencing and also screening for genomic rearrangements applying multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). RESULTS: Eighteen germline mutations (50%) were identified, 9 in MLH1 and 9 in MSH2. Sixteen of these sequence alterations were considered pathogenic, the remaining two were non-conservative missense alterations occurring at highly conserved functional motifs. The majority of the definite pathogenic mutations (81%, 13/16) were found in families fulfilling the stringent Amsterdam I/II criteria, including three rearrangements revealed by MLPA (two in MSH2 and one in MLH1). However, in three out of sixteen HNPCC-suspected families (19%), a disease-causing alteration could be revealed. Furthermore, nine mutations described here are novel, and none of the sequence changes were found in more than one family. CONCLUSION: Our study describes for the first time the prevalence and spectrum of germline mismatch repair gene mutations in Hungarian HNPCC and suspected-HNPCC families. The results presented here suggest that clinical selection criteria should be relaxed and detection of genomic rearrangements should be included in genetic screening in this population. PMID:17569143

  19. Mechanism of chromophore assisted laser inactivation employing fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mark A; Rajfur, Zenon; Chen, Zaozao; Humphrey, David; Yang, Bing; Sligar, Stephen G; Jacobson, Ken

    2009-03-01

    Chromophore assisted laser inactivation (CALI) is a technique that uses irradiation of chromophores proximate to a target protein to inactivate function. Previously, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mediated CALI has been used to inactivate EGFP-fusion proteins in a spatio-temporally defined manner within cells, but the mechanism of inactivation is unknown. To help elucidate the mechanism of protein inactivation mediated by fluorescent protein CALI ([FP]-CALI), the activities of purified glutathione-S-transferase-FP (GST-EXFP) fusions were measured after laser irradiation in vitro. Singlet oxygen and free radical quenchers as well as the removal of oxygen inhibited CALI, indicating the involvement of a reactive oxygen species (ROS). At higher concentrations of protein, turbidity after CALI increased significantly indicating cross-linking of proximate fusion proteins suggesting that damage of residues on the surface of the protein, distant from the active site, results in inactivation. Control experiments removed sample heating as a possible cause of these effects. Different FP mutants fused to GST vary in their CALI efficiency in the order enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) > enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) > enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), while a GST construct that binds fluorescein-based arsenical hairpin binder (FlAsH) results in significantly higher CALI efficiency than any of the fluorescent proteins (XFPs) tested. It is likely that the hierarchy of XFP effectiveness reflects the balance between ROS that are trapped within the XFP structure and cause fluorophore and chromophore bleaching and those that escape to effect CALI of proximate proteins. PMID:19199572

  20. Employing Multiple Spectroscopic Techniques Simultaneously to Observe Protein Unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael; Kelty, Ben; Link, Justin

    2015-03-01

    A protein's function is directly related to its native, folded structure. In order to study the structure of proteins, the unfolding process may be characterized. In our study, by using the spectroscopic techniques of circular dichroism (CD), absorption, and fluorescence simultaneously, we examined the unfolding of horse heart cytochrome c, a well-studied, model protein by gradually increasing the concentration of the chemical denaturant, guanidine hydrochloride. The signal changes from these modalities over the course of the unfolding reaction provides some of the thermodynamic properties like Gibbs free energy for insight into the stability of the protein. This allows us to compare the three techniques under the exact same conditions. The objective of this session is to present recent work in developing a protocol to observe the unfolding of cytochrome c using fluorescence, absorbance, and CD simultaneously.

  1. Computational and synthetic studies towards improving rescinnamine as an inducer of MSH2-dependent apoptosis in cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    AbdelHafez, ElShimaa M. N.; Diamanduros, Andrew; Negureanu, Lacramioara; Luy, Yan; Bean, J. Hayley; Zielke, Katherine; Crowe, Brittany; Vasilyeva, Aksana; Clodfelter, Jill E.; Aly, Omar M.; Abuo-Rahma, Gamal El-Din A. A.; Scarpinato, Karin D.; Salsbury, Freddie R.; King, S. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    We, and others, have previously shown that mismatch repair proteins, in addition to their repair function, contribute to cell death initiation. In response to some drugs, this cell death activity is independent of the repair function of the proteins. Rescinnamine, a derivative of the indole alkaloid reserpine, a drug used to treat hypertension several decades ago, was shown to target the cell death-initiating activity of mismatch repair proteins. When used in animals, the hypotensive action of this drug prevents applying appropriate concentrations for statistically significant tumor reduction. Using a combination of computational modeling, chemical synthesis and cell assays, we determine how rescinnamine can be structurally modified and what effect these modifications have on cell survival. These results inform further computational modeling to suggest new synthetic lead molecules to move toward further biological testing. PMID:25485184

  2. Penetrance of HNPCC-related cancers in a retrolective cohort of 12 large Newfoundland families carrying a MSH2 founder mutation: an evaluation using modified segregation models

    PubMed Central

    Kopciuk, Karen A; Choi, Yun-Hee; Parkhomenko, Elena; Parfrey, Patrick; McLaughlin, John; Green, Jane; Briollais, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate risk (penetrance) estimates for associated phenotypes in carriers of a major disease gene are important for genetic counselling of at-risk individuals. Population-specific estimates of penetrance are often needed as well. Families ascertained from high-risk disease clinics provide substantial data to estimate penetrance of a disease gene, but these estimates must be adjusted for possible specific sources of bias. Methods A cohort of 12 independently ascertained HNPCC families harbouring a founder MSH2 mutation was identified from a cancer genetics clinic in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. Carrier status was known for 247 family members but phenotype information on up to 85 additional relatives with unknown carrier status was available; using modified segregation models these additional individuals could be included in the analyses. Three HNPCC-related phenotypes were evaluated as age at diagnosis of: any HNPCC cancer (first cancer), colorectal cancer (CRC), and endometrial cancer (EC) for females. Results Lifetime (age 70) risk estimates for male and female carriers were similar for developing any HNPCC cancer (Males = 98.2%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = (93.8%, 99.9%); Females = 92.8%, 95% CI = (82.4%, 99.1%)) but female carriers experienced substantially reduced lifetime risk for developing CRC compared to male carriers (Females = 38.9%, 95% CI = (24.2%, 62.1%); Males = 84.5%, 95% CI = (67.3%, 91.3%)). Female non-carriers had very low lifetime risk for these two outcomes while male non-carriers had lifetime risks intermediate to the female carriers and non-carriers. Female carriers had a lifetime risk of developing EC of 82.4%. Relative risks for developing any HNPCC cancer (carriers relative to non-carriers) were substantially greater for females compared to their male counterparts (Females = 54.8, 95%CI = (4.4, 379.8); Males = 9.7, 95% CI = (0.3, 23.8)). Relative risks for developing CRC at age 70 were substantially greater for females

  3. Association Between Genetic Polymorphisms in the XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, GSTM1, GSTT1, MSH2, MLH1, MSH3, and MGMT Genes and Radiosensitivity in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mangoni, Monica; Bisanzi, Simonetta; Carozzi, Francesca; Sani, Cristina; Biti, Giampaolo; Livi, Lorenzo; Barletta, Emanuela; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Clinical radiosensitivity varies considerably among patients, and radiation-induced side effects developing in normal tissue can be therapy limiting. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to correlate with hypersensitivity to radiotherapy. We conducted a prospective study of 87 female patients with breast cancer who received radiotherapy after breast surgery. We evaluated the association between acute skin reaction following radiotherapy and 11 genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes: XRCC1 (Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp), XRCC3 (Thr241Met), XPD (Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln), MSH2 (gIVS12-6T>C), MLH1 (Ile219Val), MSH3 (Ala1045Thr), MGMT (Leu84Phe), and in damage-detoxification GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes (allele deletion). Methods and Materials: Individual genetic polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction and single nucleotide primer extension for single nucleotide polymorphisms or by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for deletion polymorphisms. The development of severe acute skin reaction (moist desquamation or interruption of radiotherapy due to toxicity) associated with genetic polymorphisms was modeled using Cox proportional hazards, accounting for cumulative biologically effective radiation dose. Results: Radiosensitivity developed in eight patients and was increased in carriers of variants XRCC3-241Met allele (hazard ratio [HR] unquantifiably high), MSH2 gIVS12-6nt-C allele (HR = 53.36; 95% confidence intervals [95% CI], 3.56-798.98), and MSH3-1045Ala allele (HR unquantifiably high). Carriers of XRCC1-Arg194Trp variant allele in combination with XRCC1-Arg399Gln wild-type allele had a significant risk of radiosensitivity (HR = 38.26; 95% CI, 1.19-1232.52). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report to find an association between MSH2 and MSH3 genetic variants and the development of radiosensitivity in breast cancer patients. Our findings suggest the hypothesis that mismatch repair mechanisms may be

  4. Characterizing protein interactions employing a genome-wide siRNA cellular phenotyping screen.

    PubMed

    Suratanee, Apichat; Schaefer, Martin H; Betts, Matthew J; Soons, Zita; Mannsperger, Heiko; Harder, Nathalie; Oswald, Marcus; Gipp, Markus; Ramminger, Ellen; Marcus, Guillermo; Männer, Reinhard; Rohr, Karl; Wanker, Erich; Russell, Robert B; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Eils, Roland; König, Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Characterizing the activating and inhibiting effect of protein-protein interactions (PPI) is fundamental to gain insight into the complex signaling system of a human cell. A plethora of methods has been suggested to infer PPI from data on a large scale, but none of them is able to characterize the effect of this interaction. Here, we present a novel computational development that employs mitotic phenotypes of a genome-wide RNAi knockdown screen and enables identifying the activating and inhibiting effects of PPIs. Exemplarily, we applied our technique to a knockdown screen of HeLa cells cultivated at standard conditions. Using a machine learning approach, we obtained high accuracy (82% AUC of the receiver operating characteristics) by cross-validation using 6,870 known activating and inhibiting PPIs as gold standard. We predicted de novo unknown activating and inhibiting effects for 1,954 PPIs in HeLa cells covering the ten major signaling pathways of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and made these predictions publicly available in a database. We finally demonstrate that the predicted effects can be used to cluster knockdown genes of similar biological processes in coherent subgroups. The characterization of the activating or inhibiting effect of individual PPIs opens up new perspectives for the interpretation of large datasets of PPIs and thus considerably increases the value of PPIs as an integrated resource for studying the detailed function of signaling pathways of the cellular system of interest. PMID:25255318

  5. Overexpression of MutSα Complex Proteins Predicts Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Webber, Liana Preto; Salvadori, Gabriela; Meurer, Luise; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Squarize, Cristiane Helena; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is responsible for the detection and correction of errors created during DNA replication, thereby avoiding the incorporation of mutations in dividing cells. The prognostic value of alterations in MMR system has not previously been analyzed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The study comprised 115 cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1996 and 2010. The specimens collected were constructed into tissue microarray blocks. Immunohistochemical staining for MutSα complex proteins hMSH2 and hMSH6 was performed. The slides were subsequently scanned into high-resolution images, and nuclear staining of hMSH2 and hMSH6 was analyzed using the Nuclear V9 algorithm. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hMSH2 and hMSH6 in OSCC. All cases in the present cohort were positive for hMSH2 and hMSH6 and a direct correlation was found between the expression of the proteins (P < 0.05). The mean number of positive cells for hMSH2 and hMSH6 was 64.44 ± 15.21 and 31.46 ± 22.38, respectively. These values were used as cutoff points to determine high protein expression. Cases with high expression of both proteins simultaneously were classified as having high MutSα complex expression. In the multivariable analysis, high expression of the MutSα complex was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio: 2.75, P = 0.02). This study provides a first insight of the prognostic value of alterations in MMR system in OSCC. We found that MutSα complex may constitute a molecular marker for the poor prognosis of OSCC. PMID:27258499

  6. Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography employing a thick, large area CCD

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction of the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce a image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

  7. Mitochondrial ADCK3 employs an atypical protein kinase-like fold to enable coenzyme Q biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Stefely, Jonathan A; Reidenbach, Andrew G; Ulbrich, Arne; Oruganty, Krishnadev; Floyd, Brendan J; Jochem, Adam; Saunders, Jaclyn M; Johnson, Isabel E; Minogue, Catherine E; Wrobel, Russell L; Barber, Grant E; Lee, David; Li, Sheng; Kannan, Natarajan; Coon, Joshua J; Bingman, Craig A; Pagliarini, David J

    2015-01-01

    The ancient UbiB protein kinase-like family is involved in isoprenoid lipid biosynthesis and is implicated in human diseases, but demonstration of UbiB kinase activity has remained elusive for unknown reasons. Here, we quantitatively define UbiB-specific sequence motifs and reveal their positions within the crystal structure of a UbiB protein, ADCK3. We find that multiple UbiB-specific features are poised to inhibit protein kinase activity, including an N-terminal domain that occupies the typical substrate binding pocket and a unique A-rich loop that limits ATP binding by establishing an unusual selectivity for ADP. A single alanine-to-glycine mutation of this loop flips this coenzyme selectivity and enables autophosphorylation but inhibits coenzyme Q biosynthesis in vivo, demonstrating functional relevance for this unique feature. Our work provides mechanistic insight into UbiB enzyme activity and establishes a molecular foundation for further investigation of how UbiB family proteins affect diseases and diverse biological pathways. PMID:25498144

  8. Mitochondrial ADCK3 employs an atypical protein kinase-like fold to enable coenzyme Q biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Stefely, Jonathan A.; Reidenbach, Andrew G.; Ulbrich, Arne; Oruganty, Krishnadev; Floyd, Brendan J.; Jochem, Adam; Saunders, Jaclyn M.; Johnson, Isabel E.; Minogue, Catherine E.; Wrobel, Russell L.; Barber, Grant E.; Lee, David; Li, Sheng; Kannan, Natarajan; Coon, Joshua J.; Bingman, Craig A.; Pagliarini, David J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ancient UbiB protein kinase-like family is involved in isoprenoid lipid biosynthesis and is implicated in human diseases, but demonstration of UbiB kinase activity has remained elusive for unknown reasons. Here, we quantitatively define UbiB-specific sequence motifs and reveal their positions within the crystal structure of a UbiB protein, ADCK3. We find that multiple UbiB-specific features are poised to inhibit protein kinase activity, including an N-terminal domain that occupies the typical substrate binding pocket and a unique A-rich loop that limits ATP binding by establishing an unusual selectivity for ADP. A single alanine-to-glycine mutation of this loop flips this coenzyme selectivity and enables autophosphorylation, but inhibits coenzyme Q biosynthesis in vivo, demonstrating functional relevance for this unique feature. Our work provides mechanistic insight into UbiB enzyme activity and establishes a molecular foundation for further investigation of how UbiB family proteins affect diseases and diverse biological pathways. PMID:25498144

  9. newDNA-Prot: Prediction of DNA-binding proteins by employing support vector machine and a comprehensive sequence representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Qiu, Xingye; Chen, Ke; Ruan, Jishou

    2014-10-01

    Identification of DNA-binding proteins is essential in studying cellular activities as the DNA-binding proteins play a pivotal role in gene regulation. In this study, we propose newDNA-Prot, a DNA-binding protein predictor that employs support vector machine classifier and a comprehensive feature representation. The sequence representation are categorized into 6 groups: primary sequence based, evolutionary profile based, predicted secondary structure based, predicted relative solvent accessibility based, physicochemical property based and biological function based features. The mRMR, wrapper and two-stage feature selection methods are employed for removing irrelevant features and reducing redundant features. Experiments demonstrate that the two-stage method performs better than the mRMR and wrapper methods. We also perform a statistical analysis on the selected features and results show that more than 95% of the selected features are statistically significant and they cover all 6 feature groups. The newDNA-Prot method is compared with several state of the art algorithms, including iDNA-Prot, DNAbinder and DNA-Prot. The results demonstrate that newDNA-Prot method outperforms the iDNA-Prot, DNAbinder and DNA-Prot methods. More specific, newDNA-Prot improves the runner-up method, DNA-Prot for around 10% on several evaluation measures. The proposed newDNA-Prot method is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/newdnaprot/ PMID:25240115

  10. Plant Kinesin-Like Calmodulin Binding Protein Employs Its Regulatory Domain for Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradova, Maia V.; Malanina, Galina G.; Waitzman, Joshua S.; Rice, Sarah E.; Fletterick, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein (KCBP), a Kinesin-14 family motor protein, is involved in the structural organization of microtubules during mitosis and trichome morphogenesis in plants. The molecular mechanism of microtubule bundling by KCBP remains unknown. KCBP binding to microtubules is regulated by Ca2+-binding proteins that recognize its C-terminal regulatory domain. In this work, we have discovered a new function of the regulatory domain. We present a crystal structure of an Arabidopsis KCBP fragment showing that the C-terminal regulatory domain forms a dimerization interface for KCBP. This dimerization site is distinct from the dimerization interface within the N-terminal domain. Side chains of hydrophobic residues of the calmodulin binding helix of the regulatory domain form the C-terminal dimerization interface. Biochemical experiments show that another segment of the regulatory domain located beyond the dimerization interface, its negatively charged coil, is unexpectedly and absolutely required to stabilize the dimers. The strong microtubule bundling properties of KCBP are unaffected by deletion of the C-terminal regulatory domain. The slow minus-end directed motility of KCBP is also unchanged in vitro. Although the C-terminal domain is not essential for microtubule bundling, we suggest that KCBP may use its two independent dimerization interfaces to support different types of bundled microtubule structures in cells. Two distinct dimerization sites may provide a mechanism for microtubule rearrangement in response to Ca2+ signaling since Ca2+- binding proteins can disengage KCBP dimers dependent on its C-terminal dimerization interface. PMID:23805258

  11. Plant Kinesin-Like Calmodulin Binding Protein Employs Its Regulatory Domain for Dimerization.

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, Maia V; Malanina, Galina G; Waitzman, Joshua S; Rice, Sarah E; Fletterick, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein (KCBP), a Kinesin-14 family motor protein, is involved in the structural organization of microtubules during mitosis and trichome morphogenesis in plants. The molecular mechanism of microtubule bundling by KCBP remains unknown. KCBP binding to microtubules is regulated by Ca(2+)-binding proteins that recognize its C-terminal regulatory domain. In this work, we have discovered a new function of the regulatory domain. We present a crystal structure of an Arabidopsis KCBP fragment showing that the C-terminal regulatory domain forms a dimerization interface for KCBP. This dimerization site is distinct from the dimerization interface within the N-terminal domain. Side chains of hydrophobic residues of the calmodulin binding helix of the regulatory domain form the C-terminal dimerization interface. Biochemical experiments show that another segment of the regulatory domain located beyond the dimerization interface, its negatively charged coil, is unexpectedly and absolutely required to stabilize the dimers. The strong microtubule bundling properties of KCBP are unaffected by deletion of the C-terminal regulatory domain. The slow minus-end directed motility of KCBP is also unchanged in vitro. Although the C-terminal domain is not essential for microtubule bundling, we suggest that KCBP may use its two independent dimerization interfaces to support different types of bundled microtubule structures in cells. Two distinct dimerization sites may provide a mechanism for microtubule rearrangement in response to Ca(2+) signaling since Ca(2+)- binding proteins can disengage KCBP dimers dependent on its C-terminal dimerization interface. PMID:23805258

  12. gDNA-Prot: Predict DNA-binding proteins by employing support vector machine and a novel numerical characterization of protein sequence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Wuyunqiqige; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Shuyi; Zhao, Chunguang

    2016-10-01

    DNA-binding proteins are the functional proteins in cells, which play an important role in various essential biological activities. An effective and fast computational method gDNA-Prot is proposed to predict DNA-binding proteins in this paper, which is a DNA-binding predictor that combines the support vector machine classifier and a novel kind of feature called graphical representation. The DNA-binding protein sequence information was described with the 20 probabilities of amino acids and the 23 new numerical graphical representation features of a protein sequence, based on 23 physicochemical properties of 20 amino acids. The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was employed as feature selection method for removing the irrelevant features and reducing redundant features. The Sigmod function and Min-max normalization methods for PCA were applied to accelerate the training speed and obtain higher accuracy. Experiments demonstrated that the Principal Components Analysis with Sigmod function generated the best performance. The gDNA-Prot method was also compared with the DNAbinder, iDNA-Prot and DNA-Prot. The results suggested that gDNA-Prot outperformed the DNAbinder and iDNA-Prot. Although the DNA-Prot outperformed gDNA-Prot, gDNA-Prot was faster and convenient to predict the DNA-binding proteins. Additionally, the proposed gNDA-Prot method is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/gdnaprot. PMID:27378005

  13. The secretory epithelial cells of the choroid plexus employ a novel kinesin-related protein.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K R; Griffin, M; Brophy, P J

    1997-11-01

    The proteins of the kinesin superfamily (KIFs) are microtubule-based molecular motors whose functions include the transport of membrane-bound organelles. We have isolated the cDNA encoding a novel kinesin by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers that flank the highly conserved motor domain. The deduced amino acid sequence of this protein shows considerable similarity to both KIF1A and KIF1B thus defining it as a new member of the monomeric KIF1/unc104 family. The C-terminal domain of KIF1D is the most divergent by comparison with the other members of the family, which supports the view that the tail region is responsible for conferring specificity on the interactions of these kinesins with their cargoes. In the adult rat brain KIF1D mRNA is expressed in neurons in the hippocampus and in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. However, the levels of KIF1D are particularly high in the choroid plexus which is a polarised epithelium that lines the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. The major function of the epithelial cells in the choroid plexus is to produce cerebrospinal fluid, which suggests that KIF1D plays an important role in their secretory function. PMID:9427518

  14. Receptor-Drug Interaction: Europium Employment for Studying the Biochemical Pathway of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Colabufo Nicola; Grazia, Perrone Maria; Marialessandra, Contino; Francesco, Berardi; Roberto, Perrone

    2007-01-01

    In medicinal chemistry field, the biochemical pathways, involved in 7-transmembrane domains G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activation, are commonly studied to establish the activity of ligands towards GPCRs. The most studied steps are the measurement of activated GTP-α subunit and stimulated intracellular cAMP. At the present, many researchers defined agonist or antagonist activity of potential GPCRs drugs employing [35S]GTPγS or [3H]cAMP as probes. Recently, the corresponding lanthanide labels Eu-GTP and Eu-cAMP as alternative to radiochemicals have been developed because they are highly sensitive, easy to automate, easily synthesized, they display a much longer shelf-life and they can be used in multilabel experiments. In the present review, the receptor-drug interaction by europium employment for studying the biochemical pathway of GPCR activation has been focused. Moreover, comparative studies between lanthanide label probes and the corresponding radiolabeled compounds have been carried out. PMID:18350113

  15. A combinatorial approach to studying protein complex composition by employing size-exclusion chromatography and proteome analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Giometti, C.; Biosciences Division

    2007-07-01

    The genome sequences of numerous organisms are available now, but gene sequences alone do not provide sufficient information to accurately deduce protein functions. Protein function is largely dependent on the association of multiple polypeptide chains into large structures with interacting subunits that regulate and support each other. Therefore, the mapping of protein interaction networks in a physiological context is conducive to deciphering protein functions, including those of hypothetical proteins. Although several high-throughput methods to globally identify protein interactions have been reported in recent years, these approaches often have a high rate of nonspecific or artificial interactions detected. For instance, the fraction of false positives of the protein interactions identified by yeast two-hybrid assay has been predicted to be of the order of 50%. We have developed a strategy to globally map Bacillus subtilis protein-protein interactions in a physiological context by fractionating the cell lysates using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by proteome analysis. Components of both known and unknown protein complexes, multisubunits and multiproteins, have been identified using this strategy. In one case, the partners of the B. subtilis protein complex have been coexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the formation of the overexpressed protein complex has been further confirmed by a pull-down assay.

  16. Identification of early salt stress responsive proteins in seedling roots of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) employing iTRAQ-based proteomic technique

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wu; Zhao, Fu'an; Fang, Weiping; Xie, Deyi; Hou, Jianan; Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Yuanming; Tang, Zhongjie; Nie, Lihong; Lv, Shuping

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant growth and agricultural productivity. Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is highly tolerant to salinity; however, large-scale proteomic data of cotton in response to salt stress are still scant. Here, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic technique was employed to identify the early differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) from salt-treated cotton roots. One hundred and twenty-eight DEPs were identified, 76 of which displayed increased abundance and 52 decreased under salt stress conditions. The majority of the proteins have functions related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription, protein metabolism, cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, membrane and transport, signal transduction, in addition to stress and defense. It is worth emphasizing that some novel salt-responsive proteins were identified, which are involved in cell cytoskeleton metabolism (actin-related protein2, ARP2, and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins, FLAs), membrane transport (tonoplast intrinsic proteins, TIPs, and plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, PIPs), signal transduction (leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase encoding genes, LRR-RLKs) and stress responses (thaumatin-like protein, TLP, universal stress protein, USP, dirigent-like protein, DIR, desiccation-related protein PCC13-62). High positive correlation between the abundance of some altered proteins (superoxide dismutase, SOD, peroxidase, POD, glutathione S-transferase, GST, monodehydroascorbate reductase, MDAR, and malate dehydrogenase, MDH) and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The results demonstrate that the iTRAQ-based proteomic technique is reliable for identifying and quantifying a large number of cotton root proteins. qRT-PCR was used to study the gene expression levels of the five above-mentioned proteins; four patterns are consistent with those of induced protein. These results showed that the proteome

  17. Protein subcellular localization in human and hamster cell lines: employing local ternary patterns of fluorescence microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad; Khan, Asifullah; Kaya, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Discriminative feature extraction technique is always required for the development of accurate and efficient prediction systems for protein subcellular localization so that effective drugs can be developed. In this work, we showed that Local Ternary Patterns (LTPs) effectively exploit small variations in pixel intensities; present in fluorescence microscopy based protein images of human and hamster cell lines. Further, Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique is applied to balance the feature space for the classification stage. We observed that LTPs coupled with data balancing technique could enable a classifier, in this case support vector machine, to yield good performance. The proposed ensemble based prediction system, using 10-fold cross-validation, has yielded better performance compared to existing techniques in predicting various subcellular compartments for both 2D HeLa and CHO datasets. The proposed predictor is available online at: http://111.68.99.218/Protein_SubLoc/, which is freely accessible to the public. PMID:23988793

  18. Salts employed in hydrophobic interaction chromatography can change protein structure - insights from protein-ligand interaction thermodynamics, circular dichroism spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Komaromy, Andras Z; Kulsing, Chadin; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-03-01

    Key requirements of protein purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) are preservation of the tertiary/quaternary structure, maintenance of biological function, and separation of the correctly folded protein from its unfolded forms or aggregates. This study examines the relationship between the HIC retention behavior of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) in high concentrations of several kosmotropic salts and its conformation, assessed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Further, the physicochemical properties of HEWL in the presence of high concentrations of ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and magnesium chloride were investigated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at different temperatures. Radii of gyration were extrapolated from Guinier approximations and the indirect transform program GNOM with protein-protein interaction and contrast variation taken into account. A bead model simulation provided information on protein structural changes using ab initio reconstruction with GASBOR. These results correlated to the secondary structure content obtained from CD spectroscopy of HEWL. These changes in SAXS and CD data were consistent with heat capacity ΔCp -values obtained from van't Hoff plot analyses of the retention data. Collectively, these insights enable informed decisions to be made on the choice of chromatographic conditions, leading to improved separation selectivity and opportunities for innovative column-assisted protein refolding methods. PMID:25690783

  19. Employment Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document reviews the progress of the Employment Training (ET) initiative for employed adults in Great Britain. The document begins by explaining the changing context in which the project is operating, which includes a downgrading of the alternatives to ET, increased participation in ET, and increased employer involvement in ET. The response…

  20. Targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing multiple reaction monitoring on quantitative changes in proteins that regulate volatile biosynthesis of strawberry fruit at different ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Li, Li; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Forney, Charles F; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi; Li, XiHong

    2015-08-01

    A targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM, SRM) technique was conducted on strawberry fruit at different development stages. We investigated 22 proteins and isoforms from 32 peptides with 111 peptide transitions, which may be involved in the volatile aroma biosynthesis pathway. The normalized protein abundance was significantly changed in coincidence with increased volatile production and advanced fruit maturities. Among them, alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), quinone oxidoreductase (QR), malonyl Co-A decarboxylase, (MLYCD), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACCase), and acyl Co-A synthetase (ACAs) were increased significantly. Several alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), and 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase were significantly decreased. Furthermore, the expression of seven genes related to strawberry volatile production was also investigated using real-time qPCR. Among the tested genes, QR, AAT, ACCase, OMT, PDC and ADH showed increased up-regulation during fruit ripening, while 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IMD) decreased. Strong correlation between quantitative proteomic data and gene expression suggested that AAT, QR, ACCase, and PDC played critical roles in volatile biosynthesis of strawberry during fruit ripening. Poor correlation between protein abundance and gene expression of ADH was found. PMID:26087350

  1. Protein Kinase A and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways Antagonistically Regulate Fission Yeast fbp1 Transcription by Employing Different Modes of Action at Two Upstream Activation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Lori A.; Hoffman, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    A significant challenge to our understanding of eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is to determine how multiple signal transduction pathways converge on a single promoter to regulate transcription in divergent fashions. To study this, we have investigated the transcriptional regulation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene that is repressed by a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and is activated by a stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized two cis-acting elements in the fbp1 promoter required for activation of fbp1 transcription. Upstream activation site 1 (UAS1), located approximately 900 bp from the transcriptional start site, resembles a cAMP response element (CRE) that is the binding site for the atf1-pcr1 heterodimeric transcriptional activator. Binding of this activator to UAS1 is positively regulated by the MAPK pathway and negatively regulated by PKA. UAS2, located approximately 250 bp from the transcriptional start site, resembles a Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress response element. UAS2 is bound by transcriptional activators and repressors regulated by both the PKA and MAPK pathways, although atf1 itself is not present in these complexes. Transcriptional regulation of fbp1 promoter constructs containing only UAS1 or UAS2 confirms that the PKA and MAPK regulation is targeted to both sites. We conclude that the PKA and MAPK signal transduction pathways regulate fbp1 transcription at UAS1 and UAS2, but that the antagonistic interactions between these pathways involve different mechanisms at each site. PMID:10938120

  2. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  3. Engaging Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    A key factor in the successful development of workplace learning is employer engagement (Leitch, 2006; DfES, 2007). However, despite numerous approaches by government in the United Kingdom to bring together employers, providers and learners so that economic success is generated by a skilled and flexible workforce, there continue to be challenges…

  4. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  5. Maternal Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam

    1975-01-01

    The overwhelming evidence from years of research is that maternal employment, by itself, has little influence on the behaviors of children. More relevant issues are: mother's reasons for working, family's acceptance of mother's employment, quality of substitute child care, family's social and emotional health, and economic conditions. (Author/AJ)

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Two Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genes Encoding Homologs of the Bacterial Hexa and Muts Mismatch Repair Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Reenan, R. A.; Kolodner, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Homologs of the Escherichia coli (mutL, S and uvrD) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (hexA, B) genes involved in mismatch repair are known in several distantly related organisms. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on conserved regions of E. coli MutS protein and its homologs from Salmonella typhimurium, S. pneumoniae and human were used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify and clone mutS/hexA homologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two DNA sequences were amplified whose deduced amino acid sequences both shared a high degree of homology with MutS. These sequences were then used to clone the full-length genes from a yeast genomic library. Sequence analysis of the two MSH genes (MSH = mutS homolog), MSH1 and MSH2, revealed open reading frames of 2877 bp and 2898 bp. The deduced amino acid sequences predict polypeptides of 109.3 kD and 109.1 kD, respectively. The overall amino acid sequence identity with the E. coli MutS protein is 28.6% for MSH1 and 25.2% for MSH2. Features previously found to be shared by MutS homologs, such as the nucleotide binding site and the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif as well as other highly conserved regions whose function remain unknown, were also found in the two yeast homologs. Evidence presented in this and a companion study suggest that MSH1 is involved in repair of mitochondrial DNA and that MSH2 is involved in nuclear DNA repair. PMID:1459447

  7. A post-translational modification cascade employing HDAC9-PIASy-RNF4 axis regulates chondrocyte hypertrophy by modulating Nkx3.2 protein stability.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Jeong; Kwon, Seongran; Kim, Dae-Won

    2016-09-01

    While Nkx3.2/Bapx1 promotes chondrogenic differentiation and plays a role in maintaining chondrocyte viability and suppressing chondrocyte hypertrophy, the regulatory mechanisms of Nkx3.2 remain poorly understood. Here we show that p300- and HDAC9-induced Nkx3.2 acetylation and de-acetylation, respectively, play critical roles in controlling Nkx3.2 protein stability. In addition, we also found that HDAC9-dependent de-acetylation of Nkx3.2 triggers PIASy-mediated sumoylation and subsequent RNF4-mediated SUMO-targeted ubiquitination. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nkx3.2 regulation by HDAC9 can be linked to the management of chondrocyte survival and hypertrophic maturation during cartilage development. Finally, our results together reveal a novel mechanism of protein stability control involving complex interplay between acetylation, de-acetylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitination, and suggest that this post-translational modification of Nkx3.2 employing HDAC9-PIASy-RNF4 axis plays a crucial role in controlling chondrocyte viability and hypertrophic maturation during skeletal development in vertebrates. PMID:27312341

  8. Characterization of drug-protein binding process by employing equilibrium sampling through hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane and Bjerrum and Scatchard plots.

    PubMed

    Barri, Thaer; Trtić-Petrović, Tatjana; Karlsson, Michael; Jönsson, Jan Ake

    2008-09-10

    The technique equilibrium sampling through membrane (ESTM) was extended to measuring the free drug concentration in solutions of drug and protein. Bjerrum and Scatchard plots were employed for characterizing individual drug binding to pure human blood proteins. Four drugs were investigated as a model system: fluvoxamine and ropivacaine which dominantly bind to alpha-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and R,S-ibuprofen and S-ketoprofen which highly bind to human serum albumin (HSA). The level of drug binding to AGP and HSA relied on drug and protein concentrations. Bjerrum and Scatchard plots revealed high affinity constants (Ka) at low protein concentration. Both Bjerrum and Scatchard plots of fluvoxamine and ropivacaine binding to AGP showed one specific binding site (n1=1) with ropivacaine Ka value close to 5 times higher than the Ka of fluvoxamine at 22.9 microM AGP concentration. Bjerrum plots of ketoprofen and ibuprofen gave total number of binding sites or bound molecules of 6-7, which did not depend on the drug or protein concentration. Scatchard plots of ketoprofen and ibuprofen exhibited two binding sites (n1 and n2) at 0.15 microM and 0.75 microM HSA concentrations. On one hand, at 0.15 microM HSA, ketoprofen and ibuprofen were bound to site I at n1=1.2 and n1=1.0, respectively. However, at 0.75 microM HSA, ketoprofen and ibuprofen were bound to site I at n1=1.2 and n1=1.9, respectively. On the other hand, site II, at 0.15 microM HSA, interacted with ketoprofen and ibuprofen at n2=5.6 and 6.7, respectively. However, at 0.75 microM HSA, site II interacted with ketoprofen at n2=7.4 and ibuprofen at n2=6.2. It would be concluded that, upon mixing ketoprofen and ibuprofen in a HSA solution, a ketoprofen-ibuprofen interaction would most likely occur at site II in HSA. PMID:18565712

  9. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  10. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This article shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change over the 2008-2018 decade. The…

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the human mismatch repair protein MutS[beta

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Quincy; Orans, Jillian; Hast, Michael A.; Iyer, Ravi R.; Changela, Anita; Modrich, Paul L.; Beese, Lorena S.

    2012-03-16

    MutS{beta} is a eukaryotic mismatch repair protein that preferentially targets extrahelical unpaired nucleotides and shares partial functional redundancy with MutS{alpha} (MSH2-MSH6). Although mismatch recognition by MutS{alpha} has been shown to involve a conserved Phe-X-Glu motif, little is known about the lesion-binding mechanism of MutS{beta}. Combined MSH3/MSH6 deficiency triggers a strong predisposition to cancer in mice and defects in msh2 and msh6 account for roughly half of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer mutations. These three MutS homologs are also believed to play a role in trinucleotide repeat instability, which is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders. The baculovirus overexpression and purification of recombinant human MutS{beta} and three truncation mutants are presented here. Binding assays with heteroduplex DNA were carried out for biochemical characterization. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the protein bound to a heteroduplex DNA substrate are also reported.

  12. Science employment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    Rapid growth in private sector high-technology companies coupled with the expected unprecedented U.S. peacetime defense buildup paint an optimistic picture for future employment in scientific and engineering fields, according to forecasts by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Between 1982 and 1987, up to nearly 750,000 new positions will be created in scientific, engineering, or technical fields, a new NSF report states. By 1987 these occupations will account for 4 million jobs, or 3.5% of the total U.S. work force. New positions in the earth sciences are predicted to increase about 2% per year.

  13. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods. PMID:26513483

  14. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  15. Employer Perspectives on Employer-Rehabilitation Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The article presents results of a study of employers (N=100) regarding their concerns about disabled workers and employer interest in partnership with rehabilitation agencies. Employers were questioned concerning recruitment and selection, technical assistance from rehabilitation organizations, incentives, and mid-career disability onset.…

  16. Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  17. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  18. Formation of C-terminally truncated version of the Taz1 protein employs cleavage-box structure in mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gunisova, Stanislava; Bartosova, Zdenka; Kramara, Juraj; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2010-02-12

    When expressed in various hosts the taz1{sup +} gene encoding the fission yeast telomere-binding protein produces two forms of polypeptides: full-length (Taz1p) and truncated (Taz1p{Delta}C) version lacking almost entire Myb-domain. Whereas Taz1p binds telomeric DNA in vitro, Taz1p{Delta}C forms long filaments unable of DNA binding. The formation of Taz1p{Delta}C is a result of neither site-specific proteolysis, nor premature termination of transcription. In silico analysis of the taz1{sup +} RNA transcript revealed a stem-loop structure at the site of cleavage (cleavage box; CB). In order to explore whether it possesses inherent destabilizing effects, we cloned CB sequence into the open reading frame (ORF) of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and observed that when expressed in Escherichia coli the engineered gene produced two forms of the reporter protein. The formation of the truncated version of GST was abolished, when CB was replaced with recoded sequence containing synonymous codons thus indicating that the truncation is based on structural properties of taz1{sup +} mRNA.

  19. The fusion protein SS18-SSX1 employs core Wnt pathway transcription factors to induce a partial Wnt signature in synovial sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Cironi, Luisa; Petricevic, Tanja; Fernandes Vieira, Victor; Provero, Paolo; Fusco, Carlo; Cornaz, Sandrine; Fregni, Giulia; Letovanec, Igor; Aguet, Michel; Stamenkovic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the SS18/SYT-SSX fusion protein is believed to underlie the pathogenesis of synovial sarcoma (SS). Recent evidence suggests that deregulation of the Wnt pathway may play an important role in SS but the mechanisms whereby SS18-SSX might affect Wnt signaling remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that SS18/SSX tightly regulates the elevated expression of the key Wnt target AXIN2 in primary SS. SS18-SSX is shown to interact with TCF/LEF, TLE and HDAC but not β-catenin in vivo and to induce Wnt target gene expression by forming a complex containing promoter-bound TCF/LEF and HDAC but lacking β-catenin. Our observations provide a tumor-specific mechanistic basis for Wnt target gene induction in SS that can occur in the absence of Wnt ligand stimulation. PMID:26905812

  20. The fusion protein SS18-SSX1 employs core Wnt pathway transcription factors to induce a partial Wnt signature in synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Cironi, Luisa; Petricevic, Tanja; Fernandes Vieira, Victor; Provero, Paolo; Fusco, Carlo; Cornaz, Sandrine; Fregni, Giulia; Letovanec, Igor; Aguet, Michel; Stamenkovic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the SS18/SYT-SSX fusion protein is believed to underlie the pathogenesis of synovial sarcoma (SS). Recent evidence suggests that deregulation of the Wnt pathway may play an important role in SS but the mechanisms whereby SS18-SSX might affect Wnt signaling remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that SS18/SSX tightly regulates the elevated expression of the key Wnt target AXIN2 in primary SS. SS18-SSX is shown to interact with TCF/LEF, TLE and HDAC but not β-catenin in vivo and to induce Wnt target gene expression by forming a complex containing promoter-bound TCF/LEF and HDAC but lacking β-catenin. Our observations provide a tumor-specific mechanistic basis for Wnt target gene induction in SS that can occur in the absence of Wnt ligand stimulation. PMID:26905812

  1. Effective epitope identification employing phylogenetic, mutational variability, sequence entropy, and correlated mutation analysis targeting NS5B protein of hepatitis C virus: from bioinformatics to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Rohan J; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a foremost cause affecting numerous human liver-related disorders. An effective immuno-prophylactic measure (like stable vaccine) is still unavailable for HCV. We perform an in silico analysis of nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) based CD4 and CD8 epitopes that might be implicated in improvement of treatment strategies for efficient vaccine development programs against HCV. Here, we report on effective utilization of knowledge obtained from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis for investigation and evaluation of candidate epitopes that have enormous potential to be used in formulating proficient vaccine, embracing multiple strains prevalent among major geographical locations. Mutational variability data discussed herein focus on discriminating the region under active evolutionary pressure from those having lower mutational potential in existing experimentally verified epitopes, thus, providing a concrete framework for designing an effective peptide-based vaccine against HCV. Additionally, we measured entropy distribution in NS5B residues and pinpoint the positions in epitopes that are more susceptible to mutations and, thus, account for virus strategy to evade the host immune system. Findings from this study are expected to add more details on the sequence and structural aspects of NS5B protein, ultimately facilitating our understanding about the pathophysiology of HCV and assisting advance studies on the function of NS5B antigen on the epitope level. We also report on the mutational crosstalk between functionally important coevolving residues, using correlated mutation analysis, and identify networks of coupled mutations that represent pathways of allosteric communication inside and among NS5B thumb, finger, and palm domains. PMID:25727409

  2. Preparing Youth for Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John

    A four-year study examined the nature and policy implications of school and employer practices to help youth prepare for employment. Data for the study were compiled from a telephone survey of 3,500 employers; a mail survey of 750 employers from across the country; 493 employers, 71 teachers, and 1,565 students from 5 major U.S. cities who…

  3. Overview of Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusch, Frank R.; Hughes, Carolyn

    1989-01-01

    This review defines supported employment, presents a rationale for it, describes four types of placement models, outlines supported employment program components, and analyzes effectiveness and populations served. The contributions of applied behavior analysis to supported employment are examined. (JDD)

  4. Employers' Views on Youth Literacy and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macey, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This report looks at whether employers think schools are equipping young people with the literacy skills required for the workplace. It is primarily based on secondary literature sources and introductory conversations with a small sample of key employers and agencies. A complementary report presents evidence on young people's views on literacy and…

  5. Student Employment Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Thyra K.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the information on academic library practices provided in student employment manuals. Highlights include the mission statement, expectations of employment, enrollment and eligibility requirements, employment eligibility verification, application form, the hiring process, program policies, release of employment verification information;…

  6. Learning, Labour and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Malcolm J.

    2009-01-01

    Public policy in the UK has adopted employability to define the relationship of globalisation, work and learning. This article claims that employability serves the interests of capital. It helps capital to exercise its domination/hegemony over labour and employs a redefined vision of learning as its principal vehicle. Employability is a term that…

  7. 1987 Employment Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Traces the decline in employment opportunities for chemists and chemical engineers. Discusses the employment outlook for 1987. Includes information on continuing education opportunities for chemical professionals already employed, the drop in demand for chemistry professionals, the decline in salaries of bachelor's degree chemists, and several…

  8. Graduate Identity and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey William; Jolly, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of graduate identity as a way of deepening the understanding of graduate employability. It does this through presenting research in which over 100 employers in East Anglia were asked to record their perceptions of graduates in respect of their employability. The findings suggest a composite and complex graduate…

  9. 1982 Employment Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents highlights of Chemical and Engineering News survey of the employment picture for chemical professionals. Focuses on the question of needing a Ph.D.; employment opportunities; salaries; and career planning, including the names and addresses of many employers of chemists and chemical engineers. (SK)

  10. Reduction of DNA mismatch repair protein expression in airway epithelial cells of premenopausal women chronically exposed to biomass smoke.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Dutta, Anindita; Chowdhury, Saswati; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-02-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of indoor air pollution in rural India. This study examined whether chronic inhalation of biomass smoke causes change in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway in the airway cells. For this, airway cells exfoliated in sputum were collected from 72 premenopausal nonsmoking rural women (median age 34 years) who cooked with biomass (wood, dung, crop residues) and 68 control women who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for the past 5 years or more. The levels of particulate matters with diameters less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5) in indoor air were measured by real-time aerosol monitor. Benzene exposure was monitored by measuring trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in airway cells were measured by flow cytometry and spectrophotometry, respectively. Immunocytochemical assay revealed lower percentage of airway epithelial cells expressing MMR proteins mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) in biomass-using women compared to LPG-using controls. Women who cooked with biomass had 6.7 times higher level of urinary t,t-MA, twofold increase in ROS generation, and 31 % depletion of SOD. Indoor air of biomass-using households had three times more particulate matters than that of controls. ROS, urinary t,t-MA, and particulate pollution in biomass-using kitchen had negative correlation, while SOD showed positive correlation with MSH2 and MLH1 expression. It appears that chronic exposure to biomass smoke reduces MMR response in airway epithelial cells, and oxidative stress plays an important role in the process. PMID:24146321

  11. Role of mismatch repair proteins in the processing of cisplatin interstrand cross-links.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Akshada; Kothandapani, Anbarasi; Zhitkovich, Anatoly; Sobol, Robert W; Patrick, Steve M

    2015-11-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency gives rise to cisplatin resistance and can lead to poor prognosis in cancers. Various models have been proposed to explain this low level of resistance caused due to loss of MMR proteins. We have shown that MMR proteins are required to maintain cisplatin interstrand cross-links (ICLs) on the DNA leading to increased cellular sensitivity. In our previous studies, we have shown that BER processing of the cisplatin ICLs is mutagenic. Polymerase β (Polβ) can generate mismatches which leads to the activation and the recruitment of mismatch repair proteins. In this paper, we distinguished between the requirement of different downstream MMR proteins for maintaining cisplatin sensitivity. We show that the MutSα (MSH2-MSH6) heterocomplex is required to maintain cisplatin sensitivity, whereas the Mutsβ complex has no effect. These results can be correlated with the increased repair of cisplatin ICLs and ICL induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in the resistant cells. Moreover, we show that MLH1 proficient cells displayed a cisplatin sensitive phenotype when compared with the MLH1 deficient cells and the ATPase activity of MLH1 is essential to mediate this effect. Based on these results, we propose that MutSα as well as the downstream MMR pathway proteins are essential to maintain a cisplatin sensitive phenotype as a consequence of processing Polβ induced mismatches at sites flanking cisplatin ICLs. PMID:26519826

  12. Issues of Youth Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Carl M.; Petty, Gregory C.

    This document contains one of two reports presented at the Governor's National Forum on Youth Employment, May 22-23, 1980. Focusing on the issue of youth employment, this report is divided into seven sections. Section 1 discusses the high national youth unemployment rate. Section 2 describes a variety of factors pertinent to youth unemployment and…

  13. Does Supported Employment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan McInnes, Melayne; Ozturk, Orgul Demet; McDermott, Suzanne; Mann, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    Providing employment-related services, including supported employment through job coaches, has been a priority in federal policy since the enactment of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act in 1984. We take advantage of a unique panel data set of all clients served by the South Carolina Department of Disabilities and…

  14. Part-Time Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Gus; And Others

    The employment of community college instructors on a part-time basis provides the opportunity for students to study under outstanding instructors whose primary employment may be in industry or in other postsecondary institutions and permits colleges to respond better to community needs with the financial resources available to them. Along with…

  15. Discrimination in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarsky, Irving

    Intended as a guide on discrimination problems and issues for students and practitioners in the area of employment relations, this book interrelates historical, religious, economic, medical, and sociological factors surrounding racial, religious, national, sex, age, and physical and mental discrimination to explain discrimination in employment.…

  16. Addressing Employer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains 21 articles focusing on the many services that state Employment Security (ES) agencies are providing to improve outreach to employers who pay for the programs through the dedicated revenues of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act and state benefit taxes and to improve their own staff ability to deliver…

  17. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  18. Importance of universal mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry in patients with sebaceous neoplasia as an initial screening tool for Muir-Torre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jessup, Chad J; Redston, Mark; Tilton, Erin; Reimann, Julie D R

    2016-03-01

    Muir-Torre syndrome, a Lynch syndrome variant, is characterized by sebaceous neoplasia plus one or more malignancies, typically colon cancer. The significance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in colorectal carcinomas is well established and is recommended as a screening tool for Lynch syndrome in newly diagnosed colorectal carcinomas. In comparison, literature on IHC application to detect MMR proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) in sebaceous neoplasia has been less studied and has been derived almost exclusively from tertiary care centers. Herein we describe the largest series to date characterizing MMR deficiency in sebaceous neoplasms, as well as the relative frequencies of each deficiency. Two hundred sixteen consecutive sebaceous neoplasms (216 patients) were analyzed from a community practice setting (133 sebaceous adenomas, 68 sebaceomas, 15 sebaceous carcinomas). One hundred forty-three were MMR deficient (66%), of which 90 were MSH2/MSH6 deficient (63%), 27 MLH1/PMS2 deficient (19%), 22 MSH6 deficient (15%), and 4 PMS2 deficient (3%). MMR deficiency was significantly associated with site, with tumors off of the head and neck more likely to be MMR deficient (specificity 96%). In contrast to prior reports, no significant trend in MMR-deficient versus -nondeficient tumors was seen in age at presentation (median age, 68 versus 66), tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, or tumor type. Given the low sensitivity of age < 60 years (30%), location off of the head and neck (41%), or presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (29%) in MMR deficiency detection, IHC screening programs should test all sebaceous neoplasms for MMR deficiency, regardless of their clinicopathological features. PMID:26826402

  19. Farm Employment Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Manpower Developments, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The heavy spring rains of 1973 led to delays and reduced acreage in planting, resulting in a sharp decline in vegetable and cotton employment. Seasonal farmworker job levels are reported by state and activity. (MS)

  20. Placement: The Employer's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teff, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    A bank vice president reviews three barriers to the employment of handicapped persons: misunderstanding and lack of knowledge concerning the handicapped, the traditional lag between recognition of a problem and its solution, and apathy and disinterest. (CL)

  1. Method validation and preliminary qualification of pharmacodynamic biomarkers employed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an antisense compound (AEG35156) targeted to the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein XIAP.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J; Ranson, M; Lacasse, E; Ganganagari, J R; St-Jean, M; Jayson, G; Durkin, J; Dive, C

    2006-07-01

    Data are presented on pharmacodynamic (PD) method validation and preliminary clinical qualification of three PD biomarker assays. M65 Elisa, which quantitates different forms of circulating cytokeratin 18 (CK18) as putative surrogate markers of both apoptotic and nonapoptotic tumour cell death, was shown to be highly reproducible: calibration curve linearity r2 = 0.996, mean accuracy > 91% and mean precision < 3%, n = 27. Employing recombinant (r) CK18 and caspase cleaved CK18 (CK18 Asp396 neo-epitope) as external standards, kit to kit reproducibly was < 6% (n = 19). rCK18 was stable in plasma for 4 months at -20 degrees C and -80 degrees C, for 4 weeks at 4 degrees C and had a half-life of 2.3 days at 37 degrees C. Cytokeratin 18 Asp396 NE, the M30 Apoptosense Elisa assay antigen, was stable in plasma for 6 months at -20 degrees C and -80 degrees C, for 3 months at 4 degrees C, while its half-life at 37 degrees C was 3.8 days. Within-day variations in endogenous plasma concentrations of the M30 and M65 antigens were assessed in two predose blood samples collected from a cohort of 15 ovarian cancer patients receiving carboplatin chemotherapy and were shown to be no greater than the variability associated with methods themselves. Between-day fluctuations in circulating levels of the M30 and M65 antigens and in XIAP mRNA levels measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by quantitative (q) RT-PCR were evaluated in two predose blood samples collected with a 5- to 7-day gap from 23 patients with advanced cancer enrolled in a phase I trial. The mean variation between the two pretreatment values ranged from 13 to 14 to 25%, respectively, for M65, M30 and qRT-PCR. These data suggest that the M30 and M65 Elisa's and qRT-PCR as PD biomarker assays have favourable performance characteristics for further investigation in clinical trials of anticancer agents which induce tumour apoptosis/necrosis or knockdown of the anti-apoptotic protein XIAP. PMID:16804528

  2. Method validation and preliminary qualification of pharmacodynamic biomarkers employed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an antisense compound (AEG35156) targeted to the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein XIAP

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, J; Ranson, M; LaCasse, E; Ganganagari, J R; St-Jean, M; Jayson, G; Durkin, J; Dive, C

    2006-01-01

    Data are presented on pharmacodynamic (PD) method validation and preliminary clinical qualification of three PD biomarker assays. M65 Elisa, which quantitates different forms of circulating cytokeratin 18 (CK18) as putative surrogate markers of both apoptotic and nonapoptotic tumour cell death, was shown to be highly reproducible: calibration curve linearity r2=0.996, mean accuracy >91% and mean precision <3%, n=27. Employing recombinant (r) CK18 and caspase cleaved CK18 (CK18 Asp396 neo-epitope) as external standards, kit to kit reproducibly was <6% (n=19). rCK18 was stable in plasma for 4 months at −20°C and −80°C, for 4 weeks at 4°C and had a half-life of 2.3 days at 37°C. Cytokeratin 18 Asp396 NE, the M30 Apoptosense Elisa assay antigen, was stable in plasma for 6 months at −20°C and −80°C, for 3 months at 4°C, while its half-life at 37°C was 3.8 days. Within-day variations in endogenous plasma concentrations of the M30 and M65 antigens were assessed in two predose blood samples collected from a cohort of 15 ovarian cancer patients receiving carboplatin chemotherapy and were shown to be no greater than the variability associated with methods themselves. Between-day fluctuations in circulating levels of the M30 and M65 antigens and in XIAP mRNA levels measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by quantitative (q) RT–PCR were evaluated in two predose blood samples collected with a 5- to 7-day gap from 23 patients with advanced cancer enrolled in a phase I trial. The mean variation between the two pretreatment values ranged from 13 to 14 to 25%, respectively, for M65, M30 and qRT–PCR. These data suggest that the M30 and M65 Elisa's and qRT–PCR as PD biomarker assays have favourable performance characteristics for further investigation in clinical trials of anticancer agents which induce tumour apoptosis/necrosis or knockdown of the anti-apoptotic protein XIAP. PMID:16804528

  3. 1983 Employment Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Howard J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Presents findings on employment situations for chemists and chemical engineers, focusing on: (1) comparison of chemists and chemical engineers; (2) salaries; (3) career planning; and (4) demand, indicated to be decidedly less than in previous years as a result of the deep business recession. (JN)

  4. Employment of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High, Robert V.

    A survey was conducted to determine the effect on academic performance, if any, of employment on undergraduate college students. A questionnaire was sent to professors at 3 four-year colleges on Long Island (New York); various day classes were randomly selected. The final sample of n=257 represented approximately a 30 percent response. The…

  5. The Employability Skills Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmer, Paul; And Others

    1992-01-01

    During 1990-91, Michigan schools piloted an innovative portfolio approach enabling students to discover, document, and develop employability skills in academics, personal management, and teamwork. Not an improved sorting system, the project encourages students to recognize successes, seek opportunities to improve skills, and gain confidence in…

  6. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  7. Learning Disabilities and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J., Ed.; Brown, Dale S., Ed.

    This book provides information on preparing individuals with learning disabilities for the challenges of employment and outlines the rights of those with learning disabilities in the workplace. Introductory chapters in Part 1 include: "Life after School: Challenges in the Workplace" (Paul J. Gerber); "The New Economy in the 21st Century:…

  8. Disability Employment 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Business is about productivity and maintaining a competitive advantage. To do this, business needs qualified workers. Hiring people with disabilities adds value to a business and will attract new customers. Disability is not inability. Employers can make sound business decisions and gain a competitive advantage by using this guide to increase the…

  9. Westchester County Employers Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcia M.

    The Westchester County Employers Survey was done in May 2003 in order learn more about employee training needs, how they accomplished these needs, and how it would be possible for the Westchester Community College to fulfill these needs. Out of the 639 surveys sent, 145 were returned in a satisfactory format, which produces a 22.6% return rate.…

  10. Employability Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista, CA.

    The Employability Skills Center (ESC) of the Division of Adult and Continuing Education (DACE) of the Sweetwater Union High School District (California) was created out of a need to help adult students develop the basic skills that are required for success in their chosen vocational programs but not taught in regular adult basic education classes.…

  11. Competing with Your Employer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Leslie

    1993-01-01

    Eleventh in a series featuring the 22 principles of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Code of Ethics, this article presents a scenario: A training consultant decides to start his own company and convince 5 of his employers's clients to contract with him. Suggests that the complex ethical issues involved warrant seeking…

  12. Technology and employment

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.H.

    1983-07-22

    The influence of technology on today's high unemployment picture is discussed. Employment in the high-technology sector is seen by some to be a panacea for workers who have lost their jobs due to irreversible structural causes. Some federal, regional, state, and local efforts being made to ease structural adjustment are included. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Survey of Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Social Fund, Dublin (Ireland).

    A study examined attitudes of Irish employers toward vocational training (VT) activities, state agencies responsible for administering VT, and the skills that employees would need in the future. Of a sample of 500 firms that were selected as being representative from the standpoints of size, sector, location, and form of ownership, 219 were…

  14. Employer Engagement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  15. Vietnamese Students Employability Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Nguyen Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students' core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how…

  16. The Employment Mismatch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Employers value a four-year college degree, many of them more than ever. Yet half of those surveyed recently by "The Chronicle" and American Public Media's "Marketplace" said they had trouble finding recent graduates qualified to fill positions at their company or organization. Nearly a third gave colleges just fair to poor marks for producing…

  17. Engaging Employers in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gary; DesRosier, Theron; Peterson, Nils; Chida, Meriem; Lagier, Randy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a pilot project in which formative feedback from industry professionals creates a genuine learning experience for students. Industry is giving feedback to higher education that many graduates are not employable or that they need substantial postcollegiate on-the-job training. Higher education is struggling to…

  18. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  19. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  20. Employers, Families and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for Family Involvement in Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    Family involvement in education is good for business, critical to children's school achievement, and important in creating strong and vibrant communities. This report discusses the role of businesses and employers in helping partners and family members be more involved in children's learning. Throughout the report, programs at specific companies…

  1. 29 CFR 1607.10 - Employment agencies and employment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other user of its responsibilities under Federal law to provide equal employment opportunity or its..., including private employment agencies and State employment agencies, which agrees to a request by...

  2. Waterflooding employing amphoteric surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Stournas, S.

    1980-08-05

    Process for the recovery of oil from a subterranean oil reservoir involving the injection into the reservoir of an aqueous solution of an amphoteric surfactant having an inner quaternary ammonium group linked to a terminal sulfonate or carboxylate group is described. The amphoteric surfactants may be employed in relatively low concentrations within the range of 0.0005 to 0.1% by weight and injected in a slug of at least 0.5 pv. The apparatus may be applied in situations in which the reservoir waters and/or the waters employed in formulating the surfactant solution contain relatively high amounts of divalent metal ions. Specifically described amphoteric surfactants include hydrocarby dialkyl or dihydroxyalkyl ammonium alkane sulfonates and carboxylates in which the hydrocarbyl group contains from 8 to 26 carbon atoms. 29 claims.

  3. Employer and consumer perspectives.

    PubMed

    McGhan, W F

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews various published reports from surveys on employer opinion, perception of needs, and trends with regard to healthcare benefits; the consumer perspective regarding healthcare is also discussed. Surveys indicate that businesses want continuous evidence that high-quality healthcare can positively impact company profits. Employers and labor unions are demanding more cost-effective healthcare. At both employer and consumer levels, greater patient education is needed, as well as traditional educational media. Direct-to-consumer advertising and use of the World Wide Web are increasingly important in enabling consumers to participate more fully in their own lipid-related decision-making. Finally, the transition of lipid-lowering drugs to over-the-counter accessibility has great implications with respect to issues of patient preferences and willingness to pay in the evolving healthcare environment. Groups in the United States, such as the National Committee on Quality Assurance and the Foundation for Accountability, are setting standards and beginning to assess both process and outcomes in patient care. Further collaborative efforts are needed that raise standards of care and stimulate more cost-effective healthcare. The pharmacoeconomics and outcomes data gathered will, one hopes, also demonstrate to global businesses the positive financial impact of high-quality healthcare and appropriate lipid therapy. PMID:16674548

  4. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV/AIDS Housing Integrated Employment Mental Health National Disability Employment Awareness Month (NDEAM) Older Workers Personal Assistance Services Publications for Order Recruitment & Retention Research Self-Employment & Entrepreneurship Small Business State Policy Stay at Work/Return ...

  5. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  6. Employability. NIACE Briefing Sheet 88

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Employability skills are central to gaining and keeping employment (e.g. whether paid or unpaid, as an employee or self employed) as well as career progression. The lack of such skills is regularly referred to as one reason for the United Kingdom's often cited long tail of underachievement. Employability skills are at the forefront of government…

  7. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  8. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding…

  9. Employment in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report synthesizes the findings from several areas of work undertaken to assess what impact public sector employment has had on both the level and structure of employment. It also examines the impact of the public sector as employer on the labor market from two viewpoints: the level and share of public sector employment and the structure of…

  10. Employer Sponsorship of Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Alan; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed the sponsorship of engineering students by employers by collecting data related to: engineering departments; sponsoring and non-sponsoring employers; student competition for sponsorship; and possible course/university restrictions by employers. Employers offering sponsorships consider them to be of great value in ensuring supplies of…

  11. Clerical Employment and Technological Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, H. Allan; Hunt, Timothy

    The potential employment impact of office automation is the topic of the study described in this book. The study reviews trends in clerical employment over the last 30 years in a search for evidence of the impact of changes in process technology on clerical employment levels. Specifically, it examines clerical employment trends from 1950 to 1980…

  12. Employment outcomes in Massachusetts Clubhouses.

    PubMed

    McKay, Colleen; Johnsen, Mathew; Stein, Reva

    2005-01-01

    Employment outcomes of individuals participating in 17 Massachusetts Clubhouses certified by the International Center for Clubhouse Development were examined through an annual survey. Major components of employment programs in contemporary clubhouses are identified and individual employment outcomes are described. Within contemporary practice in ICCD clubhouses in this sample, clubhouses provided a three-pronged approach to employment. Between 1998-2001, 1702 individuals worked in 2714 separate job placements, employed in Transitional (TE), Supported (SE), and Independent Employment (IE). Forty percent of members with more than one job (N = 385) participated in at least one TE. Individuals with longer memberships tended to work longer and had higher job earnings. PMID:16075694

  13. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  14. Disability and Supported Employment: Impact on Employment, Income, and Allowances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germundsson, Per; Gustafsson, Johanna; Lind, Martin; Danermark, Berth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine supported employment and its impact on the level of employment, disposable income, and sum of allowances, targeting a group of individuals with disabilities. We have particularly focused on individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Supported employment is a vocational rehabilitation service with an empowerment approach…

  15. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

    2013-01-01

    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  16. Veterans' Employment and Training Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Engage Facebook Twitter Instagram RSS Email Share Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS) Menu About VETS Who ... STAY CONNECTED Tweets by @USDOL Tweets by @LaborSec Employment Initiatives Contact your local American Job Center for ...

  17. Supported Employment Research: A Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Edna Mora; Parker, Randall M.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses problems with the definition of terms and validity of results of research on supported employment. Draws conclusions regarding the state of supported employment research. Comments on the value of retaining flexibility in the concept of supported employment in meeting the needs of consumers. (Author/NB)

  18. Employment Impact of Electronic Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecker, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic business is stimulating employment in some sectors across industries, such as computer-related and customer service occupations, and diminishing employment in others, such as administrative support and marketing/sales. Similarly, employment impacts will vary by industry. (Contains 56 notes and references.) (SK)

  19. Re-Employment Opportunity Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michelle; And Others

    The Washington State Employment Security Department and Columbia Basin Community College have been partners in delivering training, education, and re-employment services at the Re-Employment Opportunity Center (ROC). The ROC targets dislocated workers, especially those affected by downsizing at the Department of Energy, and provides retraining,…

  20. Employer approaches to preconception care.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kathryn E; Flood, Georgette

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the idea of preconception care-education, counseling, and interventions delivered to women before they become pregnant--has gained traction as a critically important health promotion opportunity for women and their families. Employers, as purchasers of health care and as providers of wellness services, have an important role to play in the promotion of preconception care. Large, self-insured employers can craft their medical benefit plans to include evidence-informed preventive health benefits such as preconception care. Employers can also design and implement worksite health promotion programs that address preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum health. And employers of all sizes can educate women and their partners on pregnancy health through tailored communication. This article provides an overview of the business case for preconception care and concrete steps employers can take to support and incent preconception care among their beneficiaries. The article also includes suggestions on ways providers and health professionals support employers in these efforts. PMID:18977153

  1. Linking with Employment: Training from the Perspective of Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschbach, Dennis R.

    Employers need training, want it, and are willing to pay for it providing it is relevant to their requirements, results in improved product quality, and fosters increased productivity. Firm characteristics make a difference not only with regard to the kinds of skills wanted by employers but also with regard to how training can best be delivered.…

  2. Graduates', University Lecturers' and Employers' Perceptions towards Employability Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Perera, Lasantha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore employability skills that employers, university lecturers and graduates value to bring to the workplace, when graduates are applying for entry-level graduate jobs in the field of computer science in Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach: A total of three samples were selected for this exploratory…

  3. Conceptualizing Learning and Employability "Learning and Employability Framework"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumanasiri, Erabaddage Gishan Tharanga; Yajid, Mohd Shukri Ab; Khatibi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies have been done on employability and the factors that lead to employability. Previous studies have focused on career development programs, internships, work experience programs, soft-skill development programs, and even university admission criteria which can be considered external factors to university student learning…

  4. 20 CFR 404.1003 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 404.1003 Section 404.1003...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1003 Employment. Employment....1010. Section 404.1004 states the general rule on the kinds of work covered as employment....

  5. 20 CFR 404.1003 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 404.1003 Section 404.1003...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1003 Employment. Employment....1010. Section 404.1004 states the general rule on the kinds of work covered as employment....

  6. 20 CFR 404.1003 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employment. 404.1003 Section 404.1003...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1003 Employment. Employment....1010. Section 404.1004 states the general rule on the kinds of work covered as employment....

  7. 20 CFR 404.1003 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment. 404.1003 Section 404.1003...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1003 Employment. Employment....1010. Section 404.1004 states the general rule on the kinds of work covered as employment....

  8. Occupational Employment Projections through 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvestri, George T.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presents current and projected occupational employment estimates that were developed by industry and are part of a national industry-occupational employment matrix. The data from this matrix will be the basis of the information in the 1984-85 education of the Occupational Outlook Handbook to be issued in the Spring of 1984. (NRJ)

  9. Meso-Level Employment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Martin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Struggle against Unemployment" (Godfrey); "Measuring Informal Sector Employment in Pakistan" (Bekkers, Stoffers); "Major Changes Underway in China's Industrial Relations" (Zhu); "Reflections on Role of African Employers' Organizations in Tripartism and Social Dialogue" (Etukudo); and "Challenge of Unemployment in the Arab Region" (Shaban…

  10. Employment Survey 1980. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    The employment status of 1980 degree recipients in physics and astronomy was surveyed. For physics degree recipients, the majority of bachelors and masters required two months or less to accept suitable employment, while the majority of doctoral graduates required three months or longer. Information is presented on changes in occupational status…

  11. Primer of Equal Employment Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Howard J.

    This booklet presents laws and court cases concerning discrimination in hiring. It begins with a presentation of the laws and orders regulating equal employment opportunity and the remedies available. It lists those employees and employers to whom the laws apply and exemptions. Sections deal with discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual…

  12. The Employable Woman Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelo, Lois; Garcia, Bernice

    The conference proceedings relating to employment status and employment-related problems of women in general, and Montgomery County, Maryland, specifically, are highlighted in this report. The purpose of the conference was to establish a solid base for an on-going dialogue with educators, personnel experts, and affirmative action officers in the…

  13. Employer Evaluation of Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.; Piland, William E.

    In an effort to meet the need for a more comprehensive program evaluation, staff at Moraine Valley Community College developed a questionnaire and interview schedule to obtain feedback from employers concerning career programs. Questionnaires were sent to all employers who hired graduates of occupational programs between 1969-71; over 80% returned…

  14. Employability: Review and Research Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilbert, Laure; Bernaud, Jean-Luc; Gouvernet, Brice; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Professional transition, employment, and reemployment are major concerns for nations facing adverse economic situations. The employability construct represents a scientific challenge in order to better understand the relationship between the job seekers' issues and the expectations of the world of work. This paper presents a review of the concept…

  15. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this…

  16. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  17. Employment Survey 1979. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    Results of a followup employment survey of 1979 physics and astronomy graduates are summarized. The employment-oriented graduates were asked in the winter of 1979-80 to describe their positions and comment on the extent to which they were satisfied with the start of their careers. Data on how long it takes a graduate to secure initial and…

  18. Employment Survey 1984. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    The employment status of 1984-1985 degree recipients in physics and astronomy was surveyed. Information is presented on changes in occupational status of physics and astronomy degree recipients between summer of 1984 and the following winter. The characteristics of graduates of both fields who were employed full-time or undertaking postdoctoral…

  19. Employer Demands from Business Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  20. Tracking Success in Youth Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Corinne H.

    1979-01-01

    Youthwork, Incorporated, was created by the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977 (YEDPA) to keep track of youth employment and training programs. Privately-owned Youthwork administers federal demonstration grants across the country to help provide job guidance, work experience credit, private sector involvement, and…

  1. Survey of Auto Mechanic Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Charles; Scott, David C.

    In order to build auto mechanics curricula and instructional programs responsive to the needs of employers, Bakersfield College (BC) sent a questionnaire to all employers listed under "Automobile Repairing and Services" in the yellow pages of the local telephone book. Only 43 (20 percent) of the 215 questionnaires sent out were returned; however,…

  2. Employment Equity for Aboriginal Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a letter of understanding between British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and British Columbia Public School Employers' Association (BCPSEA) in response to Employment Equity for Aboriginal Teachers. The parties recognize that Aboriginal teachers are under-represented in the public education system. The parties are committed to…

  3. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to the author, by the…

  4. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  5. Employment Outlook, Life Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The nature of the work performed by biologists and biochemists is described in general terms, and for the subcategories such as agronomists, pharmacologists and entomologists. The types of employment opportunities, the necessary training the employment outlook and typical salaries and working conditions are described. Addresses for requesting…

  6. Employability and Finnish University Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhakka, Antero; Rautopuro, Juhani; Tuominen, Visa

    2010-01-01

    In this article the authors concentrate on the change in the concept of employability during the Bologna process. They show that employability has gradually moved from a peripheral to a core presence in the most recent Bologna process documents. Using a Finnish university merger (University of Eastern Finland) as an example, the authors…

  7. Consumer Leadership in Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inge, Katherine J., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue provides rehabilitation professionals with various information pieces concerning consumer leadership in supported employment of people with disabilities. First, a chart lists five questions concerning self advocacy and supported employment, and provides consumer responses to the questions. A second item describes…

  8. Employment-Related Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galpern, Lois; Hills, Tynette W.

    The two major sections of this report discuss issues in employer-sponsored child care, specifically describing four child-care service alternatives. Issues emphasized in the discussion include the advantages of employment-related child care, financial considerations, and implications of various forms of sponsorship. Additional issues discussed are…

  9. Equal Employment Law and the Employer--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Will

    1979-01-01

    Sets forth in simple terms some of the requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Act of 1972. Available from the New York State Bar Association, One Elk Street, Albany, N.Y. 12207; sc $2.00. (Author/IRT)

  10. Invisible Disability Disclosure in an Employment Interview: Impact on Employers' Hiring Decisions and Views of Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgin, Rebecca Spirito; Bellini, James

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of disclosure of invisible disabilities (physical and psychiatric) within the employment interview process. Both the type of disability and the extent of disclosure were manipulated in an analogue experimental design. Employers (N = 60) were exposed to a short interview vignette of a potential candidate and were…

  11. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins - MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 - using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. RESULTS A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. CONCLUSIONS In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  12. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. Material/Methods The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins – MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 – using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Results A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. Conclusions In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  13. Pre-Employment Laboratory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Rene H.; Correa, Jose

    1976-01-01

    The article describes the development of a pre-employment laboratory training program in meat processing and its successful use in conjunction with a cooperative training program in a high school agriculture curriculum. (MS)

  14. The Employability Inventory: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michael J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the background, development, content, and validation of the Employability Inventory, an instrument designed to assess knowledge of job seeking, job retention, and job success. Discusses usefulness of the inventory in both counseling and education. (ABL)

  15. Are Sanctions on Employers Constitutional?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollobin, Ira

    1988-01-01

    Questions the constitutional validity of employer sanctions used to deter illegal immigration under the Immigration Reform and Control Act. Points out the anomaly of using criminal penalties to deter a civil, administrative violation. (FMW)

  16. Selling College Graduates to Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Daniel R.; Biehl, Kimberly A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a University of Pittsburgh placement office program to increase placement of graduates with local businesses. To challenge the employment agencies' monopoly on this market, an advertising and direct communications program was launched with continuing good results. (JAC)

  17. Tuning Genetic Clocks Employing DNA Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Shridhar; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2012-01-01

    Periodic oscillations play a key role in cell physiology from the cell cycle to circadian clocks. The interplay of positive and negative feedback loops among genes and proteins is ubiquitous in these networks. Often, delays in a negative feedback loop and/or degradation rates are a crucial mechanism to obtain sustained oscillations. How does nature control delays and kinetic rates in feedback networks? Known mechanisms include proper selection of the number of steps composing a feedback loop and alteration of protease activity, respectively. Here, we show that a remarkably simple means to control both delays and effective kinetic rates is the employment of DNA binding sites. We illustrate this design principle on a widely studied activator-repressor clock motif, which is ubiquitous in natural systems. By suitably employing DNA target sites for the activator and/or the repressor, one can switch the clock “on” and “off” and precisely tune its period to a desired value. Our study reveals a design principle to engineer dynamic behavior in biomolecular networks, which may be largely exploited by natural systems and employed for the rational design of synthetic circuits. PMID:22859962

  18. Employment profiles in neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Fowler, W M; Abresch, R T; Koch, T R; Brewer, M L; Bowden, R K; Wanlass, R L

    1997-01-01

    Consumer and rehabilitation provider factors that might limit employment opportunities for 154 individuals with six slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases (NMD) were investigated. The NMDs were spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (HMSN), Becker's muscular dystrophy (BMD), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD), and limb-girdle syndrome (LGS). Forty percent were employed in the competitive labor market at the time of the study, 50% had been employed in the past, and 10% had never been employed. The major consumer barrier to employment was education. Other important factors were type of occupation, intellectual capacity, psychosocial adjustment, and the belief by most individuals that their physical disability was the only or major barrier to obtaining a job. Psychological characteristics were associated with level of unemployment. However, physical impairment and disability were not associated with level of unemployment. There also were differences among the types of NMDs. Compared with the SMA, HMSN, BMD, and FSHD groups, the MMD and LGS groups had significantly higher levels of unemployment, lower educational levels, and fewer employed professional, management, and technical workers. Nonphysical impairment factors such as a low percentage of college graduates, impaired intellectual function in some individuals, and poor psychological adjustment were correlated with higher unemployment levels in the MMD group. Unemployment in the LGS group was correlated with a failure to complete high school. Major provider barriers to employment were the low level of referrals to Department of Rehabilitation by physicians and the low percentage of acceptance into the State Department of Rehabilitation. The low rate of acceptance was primarily attributable to the low number of referrals compounded by a lack of counselor experience with individuals with NMD. Both consumer and provider barriers may

  19. Employer's Pocket Guide on Youth Employment. Youth Rules!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Labor, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Through the YouthRules! initiative, the U.S. Department of Labor and its strategic partners seek to promote positive and safe work experiences for young workers. YouthRules! strives to educate teens, parents, educators, employers and the public on Federal and State rules regarding young workers. Components of the initiative include a website…

  20. Occupational Employment to 2005. Employment Outlook: 1994-2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvestri, George T.

    1995-01-01

    Details employment by occupation in 1994 and projected for 2005. Suggests that the economy is expected to continue generating jobs for all levels of education and training, but growth will be greater for occupations requiring a bachelor's degree or more. (SK)

  1. Employability and Employment Outcomes of No-Fee Preservice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yule; Li, Ling; Ding, Shujing; Li, Zhichao

    2013-01-01

    This study used interviews and questionnaires to survey 770 no-fee preservice students. Its findings were as follows: (1) Their employability encompasses five dimensions: teaching skills, ability to learn specialized knowledge, ability to grasp elementary and secondary teaching materials and methods, communication skills, and ability to apply for…

  2. Online Employment Applications: Employer Preferences and Instructional Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Myrena S.; Carnes, Lana W.; Whitaker, Vicki K.

    2001-01-01

    A survey identified business preferences and practices of 46 employers related to the online job application process; 28% had format preferences; 28% accepted resumes via their websites; 78% found electronic follow-up letters acceptable. Implications for instruction in business communications courses were derived. (JOW)

  3. Supporting the employed breastfeeding mother.

    PubMed

    Zinn, B

    2000-01-01

    The number of women in the workforce is continuing to increase and surveys suggest that one-fourth of employed women with a child less than 1 year of age will be concurrently breastfeeding and working for at least 1 month. Combining breastfeeding and employment is a complex process in American society. Women will be seeking practical, sound advice on how to be successful in this combination. This article offers suggestions for promoting its success, describes the preplanning that needs to occur, and provides current lactation recommendations and resources. It also offers information about working with employers, the importance of a support network, decisions that each family must make, the use of breast pumps; milk storage, lactation enhancement including the use of herbs, and practical tips for the mother's working day. PMID:10907331

  4. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Maxwell W.; Kim, Yoori; Williams, Gregory M.; Huck, John D.; Surtees, Jennifer A.; Finkelstein, Ilya J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins search for specific targets via facilitated diffusion along a crowded genome. However, little is known about how crowded DNA modulates facilitated diffusion and target recognition. Here we use DNA curtains and single-molecule fluorescence imaging to investigate how Msh2–Msh3, a eukaryotic mismatch repair complex, navigates on crowded DNA. Msh2–Msh3 hops over nucleosomes and other protein roadblocks, but maintains sufficient contact with DNA to recognize a single lesion. In contrast, Msh2–Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks. Remarkably, the Msh3-specific mispair-binding domain (MBD) licences a chimeric Msh2–Msh6(3MBD) to bypass nucleosomes. Our studies contrast how Msh2–Msh3 and Msh2–Msh6 navigate on a crowded genome and suggest how Msh2–Msh3 locates DNA lesions outside of replication-coupled repair. These results also provide insights into how DNA repair factors search for DNA lesions in the context of chromatin. PMID:26837705

  5. Characterization of Pathogenic Human MSH2 Missense Mutations Using Yeast as a Model System: A Laboratory Course in Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammie, Alison E.; Erdeniz, Naz

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the project for an advanced undergraduate laboratory course in cell and molecular biology. One objective of the course is to teach students a variety of cellular and molecular techniques while conducting original research. A second objective is to provide instruction in science writing and data presentation by requiring…

  6. Mismatch repair mRNA and protein expression in intestinal adenocarcinoma in sika deer (Cervus nippon) resembling heritable non-polyposis colorectal cancer in man.

    PubMed

    Jahns, H; Browne, J A

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal adenocarcinomas seen in an inbred herd of farmed sika deer (Cervus nippon) morphologically resembled human hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Features common to both included multiple de novo sites of tumourigenesis in the proximal colon, sessile and non-polyposis mucosal changes, the frequent finding of mucinous type adenocarcinoma, lymphocyte infiltration into the neoplastic tubules and Crohn's-like lymphoid follicles at the deep margin of the tumour. HNPCC is defined by a germline mutation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes resulting in their inactivation and loss of expression. To test the hypothesis that similar MMR gene inactivation occurs in the deer tumours, the expression of the four most important MMR genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2, was examined at the mRNA level by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (n = 12) and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry (n = 40) in tumour and control tissues. All four genes were expressed equally in normal and neoplastic tissues, so MMR gene inactivation could not be implicated in the carcinogenesis of this tumour in sika deer. PMID:25678423

  7. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  8. High School Preparation for Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Lawrence; And Others

    This report contains four studies related to preparation of youth for employment after leaving school. The first study, "Learning as a Product of Exposure and Readiness" (Hotchkiss), examined the effects of curriculum on the learning of basic skills using an interaction model. The data collected revealed statistically significant interactions…

  9. Employing Civilians for Police Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Alfred I.; And Others

    The study describes the experiences of 13 police departments where civilians were used in jobs normally performed by police officers. The findings are based on interviews with 158 people including police managers, officers in charge of civilian employees, and the civilians themselves. Two types of activities were surveyed: (1) the employment of…

  10. Employment Effects of Trade Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydall, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    The study to estimate the employment effects of an increase of manufactured and semi-manufactured products exported from developing to developed countries concluded that the lower the degree of development, the greater the number of jobs generated. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211, Geneva 22, Switzerland.…

  11. Somerset County Employer Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rephann, Terance J.

    Allegany Community College in Cumberland, Maryland, conducted an employer assessment survey of Somerset County businesses during the winter of 1995 in order to provide evaluation data for planning and curriculum development for the secondary and postsecondary educational institutions. The survey was mailed to 760 establishments, with a 29 percent…

  12. Teenage Employment and Career Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Staff, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? This article presents a broad overview of teenage employment in the United States. It begins by describing which teenagers work and for how long and then focuses attention on the consequences (both good and bad) of paid work in adolescence. It then presents…

  13. The Husband is the Employer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Wajihuddin

    1975-01-01

    Peasant women are chained to their homes as child bearers and unpaid laborers working for their husbands. Employing women in rural industry would increase female status and decrease male dominance in the family. Also family size would shrink as women spend less time at home. (MR)

  14. Employment Survey 1977. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    Employment opportunities for physics and astronomy graduates were surveyed in December 1977. At that time the graduates of 1976-77 had explored the job market for at least six months or had held their positions long enough to evaluate them and offer advice to prospective graduates. The time required for new graduates to obtain the first…

  15. Employers' Perceptions of Work Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brien N.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Responding employers from two business samples (286 of 2,700 and 67 of 400) perceived a lack of desired competencies in entry workers. High school graduates rated no higher than 3.07 and college graduates 3.89 on a 7-point scale. Social competencies (sociability, responsibility, self-management, integrity, self-esteem) were thought in need of most…

  16. Employment Expansion and Metropolitan Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Richard Victor

    Through empirical investigations of the 1940-50 and 1950-60 decades, the author has developed a framework for analyzing metropolitan trade and determining the employment-related consequences of changes in trade activity. One major trend of this period, especially the second decade, has been the increasing self-sufficiency of all metropolitan…

  17. Employer Attitudes toward Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trooboff, Stevan; Vande Berg, Michael; Rayman, Jack

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, as study abroad professionals have come to focus more squarely on the question of what students are in fact learning abroad, there has been increasing speculation about the extent to which study abroad increases prospects for employability following graduation. Common wisdom has it that undergraduates who study abroad have an…

  18. A Theory of Employment Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Brenda

    1990-01-01

    In the form of a poem, a pregnant mother of a small child tells her experiences during employment interviews with a number of law firms, ranging from the perceived errors of the interviewers to the surprises and the mistakes made by the applicant. (MSE)

  19. Legal Aspects of Employment Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Bernard H.

    Chapter 10 of a book on school law reviews court rulings on the use of tests and testing procedures for employment purposes. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 contains a section authorizing the use of any professionally developed ability test, provided that it is not designed, intended, or used to discriminate. The courts have held…

  20. Admission Conditions and Graduates' Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Fernando; Portela, Miguel; Sa, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In a context of increasing competition for students, admission conditions have been used as an instrument in a strategy of differentiation. Such a strategy is guided by short-run concerns, that is, the immediate need to attract more students. This article takes a longer term view, by examining graduates' employability. The authors find that…

  1. Lessons Learned from Surveying Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Nancy P.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, the Oregon legislature directed the Oregon University System (OUS) to develop and implement performance measures and indicators with respect to broad policy goals of access, quality, employability, and cost-effectiveness. An advisory committee of representatives of the state's public colleges and universities was formed to shape the…

  2. Transnational Education and Employability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellors-Bourne, Robin; Jones, Elspeth; Woodfield, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Internationalisation and employability development are important themes for UK higher education (HE) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA). One aspect of many UK HE institutions' internationalisation strategies has been to increase the number and range of UK programmes delivered "offshore" as transnational education (TNE)--through…

  3. Employment Support as Knowledge Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John; Callahan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Traditional practice in employment of persons with disabilities has been to assess the skills and interests of the job seeker in relation to normative standards or to others. That comparative approach often results in job seekers with significant developmental disabilities being viewed as having few skills and lacking requisite work readiness,…

  4. Employers Often Distrust Online Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This article explains why employers are reluctant to accept potential employees with online degrees. The results of several surveys of those who evaluate potential employees and make hiring decisions indicate a bias against online degrees, even as more and more colleges are offering programs online. To those officials, the words "online education"…

  5. Uncle Sam, the Biased Employer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Julius W.

    1970-01-01

    Excerpt of testimony before Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, Subcommittee on Labor, 1969, in hearings on Equal Employment Opportunities Enforcement Act. Statistical data presented showing heavy concentration of minority and women government employees in the lower civil service grades. Proposed court actions for enlarging employment…

  6. Youth Employability Training: Two Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Travor; Hillier, Tara-Lynn; Warren, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of verbal self-guidance (VSG) and self-management on youth employability. It seeks to access the joint effectiveness of these interventions, grounded in social cognitive and goal setting theories, for youth job seekers. Design/methodology/approach: The studies used experimental designs involving…

  7. Supported employment: randomised controlled trial*

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Louise M.; Heslin, Margaret; Leese, Morven; McCrone, Paul; Rice, Christopher; Jarrett, Manuela; Spokes, Terry; Huxley, Peter; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Background There is evidence from North American trials that supported employment using the individual placement and support (IPS) model is effective in helping individuals with severe mental illness gain competitive employment. There have been few trials in other parts of the world. Aims To investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IPS in the UK. Method Individuals with severe mental illness in South London were randomised to IPS or local traditional vocational services (treatment as usual) (ISRCTN96677673). Results Two hundred and nineteen participants were randomised, and 90% assessed 1 year later. There were no significant differences between the treatment as usual and intervention groups in obtaining competitive employment (13% in the intervention group and 7% in controls; risk ratio 1.35, 95% CI 0.95–1.93, P = 0.15), nor in secondary outcomes. Conclusions There was no evidence that IPS was of significant benefit in achieving competitive employment for individuals in South London at 1-year follow-up, which may reflect suboptimal implementation. Implementation of IPS can be challenging in the UK context where IPS is not structurally integrated with mental health services, and economic disincentives may lead to lower levels of motivation in individuals with severe mental illness and psychiatric professionals. PMID:20435968

  8. Employers' Perspectives of Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linardopoulos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of seven representative studies pertaining to the employers' perceptions of online education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper retrieved and analysed representative studies on the subject from two scholarly databases and Google. Findings: The results indicate that…

  9. Employer Child Care Consultant Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Lists 16 firms that offer child care consulting services to employers and communities. Each entry includes a brief description of the firm and its services, contact person, address, and phone and fax numbers. Some include e-mail and Web site addresses. (TJQ)

  10. Employment Services Needs of Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1989

    1989-01-01

    This issue of an annual journal contains 20 papers reflecting on the efforts of U.S. employment security and training programs to meet the needs of veterans. Part I, "National Perspective," contains five essays: "Policy Issues for Veteran Job Training Programs" (Martin F. Smith); "Cognizant Ramblings: Superfluous Lags the Veteran on the Stage…

  11. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

  12. Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

  13. Employer Resource Manual. Project Path.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Karen R.; Del George, Eve

    Project Path at Illinois' College of DuPage was established to provide pre-employment training and career counseling for disabled students. To encourage the integration of qualified individuals with disabilities into the workplace, the project compiled this resource manual for area businesses, providing tips for interacting with disabled people…

  14. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  15. 29 CFR 530.103 - Employer assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer assurances. 530.103 Section 530.103 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Homeworker Employer Certificates § 530.103 Employer assurances... employer must provide written assurances concerning the employment of homeworkers subject to section...

  16. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment activities. 632.79 Section 632.79 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a) Community service employment...

  17. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment activities. 632.79 Section 632.79 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a) Community service employment...

  18. 20 CFR 655.940 - Employer attestations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employer attestations. 655.940 Section 655.940 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Attestations by Employers Using F-1 Students in Off-Campus Work § 655.940 Employer attestations. (a)...

  19. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  20. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Internal Fraud and...: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of.... Currently, the Employment and Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office...

  1. Employer`s contributions to the training of professional statisticians

    SciTech Connect

    Rustagi, J.S.; Wright, T. |

    1995-07-01

    Statistical science provides important techniques for decision making in a large variety of fields of human endeavor mainly through statistical practice. According to Deming (1965), ``Statistical practice is mostly a collaborative venture between (professional) statisticians and experts in subject-matter (area).`` The professional statistician must be properly trained in areas of statistical science most suited to the discipline in which the applications are made. Due to a large variety of applications. The education of a professional statistician by universities can only be very general. Higher education provides the theoretical basis of statistical science whereas the specific expertise needed by the professional statistician is given by the application areas. In this paper, the authors review the approach of academic programs which are geared towards applications and discuss some of the innovative strategies for preparing statisticians as consultants in industry and business. A survey (census) of statisticians at the national laboratories of the US Department of Energy was made to assess their training by universities and to get a broad view of additional training which has brought them to their present professional status. A particular interest is the extent to which employers have contributed to the training of statisticians. A few recommendations are made which may serve to improve the future training of statisticians for applied collaborative work by universities and employers.

  2. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  3. Contrasting views on STEM employment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew; Huber, Michael

    2015-07-01

    In reply to “Unemployed and STEM” (Careers, May pp46-47), in which Penny Jackson described how her efforts to find a job in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) met with little success at first, even though she has a BSc in physics and a Master's in accelerator science. And in reply to “STEM paradox revisited” (Editorial, June p15), on why employers are expressing concerns about STEM shortages at a time when many recent STEM graduates are struggling to find jobs.

  4. Waterflooding employing thickened aqueous liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Pao, J.; Wilson, P.M.

    1980-03-18

    A description is given of a waterflood process for the recovery of oil from a subterranean oil reservoir in which at least a portion of the injected water is thickened by the addition of a surface-active amphoteric quaternary ammonium sulfonate and an aliphatic alcohol containing from 5 to 8 carbon atoms. The alcohol is employed in a concentration to provide a ratio of the volume amount of alcohol in the solution to the weight amount of the amphoteric sulfonate within the range of 0.1-0.6 to produce a pronounced thickening effect. The alcohol-amphoteric sulfonate systems are useful viscosifiers in highly saline systems.

  5. 9 CFR 306.4 - Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... members of family employed; soliciting employment; procuring product from official establishments. 306.4... employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment; procuring product from official...) Program employees shall not procure product from any official establishment or any other establishment...

  6. 12 CFR 239.41 - Employment contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employment contracts. 239.41 Section 239.41... (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Indemnification; Employment Contracts § 239.41 Employment contracts. (a) General. A mutual holding company may enter into an employment contract with...

  7. Employer Needs Assessment Project: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinman, Debra G.

    In the summer and spring of 1980 Mercer County Community College undertook a large-scale employer needs assessment project, during which 1,140 Mercer County employers were contacted in order to: (1) assess employers' practices and preferences in the recruitment of personnel; (2) determine employer satisfaction with the College's ability to educate…

  8. 20 CFR 702.111 - Employer's records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer's records. 702.111 Section 702.111 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR... § 702.111 Employer's records. Every employer shall maintain adequate records of injury sustained...

  9. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment taxes. 601.401 Section 601.401... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes. (a.... Chapter 24 (collection of income tax at source on wages) requires every employer making payment of...

  10. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment taxes. 601.401 Section 601.401... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes. (a.... Chapter 24 (collection of income tax at source on wages) requires every employer making payment of...

  11. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment taxes. 601.401 Section 601.401... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes. (a.... Chapter 24 (collection of income tax at source on wages) requires every employer making payment of...

  12. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employer, any successor in interest of a covered employer, and any public agency. Public agencies are covered employers without regard to the number of employees employed. Public as well as private elementary... corporate officers “acting in the interest of an employer” are individually liable for any violations of...

  13. 7 CFR 15e.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 15e.140 Section 15e.140 Agriculture Office... OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15e.140 Employment....

  14. 14 CFR 1253.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Employment. 1253.500 Section 1253.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.500 Employment. (a) General. (1..., or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection...

  15. 36 CFR 406.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 406.140 Section... COMMISSION § 406.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  16. 18 CFR 1313.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 1313.140... § 1313.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  17. 17 CFR 200.640 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 200.640 Section... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Securities and Exchange Commission § 200.640 Employment....

  18. 3 CFR 102.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 102.140 Section 102.140 Presidential... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT § 102.140 Employment....

  19. 45 CFR 2104.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 2104.140 Section 2104.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  20. 17 CFR 200.640 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 200.640 Section... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Securities and Exchange Commission § 200.640 Employment....

  1. 45 CFR 1181.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1181.140 Section 1181.140 Public... Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to...

  2. 45 CFR 1214.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1214.140 Section 1214.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  3. 31 CFR 28.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 28.500 Section 28.500... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.500 Employment. (a... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or...

  4. 36 CFR 812.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 812.140 Section... PRESERVATION § 812.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  5. 6 CFR 17.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 17.500 Section 17.500 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefore,...

  6. 28 CFR 54.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 54.500 Section 54.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor,...

  7. 19 CFR 201.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 201.140 Section 201.140 Customs Duties... Commission § 201.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  8. 36 CFR 812.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 812.140 Section... PRESERVATION § 812.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  9. 45 CFR 2104.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 2104.140 Section 2104.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  10. 45 CFR 618.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 618.500 Section 618.500 Public Welfare... the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.500 Employment. (a... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or...

  11. 43 CFR 41.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 41.500 Section 41.500 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor,...

  12. 20 CFR 365.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 365.140 Section 365.140 Employees... § 365.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  13. 22 CFR 711.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 711.140 Section 711.140 Foreign... CORPORATION § 711.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  14. 6 CFR 15.40 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment of... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 15.40 Section 15.40 Domestic... Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of that disability, be subjected...

  15. 15 CFR 8a.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 8a.500 Section 8a.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor,...

  16. 1 CFR 500.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 500.140 Section 500.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY § 500.140 Employment. No...

  17. 3 CFR 102.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 102.140 Section 102.140 Presidential... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT § 102.140 Employment....

  18. 17 CFR 149.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 149.140 Section... COMMISSION § 149.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  19. 45 CFR 618.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 618.500 Section 618.500 Public Welfare... the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.500 Employment. (a... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or...

  20. 45 CFR 1181.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1181.140 Section 1181.140 Public... Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to...

  1. 40 CFR 12.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 12.140 Section 12.140... IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 12.140 Employment....

  2. 16 CFR 6.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 6.140 Section 6.140 Commercial....140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  3. 17 CFR 149.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 149.140 Section... COMMISSION § 149.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  4. 20 CFR 365.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 365.140 Section 365.140 Employees... § 365.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  5. 43 CFR 41.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 41.500 Section 41.500 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor,...

  6. 45 CFR 2301.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 2301.140 Section 2301.140 Public... COMMISSION § 2301.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  7. 22 CFR 1701.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1701.140 Section 1701.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE § 1701.140 Employment....

  8. 45 CFR 2301.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 2301.140 Section 2301.140 Public... COMMISSION § 2301.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  9. 41 CFR 101-4.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Employment. 101-4.500... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor,...

  10. 45 CFR 85.31 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 9 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 85.31 Section 85.31 Public Welfare....31 Employment. No qualified individuals with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  11. 5 CFR 2416.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 2416.140 Section 2416.140....140 Employment. No qualified individual with disabilities shall, on the basis of disability,...

  12. 22 CFR 711.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 711.140 Section 711.140 Foreign... CORPORATION § 711.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  13. 19 CFR 201.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 201.140 Section 201.140 Customs Duties... Commission § 201.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  14. 49 CFR 28.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 28.140 Section 28.140 Transportation... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.140 Employment. (a) No...

  15. 5 CFR 1636.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 1636.140 Section 1636.140... § 1636.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  16. 14 CFR 1253.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1253.500 Section 1253.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.500 Employment. (a) General. (1..., or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection...

  17. 22 CFR 219.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 219.140 Section 219.140 Foreign... DEVELOPMENT § 219.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  18. 31 CFR 17.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment of... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 17.140 Section 17.140... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  19. 5 CFR 1636.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1636.140 Section 1636.140... § 1636.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  20. 38 CFR 15.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 15.140... § 15.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  1. 36 CFR 406.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 406.140 Section... COMMISSION § 406.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  2. 16 CFR 1034.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1034.140 Section 1034.140... Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to...

  3. 45 CFR 86.51 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 86.51 Section 86.51 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor,...

  4. 22 CFR 1701.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1701.140 Section 1701.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE § 1701.140 Employment....

  5. 29 CFR 100.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 100.540 Section 100.540 Labor Regulations... § 100.540 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  6. 6 CFR 15.40 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment of... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 15.40 Section 15.40 Domestic... Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of that disability, be subjected...

  7. 1 CFR 500.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 500.140 Section 500.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY § 500.140 Employment. No...

  8. 22 CFR 219.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 219.140 Section 219.140 Foreign... DEVELOPMENT § 219.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  9. 40 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 5.500 Section 5.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor,...

  10. 31 CFR 17.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment of... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 17.140 Section 17.140... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  11. 22 CFR 1600.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1600.140 Section 1600.140 Foreign... Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to...

  12. 15 CFR 8a.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 8a.500 Section 8a.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor,...

  13. 18 CFR 1313.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 1313.140... § 1313.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  14. 40 CFR 12.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 12.140 Section 12.140... IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 12.140 Employment....

  15. 6 CFR 17.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 17.500 Section 17.500 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefore,...

  16. 28 CFR 54.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 54.500 Section 54.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor,...

  17. 45 CFR 85.31 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 9 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 85.31 Section 85.31 Public Welfare....31 Employment. No qualified individuals with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  18. 5 CFR 2416.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 2416.140 Section 2416.140....140 Employment. No qualified individual with disabilities shall, on the basis of disability,...

  19. 12 CFR 606.640 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in the agency. ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 606.640 Section 606.640 Banks and... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  20. 41 CFR 101-4.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Employment. 101-4.500... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor,...

  1. 38 CFR 15.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 15.140... § 15.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  2. 45 CFR 1214.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1214.140 Section 1214.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  3. Public Service Employment: CETA Program Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpuz, Ray E., Jr.

    This monograph on Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) program models for practitioners who are implementing or redesigning public service employment programs explores three major approaches to public service employment: countercyclical, employability development, and structural targeting. The content is presented in six sections. The…

  4. An Introduction to Career Path Employability Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvir, Howard P.

    An employability profile specifies employment opportunities for which an individual is qualified. A career path is the term applied to an employability profile that combines both the career ladder aspect of advancement and the career lattice element of wide selection. After a descriptive analysis of typical employability profiles, this document…

  5. Employer Follow-Up Survey Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trident Technical Coll., Charleston, SC.

    In 1998, Trident Technical College conducted the 1997 Employer Follow-Up Survey to collect information from employers of 1997 graduates. A total of 373 employers of graduates were identified, of which 243 were contacted and interviewed. Findings indicate that employers rate graduates average or above average in most technical and personal skills.…

  6. Legal Consequences of Employer Discharge Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    The employment contract is sometimes misunderstood by both employees and employers. Drafters of employee manuals, policies, and procedures should be aware that the nature of the at-will employment relationship can be transformed into a binding employment contract by the words and phrases chosen. In this article, the author uses the case of Eric,…

  7. 5 CFR 2416.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment. 2416.140 Section 2416.140....140 Employment. No qualified individual with disabilities shall, on the basis of disability,...

  8. 3 CFR 102.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment. 102.140 Section 102.140 Presidential... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT § 102.140 Employment....

  9. 40 CFR 12.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment. 12.140 Section 12.140... IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 12.140 Employment....

  10. 36 CFR 406.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Employment. 406.140 Section... COMMISSION § 406.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  11. 38 CFR 15.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment. 15.140... § 15.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  12. 29 CFR 100.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 100.540 Section 100.540 Labor Regulations... § 100.540 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  13. 1 CFR 500.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Employment. 500.140 Section 500.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY § 500.140 Employment. No...

  14. 22 CFR 711.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 711.140 Section 711.140 Foreign... CORPORATION § 711.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  15. 45 CFR 2104.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Employment. 2104.140 Section 2104.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  16. 45 CFR 2301.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Employment. 2301.140 Section 2301.140 Public... COMMISSION § 2301.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  17. 1 CFR 500.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment. 500.140 Section 500.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY § 500.140 Employment. No...

  18. 5 CFR 2416.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employment. 2416.140 Section 2416.140....140 Employment. No qualified individual with disabilities shall, on the basis of disability,...

  19. 22 CFR 1701.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1701.140 Section 1701.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE § 1701.140 Employment....

  20. 16 CFR 1034.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment. 1034.140 Section 1034.140... Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to...

  1. 16 CFR 6.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employment. 6.140 Section 6.140 Commercial....140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  2. 31 CFR 17.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment of... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment. 17.140 Section 17.140... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  3. 16 CFR 1034.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 1034.140 Section 1034.140... Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to...

  4. 34 CFR 1200.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment. 1200.140 Section 1200.140 Education... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  5. 38 CFR 15.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment. 15.140... § 15.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  6. 49 CFR 28.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Employment. 28.140 Section 28.140 Transportation... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.140 Employment. (a) No...

  7. 7 CFR 15e.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment. 15e.140 Section 15e.140 Agriculture Office... OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15e.140 Employment....

  8. 29 CFR 2205.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment. 2205.140 Section 2205.140 Labor Regulations....140 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of disability,...

  9. 5 CFR 1636.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment. 1636.140 Section 1636.140... § 1636.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  10. 49 CFR 28.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 28.140 Section 28.140 Transportation... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.140 Employment. (a) No...

  11. 45 CFR 2104.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Employment. 2104.140 Section 2104.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  12. 34 CFR 1200.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment. 1200.140 Section 1200.140 Education... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  13. 19 CFR 201.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employment. 201.140 Section 201.140 Customs Duties... Commission § 201.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  14. 19 CFR 201.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment. 201.140 Section 201.140 Customs Duties... Commission § 201.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  15. 6 CFR 15.40 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment of... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment. 15.40 Section 15.40 Domestic... Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of that disability, be subjected...

  16. 22 CFR 1701.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1701.140 Section 1701.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE § 1701.140 Employment....

  17. 17 CFR 200.640 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment. 200.640 Section... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Securities and Exchange Commission § 200.640 Employment....

  18. 12 CFR 606.640 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in the agency. ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employment. 606.640 Section 606.640 Banks and... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  19. 12 CFR 606.640 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in the agency. ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 606.640 Section 606.640 Banks and... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  20. 29 CFR 2205.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment. 2205.140 Section 2205.140 Labor Regulations....140 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of disability,...

  1. 29 CFR 100.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment. 100.540 Section 100.540 Labor Regulations... § 100.540 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  2. 45 CFR 85.31 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 9 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Employment. 85.31 Section 85.31 Public Welfare....31 Employment. No qualified individuals with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  3. 22 CFR 219.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employment. 219.140 Section 219.140 Foreign... DEVELOPMENT § 219.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  4. 17 CFR 200.640 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employment. 200.640 Section... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Securities and Exchange Commission § 200.640 Employment....

  5. 36 CFR 812.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Employment. 812.140 Section... PRESERVATION § 812.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  6. 45 CFR 1214.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Employment. 1214.140 Section 1214.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  7. 17 CFR 149.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment. 149.140 Section... COMMISSION § 149.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  8. 16 CFR 1034.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employment. 1034.140 Section 1034.140... Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to...

  9. 31 CFR 17.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment of... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment. 17.140 Section 17.140... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  10. 22 CFR 219.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment. 219.140 Section 219.140 Foreign... DEVELOPMENT § 219.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  11. 22 CFR 1600.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1600.140 Section 1600.140 Foreign... Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to...

  12. 3 CFR 102.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employment. 102.140 Section 102.140 Presidential... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT § 102.140 Employment....

  13. 5 CFR 1636.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employment. 1636.140 Section 1636.140... § 1636.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  14. 45 CFR 2301.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Employment. 2301.140 Section 2301.140 Public... COMMISSION § 2301.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  15. 40 CFR 12.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment. 12.140 Section 12.140... IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 12.140 Employment....

  16. 49 CFR 28.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Employment. 28.140 Section 28.140 Transportation... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.140 Employment. (a) No...

  17. 29 CFR 100.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment. 100.540 Section 100.540 Labor Regulations... § 100.540 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  18. 18 CFR 1313.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employment. 1313.140... § 1313.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  19. 22 CFR 1600.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1600.140 Section 1600.140 Foreign... Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to...

  20. 22 CFR 711.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 711.140 Section 711.140 Foreign... CORPORATION § 711.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  1. 7 CFR 15e.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 15e.140 Section 15e.140 Agriculture Office... OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15e.140 Employment....

  2. 12 CFR 606.640 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in the agency. ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment. 606.640 Section 606.640 Banks and... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  3. 45 CFR 1214.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Employment. 1214.140 Section 1214.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  4. 45 CFR 85.31 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 9 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Employment. 85.31 Section 85.31 Public Welfare....31 Employment. No qualified individuals with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  5. 20 CFR 655.940 - Employer attestations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Work § 655.940 Employer attestations. (a) Who may submit attestations? An employer (or the employer's designated agent or representative) seeking to employ F-1 student(s) for off-campus work shall submit an... occupation, or in multiple occupations, provided that all positions are located within the same...

  6. Employability Skills Valued by Employers as Important for Entry-Level Employees with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun; Pacha, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities face persistent challenges in gaining meaningful employment. One of the barriers to successful employment is a lack of employability skills. The purpose of this study was to identify employability skills that employers value as being important and to examine whether employers have different expectations for…

  7. 38 CFR 21.58 - Redetermination of employment handicap and serious employment handicap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employment handicap and serious employment handicap. 21.58 Section 21.58 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... of employment handicap and serious employment handicap. (a) Prior to induction into a program. A determination as to employment handicap, serious employment handicap, or eligibility for a program of...

  8. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development

    PubMed Central

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the cognitive development and body weight of 10 and 11 year olds, controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family characteristics. The results suggest that limited market work benefits youths who are relatively “disadvantaged” and even long hours, which occur infrequently, are unlikely to leave them much worse off. By contrast, maternal labor supply is estimated to have more uniformly harmful consequences for “advantaged” adolescents. The negative cognitive effects for these youths probably partly occur because maternal labor supply reduces the time spent in enriching home environments. Some of the growth in obesity may be related to determinants of excess weight common to the child and mother. PMID:19830269

  9. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2016-05-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d -dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for p p →H +0 , 1, 2 jets, p p →W /Z /γ +0 , 1, 2 jets, and p p →2 , 3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e+e- and e-p collisions.

  10. Rural and Urban Employment Patterns: Self-Employment As a Metaphor for Rural Vocational Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seekins, Tom

    This report examines the use of self-employment as a vocational rehabilitation option in rural areas. Self-employment is one of the fastest growing employment opportunities, as evidenced by the approximately 15.6 million people who reported being self-employed in 1990. Data from the 1980s comparing employment patterns in rural and urban areas…

  11. Employer Needs Survey Report: A Report on Employer Needs and Thoughts about Programs, Courses and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Vasant; Tradewell, Mary D. J.

    An employer needs assessment was conducted in the Wisconsin Indianhead Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education District to develop a profile of local employers; determine the vocational education training levels required by the employers; ascertain employers' roles in training; and determine employers' perceptions of Wisconsin Indianhead…

  12. 45 CFR 400.82 - Failure or refusal to accept employability services or employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure or refusal to accept employability... SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment Failure Or Refusal to Accept Employability Services Or Employment § 400.82 Failure or refusal to accept...

  13. Employability and Employers: The Missing Piece of the Jigsaw. IES Report 361.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamkin, P.; Hillage, J.

    The approaches to employability being taken by United Kingdom employers were examined in a study that included three components: a literature review to develop a definition of employability and isolate its key elements; case studies of six organizations to identify employers' approaches to employability; and examination of related literature on…

  14. 5 CFR 315.704 - Conversion to career employment from indefinite or temporary employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion to career employment from... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.704 Conversion to career employment...

  15. 5 CFR 315.704 - Conversion to career employment from indefinite or temporary employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion to career employment from... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.704 Conversion to career employment...

  16. 5 CFR 315.704 - Conversion to career employment from indefinite or temporary employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to career employment from... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.704 Conversion to career employment...

  17. 5 CFR 315.704 - Conversion to career employment from indefinite or temporary employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion to career employment from... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.704 Conversion to career employment...

  18. 5 CFR 315.704 - Conversion to career employment from indefinite or temporary employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion to career employment from... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.704 Conversion to career employment...

  19. Employment Characteristics of Indochinese Refugees: January 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes Immigration and Naturalization Service data on demographic characteristics and employment of Indochinese refugees. Reports that employment increases with time in the United States, and that refugee dependence on public assistance will be reduced. (ST)

  20. 45 CFR 400.154 - Employability services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... employment with the employer who is providing the training. (d) English language instruction, with an emphasis on English as it relates to obtaining and retaining a job. (e) Vocational training,...

  1. Women's Employment in France: Protection or Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaud, Marcelle; Levy, Martine

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the origin and evolution of special protection laws in France for employed women, describes those measures that still exist, and explains what employers, unions, and the authorities think of them. Discusses pregnancy, family responsibilities, and technological progress. (CT)

  2. 28 CFR 42.512 - Employment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.512 Employment criteria. (a) A... visually-impaired persons or qualified sign language interpreters for hearing-impaired persons)...

  3. Updating Economic Theory: The Employment Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Gordon

    1983-01-01

    Faculty jobs have a remarkable degree of freedom compared to other jobs, but they have comparatively low salaries. The income difference between academic employment and employment in corporations, law firms, and medicine causes morale problems in faculties. (MLW)

  4. SEEMP: A Networked Marketplace for Employment Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celino, Irene; Cerizza, Dario; Cesarini, Mirko; Valle, Emanuele Della; de Paoli, Flavio; Estublier, Jacky; Fugini, Mariagrazia; Pérez, Asuncion Gómez; Kerrigan, Mick; Guarrera, Pascal; Mezzanzanica, Mario; Ramìrez, Jaime; Villazon, Boris; Zhao, Gang

    Human capital is more and more the key factor of economic growth and competitiveness in the information age and knowledge economy. But due to a still fragmented employment market compounded by the enlargement of the EU, the human resources are not effectively exchanged and deployed. The business innovation of SEEMP1 develops a vision of an Employment Mediation Marketplace (EMM) for market transparency and effic ient mediation. Its technological innovation provides a federated marketplace of employment agencies through a peer-to-peer network of employment data and mediation services. In other words, the solution under development is a de-fragmentation of the employment market by a web-based collaborative network. The SEEMP-enabled employment marketplace will strengthen the social organization of public employment administration, maximize the business turnover of private employment agencies, improve citizens' productivity and welfare, and increase the competitiveness and performance of business.

  5. 21 CFR 1314.50 - Employment measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employment measures. 1314.50 Section 1314.50 Food... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.50 Employment measures. A regulated seller may take reasonable measures to guard against employing individuals who may present a risk with respect to the...

  6. 21 CFR 1314.50 - Employment measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment measures. 1314.50 Section 1314.50 Food... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.50 Employment measures. A regulated seller may take reasonable measures to guard against employing individuals who may present a risk with respect to the...

  7. 21 CFR 1314.50 - Employment measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment measures. 1314.50 Section 1314.50 Food... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.50 Employment measures. A regulated seller may take reasonable measures to guard against employing individuals who may present a risk with respect to the...

  8. 21 CFR 1314.50 - Employment measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employment measures. 1314.50 Section 1314.50 Food... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.50 Employment measures. A regulated seller may take reasonable measures to guard against employing individuals who may present a risk with respect to the...

  9. 21 CFR 1314.50 - Employment measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment measures. 1314.50 Section 1314.50 Food... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.50 Employment measures. A regulated seller may take reasonable measures to guard against employing individuals who may present a risk with respect to the...

  10. Psychological Factors Associated with Obtaining Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Elizabeth; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Rose, John

    2007-01-01

    Background: Less than 10% of people with intellectual disabilities are employed. The aim of the present study was to investigate what psychological factors might predict employment outcome for people with intellectual disability who had received a placement in a supported employment service. Method: Sixty people were interviewed whilst they were…

  11. 10 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 5.500 Section 5.500 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.500 Employment....

  12. 7 CFR 15a.51 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 15a.51 Section 15a.51 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.51 Employment....

  13. 12 CFR 563.39 - Employment contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Employment contracts. 563.39 Section 563.39...-OPERATIONS Operation and Structure § 563.39 Employment contracts. (a) General. A savings association may enter into an employment contract with its officers and other employees only in accordance with...

  14. Employment of Handicapped People in Leisure Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, David M.; Vinton, Dennis A.

    In response to the need for up-to-date information on employment opportunities for handicapped people in the leisure occupations, a national survey was conducted to determine both existing levels of employment and employer practices. The survey was sent to 500 agencies and businesses representing four leisure occupational subclusters: travel,…

  15. TANF Education and Training: Nebraska's Employment First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Lavanya

    2014-01-01

    Nebraska's Employment First (EF) program allows parents who receive TANF cash assistance to pursue education and training that improves their ability to secure employment and long-term economic success. A parent must negotiate and sign an Employment First contract, facilitated by a case worker, between the participating parent and the state of…

  16. 32 CFR 1656.5 - Eligible employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligible employment. 1656.5 Section 1656.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.5 Eligible employment. (a) The Director will determine in accordance with the Selective Service Law which civilian employment programs...

  17. 20 CFR 655.940 - Employer attestations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... designated agent or representative) seeking to employ F-1 student(s) for off-campus work shall submit an... recruitment. An employer seeking to employ an F-1 student shall attest on Form ETA-9034 that it has recruited... consecutive days by posting the job vacancy (or help wanted) notice at the worksite and by placing a job...

  18. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employment taxes. 601.401 Section 601.401 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes. (a) General—(1) Description of...

  19. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employment taxes. 601.401 Section 601.401 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes. (a) General—(1) Description of...

  20. 29 CFR 788.16 - Employment relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment relationship. 788.16 Section 788.16 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.16 Employment relationship. (a) The Supreme Court has made..., the permanency of the relationship, the opportunities for profit or loss, the initiative judgment...

  1. 29 CFR 801.8 - Employment relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment relationship. 801.8 Section 801.8 Labor... OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.8 Employment relationship. (a) EPPA... employer in relationship to an employee or prospective employee” (EPPA section 2(2)). (b) EPPA...

  2. 29 CFR 801.8 - Employment relationship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment relationship. 801.8 Section 801.8 Labor... OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.8 Employment relationship. (a) EPPA... employer in relationship to an employee or prospective employee” (EPPA section 2(2)). (b) EPPA...

  3. Future Employment Opportunities in the Geological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO.

    This booklet provides summaries of discussions presented at a forum designed to aid persons new to the job market in selecting prospective employers and determining career goals. Salary ranges, employment opportunities and trends, hiring practices and policies, and job qualifications are among the areas addressed related to employment in: (1)…

  4. Legislation and Part-Time Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Allan L.; And Others

    This document presents an analysis of part-time employment issues in California community colleges, including a review of historical developments of the law covering the employment of certificated personnel, a review of some benefits and problems associated with part-time teaching, and consideration of part-time faculty employment as a major issue…

  5. 45 CFR 86.51 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 86.51 Section 86.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.51 Employment. (a) General. (1)...

  6. 5 CFR 3801.106 - Outside employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outside employment. 3801.106 Section 3801.106 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE § 3801.106 Outside employment. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, outside employment means any form...

  7. 32 CFR 1656.5 - Eligible employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligible employment. 1656.5 Section 1656.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.5 Eligible employment. (a) The Director will determine in accordance with the Selective Service Law which civilian employment programs...

  8. 47 CFR 1.1840 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... U.S.C. 791, as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR parts 1614 and... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1.1840 Section 1.1840... Commission § 1.1840 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of...

  9. 22 CFR 62.16 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 62.16 Section 62.16 Foreign... § 62.16 Employment. (a) An exchange visitor may receive compensation from the sponsor or the sponsor's appropriate designee for employment when such activities are part of the exchange visitor's program. (b)...

  10. 32 CFR 196.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 196.500 Section 196.500 National... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  11. 22 CFR 530.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 530.140 Section 530.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS § 530.140 Employment. No...

  12. 24 CFR 9.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 1613 (subpart G), shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 9.140 Section 9.140... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.140 Employment. No qualified individual with...

  13. 5 CFR 1850.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 1850.140 Section 1850.140... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE OFFICE OF SPECIAL COUNSEL § 1850.140 Employment. No...

  14. 34 CFR 105.30 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 105.30 Section 105.30 Education Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION § 105.30 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis...

  15. 5 CFR 1207.130 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1207.130 Section 1207.130... BOARD § 1207.130 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of...

  16. 10 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 5.500 Section 5.500 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded...

  17. 45 CFR 1803.9 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1803.9 Section 1803.9 Public Welfare... THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.9 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the...

  18. 45 CFR 1175.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR Part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1175.140 Section 1175.140 Public... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES § 1175.140 Employment....

  19. 36 CFR 1211.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 1211.500 Section... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1211.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  20. 41 CFR 51-10.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Employment. 51-10.140... WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-10.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall,...

  1. 29 CFR 2706.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 2706.140 Section 2706.140 Labor Regulations... REVIEW COMMISSION § 2706.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of...

  2. 49 CFR 1014.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1014.140 Section 1014.140... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1014.140 Employment....

  3. 43 CFR 3861.5-2 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 3861.5-2 Section 3861.5-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Employment. A mineral claimant may employ any United States mineral surveyor qualified...

  4. 34 CFR 106.51 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 106.51 Section 106.51 Education Regulations... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  5. 39 CFR 255.5 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 29 CFR part 1614 shall apply to employment within the Postal Service. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 255.5 Section 255.5 Postal Service... Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of disability, be subjected...

  6. 18 CFR 1317.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 1317.500... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  7. 12 CFR 352.6 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR parts 1614 and 1630, shall apply to employment in the FDIC. ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 352.6 Section 352.6 Banks and... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 352.6 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall,...

  8. 34 CFR 1200.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 1200.140 Section 1200.140 Education... COUNCIL ON DISABILITY § 1200.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis...

  9. 7 CFR 15a.51 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 15a.51 Section 15a.51 Agriculture Office... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  10. 32 CFR 1699.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 1699.140 Section 1699.140 National....140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  11. 32 CFR 196.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 196.500 Section 196.500 National... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  12. 45 CFR 2555.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 2555.500 Section 2555.500 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 2555.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  13. 34 CFR 1200.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 1200.140 Section 1200.140 Education... COUNCIL ON DISABILITY § 1200.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis...

  14. 49 CFR 25.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 25.500 Section 25.500 Transportation... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on...

  15. 29 CFR 2205.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 2205.140 Section 2205.140 Labor Regulations... REVIEW COMMISSION § 2205.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of...

  16. 41 CFR 51-10.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Employment. 51-10.140... WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-10.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall,...

  17. 22 CFR 62.16 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 62.16 Section 62.16 Foreign... § 62.16 Employment. (a) An exchange visitor may receive compensation from the sponsor or the sponsor's appropriate designee for employment when such activities are part of the exchange visitor's program. (b)...

  18. 15 CFR 8c.40 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR Part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 8c.40 Section 8c.40... BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE § 8c.40...

  19. 1 CFR 457.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 457.140 Section 457.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION § 457.140 Employment. No...

  20. 49 CFR 1014.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1014.140 Section 1014.140... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1014.140 Employment....

  1. 22 CFR 1510.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1510.140 Section 1510.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION § 1510.140 Employment. No...

  2. 29 CFR 2706.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 2706.140 Section 2706.140 Labor Regulations... REVIEW COMMISSION § 2706.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of...

  3. 18 CFR 1317.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 1317.500... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  4. 14 CFR 1251.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1251.540 Section 1251.540... Aeronautics and Space Administration § 1251.540 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall,...

  5. 12 CFR 268.705 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 268.705 Section 268.705 Banks and... Physical or Mental Disability § 268.705 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of a disability, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  6. 22 CFR 144.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 144.140 Section 144.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE § 144.140 Employment....

  7. 24 CFR 9.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 1613 (subpart G), shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 9.140 Section 9.140... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.140 Employment. No qualified individual with...

  8. 43 CFR 17.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 17.540 Section 17.540 Public... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior § 17.540 Employment. No...

  9. 45 CFR 2555.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 2555.500 Section 2555.500 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 2555.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  10. 13 CFR 113.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 113.500 Section 113... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  11. 22 CFR 1103.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1103.140 Section 1103.140 Foreign... BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION § 1103.140 Employment....

  12. 45 CFR 1153.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1153.140 Section 1153.140 Public... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS § 1153.140 Employment. No...

  13. 28 CFR 39.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 39.140 Section 39.140... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE § 39.140 Employment. No qualified...

  14. 22 CFR 530.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 530.140 Section 530.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS § 530.140 Employment. No...

  15. 5 CFR 1207.130 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 1207.130 Section 1207.130... BOARD § 1207.130 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of...

  16. 10 CFR 1041.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 1041.140 Section 1041.140 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY § 1041.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person...

  17. 45 CFR 707.7 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR 1614.101 through 1614.110, shall apply to... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 707.7 Section 707.7 Public Welfare... § 707.7 Employment. No qualified individual with disabilities shall, on the basis of disability,...

  18. 46 CFR 507.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 507.140 Section 507.140 Shipping FEDERAL... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION § 507.140 Employment....

  19. 45 CFR 707.7 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR 1614.101 through 1614.110, shall apply to... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 707.7 Section 707.7 Public Welfare... § 707.7 Employment. No qualified individual with disabilities shall, on the basis of disability,...

  20. 49 CFR 807.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 807.140 Section 807.140 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD § 807.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of...

  1. 44 CFR 19.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 19.500 Section 19... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  2. 44 CFR 16.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 16.140 Section 16... CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.140 Employment. No qualified individual...

  3. 34 CFR 106.51 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 106.51 Section 106.51 Education Regulations... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  4. 15 CFR 8c.40 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR Part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 8c.40 Section 8c.40... BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE § 8c.40...

  5. 22 CFR 146.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 146.500 Section 146.500 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on...

  6. 36 CFR 1208.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 1208.140 Section... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION § 1208.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall,...

  7. 41 CFR 105-8.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 105-8.140... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION § 105-8.140 Employment. No...

  8. 29 CFR 4907.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 4907.140 Section 4907.140 Labor Regulations... THE PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION § 4907.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person...

  9. 36 CFR 909.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 909.140 Section... DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION § 909.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of...

  10. 38 CFR 23.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 23.500... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 23.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  11. 12 CFR 794.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 794.140 Section 794.140 Banks and... CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION § 794.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped...

  12. 36 CFR 1154.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally-conducted programs or activities. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 1154.140 Section... ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD § 1154.140 Employment. No qualified...

  13. 25 CFR 720.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 720.140 Section 720.140 Indians THE OFFICE OF... OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION § 720.140 Employment....

  14. 36 CFR 1211.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 1211.500 Section... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1211.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  15. 45 CFR 2490.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 2490.140 Section 2490.140 Public... MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps...

  16. 22 CFR 1005.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1005.140 Section 1005.140 Foreign... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1005.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped...

  17. 47 CFR 1.1840 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... U.S.C. 791, as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR parts 1614 and... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1.1840 Section 1.1840... Commission § 1.1840 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of...

  18. 1 CFR 457.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 457.140 Section 457.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION § 457.140 Employment. No...

  19. 12 CFR 268.705 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 268.705 Section 268.705 Banks and... Physical or Mental Disability § 268.705 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of a disability, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  20. 45 CFR 2490.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 2490.140 Section 2490.140 Public... MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps...