Sample records for emulsified zero-valent iron

  1. Application of Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron to Marine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Kathleen B.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Clausen, Christian A.; Geiger, Cherie L.

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of marine waters and sediments with heavy metals and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) including chlorinated solvents, pesticides and PCBs pose ecological and human health risks through the contaminant's potential bioaccumulation in fish, shellfish and avian populations. The contaminants enter marine environments through improper disposal techniques and storm water run-off. Current remediation technologies for application to marine environments include costly dredging and off-site treatment of the contaminated media. Emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) has been proven to effectively degrade dissolved-phase and DNAPL-phase contaminants in freshwater environments on both the laboratory and field-scale level. However, the application to marine environments is only just being explored. This paper discusses the potential use of EZVI in brackish and saltwater environments, with supporting laboratory data detailed. Laboratory studies were performed in 2005 to establish the effectiveness of EZVI to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE) in saltwater. Headspace vials were setup to determine the kinetic rate of TCE degradation using EZVI in seawater. The reaction vials were analyzed by Gas Chromatographic/Flame Ionization Detection (GC/FID) for ethene production after a 48 day period using a GC/FID Purge and Trap system. Analytical results showed that EZVI was very effective at degrading TCE. The reaction by-products (ethene, acetylene and ethane) were produced at 71% of the rate in seawater as in the fresh water controls. Additionally, iron within the EZVI particles was protected from oxidation of the corrosive seawater, allowing EZVI to perform in an environment where zero-valent iron alone could not compete. Laboratory studies were also performed to establish the effectiveness of emulsified zero-valent metal (EZVM) to remove dissolved-phase cadmium and lead found in seawater. EZVM is comprised of a combination of magnesium and iron metal surrounded by the same oil/surfactant membrane used in EZVI. The removal of cadmium and lead from a seawater matrix is a unique challenge. It requires a system that is resistant to the corrosive nature of seawater while removing specific ions that are in a relatively low concentration compared to naturally occurring seawater salts. Laboratory studies conducted show greater than 99% removal of lead and 96% removal of cadmium from a seawater solution spiked at 5 mg/L that was treated with an Emulsified Zero-Valent Metal (EZVM). The cadmium and lead are removed from the solution as they transport across the emulsion membrane and plate out onto the zero-valent metal surface.

  2. Application of Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron to Marine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Brooks, Kathleen B.; Geiger, Cherie L.; Clausen, Christian A.; Milum, Kristen M.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of marine waters and sediments with heavy metals and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) including chlorinated solvents, pesticides and PCBs pose ecological and human health risks through the potential of the contaminant to bioaccumulate in fish, shellfish and avian populations. The contaminants enter marine environments through improper disposal techniques and storm water runoff. Current remediation technologies for application to marine environments include costly dredging and off-site treatment of the contaminated media. Emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) has been proven to effectively degrade dissolved-phase and DNAPL-phase contaminants in freshwater environments on both the laboratory and field-scale level. Emulsified Zero-Valent Metal (EZVM) using metals such as iron and/or magnesium have been shown in the laboratory and on the bench scale to be effective at removing metals contamination in freshwater environments. The application to marine environments, however, is only just being explored. This paper discusses. the potential use of EZVI or EZVM in brackish and saltwater environments, with supporting laboratory data detailing its effectiveness on trichloroethylene, lead, copper, nickel and cadmium.

  3. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF DNAPL USING EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALENT IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot scale field demonstration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) treatment using emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) is being conducted at Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island SC. The demonstration is being conducted by Geosyntec, the Nationa...

  4. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF DNAPL USING EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALENT IRON (Battelle Conference)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot scale field demonstration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) treatment using emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) was conducted at Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, SC. The EZVI technology was developed at the University of Central Fl...

  5. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF DNAPL USING EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALENT IRON (DNAPL CONFERENCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot scale field demonstration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) treatment using emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) is being conducted at Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island SC. The demonstration is being conducted by Geosyntec, the Nationa...

  6. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF DNAPL USING EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALENT IRON (BATTELLE PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot scale field demonstration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) treatment using emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) is being conducted at Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island SC. The EZVI technology was developed at the University of Central ...

  7. Field demonstration of DNAPL dehalogenation using emulsified zero-valent iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Geiger, Cherie; Clausen, Chris; Brooks, Kathleen; Coon, Christina; O'Hara, Suzanne; Krug, Thomas; Major, David; Yoon, Woong-Sang; Gavaskar, Arun; Holdsworth, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the first field-scale demonstration conducted to evaluate the performance of nanoscale emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) injected into the saturated zone to enhance in situ dehalogenation of dense, nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) containing trichloroethene (TCE). EZVI is an innovative and emerging remediation technology. EZVI is a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable emulsion that forms emulsion droplets consisting of an oil-liquid membrane surrounding zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in water. EZVI was injected over a five day period into eight wells in a demonstration test area within a larger DNAPL source area at NASA's Launch Complex 34 (LC34) using a pressure pulse injection method. Soil and groundwater samples were collected before and after treatment and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate the changes in VOC mass, concentration and mass flux. Significant reductions in TCE soil concentrations (>80%) were observed at four of the six soil sampling locations within 90 days of EZVI injection. Somewhat lower reductions were observed at the other two soil sampling locations where visual observations suggest that most of the EZVI migrated up above the target treatment depth. Significant reductions in TCE groundwater concentrations (57 to 100%) were observed at all depths targeted with EZVI. Groundwater samples from the treatment area also showed significant increases in the concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene. The decrease in concentrations of TCE in soil and groundwater samples following treatment with EZVI is believed to be due to abiotic degradation associated with the ZVI as well as biodegradation enhanced by the presence of the oil and surfactant in the EZVI emulsion.

  8. Uranium removal from ground water using zero valent iron media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Farrell; W. D. Bostick; R. J. Jarabek; J. N. Fiedor

    2009-01-01

    Removal of uranium from contaminated ground water using zero valent iron is currently under evaluation at several US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Uranium removal by zero valent iron may occur via adsorption onto iron corrosion products, and by reduction to less soluble valence states by reactions with elemental iron. This research investigated the effects of water chemistry and surface

  9. Degradation of organic and inorganic contaminants by zero valent iron 

    E-print Network

    Malla, Deepak Babu

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of trichloroethylene (TCE), chromium (VI), and 2,4 dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by zero valent iron and palladized iron under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Reduction experiments of the contaminants were carried out individually...

  10. Electrochemical deposition of green rust on zero-valent iron 

    E-print Network

    Kulkarni, Dhananjay Vijay

    2006-08-16

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a toxic contaminant that has been introduced into the environment over many years through industrial and agricultural wastes. Research has been done in the past to investigate PCE degradation by zero-valent iron (ZVI...

  11. TREATMENT OF GROUND WATER WITH ZERO VALENT IRON (ZVI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation on the use of zero valent iron (ZVI) for groundwater remediation at the Memphis Defense Depot Site in Memphis, TN, will be given at a public meeting in Memphis on February 24. The presentation is being given in response to a request by a citizen's group associated...

  12. Mechanism study of nitrate reduction by nano zero valent iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Hoon Hwang; Do-Gun Kim; Hang-Sik Shin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the fate of nitrogen species during nitrate reduction by nano-scale zero valent iron (NZVI) and related reaction mechanisms. The NZVI used for the experiments was prepared by chemical reduction without a stabilizing agent. NZVI has great ability to reduce nitrate. However, the question of what end-product results from nitrate reduction by NZVI has sparked controversy. Establishing nitrogen

  13. Removal of arsenic from water by zero-valent iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunbaek Bang; George P. Korfiatis; Xiaoguang Meng

    2005-01-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH on arsenic removal with zero-valent iron [Fe(0)]. Arsenic removal was dramatically affected by the DO content and the pH of the solution. Under oxic conditions, arsenate [As(V)] removal by Fe(0) filings was faster than arsenite [As(III)]. Greater than 99.8% of the As(V) was removed

  14. Oxidative transformation of contaminants using colloidal zero-valent iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Feitz; Sung Hee Joo; Jing Guan; Quan Sun; David L. Sedlak; T. David Waite

    2005-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that nano scale zero-valent iron (nZVI) oxidizes the herbicide molinate when it is used in the presence of oxygen. Further batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the potential application of nZVI for the treatment of contaminants. Results of batch studies reveal a rapid initial degradation of molinate followed by slower degradation over more

  15. Can zero-valent iron nanoparticles remove waterborne estrogens?

    PubMed

    Jarošová, Barbora; Filip, Jan; Hilscherová, Klára; Tu?ek, Ji?í; Šimek, Zden?k; Giesy, John P; Zbo?il, Radek; Bláha, Lud?k

    2015-03-01

    Steroidal estrogens are one of the most challenging classes of hazardous contaminants as they can cause adverse effects to biota in extremely low concentrations. They emerge in both waste waters and surface waters serving as a source of drinking water. Environmental Quality Standards for 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), promulgated within the EU Water Framework Directive, are 0.4 and 0.035 ng L(-1), respectively. Because nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles have been previously used in numerous remediation technologies and have the advantage of possible magnetic separation, interaction of nZVI with E2 and EE2 in water was investigated to assess the potential role of nZVI in removing steroidal estrogens. A mixture of E2 and EE2 dissolved in water was shaken with varying doses of nZVI for 1-5 h. Concentration-dependent removal of the estrogens was observed but removal did not increase significantly with time. Concentrations of the estrogens were determined by HPLC/MS/MS and a biodetection reporter gene assay. Sorption and nonspecific oxygen-mediated oxidation of estrogens were identified as the most probable removal mechanisms. Two independent experiments confirmed that significant decrease of estrogens concentration is achieved when at least 2 g L(-1) of nZVI is applied. The presented study provides insights into the mechanisms of nZVI interaction with steroidal estrogens under aerobic conditions prevailing in currently applied water treatment technologies. PMID:25567735

  16. Reductive Dehalogenation of Trichloroethylene with Zero-Valent Iron: Surface Profiling Microscopy and Rate

    E-print Network

    Lyuksyutov, Sergei

    was attributed to the increased roughness of the iron surface due to crevice corrosion obtained by pretreatmentReductive Dehalogenation of Trichloroethylene with Zero-Valent Iron: Surface Profiling Microscopy zerovalent iron are studied with three different surface characterization techniques. These include scanning

  17. Degradation of phenol, into mineral compounds, in aqueous solutions using Zero-Valent Iron Powder (ZVIP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rima; E. Aoun; K. Hanna; Q. X. Li

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach to the treatment of phenolic aqueous solution by using zero-valent iron powder (ZVIP). In batch reactors under water treatment conditions (room temperature and pH: 4 7), a rapid degradation of phenol in the presence of iron powder 40 60 mesh (40 g L - 1) was observed. The decline in the phenol concentration was

  18. Effect of Zero-Valent Iron on Removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Agricultural Waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel water filtration system using zero-valent iron (ZVI) is being investigated as a simple and inexpensive approach to reducing E. coli O157:H7 in water for both pre- and post-harvest processes. Purpose: This study was initiated to determine the effectiveness of zero-valent iron in the removal ...

  19. Partial oxidation (?aging?) and surface modification decrease the toxicity of nano-sized zero valent iron.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanosize zero-valent iron (nZVI) is used as a redox-active catalyst for in situ remediation of contaminated ground waters. In aqueous environments, nZVI oxidizes over time (i.e., ?ages?) to magnetite and other oxides. For remediation, hi...

  20. REDUCTION OF AZO DYES WITH ZERO-VALENT IRON. (R827117)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reduction of azo dyes by zero-valent iron metal (Fe0) at pH 7.0 in 10 mM HEPES buffer was studied in aqueous, anaerobic batch systems. Orange II was reduced by cleavage of the azo linkage, as evidenced by the production of sulfanilic acid (a substituted ani...

  1. Advanced treatment of coking wastewater by coagulation and zero-valent iron processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Lai; Hua-zhang Zhao; Chao Wang; Jin-ren Ni

    2007-01-01

    Advanced treatment of coking wastewater was investigated experimentally with coagulation and zero-valent iron (ZVI) processes. Particular attention was paid to the effect of dosage and pH on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the two processes. The results showed that ZVI was more effective than coagulation for advanced treatment of coking wastewater. The jar tests revealed that maximal

  2. Effects of Precipitation and Particle Size on Low Frequency Electrical Properties of Zero Valent Iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Wu; L. Slater

    2004-01-01

    Observational methods are required to monitor the long-term efficiency of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) installations used to remediate hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated groundwater. Our previous studies investigated the relationship between induced polarization (IP) and zero valent iron (Fe0) surface area and electrolyte activity. In this continuous research, we performed experiments on mixtures of Fe0 and Ottawa sand to study

  3. Partial oxidation (?aging?) and surface modification decrease the toxicity of nano-sized zero valent iron

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zero-valent iron (nZVI) is a redox-active nanomaterial used for in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. To assess the effect of ?aging? and surface modification on its potential neurotoxicity, cultured rodent microglia and neurons were exposed to fresh nZVI, ?aged? (>11...

  4. Preliminary Tests Concerning Zero-Valent Iron Efficiency in Inorganic Pollutants Remediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Fiore; Maria Chiara Zanetti

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was aimed to a preliminary evaluation of the applicability of granular Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) to the on site r emediation of groundwater polluted by inorganic contaminants by means of a Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB). A particular interest was devoted to groundwater impacted by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) that was caused by the oxidation of metal sulphide

  5. Chemical Reduction of PCE by Zero Valent Iron Colloids Batch and Column Experiments

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    of the art for plume treatment · Injectable nano-scaled zero valent iron particles (nZVI) have potential hydrocarbons, heavy metals, pesticides etc.) NAPASAN-Particle Flakes D50 = 900 nm aS = 1.3 m²/g Thickness ~ 70

  6. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT WATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the applicability and limitations of granular zero-valent iron for the treatment of water impacted by mine wastes. Rates of acid neutralization and of metal (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Hg, Al, and Mn) and metalloid (As) uptake were determined in batch systems using simu...

  7. Toxicity of zero-valent iron nanoparticles to a trichloroethylene-degrading groundwater microbial community.

    PubMed

    Zabetakis, Kara M; Niño de Guzmán, Gabriela T; Torrents, Alba; Yarwood, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    The microbiological impact of zero-valent iron used in the remediation of groundwater was investigated by exposing a trichloroethylene-degrading anaerobic microbial community to two types of iron nanoparticles. Changes in total bacterial and archaeal population numbers were analyzed using qPCR and were compared to results from a blank and negative control to assess for microbial toxicity. Additionally, the results were compared to those of samples exposed to silver nanoparticles and iron filings in an attempt to discern the source of toxicity. Statistical analysis revealed that the three different iron treatments were equally toxic to the total bacteria and archaea populations, as compared with the controls. Conversely, the silver nanoparticles had a limited statistical impact when compared to the controls and increased the microbial populations in some instances. Therefore, the findings suggest that zero-valent iron toxicity does not result from a unique nanoparticle-based effect. PMID:26030685

  8. Zero Valent Iron: Impact of Anions Present during Synthesis on Subsequent Nanoparticle Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Kirsten; Forsberg, Brady; Baer, Donald R.; Arnold, William A.; Penn, R. Lee

    2011-10-01

    Zero-valent iron particles are an effective remediation technology for groundwater contaminated with halogenated organic compounds. In particular, nano-scale zero-valent iron is a promising material for remediation due to its high specific surface area, which results in faster rate constants and more effective use of the iron. An aspect of iron nanoparticle reactivity that has not been explored is the impact of anions present during iron metal nanoparticle synthesis. Solutions containing chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and nitrate anions and ferric ions were used to generate iron oxide nanoparticles. The resulting materials were dialyzed to remove dissolved byproducts and then dried and reduced by hydrogen gas at high temperature. The reactivity of the resulting zero valent iron nanoparticles was quantified by monitoring the kinetics as well as products of carbon tetrachloride reduction, and significant differences in reactivity and chloroform yield were observed. The reactivity of nanoparticles prepared in the presence of sulfate and phosphate demonstrated the highest reactivity and chloroform yield. Furthermore, substantial variations in the solid-state products of oxidation (magnetite, iron sulfide, and goethite, among others) were also observed.

  9. Degradation of obsolete DDT by Fenton oxidation with zero-valent iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Boussahel; D. Harik; M. Mammar; S. Lamara-Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    We report in this paper the preliminary results obtained during degradation tests of obsolete DDT by Fenton oxidation with zero-valent iron. Iron powder, treated beforehand by a solution of H2SO4, was introduced into a glass engine containing a solution of distilled water doped by known quantities of obsolete pesticide and hydrogen peroxide. A continuous mechanical agitation was then applied and

  10. Reductive precipitation of uranium(VI) by zero-valent iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gu; M. J. Dickey; X. Yin; S. Dai; L. Liang

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of zero-valent iron (Fe°) and several adsorbent materials in removing uranium (U) from contaminated groundwater and to investigate the rates and mechanisms that are involved in the reactions. Fe° filings were used as reductants, and the adsorbents included peat materials, iron oxides, and a carbon-based sorbent (Cercona Bone-Char). Results indicate that Fe°

  11. FINAL REPORT. REDUCTION AND IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIONUCLIDES AND TOXIC METAL IONS USING COMBINED ZERO VALENT IRON AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of zero valent iron, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater remediation continues to increase. An exciting variation of this technology involves introducing anaerobic bacteria into these barriers so that both biological and abiotic pollutant removal processes ...

  12. EFFECTS OF PH ON DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY ZERO-VALENT IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surface normalized reaction rate constants (ksa) of trichloroethylene (TCE) and zero-valent iron (ZVI) was quantified in batch reactors at pH values between 1.7 and 10. The ksa of TCE linearly decreased from 0.044 to 0.009 L/hr-m2 between pH 3.8 and 8.0, whereas the ksa at pH...

  13. Removal of arsenic from water by supported nano zero-valent iron on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huijie; Jia, Yongfeng; Wu, Xing; Wang, He

    2009-12-30

    Nano-sized zero-valent iron is an effective adsorbent for arsenic removal from drinking water. However, its application may be limited in public water system and small scale water treatment system due to its tiny particle size. In the present work, nanoscale zero-valent iron was supported onto activated carbon (NZVI/AC) by impregnating carbon with ferrous sulfate followed by chemical reduction with NaBH(4). Approximate 8.2 wt% of iron was loaded onto carbon and SEM analysis showed that the iron particles in the pores of carbon were needle-shaped with the size of 30-500 x 1000-2000 nm. Kinetics study revealed that adsorption of arsenite and arsenate by NZVI/AC was fast in the first 12h and the equilibrium was achieved in approximately 72 h. The adsorption capacity of the synthesized sorbent for arsenite and arsenate at pH 6.5 calculated from Langmuir adsorption isotherms in batch experiments was 18.2 and 12.0mg/g, respectively. Phosphate and silicate markedly decreased the removal of both arsenite and arsenate, while the effect of other anions and humic acid was insignificant. Common metal cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) enhanced arsenate adsorption but ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) was found to suppress arsenite adsorption. NZVI/AC can be effectively regenerated by elution with 0.1M NaOH. PMID:19733972

  14. Effects of pH on dechlorination of trichloroethylene by zero-valent iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiann-Long Chen; Souhail R Al-Abed; James A Ryan; Zhenbin Li

    2001-01-01

    The surface normalized reaction rate constants (ksa) of trichloroethylene (TCE) and zero-valent iron (ZVI) were quantified in batch reactors at pH values between 1.7 and 10. The ksa of TCE linearly decreased from 0.044 to 0.009l\\/hm2 between pH 3.8 and 8.0, whereas the ksa at pH 1.7 was more than an order higher than that at pH 3.8. The degradation

  15. Dechlorination of PCE by mixtures of green rust and zero-valent iron

    E-print Network

    Marchal, Fabienne

    2002-01-01

    electron flow in the system with zero-valent iron and green rust . . . . 3 Reductive dechlorination of 0. 246 mM PCE by GRso4 at pH 8, 9, and 10 Some error bars are smaller than the symbols. 18 Corrected rate constant as a function of p.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Reductive dechlorination of 0. 246 mM PCE by treated ZVI at pH 8, 9 and 10. Some errors bars are smaller than the symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Influence of pH and of the pretreatment of ZVI on first-order rate constants...

  16. Methods of preparation and modification of advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles, their properties and application in water treatment technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Jan; Kašlík, Josef; Med?ík, Ivo; Petala, Eleni; Zbo?il, Radek; Slunský, Jan; ?erník, Miroslav; Stav?lová, Monika

    2014-05-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles are commonly used in modern water treatment technologies. Compared to conventionally-used macroscopic iron or iron microparticles, the using of nanoparticles has the advantages given mainly by their generally large specific surface area (it drives their high reactivity and/or sorption capacity), small dimensions (it allows their migration e.g. in ground water), and particular physical and chemical properties. Following the applications of zero-valent iron particles in various pilot tests, there arose several critical suggestions for improvements of used nanomaterials and for development of new generation of reactive nanomaterials. In the presentation, the methods of zero-valent iron nanoparticles synthesis will be summarized with a special attention paid to the thermally-induced solid-state reaction allowing preparation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in an industrial scale. Moreover, the method of thermal reduction of iron-oxide precursors enables to finely tune the critical parameters (mainly particle size and morphology, specific surface area, surface chemistry of nanoparticles etc.) of resulting zero-valet iron nanoparticles. The most important trends of advanced nanoparticles development will be discussed: (i) surface modification of nanomaterilas, (ii) development of nanocomposites and (iii) development of materials for combined reductive-sorption technologies. Laboratory testing of zero-valent iron nanoparticles reactivity and migration will be presented and compared with the field observations: the advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles were used for groundwater treatment at the locality contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons (VC, DCE, TCE and PCE) and reacted nanoparticles were extracted from the sediments for their fate assessment. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic "Competence Centres" (project No. TE01020218) and the EU FP7 (project NANOREM).

  17. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles

  18. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

  19. Hydrodechlorination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol for a permeable reactive barrier using zero-valent iron and catalyzed iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Hak Choi; Sang June Choi; Young-Hun Kim

    2008-01-01

    Dehalogenation of toxic organic compounds has been intensively studied during the last decade by using zero-valent iron (ZVI).\\u000a However, the reactivity of iron is compound specific and very low reactivities were reported for aromatic compounds including\\u000a chlorophenols. In this study, hydrodechlorination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was conducted in a batch system by\\u000a using ZVI and catalyzed iron. No degradation was observed

  20. Utilization of food industry wastes for the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Machado, S; Grosso, J P; Nouws, H P A; Albergaria, J T; Delerue-Matos, C

    2014-10-15

    The proper disposal of the several types of wastes produced in industrial activities increases production costs. As a consequence, it is common to develop strategies to reuse these wastes in the same process and in different processes or to transform them for use in other processes. This work combines the needs for new synthesis methods of nanomaterials and the reduction of production cost using wastes from citrine juice (orange, lime, lemon and mandarin) to produce a new added value product, green zero-valent iron nanoparticles that can be used in several applications, including environmental remediation. The results indicate that extracts of the tested fruit wastes (peel, albedo and pulp fractions) can be used to produce zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs). This shows that these wastes can be an added value product. The resulting nZVIs had sizes ranging from 3 up to 300 nm and distinct reactivities (pulp>peel>albedo extracts). All the studied nanoparticles did not present a significant agglomeration/settling tendency when compared to similar nanoparticles, which indicates that they remain in suspension and retain their reactivity. PMID:25089685

  1. TREATABILITY STUDY BY NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (NJIT) USING ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT SOILS CONTAMINATED BY PCBS AND LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated wetlands soils from the Burnt Fly Bog Superfund site will be treated with a newly developed variety of zero-valent iron. Although zero-valent iron has been shown effective for treating chlorinated solvents, its ability to effectively treat PCBs is unproven. The tre...

  2. Sulfur-Modified Zero-Valent Iron for Remediation Applications at DOE Sites - 13600

    SciTech Connect

    Fogwell, Thomas W. [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20221, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States)] [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20221, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States); Santina, Pete [SMI-PS, Inc., 2073 Prado Vista, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States)] [SMI-PS, Inc., 2073 Prado Vista, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Many DOE remediation sites have chemicals of concern that are compounds in higher oxidation states, which make them both more mobile and more toxic. The chemical reduction of these compounds both prevents the migration of these chemicals and in some cases reduces the toxicity. It has also been shown that zero-valent iron is a very effective substance to use in reducing oxygenated compounds in various treatment processes. These have included the treatment of halogenated hydrocarbons in the form volatile organic compounds used as solvents and pesticides. Zero-valent iron has also been used to reduce various oxidized metals such as chromium, arsenic, and mercury in order to immobilize them, decrease their toxicity, and prevent further transport. In addition, it has been used to immobilize or break down other non-metallic species such as selenium compounds and nitrates. Of particular interest at several DOE remediation sites is the fact that zero-valent iron is very effective in immobilizing several radioactive metals which are mobile in their oxidized states. These include both technetium and uranium. The main difficulty in using zero-valent iron has been its tendency to become inactive after relatively short periods of time. While it is advantageous to have the zero-valent iron particles as porous as possible in order to provide maximum surface area for reactions to take place, these pores can become clogged when the iron is oxidized. This is due to the fact that ferric oxide has a greater volume for a given mass than metallic iron. When the surfaces of the iron particles oxidize to ferric oxide, the pores become narrower and will eventually shut. In order to minimize the degradation of the chemical activity of the iron due to this process, a modification of zero-valent iron has been developed which prevents or slows this process, which decreases its effectiveness. It is called sulfur-modified iron, and it has been produced in high purity for applications in municipal water treatment applications. Sulfur-modified iron has been found to not only be an extremely economical treatment technology for municipal water supplies, where very large quantities of water must be treated economically, but it has also been demonstrated to immobilize technetium. It has the added benefit of eliminating several other harmful chemicals in water supplies. These include arsenic and selenium. In one large-scale evaluation study an integrated system implemented chemical reduction of nitrate with sulfur-modified iron followed by filtration for arsenic removal. The sulfur-modified iron that was used was an iron-based granular medium that has been commercially developed for the removal of nitrate, co-contaminants including uranium, vanadium and chromium, and other compounds from water. The independent study concluded that 'It is foreseen that the greatest benefit of this technology (sulfur-modified iron) is that it does not produce a costly brine stream as do the currently accepted nitrate removal technologies of ion exchange and reverse osmosis. This investigation confirmed that nitrate reduction via sulfur-modified iron is independent of the hydraulic loading rate. Future sulfur-modified iron treatment systems can be designed without restriction of the reactor vessel dimensions. Future vessels can be adapted to existing site constraints without being limited to height-to-width ratios that would exist if nitrate reduction were to depend on hydraulic loading rate'. Sulfur-modified iron was studied by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for its effectiveness in the reduction and permanent sequestration of technetium. The testing was done using Hanford Site groundwater together with sediment. The report stated, 'Under reducing conditions, TcO{sub 4} is readily reduced to TcIV, which forms highly insoluble oxides such at TcO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O. However, (re)oxidation of TcIV oxides can lead to remobilization. Under sulfidogenic conditions, most TcIV will be reduced and immobilized as Tc{sub 2}S{sub 7}, which is less readily re-mobilized, ev

  3. The use of zero-valent iron filtration to reduce Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua in irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Irrigation water can be a source of contamination in outbreaks associated with produce. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) filtration has been effective in E. coli O157:H12 in irrigation water, but has not been evaluated against Listeria spp. Purpose: To 1) determine effectiveness of ZVI filters...

  4. Simulating the reactive transport of organic solutes and zero valent iron nano particles in 1-D column experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Taghavy; J. Costanza; K. D. Pennell; L. Abriola

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the reactive transport of nano Zero Valent Iron (nZVI) particles and organic solutes in a two fluid phase system. A hybrid model for the simultaneous simulation of reactive transport of ZVI particles and solutes is presented. This simulator couples a Lagrangian Random Walk-based Particle Tracking (RWPT) method for ZVI transport with a conventional Eulerian Finite Differencing (FD)

  5. Conversion of Steel Mill's Surface Waste into Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Generation for PEMFCs

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    MSR in a cyclic fashion. A slightly modified version of this reduction method using a surfactantConversion of Steel Mill's Surface Waste into Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) Nanoparticles for Hydrogen@eng.utoledo.edu The proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are the most preferred and efficient energy conversion

  6. Effects of various ions on the dechlorination kinetics of hexachlorobenzene by nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuh-fan; Hsu, Chung-Yu; Shih, Yang-hsin

    2012-09-01

    The effect of several anions and cations normally co-present in soil and groundwater contamination sites on the degradation kinetics and removal efficiency of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles was examined. The degradation kinetics was not influenced by the HCO(3)(-), Mg(2+), and Na(+) ions. It was enhanced in the presence of the Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) ions due to their corrosion promotion. The NO(3)(-) competes with HCB so it inhibits the degradation reaction. The Fe(2+) ions would inhibit the degradation reaction due to passivation layer formed, while it was enhanced in the presence of Cu(2+) ions resulted from the reduced form of copper on NZVI surfaces. These observations lead to a better understanding of HCB dechlorination with NZVI particles and can facilitate the remediation design and prediction of treatment efficiency of HCB at remediation sites. PMID:22704216

  7. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)\\/(III) composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radek Zboril; Marek Andrle; Frantisek Oplustil; Libor Machala; Jiri Tucek; Jan Filip; Zdenek Marusak; Virender K. Sharma

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical

  8. Multicomponent reactive transport in an in situ zero-valent iron cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yabusaki, Steven B. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Cantrell, Kirk J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Sass, Bruce (BCO); Steefel, Carl (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)

    2000-12-01

    Data collected from a field study of in situ zero-valent iron treatment for TCE were analyzed in the context of coupled transport and reaction processes. The focus of this analysis was to understand the behavior of chemical components, including contaminants, in groundwater transported through the iron cell of a pilot-scale funnel and gate treatment system. A multicomponent reactive transport simulator was used to simultaneously model mobile and nonmobile components undergoing equilibrium and kinetic reactions including TCE degradation, parallel iron dissolution reactions, precipitation of secondary minerals, and complexation reactions. The resulting mechanistic model of coupled processes reproduced solution chemistry behavior observed in the iron cell with a minimum of calibration. These observations included the destruction of TCE and cis-1,2-DCE; increases in pH and hydrocarbons; and decreases in EH, alkalinity, dissolved O2 and CO2, and major ions (i.e., Ca, Mg, Cl, sulfate, nitrate). Mineral precipitation in the iron zone was critical to correctly predicting these behaviors. The dominant precipitation products were ferrous hydroxide, siderite, aragonite, brucite, and iron sulfide. In the first few centimeters of the reactive iron cell, these precipitation products are predicted to account for a 3% increase in mineral volume per year, which could have implications for the longevity of favorable barrier hydraulics and reactivity. The inclusion of transport was key to understanding the interplay between rates of transport and rates of reaction in the field.

  9. Zero valent iron and clay mixtures for removal of trichloroethylene, chromium(VI), and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, H J; Chun, B S; Kim, W C; Chung, M; Park, J W

    2006-03-01

    A series of batch experiments on free swell, hydraulic conductivity, and contaminant removal efficiency was performed for the combination of bentonite and zero valent iron (ZVI), in order to identify the optimal mixing ratio between bentonite and ZVI. The swell volume of the bentonite-ZVI mixtures did not change with increasing ZVI, and the hydraulic conductivity decreased as the ZVI increased. The reduction rates and removal efficiencies of trichloroethylene (TCE), Chromium(VI), and nitrate increased as ZVI content increased, while there was no practical difference in removal efficiencies between 30% and 100% of ZVI weight contents. Therefore, 30% of the ZVI content was used as the optimal amount in this research since the physical properties, such as swell volume and hydraulic conductivity, as well as the contaminant sorption and reduction were the most efficient. From Raman spectrophotometer analysis, peaks of magnetite, maghemite, and hematite were observed on the surfaces of the bentonites that had been used for the mixtures. Since iron oxides are strong adsorbers of contaminants and magnetites can facilitate the electron transfer of irons, these formations are beneficial for the long-term performance of the iron metals. PMID:16548210

  10. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, R.; Slater, L.; LaBrecque, D.

    2009-06-01

    Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO{sub 3} and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO{sub 3} as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO{sub 3} dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO{sub 3} forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

  11. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, Roelof; Slater, Lee; LaBrecque, Douglas

    2009-05-12

    Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO(3) and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO(3) as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO(3) dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO(3) forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO(3) precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation. PMID:19342119

  12. Use of agar agar stabilized milled zero-valent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Doris; Velimirovi?, Milica; Wagner, Stephan; Mici? Batka, Vesna; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    A major obstacle for use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles as a nontoxic material for effective in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) is the high production cost. For that reason, submicro-scale milled zero-valent iron particles were recently developed (milled ZVI, UVR-FIA, Germany) by grinding macroscopic raw materials of elementary iron as a cheaper alternative to products produced by solid-state reduction. However, milled ZVI particles tend to aggregate and due to the rather large particle size (d50= 11.9 µm) also rapidly sediment. To prevent aggregation and consequently sedimentation of milled ZVI particles and therefore improve the mobility after in situ application, the use of a stabilizer is considered in literature as a most promising option. In this study, milled ZVI particles (1 g L-1 of particle concentration) were stabilized by environmentally friendly polymer agar agar (>0.5 g L-1), which had a positive impact on the milled ZVI stability. Sedimentation rate was significantly decreased by increasing the suspension viscosity. Column transport experiments were performed for bare and agar agar stabilized milled ZVI particles in commercially available fine grained quartz sand (DORSILIT® Nr.8, Gebrüder Dorfner GmbH Co, Germany) and different porous media collected from brownfields. The experiments were carried out under field relevant injection conditions of 100 m d-1. The maximal travel distance (LT) of less than 10 cm was determined for non-stabilized suspension in fine grained quartz sand, while agar agar (1 g L-1) stabilized milled ZVI suspension revealed LT of 12 m. Similar results were observed for porous media from brownfields showing that mobility of agar agar stabilized particle suspensions was significantly improved compared to bare particles. Based on the mobility data, agar agar stabilized milled zero-valent iron particles could be used for in situ application. Finally, lab-scale batch degradation experiments were performed to determine the impact of agar agar on the reactivity of milled ZVI and investigate the apparent corrosion rate of particles by quantifying the hydrogen gas generated by anaerobic corrosion of milled ZVI. The results indicate that agar agar had a positive impact on the milled ZVI stability and mobility, however adverse impact on the reactivity towards trichloroethene (TCE) was observed compared to the non-stabilized material. On the other hand, this study shows that the apparent corrosion rate of non-stabilized and agar agar stabilized milled ZVI particles is in the same order of magnitude. These data indicate that the dechlorination pathway of TCE by agar agar stabilized milled ZVI particles is possibly impacted by blocking of the reactive sites and not hydrogen revealed during particles corrosion. Finally, calculated longevity of the particles based on the apparent corrosion rate is significantly prolonged compared to the longevity of the nZVI particles reported in previous studies. This research receives funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n°309517.

  13. [Removal of arsenate from drinking water by activated carbon supported nano zero-valent iron].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui-jie; Jia, Yong-feng; Yao, Shu-hu; Wu, Xing; Wang, Shu-ying

    2009-12-01

    A new adsorbent, activated carbon impregnated with nano zero-valent iron was prepared, which size of the needle-shaped iron particles in the pores of carbon was (30-500) nm x (1000-3000) nm and approximately 8.2% of iron was loaded onto it. The arsenate removal percentage was 99.5% by 1.5 g/L NZVI/AC in the 2 mg/L arsenic solution at pH 6.5 and (25 +/- 2) degrees C. The adsorption capacity was about 15.4 mg/g when equilibrium concentration was 1.0 mg/L. Kinetics revealed that uptake of arsenate ion by NZVI/AC was 91.4% in the first 12 h and equilibrium time was about 72 h. The intraparticle diffusion model was applied to study the mechanics of arsenate in the activated carbon. The presence of phosphate and silicate could significantly decrease arsenate removal while the effects of the other anions and cations on the arsenic removal were neglectable. NZVI/AC can be effectively regenerated when elution is done with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. Our results suggest that NZVI/AC is a suitable candidate for drinking water treatment due to its high reactivity. PMID:20187387

  14. Microbial reduction of nitrate in the presence of nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Hee; Cha, Daniel K

    2008-05-01

    Microbial reduction of nitrate in the presence of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) was evaluated to assess the feasibility of employing NZVI in the biological nitrate treatment. Nitrate was completely reduced within 3d in a nanoscale Fe(0)-cell reactor, while only 50% of the nitrate was abiotically reduced over 7d at 25 degrees C. The removal rate of nitrate in the integrated NZVI-cell system was unaffected by the presence of high amounts of sulfate. Efficient removal of nitrate by Fe(II)-supported anaerobic culture in 14 d indicated that Fe(II), which is produced during anaerobic iron corrosion in the Fe(0)-cell system, might act as an electron donor for nitrate. Unlike abiotic reduction, microbial reduction of nitrate was not significantly affected by low temperature conditions. This study demonstrated the potential applicability of employing NZVI iron as a source of electrons for biological nitrate reduction. Use of NZVI for microbial nitrate reduction can obviate the disadvantages associated with traditional biological denitrification, that relies on the use of organic substrates or explosive hydrogen gas, and maintain the advantages offered by nano-particle technology such as higher surface reactivity and functionality in suspensions. PMID:18331753

  15. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles in treatment of acid mine water from in situ uranium leaching.

    PubMed

    Klimkova, Stepanka; Cernik, Miroslav; Lacinova, Lenka; Filip, Jan; Jancik, Dalibor; Zboril, Radek

    2011-02-01

    Acid mine water from in situ chemical leaching of uranium (Straz pod Ralskem, Czech Republic) was treated in laboratory scale experiments by zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI). For the first time, nZVI were applied for the treatment of the real acid water system containing the miscellaneous mixture of pollutants, where the various removal mechanisms occur simultaneously. Toxicity of the treated saline acid water is caused by major contaminants represented by aluminum and sulphates in a high concentration, as well as by microcontaminants like As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, U, V, and Zn. Laboratory batch experiments proved a significant decrease in concentrations of all the monitored pollutants due to an increase in pH and a decrease in oxidation-reduction potential related to an application of nZVI. The assumed mechanisms of contaminants removal include precipitation of cations in a lower oxidation state, precipitation caused by a simple pH increase and co-precipitation with the formed iron oxyhydroxides. The possibility to control the reaction kinetics through the nature of the surface stabilizing shell (polymer vs. FeO nanolayer) is discussed as an important practical aspect. PMID:21193219

  16. Advanced treatment of coking wastewater by coagulation and zero-valent iron processes.

    PubMed

    Lai, Peng; Zhao, Hua-zhang; Wang, Chao; Ni, Jin-ren

    2007-08-17

    Advanced treatment of coking wastewater was investigated experimentally with coagulation and zero-valent iron (ZVI) processes. Particular attention was paid to the effect of dosage and pH on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the two processes. The results showed that ZVI was more effective than coagulation for advanced treatment of coking wastewater. The jar tests revealed that maximal COD removal efficiency of 27.5-31.8% could be achieved under the optimal condition of coagulation, i.e. 400mg/L of Fe(2)(SO(4))3 as coagulant at pH 3.0-5.0. On the other hand, the COD removal efficiency could be up to 43.6% under the idealized condition of ZVI upon 10 g/L active carbon and 30 g/L iron being dosed at pH 4.0. The mechanisms for COD removal in ZVI were dominated by coagulation, precipitation and oxidation-reduction. ZVI would also enhance the biodegradability of effluent by increasing BOD5/COD from 0.07 to 0.53. Moreover, some ester compounds could be produced in the reaction. Although ZVI was found more efficient than coagulation in eliminating low molecular weight (<2000 Da) compounds in the wastewater, there were still a few residual contaminants which could hardly be eliminated by either of the process. PMID:17267104

  17. Toxicity of nano-zero valent iron to freshwater and marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Garner, Kendra; Miller, Robert J; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether three commercial forms (uncoated, organic coating, and iron oxide coating) of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) are toxic to freshwater and marine organisms, specifically three species of marine phytoplankton, one species of freshwater phytoplankton, and a freshwater zooplankton species (Daphnia magna), because these organisms may be exposed downstream of where nZVI is applied to remediate polluted soil. The aggregation and reactivity of the three types of nZVI varied considerably, which was reflected in their toxicity. Since levels of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) increase as the nZVI react, we also evaluated their toxicity independently. All four phytoplankton species displayed decreasing population growth rates, and Daphnia magna showed increasing mortality, in response to increasing levels of nZVI, and to a lesser degree with increasing Fe(2+) and Fe(3+). All forms of nZVI aggregated in soil and water, especially in the presence of a high concentration of calcium ions in groundwater, thus reducing their transports through the environment. However, uncoated nZVI aggregated extremely rapidly, thus vastly reducing the probability of environmental transport and potential for toxicity. This information can be used to design a risk management strategy to arrest the transport of injected nZVI beyond the intended remediation area, by injecting inert calcium salts as a barrier to transport. PMID:22952836

  18. Toxicity of Nano-Zero Valent Iron to Freshwater and Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Arturo A.; Garner, Kendra; Miller, Robert J.; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether three commercial forms (uncoated, organic coating, and iron oxide coating) of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) are toxic to freshwater and marine organisms, specifically three species of marine phytoplankton, one species of freshwater phytoplankton, and a freshwater zooplankton species (Daphnia magna), because these organisms may be exposed downstream of where nZVI is applied to remediate polluted soil. The aggregation and reactivity of the three types of nZVI varied considerably, which was reflected in their toxicity. Since levels of Fe2+ and Fe3+ increase as the nZVI react, we also evaluated their toxicity independently. All four phytoplankton species displayed decreasing population growth rates, and Daphnia magna showed increasing mortality, in response to increasing levels of nZVI, and to a lesser degree with increasing Fe2+ and Fe3+. All forms of nZVI aggregated in soil and water, especially in the presence of a high concentration of calcium ions in groundwater, thus reducing their transports through the environment. However, uncoated nZVI aggregated extremely rapidly, thus vastly reducing the probability of environmental transport and potential for toxicity. This information can be used to design a risk management strategy to arrest the transport of injected nZVI beyond the intended remediation area, by injecting inert calcium salts as a barrier to transport. PMID:22952836

  19. Polyelectrolyte multilayer film-assisted formation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles onto polymer nanofibrous mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shili; Wu, Siqi; Shen, Mingwu; Guo, Rui; Wang, Shanyuan; Shi, Xiangyang

    2009-09-01

    A facile approach that combines the electrospinning technique and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method has been developed to synthesize and immobilize zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) onto the surface of nanofibers for potential environmental applications. In this approach, negatively charged cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning CA solution were modified with bilayers composed of positively charged poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride) (PDADMAC) and negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) through electrostatic LbL assembly approach to form composite nanofibrous mats. The composite nanofibrous mats were immersed into the ferrous iron solution to allow Fe(II) ions to complex with the free carboxyl groups of PAA, and then ZVI NPs were immobilized onto the composite nanofibrous mats instantly by reducing the ferrous cations. Combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetry analysis demonstrated that the ZVI NPs are successfully synthesized and uniformly distributed into the polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayer films assembled onto the CA nanofibers. The present approach to synthesis ZVI NPs opens a new avenue to fabricating various materials with high surface area for environmental, catalytic, and sensing applications.

  20. Effects of dissolved oxygen on dye removal by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wei, Ming-Chi; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Li, Heng-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hua; Fang, Yung-Tai; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2010-10-15

    Effects of dissolved oxygen concentrations on dye removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated. The Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was employed to evaluate toxicity of decolorized solution. Three dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7, monoazo), Reactive Red 120 (RR120, diazo), and Acid Blue 9 (AB9, triphenylmethane), were selected as model dyes. The dye concentration and Fe(0) dose used were 100 mg L(-1) and 30 g L(-1), respectively. Under anoxic condition, the order for dye decolorization was AO7>RR120>AB9. An increase in the dissolved oxygen concentrations enhanced decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of the three dyes. An increase in gas flow rates also improved dye and COD removals by Fe(0). At dissolved oxygen of 6 mg L(-1), more than 99% of each dye was decolorized within 12 min and high COD removals were obtained (97% for AO7, 87% for RR120, and 93% for AB9). The toxicity of decolorized dye solutions was low (I(5)<40%). An increase in DO concentrations obviously reduced the toxicity. When DO above 2 mg L(-1) was applied, low iron ion concentration (13.6 mg L(-1)) was obtained in the decolorized AO7 solution. PMID:20667424

  1. The use of zero-valent iron and biosand filtration to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Foodborne pathogens can be disseminated to produce through contaminated irrigation water. Effective, low cost mitigation strategies, like biosand and zero-valent iron (ZVI) filtration, may be effective in decontaminating irrigation water. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness ...

  2. ARSENATE AND ARSENITE REMOVAL BY ZERO-VALENT IRON: EFFECTS OF PHOSPHATE, SILICATE, CARBONATE, BORATE, SULFATE, CHROMATE, MOLYBDATE, AND NITRATE, RELATIVE TO CHLORIDE: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA-01667 Su, C., and Puls*, R.W. Arsenate and Arsenite Removal by Zero-Valent Iron: Effects of Phosphate, Silicate, Carbonate, Borate, Sulfate, Chromate, Molybdate, and Nitrate, Relative to C...

  3. Environmental factors influencing remediation of TNT-contaminated water and soil with nanoscale zero-valent iron particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waraporn Jiamjitrpanich; Chongrak Polprasert; Preeda Parkpian; R. D. Delaune; Aroon Jugsujinda

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of nanoscale metallic particles (nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles) in the remediation of TNT in contaminated water and soil samples. The effects of treatment dosages of synthesized nZVI particles and reaction time on degradation rate of TNT were determined. The synthesized nZVI particles (99.99% pure) size distribution was between 20–100 nm (average particle size 80

  4. Bioaugmentation and functional partitioning in a zero valent iron-anaerobic reactor for sulfate-containing wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingxin Zhang; Yaobin Zhang; Xie Quan; Yiwen Liu; Xinlei An; Shuo Chen; Huimin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate inhibits anaerobic digestion because it stimulates sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB) to compete with methanogens for electron utilization and sulfide produced has toxicity to microorganism. Considering that zero-valent iron (ZVI) is expected to abbreviate the above negative effects due to its reductibility, a ZVI bed was packed into an anaerobic (ZVI-anaerobic) reactor (R1) for improvement of sulfate-containing wastewater treatment. The

  5. Reduction of chromate from electroplating wastewater from pH 1 to 2 using fluidized zero valent iron process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiao-Shing Chen; Chih-Yu Cheng; Chi-Wang Li; Pao-Hsuan Chai; Yu-Min Chang

    2007-01-01

    Fluidized zero valent iron (ZVI) process was conducted to reduce hexavalent chromium (chromate, CrO42?) to trivalent chromium (Cr3+) from electroplating wastewater due to the following reasons: (1) Extremely low pH (1–2) for the electroplating wastewater favoring the ZVI reaction. (2) The ferric ion, produced from the reaction of Cr(VI) and ZVI, can act as a coagulant to assist the precipitation

  6. Removal of dissolved metals by zero-valent iron (ZVI): Kinetics, equilibria, processes and implications for stormwater runoff treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rangsivek; M. R. Jekel

    2005-01-01

    Infiltration of stormwater runoff contaminated with metals is often questionable in several cases due to its long-term potential to cause deterioration of groundwater quality. To ensure the quality of filtrate, a pre-treatment of contaminated runoff is required. This study investigates the processes of copper and zinc ion removal from stormwater runoff using zero-valent iron (ZVI, Fe0). Kinetic and equilibrium tests

  7. -encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles for degradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhou; Wu, Qingzhi; Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Long, Jia; Chen, Xiaohui

    2014-09-01

    A series of nanocomposites consisting of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a successive two-step method, i.e., the wet chemical reduction by borohydride followed by a modified Stöber method. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The catalytic performance of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model dye in the presence of H2O2. The results showed that the degradation efficiency and apparent rate constant of the degradation reaction were significantly enhanced with increased ZVI NPs encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres, whereas the dosage of H2O2 remarkably promoted degradation rate without affecting degradation efficiency. The content-dependent magnetic property ensured the excellent magnetic separation of degradation products under an external magnet. This strategy for the synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI NPs nanocomposites was low cost and easy to scale-up for industrial production, thereby enabling promising applications in environmental remediation.

  8. Phytotoxicity and uptake of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) by two plant species.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingmao; Gurung, Arun; Deng, Yang

    2013-01-15

    Use of nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) for the treatment of various environmental pollutants has been proven successful. However, large scale introduction of engineered nanomaterials such as nZVI into the environment has recently attracted serious concerns. There is an urgent need to investigate the environmental fate and impact of nZVI due to the scope of its application. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and accumulation of bare nZVI by two commonly encountered plant species: cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid poplars (Populous deltoids×Populous nigra). Plant seedlings were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse and dosed with different concentrations of nZVI (0-1000 mg/L) for four weeks. The nZVI exhibited strong toxic effect on Typha at higher concentrations (>200 mg/L) but enhanced plant growth at lower concentrations. nZVI also significantly reduced the transpiration and growth of hybrid poplars at higher concentrations. Microscopic images indicated that large amount of nZVI coated on plant root surface as irregular aggregates and some nZVI penetrated into several layers of epidermal cells. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) confirmed the internalization of nZVI by poplar root cells but similar internalization was not observed for Typha root cells. The upward transport to shoots was minimal for both plant species. PMID:23247287

  9. Synergetic decolorization of reactive blue 13 by zero-valent iron and anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Jin-Bao; Yang, Ya-Li; Zeng, Raymond J; Liu, Hou-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Efficient decolorization of reactive blue 13 was achieved by a combined use of anaerobic sludge and zero-valent iron (ZVI), and the underlying mechanism of this process was elucidated, Addition of 1.0 g/L ZVI into sludge accelerated the decolorization, with the decoloration ratio after 1-h treatment increased by 29.4% compared with the sum of the individual systems, indicating a synergy between the sludge and ZVI. Meanwhile, substantial changes in sludge morphology and microbial community were observed. The increased dye removal by ZVI was mainly attributed to: (1) a directly chemical reduction and aggregation; and (2) creation of a more favorable pH and anaerobic environment for microorganisms. The acid production by acidogens also partially offset the pH rise in ZVI corrosion and would alleviate ZVI deactivation. This work might offer valuable implications for the optimization and practical application of ZVI-anaerobic sludge processes for treatment of azo dyes or other recalcitrant pollutants. PMID:24084202

  10. Mechanisms for removal of p-nitrophenol from aqueous solution using zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Yusuke; Salehi, Zeinab; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to examine mechanisms for removal of p-nitrophenol (PNP) from aqueous solution using zero-valent iron (ZVI). Removal of PNP using ZVI was mainly attributed to three mechanisms: degradation, precipitation and adsorption. A complete removal of 30 mg L(-1) PNP with ZVI dosage of 1000 mg L(-1) achieved within 30 min at pH 3. The PNP removal rate in the acidic solutions was significantly suppressed at higher pH. The modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model could successfully describe the PNP removal process using ZVI at different pH conditions. Total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies were found to be almost independent of pH. While the TOC removal at lower pH was profoundly affected by the reductive and/or oxidative degradation, the adsorption was favorable at higher pH. The effect of dissolved oxygen on PNP removal was investigated at pH 3 where a maximum contribution of oxidative degradation could be expected. The PNP removal in the anoxic system purged with nitrogen gas was quick as well as that in the system being open to the air. However, the TOC removal under the anoxic condition was negligible as compared with that in the oxic system. The profiles of the intermediates formed during the PNP degradation indicated that the reductive degradation was predominant in the initial phase of the removal and subsequently the oxidative degradation occurred. PMID:25662484

  11. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in the presence of zero-valent iron.

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, J. S.; Rose, C.; LaFreniere, L.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to achieve the decomposition of carbon tetrachloride through anaerobic and aerobic bioremediation and chemical transformation have met with limited success because of the conditions required and the formation of hazardous intermediates. Recently, particles of zero-valent iron (ZVI) have been used with limited success for in situ remediation of carbon tetrachloride. We studied a modified microparticulate product that combines controlled-release carbon with ZVI for stimulation of in situ chemical reduction of persistent organic compounds in groundwater. With this product, a number of physical, chemical, and microbiological processes were combined to create very strongly reducing conditions that stimulate rapid, complete dechlorination of organic solvents. In principle, the organic component of ZVI microparticles is nutrient rich and hydrophilic and has high surface area capable of supporting the growth of bacteria in the groundwater environment. In our experiments, we found that as the bacteria grew, oxygen was consumed, and the redox potential decreased to values reaching -600 mV. The small modified ZVI particles provide substantial reactive surface area that, in these conditions, directly stimulates chemical dechlorination and cleanup of the contaminated area without accumulation of undesirable breakdown products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of ZVI microparticles in reducing carbon tetrachloride under laboratory and field conditions. Changes in concentrations and in chemical and physical parameters were monitored to determine the role of the organic products in the reductive dechlorination reaction. Laboratory and field studies are presented.

  12. Modelling the remediation of contaminated groundwater using zero-valent iron barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, S.; Small, J.; Tahar, B. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., Hinton House, Risley, Warrington, WA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents results of modelling studies on remediation of groundwater contaminated with uranium using a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB) at the U.S. Oak Ridge Y-12 site that are used to establish modelling techniques that are of value to other sites such as in the UK. A systematic modelling methodology has been developed to study the problem by using a suite of modelling tools. Firstly a conceptual basis of the main chemical processes representing the remediation of uranium by the ZVI PRB is developed. Two main effects involving reduction and corrosion have been identified as being relevant for the remediation processes. These are then formulated and implemented using the reactive chemical model PHREEQC to provide underpinning chemical input parameters for subsequent reactive solute transport modelling using the TRAFFIC and PHAST codes. Initial results shows that modelling can be a very cost-effective means to study the hydrogeological and geochemical processes involved and to aid understanding of the remediation concept. The modelling approaches presented and lessons learnt are thought to be relevant to other cases of contaminated land study and are likely to be of value to site management concepts which consider on-site disposal of contaminated soils and materials. (authors)

  13. Zero-valent iron pretreatment for detoxifying iodine in liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Cha, D K; Oh, Y K; Ko, K B; Song, J S

    2009-05-15

    This study investigated reductive transformation of iodine by zero-valent iron (ZVI), and the subsequent detoxification of iodine-laden wastewater. ZVI completely reduced aqueous iodine to non-toxic iodide. Respirometric bioassay illustrated that the presence of iodine increase the lag phase before the onset of oxygen consumption. The length of lag phase was proportional to increasing iodine dosage. The reduction products of iodine by ZVI did not exhibit any inhibitory effect on the biodegradation. The cumulative biological oxidation associated with iodine toxicity was closely fitted to Gompertz model. When iodine-laden wastewater was continuously fed to a bench-scale activated sludge unit, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from above 90% to below 80% along with a marked decrease in biomass concentration. On the other hand, the COD removal efficiency and biomass concentration remained constant in the integrated ZVI-activated sludge system. Respirometric bioassay with real iodine-laden LCD manufacturing wastewater demonstrated that ZVI was effective for detoxifying iodine and consequently enhancing biodegradability of wastewater. This result suggested that ZVI pretreatment may be a feasible option for the removal of iodine in LCD processing wastewater, instead of more costly processes such as adsorption and chemical oxidation, which are commonly in the iodine-laden LCD wastewater treatment facility. PMID:18799266

  14. A novel conditioning process for enhancing dewaterability of waste activated sludge by combination of zero-valent iron and persulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Liu, Peng; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    Improvement of sludge dewaterability is crucial for reducing the costs of sludge disposal in wastewater treatment plants. This study presents a novel conditioning method for improving waste activated sludge dewaterability by combination of persulfate and zero-valent iron. The combination of zero-valent iron (0-30g/L) and persulfate (0-6g/L) under neutral pH substantially enhanced the sludge dewaterability due to the advanced oxidization reactions. The highest enhancement of sludge dewaterability was achieved at 4g persulfate/L and 15g zero-valent iron/L, with which the capillary suction time was reduced by over 50%. The release of soluble chemical oxygen demand during the conditioning process implied the decomposition of sludge structure and microorganisms, which facilitated the improvement of dewaterability due to the release of bound water that was included in sludge structure and microorganism. Economic analysis showed that the proposed conditioning process with persulfate and ZVI is more economically favorable for improving WAS dewaterability than classical Fenton reagent. PMID:25804531

  15. Mobility, Deposition and Remobilization of pre-Synthesis Stabilized Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron in Long Column Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, C. V.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive zero-valent iron is currently being used for remediation of contaminated groundwater. Permeable reactive barriers are the current state-of-the-practice method for using zero-valent iron. Instead of an excavated trench filled with granular zero-valent iron, a relatively new and promising method is the injection of a nano-scale zero-valent iron colloid suspension (nZVI) into the subsurface using injection wells. One goal of nZVI injection can be to deposit zero valent iron in the aquifer and form a reactive permeable zone which is no longer bound to limited depths and plume treatment, but can also be used directly at the source. It is very important to have a good understanding of the transport behavior of nZVI during injection as well as the fate of nZVI after injection due to changes in the flow regime or water chemistry changes. So far transport was mainly tested using commercially available nZVI, however these studies suggest that further work is required as commercial nZVI was prone to aggregation, resulting in low physical stability of the suspension and very short travel distances in the subsurface. In the presented work, nZVI is stabilized during synthesis to significantly increase the physical suspension stability. To improve our understanding of nZVI transport, the feasibility for injection into various porous media materials and controlled deposition, a suite of column experiments are conducted. The column experiments are performed using a long 1.5m column and a novel nZVI measuring technique. The measuring technique was developed to non-destructively determine the concentration of nano-scale iron during the injection. It records the magnetic susceptibility, which makes it possible to get transient nZVI retention profiles along the column. These transient nZVI retention profiles of long columns provide unique insights in the transport behavior of nZVI which cannot be obtained using short columns or effluent breakthrough curves.

  16. Foam-assisted delivery of nanoscale zero valent iron in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuanzhao; Liu, Bo; Shen, Xin; Zhong, Lirong; Li, Xiqing

    2013-09-01

    Foam is potentially a promising vehicle to deliver nanoparticles for vadose zone remediation as foam can overcome the intrinsic problems associated with solution-based delivery, such as preferential flow and contaminant mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of using foam to deliver nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) in unsaturated porous media was investigated. Foams generated using surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) showed excellent ability to carry nZVI. SLES and nZVI concentrations in the foaming solutions did not affect the percentages of nZVI concentrations in foams relative to nZVI concentrations in the solutions. When foams carrying nZVI were injected through the unsaturated columns, the fractions of nZVI exiting the column were much higher than those when nZVI was injected in liquid. The enhanced nZVI transport implies that foam delivery could significantly increase the radius of influence of injected nZVI. The type and concentrations of surfactants and the influent nZVI concentrations did not noticeably affect nZVI transport during foam delivery. In contrast, nZVI retention increased considerably as the grain size of porous media decreased. Oxidation of foam-delivered nZVI due to oxygen diffusion into unsaturated porous media was visually examined using a flow cell. It was demonstrated that if foams are injected to cover a deep vadose zone layer, oxidation would only cause a small fraction of foam-delivered nZVI to be oxidized before it reacts with contaminants.

  17. Degradation of Perchloroethene by zero-valent iron evaluated by carbon isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Simon; Watzinger, Andrea; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2014-05-01

    Perchloroethene (PCE) is a widely spread groundwater contaminant in formally used industrial sites. Zero valent iron (ZVI) is used for in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) of PCE contaminants in the groundwater. A key factor in the application of in situ remediation technologies is a proper monitoring of contaminant reduction. The measurement of the stable isotope ratio is a promising method that is already used for quantifying microbial degradation of chlorinated contaminants. The carbon isotope ratio of PCE, measured by - isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled to a gas chromatograph via a combustion interface (GC-C-IRMS), increases during degradation of PCE and can be directly related to the degree of degradation. It can be used to directly quantify chemical degradation and thus serves as a useful monitoring tool for groundwater remediation. An experiment to determine the carbon isotopic fractionation factor was performed as a lab experiment using Nanofer Star (NANOIRON). Two different PCE concentrations (c1: 220mgL-1, c2: 110mgL-1) mixed with 0.5 g of ZVI were sealed under deoxygenated conditions in 250 ml glas bottles locked with mininert caps. The bottles were incubated on a shaker for 865 h. Samples were taken weekly to measure the change in the carbon isotopic ratio of PCE as well as its concentration. Results showed a strong increase in the carbon isotope ratio (?-value) of PCE (start: -27 o end: -4 ), which indicates a significant dechlorination process of PCE. Beside PCE also one degradation product (Trichloroethylene - TCE) was measured. TCE was further dechlorinated as indicated by the ?-value change of TCE from -26 o to -4 oȦn unexpected intermediate value of -45 o for TCE was observed in the experiment. This fluctuation could be induced by the time depending concentration due to degradation and conversation processes. Furthermore, it seems that the progress of the ?-value is affected by the starting concentration of PCE (?-value of c1 < c2) as there is a higher ratio of PCE to ZVI.

  18. Removal of selenium from water with nanoscale zero-valent iron: mechanisms of intraparticle reduction of Se(IV).

    PubMed

    Ling, Lan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Wei-xian

    2015-03-15

    Increasing evidences suggest that nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is an effective agent for treatment and removal of selenium from water. For example, 1.3 mM selenite was quickly removed from water within 3 min with 5 g/L nZVI. In this work, reaction mechanisms of selenite [Se(IV)] in a single core-shell structured nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particle were studied with the method of spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM) integrated with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). This method was utilized to visualize solid phase translocation and transformation of Se(IV) such as diffusion, reduction, deposition and the effect of surface defects in a single nanoparticle. Se(IV) was reduced to Se(-II) and Se(0), which then formed a 0.5 nm layer of selenium at the iron oxide-Fe(0) interface at a depth of 6 nm from the surface. The results provided near atomic-resolution proof on the intraparticle diffusion-reduction of Se(IV) induced by nZVI. The STEM mapping also discovered that defects on the surface layer accelerate the diffusion of selenium and increase the capacity of nZVI for selenium sequestration. PMID:25622004

  19. Degradation of simazine from aqueous solutions by diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei

    2013-12-15

    A novel composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles on acid-leached diatomite was synthesised for the removal of a chlorinated contaminant in water. The nZVI/diatomite composites were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the pure nZVI particles, better dispersion of nZVI particles on the surface or inside the pores of diatom shells was observed. The herbicide simazine was selected as the model chlorinated contaminant and the removal efficiency by nZVI/diatomite composite was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and commercial iron powder. It was found that the diatomite supported nZVI composite material prepared by centrifugation exhibits relatively better efficient activity in decomposition of simazine than commercial Fe, lab synthesised nZVI and composite material prepared via rotary evaporation, and the optimum experimental conditions were obtained based on a series of batch experiments. This study on immobilising nZVI particles onto diatomite opens a new avenue for the practical application of nZVI and the diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials have potential applications in environmental remediation. PMID:24231330

  20. Arsenic chemistry with sulfide, pyrite, zero-valent iron, and magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fenglong

    The aim of this thesis is to study the immobilization reactions of arsenic in water. Since compounds containing iron or sulfide are common in most natural and engineered systems, the research focused on the redox reactions and adsorption of arsenic with sulfide, pyrite, zero-valent iron (ZVI), and magnetite which were studied through wet chemistry methods and spectroscopic techniques. The kinetic and thermodynamic information of the reactions of As(V) with S(-II), As(V)/As(III) with pyrite and surface-oxidized pyrite, As(V) with ZVI and acid-treated ZVI, As(III) with magnetite was used to identify mechanisms. The necessity to maintain strictly anoxic conditions was emphasized for the study of arsenic redox chemistry with sulfides and ZVI. The major findings of this research can be stated as follows. First, dissolved sulfide reduced As(V) to lower valences to form a yellow precipitate at acidic pH. The reaction involved the formation of thioarsenic intermediate species. Dissolved O2, granular activated carbon (GAC) and dissolved Fe(II) inhibited the removal of As(V) by sulfide. Elemental sulfur catalyzed the reduction of As(V) by sulfide, which implied the possible benefit of using sulfur-loaded GAC for arsenic removal. Possible reaction mechanisms were discussed. Second, As(III) adsorbed on pristine pyrite over a broader pH range than on surface-oxidized pyrite, while As(V) adsorbed over a narrower pH range with pristine pyrite. As(V) was completely reduced to As(III) on pristine pyrite at acidic pH but not at higher pH. The reduction was first-order with respect to As(V). As(V) was not reduced on surface-oxidized pyrite at pH = 4--11. The different behaviors of As(V) and As(III) on pristine and surface oxidized pyrite determines the toxicity and mobility of arsenic under oxic/anoxic environments. Third, commercial ZVI reduced As(V) to As(III) at low pH (<9) but not at higher pH. Acid-treated ZVI reduced As(V) to As(0), indicated by wet chemical analyses and by XANES/EXAFS, which could result in reduced mobility and toxicity of arsenic. Fourth, magnetite is a good adsorbent for both As(V) and As(III). As(V) was not reduced by stoichiometric magnetite even under a strictly anoxic condition. Addition of dissolved Fe(II) to magnetite did not reduce As(V) either. Under oxic conditions, the homogeneous oxidation of As(III) by dissolved oxygen was negligible. As(III) was rapidly oxidized in the presence of magnetite. The extent of the oxidation was promoted with addition of As(V). The effect is more significant at low As(III) concentrations. The effect could be important at field sites where total arsenic concentrations are low. This research is contributes to the understanding of the behavior of arsenic in sulfidic natural systems and in sites treated with GAC, ZVI-based permeable reactive barriers or injected with nano-ZVI particles. The optimum conditions and kinetic data for arsenic removal are applicable in field situations and engineered systems.

  1. Hydraulic and geochemical performance of a permeable reactive barrier containing zero-valent iron, Denver Federal Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Dennehy, K.F.; Sandstrom, M.W.

    1999-01-01

    The hydraulic and geochemical performance of a 366 m long permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at the Denver Federal Center; Denver, Colorado, was evaluated. The funnel and gate system, which was installed in 1996 to intercept and remediate ground water contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), contained four 12.2 m wide gates filled with zero-valent iron. Ground water mounding on the upgradient side of the PRB resulted in a tenfold increase in the hydraulic gradient and ground water velocity through the gates compared to areas of the aquifer unaffected by the PRB. Water balance calculations for April 1997 indicate that about 75% of the ground water moving toward the PRB from upgradient areas moved through the gates. The rest of the water either accumulated on the upgradient side of the PRB or bypassed the PRB. Chemical data from monitoring wells screened down-gradient, beneath, and at the ends of the PRB indicate that contaminants had not bypassed the PRB, except in a few isolated areas. Greater than 99% of the CAH mass entering the gates was retained by the iron. Fifty-one percent of the CAH carbon entering one gate was accounted for in dissolved C1 and C2 hydrocarbons, primarily ethane and ethene, which indicates that CAHs may adsorb to the iron prior to being dehalogenated. Treated water exiting the gates displaced contaminated ground water at a distance of at least 3 m downgradient from the PRB by the end of 1997. Measurements of dissolved inorganic ions in one gate indicate that calcite and siderite precipitation in the gate could reduce gate porosity by about 0.35% per year. Results from this study indicate that funnel and gate systems containing zero-valent iron can effectively treat ground water contaminated with CAHs. However, the hydrologic impacts of the PRB on the flow system need to be fully understood to prevent contaminants from bypassing the PRB.

  2. Zero-valent iron/biotic treatment system for perchlorate-contaminated water: lab-scale performance, modeling, and full-scale implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    The computer program AQUASIM was used to model biological treatment of perchlorate-contaminated water using zero-valent iron corrosion as the hydrogen gas source. The laboratory-scale column was seeded with an autohydrogenotrophic microbial consortium previously shown to degrade ...

  3. Use of zero-valent iron biosand filters to reduce E. coli O157:H12 in irrigation water applied to spinach plants in a field setting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Zero-valent iron (ZVI) filters may provide an efficient method to mitigate the contamination of produce crops through irrigation water. Purpose: To evaluate the use of ZVI-filtration in decontaminating E. coli O157:H12 in irrigation water and on spinach plants in a small, field-scale...

  4. Arsenic(V) removal from groundwater using nano scale zero-valent iron as a colloidal reactive barrier material.

    PubMed

    Kanel, Sushil Raj; Greneche, Jean-Mark; Choi, Heechul

    2006-03-15

    The removal of As(V), one of the most poisonous groundwater pollutants, by synthetic nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) was studied. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the influence of pH, adsorption kinetics, sorption mechanism, and anionic effects. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mossbauer spectroscopy were used to characterize the particle size, surface morphology, and corrosion layer formation on pristine NZVI and As(V)-treated NZVI. The HR-TEM study of pristine NZVI showed a core-shell-like structure, where more than 90% of the nanoparticles were under 30 nm in diameter. Mössbauer spectroscopy further confirmed its structure in which 19% were in zero-valent state with a coat of 81% iron oxides. The XRD results showed that As(V)-treated NZVI was gradually converted into magnetite/maghemite corrosion products over 90 days. The XPS study confirmed that 25% As(V) was reduced to As(III) by NZVI after 90 days. As(V) adsorption kinetics were rapid and occurred within minutes following a pseudo-first-order rate expression with observed reaction rate constants (Kobs) of 0.02-0.71 min(-1) at various NZVI concentrations. Laser light scattering analysis confirmed that NZVI-As(V) forms an inner-sphere surface complexation. The effects of competing anions revealed that HCO3-, H4SiO4(0), and H2PO4(2-) are potential interfering agents in the As(V) adsorption reaction. Our results suggest that NZVI is a suitable candidate for As(V) remediation. PMID:16570634

  5. Zero Valent Iron Significantly Enhances Methane Production from Waste Activated Sludge by Improving Biochemical Methane Potential Rather Than Hydrolysis Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system. PMID:25652244

  6. Zero valent iron significantly enhances methane production from waste activated sludge by improving biochemical methane potential rather than hydrolysis rate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system. PMID:25652244

  7. Using resin supported nano zero-valent iron particles for decoloration of Acid Blue 113 azo dye solution.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Chen, Chi-Chun; Chen, Po-En

    2010-12-15

    In this study, a synthesized cation exchange resin supported nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) complex forming NZVI-resin was proposed for the decoloration of an azo dye Acid Blue 113 (AB 113), taking into account reaction time, initial dye concentration, NZVI dose and pH. From results, the successful decoloration of the AB 113 solution was observed using a NZVI-resin. Increasing the iron load to 50.8 mg g(-1), the removal efficiencies of the AB 113 concentration increased exponentially. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg l(-1) and nano iron load of 50.8 mg g(-1), the best removal efficiencies were obtained at 100 and 12.6% for dye concentration and total organic carbon, respectively. Color removal efficiency was dependent on initial dye concentration and iron load. Moreover, the removal rates followed modified pseudo-first order kinetic equations with respect to dye concentration. Thus, the observed removal rate constants (k) were 0.137-0.756 min(-1) by NZVI loads of 4.9-50.8 mg g(-1). Consequently, the NZVI-resin performed effectively for the decoloration of AB 113 azo dye, offering great potential in the application of NZVI-resins in larger scale column tests and further field processes. PMID:20833471

  8. Application of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles for the Removal of Aqueous Zinc Ions under Various Experimental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wen; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-01-01

    Application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for Zn2+ removal and its mechanism were discussed. It demonstrated that the uptake of Zn2+ by nZVI was efficient. With the solids concentration of 1 g/L nZVI, more than 85% of Zn2+ could be removed within 2 h. The pH value and dissolved oxygen (DO) were the important factors of Zn2+ removal by nZVI. The DO enhanced the removal efficiency of Zn2+. Under the oxygen-contained condition, oxygen corrosion gave the nZVI surface a shell of iron (oxy)hydroxide, which could show high adsorption affinity. The removal efficiency of Zn2+ increased with the increasing of the pH. Acidic condition reduced the removal efficiency of Zn2+ by nZVI because the existing H+ inhibited the formation of iron (oxy)hydroxide. Adsorption and co-precipitation were the most likely mechanism of Zn2+ removal by nZVI. The FeOOH-shell could enhance the adsorption efficiency of nZVI. The removal efficiency and selectivity of nZVI particles for Zn2+ were higher than Cd2+. Furthermore, a continuous flow reactor for engineering application of nZVI was designed and exhibited high removal efficiency for Zn2+. PMID:24416439

  9. Transformation and composition evolution of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) synthesized by borohydride reduction in static water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Airong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Xian

    2015-01-01

    The reactivity of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) toward targeted contaminants is affected by the initial nZVI composition and the iron oxides formed during the aging process in aquatic systems. In this paper, the aging effects of nZVI, prepared using a borohydride reduction method in static water over a period of 90 days (d), are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the corrosion products of nZVI. Results show that both the structures and the compositions of the corrosion products change with the process of aging. The products of nZVI aged for 5 d in static water media are mainly magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (?-Fe2O3), accompanied by lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH). For products aged 10 d, XRD data show the formation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. When aged up to 90 d, the products are mainly ?-FeOOH mixed with small amounts of Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) images show that the core-shell structure forms into a hollow spherical shape after 30 d of aging in aquatic media. The results indicate first that iron ions in the Fe(0) core diffuse outwardly toward the shell, and hollowed-out iron oxide shells emerge. Then, the iron oxide shell collapses and becomes a flaky, acicular-shaped structure. The type and the crystal phase of second iron oxide minerals are vastly different at various aging times. This study helps to explain the patterns of occurrence of specific iron oxides in different natural conditions. PMID:25317915

  10. Simultaneous removal of perchlorate and energetic compounds in munitions wastewater by zero-valent iron and perchlorate-respiring bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Se Chang; Hubbard, Brian; Cha, Daniel K; Kim, Byung J

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium perchlorate is one of the main constituents in Army's insensitive melt-pour explosive, PAX-21 in addition to RDX and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). The objective of this study is to develop an innovative treatment process to remove both perchlorate and energetic compounds simultaneously from PAX-21 production wastewater. It was hypothesized that the pretreatment of PAX-21 wastewater with zero-valent iron (ZVI) would convert energetic compounds to products that are more amenable for biological oxidation and that these products serve as electron donors for perchlorate-reducing bacteria. Results of batch ZVI reduction experiments showed that DNAN was completely reduced to 2,4-diaminoanisole and RDX was completely reduced to formaldehyde. Anaerobic batch biodegradation experiments showed that perchlorate (30 mg L(-1)) in ZVI-treated PAX-21 wastewater was decreased to an undetectable level after 5 days. Batch biodegradation experiments also confirmed that formaldehyde in ZVI-treated wastewater was the primary electron donor for perchlorate-respiring bacteria. The integrated iron-anaerobic bioreactor system was effective in completely removing energetic compounds and perchlorate from the PAX-21 wastewater without adding an exogenous electron donor. This study demonstrated that ZVI pretreatment not only removed energetic compounds, but also transformed energetic compounds to products that can serve as the source of electrons for perchlorate-respiring bacteria. PMID:24410688

  11. Mechanism insights into enhanced trichloroethylene removal using xanthan gum-modified microscale zero-valent iron particles.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jia; Han, Jun; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-03-01

    This report focuses on the enhancement in trichloroethylene (TCE) removal from contaminated groundwater using xanthan gum (XG)-modified, microscale, zero-valent iron (mZVI). Compared with bare mZVI, XG-coated mZVI increased the TCE removal efficiency by 30.37% over a 480-h experimental period. Because the TCE removal is attributed to both sorption and reduction processes, the contributions from sorption and reduction were separately investigated to determine the mechanism of XG on TCE removal using mZVI. The results showed that the TCE sorption capacity of mZVI was lower in the presence of XG, whereas the TCE reduction capacity was significantly increased. The FTIR spectra confirmed that XG, which is rich in hydrophilic functional groups, was adsorbed onto the iron surface through intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which competitively repelled the sorption and mass transfer of TCE toward reactive sites. The variations in the pH, Eh, and Fe(2+) concentration as functions of the reaction time were recorded and indicated that XG buffered the solution pH, inhibited surface passivation, and promoted TCE reduction by mZVI. Overall, the XG-modified mZVI was considered to be potentially effective for the in-situ remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater due to its high stability and dechlorination reactivity. PMID:25556871

  12. Effects of natural organic matter, anthropogenic surfactants, and model quinones on the reduction of contaminants by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Tratnyek, P G; Scherer, M M; Deng, B; Hu, S

    2001-12-01

    Recent studies of contaminant reduction by zero-valent iron metal (Fe0) have highlighted the role of iron oxides at the metal-water interface and the effect that sorption has at the oxide-water interface on contaminant reduction kinetics. The results suggest that a variety of organic surface-active substances might enhance or inhibit contaminant degradation, depending on the degree to which they promote solubilization, sorption. and/or reaction. Of particular interest is the effect of natural organic matter (NOM), because of its ubiquitous presence in natural waters and amphiphilic properties; anthropogenic surfactants, because of their use in groundwater remediation; and certain quinones, which represent the redox-active functional groups associated with NOM. In this study, no well-defined effects of these substances were found on the reduction of nitro benzene by Fe0, but the reduction of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene (TCE) was inhibited by NOM. Results with carbon tetrachloride showed that the inhibitory effect of humic acids was greater than fulvic acids, but that several quinonoid NOM model compounds (juglone, lawsone. and anthraquinone disulfonate) increased the rate of reduction by Fe0. Isotherms for adsorption of TCE and NOM onto Fe0 showed evidence of competition for surface sites. PMID:11763046

  13. The specific reactive surface area of granular zero-valent iron in metal contaminant removal: Column experiments and modelling.

    PubMed

    Statham, Tom M; Mason, Lachlan R; Mumford, Kathryn A; Stevens, Geoffrey W

    2015-06-15

    A series of dynamic-flow kinetic experiments were conducted to assess the removal rates of aqueous Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions by zero-valent iron (ZVI), a promising material for inclusion in cold-climate remediation applications. The influence of experimental parameters on contaminant removal rates, including aqueous flow rate, operating temperature, and the concentrations of ZVI, salt and dissolved oxygen, was investigated. A mass transport model has been developed that accounts (i) aqueous-phase dispersion processes, (ii) film diffusion of contaminant ions to the reactive ZVI surface and (iii) the reactive removal mechanism itself. Regression to the experimental data indicated that when oxygen is present in the solution feed Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) removal processes were limited by film diffusion. In de-aerated solutions film diffusion still controls Cu(2+) removal but a first-order surface reaction provides a better model for Zn(2+) kinetics. Using air as the equilibrium feed gas, the reactive proportion of the total surface area for contaminant removal was calculated to be 97% and 64% of the active spherically-assumed geometric area associated with ZVI media for Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively. Relative to a gas absorption area, determined in previous studies, the reactive proportion is less than 0.41% of the unreacted ZVI total surface area. These findings suggest that only part of the iron oxyhydroxide surface is reacting during ZVI based metal contaminant removal. PMID:25839833

  14. In situ removal of arsenic from groundwater by using permeable reactive barriers of organic matter/limestone/zero-valent iron mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gibert, O; de Pablo, J; Cortina, J-L; Ayora, C

    2010-08-01

    In this study, two mixtures of municipal compost, limestone and, optionally, zero-valent iron were assessed in two column experiments on acid mine treatment. The effluent solution was systematically analysed throughout the experiment and precipitates from both columns were withdrawn for scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry analysis and, from the column containing zero-valent iron, solid digestion and sequential extraction analysis. The results showed that waters were cleaned of arsenic, metals and acidity, but chemical and morphological analysis suggested that metal removal was not due predominantly to biogenic sulphide generation but to pH increase, i.e. metal (oxy)hydroxide and carbonate precipitation. Retained arsenic and metal removal were clearly associated to co-precipitation with and/or sorption on iron and aluminum (oxy)hydroxides. An improvement on the arsenic removal efficiency was achieved when the filling mixture contained zero-valent iron. Values of arsenic concentrations were then always below 10 microg/L. PMID:20387094

  15. A combined treatment approach using Fenton’s reagent and zero valent iron for the removal of arsenic from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Balarama Krishna; K. Chandrasekaran; D. Karunasagar; J. Arunachalam

    2001-01-01

    Studies on the development of an arsenic remediation approach using Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 and Fe(II)) followed by passage through zero valent iron is reported. The efficiency of the process was investigated under various operating conditions. Potable municipal water and ground water samples spiked with arsenic(III) and (V) were used in the investigations. The arsenic content was determined by ICP–QMS. A

  16. Kinetics of Solvent Blue and Reactive Yellow removal using microwave radiation in combination with nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanpeng; Xi, Zhenqian; Wang, Wenlong; Ma, Chunyuan; Yue, Qinyan

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the efficiency and kinetics of the degradation of soluble dyes over the pH range 5.0-9.0 using a method employing microwave radiation in combination with nanoscale zero-valent iron (MW-nZVI). The nZVI particles (40-70nm in diameter) were prepared by a liquid-phase chemical reduction method employing starch as a dispersant. Compared to the removal of Solvent Blue 36 and Reactive Yellow K-RN using only nZVI, more rapid and efficient dye removal and total organic carbon removal were achieved using MW-nZVI. The dye removal efficiency increased significantly with decreasing pH, but was negligibly affected by variation in the microwave power. The kinetics of dye removal by MW-nZVI followed both an empirical equation and the pseudo first-order model, while the kinetics of dye removal using nZVI could only be described by an empirical equation. It was also concluded that microwave heating of the dye solutions as well as acceleration of corrosion of nZVI and consumption of Fe(II) were possible reasons behind the enhanced dye degradation. PMID:25872723

  17. Targeted removal of trichlorophenol in water by oleic acid-coated nanoscale palladium/zero-valent iron alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jaewon; Woo, Heesoo; Ko, Myoung-Soo; Lee, Jaesang; Lee, Seockheon; Yun, Seong-Taek; Lee, Seunghak

    2015-08-15

    A new material was developed and evaluated for the targeted removal of trichlorophenol (TCP) from among potential interferents which are known to degrade removal activity. To achieve TCP-targeted activity, an alginate bead containing nanoscale palladium/zero-valent iron (Pd/nZVI) was coated with a highly hydrophobic oleic acid layer. The new material (Pd/nZVI-A-O) preferentially sorbed TCP from a mixture of chlorinated phenols into the oleic acid cover layer and subsequently dechlorinated it to phenol. The removal efficacy of TCP by Pd/nZVI-A-O was not affected by co-existing organic substances such as Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), whereas the material without the oleic acid layer (Pd/nZVI-A) became less effective with increasing SRHA concentration. The inorganic substances nitrate and phosphate significantly reduced the reactivity of Pd/nZVI-A, however, Pd/nZVI-A-O showed similar TCP removal efficacies regardless of the initial inorganic ion concentrations. The influence of bicarbonate on the TCP removal efficacies of both Pd/nZVI-A and Pd/nZVI-A-O was not significant. The findings from this study suggest that Pd/nZVI-A-O, with its targeted, constant reactivity for TCP, would be effective for treating this contaminant in surface water or groundwater containing various competitive substrates. PMID:25819991

  18. Inhibition or promotion of biodegradation of nitrate by Paracoccus sp. in the presence of nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chenghong; Xu, Xuping; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra; Chen, Zuliang

    2015-10-15

    To investigate the effect of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on the growth of Paracoccus sp. strain and biodenitrification under aerobic conditions, specific factors were studied, pH, concentration of nitrate, Fe (II) and carbon dioxide. Low concentration of nZVI (50mg/L) promoted both cell growth and biodegradation of nitrate which rose from 69.91% to 76.16%, while nitrate removal fell to 67.10% in the presence of high nZVI concentration (1000mg/L). This may be attributed to the ions produced in nZVI corrosion being used as an electron source for the biodegradation of nitrate. However, the excess uptake of Fe (II) causes oxidative damage to the cells. To confirm this, nitrate was completely removed after 20h when 100mg/L Fe (II) was added to the solution, which is much faster than the control (86.05%, without adding Fe (II)). However, nitrate removal reached only 45.64% after 20h, with low cell density (OD600=0.62) in the presence of 300mg/L Fe (II). Characterization techniques indicated that nZVI adhered to microorganism cell membranes. These findings confirmed that nZVI could affect the activity of the strain and consequently change the biodenitrification. PMID:26047857

  19. Removal of para-nitrochlorobenzene from aqueous solution on surfactant-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron/graphene nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Luo, Hanjin; Wang, Hou

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrated a remarkably simple and efficient method for the synthesis of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI)/graphene (GN) nanocomposites. In order to prevent the agglomeration and restack of nanocomposites, chemical functionalization of nanocomposites with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was proposed. The adsorption performance of surfactant-modified NZVI/GN nanocomposites was evaluated for the removal of para-nitrochlorobenzene (p-NCB) from aqueous solutions. The characteristics of nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The effect factors including initial solution pH, contact time, reaction temperature, dosage, initial concentration of humic acid (HA) on the adsorption property of p-NCB onto surfactant-modified nanocomposites were investigated. The adsorption kinetics fitted well with pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption capacity of p-NCB on surfactant-modified nanocomposites inferred from the Langmuir model was 105.15 mg/g at 293 K. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of p-NCB onto surfactant-modified nanocomposites was an exothermic and spontaneous process. HA had a strong suppression effect on p-NCB uptake in the adsorption experiment. PMID:25176304

  20. Implementation of zero-valent iron (ZVI) into drinking water supply - role of the ZVI and biological processes.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Krzysztof P; Søgaard, Erik G

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is concerning millions of people around the world, even though many solutions to the problem have come up in recent years. One of the promising solutions for removing arsenic from water is by implementation of a zero-valent iron (ZVI) in the drinking water production. The purpose of this work was to study a treatment of As pollution based on the ZVI, aeration and sand filtration that was monitored for period of 45 months. In applied configuration and conditions ZVI was not able to remove arsenic alone, but it worked as a source of ferrous ions that during its oxidation enabled to co-precipitate arsenic compounds in the sand filter. The results show that after a lag phase of about 6 months, it was possible to achieve water production with an As content from 20 ?g L(-1) to below 5 ?g L(-1). The treatment also enabled to remove phosphates that were present in groundwater and affected As uptake by hindering its co-precipitation with Fe compounds. Determination of colony forming units on As amended agar helped to find arsenic resistant bacteria at each stage of treatment and also in the sand filter backwash sludge. Bacterial communities found in groundwater, containing low concentration of As, were found to have high As resistance. The results also indicate that the lag phase might have been also needed to initiate Fe ions release by corrosion from elemental Fe by help of microbial activity. PMID:24996201

  1. Zero-valent iron enhanced methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge after heat and alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Quan, Xie

    2015-04-01

    Heat or alkali pretreatment is the effective method to improve hydrolysis of waste sludge and then enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. However the pretreatment may inactivate the methanogens in the sludge. In the present work, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used to enhance the methanogenic activity in anaerobic sludge digester under two methanogens-suppressing conditions, i.e. heat-pretreatment and alkali condition respectively. With the addition of ZVI, the lag time of methane production was shortened, and the methane yield increased by 91.5% compared to the control group. The consumption of VFA was accelerated by ZVI, especially for acetate, indicating that the acetoclastic methanogenesis was enhanced. In the alkali-condition experiment, the hydrogen produced decreased from 27.6 to 18.8 mL when increasing the ZVI dosage from 0 to 10 g/L. Correspondingly, the methane yield increased from 1.9 to 32.2 mL, which meant that the H2-utilizing methanogenes was enriched. These results suggested that the addition of ZVI into anaerobic digestion of sludge after pretreated by the heat or alkali process could efficiently recover the methanogenic activity and increase the methane production and sludge reduction. PMID:25681947

  2. The role of magnetite nanoparticles in the reduction of nitrate in groundwater by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Wan; Song, Hocheol; Schwartz, Franklin W; Kim, Bokseong; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2015-04-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were used as an additive material in a zero-valent iron (Fe0) reaction to reduce nitrate in groundwater and its effects on nitrate removal were investigated. The addition of nano-sized magnetite (NMT) to Fe0 reactor markedly increased nitrate reduction, with the rate proportionally increasing with NMT loading. Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that NMT aggregates were evenly distributed and attached on the Fe0 surface due to their magnetic properties. The rate enhancement effect of NMT is presumed to arise from its role as a corrosion promoter for Fe0 corrosion as well as an electron mediator that facilitated electron transport from Fe0 to adsorbed nitrate. Nitrate reduction by Fe0 in the presence of NMT proceeded much faster in groundwater (GW) than in de-ionized water. The enhanced reduction of nitrate in GW was attributed to the adsorption or formation of surface complex by the cationic components in GW, i.e., Ca2+ and Mg2+, in the Fe0-H2O interface that promoted electrostatic attraction of nitrate to the reaction sites. Moreover, the addition of NMT imparted superior longevity to Fe0, enabling completion of four nitrate reduction cycles, which otherwise would have been inactivated during the first cycle without an addition of NMT. The results demonstrate the potential applicability of a Fe0/NMT system in the treatment of nitrate-contaminated GW. PMID:25665757

  3. Electromagnetic Borehole Flowmeter Surveys at Selected In Situ Redox Manipulation Barrier Wells, Zero-Valent Iron Site, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2009-02-09

    Ambient (i.e., static) and dynamic (i.e., pumping-induced) electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF) surveys were performed in 10 selected In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) barrier wells to characterize the distribution of in-well vertical flow conditions and to infer the relative hydraulic conductivity distribution in the upper-part of the unconfined aquifer. These wells are located in two areas where the aquifer is targeted for testing of zero-valent iron injection to mend a failed portion of the ISRM barrier at the 100 D Area, Hanford Site. Each of these two areas consists of a group of five wells, one group to the southwest and one group to the northeast. The upper ~15 to 20 ft (~4.6 to 6.1 m) of the unconfined aquifer was characterized for in-well vertical flow conditions and vertical profile information regarding relative hydraulic conductivity. At some well site locations, the upper ~2 to 3 ft (~0.6 to 1 m) of the well-screen interval could not be characterized under pumping (dynamic) conditions because of the presence of the pump.

  4. Remediation of DDTs contaminated soil in a novel Fenton-like system with zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Cao, Menghua; Wang, Linling; Wang, Li; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2013-02-01

    Application of a novel Fenton-like system with zero-valent iron, EDTA and Air (ZVI/EDTA/Air) was investigated to degrade dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the actual contaminated soil from an organochlorine pesticide site. It was found DDTs in the soil were effectively degraded by the system at room temperature, ambient atmosphere pressure and near neutral pH. The dosages of EDTA and ZVI were the dominant factors influencing the removal of contaminants. An increase of EDTA from 0.05 to 0.2 mM and ZVI from 1 to 5 g L(-1) improved the removal of the contaminants significantly. However, excessive amount of EDTA led to a negative effect on the degradation process. Meanwhile, EDTA was simultaneously degraded so as to avoid the secondary pollution risk on soil remediation. Only a small amount of 4,4'-DDE and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chloroethylene (4,4'-DDMU) generated as the intermediates of DDT degradation during the process. Our investigation suggests that the Fenton-like system is a promising alternative for remediation of organochlorine pesticides contaminated soils. PMID:23102698

  5. Effect of zero-valent iron on the start-up performance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process.

    PubMed

    Ren, Long-Fei; Ni, Shou-Qing; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Zhang, Bo; Kong, Qiang; Guo, Ning

    2015-02-01

    The long start-up time of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process hinders the widespread application of anammox technology in practical wastewater treatment when anammox seed sludge is not available. Meanwhile, the production of nitrate cannot meet the increasingly more strict discharge standards. To combine the chemical nitrate reduction to ammonium with biological nitrogen removal, two anammox upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors packed with different types of zero-valent iron (ZVI), microscale ZVI (mZVI) and nanoscale ZVI (nZVI), were developed to accelerate the start-up of anammox process. The results revealed that anammox start-up time shortened from 126 to 105 and 84 days with the addition of mZVI and nZVI. The nitrogen removal performance was also improved remarkably by adding ZVI, especially in the start-up stage. The value of dissolved oxygen showed that ZVI could be regarded as a useful deoxidant to create anaerobic condition for the proliferation of anammox bacteria. ZVI was favorable for the secretion of EPS, which would represent the activity of anammox bacteria. The result of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) further confirmed that the proliferation of anammox bacteria was enhanced by ZVI. PMID:25226835

  6. Passivation of zero-valent iron by denitrifying bacteria and the impact on trichloroethene reduction in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Jin, Song; Fallgren, Paul H; Liu, Fei; Colberg, Patricia J S

    2013-01-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) application in groundwater remediation is limited by its vulnerability to passivation, which significantly decreases its surface reactivity. Both biological and chemical processes can potentially passivate ZVI, although the understanding of biological passivation is limited. This study was conducted in bench-scale reactors packed with fresh ZVI or ZVI pre-exposed to nitrate (NO3(-)) and in the presence or absence of a denitrifying bacterial enrichment (DNBE). The first-order rate coefficients (k) for NO3(-) reduction by ZVI in the presence and absence of DNBE were 0.20 and 0.09 s(-1), respectively, suggesting that both ZVI and microbes contribute to NO3(-) removal. Abiotic reduction of nitrate was observed in reactors with trichloroethene (TCE) if ZVI was present; however, it resulted in reduced rates of TCE reduction (k = 0.29 s(-1)) when compared to reactors with fresh ZVI and no nitrate (k = 0.55 s(-1)). The TCE reduction efficiency decreased by 49% (k = 0.15 s(-1)) in the presence of DNBE, suggesting that microbial growth on ZVI or catalyzed oxidation of ZVI surface can inhibit TCE reduction by ZVI. Contrary to the presumption that denitrification may decrease ZVI passivation by nitrate, results from this study suggest that denitrifying bacteria actually exacerbate ZVI passivation. PMID:23508149

  7. Synthesis and characterization of porous zero-valent iron nanoparticles for remediation of chromium-contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuen-Song; Dehvari, Khalilalrahman; Liu, Yeu-Jye; Kuo, Hua; Hsu, Pei-Ju

    2013-04-01

    The physical and chemical properties of porous zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVINs) have highly been acknowledged in the decontamination of heavy metal containing wastes and groundwater. In the present work, the treatment of Cr-contaminant through adsorption onto the ZVINs has been studied. The morphology, crystal structure, and surface composition of Fe(O) nanoparticles were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) revealed that the Cr(VI) species reduce to Cr(III) while oxidizing the ZVINs to Fe2O3, Fe3O4 or FeO electrochemically. Furthermore, the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm of the porous nanoparticles was similar to a type IV curve with an obvious mesopore-characteristic H3 hysteresis loop, whereas the sizes of mesopores were in the range of 30-50 nm. Experimentally, the efficiency for Cr(VI) removal in the range of 150-300 ppm was found to be > 99.9%. Remarkably, the reduction reaction was completed within 10 min in the absence of additional pH controls. This work also highlights the utility of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with conventional characterization methods to comprehensively study the speciation and possible reaction pathway in adsorption process. PMID:23763143

  8. Oxidation and removal of arsenic (III) from aerated groundwater by filtration through sand and zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Leupin, Olivier X; Hug, Stephan J

    2005-05-01

    Removing arsenic from contaminated groundwater in Bangladesh is challenging due to high concentrations of As(III), phosphate and silicate. Application of zero-valent iron as a promising removal method was investigated in detail with synthetic groundwater containing 500 microg/L As(III), 2-3mg/L P, 20mg/L Si, 8.2mM HCO3-, 2.5mM Ca2+, 1.6mM Mg2+ and pH 7.0. In a series of experiments, 1L was repeatedly passed through a mixture of 1.5 g iron filings and 3-4 g quartz sand in a vertical glass column (10mm diameter), allowing the water to re-aerate between each filtration. At a flow rate of 1L/h, up to 8 mg/L dissolved Fe(II) was released. During the subsequent oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved oxygen, As(III) was partially oxidized and As(V) sorbed on the forming hydrous ferric oxides (HFO). HFO was retained in the next filtration step and was removed by shaking of the sand-iron mixture with water. Rapid phosphate removal provided optimal conditions for the sorption of As(V). Four filtrations lead to almost complete As(III) oxidation and removal of As(tot) to below 50 microg/L. In a prototype treatment with a succession of four filters, each containing 1.5 g iron and 60 g sand, 36 L could be treated to below 50 microg/L in one continuous filtration, without an added oxidant. PMID:15899271

  9. Identification of precipitates formed on zero-valent iron in anaerobic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Schuhmacher, T. [Levine-Fricke-Recon, Irvine, CA (United States); Odziemkowski, M.S.; Reardon, E.J.; Gillham, R.W. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The formation of precipitates has been identified as a possible limitation in the use of granular iron for in situ remediation of groundwater. This study was undertaken to identify the precipitates that form on the iron surfaces under conditions of differing water chemistry. Two laboratory column tests were performed using 100 mesh, 99% pure electrolytic iron. A 120 mg/L calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) solution passed through one column and a 40 mg/L potassium bromide (KBr) solution through the other. The CaCO, treated iron formed a whitish gray coating on the first centimeter of the column but the KBr treated iron did not display any visible precipitates. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to identify the precipitates. Calcium carbonate and ferrous carbonate (FeCO{sub 3}) phases were only present on the surface of the iron removed from the influent end of the column treated with a CaCO{sub 3} solution. Iron surfaces analyzed from both the influent and the effluent end of the KBr treated iron and the effluent end of the CaCO{sub 3} treated iron indicated the presence of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) precipitates.

  10. The limitations of applying zero-valent iron technology in contaminants sequestration and the corresponding countermeasures: the development in zero-valent iron technology in the last two decades (1994-2014).

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaohong; Sun, Yuankui; Qin, Hejie; Li, Jinxiang; Lo, Irene M C; He, Di; Dong, Haoran

    2015-05-15

    Over the past 20 years, zero-valent iron (ZVI) has been extensively applied for the remediation/treatment of groundwater and wastewater contaminated with various organic and inorganic pollutants. Based on the intrinsic properties of ZVI and the reactions that occur in the process of contaminants sequestration by ZVI, this review summarizes the limitations of ZVI technology and the countermeasures developed in the past two decades (1994-2014). The major limitations of ZVI include low reactivity due to its intrinsic passive layer, narrow working pH, reactivity loss with time due to the precipitation of metal hydroxides and metal carbonates, low selectivity for the target contaminant especially under oxic conditions, limited efficacy for treatment of some refractory contaminants and passivity of ZVI arising from certain contaminants. The countermeasures can be divided into seven categories: pretreatment of pristine ZVI to remove passive layer, fabrication of nano-sized ZVI to increase the surface area, synthesis of ZVI-based bimetals taking advantage of the catalytic ability of the noble metal, employing physical methods to enhance the performance of ZVI, coupling ZVI with other adsorptive materials and chemically enhanced ZVI technology, as well as methods to recover the reactivity of aged ZVI. The key to improving the rate of contaminants removal by ZVI and broadening the applicable pH range is to enhance ZVI corrosion and to enhance the mass transfer of the reactants including oxygen and H(+) to the ZVI surface. The characteristics of the ideal technology are proposed and the future research needs for ZVI technology are suggested accordingly. PMID:25770444

  11. Capture and storage of hydrogen gas by zero-valent iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Eric J.

    2014-02-01

    Granular Feo, used to reductively degrade a variety of contaminants in groundwater, corrodes in water to produce H2(g). A portion enters the Feo lattice where it is stored in trapping sites such as lattice defects and microcracks. The balance is dissolved by the groundwater where it may exsolve as a gas if its solubility is exceeded. Gas exsolution can reduce the effectiveness of the Feo treatment zone by reducing contact of the contaminant with iron surfaces or by diverting groundwater flow. It also represents a lost electron resource that otherwise could be involved in reductive degradation of contaminants. It is advantageous to select an iron for remediation purposes that captures a large proportion of the H2(g) it generates. This study examines various aspects of the H2(g) uptake process and has found 1) H2(g) does not have to be generated at the water/iron interface to enter the lattice. It can enter directly from the gas/water phases, 2) exposure of granular sponge iron to H2(g) reduces the dormant period for the onset of iron corrosion, 3) the large quantities of H2(g) generated by nano-Feo injected into a reactive barrier of an appropriate granular iron can be captured in the lattice of that iron, and 4) lattice-bound hydrogen represents an additional electron resource to Feo for remediation purposes and may be accessible using physical or chemical means.

  12. Enhancing Fenton oxidation of TNT and RDX through pretreatment with zero-valent iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seok-Young Oh; Pei C. Chiu; Byung J. Kim; Daniel K. Cha

    2003-01-01

    The effect of reductive treatment with elemental iron on the rate and extent of TOC removal by Fenton oxidation was studied for the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) using a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The results support the hypothesis that TNT and RDX are reduced with elemental iron to products that are oxidized more rapidly and completely by

  13. Microbial community response of nitrifying sequencing batch reactors to silver, zero-valent iron, titanium dioxide and cerium dioxide nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanjun; Metch, Jacob W; Vejerano, Eric P; Miller, Ian J; Leon, Elena C; Marr, Linsey C; Vikesland, Peter J; Pruden, Amy

    2015-01-01

    As nanomaterials in consumer products increasingly enter wastewater treatment plants, there is concern that they may have adverse effects on biological wastewater treatment. Effects of silver (nanoAg), zero-valent iron (NZVI), titanium dioxide (nanoTiO?) and cerium dioxide (nanoCeO?) nanomaterials on nitrification and microbial community structure were examined in duplicate lab-scale nitrifying sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) relative to control SBRs that received no nanomaterials or ionic/bulk analogs. Nitrification function was not measurably inhibited in the SBRs by any of the materials as dosing was initiated at 0.1 mg/L and sequentially increased every 14 days to 1, 10, and 20 mg/L. However, SBRs rapidly lost nitrification function when the Ag? experiment was repeated at a continuous high load of 20 mg/L. Shifts in microbial community structure and decreased microbial diversity were associated with both sequential and high loading of nanoAg and Ag?, with more pronounced effects for Ag?. Bacteroidetes became more dominant in SBRs dosed with Ag?, while Proteobacteria became more dominant in SBRs dosed with nanoAg. The two forms of silver also had distinct effects on specific bacterial genera. A decrease in nitrification gene markers (amoA) was observed in SBRs dosed with nanoAg and Ag?. In contrast, impacts of NZVI, nanoTiO?, nanoCeO? and their analogs on microbial community structure and nitrification gene markers were limited. TEM-EDS analysis indicated that a large portion of nanoAg remained dispersed in the activated sludge and formed Ag–S complexes, while NZVI, nanoTiO? and nanoCeO? were mostly aggregated and chemically unmodified. Overall, this study suggests a high threshold of the four nanomaterials in terms of exerting adverse effects on nitrification function. However, distinct microbial community responses to nanoAg indicate potential long-term effects. PMID:25462719

  14. Nano-scale zero valent iron transport in a variable aperture dolomite fracture and a glass fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P.; Sleep, B. E.; Cui, Z.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations are being performed to understand the transport behavior of carboxymethyl cellulose polymer stabilized nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) in a variable aperture dolomite rock fracture and a variable aperture glass replica of a fractured slate. The rock fracture was prepared by artificially inducing a fracture in a dolomite block along a stylolite, and the glass fracture was prepared by creating molds with melted glass on two opposing sides of a fractured slate rock block. Both of the fractures were 0.28 m in length and 0.21 m in width. Equivalent hydraulic apertures are about 110 microns for the rock fracture and 250 microns for the glass replica fracture. Sodium bromide and lissamine green B (LGB) serve as conservative tracers in the rock fracture and glass replica fracture, respectively. A dark box set-up with a light source and digital camera is being used to visualize the LGB and CMC-nZVI movement in the glass fracture. Experiments are being performed to determine the effects of water specific discharge and CMC concentration on nZVI transport in the fractures. Transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-visual spectrophotometry were performed to determine the stability and characteristics of the CMC-nZVI mixture. The transport of bromide, LGB, CMC, and CMC-nZVI in both fractures is being evaluated through analysis of the effluent concentrations. Time-lapse images are also being captured for the glass fracture. Bromide, LGB, and CMC recoveries have exceeded 95% in both fractures. Significant channeling has been observed in the fractures for CMC transport due to viscous effects.

  15. Nanoscale zero-valent iron application for in situ reduction of hexavalent chromium and its effects on indigenous microorganism populations.

    PubMed

    N?me?ek, Jan; Lhotský, Ond?ej; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2014-07-01

    Because of its high toxicity and mobility, hexavalent chromium is considered to be a high priority pollutant. This study was performed to carry out a pilot-scale in-situ remediation test in the saturated zone of a historically Cr(VI)-contaminated site using commercially available nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). The site was monitored before and after the nZVI application by means of microbial cultivation tests, phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and toxicological tests with Vibrio fischeri. Injection of nZVI resulted in a rapid decrease in the Cr(VI) and total Cr concentrations in the groundwater without any substantial effect on its chemical properties. The ecotoxicological test with V. fischeri did not indicate any negative changes in the toxicity of the groundwater following the application of nZVI and no significant changes were observed in cultivable psychrophilic bacteria densities and PLFA concentrations in the groundwater samples during the course of the remediation test. However, PLFA of soil samples revealed that the application of nZVI significantly stimulated the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Principle component analysis (PCA) was applied to the PLFA results for the soil samples from the site in order to explain how Cr(VI) reduction and the presence of Fe influence the indigenous populations. The PCA results clearly indicated a negative correlation between the Cr concentrations and the biota before the application of nZVI and a significant positive correlation between bacteria and the concentration of Fe after the application of nZVI. PMID:24369106

  16. PCE dissolution and simultaneous dechlorination by nanoscale zero-valent iron particles in a DNAPL source zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerlund, F.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Phenrat, T.; Kim, H.-J.; Lowry, G. V.

    2012-04-01

    While the capability of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) to dechlorinate organic compounds in aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, the ability of NZVI to remove dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) from source zones under flow-through conditions similar to a field scale application has not yet been thoroughly investigated. To gain insight on simultaneous DNAPL dissolution and NZVI-mediated dechlorination reactions after direct placement of NZVI into a DNAPL source zone, a combined experimental and modeling study was performed. First, a DNAPL tetrachloroethene (PCE) source zone with emplaced NZVI was built inside a small custom-made flow cell and the effluent PCE and dechlorination byproducts were monitored over time. Second, a model for rate-limited DNAPL dissolution and NZVI-mediated dechlorination of PCE to its three main reaction byproducts with a possibility for partitioning of these byproducts back into the DNAPL was formulated. The coupled processes occurring in the flow cell were simulated and analyzed using a detailed three-dimensional numerical model. It was found that subsurface emplacement of NZVI did not markedly accelerate DNAPL dissolution or the DNAPL mass-depletion rate, when NZVI at a particle concentration of 10 g/L was directly emplaced in the DNAPL source zone. To react with NZVI the DNAPL PCE must first dissolve into the groundwater and the rate of dissolution controls the longevity of the DNAPL source. The modeling study further indicated that faster reacting particles would decrease aqueous contaminant concentrations but there is a limit to how much the mass removal rate can be increased by increasing the dechlorination reaction rate. To ensure reduction of aqueous contaminant concentrations, remediation of DNAPL contaminants with NZVI should include emplacement in a capture zone down-gradient of the DNAPL source.

  17. Transformation of chlorinated hydrocarbons using aquocobalamin or coenzyme F{sub 430} in combination with zero-valent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Morra, M.J.; Borek, V.; Koolpe, J.

    2000-06-01

    More effective methods are necessary for the remediation of soils, sediments, and ground waters contaminated with halogenated organic compounds. The authors objective was to determine the feasibility and utility of using a tetrapyrrole-Fe(0) mixture for reductive dehalogenation of synthetic organic contaminants. Aquocobalamin or coenzyme F{sub 430} was combined with Fe(0) in aqueous systems containing either a single chlorinated compound or mixtures of chlorinated compounds, and substrate disappearance was monitored using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Zero-valent iron effectively dehalogenated CCl{sub 4} at low to neutral pH values, while increases in CCl{sub 4} dehalogenation resulting from inclusion of tetrapyrrole catalysts along with Fe(0) occurred only at basic pH values. Rates of CCl{sub 4} disappearance increased with additional aquocobalamin, but reached a maximum and decreased at higher aquocobalamin concentrations. overall dehalogenation rates may thus be a function of Fe(0)'s limited reactive surface area. There was a trend for both tetrapyrrole catalysts to promote the disappearance of halogenated compounds in a mixed substrate containing 20 compounds. Studies with five individual substrates likewise showed trends for increased substrate removal with F{sub 430} beyond that for Fe(0) alone. This increase is most important for compounds such as 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,4-dichlorobenzene that are not readily dehalogenated by Fe(0). Chloride concentrations in the reaction mixtures indicated that reductive dehalogenation was the dominant process responsible for substrate disappearance. Use of a combination of aquocobalamin or coenzyme F{sub 430} and Fe(0) may effectively promote dehalogenation, thus producing fewer products and more complete dehalogenation of the target substrates than can be achieved using only one of the abiotic reductants alone.

  18. Oxidant production from corrosion of nano- and microparticulate zero-valent iron in the presence of oxygen: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hongshin; Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Eun; Kweon, Jihyang; Lee, Byeong-Dae; Lee, Changha

    2014-01-30

    In aqueous solution, zero-valent iron (ZVI, Fe(0)) is known to activate oxygen (O2) into reactive oxidants such as hydroxyl radical and ferryl ion capable of oxidizing contaminants. However, little is known about the effect of the particle size of ZVI on the yield of reactive oxidants. In this study, the production of reactive oxidants from nanoparticulate and microparticulate ZVIs (denoted as nZVI and mZVI, respectively) was comparatively investigated in the presence of O2 and EDTA. To quantify the oxidant yield, excess amount of methanol was employed, and the formation of its oxidation product, formaldehyde (HCHO), was monitored. The concentration of HCHO in the nZVI/O2 system rapidly reached the saturation value, whereas that in the mZVI/O2 system gradually increased throughout the entire reaction time. The mZVI/O2 system exhibited higher yields of HCHO than the nZVI/O2 system under both acidic and neutral pH conditions. The higher oxidant yields in the mZVI/O2 system are mainly attributed to the less reactivity of the mZVI surface with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) relative to the surface of nZVI, which minimize the loss of H2O2 by ZVI (i.e., the two-electron reduction of H2O2 into water). In addition, the slow dissolution of Fe(II) from mZVI was found to be partially responsible for the higher oxidant yields at neutral pH. PMID:24361799

  19. Stimulation of Peanut Seedling Development and Growth by Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Because of its strong pollutant degradation ability, nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) has been introduced to soils and groundwater for remediation purposes, but its impacts on plants are still not very clear. In this work, the effects of low concentration (10–320 ?mol/L) NZVI particles on seed germination and growth of peanut plants were evaluated. The exposure of peanut seeds to NZVI at all the tested concentrations altered the seed germination activity, especially the development of seedlings. In comparison with the deionized water treated controls (CK), all of the NZVI treatments had significantly larger average lengths. Further investigations with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) suggested that NZVI particles may penetrate the peanut seed coats to increase the water uptake to stimulate seed germination. The growth experiments showed that although NZVI at a relatively high concentration (320?mol/L) showed phytotoxicity to the peanut plants, the lower concentrations of NZVI particles stimulated the growth and root development of the plants. At certain concentrations (e.g., 40 and 80 ?mol/L), the NZVI treated samples were even better than the ethylenediaminetetraacetate-iron (EDTA-Fe) solution, a commonly used iron nutrient solution, in stimulating the plant growth. This positive effect was probably due to the uptake of NZVI by the plants, as indicated in the TEM analyses. Because low concentrations of NZVI particles stimulated both the seedling development and growth of peanut, they might be used to benefit the growth of peanuts in large-scale agricultural settings. PMID:25901959

  20. Stimulation of peanut seedling development and growth by zero-valent iron nanoparticles at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Because of its strong pollutant degradation ability, nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) has been introduced to soils and groundwater for remediation purposes, but its impacts on plants are still not very clear. In this work, the effects of low concentration (10-320 ?mol/L) NZVI particles on seed germination and growth of peanut plants were evaluated. The exposure of peanut seeds to NZVI at all the tested concentrations altered the seed germination activity, especially the development of seedlings. In comparison with the deionized water treated controls (CK), all of the NZVI treatments had significantly larger average lengths. Further investigations with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) suggested that NZVI particles may penetrate the peanut seed coats to increase the water uptake to stimulate seed germination. The growth experiments showed that although NZVI at a relatively high concentration (320?mol/L) showed phytotoxicity to the peanut plants, the lower concentrations of NZVI particles stimulated the growth and root development of the plants. At certain concentrations (e.g., 40 and 80 ?mol/L), the NZVI treated samples were even better than the ethylenediaminetetraacetate-iron (EDTA-Fe) solution, a commonly used iron nutrient solution, in stimulating the plant growth. This positive effect was probably due to the uptake of NZVI by the plants, as indicated in the TEM analyses. Because low concentrations of NZVI particles stimulated both the seedling development and growth of peanut, they might be used to benefit the growth of peanuts in large-scale agricultural settings. PMID:25901959

  1. Contributions of Abiotic and Biotic Dechlorination Following Carboxymethyl Cellulose Stabilized Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron Injection.

    PubMed

    Kocur, Chris M D; Lomheim, Line; Boparai, Hardiljeet K; Chowdhury, Ahmed I A; Weber, Kela P; Austrins, Leanne M; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Sleep, Brent E; O'Carroll, Denis M

    2015-07-21

    A pilot scale injection of nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) stabilized with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was performed at an active field site contaminated with a range of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOC). The cVOC concentrations and microbial populations were monitored at the site before and after nZVI injection. The remedial injection successfully reduced parent compound concentrations on site. A period of abiotic degradation was followed by a period of enhanced biotic degradation. Results suggest that the nZVI/CMC injection created conditions that stimulated the native populations of organohalide-respiring microorganisms. The abundance of Dehalococcoides spp. immediately following the nZVI/CMC injection increased by 1 order of magnitude throughout the nZVI/CMC affected area relative to preinjection abundance. Distinctly higher cVOC degradation occurred as a result of the nZVI/CMC injection over a 3 week evaluation period when compared to control wells. This suggests that both abiotic and biotic degradation occurred following injection. PMID:26090687

  2. Impact of nanoscale zero valent iron on geochemistry and microbial populations in trichloroethylene contaminated aquifer materials.

    PubMed

    Kirschling, Teresa L; Gregory, Kelvin B; Minkley, Edwin G; Lowry, Gregory V; Tilton, Robert D

    2010-05-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles are a promising technology for reducing trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination in the subsurface. Prior to injecting large quantities of nanoparticles into the groundwater it is important to understand what impact the particles will have on the geochemistry and indigenous microbial communities. Microbial populations are important not only for nutrient cycling, but also for contaminant remediation and heavy metal immobilization. Microcosms were used to determine the effects of NZVI addition on three different aquifer materials from TCE contaminated sites in Alameda Point, CA, Mancelona, MI, and Parris Island, SC. The oxidation and reduction potential of the microcosms consistently decreased by more than 400 mV when NZVI was added at 1.5 g/L concentrations. Sulfate concentrations decreased in the two coastal aquifer materials, and methane was observed in the presence of NZVI in Alameda Point microcosms, but not in the other two materials. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed significant shifts in Eubacterial diversity just after the Fe(0) was exhausted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses showed increases of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) and Archaeal 16s rRNA genes, indicating that reducing conditions and hydrogen created by NZVI stimulate both sulfate reducer and methanogen populations. Adding NZVI had no deleterious effect on total bacterial abundance in the microcosms. NZVI with a biodegradable polyaspartate coating increased bacterial populations by an order of magnitude relative to controls. The lack of broad bactericidal effect, combined with the stimulatory effect of polyaspartate coatings, has positive implications for NZVI field applications. PMID:20350000

  3. Enhance the photocatalytic activity for the degradation of organic contaminants in water by incorporating TiO2 with zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Pan, Jill Ruhsing; Huang, Chihping; Su, Yu-Chun; Juang, Ya-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) has become the most popular photocatalyst in treating persistent organic pollutants. The main disadvantage of TiO(2) is the diminishing photocatalytic activity over time due to the electron-hole pair recombination. Many studies have aimed to prolong the photocatalytic life of TiO(2). Among them, incorporation of zero-valent iron (ZVI) is one of the approaches. In this study, a novel nano TiO(2)/Fe(0) composite (NTFC) was synthesized from a nano neutral TiO(2) sol and a nano zero-valent iron (nZVI), both prepared in our laboratory. The structure, composition and physical property of the NTFC are characterized. The photocatalytic activity of the NTFC was evaluated by the reductive decolourization of an azo dye, Acid Black-24 (AB-24), and was found superior to those of nZVI and nano neutral TiO(2) sol. Evidence suggests that the enhanced activity of NTFC is highly correlated to the ratio of ferrous to ferric ion in the system. The quantities of ferrous and ferric ions in the nZVI and NTFC systems were monitored separately. In the nZVI system, the concentration of ferric ions decreased significantly with time while a high level of ferrous ions was maintained in the NTFC suspension. The ferrous/ferric ratio of the NTFC suspension was substantially increased after irradiation by UV. Evidence from EPR analysis suggests that the excited electrons in the conduction band of the TiO(2) can be trapped by the half reaction of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+), reducing the probability of electron-electron hole pair recombination and sustaining the catalytic life of TiO(2). Corrosion tests further proved that by incorporating TiO(2) with zero-valent iron the surface oxidation of nZVI can be effectively prevented. PMID:19896167

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF IN SITU DEHALOGENATION OF DNAPL THROUGH INJECTION OF EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALIENT IRON AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the technical and cost performance of emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology when applied to DNAPL contaminants in the saturated zone. This demonstration was conducted at Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL, w...

  5. Degradation of soil-sorbed trichloroethylene by stabilized zero valent iron nanoparticles: effects of sorption, surfactants, and natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; He, Feng; Zhao, Dongye; Hao, Xiaodi

    2011-03-01

    Zero valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles have been studied extensively for degradation of chlorinated solvents in the aqueous phase, and have been tested for in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. However, little is known about its effectiveness for degrading soil-sorbed contaminants. This work studied reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) sorbed in two model soils (a potting soil and Smith Farm soil) using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized Fe-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles. Effects of sorption, surfactants and dissolved organic matter (DOC) were determined through batch kinetic experiments. While the nanoparticles can effectively degrade soil-sorbed TCE, the TCE degradation rate was strongly limited by desorption kinetics, especially for the potting soil which has a higher organic matter content of 8.2%. Under otherwise identical conditions, ? 44% of TCE sorbed in the potting soil was degraded in 30 h, compared to ? 82% for Smith Farm soil (organic matter content = 0.7%). DOC from the potting soil was found to inhibit TCE degradation. The presence of the extracted SOM at 40 ppm and 350 ppm as TOC reduced the degradation rate by 34% and 67%, respectively. Four prototype surfactants were tested for their effects on TCE desorption and degradation rates, including two anionic surfactants known as SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and SDBS (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate), a cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) bromide, and a non-ionic surfactant Tween 80. All four surfactants were observed to enhance TCE desorption at concentrations below or above the critical micelle concentration (cmc), with the anionic surfactant SDS being most effective. Based on the pseudo-first-order reaction rate law, the presence of 1 × cmc SDS increased the reaction rate by a factor of 2.5 when the nanoparticles were used for degrading TCE in a water solution. SDS was effective for enhancing degradation of TCE sorbed in Smith Farm soil, the presence of SDS at sub-cmc increased TCE degraded by ? 10%. However, effect of SDS on degradation of TCE in the potting soil was more complex. The presence of SDS at sub-cmc decreased TCE degradation by 5%, but increased degradation by 5% when SDS dosage was raised to 5 × cmc. The opposing effects were attributed to combined effects of SDS on TCE desorption and degradation, release of soil organic matter and nanoparticle aggregation. The findings strongly suggest that effect of soil sorption on the effectiveness of Fe-Pd nanoparticles must be taken into account in process design, and soil organic content plays an important role in the overall degradation rate and in the effectiveness of surfactant uses. PMID:21376362

  6. [Preparation of nano zero-valent iron/Sargassum horneri based activated carbon for removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gan-Ning; Wu, Xiao; Zheng, Lin; Wu, Xi; Tu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Tie-Gan; Ai, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron supported on Sargassum horneri activated carbon (NZVI/SAC) was synthesized by zinc chloride activation and incipient wetness method, and characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD confirmed the existence of nano zero-valent iron, and SEM revealed that the material consisted of mainly 30-150 nm spherical particles aggregated into chains of individual units. The valence state of iron conformed with the nuclear-shell model. The effects of NZVI loading on AC, pH and the initial concentration of Cr(VI) on the removal of Cr(VI) were investigated. The final Cr(VI) removal percentage was up to 100% under the following conditions: 30 degrees C, pH = 2, NZVI/SAC dosage of 2 g x L(-1) and the amounts of NZVI loaded on SAC of 30%. And the equilibrium time was 10 minutes. These results showed that NZVI/SAC could be potentially applied for removal of high concentration Cr(VI). By analyzing the chemical change of NZVI/ SAC, we demonstrated that Cr(VI) was mainly reduced to insoluble Cr (III) compound in the reaction when pH was less than 4, and adsorbed by NZVI and SAC when pH was over 4. PMID:26031079

  7. Incorporation of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles inside the channels of SBA-15 silica rods by a “two solvents” reduction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xia; Yu, Hongxia; Zheng, Da; Wang, Xuesong; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Lianjun

    2013-08-01

    A new reduction method named a “two solvents” reduction technique was developed for incorporation of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVIs) inside the channels of SBA-15 silica rods under mild conditions. The resulting NZVIs/SBA-15 composites were compared with the ones prepared by the conventional liquid phase reduction method in structure, morphology and reactivity. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and all-direct-reading plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Results showed that abundant ultrasmall zero-valent iron particles were synthesized and well dispersed in the mesopores of SBA-15 silica rods by the new reduction technique, whereas larger iron particles were supported and aggregated on the surface of the silica rods by conventional reduction method. Batch experiment demonstrated that NZVIs incorporated inside the silica channels had higher reactivity for the removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution than those supported on the surface.

  8. Rapid reductive degradation of aqueous p-nitrophenol using nanoscale zero-valent iron particles immobilized on mesoporous silica with enhanced antioxidation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lin; Tang, Jing; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Guide; Xie, Xia; Zhou, Yaoyu; Pang, Ya; Fang, Yan; Wang, Jiajia; Xiong, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    In this study, nanoscale zero-valent iron particles immobilized on mesoporous silica (nZVI/SBA-15) were successfully prepared for effective degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP). The nZVI/SBA-15 composites were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results showed that abundant ultrasmall nanoscale zero-valent iron particles were formed and well dispersed on mesoporous silica (SBA-15). Batch experiments revealed that PNP removal declined from 96.70% to 16.14% as solution pH increased from 3.0 to 9.0. Besides, degradation equilibrium was reached within 5 min, which was independent of initial PNP concentration. Furthermore, only a little PNP elimination on SBA-15 indicated that nZVI immobilized on mesoporous silica was mainly responsible for the target contaminant removal. The UV-vis spectrum and XPS measurement confirmed that the PNP removal was a reductive degradation process, which was further proved by the detected intermediates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The excellent antioxidation ability had been discovered with more than 80% of PNP being removed by nZVI/SBA-15 treated with 30 days' exposure to air. These results demonstrated the feasible and potential application of nZVI/SBA-15 composites in organic wastewater treatment.

  9. An Experimental Study of Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer-Enhanced Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2005-12-22

    At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. In these zones, groundwater moves relatively fast and is able to oxidize iron more rapidly. There is also a possibility that the high-permeability flow paths are deficient in reducing equivalents (e.g. reactive iron), required for barrier performance. One way enhancement of the current barrier reductive capacity can be achieved is by the addition of micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments (Ringold Unit E gravels) using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Polymers were used to create a suspension viscous enough to keep the Fe0 in solution for extended time periods to improve colloid movement into the porous media without causing a permanent detrimental decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone in between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments.

  10. Estimate of the optimum weight ratio in zero-valent iron/pumice granular mixtures used in permeable reactive barriers for the remediation of nickel contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, P S; Moraci, N; Suraci, P

    2012-03-15

    This paper presents the results of laboratory column tests aimed at defining the optimum weight ratio of zero-valent iron (ZVI)/pumice granular mixtures to be used in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for the removal of nickel from contaminated groundwater. The tests were carried out feeding the columns with aqueous solutions of nickel nitrate at concentrations of 5 and 50 mg/l using three ZVI/pumice granular mixtures at various weight ratios (10/90, 30/70 and 50/50), for a total of six column tests; two additional tests were carried out using ZVI alone. The most successful compromise between reactivity (higher ZVI content) and long-term hydraulic performance (higher Pumice content) seems to be given by the ZVI/pumice granular mixture with a 30/70 weight ratio. PMID:21885195

  11. Inhibition of nitrate reduction by NaCl adsorption on a nano-zero-valent iron surface during a concentrate treatment for water reuse.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Kim, Dogun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2015-05-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) has been considered as a possible material to treat water and wastewater. However, it is necessary to verify the effect of the matrix components in different types of target water. In this study, different effects depending on the sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on reductions of nitrates and on the characteristics of NZVI were investigated. Although NaCl is known as a promoter of iron corrosion, a high concentration of NaCl (>3?g/L) has a significant inhibition effect on the degree of NZVI reactivity towards nitrate. The experimental results were interpreted by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson reaction in terms of inhibition, and the decreased NZVI reactivity could be explained by the increase in the inhibition constant. As a result of a chloride concentration analysis, it was verified that 7.7-26.5% of chloride was adsorbed onto the surface of NZVI. Moreover, the change of the iron corrosion product under different NaCl concentrations was investigated by a surface analysis of spent NZVI. Magnetite was the main product, with a low NaCl concentration (0.5?g/L), whereas amorphous iron hydroxide was observed at a high concentration (12?g/L). Though the surface was changed to permeable iron hydroxide, the Fe(0) in the core was not completely oxidized. Therefore, the inhibition effect of NaCl could be explained as the competitive adsorption of chloride and nitrate. PMID:25358487

  12. SCANNING ELECTRON ANALYSIS OF IRON FILINGS FROM A ZERO-VALENT IRON PERMEABLE BARRIER USED FOR GROUND WATER RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable iron reactive barriers have become a popular way to remediate contaminated ground water. Although this technology has been in use for about a decade, there is still little knowledge about long-term performance issues (l). One of the biggest concerns is the corrosion of ...

  13. Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Porous Media Using Polymer Additives: Column and Flow Cell Ex-periments

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-03-20

    At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to investigate whether barrier reductive capacity can be enhanced by adding micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers. Porous media were packed in a wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel sur-rounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments. The flow cell experiments indicated that iron concentration enhancements of at least 0.6% (w/w) could be obtained using moderate flow rates and injection of 30 pore volumes. The 0.6% amended Fe0 concentration would provide approximately 20 times the average reductive capacity that is provided by the dithionite-reduced iron in the ISRM barrier. Calculations show that a 1-m-long Fe0 amended zone with an average concentration of 0.6% w/w iron subject to a groundwater velocity of 1 m/day will have an estimated longevity of 7.2 years.

  14. Enhanced degradation of ortho-nitrochlorobenzene by the combined system of zero-valent iron reduction and persulfate oxidation in soils.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-bo; Zhao, Dao-yuan; Li, Yu-jiao; Liu, Pei-ya; Dong, Chang-xun

    2014-04-01

    ortho-Nitrochlorobenzene (o-NCB) in soil poses significant health risks to human because of its persistence and high toxicity. The removal of o-NCB by both zero-valent iron (ZVI) and chemical oxidation (persulfate) was investigated by batch experiments. The o-NCB removal rate increases significantly from 15.1 to 97.3 % with an increase of iron dosage from 0.1 to 1.0 mmol g(-1). The o-NCB removal rate increases with the decrease of the initial solution pH, and a removal efficiency of 90.3 % is obtained at an initial pH value of 6.8 in this combined system. It is found that temperature and soil moisture could also increase the o-NCB removal rate. The o-NCB degradation rate increases from 83.9 to 96.2 % and from 41.5 to 82.4 % with an increase of temperature (15 to 35 °C) and soil moisture (0.25 to 1.50 mL g(-1)), respectively. Compared to the persulfate oxidation system and ZVI system, the persulfate-iron system shows high o-NCB removal capacity. o-NCB removal rates of 41.5 and 62.4 % are obtained in both the persulfate oxidation system and the ZVI system, while the removal rate of o-NCB is 90.3 % in the persulfate-iron system. PMID:24385185

  15. Effect of the addition of zero valent iron (Fe(0)) on the batch biological sulphate reduction using grass cellulose as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, Jean; Schaefer, L

    2013-12-01

    Mineral mining generates acidic, saline, metal-rich mine waters, often referred to as acid mine drainage (AMD). Treatment of AMD and recovering saleable products during the treatment process are a necessity since water is, especially in South Africa, a scarce commodity. The aim of the study presented here was to investigate the effect of zero valent iron (Fe(0)) on the biological removal of sulphate from AMD in batch reactors. The performance of the reactors was assessed by means of sulphate reduction, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acid (VFA) utilisation and volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration. To this end, three batch reactors, A, B and C (volume 2.5 L), were operated similarly with the exception of the addition of grass cuttings and iron filings. Reactors A and B received twice as much grass (100 g) as C (50 g). Reactor A received no iron filings to act as a control, while reactors B and C received 50-g iron filings for the experimental duration. The results showed that Fe(0) appears to provide sustained sulphate removal when sufficient grass substrate is available. In reactors A and C, sulphate removal efficiency was higher when the COD concentration was lower due to utilisation. In reactor B, sulphate removal efficiency was accompanied by an accumulation of COD as hydrogen (H2) provided by the Fe(0) was utilised for sulphate reduction. Furthermore, these results showed the potential of Fe(0) to enhance the participation of microorganisms in sulphate reduction. PMID:24018847

  16. Synthesis and characterization of pentaphosphino zero-valent iron complexes and their corresponding iron(II)-chloride and -hydride complexes.

    PubMed

    Thoreson, Kristen A; Follett, Angela D; McNeill, Kristopher

    2010-04-19

    A pentaphosphino iron(II)-chloride species [(t)SiP(3)(dmpm)FeCl][Cl] (1-Cl) ((t)SiP(3) = (t)BuSi(CH(2)PMe(2))(3), dmpm = Me(2)PCH(2)PMe(2)) was prepared from [((t)SiP(3)Fe)(2)(mu-Cl)(3)][Cl] and dmpm. This species was reduced to give the corresponding iron(0) complex, (t)SiP(3)(dmpm)Fe (3), in near quantitative yield. Analogous complexes [SiP(3)(dmpe)FeCl][Cl] (2-Cl) and SiP(3)(dmpe)Fe (4) (SiP(3) = MeSi(CH(2)PMe(2))(3), dmpe = Me(2)PCH(2)CH(2)PMe(2)) were prepared in the same manner as 1 and 3 but with lower yields because of competitive ligand rearrangement reactions that gave byproduct of trans-(dmpe)(2)FeCl(2) and (dmpe)(5)Fe(2) (5). [(t)SiP(3)(dmpm)FeH][A] (6) was prepared from the reaction of 3 with weak acids (HA), and the pK(a) of 6 was established to be approximately 25. Attempts to prepare pentaphosphino-iron(0) complexes of the form SiP(3)(PR(3))(2)Fe using PPh(3) and PMe(3) resulted in cyclometalated products, SiP(3)FeH((o-C(6)H(4))PPh(2)) (7) and SiP(3)FeH(CH(2)PMe(2)) (8). Synthesis and characterization of these complexes, including crystal structures of 1-5, are reported. PMID:20230063

  17. Environmental benefits and risks of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for in situ remediation: risk mitigation or trade-off?

    PubMed

    Grieger, Khara D; Fjordbøge, Annika; Hartmann, Nanna B; Eriksson, Eva; Bjerg, Poul L; Baun, Anders

    2010-11-25

    The use of nanoscaled zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater has received increasing amounts of attention within the last decade, primarily due to its potential for broader application, higher reactivity, and cost-effectiveness compared to conventional zero-valent iron applications and other in situ methods. However, the potential environmental risks of nZVI in in situ field scale applications are largely unknown at the present and traditional environmental risk assessment approaches are not yet able to be completed. Therefore, it may not yet be fully clear how to consider the environmental benefits and risks of nZVI for in situ applications. This analysis therefore addresses the challenges of comprehensively considering and weighing the expected environmental benefits and potential risks of this emerging environmentally-beneficial nanotechnology, particularly relevant for environmental engineers, scientists, and decision makers. We find that most of the benefits of using nZVI are based on near-term considerations, and large data gaps currently exist within almost all aspects of environmental exposure and effect assessments. We also find that while a wide range of decision support tools and frameworks alternative to risk assessment are currently available, a thorough evaluation of these should be undertaken in the near future to assess their full relevancy for nZVI at specific sites. Due to the absence of data in environmental risk evaluations, we apply a 'best' and 'worst' case scenario evaluation as a first step to qualitatively evaluate the current state-of-knowledge regarding the potential environmental risks of nZVI. The result of this preliminary qualitative evaluation indicates that at present, there are no significant grounds on which to form the basis that nZVI currently poses a significant, apparent risk to the environment, although the majority of the most serious criteria (i.e. potential for persistency, bioaccumulation, toxicity) are generally unknown. We recommend that in cases where nZVI may be chosen as the 'best' treatment option, short and long-term environmental monitoring is actively employed at these sites. We furthermore recommend the continued development of responsible nZVI innovation and better facilitated information exchange between nZVI developers, nano-risk researchers, remediation industry, and decision makers. PMID:20813426

  18. Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides by using a plasma technique and their application for removal of heavy-metal ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Changlun; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides (NZVI/rGOs) from spent graphene oxide (GO)-bound iron ions were developed by using a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method to improve the reactivity and stability of NZVI. The NZVI/rGOs exhibited excellent water treatment performance with excellent removal capacities of 187.16 and 396.37?mg?g(-1) for chromium and lead, respectively. Moreover, the NZVI/rGOs could be regenerated by plasma treatment and maintained high removal ability after four cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis results implied that the removal mechanisms could be attributed to adsorption/precipitation, reduction, or both. Such multiple removal mechanisms by the NZVI/rGOs were attributed to the reduction ability of the NZVI particles and the role of dispersing and stabilizing abilities of the rGOs. The results indicated that the NZVI/rGOs prepared by a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method might be an effective composite for heavy-metal-ion removal. PMID:25917859

  19. A comparative evaluation of hexavalent chromium treatment in contaminated soil by calcium polysulfide and green-tea nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Johnston, Chad P; Dahal, Geeta

    2012-01-30

    A column study for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal from contaminated soil was performed using calcium polysulfide (CPS) and nanoscale zero-valent iron stabilized with green tea extract (GT-nZVI). Injection of CPS at 12 times the stoichiometric requirement (12×) resulted in quantitative Cr(VI) removal for up to 195 days of equivalent groundwater flow. Solid-bound Cr(VI) was reduced up to >99% (<2mg/kg). Treatment with CPS resulted in a short-term release of high sulfur concentrations. Injections of 12× and 24× stoichiometric GT-nZVI resulted in decrease in leachate pH from 6 to 2.5, which rebounded to 4.5 after the equivalent of 45 days and remained stable for the next equivalent 3 years. Metals concentrations in the effluent (Pb, Cr and Fe) increased following injection and quickly decreased, such that the mass flux was low with respect to the total amounts in the solid. Aqueous Cr(VI) was non-detect for the majority of the monitoring time, but concentrations eventually increased with respect to the control sample. Solid-bound Cr(VI) concentrations decreased by 30% and 66% in the 12× and 24× treatments, respectively. The low efficiency was attributed to increased sorption to iron surfaces at pH 2.5 and slow dissolution of PbCrO4, both of which were identified by micro-X-ray fluorescence and absorption analyses. PMID:22169240

  20. Conversion of mill-scale waste to nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) for 'green' hydrogen generation via metal-steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, Sathees Kumar

    The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) are the most preferred and efficient energy conversion devices for automotive applications but demand high purity hydrogen which comes at a premium price. The currently pursued hydrogen generation methods suffer from issues such as, low efficiency, high cost, environmental non-benignity, and, in some cases, commercial non-viability. Many of these drawbacks including the CO contamination and, storage and delivery can be overcome by resorting to metal-steam reforming (MSR) using iron from steel industry's mill-scale waste. A novel solution-based room temperature technique using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the reducing agent has been developed that produces highly active nanoscale (30-40 nm) iron particles. A slightly modified version of this technique using a surfactant and water oil microemulsion resulted in the formation of 5 nm Fe particles. By using hydrazine (N2H4) as an inexpensive and more stable (compared to NaBH4) reductant, body centered cubic iron particles with edge dimensions ˜5 nm were obtained under mild solvothermal conditions in ethanol. The nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) powder showed improved kinetics and greater propensity for hydrogen generation than the coarser microscale iron obtained through traditional reduction techniques. To initiate and sustain the somewhat endothermic MSR process, a solar concentrator consisting of a convex polyacrylic sheet with aluminum reflective coating was fabricated. This unique combination of mill-scale waste as iron source, hydrazine as the reductant, mild process conditions for nZVI generation and solar energy as the impetus for actuating MSR, obviates several drawbacks plaguing the grand scheme of producing, storing and delivering pure and humidified H2 to a PEMFC stack.

  1. The enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron on the solidification of chromite ore processing residue by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinchunzi; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Wang, Binyuan; Fan, Leitao

    2015-09-01

    A bench scale study was performed to assess the effectiveness of the solidification of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide, and investigate the enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron (ZVI) on the solidification treatment. The degree of Cr immobilization was evaluated using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) as well as the solid waste-extraction procedure for leaching toxicity-sulfuric acid & nitric acid method (Chinese standard HJ/T299-2007). Strength tests and semi-dynamic leaching tests were implemented to investigate the potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material. The experimental results showed that the performance of pre-reduction/solidification (S/S) was superior to that of solidification alone. After pre-reduction, all of the S/S treated COPR samples met the TCLP limit for total Cr (5mgL(-1)), whereas the samples with a COPR content below 40% met the pollution control limit of bricks and building block products (Chinese standard HJ/T 301-2007) produced with COPR for total Cr (0.3mgL(-1)). At the same time, all of the S/S treated specimens tested were suitable for utilization at certain levels. PMID:25929874

  2. Degradation pathway and kinetics of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides oxidation in an ultrasonic nanoscale zero-valent iron/hydrogen peroxide system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haimei; Shen, Yuanyuan; Lv, Ping; Wang, Jianji; Li, Pu

    2015-03-01

    Fenton and Fenton-like oxidation has been already demonstrated to be efficient for the degradation of imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), but little is known for their degradation pathway and kinetics in such systems. In this work, degradation pathway and kinetics of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides ([Cnmim]Br, n=2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) were investigated in an ultrasound nanoscale zero-valent iron/hydrogen peroxide (US-nZVI/H2O2) system. For this purpose, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4mim]Br) was used as a representative ionic liquid to optimize pH value, nZVI dose, and H2O2 concentration for the degradation reaction. Then, the degradation kinetics of [Cnmim]Br was investigated under optimal conditions, and their degradation intermediates were monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was shown that the degradation of [Cnmim]Br in such a heterogeneous Fenton-like system could be described by a second order kinetic model, and a number of intermediate products were detected. Based on these intermediate products, detailed pathways were proposed for the degradation of [Cnmim]Br in the ultrasound-assisted nZVI/H2O2 system. These findings may be useful for the better understanding of degradation mechanism of the imidazolium ILs in aqueous solutions. PMID:25463239

  3. Determination of rate constants and branching ratios for TCE degradation by zero-valent iron using a chain decay multispecies model.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Sudicky, Edward A; Illman, Walter A

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a newly-developed chain-decay multispecies model (CMM) was validated by obtaining kinetic rate constants and branching ratios along the reaction pathways of trichloroethene (TCE) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) from column experiments. Changes in rate constants and branching ratios for individual reactions for degradation products over time for two columns under different geochemical conditions were examined to provide ranges of those parameters expected over the long-term. As compared to the column receiving deionized water, the column receiving dissolved CaCO3 showed higher mean degradation rates for TCE and all of its degradation products. However, the column experienced faster reactivity loss toward TCE degradation due to precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals, as indicated by a higher value for the ratio of maximum to minimum TCE degradation rate observed over time. From the calculated branching ratios, it was found that TCE and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) were dominantly dechlorinated to chloroacetylene and acetylene, respectively, through reductive elimination for both columns. The CMM model, validated by the column test data in this study, provides a convenient tool to determine simultaneously the critical design parameters for permeable reactive barriers and natural attenuation such as rate constants and branching ratios. PMID:25827100

  4. Degradation of 4-Chloro-3,5-Dimethylphenol by a Heterogeneous Fenton-Like Reaction Using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lejin; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Degradation of 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol (PCMX) by a heterogeneous Fenton-like process using nanoparticulate zero-valent iron (nZVI) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at pH 6.3 was investigated. Interactive effects of three factors—initial PCMX concentration, nZVI dosage, and H2O2 concentration—were investigated using the response surface method based on the Box–Behnken design. Experimental results showed that complete decomposition of PCMX and 65% of total organic carbon removal were observed after 30?min of reaction at neutral pH under recommended reaction conditions: nZVI, 1.0?g/L; H2O2, 18?mM; and initial PCMX concentration, 0.15?g/L. Based on the effects of scavengers n-butanol and KI, removal of PCMX was mainly attributed to the attack of •OH, especially the surface-bonded •OH. A possible degradation pathway of PCMX was proposed. PMID:23781127

  5. Interaction between Cu(2+) and different types of surface-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron during their transport in porous media.

    PubMed

    Dong, Haoran; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Chang; Liang, Jie; Ahmad, Kito; Xu, Piao; He, Xiaoxiao; Lai, Mingyong

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the interaction between Cu(2+) and nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) coated with three types of stabilizers (i.e., polyacrylic acid [PAA], Tween-20 and starch) by examining the Cu(2+) uptake, colloidal stability and mobility of surface-modified NZVI (SM-NZVI) in the presence of Cu(2+). The uptake of Cu(2+) by SM-NZVI and the colloidal stability of the Cu-bearing SM-NZVI were examined in batch tests. The results showed that NZVI coated with different modifiers exhibited different affinities for Cu(2+), which resulted in varying colloidal stability of different SM-NZVI in the presence of Cu(2+). The presence of Cu(2+) exerted a slight influence on the aggregation and settling of NZVI modified with PAA or Tween-20. However, the presence of Cu(2+) caused significant aggregation and sedimentation of starch-modified NZVI, which is due to Cu(2+) complexation with the starch molecules coated on the surface of the particles. Column experiments were conducted to investigate the co-transport of Cu(2+) in association with SM-NZVI in water-saturated quartz sand. It was presumed that a physical straining mechanism accounted for the retention of Cu-bearing SM-NZVI in the porous media. Moreover, the enhanced aggregation of SM-NZVI in the presence of Cu(2+) may be contributing to this straining effect. PMID:26040744

  6. Treatment of aqueous bisphenol A using nano-sized zero-valent iron in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and persulfate oxidants.

    PubMed

    Girit, B; Dursun, D; Olmez-Hanci, T; Arslan-Alaton, I

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial pollutant considered as one of the major endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in natural waters. In the present study, the use of a commercial, air-stable, zero-valent iron (ZVI) powder, consisting of Fe(0) surface stabilized nanoparticles was examined for the treatment of 20 mg/L, aqueous BPA solutions. The influence of pH (3, 5, 7), addition of hydrogen peroxide (HP) and persulfate (PS) oxidants (0.0, 1.25 and 2.5 mM) as well as temperature (25 and 50 °C) was studied for BPA treatment with 1 g/L ZVI. ZVI coupled with HP or PS provided an effective treatment system, which was based on rapid ZVI-mediated decomposition of the above-mentioned oxidants, resulting in complete BPA as well as significant total organic carbon (TOC) (88%) removals, in particular when PS was employed as the oxidant. Increasing the PS concentration and reaction temperature dramatically enhanced PS decomposition and BPA removal rates, whereas HP was not very effective in TOC removals and at elevated temperatures. According to the bioassays conducted with Vibrio fischeri and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the acute toxicity of aqueous BPA fluctuated at first but decreased appreciably at the end of ZVI/PS treatment. PMID:26067507

  7. Removal of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions using nanoscale zero valent iron-reduced graphite oxide modified composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Can; Luo, Hanjin; Zhang, Zilong; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Shaowei

    2014-03-15

    Nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI) has high adsorption capacity of As(III) and As(V), but it is limited in practical use due to its small particle size and aggregation effect. Reduce graphite oxide (RGO) has been used as a support because of its high surface area. In order to utilize the advantage of NZVI and RGO as well as to avoid the disadvantage of NZVI, we loaded NZVI onto RGO via chemical reactions in this study. The adsorption capacity of As(III) and As(V), as determined from the Langmuir adsorption isotherms in batch experiments, was 35.83mgg(-1) and 29.04mgg(-1), respectively. And the adsorption kinetics fitted well with pseudo-second-order model. The residual concentration was found to meet the standard of WHO after the samples were treated with 0.4gL(-1) NZVI-RGO when the initial concentration of As(III) and As(V) were below 8ppm and 3ppm. Especially, when the initial concentration of As(III) was below 3ppm, the residual concentration was within 1ppb; whereas, the residual concentration was undetected when the initial concentration of As(III) was 1ppm. PMID:24480523

  8. Determination of rate constants and branching ratios for TCE degradation by zero-valent iron using a chain decay multispecies model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Sudicky, Edward A.; Illman, Walter A.

    2015-06-01

    The applicability of a newly-developed chain-decay multispecies model (CMM) was validated by obtaining kinetic rate constants and branching ratios along the reaction pathways of trichloroethene (TCE) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) from column experiments. Changes in rate constants and branching ratios for individual reactions for degradation products over time for two columns under different geochemical conditions were examined to provide ranges of those parameters expected over the long-term. As compared to the column receiving deionized water, the column receiving dissolved CaCO3 showed higher mean degradation rates for TCE and all of its degradation products. However, the column experienced faster reactivity loss toward TCE degradation due to precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals, as indicated by a higher value for the ratio of maximum to minimum TCE degradation rate observed over time. From the calculated branching ratios, it was found that TCE and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) were dominantly dechlorinated to chloroacetylene and acetylene, respectively, through reductive elimination for both columns. The CMM model, validated by the column test data in this study, provides a convenient tool to determine simultaneously the critical design parameters for permeable reactive barriers and natural attenuation such as rate constants and branching ratios.

  9. Application of ultrasound to enhance the zero-valent iron-initiated abiotic degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Nancy Elaine

    Permeable iron barriers, while effective as a near-passive in situ remediation technology for halogenated organic solvents, are susceptible to the loss of reactivity over time, most probably due to a build up of corrosion products or other precipitates on the iron surface. If such material can be removed, a barrier's lifetime can be significantly extended. This proof-of-concept project employed ultrasonic energy to rejuvenate an iron surface. Through batch studies, iron's capacity to degrade dissolved chlorinated solvents under various conditions before and after sonication was examined. The impact of iron pretreatment, groundwater quality, and sonication and the nature of the deposits formed on iron during solvent degradation were determined in order to evaluate the physical mechanism of ultrasonic enhancement of iron and to develop guidelines for barrier design and an ultrasound delivery system for a future field study. Iron (coarse filings, 100-mesh powder, or foamed pellets) placed in deoxygenated natural groundwater was exposed to 330 W-hr of ultrasonic energy prior to the introduction of trichloroethylene (TCE). The iron was also subjected to various pretreatments to create surface conditions with differing rates of activity for chlorinated solvent degradation. Aqueous concentrations of TCE and any degradation products were monitored over time. Geochemical modeling indicated that an iron barrier in this water would be subject to heavy precipitation of carbonates and hydroxides. Sonication positively impacted iron's degradation of chlorinated solvents, probably most directly linked to an increase in active specific surface area, achieved by removing deposits and/or etching the surface, as suggested by scanning electron micrographs. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that sonication also changes the chemical composition of the outermost 40 Angstroms of an iron surface. For some degraded irons, activity was restored to near initial rates after sonication. The nonchlorinated fraction of degradation products increased after sonication, suggesting more complete, as well as more rapid, degradation. The application of ultrasound to restore an iron barrier holds great promise. Sonication removes obstructive material from an iron surface, improves its activity for the degradation of chlorinated solvents, and is effective even in water environments with a great tendency to form precipitates.

  10. Conceptual analysis of zero-valent iron fracture reactive barriers for remediating a trichloroethylene plume in a chalk aquifer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuansi Cai; David N. Lerner; Robert G. McLaren; Ryan D. Wilson

    2007-01-01

    A novel concept, the Fe0 fracture reactive barrier (Fe0 FRB), is proposed to clean up chlorinated solvent pollution of groundwater in a chalk aquifer. Iron particles, suspended in a viscous biodegradable gel, can be injected into selected fractures to create an extended reactive zone of partly iron-filled fractures. To evaluate the feasibility of Fe0 FRB as a remediation strategy, we

  11. Removal of cationic dye methylene blue by zero-valent iron: Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on removal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Kurokawa, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Moe; Takagi, Minoru; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2015-08-24

    Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on mechanisms for decolorization and total organic carbon (TOC) removal of cationic dye methylene blue (MB) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) were systematically examined. Decolorization and TOC removal of MB by ZVI are attributed to the four potential mechanisms, i.e. reduction, degradation, precipitation and adsorption. The contributions of four mechanisms were quantified at pH 3.0, 6.0 and 10.0 in the oxic and anoxic systems. The maximum efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal of MB were found at pH 6.0. The TOC removal efficiencies at pH 3.0 and 10.0 were 11.0 and 17.0%, respectively which were considerably lower as compared with 68.1% at pH 6.0. The adsorption, which was favorable at higher pH but was depressed by the passive layer formed on the ZVI surface at alkaline conditions, characterized the effects of pH on decolorization and TOC removal of MB. The efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal at pH 6.0 under the anoxic condition were 73.0 and 59.0%, respectively, which were comparable to 79.9 and 55.5% obtained under the oxic condition. In the oxic and anoxic conditions, however, the contributions of removal mechanisms were quite different. Although the adsorption dominated the decolorization and TOC removal under the oxic condition, the contribution of precipitation was largely superior to that of adsorption under the anoxic condition. PMID:26121021

  12. Organic-coated nanoparticulate zero valent iron for remediation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved metals from tropical landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wijesekara, S S R M D H R; Basnayake, B F A; Vithanage, Meththika

    2014-01-01

    The use of nanoparticulate zero valent iron (NZVI) in the treatment of inorganic contaminants in landfill leachate and polluted plumes has been the subject of many studies, especially in temperate, developed countries. However, NZVI's potential for reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and treatment of metal ion mixtures has not been explored in detail. We investigated the efficiency of NZVI synthesized in the presence of starch, mercaptoacetic, mercaptosuccinic, or mercaptopropenoic acid for the reduction of COD, nutrients, and metal ions from landfill leachate in tropical Sri Lanka. Synthesized NZVI were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. Of the samples tested, Starch-NZVI (S-NZVI) and mercaptoacetic-NZVI (MA-NZVI) performed well for treatment both COD and metal mixture. The removal percentages for COD, nitrate-nitrogen, and phosphate from S-NZVI were 50, 88, and 99 %, respectively. Heavy metal removal was higher in S-NZVI (>95 %) than others. MA-NZVI, its oxidation products, and functional groups of its coating showed the maximum removal amounts for both Cu (56.27 mg g(-1)) and Zn (28.38 mg g(-1)). All mercapto-NZVI showed well-stabilized nature under FTIR and XRD investigations. Therefore, we suggest mercapto acids as better agents to enhance the air stability for NZVI since chemically bonded thiol and carbonyl groups actively participation for stabilization process. PMID:24535668

  13. Influence of calcium ions on the colloidal stability of surface-modified nano zero-valent iron in the absence or presence of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Dong, Haoran; Lo, Irene M C

    2013-05-01

    To decrease aggregation and enhance the mobility of nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) used for in-situ groundwater remediation, the surface of such NZVI must be modified using organic stabilizers, which can provide electrostatic repulsion, and steric or electrosteric stabilization. However, the stability of the nanoparticles can also be affected by groundwater components such as cations and humic acid (HA). In this study, the effect of Ca(2+) on the colloidal stability of NZVI coated with three types of stabilizers (i.e., polyacrylic acid (PAA), Tween-20 and starch) was evaluated in the absence or presence of HA. Differing stability behavior was observed for different surface-modified NZVIs. The presence of Ca(2+) exerted a slight influence on the settling of NZVI modified with PAA or Tween-20, in the absence or presence of HA. However, the presence of Ca(2+) caused significant aggregation and sedimentation for starch-modified NZVI in the absence of HA, and induced an even higher degree of aggregation and sedimentation in the presence of HA. It is presumed that, in the absence of HA, starch-modified NZVI particles undergo attachment with each other via Ca(2+) complexation with the coated starch molecules on the surface of the particles, thus enhancing the aggregation and the following sedimentation of starch-modified NZVI. However, in the presence of HA, spectroscopic analysis of the starch-modified NZVI aggregates indicated that the bridging interaction of HA with Ca(2+) was the predominant mechanism for the enhanced aggregation. PMID:23466217

  14. Exploring the Role of Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron and Bacteria on the Degradation of a Multi-component Chlorinated Solvent at the Field Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocur, C. M.; Lomheim, L.; Boparai, H.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Weber, K.; Austrins, L. M.; Sleep, B. E.; Edwards, E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) has advanced as a technology for the remediation of priority source zone contaminants in response to early laboratory studies that showed rapid rates of compound degradation. The challenges associated with the delivery of nZVI particles (eg. rapid aggregation and settling) were partially resolved with the addition of a polyelectrolyte polymers, like Carboxymethyl cellulose, that significantly improves the colloidal stability of particles allowing for more controlled injection and transport in the subsurface. Following nZVI application and abiotic contaminant degradation nZVI oxidizes and yields reducing conditions. These reducing conditions are ideal for many dechlorinating bacteria. Given this, application of nZVI for abiotic contaminant degradation followed by bioremediation has become an area of active research interest. In this study nZVI was injected into a contaminated sandy subsurface area. Concentrations of a range of chlorinated compounds, including chlorinated ethenes, ethanes, and methanes were monitored in detail following nano-particle injection in order to access short term abiotic degradation. Monitoring continued over a 2 year period to evaluate the long term effects of nZVI injection on the bacterial communities and the biotic degradation of targeted chlorinated compounds. The study focusses on the degradation and evolution of intermediate compounds from reaction with targeted contaminant compounds along the nZVI flow path. Bacterial populations were quantified before injection to confirm that beneficial chloride reducing bacteria were present on site. The microbiological response to the injection of nZVI was studied and the performance of bacteria along the nZVI flow path and outside the nZVI affected area will be compared.

  15. Removal of organic compounds and trace metals from oil sands process-affected water using zero valent iron enhanced by petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Pourrezaei, Parastoo; Alpatova, Alla; Khosravi, Kambiz; Drzewicz, Przemys?aw; Chen, Yuan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-06-15

    The oil production generates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), referring to the water that has been in contact with oil sands or released from tailings deposits. There are concerns about the environmental impacts of the release of OSPW because of its toxicity. Zero valent iron alone (ZVI) and in combination with petroleum coke (CZVI) were investigated as environmentally friendly treatment processes for the removal of naphthenic acids (NAs), acid-extractable fraction (AEF), fluorophore organic compounds, and trace metals from OSPW. While the application of 25 g/L ZVI to OSPW resulted in 58.4% removal of NAs in the presence of oxygen, the addition of 25 g petroleum coke (PC) as an electron conductor enhanced the NAs removal up to 90.9%. The increase in ZVI concentration enhanced the removals of NAs, AEF, and fluorophore compounds from OSPW. It was suggested that the electrons generated from the oxidation of ZVI were transferred to oxygen, resulting in the production of hydroxyl radicals and oxidation of NAs. When OSPW was de-oxygenated, the NAs removal decreased to 17.5% and 65.4% during treatment with ZVI and CZVI, respectively. The removal of metals in ZVI samples was similar to that obtained during CZVI treatment. Although an increase in ZVI concentration did not enhance the removal of metals, their concentrations effectively decreased at all ZVI loadings. The Microtox(®) bioassay with Vibrio fischeri showed a decrease in the toxicity of ZVI- and CZVI-treated OSPW. The results obtained in this study showed that the application of ZVI in combination with PC is a promising technology for OSPW treatment. PMID:24681364

  16. Identification of degradation products of ionic liquids in an ultrasound assisted zero-valent iron activated carbon micro-electrolysis system and their degradation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haimei; Lv, Ping; Shen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jianji; Fan, Jing

    2013-06-15

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have potential applications in many areas of chemical industry because of their unique properties. However, it has been shown that the ILs commonly used to date are toxic and not biodegradable in nature, thus development of efficient chemical methods for the degradation of ILs is imperative. In this work, degradation of imidazolium, piperidinium, pyrrolidinium and morpholinium based ILs in an ultrasound and zero-valent iron activated carbon (ZVI/AC) micro-electrolysis system was investigated, and some intermediates generated during the degradation were identified. It was found that more than 90% of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Cnmim]Br, n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) could be degraded within 110 min, and three intermediates 1-alkyl-3-methyl-2,4,5-trioxoimidazolidine, 1-alkyl-3-methylurea and N-alkylformamide were detected. On the other hand, 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bromide ([C4mpip]Br), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide ([C4mpyr]Br) and N-butyl-N-methylmorpholinium bromide ([C4mmor]Br) were also effectively degraded through the sequential oxidization into hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl groups in different positions of the butyl side chain, and then the N-butyl side chain was broken to form the final products of N-methylpiperidinium, N-methylpyrrolidinium and N-methylmorpholinium, respectively. Based on these intermediate products, degradation pathways of these ILs were suggested. These findings may provide fundamental information on the assessment of the factors related to the environmental fate and environmental behavior of these commonly used ILs. PMID:23623468

  17. THE APPLICATION OF IN SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE (ZERO-VALENT IRON) BARRIER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMEDIATION OF CHROMATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER: A FIELD TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small-scale field test was initiated in September 1994 to evaluate the in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated with chromate using a permeable reactive barrier composed of a mixture of zero-valent Fe, sand and aquifer sediment. The site used was an old chrome-plating f...

  18. Degradation of chlorobenzene by Fenton?like processes using zero?valent iron in the presence of Fe and Cu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Pagano; Angela Volpe; Antonio Lopez; Giuseppe Mascolo; Ruggiero Ciannarella

    2011-01-01

    Batch and column tests were conducted to compare the efficiencies of three Fenton?like systems in the degradation of chlorobenzene. In the investigated systems, iron powder was the source of Fe ions, and either Fe or Cu were added in order to enhance the degradation process. Optimum pH and concentrations of Fe, Cu and hydrogen peroxide were assessed by treating synthetic

  19. Mg(OH)2 Supported Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron Enhancing the Removal of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minghui; Wang, Yonghao; Chen, Luntai; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Zhang

    2015-04-22

    In this article, a novel composite (Mg(OH)2 supported nanoscale zerovalent iron (denoted as nZVI@Mg(OH)2) was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy method. The morphology analysis revealed that Mg(OH)2 appeared as self-supported flower-like spheres, and nano Fe(0) particles were uniformly immobilized on the surface of their "flower petals", thus aggregation of Fe(0) particles was minimized. Then the Pb(II) removal performance was tested by batch experiments. The composite presented exceptional removal capacity (1986.6 mg/g) compared with Mg(OH)2 and nanoscale zerovalent iron due to the synergistic effect. Mechanisms were also explored by a comparative study of the phase, morphology, and surface valence state of composite before and after reaction, indicating that at least three paths are involved in the synergistic removal process: (1) Pb(II) adsorption by Mg(OH)2 (companied with ion exchange reaction); (2) Pb(II) reduction to Pb(0) by nanoscale zerovalent iron; and (3) Pb(II) precipitation as Pb(OH)2. The hydroxies provided by Mg(OH)2 can dramatically promote the role of nanoscale zerovalent iron as reducer, thus greatly enhancing the whole Pb(II) sequestration process. The excellent performance shown in our research potentially provides an alternative technique for Pb(II) pollution treatment. PMID:25826707

  20. Degradation of bromothymol blue by 'greener' nano-scale zero-valent iron synthesized using tea polyphenols

    EPA Science Inventory

    A green single-step synthesis of iron nanoparticles using tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenols is described that uses no added surfactants/polymers as a capping or reducing agents. The expeditious reaction between polyphenols and ferric nitrate occurs within few minutes at room te...

  1. Removal of Arsenic (III, V) from aqueous solution by nanoscale zero-valent iron stabilized with starch and carboxymethyl cellulose

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, synthetic nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) stabilized with two polymers, Starch and Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were examined and compared for their ability in removing As (III) and As (V) from aqueous solutions as the most promising iron nanoparticles form for arsenic removal. Batch operations were conducted with different process parameters such as contact time, nanoparticles concentration, initial arsenic concentration and pH. Results revealed that starch stabilized particles (S-nZVI) presented an outstanding ability to remove both arsenate and arsenite and displayed?~?36.5% greater removal for As (V) and 30% for As (III) in comparison with CMC-stabilized nanoparticles (C-nZVI). However, from the particle stabilization viewpoint, there is a clear trade off to choosing the best stabilized nanoparticles form. Removal efficiency was enhanced with increasing the contact time and iron loading but reduced with increasing initial As (III, V) concentrations and pH. Almost complete removal of arsenic (up to 500 ?g/L) was achieved in just 5 min when the S-nZVI mass concentration was 0.3 g/L and initial solution pH of 7?±?0.1. The maximum removal efficiency of both arsenic species was obtained at pH?=?5?±?0.1 and starched nanoparticles was effective in slightly acidic and natural pH values. The adsorption kinetics fitted well with pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption data obeyed the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14 mg/g for arsenic (V), and 12.2 mg/g for arsenic (III). It could be concluded that starch stabilized Fe0 nanoparticles showed remarkable potential for As (III, V) removal from aqueous solution e.g. contaminated water. PMID:24860660

  2. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ishai; Jacov, Osnat Merom; Cortis, Andrea; Berkowitz, Brian

    2012-07-25

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented, for catalytic transformation of organic contaminants in water. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with nZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron nanoparticles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material resulting in faster rates of remediation. The composite material rapidly degrades or transforms completely a large spectrum of water contaminants, including halogenated solvents like TCE, PCE, and cis-DCE, pesticides like alachlor, atrazine and bromacyl, and common ions like nitrate, within minutes to hours. A field experiment where contaminated groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was conducted together with a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions. PMID:22680618

  3. Removal of uranium (VI) from aqueous systems by nanoscale zero-valent iron particles suspended in carboxy-methyl cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu (Ho?tuc), Ioana-Carmen; Filip, Petru; Humelnicu, Doina; Humelnicu, Ionel; Scott, Thomas Bligh; Crane, Richard Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Carboxy-methyl-cellulose (CMC), a common "delivery vehicle" for the subsurface deployment of iron nanoparticles (INP) has been tested in the current work for the removal of aqueous uranium from synthetic water samples. A comparison of the removal of aqueous uranium from solutions using carboxy-methyl-cellulose with and without iron nanoparticles (CMC-INP and CMC, respectively) was tested over a 48 h reaction period. Analysis of liquid samples using spectrophotometry determined a maximum sorption capacity of uranium, Qmax, of 185.18 mg/g and 322.58 mg/g for CMC and CMC-INP respectively, providing strong evidence of an independent aqueous uranium removal ability exhibited by CMC. The results point out that CMC provides an additional capacity for aqueous uranium removal. Further tests are required to determine whether similar behaviour will be observed for other aqueous contaminant species and if the presence of CMC within a INP slurry inhibits or aids the reactivity, reductive capacity and affinity of INP for aqueous contaminant removal.

  4. Photo degradation of methyl orange an azo dye by advanced Fenton process using zero valent metallic iron: influence of various reaction parameters and its degradation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gomathi Devi, L; Girish Kumar, S; Mohan Reddy, K; Munikrishnappa, C

    2009-05-30

    Advanced Fenton process (AFP) using zero valent metallic iron (ZVMI) is studied as a potential technique to degrade the azo dye in the aqueous medium. The influence of various reaction parameters like effect of iron dosage, concentration of H(2)O(2)/ammonium per sulfate (APS), initial dye concentration, effect of pH and the influence of radical scavenger are studied and optimum conditions are reported. The degradation rate decreased at higher iron dosages and also at higher oxidant concentrations due to the surface precipitation which deactivates the iron surface. The rate constant for the processes Fe(0)/UV and Fe(0)/APS/UV is twice compared to their respective Fe(0)/dark and Fe(0)/APS/dark processes. The rate constant for Fe(0)/H(2)O(2)/UV process is four times higher than Fe(0)/H(2)O(2)/dark process. The increase in the efficiency of Fe(0)/UV process is attributed to the cleavage of stable iron complexes which produces Fe(2+) ions that participates in cyclic Fenton mechanism for the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The increase in the efficiency of Fe(0)/APS/UV or H(2)O(2) compared to dark process is due to continuous generation of hydroxyl radicals and also due to the frequent photo reduction of Fe(3+) ions to Fe(2+) ions. Though H(2)O(2) is a better oxidant than APS in all respects, but it is more susceptible to deactivation by hydroxyl radical scavengers. The decrease in the rate constant in the presence of hydroxyl radical scavenger is more for H(2)O(2) than APS. Iron powder retains its recycling efficiency better in the presence of H(2)O(2) than APS. The decrease in the degradation rate in the presence of APS as an oxidant is due to the fact that generation of free radicals on iron surface is slower compared to H(2)O(2). Also, the excess acidity provided by APS retards the degradation rate as excess H(+) ions acts as hydroxyl radical scavenger. The degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) using Fe(0) is an acid driven process shows higher efficiency at pH 3. The efficiency of various processes for the de colorization of MO dye is of the following order: Fe(0)/H(2)O(2)/UV>Fe(0)/H(2)O(2)/dark>Fe(0)/APS/UV>Fe(0)/UV>Fe(0)/APS/dark>H(2)O(2)/UV approximately Fe(0)/dark>APS/UV. Dye resisted to degradation in the presence of oxidizing agent in dark. The degradation process was followed by UV-vis and GC-MS spectroscopic techniques. Based on the intermediates obtained probable degradation mechanism has been proposed. The result suggests that complete degradation of the dye was achieved in the presence of oxidizing agent when the system was amended with iron powder under UV light illumination. The concentration of Fe(2+) ions leached at the end of the optimized degradation experiment is found to be 2.78 x 10(-3)M. With optimization, the degradation using Fe(0) can be effective way to treat azo dyes in aqueous solution. PMID:18805635

  5. Biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron treatment of alkaline Cr(VI) leachate and chromite ore processing residue

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Mathew P.; Coker, Victoria S.; Parry, Stephen A.; Pattrick, Richard A.D.; Thomas, Russell A.P.; Kalin, Robert; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Highly reactive nano-scale biogenic magnetite (BnM), synthesized by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, was tested for the potential to remediate alkaline Cr(VI) contaminated waters associated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The performance of this biomaterial, targeting aqueous Cr(VI) removal, was compared to a synthetic alternative, nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). Samples of highly contaminated alkaline groundwater and COPR solid waste were obtained from a contaminated site in Glasgow, UK. During batch reactivity tests, Cr(VI) removal from groundwater was inhibited by ?25% (BnM) and ?50% (nZVI) when compared to the treatment of less chemically complex model pH 12 Cr(VI) solutions. In both the model Cr(VI) solutions and contaminated groundwater experiments the surface of the nanoparticles became passivated, preventing complete coupling of their available electrons to Cr(VI) reduction. To investigate this process, the surfaces of the reacted samples were analyzed by TEM-EDX, XAS and XPS, confirming Cr(VI) reduction to the less soluble Cr(III) on the nanoparticle surface. In groundwater reacted samples the presence of Ca, Si and S was also noted on the surface of the nanoparticles, and is likely responsible for earlier onset of passivation. Treatment of the solid COPR material in contact with water, by addition of increasing weight % of the nanoparticles, resulted in a decrease in aqueous Cr(VI) concentrations to below detection limits, via the addition of ?5% w/w BnM or ?1% w/w nZVI. XANES analysis of the Cr K edge, showed that the % Cr(VI) in the COPR dropped from 26% to a minimum of 4–7% by the addition of 5% w/w BnM or 2% w/w nZVI, with higher additions unable to reduce the remaining Cr(VI). The treated materials exhibited minimal re-mobilization of soluble Cr(VI) by re-equilibration with atmospheric oxygen, with the bulk of the Cr remaining in the solid fraction. Both nanoparticles exhibited a considerable capacity for the remediation of COPR related Cr(VI) contamination, with the synthetic nZVI demonstrating greater reactivity than the BnM. However, the biosynthesized BnM was also capable of significant Cr(VI) reduction and demonstrated a greater efficiency for the coupling of its electrons towards Cr(VI) reduction than the nZVI. PMID:26109747

  6. Aquifer modification: an approach to improve the mobility of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles used for in situ groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MicicBatka, Vesna; Schmid, Doris; Marko, Florian; Velimirovic, Milica; Wagner, Stephan; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Successful emplacement of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) within the contaminated source zone is a prerequisite for the use of nZVI technology in groundwater remediation. Emplacement of nZVI is influenced i.e., by the injection technique and the injection velocity applied, as well as by the mobility of nZVI in the subsurface. Whereas processes linked to the injection can be controlled by the remediation practitioners, the mobility of nZVI in the subsurface remains limited. Even though mobility of nZVI is somewhat improved by surface coating with polyelectrolytes, it is still greatly affected by the groundwater composition and physical and chemical heterogeneities of aquifer grains. In order to promote mobility of nZVI it is needed to alter the surface charge heterogeneities of aquifer grains. Modifying the aquifer grain's surfaces by means of polyelectrolyte coating is an approach proposed to increase the overall negative surface charge of the aquifer grain surfaces, hinder deposition of nZVI onto aquifer grains, and finally promote nZVI mobility. In this study the effect of different polyelectrolytes on the nZVI mobility is tested in natural sands deriving from real brownfield sites that are proposed to be remediated using the nZVI technology. Sands collected from brownfield sites were characterized in terms of grain size distribution, mineralogical and chemical composition, and organic carbon content. Furthermore, surface charge of these sands was determined in both, low- and high ionic strength background solutions. Finally, changes of the sand's surface charges were examined after addition of the proposed aquifer modifiers, lignin sulfonate and humic acid. Surface charge of brownfield sands in low ionic strength background solution is more negative compared to that in high ionic strength background solution. An increase in negative surface potential of brownfield sand was recorded when aquifer modifiers were applied in a background solution with low ionic strength, indicating their potential to improve nZVI mobility under comparable environmental conditions. In contrast, no significant change of the surface potential of brownfield sand was observed when aquifer modifiers were applied in a background solution with high ionic strength. The potential of the aquifer modifiers to promote the mobility of nZVI was furthermore tested in flow-through columns, starting with the one filled with natural quartz sand with rough surface, low ionic strength background solutions and pre-injecting lignin sulfonate in concentration of 50 mg/L. The preliminary results showed that the pre-injection of lignin sulfonate does increase mobility of nZVI under this experimental condition. Further mobility tests will be carried out in order to elucidate the potential of the aquifer modifiers to promote the mobility of nZVI in sands with a complex mineralogy and in the background solutions with varying ionic strength, in order to account for the condition that resemble those at polluted sites. This research receives funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n°309517.

  7. [Influence of inorganic ions and humic acid on the removal of Pb(II) and Hg(II) in water by zero-valent iron].

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiu-Ling; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Qiu, Xin-Kai

    2014-08-01

    The effects of Ca2+, Cl- and humic acid (HA) on the removal rates of Pb(II) and Hg(II) in water by zero-valent (ZVI) and the kinetic characteristics were studied, and the removal mechanism of Pb(II) and Hg(II) by ZVI were preliminarily investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that the removal mechanism of Pb(II) might mainly be attributed to the adsorption and co-precipitation of ZVI, while that of Hg(II) might mainly be attributed to the oxidation-reduction of ZVI. With the increase of Ca2+ concentration, the removal rates of Hg(II) and Pb(II) showed the trends of gradual increase and slight decrease, respectively. The Hg(II) removal increased with increasing Cl- concentration, whereas no obvious increase in Pb(II) removal was observed. The removal rates of Hg(II) and Pb(II) showed the trends of slow increase and slow decrease with increasing HA concentration, respectively. When Ca2+, Cl- and HA coexisted, the removal rates of Hg(II) and Pb(II) reached 99.71% and 97.95%, respectively. The removal processes of Pb(II) and Hg(II) could be described by pseudo first-order reaction kinetic equations when Ca2+, Cl- and HA existed alone and in combination. The removal rate constant of Pb(II) was the maxinum (0.024 0 min(-1)) when 5 mg x L(-1) HA existed alone, whereas that of Hg(II) was the maximum (0.0169 min(-1)) when 0.80 mmol x L(-1) Ca2+ existed alone. PMID:25338370

  8. Uranium(VI) reduction by nanoscale zero-valent iron in anoxic batch systems: The role of Fe(II) and Fe(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Sen; Chen, Yongheng; Xiang, Wu; Bao, Zhengyu; Liu, Chongxuan; Deng, Baolin

    2014-12-01

    The role of Fe(II) and Fe(III) on U(VI) reduction by nanoscale zerovalent iron (nanoFe0) was investigated using two iron chelators 1,10-phenanthroline and triethanolamine (TEA) under a CO2-free anoxic condition. The results showed U(VI) reduction was strongly inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline and TEA in a pH range from 6.92 to 9.03. For instance, at pH 6.92 the observed U(VI) reduction rates decreased by 80.7% and 82.3% in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline and TEA, respectively. The inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complexes between 1,10-phenanthroline and Fe(II) or TEA and Fe(III). In the absence of iron chelators, U(VI) reduction can be enhanced by surface-bound Fe(II) on nanoFe0. Our results suggested that Fe(III) and Fe(II) probably acted as an electron shuttle to mediate the transfer of electrons from nanoFe0 to U(VI), therefore a combined system with Fe(II), Fe(III) and nanoFe0 can facilitate the U(VI) reductive immobilization in the contaminated groundwater.

  9. Reduction and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metal ions using combined zero valent iron and anaerobic bacteria. Year one technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Weathers, L.J.; Katz, L.E.

    1997-10-01

    'The objective of this project is to design a combined abiotic/microbial, reactive, permeable, in-situ barrier with sufficient reductive potential to prevent downgradient migration of toxic metal ions. The field-scale application of this technology would utilize anaerobic digester sludge, Fe(O) particles for supporting anaerobic biofilms, and suitable aquifer material for construction of the barrier. The major goals for Year 1 were to establish the sulfate reducing mixed culture, to obtain sources of iron metal, and to conduct background experiments which will establish baseline rates for abiotic chromium reduction rates. Research completed to date is described.'

  10. Reductive dechlorination of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin by nanosized zero-valent zinc: modeling of rate kinetics and congener profile.

    PubMed

    Bokare, Varima; Jung, Ju-Lim; Chang, Yoon-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-04-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), a group of recalcitrant toxic compounds, are ubiquitous in nature. Amongst them, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) is not only prevalent in soil and sediment due to its high lipophilicity and hydrophobicity, but also detected in ground water and surface water. The present study examined the degradation of OCDD in aqueous solutions using four different zero-valent metal nanoparticles; zero-valent aluminum (nZVAL), zero-valent zinc (nZVZ), zero-valent iron (nZVI) and zero-valent nickel (nZVN). Only nZVZ was found to efficiently degrade OCDD into lower chlorinated congeners [OCDD ? 1,2,3,4,6,7,9-HxCDD (63%)? 1,2,3,6,8,9-HpCDD (21%) ? 1,2,4,7,8-PeCDD (46%) ? 1,2,4,7-TeCDD (19%)] under ambient conditions. Simulations were also performed to predict the OCDD dechlorination pathway using a linear free energy relationship (LFER) model. Additionally, toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) and homologue patterns were calculated by LFER modeling. The experimentally observed congener profiles were in excellent agreement with the model-predicted results, especially considering the complexity of the OCDD dechlorination pathway (256 theoretically possible reactions). This study proposes nZVZ as a suitable candidate for OCDD dechlorination and constitutes the first report on OCDD degradation using zero-valent metal nanoparticles under ambient conditions. PMID:23500419

  11. Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (NZVI) supported on sineguelas waste for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution: kinetics, thermodynamic and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, M; Soleymanzadeh, M; Salvacion, J W L; SalimiVahid, F

    2014-07-15

    In this study, the synthesis and characterization of a new adsorbent containing nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (NZVI) decorated sineguelas waste (S-NaOH-NZVI) from agriculture biomass was investigated for the adsorption/reduction of inorganic pollution such as Pb(II) ions. The combination of ZVI particles on the surface of sineguelas waste can help to overcome the disadvantage of ultra-fine powders which may have strong tendency to agglomerate into larger particles, resulting in an adverse effect on both effective surface area and catalyst performance. The synthesized materials were characterized with different methods such as FT-IR, BET, XRD, TEM and pHPZC. Good dispersion of NZVI particles (ca. 10-70nm) on the sineguelas waste was observed. The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature were studied. The adsorption of Pb(II) ions has been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms models have also been used to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation. The thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H and ?S) indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 25-80°C. XRD analysis indicated the presence of Pb(0) on the S-NaOH-NZVI surface. This study suggests that the modified sineguelas waste by NZVI particles can be prepared at low cost and the materials are environmentally benign for the removal of Pb(II) ions, and likely many other heavy metal ions, from water. PMID:24863789

  12. FINAL REPORT. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE REMOVAL OF CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUND AND WASTE WATER VIA REDUCTION BY ZERO-VALENT METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites, and in other areas of the U.S. A potential remediation method is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron (ZVI). We ar...

  13. Mitigation of Irrigation Water Using Zero-Valent Iron Treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant problems have occurred in the U.S. with regard to the contamination of produce by pathogenic bacteria. Minimally processed produce lacks the processing and preparation hurdles, such as cooking, to aid in reduction or elimination of the occasional and incidental contamination that can le...

  14. USE OF ZERO-VALENT IRON FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suwannee Junyapoon

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays many water resources are polluted by anthropogenic sources including household and agricultural waste and industrial processes. Public concern over the environmental impact of wastewater pollution has increased. Several conventional wastewater treatment techniques, i.e. chemical coagulation, adsorption, activated sludge, have been applied to remove the pollution, however there are still some limitations, especially that of high operation costs. The use

  15. Assessing Arsenic Removal By Zero-Valent Iron Under

    E-print Network

    4 N2 + 4 4 N2 - 5 4 HOCl + 6 4 HOCl - 7 5.5 O2 + 8 5.5 O2 - 9 5.5 N2 + 10 5.5 N2 - 11 5.5 HOCl + 12 5.5 HOCl - 13 7 O2 + 14 7 O2 - 15 7 N2 + 16 7 N2 - 17 7 HOCl + 18 7 HOCl - 19 8.5 O2 + 20 8.5 O2 - 21 8.5 N2 + 22 8.5 N2 - 23 8.5 HOCl + 24 8.5 HOCl - 25 10 O2 + 26 10 O2 - 27 10 N2 + 28 10 N2 - 29 10

  16. Degradation of organic and inorganic contaminants by zero valent iron

    E-print Network

    Malla, Deepak Babu

    1997-01-01

    and Tratynek (1994). Weber (1996) conducted the reduction of a probe molecule, 4-aminoazobenzene (4-AAB), in bound and free phases. He observed the reduction of the 4-AAB to aniline with free 4-AAB and no reduction occurred in the case of bound 4-AAB, which... formation will have lower equilibrium solution activities than the pure solid phases. Therefore, the formation of solid solution is desirable for remediation. 11 3. 4 Reduction of Nitroaromatic Compounds ZVMs can also reduce NACs to aniline via nitroso...

  17. Reduction of N-nitrosodimethylamine with zero-valent zinc.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Chen, Zhong-lin; Tong, Li-na; Yang, Lei; Shen, Ji-min; Wang, Bin-yuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Yu; Chen, Qian

    2013-01-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is known as the disinfection by-product and the pollutant in the source water. Reduction with zero-valent zinc (Zn(0)) was investigated as a potential technology to treat NDMA. The results showed that Zn(0) was effective for NDMA reduction at initial pH 7.0. There were lag period and rapid period during the process, the corresponding zero-order rate constant (k(zero)) was 2.968 ± 0.245 ?g L(-1) h(-1) ([Zn(0)](0) = 10g L(-1)),the mass normalized pseudo-first-order rate (k(M)) was 0.1215 ± 0.0171 L g(-1) h(-1). The reactivity of zinc on NDMA removal was consistent with the zinc corrosion rate. NDMA had little effect on the corrosion of zinc. Lower solution pH benefited the reduction of NDMA with Zn(0). The consumption of the oxygen and the localized acidification should be the cause of the shift from lag to rapid reaction period in the aerobic experiments. 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, UDMH), dimethylamine (DMA) were detected as the products of NDMA degradation. The nitrogen mass balance at 24 h was 56%, the loss can be due to the formation of ammonium, the degradation of UDMH and other unmeasured products. DMA formed during the degradation of UDMH with Zn(0), the nitrogen loss could be caused by the formation of unmeasured products. Catalytic hydrogenation is proposed to be the mechanism based on the results and the redox properties of zinc and NDMA. One reduction process is: the active hydrogen atoms initially cleave and reduce the N=O bond in NDMA, generating UDMH. Then the N-N bond in UDMH is cleaved to form DMA and ammonium. PMID:23084118

  18. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent metal - field experiment results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, I.; Merom Jacov, O.; Berkowitz, B.

    2010-12-01

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero valent iron (ZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with ZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nanosized ZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron particles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material and in turn faster rates of remediation. The ability of the material to degrade or transform rapidly and completely a large spectrum of water pollutants will be demonstrated, based on results from two field site experiments where polluted groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was treated. In addition a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions will be presented.

  19. Liquid-liquid Extraction Methods to Determine Reductive Dechlorination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by Zero-valent Metals and Zero-valent Bimetals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Hak Choi; Sang June Choi; Young-Hun Kim

    2008-01-01

    The reductive dechlorination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was studied using zero-valent metals (ZVMs) and bimetals. A reliable extraction method was required to distinguish the removal by chemical transformation from the removal by physical adsorption on the ZVMs or bimetal. Three liquid–liquid extraction methods with ethyl acetate were evaluated by conducting mass recovery tests in the ZVM-chlorophenol systems. A typical liquid–liquid extraction

  20. Zero-Valent Metallic Treatment System and Its Application for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    PCBs are removed from contaminated media using a treatment system including zero-valent metal particles and an organic hydrogen donating solvent. The treatment system may include a weak acid in order to eliminate the need for a coating of catalytic noble metal on the zero-valent metal particles. If catalyzed zero-valent metal particles are used, the treatment system may include an organic hydrogen donating solvent that is a non-water solvent. The treatment system may be provided as a "paste-like" system that is preferably applied to natural media and ex-situ structures to eliminate PCBs.

  1. Enhanced decolorization of methyl orange using zero-valent copper nanoparticles under assistance of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Song, Yuan; Wang, Shuai; Tao, Zheng; Yu, Shuili; Liu, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    The rate of reduction reactions of zero-valent metal nanoparticles is restricted by their agglomeration. Hydrodynamic cavitation was used to overcome the disadvantage in this study. Experiments for decolorization of methyl orange azo dye by zero-valent copper nanoparticles were carried out in aqueous solution with and without hydrodynamic cavitation. The results showed that hydrodynamic cavitation greatly accelerated the decolorization rate of methyl orange. The size of nanoparticles was decreased after hydrodynamic cavitation treatment. The effects of important operating parameters such as discharge pressure, initial solution pH, and copper nanoparticle concentration on the degradation rates were studied. It was observed that there was an optimum discharge pressure to get best decolorization performance. Lower solution pH were favorable for the decolorization. The pseudo-first-order kinetic constant for the degradation of methyl orange increased linearly with the copper dose. UV-vis spectroscopic and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analyses confirmed that many degradation intermediates were formed. The results indicated hydroxyl radicals played a key role in the decolorization process. Therefore, the enhancement of decolorization by hydrodynamic cavitation could due to the deagglomeration of nanoparticles as well as the oxidation by the in situ generated hydroxyl radicals. These findings greatly increase the potential of the Cu(0)/hydrodynamic cavitation technique for use in the field of treatment of wastewater containing hazardous materials. PMID:24948487

  2. Cryptic Role of Zero-Valent Sulfur in Metal and Metalloid Geochemistry in Euxinic Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helz, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Natural waters that are isolated from the atmosphere in confined aquifers, euxinic basins and sediment pore waters often become sulfidic. These waters are conventionally described simply as reducing environments. But because nature does not constrain their exposure to reducing equivalents (e.g. from organic matter) and oxidizing equivalents (e.g. from Fe,Mn oxides), these reducing environments in fact vary cryptically in their redox characteristics. The implications for trace metal and metalloid cycles are only beginning to be explored. The activity of zero-valent sulfur (aS0), a virtual thermodynamic property, is a potentially useful index for describing this variation. At a particular temperature and ionic strength, aS0 can be quantified from knowledge of pH and the total S(0) to total S(-II) ratio. Although data are incomplete, the deep waters of the Black Sea (aS0 ca. 0.3) appear to be more reducing than the deep waters of the Cariaco Basin (aS0 ca. 0.5) even though both are perennially sulfidic. An apparent manifestation is a greater preponderance of greigite relative to mackinawite in the Cariaco Basin. Interestingly, greigite is stable relative to mackinawite in both basins but predominates only at the higher aS0. Values of aS0 in sulfidic natural waters span the range over which Hg-polysulfide complexes gain predominance over Hg sulfide complexes. Competition between these ligands is thought to influence biological methylation, mercury's route into aquatic and human food chains. In sulfidic deep ground waters, the redox state and consequent mobility of As, a global human hazard, will depend on aS0. At intermediate sulfide concentrations, higher aS0 favors more highly charged and thus less mobile As(V) species relative to As(III) species despite the overall reducing characteristics of such waters. Helz, G.R. (2014) Activity of zero-valent sulfur in sulfidic natural waters. Geochem. Trans. In press.

  3. Polychlorinated ethane reaction with zero-valent zinc: pathways and rate control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, William A.; Ball, William P.; Roberts, A. Lynn

    1999-12-01

    Efficient design of zero-valent metal permeable `barriers' for the reduction of organohalides requires information regarding the pertinent reaction rates as well as an understanding of the resultant distribution of products. In this study, the pathways and kinetics for reaction of polychlorinated ethanes with Zn(0) have been examined in batch reactors. Reductive ?-elimination was the only route through which hexachloroethane (HCA), 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,1,2-TeCA), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TeCA), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) reacted. Pentachloroethane (PCA) reacted via concurrent reductive ?-elimination (93%) and hydrolysis (7%). As previously demonstrated, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) reacted predominantly via reductive ?-elimination. Attempts to correlate BET surface area-normalized rate constants ( kSA-BET) with one-electron reduction potential ( E1) met with limited success, as HCA, PCA, 1,1,1,2-TeCA, and 1,1,1-TCA reacted at nearly identical rates despite substantial differences in E1 values. Comparison of the pseudo-first-order rate constants ( kobs) for these species with rate constants ( kLa) obtained from a correlation for mass transfer to suspended particles revealed that the reaction of these species was mass transfer limited even though reaction rates were unaffected by mixing speed. Calculations suggest that mass transfer limitations may also play a role in the design of treatment systems for highly reactive species, with overall rate constants predicted to increase with flow velocity.

  4. Assessment of polyphenol coated nano zero valent iron for hexavalent chromium removal from contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Mystrioti, C; Sparis, D; Papasiopi, N; Xenidis, A; Dermatas, D; Chrysochoou, M

    2015-03-01

    Alternative plant extracts were examined as raw materials for the synthesis of nZVI from ferric solutions. Four plants were selected for evaluation, i.e. Camellia sinensis (green tea, GT), Syzygium aromaticum (clove, CL), Mentha spicata (spearmint, SM) and Punica granatum (pomegranate, PG). Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the reduction of Fe(III) with the herb extracts is not complete. Using the GT extract, approximately 28 mM of the initial 66 mM of Fe (42.4 %) are reduced to the elemental state Fe(0). The highest reduction of Fe(III), about 53 %, was achieved with PG and the lowest, only 15.6 %, with the SM extract. Additional batch experiments have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of nZVI, synthesized with GT, CL, SM and PG, for the removal of hexavalent chromium from a 0.96 mM solution. The highest reduction of Cr(VI) (96 %) was obtained using the nZVI suspension produced with PG juice. The other three nZVI suspensions, i.e. CL-nZVI, GT-nZVI, and SM-nZVI, had a comparable effectiveness corresponding to 70 % reduction of chromate. PMID:25512186

  5. Characteristics and Mobility of Zero-Valent Nano-Iron in Porous Media

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    .7.1 Methods - Hobby Metal Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.7.2 Methods - Commercially Available Metal Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.8 Conductance measurement

  6. Degradation of perchloroethylene in cosolvent solutions by zero-valent iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clayton J. Clark; P. S. C. Rao; Michael D. Annable

    2003-01-01

    Remediation of sites contaminated by chlorinated organic compounds is a significant priority in the environmental field. Subsequently, the addition of cosolvent solutions for in situ flushing of contaminated source zones has been successfully field tested. However, the treatment of effluent fluids in such cleanup efforts is an often overlooked component of this technology implementation. The purpose of this research was

  7. Detoxification of PAX21 ammunitions wastewater by zero-valent iron for microbial reduction of perchlorate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Se Chang Ahn; Daniel K. Cha; Byung J. Kim; Seok-Young Oh

    2011-01-01

    US Army and the Department of Defense (DoD) facilities generate perchlorate (ClO4?) from munitions manufacturing and demilitarization processes. Ammonium perchlorate is one of the main constituents in Army's new main charge melt-pour energetic, PAX-21. In addition to ammonium perchlorate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) are the major constituents of PAX-21. In order to evaluate microbial perchlorate reduction as a practical

  8. REMEDIATING RDX-CONTAMINATED WATER AND SOIL USING ZERO-VALENT IRON. (R825549C043)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Removal of chlorinated solvents from carbonate-buffered water by zero-valent iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Jiricek; Ondra Sracek; Vaclav Janda

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a ground level reactive cell, filled with Fe0, designed for the treatment of water contaminated by chlorinated solvents, having a total input concentration of approximately\\u000a 2 mg 1?1 of the principal contaminants trichloroethene and perchloroethene, was tested at the Milovice site in the Czech Republic.\\u000a A residence time of 1.62 days in the box was sufficient to

  10. 2.2 Zero-valent Iron Nanoparticles 2.2.1 Background

    E-print Network

    nanoparticles for the treatment of organic contaminants in groundwater. There are, however, few examples groundwater for almost 20 years (Senzaki and Kumagai 1988) and has been demonstrated in the field, and the removal of arsenic, lead, uranium, mercury, and hexavalent chromium (Nuxoll et al. 2003, Arnold

  11. Dechlorination of PCE by mixtures of green rust and zero-valent iron 

    E-print Network

    Marchal, Fabienne

    2002-01-01

    such as pH (8, 9, and 10), ZVI pretreatment, and preparation method of the mixtures (GR[S]?? synthesized in the presence of ZVI; GR[S]?? and ZVI mixed after preparation). For all the experimental conditions evaluated, the activities of these reductants...

  12. Influence of hydrogeochemical processes on zero-valent iron reactive barrier performance: A field investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liyuan Liang; Gerilynn R. Moline; Wiwat Kamolpornwijit; Olivia R. West

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical and mineralogical changes were evaluated at a field Fe0-PRB at the Oak Ridge Y-12 site concerning operation performance during the treatment of U in high NO3? groundwater. In the 5-year study period, the Fe0 remained reactive as shown in pore-water monitoring data, where increases in pH and the removal of certain ionic species persisted. However, coring revealed varying degrees

  13. Influence of hydrogeochemical processes on zero-valent iron reactive barrier performance: A field investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liyuan Liang; Gerilynn R. Moline; Wiwat Kamolpornwijit; Olivia R. West

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical and mineralogical changes were evaluated at a field Fe0-PRB at the Oak Ridge Y-12 site concerning operation performance during the treatment of U in high NO3- groundwater. In the 5-year study period, the Fe0 remained reactive as shown in pore-water monitoring data, where increases in pH and the removal of certain ionic species persisted. However, coring revealed varying degrees

  14. Influence of hydrogeochemical processes on zero-valent iron reactive barrier performance: A field investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liyuan; Moline, Gerilynn R.; Kamolpornwijit, Wiwat; West, Olivia R.

    2005-08-01

    Geochemical and mineralogical changes were evaluated at a field Fe 0-PRB at the Oak Ridge Y-12 site concerning operation performance during the treatment of U in high NO 3- groundwater. In the 5-year study period, the Fe 0 remained reactive as shown in pore-water monitoring data, where increases in pH and the removal of certain ionic species persisted. However, coring revealed varying degrees of cementation. After 3.8-year treatment, porosity reduction of up to 41.7% was obtained from mineralogical analysis on core samples collected at the upgradient gravel-Fe 0 interface. Elsewhere, Fe 0 filings were loose with some cementation. Fe 0 corrosion and pore volume reduction at this site are more severe due to the presence of NO 3- at a high level. Tracer tests indicate that hydraulic performance deteriorated: the flow distribution was heterogeneous and under the influence of interfacial cementation a large portion of water was diverted around the Fe 0 and transported outside the PRB. Based on the equilibrium reductions of NO 3- and SO 42- by Fe 0 and mineral precipitation, geochemical modeling predicted a maximum of 49% porosity loss for 5 years of operation. Additionally, modeling showed a spatial distribution of mineral precipitate volumes, with the maximum advancing from the interface toward downgradient with time. This study suggests that water quality monitoring, coupled with hydraulic monitoring and geochemical modeling, can provide a low-cost method for assessing PRB performance.

  15. Azo dye degradation by recycled waste zero-valent iron powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wellington S. Pereira; Renato S. Freire

    2006-01-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentado um método eficiente para a degradação de corantes, usando uma fonte de pó de ferro zero ambientalmente amigável (resíduo de um processo industrial). A influência de vários fatores experimentais (tais como: pH, massa de ferro, tamanho de partícula, concentração do substrato, atmosfera inerte ou oxidante) sobre a eficiência do ferro zero em reduzir o grupo cromóforo

  16. Aminoclay-templated nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) synthesis for efficient harvesting of

    E-print Network

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    , resulting in the smallest aggregated size and uniform coating of aminoclay nanoparticles onto nZVI due to electrostatic attraction between nZVI and aminoclay nanoparticles. This silica-coated nZVI composite (ratio 1.0) exhibited a highly positively charged surface ($+40 mV) and a ferromagnetic property ($30 emu gÃ?1

  17. Removal of Selenium from Wastewater using ZVI and Hybrid ZVI/Iron Oxide Process 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zhen

    2012-12-20

    CN- treatment. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) technology, with some successes in remediating toxic-metal contaminated groundwater remediation, emerges as a potential solution for addressing SeCN- problem. In this study, bench scale tests were conducted to investigate...

  18. Evaluating Trichloroethylene Degradation Using Differing Nano- and Micro-Scale Iron Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Cristina M.; Geiger, Cherie L.; Clausen, Christian A.; Billow, Alexa M.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Brooks, Kathleen B.

    2006-01-01

    Trichioroethylene, or TCE, is a central nervous system depressant and possible carcinogen, as well as a persistent groundwater pollutant. TCE exists in the aquifer either as free product in the form of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) or as a dissolved-phase constituent. It is only slightly soluble in water, so dissolution of the contaminant is a long-term process and in-situ remediation is difficult. To remedy this, NASA and the University of Central Florida developed Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron, or EZVI. The emulsion droplet contains ZVI particles and water encapsulated by an oil/surfactant membrane, and effectively penetrates to degrade DNAPL-phase TCE. To maximize the efficiency of this process, several commercially available ZVIs of radically different particle sizes and morphologies both in emulsion and as neat (unemulsified) metal were evaluated for relative effectiveness at TCE degradation.

  19. Ultrasound-assisted activation of zero-valent magnesium for nitrate denitrification: identification of reaction by-products and pathways.

    PubMed

    Ileri, Burcu; Ayyildiz, Onder; Apaydin, Omer

    2015-07-15

    Zero-valent magnesium (Mg(0)) was activated by ultrasound (US) in an aim to promote its potential use in water treatment without pH control. In this context, nitrate reduction was studied at batch conditions using various doses of magnesium powder and ultrasound power. While neither ultrasound nor zero-valent magnesium alone was effective for reducing nitrate in water, their combination removed up to 90% of 50 mg/L NO3-N within 60 min. The rate of nitrate reduction by US/Mg(0) enhanced with increasing ultrasonic power and magnesium dose. Nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrite (NO2(-)) were detected as the major reduction by-products, while magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 and hydroxide ions (OH(-)) were identified as the main oxidation products. The results from SEM-EDS measurements revealed that the surface oxide level decreased significantly when the samples of Mg(0) particles were exposed to ultrasonic treatment. The surface passivation of magnesium particles was successfully minimized by mechanical forces of ultrasound, which in turn paved the way to sustain the catalyst activity toward nitrate reduction. PMID:25781370

  20. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for water treatment of trace element contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to evaluate four iron-based filter materials for trace element contaminant water treatment. The iron-based filter materials evaluated were zero valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/hydroxide (IOH). Only fi...

  1. CARBON AND SULFUR ACCUMULATION AND IRON MINERAL TRANSFORMATION IN PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS CONTAINING ZERO-VALENT IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable reactive barrier technology is an in-situ approach for remediating groundwater contamination that combines subsurface fluid flow management with passive chemical treatment. Factors such as the buildup of mineral precipitates, buildup of microbial biomass (bio-fouling...

  2. Laboratory evaluation of zero valent iron and sulfur modified iron filter materials for agricultural drainage water treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On site filter treatment systems have the potential to remove nutrients and pesticides from agricultural subsurface drainage waters. The effectiveness and efficiency of this type of drainage water treatment will depend on the actual filter materials utilized. Two promising filter materials that coul...

  3. Formation of ferrihydrite and associated iron corrosion products in permeable reactive barriers of zero-valent iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furukawa, Yoko; Kim, Jin-Wook; Watkins, Janet; Wilkin, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    Ferrihydrite, which is known to form in the presence of oxygen and to be stabilized by the adsorption of Si, PO4 and SO4, is ubiquitous in the fine-grained fractions of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center (Elizabeth City, NC) and the Denver Federal Center (Lakewood, CO) studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The concurrent energy-dispersive X-ray data indicate a strong association between ferrihydrite and metals such as Si, Ca, and Cr. Magnetite, green rust 1, aragonite, calcite, mackinawite, greigite and lepidocrocite were also present, indicative of a geochemical environment that is temporally and spatially heterogeneous. Whereas magnetite, which is known to form due to anaerobic Fe0 corrosion, passivates the Fe0 surface, ferrihydrite precipitation occurs away from the immediate Fe0 surface, forming small (<0.1 microm) discrete clusters. Consequently, Fe0-PRBs may remain effective for a longer period of time in slightly oxidized groundwater systems where ferrihydrite formation occurs compared to oxygen-depleted systems where magnetite passivation occurs. The ubiquitous presence of ferrihydrite suggests that the use of Fe0-PRBs may be extended to applications that require contaminant adsorption rather than, or in addition to, redox-promoted contaminant degradation.

  4. Travel distance and transformation of injected emulsified zerovalent iron nanoparticles in the subsurface during two and half years.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W; Krug, Thomas A; Watling, Mark T; O'Hara, Suzanne K; Quinn, Jacqueline W; Ruiz, Nancy E

    2013-08-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effective mass destruction of chlorinated ethenes dominated by tetrachloroethene (PCE) using emulsified zerovalent iron (EZVI) nanoparticles of RNIP-10DS in a shallow aquifer (1-6 m below ground surface, BGS) at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, USA. Here we report test results on transport and transformation of injected EZVI in the subsurface. We employed two EZVI delivery methods: pneumatic injection and direct injection. Effective delivery of EZVI to the targeted zone was achieved with pneumatic injection showing a travel distance from injection points of up to 2.1 m and direct injection showing a travel distance up to 0.89 m. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies on particles harvested from well purge waters indicated that injected black colored NZVI (?-Fe(0)) was transformed largely to black colored cube-like and plate-like magnetites (Fe3O4, 0.1-1 ?m, 0-9 months), then to orange colored irregularly shaped lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH, 0.1-1 ?m, 9 months to 2.5 years), then to yellowish lath-like goethite (?-FeOOH, 2-5 ?m, 2.5 years) and ferrihydrite-like spherical particles (0.05-0.1 ?m) in the top portion of the aquifer (1-2 m BGS). No ?-Fe(0) was found in most monitoring wells three months after injection. The formed iron oxides appeared to have a wider range of particle size (submicron to 5 ?m) than the pristine NZVI (35-140 nm). Injected NZVI was largely transformed to magnetite (0.1-1 ?m) during two and half years in the lower portion of the aquifer (3-6 m). PMID:23562563

  5. Experimental design and response surface modelling for optimization of vat dye from water by nano zero valent iron (NZVI).

    PubMed

    Arabi, Simin; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, NZVI particles was prepared and studied for the removal of vat green 1 dye from aqueous solution. A four-factor central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface modeling (RSM) to evaluate the combined effects of variables as well as optimization was employed for maximizing the dye removal by prepared NZVI based on 30 different experimental data obtained in a batch study. Four independent variables, viz. NZVI dose (0.1-0.9 g/L), pH (1.5-9.5), contact time (20-100 s), and initial dye concentration (10-50 mg/L) were transform to coded values and quadratic model was built to predict the responses. The significant of independent variables and their interactions were tested by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Adequacy of the model was tested by the correlation between experimental and predicted values of the response and enumeration of prediction errors. The ANOVA results indicated that the proposed model can be used to navigate the design space. Optimization of the variables for maximum adsorption of dye by NZVI particles was performed using quadratic model. The predicted maximum adsorption efficiency (96.97%) under the optimum conditions of the process variables (NZVI dose 0.5 g/L, pH 4, contact time 60 s, and initial dye concentration 30 mg/L) was very close to the experimental value (96.16%) determined in batch experiment. In the optimization, R2 and R2adj correlation coefficients for the model were evaluated as 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. PMID:24362989

  6. Bench Scale Application of the Hybridized Zero Valent Iron Process for the Removal of Dissolved Silica From Water 

    E-print Network

    Morar, Nilesh Mohan

    2014-11-12

    with respect to dissolved SiO2 removal. Using ZVI grains with an average diameter of 5 microns optimal reagent dosages were determined to be 27.9 mg/L (0.5 mM) Fe^2+ and 10 mg/L (0.72 mM) to 15 mg/L (1.07 mM) NO3-N. With added Fe^2+ and nitrate at these dosages...

  7. Influence of various organic molecules on the reduction of hexavalent chromium mediated by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Huguet, Mario; Marshall, William D

    2009-08-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a priority pollutant in many countries. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is desirable as the latter specie is an essential nutrient for maintaining normal physiological function and also has a low mobility and bioavailability. A variety of naturally-occurring organic molecules (containing alpha-hydroxyl carbonyl, alpha-hydroxyl carboxylate, alpha-carbonyl carboxylate, phenolate, carboxylates and/or thiol groups, siderophore, ascorbic acid); chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid derivates, acetyacetone) and others were examined their reducing activity towards a surfactant preparation (Tween 20) containing Cr(VI) and Fe(0) under a variety of reaction conditions. An appreciable enhancement (up to 50-fold) of the pseudo-first-order rate constant was achieved at acidic and circum neutral pH values for those compounds capable of reducing Cr(VI) (alpha-hydroxyl carboxylate, ascorbic acid, cysteine). Comparable enhancements were obtained for certain chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid derivates and siderophores) which is attributed to the formation of complexes with reaction products, such as Cr(III) and Fe(III), which impede the precipitation of Cr(III) and Fe(III) hydroxides and Cr(x)Fe(1-)(x)(OH)(3) and thus reduce passivation of the Fe(0) surface. The results suggest that these molecules might be used in effective remediation mediated by Fe(0) of Cr(VI)-contaminated soils or groundwater in a wide range of pH, thus increasing reaction rates and long-term performance of permeable reductive barriers. PMID:19559460

  8. DIRECT PUSH METHODS FOR LOCATING AND COLLECTING CORES OF AQUIFER SEDIMENT AND ZERO-VALENT IRON FROM PERMEABLE REACYTIVE BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is often necessary to collect core samples that do not fit the normal sampling protocol. This Field Innovation Forum submission describes new methodology that enables researchers to collect soil samples in situations where the normal vertical sampling techniques will deliver ...

  9. Evaluation of Long Term Performance of Zero Valent Iron Filters for Arsenic Removal from Groundwater in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Poustie

    The arsenic contamination of groundwater throughout Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal is the largest and most serious poisoning in human history, with tens of millions of people exposed to toxic levels of arsenic. In western Bangladesh locally made filters are widely used to remove the arsenic and provide rural families with a source of safe drinking water.

  10. Reduction of Chromium(VI) mediated by zero-valent magnesium under neutral pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Giehyeon; Park, Jaeseon; Harvey, Omar R

    2013-03-01

    In an effort to assess the potential use of ZVMg in contaminant treatments, we examined Cr(VI) reduction mediated by ZVMg particles under neutral pH conditions. The reduction of Cr(VI) was tested with batch experiments by varying [Cr(VI)](0) (4.9, 9.6, 49.9 or 96.9 ?M) in the presence of 50 mg/L ZVMg particles ([Mg(0)](0) = 2.06 mM) at pH 7 buffered with 50 mM Na-MOPS. When [Cr(VI)](0) = 4.9 or 9.6 ?M, Cr(VI) was completely reduced within 60 min. At higher [Cr(VI)](0) (49.9 or 96.9 ?M), by contrast, the reduction became retarded at >120 min likely due to rapid ZVMg dissolution in water and surface precipitation of Cr(III) on ZVMg particles. Surface precipitation was observed only when [Cr(VI)](0) = 49.9 or 96.9 ?M and increased with increasing [Cr(VI)](0). The effect of dissolved oxygen was negligible on the rate and extent of Cr(VI) reduction. Experimental results indicated that Cr(VI) was reduced not directly by ZVMg but by reactive intermediates produced from ZVMg-water reaction under the experimental conditions employed in this study. In addition, the observed rates of Cr(VI) reduction appeared to follow an order below unity (0.19) with respect to [Cr(VI)](0). These results imply that ZVMg-mediated Cr(VI) reduction likely occurred via an alternative mechanism to the direct surface-mediated reduction typically observed for other zero-valent metals. Rapid and complete Cr(VI) reduction was achieved when a mass ratio of [ZVMg](0):[Cr(VI)](0) ? 100 at neutral pH under both oxic and anoxic conditions. Our results highlights the potential for ZVMg to be used in Cr(VI) treatments especially under neutral pH conditions in the presence of dissolved oxygen. PMID:23253471

  11. Use of Electrophoresis for Transporting Nano-Iron in Porous Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to evaluate if electrophoresis could transport surface stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) through fine grained sand with the intent of remediating a contaminant in situ. The experimental procedure involved determining the transport rates of poly...

  12. APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE ANALYSIS IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES: DEHALOGENATION OF CHLOROCARBONS WITH ZERO-VALENT IRON AND IRON-CONTAINING MINERAL SURFACES. (R828771C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER & SOILS USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS (PHASE I, CHROMIUM, CHLORINATED ORGANICS & ZERO-VALENT IRON) RSRP3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this research is to select an effective reductant for detoxification and immobilization of hexavalent chromium present in the soils/sediments collected from the old plating shop of the U.S. Coast Guard Air Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina. ...

  14. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: a comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron.

    PubMed

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-08-30

    A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p<0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H(2)O(2), were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate. PMID:22771343

  15. Biogeochemical Reactions and Mineralogical Characteristics in an Iron Reactive Barrier at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gu; D. Watson; D. Phillips

    2001-01-01

    A permeable iron reactive barrier was installed in late November, 1997 at the U.S. Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The biogeochemical reactions and mineralogical and hydrological characteristics in the barrier were investigated over an extended field operation ( ~3 years). Results indicated that zero-valent iron (Fe0) reacts with a number of groundwater constituents such

  16. Microbial Characterization of Groundwater Undergoing Treatment with a Permeable Reactive Iron Barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcio L. B. Da Silva; Richard L. Johnson; Pedro J. J. Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phylogenetic analyses of micro-organisms in,groundwater,samples from within and around a zero-valent iron (ZVI) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) identified several bacteria that could utilize H2 produced dur- ing anaerobic ZVI corrosion and residual guar biopolymer,used during PRB installation. Some of these bacteria are likely contributing to the removal of some groundwater constituents (i.e., sulfate). Bacteria concentrations increased from ? 10,

  17. Removal of TNT and RDX from water and soil using iron metal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Hundal; J. Singh; E. L. Bier; P. J. Shea; S. D. Comfort; W. L. Powers

    1997-01-01

    Contaminated water and soil at active or abandoned munitions plants is a serious problem since these compounds pose risks to human health and can be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial life. Our objective was to determine if zero-valent iron (Fe0) could be used to promote remediation of water and soil contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). As little as

  18. Characterization and Properties of Metallic Iron Nanoparticles: Spectroscopy, Electrochemistry, and Kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James T. Nurmi; Paul G. Tratnyek; Vaishnavi Sarathy; Donald R. Baer; James E. Amonette; Klaus H. Pecher; Chongmin Wang; John C. Linehan; Dean W. Matson; R. Lee Penn; Michelle D. Driessen

    2005-01-01

    There are reports that nano-sized zero-valent iron (Fe?) exhibits greater reactivity than micro-sized particles of Fe?, which may impart advantages for groundwater remediation or other environmental applications. However, most of these reports are preliminary in that they leave a host of potentially significant (and often challenging) material or process variables either uncontrolled or unresolved. To better understand the reactivity of

  19. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic determination of ammonium at sub-microgram level in waters and biological fluids following removal of nitrate from sample matrix by zerovalent iron nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manas Kanti Deb; Devsharan Verma

    2010-01-01

    Experimental parameters were optimized for rapid and precise determination of ammonium ion by FTIR spectroscopy in presence\\u000a of nitrate ion in water and in samples collected from humans. Nitrates, whose FTIR spectra strongly overlap with those of\\u000a ammonium ion, were removed from the sample matrix by treating it with zero-valent iron nanoparticles in acidic medium. The\\u000a infrared peak at 1,400 cm?1

  20. Contribution of the interfacial layer to the protection of emulsified lipids against oxidation.

    PubMed

    Berton, Claire; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Viau, Michèle; Genot, Claude

    2011-05-11

    The oxidative stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is highly dependent on the type of emulsifier. The purpose of this work was to investigate the specific role of the adsorbed emulsifiers on lipid oxidation of O/W emulsions. Emulsions of similar droplet size distribution stabilized by minimum amounts of proteins or surfactants were oxidized at 25 °C in the presence of equimolar iron-EDTA complex. The pH and the amount of emulsifier in the aqueous phase were also varied to investigate the role of the droplet charge and the emulsifier in the aqueous phase. Oxygen uptake, conjugated dienes (CD), and volatile compound formation demonstrated that the protein-stabilized interfaces are less efficient at protecting emulsified lipids against oxidation than surfactant-stabilized interfaces. The antioxidant effect of unadsorbed proteins was also confirmed. PMID:21480612

  1. THE EFFECT OF SMECTITE ON THE CORROSION OF IRON METAL

    SciTech Connect

    Balko, Barbara A.; Bosse, Stephanie A.; Cade, Anne E.; Jones-Landry, Elise F.; Amonette, James E.; Daschbach, John L.

    2012-04-24

    The combination of zero-valent iron and a clay-type amendment is often observed to have a synergistic effect on the rate of reduction reactions. In this paper, electrochemical techniques are used to determine the mechanism of interaction between the iron and smectite clay minerals. Iron electrodes coated with an evaporated smectite suspension (clay-modified iron electrodes, CMIEs) were prepared using five different smectites: SAz-1, SWa-1, STx-1, SWy-1, and SHCa-1. All the smectites were exchanged with Na+ and one sample of SWy-1 was also exchanged with Mg2+. Potentiodynamic potential scans and cyclic voltammograms were taken using the CMIEs and uncoated but passivated iron electrodes. These electrochemical experiments, along with measurements of the amount of Fe2+ and Fe3+ sorbed in the smectite coating, suggested that the smectite removed the passive layer of the underlying iron electrode during the evaporation process. Cyclic voltammograms taken after the CMIEs were biased at the active-passive transition potential for varying amounts of time suggested that the smectite limited growth of a passive layer, preventing passivation. These results are attributed to the Broensted acidity of the smectite as well as to its ability to sorb iron cations. Oxides that did form on the surface of the iron in the presence of the smectite when it was biased anodically seemed to be different than those that form on the surface of an uncoated iron electrode under otherwise similar conditions; this difference suggested that the smectite reacted with the Fe2+ formed from the oxidation of the underlying iron. No significant correlation could be found between the ability of the smectite to remove the iron passive film and the smectite type. The results have implications for the mixing of sediments and iron particles in permeable reactive barriers, underground storage of radioactive waste in steel canisters, and the use of smectite supports in preventing aggregation of nano-sized zero-valent iron.

  2. [Emulsified intermediate moisture foods].

    PubMed

    Fribourg, J L

    1978-01-01

    A water-in-oil emulsion with IMF behavior has been studied within DGRST Grant Nr. 75-7-0406. The dispersion of a sirupy aqueous phase of known aw into a more or less hardened fatty continuous phase was looked into through its effects, particularly how the fatty phase would modify the water behaviour of the dispersed aqueous phase. The emulsion was conventionally prepared by a preemulsion of the syrup into the lecithinated fat, an homogeneisation till enough dispersion and a centrifugation to get rid of free fat. Lecithin has to promote sufficient fat incorporation, correct dispersion and a final viscosity allowing pumpability. To get a cold centrifugate of enough consistency implies an efficient dispersion but before all a judicious choice of the continuous fatty phase, making allowance of organoleptic properties and shelf-life stability. The water behaviour has been worked at on two model systems, of initial phase volume phi = 0,36, with an internal phase made of partially inverted sucrose syrup (aw = 0,79) and an external fatty phase of either refined soybean oil or hydrogenated palm oil (m.p. 42 degrees C). These models respectively retained after centrifugation 12,5 p. 100 oil and 19,5 p. 100 fat; sorption-desorption isotherms were determined by the saturated salt solution method both at 37 degrees C and room temperature, exhibiting that the solid fat content of the continuous fatty phase positively reduces the water transfer velocity from-and-into the syrup. Such a W/O emulsified structure with a prevalent internal aqueous behaves like a pasty IMF, inherently protected against outside relative humidity variations; it also leads the system to a better consistency. PMID:707936

  3. Food emulsifiers—Science and art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nat H. Nash; Lawrence M. Brickman

    1972-01-01

    General classifications of food emulsifiers are presented, and their functions are discussed. Examples of many food products\\u000a are given, and recommended emulsifier usage levels are presented. Some of the food applications cited include: cakes, icings,\\u000a toppings, bread, sweet goods, frozen desserts, coffee whiteners, peanut butter, margarine and confectionery coatings.

  4. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  5. Study of formulation and stability of emulsions with polymeric emulsifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-France Bobin; Valérie Michel; Marie-Claude Martini

    1999-01-01

    Polymeric emulsifiers have appeared recently and have got emulsifying and thickness properties. These emulsifiers provide exceptional stability to oil-in-water-emulsions. This study shows formulations of new emulsifiers. The polymeric emulsifiers used were acrylate C10–C30 alkyl–acrylate cross polymer (Tr1–Tr2). They provide exceptional stability to oil-in-water emulsions at very low usage levels (0.1,0.3%), they can be used with any oil phase, easily prepared

  6. Implementation of fluidized granulated iron reactors in a chromate remediation process.

    PubMed

    Müller, P; Lorber, K E; Mischitz, R; Weiss, C

    2014-07-01

    A new approach concerning in-situ remediation on source ('hot-spot') decontamination of a chromate damage in connection with an innovative pump-and-treat-technique has been developed. Iron granulates show significant higher reduction rates, using fluidized bed conditions, than a literature study with a fixed bed installation of small-sized iron granules. First results from an abandoned tannery site concerning injections of sodium dithionite as a chromate reductant for the vadose zone in combination with a pump-and-treat-method, allying the advantages of granulated zero valent iron (ZVI), are reported. Reduction amounts of chromate have been found up to 88% compared with initial values in the soil after a soil water exchange of 8 pore volumes within 2.5 months. Chromate concentrations in the pumped effluent have been reduced to under the detection limit of 0.005 mg/L by treatment with ZVI in the pilot plant. PMID:24530188

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Sulfur Modified Iron for Use as a Filter Material to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    Where subsurface drainage practices are employed, fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields and municipal locations are commonly intercepted by the buried drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes producing adverse environmental impacts on these surface water bodies. On-site water filter treatment systems can be employed to prevent the release of agricultural nutrients/pesticides into adjacent waterways. Sulfur modified iron is a relatively unknown industrial product that may have promise for use as a filter material to remove contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. Sulfur modified iron (SMI) is a high surface area iron powder (zero valent iron) that has been altered via chemical reaction with pure sulfur to produce a sulfur/iron surface coating on the iron particles. A laboratory investigation was conducted with contaminant removal batch tests, saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, and saturated solute transport column experiments to evaluate the feasibility for using SMI to treat subsurface drainage waters. Contaminant removal batch tests showed that three SMI samples were much more effective removing nitrate (> 94% nitrate removed) than three zero valent iron samples (< 10% nitrate removed). Batch test results additionally showed that SMI removed greater that 94% of dissolved phosphate, but was not particularly effective removing the pesticide, atrazine (< 37% atrazine removed). Hydraulic conductivity tests indicated that all three SMI samples that were evaluated had sufficient hydraulic conductivity, much greater than the 1 x 10-3 cm/s standard used for stormwater sand filters. The saturated solute transport tests confirmed that SMI can be effective removing nitrate and phosphate from drainage waters. Analysis of column effluent also showed that the large majority of nitrate removed by SMI was converted to ammonium. Consequently, these laboratory findings support the use of SMI in agricultural drainage water filter treatment systems, particularly when nitrate and phosphate pollution are major environmental concerns.

  8. Iron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease and restless leg syndrome. Taking iron with levothyroxine can reduce this medication’s effectiveness. Levothyroxine (Levothroid®, Levoxyl®, Synthroid®, Tirosint®, and Unithroid®) is used ...

  9. Significance of Emulsifiers and Hydrocolloids in Bakery Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zlatica Kohajdová

    Nowadays, the use of additives has become a common practice in the baking industry. In this paper, the relevance two groups of these compounds (emulsifiers and hydrocolloids) for bakery applications are described. Emulsifiers are commonly added to commercial bakery products to improve bread quality and dough handling characteristics. Some frequently used emulsifiers are diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monodiglycerides and

  10. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero valent iron particles in a two-compartment cell is tested and compared to a more conventional combination of electrokinetic remediation and nZVI in a three-compartment cell. In the new two-compartment cell, the soil is suspended and stirred simultaneously with the addition of zero valent iron nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively. The highest removal with Soil 2 were 58% and 45%, in the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively, in the experiments without direct current. The pH of the soil suspension in the two-compartment treatment appears to be a determining factor for the PCB dechlorination, and this cell allowed a uniform distribution of the nanoparticles in the soil, while there was iron accumulation in the injection reservoir in the three-compartment cell. PMID:25841071

  11. Novel synthetic method of lingninamine—type asphalt emulsifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Baoguo; Yang Yirong; Pan Xuefeng; Wang Xiaoshui; Liu Guangping

    1992-01-01

    The slurry scaling with cationic emulsified asphalt, which is a new technique in highway construction, is rapidly extended\\u000a at home and abroad. The technique should apply an excellent slow set cationic emulsifier. Now, slow set emulsifiers are ligninamines\\u000a which are synthesized by trimethylamine-epichlorohydrin route. Owing to high price and unstable quality, the extending of\\u000a slurry scaling technique is affected seriously.

  12. Stimulation of Carbonate Reservoirs Using a New Emulsified Acid System 

    E-print Network

    Sayed, Mohammed Ali Ibrahim

    2013-05-15

    The scope of work can be divided into; the measurement of the rheological properties of a new emulsified acid system that can be suitable for high temperature applications, a study of the performance of the new emulsified acid in stimulating both...

  13. Formulation design for target delivery of iron nanoparticles to TCE zones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziheng; Acosta, Edgar

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (NZVI) are effective reducing agents for some dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, target delivery of iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones in the aquifer remains an elusive feature for NZVI technologies. This work discusses three strategies to deliver iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones. To this end, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleate (OL) ions were used as stable analogs for NZVI. The OL-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are rendered lipophilic via (a) the addition of CaCl2, (b) acidification, or (c) the addition of a cationic surfactant, benzethonium chloride (BC). Mixtures of OL and BC show promise as a target delivery strategy due to the high stability of the nanoparticles in water, and their preferential partition into TCE in batch experiments. Column tests show that while the OL-BC coated iron oxide nanoparticles remain largely mobile in TCE-free columns, a large fraction of these particles are retained in TCE-contaminated columns, confirming the effectiveness of this target delivery strategy. PMID:24096200

  14. Formulation design for target delivery of iron nanoparticles to TCE zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziheng; Acosta, Edgar

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (NZVI) are effective reducing agents for some dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, target delivery of iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones in the aquifer remains an elusive feature for NZVI technologies. This work discusses three strategies to deliver iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones. To this end, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleate (OL) ions were used as stable analogs for NZVI. The OL-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are rendered lipophilic via (a) the addition of CaCl2, (b) acidification, or (c) the addition of a cationic surfactant, benzethonium chloride (BC). Mixtures of OL and BC show promise as a target delivery strategy due to the high stability of the nanoparticles in water, and their preferential partition into TCE in batch experiments. Column tests show that while the OL-BC coated iron oxide nanoparticles remain largely mobile in TCE-free columns, a large fraction of these particles are retained in TCE-contaminated columns, confirming the effectiveness of this target delivery strategy.

  15. Effects of antioxidants and additional emulsifiers on the stability of emulsified milk fat in the photo/radical oxidation system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Hiyama, Shinichiro; Takase, Yoshihiko; Kadowaki, Akio; Hara, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on the oxidative deterioration of emulsified oils and fats differ depending on the oxidation conditions, oils and fats used, and type of emulsifier. In this study, milk fat was emulsified to obtain water-oil (O/W) emulsion using Tween20 as emulsifier. The antioxidative effects of several antioxidants with various lipophilic properties, such as ?-tocopherol (Toc), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), quercetin (Qu), green tea extract (GTE), and rooibos tea extract (RTE) were investigated, the effects of additional emulsifiers such as polyglycerol and sucrose esters of fatty acids on the oxidation stability of the emulsion were also investigated. Under oxidative conditions of 30°C in 650 lx, Toc was more effective than GTE in suppressing the increase of the peroxide value (PV, meq/kg) of the emulsified milk fat. Under these oxidative conditions, the antioxidative effect of GTE was enhanced by the addition of polyglycerol and sucrose esters of fatty acids. Under the oxidative conditions at 40°C in dark with 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) or 2,2'-azobis (2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN), Toc showed the most antioxidative effect on suppression of the increase of PV and anisidine value (AnV) of the emulsified milk fat. Furthermore, additional emulsifiers also showed suppressive effects on the increase of the PV and AnV of the emulsified milk fat even without any antioxidants. The effects of additional emulsifiers on the oxidative stability of O/W emulsions were enhanced with antioxidants such as Toc, EGCg, and Qu. PMID:25174675

  16. Emulsifier of Arthrobacter RAG-1: specificity of hydrocarbon substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, E; Perry, A; Gibson, D T; Gutnick, D L

    1979-01-01

    The purified extracellular emulsifying factor produced by Arthrobacter RAG-1 (EF-RAG) emulsified light petroleum oil, diesel oil, and a variety of crude oils and gas oils. Although kerosine and gasoline were emulsified poorly by EF-RAG, they were converted into good substrates for emulsification by addition of aromatic compounds, such as 2-methylnaphthalene. Neither aromatic nor aliphatic fractions of crude oil were emulsified by EF-RAG; however, mixtures containing both fractions were emulsified. Pure aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons were emulsified poorly by EF-RAG. Binary mixtures containing an aliphatic and an aromatic hydrocarbon, however, were excellent substrates for EF-RAG-induced emulsification. Of a variety of alkylcyclohexane and alkylbenzene derivatives tested, only hexyl- or heptylbenzene and octyl- or decylcyclohexane were effectively emulsified by EF-RAG. These data indicate that for EF-RAG to induce emulsification of hydrocarbons in water, the hydrocarbon substrate must contain both aliphatic and cyclic components. With binary mixtures of methylnaphthalene and hexadecane, maximum emulsion was obtained with 25% hexadecane. PMID:453821

  17. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  18. Effect of droplet size on the behavior and characteristics of emulsified acid 

    E-print Network

    Almutairi, Saleh Haif

    2008-10-10

    Emulsified acids have been extensively used in the oil industry since 1933. Most of the available research and publications discussed mainly the application of emulsified acid in the field. A fair number of the published work also discussed in depth...

  19. Effect of droplet size on the behavior and characteristics of emulsified acid

    E-print Network

    Almutairi, Saleh Haif

    2008-10-10

    Emulsified acids have been extensively used in the oil industry since 1933. Most of the available research and publications discussed mainly the application of emulsified acid in the field. A fair number of the published work also discussed in depth...

  20. Volatilization and sorption of dissolved mercury by metallic iron of different particle sizes: implications for treatment of mercury contaminated water effluents.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Julianne D; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2014-07-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the interactions between metallic iron particles and mercury (Hg) dissolved in aqueous solutions. The effect of bulk zero valent iron (ZVI) particles was tested by use of (i) granular iron and (ii) iron particles with diameters in the nano-size range and referred to herein as nZVI. The results show that the interactions between Hg(n+) and Fe(0) are dominated by Hg volatilization and Hg adsorption; with Hg adsorption being the main pathway for Hg removal from solution. Hg adsorption kinetic studies using ZVI and nZVI resulted in higher rate constants (k) for nZVI when k values were expressed as a function of mass of iron used (day(-1)g(-1)). In contrast, ZVI showed higher rates of Hg removal from solution when k values were expressed as a function iron particles' specific surface area (gm(-2)day(-1)). Overall, nZVI particles had a higher maximum sorption capacity for Hg than ZVI, and appeared to be an efficient adsorbent for Hg dissolved in aqueous solutions. PMID:24929302

  1. Antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of titanium oxide coating modified by iron ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yaxin; Cao, Huiliang; Qiao, Yuqin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-10-01

    In this work, zero valent iron nanoparticles (Fezero-NPs) and iron oxide nanoparticles (Feox-NPs) were synthesized at the subsurface and surface regions of titanium oxide coatings (TOCs) by plasma immersion ion implantation. This novel Fe-NPs/TOC system showed negligible iron releasing, great electron storage capability and excellent cytocompatibility in vitro. Importantly, the system showed selective antibacterial ability which can kill Staphylococcus aureus under dark conditions but has no obvious antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli. Owing to a bipolar Schottky barrier between Fezero-NPs/TOC and Fezero-NPs/Feox-NPs, electrons could be captured by the Fezero-NPs bounded at the subsurface region of the coating. This electron storage capability of the Fe-NPs/TOC system induced extracellular electron transportation and accumulation of adequate valence-band holes (h(+)) at the external side, which caused oxidation damage to S. aureus cells in the dark. No obvious biocide effect against E. coli resulted from lack of electron transfer ability between E. coli and substrate materials. This work may open up a novel and controlled strategy to design coatings of implants with antibacterial ability and cytocompatibility for medical applications. PMID:24914826

  2. Optimization of soil mixing technology through metallic iron addition.

    SciTech Connect

    Moos, L. P.

    1999-01-15

    Enhanced soil mixing is a process used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil. In this process, also known as soil mixing with thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, or SM/TESVE, a soil mixing apparatus breaks up and mixes a column of soil up to 9 m (30 ft) deep; simultaneously, hot air is blown through the soil. The hot air carries the VOCs to the surface where they are collected and safely disposed of. This technology is cost effective at high VOC concentrations, but it becomes cost prohibitive at low concentrations. Argonne National Laboratory-East conducted a project to evaluate ways of improving the effectiveness of this system. The project investigated the feasibility of integrating the SM/TESVE process with three soil treatment processes--soil vapor extraction, augmented indigenous biodegradation, and zero-valent iron addition. Each of these technologies was considered a polishing treatment designed to remove the contaminants left behind by enhanced soil mixing. The experiment was designed to determine if the overall VOC removal effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the SM/TESVE process could be improved by integrating this approach with one of the polishing treatment systems.

  3. Inhibition of bacterial growth by iron oxide nanoparticles with and without attached drug: Have we conquered the antibiotic resistance problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijo, Leisha M.; Jain, Priyanka; Malagodi, Angelina; Fornelli, F. Zuly; Hayat, Allison; Rivera, Antonio C.; French, Michael; Smyth, Hugh D. C.; Osi?ski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the top three leading causative opportunistic human pathogens, possessing one of the largest bacterial genomes and an exceptionally large proportion of regulatory genes therein. It has been known for more than a decade that the size and complexity of the P. aeruginosa genome is responsible for the adaptability and resilience of the bacteria to include its ability to resist many disinfectants and antibiotics. We have investigated the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa bacterial biofilms to iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles (NPs) with and without attached drug (tobramycin). We also characterized the susceptibility of zero-valent iron NPs, which are known to inactivate microbes. The particles, having an average diameter of 16 nm were capped with natural alginate, thus doubling the hydrodynamic size. Nanoparticle-drug conjugates were produced via cross-linking drug and alginate functional groups. Drug conjugates were investigated in the interest of determining dosage, during these dosage-curve experiments, NPs unbound to drug were tested in cultures as a negative control. Surprisingly, we found that the iron oxide NPs inhibited bacterial growth, and thus, biofilm formation without the addition of antibiotic drug. The inhibitory dosages of iron oxide NPs were investigated and the minimum inhibitory concentrations are presented. These findings suggest that NP-drug conjugates may overcome the antibiotic drug resistance common in P. aeruginosa infections.

  4. Emulsifying and Foaming Properties of a Derivatized Whey Protein Ingredient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Firebaugh; C. R. Daubert

    2005-01-01

    A derivatization procedure for the production of a cold gelling whey protein isolate (WPI) has been identified. The cold gelling derivatized whey protein isolate (dWPI) imparted greater viscosity and water holding ability when rehydrated at room temperature than unmodified whey powders. The objective of this study was to further characterize the foaming and emulsifying functionality of the derivatized ingredient. Samples

  5. Research of inverted emulsions properties on the base of new emulsifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, K.; Epikhin, A.; Novoseltsev, D.; Andropov, M.; Yanovsky, V.; Ulyanova, O.

    2014-08-01

    Emulsifiers on the base of tallol and ethanolamines derived acids have been researched in the paper. Electrical stability of emulsions drilling muds has been investigated. It is proved that synthesized emulsifiers according to emulsion stability can be divided into two groups. The first group is emulsifiers with high initial electrical stability but low emulsion stability under long-term storing, and the second group is emulsifiers with low electrical stability but with high emulsion stability. Emulsions flow characteristics have been researched. It is established that emulsifier on the base of ethanolamine provides better emulsion characteristics for drilling muds emulsions.

  6. Simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and non-ionic surfactant oxidation by peroxymonosulphate and iron powder.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Angela; Pagano, Michele; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Lopez, Antonio; Ciannarella, Ruggiero; Locaputo, Vito

    2013-05-01

    Some industrial wastewaters contain both hexavalent chromium and surfactants. In this work, their removal from aqueous solution by zero-valent iron (ZVI) and peroxymonosulphate (PMS) was studied using Brij 35 as a representative non-ionic surfactant. The performance of the ZVI/PMS system in the simultaneous removal of both pollutants was compared to that achieved with control solutions containing either Cr(VI) or Brij 35 separately. Reactions were carried out over 24h at initial pH=2.3 with variable initial amounts of Cr(VI) and Brij 35. The results showed that surfactant removal was enhanced in the system also containing Cr(VI). Surfactant degradation followed zero-order kinetics and produced formic acid as the main by-product, together with hydroxylated aldehydes, formates and alcohols that were identified by LC/MS. The presence of surfactant similarly enhanced Cr(VI) reduction, which also followed zero-order kinetics. Chromium removal was quantitative only when the initial chromium concentration was lower than 140 mg L(-1). Reduced chromium was mainly in the solution phase together with dissolved iron. Precipitation with NaOH was therefore required to definitively remove dissolved metals from the investigated system. PMID:23499224

  7. Effect of high pressure on the emulsifying behaviour of ?-lactoglobulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanda B. Galazka; Eric Dickinson; Dave A. Ledward

    1996-01-01

    The influence of high pressure (up to 800 MPa) on the emulsifying behaviour of ?-lactoglobulin has been investigated at neutral pH. Fine oil-in-water emulsions (0.4% w\\/w ?-lactoglobulin, 20% v\\/v oil) made with the pressure-treated protein were found to give substantially larger droplets than those made with the native protein. Visual creaming behaviour and changes in average droplet size have been

  8. Nano-scale metallic iron for the treatment of solutions containing multiple inorganic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Scott, T B; Popescu, I C; Crane, R A; Noubactep, C

    2011-02-15

    Although contaminant removal from water using zero-valent iron nanoparticles (INP) has been investigated for a wide array of chemical pollutants, the majority of studies to date have only examined the reaction of INP in simple single-contaminant systems. Such systems fail to reproduce the complexity of environmental waters and consequently fail as environmental analogues due to numerous competitive reactions not being considered. Consequently there is a high demand for multi-elemental and site-specific studies to advance the design of INP treatment infrastructure. Here INP are investigated using batch reactor systems over a range of pH for the treatment of water containing multi-element contaminants specifically U, Cu, Cr and Mo, selected to provide site-specific analogues for leachants collected from the Li?ava mine, near Oravi?a in South West Romania. Concurrently, a U-only solution was also analysed as a single-system for comparison. Results confirmed the suitability of nano-Fe(0) as a highly efficient reactive material for the aqueous removal of Cr(IV), Cu(II) and U(VI) over a range of pH applicable to environmental waters. Insufficient Mo(VI) removal was observed at pH >5.7, suggesting that further studies were necessary to successfully deploy INP for the treatment of geochemically complex mine water effluents. Results also indicated that uranium removal in the multi-element system was less than for the comparator containing only uranium. PMID:21115222

  9. Performance Evaluation of In-Situ Iron Reactive Barriers at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.B.

    2003-12-30

    In November 1997, a permeable iron reactive barrier trench was installed at the S-3 Ponds Pathway 2 Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The overall goal of the project is to evaluate the ability of permeable reactive barrier technology to remove uranium, nitrate, and other inorganic contaminants in groundwater and to assess impacts of biogeochemical interactions on long-term performance of the treatment system. Zero-valent iron (Fe0) was used as the reactive medium, which creates a localized zone of reduction or low oxidation reduction potential (ORP), elevated pH, and dissolved H{sub 2} as Fe{sup 0} corrodes in groundwater. These conditions favor the removal of metals and radionuclides (such as uranium and technetium) through redox-driven precipitation and/or sorption to iron corrosion byproducts, such as iron oxyhydroxides. The technology is anticipated to be economical and low in maintenance as compared with conventional pump-and-treat technology. Groundwater monitoring results indicate that the iron barrier is effectively removing uranium and technetium, the primary contaminants of concern, as anticipated from our previous laboratory studies. In addition to uranium and technetium, nitrate, sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium, and magnesium are also found to be removed, either partially or completely by the iron barrier. Elevated concentrations of ferrous ions and sulfide, and pH were observed within the iron barrier. Although ferrous iron concentrations were initially very high after barrier installation, ferrous ion concentrations have decreased to low to non-detectable levels as the pH within the iron has increased over time (as high as 9 or 10). Iron and soil core samples were taken in February 1999 and May 2000 in order to evaluate the iron surface passivation, morphology, mineral precipitation and cementation, and microbial activity within and in the vicinity of the iron barrier. Results indicate that most of the iron filings collected in cores were still loose and not clogged after approximately 2.5 years of barrier installation. However, significant amounts of cemented iron filings were observed in the upgradient portion of the iron. In particular, the cementation appeared to have increased significantly over time from the 1999 to 2000 coring events in both the upgradient and downgradient portions of the iron. Minerals identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) that have precipitated in the iron include iron sulfide, calcium carbonate (aragonite), iron oxyhydroxides (goethite, akagneite, amorphous), siderite (iron carbonate), makinawite, and green rusts. These mineral precipitants are responsible for the cementation observed within the iron barrier. Elevated microbial activity and increased diversity within and in the vicinity of the iron barrier were also observed, particularly denitrifiers and sulfate-reducers, which may have been responsible or partially responsible for the removal of nitrate and sulfate in groundwater and the formation of ferrous sulfide minerals within the iron barrier. Hydraulic gradients across the Pathway 2 site have remained relatively stable and consistent from east to west. Increases and decreases in the gradients across the site observed over the past 2.5 years appear to be primarily related to recharge during precipitation events and seasonal fluctuations. However, closer inspection of gradient fluctuations within the iron appear to indicate that cementation within the iron may be starting to impact groundwater flow through the iron. Since the spring of 1999, recharge events have had a more pronounced impact on hydraulic gradients observed between wells located upgradient, within, and downgradient of the iron. This data suggests that the connectivity of the iron and gravel in the upgradient portion of the trench to the iron and gravel in the downgradient portion of the trench may be decreasing over time due to cementation in the iron.

  10. EFFECT OF EMULSIFIERS ON TEXTURAL PROPERTIES OF WHOLE WHEAT TORTILLAS DURING STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All three emulsifiers tested (SSL, GMS, de-oiled lecithin) impacted the textural quality of 100% WW tortillas during storage. However, the amount of emulsifier incorporated into the formulation was crucial. SSL was more effective at its lowest usage level (0.125%), unlike the de-oiled lecithin, whi...

  11. Emulsifying agents from bacteria isolated during screening for cells with hydrophobic surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Neu; Karl Poralla

    1990-01-01

    Summary The culture supernatants of 126 bacterial strains isolated during screening for hydrophobic cell surfaces, were tested for the production of emulsifying agents. Forty-eight strains were found to produce effective emulsion-stabilizing substances during growth on glucose. The most effective emulsifying agents were isolated and could be divided into two chemical groups. The first group was separated from the isolated extracts

  12. Multiple W\\/O\\/W emulsions—Using the required HLB for emulsifier evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Schmidts; D. Dobler; A.-C. Guldan; N. Paulus; F. Runkel

    2010-01-01

    Stable emulsions are best formulated with emulsifiers or combinations of emulsifiers, which possess HLB values close to the required HLB of the oil phase. In this work, we have investigated the application of this established method to the development of multiple emulsions. This is of particular interest, since multiple emulsions are highly sensitive in terms of variations of the individual

  13. Effect of emulsifier pairs on physical stability of emulsions containing three different natural oils.

    PubMed

    Boonme, Prapaporn; Maneenuan, Duangkhae

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions containing 40% w/w natural oil (i.e., olive oil, rice bran oil, or sesame oil), 10% w/w emulsifier blend, and 50% w/w water. The hydrophile-lipophile balance system was used to calculate the amount of each non-ionic emulsifier in the formulations. All studied oils have an identical required hydrophile-lipophile balance of 7. In emulsifier blend, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (hydrophile-lipophile balance = 15.0) was fixed as a high hydrophile-lipophile balance emulsifier, while sorbitan monostearate (hydrophile-lipophile balance = 4.7) or sorbitan monooleate (hydrophile-lipophile balance = 4.3) was used as a low hydrophile-lipophile balance emulsifier. The effect of emulsifier pairs on physical properties of the prepared samples was investigated. The physical stability of the emulsions was evaluated at ambient temperature (? 30°C) after storage for 30 and 60 days. It was found that emulsifier pairs influenced both characteristics and stability of the samples. Sorbitan monostearate could provide stable emulsions of all studied natural oils when blended with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate while sorbitan monooleate could not. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that not only suitable hydrophile-lipophile balance but also suitable emulsifier pair were important parameters in emulsion formulations. PMID:25906630

  14. The preparation of magnetically guided lipid based nanoemulsions using self-emulsifying technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakandritsos, Aristides; Zboril, Radek; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Kallinteri, Paraskevi; Favretto, Marco E.; Parker, Terry L.; Mullertz, Anette; Fatouros, Dimitrios G.

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports an easy and highly reproducible preparation route, using self-emulsifying technology, for an orally administered high quality magnetically responsive drug delivery system. Hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles of about 5 nm in diameter were prepared and incorporated into the lipid core of the produced oil droplets of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (MagC18/SNEDDS). The produced nanoemulsion exhibits colloidal stability at high ionic strengths and temperatures. The observed value of the saturation magnetization at 2 K is ?4.1 emu g-1. The nanoemulsion displayed the magnetic properties of a non-interacting assembly of superparamagnetic particles and a low blocking temperature. Moreover the effect of MagC18/SNEDDS on biological systems in vitro was investigated in rodent fibroblasts (3T3 cells). The cytotoxicity studies show that none of the formulations tested affected cell activity significantly over the 24 h incubation. Such systems might have a potential use for oral delivery of poorly soluble compounds by extending the residence time of the formulation in the small intestine resulting in increased drug absorption values.

  15. The preparation of magnetically guided lipid based nanoemulsions using self-emulsifying technology.

    PubMed

    Bakandritsos, Aristides; Zboril, Radek; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Kallinteri, Paraskevi; Favretto, Marco E; Parker, Terry L; Mullertz, Anette; Fatouros, Dimitrios G

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports an easy and highly reproducible preparation route, using self-emulsifying technology, for an orally administered high quality magnetically responsive drug delivery system. Hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles of about 5 nm in diameter were prepared and incorporated into the lipid core of the produced oil droplets of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (MagC(18)/SNEDDS). The produced nanoemulsion exhibits colloidal stability at high ionic strengths and temperatures. The observed value of the saturation magnetization at 2 K is approximately 4.1 emu g(-1). The nanoemulsion displayed the magnetic properties of a non-interacting assembly of superparamagnetic particles and a low blocking temperature. Moreover the effect of MagC(18)/SNEDDS on biological systems in vitro was investigated in rodent fibroblasts (3T3 cells). The cytotoxicity studies show that none of the formulations tested affected cell activity significantly over the 24 h incubation. Such systems might have a potential use for oral delivery of poorly soluble compounds by extending the residence time of the formulation in the small intestine resulting in increased drug absorption values. PMID:20032554

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Styrene\\/Butyl Acrylate Emulsifier-Free Latex with 2-Acrylamido-2Methyl Propane Sulfonic Acid as a Reactive Emulsifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Chang; Lijuan Liu; Jin Zhang; Qiwei Pan; Meishan Pei

    2009-01-01

    A kind of emulsifier-free latex (FL) was successfully synthesized from styrene (St) and butyl acrylate (BA) with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) as a reactive emulsifier. The particle size of latex particles, stability against electrolytes, minimum film forming temperature (MFT) and water contact angle (CA) were evaluated and compared with a conventional latex (CL). Test results show that FL has

  17. Emulsifiers and thickeners on extrusion-cooked instant rice product.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin Peng; An, Hong Zhou; Jin, Zheng Yu; Xie, Zheng Jun; Zhuang, Hai Ning; Kim, Jin Moon

    2013-08-01

    Extrusion-cooked instant rice was prepared by optimizing the formulation with emulsifiers, glycerol monostearate (GMS), soybean lecithin (LC), and sodiumstearoyl lactylate (SSL), and thickeners, gum Arabic (GA), sodium alginate (SA), and sticky rice (SR). The emulsifiers addition caused increase of degree of gelatinization (DG), and decrease of water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), ?-amylase sensitivity, water soluble index (WAI) and adhesive for extrudates, while the thickeners addition increased extrudates DG, bulk density (BD), WSC, ?-amylase sensitivity, WAI, hydration rate (HR) and adhesiveness. Based on the data generated by a single additive at various levels, optimum formulation was obtained employing orthogonal matrix system with combination of the selected additives for extrusion cooking. Extrudates were evaluated for optimum hydration time followed by drying to prepare the finished product. Texture profile analysis and sensory evaluation indicate that quality of the finished product is equivalent to that of the round shaped rice and superior to a commercial instant rice product. This study also demonstrates possibility of value-added and versatile instant rice product development using broken rice. PMID:24425967

  18. Biogeochemistry of Two Types of Permeable Reafctive Barriers, Organic Carbon and Iron-bearing Organic Carbon for Mine Drainage treatment: Column experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Q.; Blowes, D

    2009-01-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are an alternative technology to treat mine drainage containing sulfate and heavy metals. Two column experiments were conducted to assess the suitability of an organic carbon (OC) based reactive mixture and an Fe{sup 0}-bearing organic carbon (FeOC) based reactive mixture, under controlled groundwater flow conditions. The organic carbon mixture contains about 30% (volume) organic carbon (composted leaf mulch) and 70% (volume) sand and gravel. The Fe{sup 0}-bearing organic carbon mixture contains 10% (volume) zero-valent iron, 20% (volume) organic carbon, 10% (volume) limestone, and 60% (volume) sand and gravel. Simulated groundwater containing 380 ppm sulfate, 5 ppm As, and 0.5 ppm Sb was passed through the columns at flow rates of 64 (the OC column) and 62 (the FeOC column) ml d{sup -1}, which are equivalent to 0.79 (the OC column) and 0.78 (the FeOC column) pore volumes (PVs) per week or 0.046 m d{sup -1} for both columns. The OC column showed an initial sulfate reduction rate of 0.4 {mu}mol g (OC){sup -1} d{sup -1} and exhausted its capacity to promote sulfate reduction after 30 PVs, or 9 months of flow. The FeOC column sustained a relatively constant sulfate reduction rate of 0.9 {mu}mol g (OC){sup -1} d{sup -1} for at least 65 PVs (17 months). In the FeOC column, the {delta}34S values increase with the decreasing sulfate concentration. The {delta}34S fractionation follows a Rayleigh fractionation model with an enrichment factor of 21.6%. The performance decline of the OC column was caused by the depletion of substrate or electron donor. The cathodic production of H{sub 2} by anaerobic corrosion of Fe probably sustained a higher level of SRB activity in the FeOC column. These results suggest that zero-valent iron can be used to provide an electron donor in sulfate reducing PRBs. A sharp increase in the {delta}13C value of the dissolved inorganic carbon and a decrease in the concentration of HCO{sub 3}{sup -} indicate that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is occurring in the first 15 cm of the FeOC column.

  19. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for drainage water phosphate treatment.

    PubMed

    Allred, Barry J; Racharaks, Ratanachat

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory investigation evaluated phosphate (PO4(3-)) drainage water treatment capabilities of four iron-based filter materials. The iron-based filter materials tested were zero-valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/ hydroxide (IOH). Only filter material retained on a 60-mesh sieve (> 0.25 mm) was used for evaluation. The laboratory investigation included saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, contaminant removal or desorption/dissolution batch tests, and low-to-high flow rate saturated solute transport column tests. Each of the four iron-based filter materials have sufficient water flow capacity as indicated by saturated hydraulic conductivity values that in most cases were greater than 1 x 10(-2) cm/s. For the 1, 10, and 100 ppm PO4(3-)-P contaminant removal batch tests, each of the four iron-based filter materials removed at least 95% of the PO4(3-)-P originally present. However, for the 1000 ppm PO4(3-)-P contaminant removal batch tests, IOH by far exhibited the greatest removal effectiveness (99% PO4(3-)-P removal), followed by SMI (72% PO4(3-)-P removal), then ZVI (62% PO4(3-)-P removal), and finally PIC (15% PO4(3-)-P removal). The desorption/dissolution batch test results, especially with respect to SMI and IOH, indicate that once PO4(3-) is adsorbed/precipitated onto surfaces of iron-based filter material particles, this PO4(3-) becomes fixed and is then not readily desorbed/dissolved back into solution. The results from the column tests showed that regardless of low or high flow rate (contact time ranged from a few hours to a few minutes) and PO4(3-) concentration (1 ppm or 10 ppm PO4(3-)-P), PIC, SMI, and IOH reduced PO4(3-)-P concentrations to below detection limits, while ZVI removed at least 90% of the influent PO4(3-)-P. Consequently, these laboratory results indicate that the ZVI, PIC, SMI, and IOH filter materials all exhibit promise for phosphate drainage water treatment. PMID:25327026

  20. Enhanced absorption of n-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have important nutrition and disease management properties. Presently fish oil (FO) supplementation relies on capsular triglyceride. Flavored emulsified lipid preparations may provide an improved approach to FO del...

  1. Nanoscale and Microscale Iron Emulsions for Treating DNAPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Cherie L.

    2002-01-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using emulsified nanoscale and microscale iron particles to enhance dehalogenation of (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) DNAPL free-phase. The emulsified system consisted of a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable oil-in-water emulsion with nanoscale or microscale iron particles contained within the emulsion droplets. It was demonstrated that DNAPLs, such as trichloroethene (TCE), diffuse through the oil membrane of the emulsion particle whereupon they reach an aqueous interior and the surface of an iron particle where dehalogenation takes place. The hydrocarbon reaction by-products of the dehalogenation reaction, primarily ethene (no chlorinated products detected), diffuse out of the emulsion droplet. This study also demonstrated that an iron-emulsion system could be delivered in-situ to the DNAPL pool in a soil matrix by using a simulated push well technique. Iron emulsions degraded pure TCE at a rate comparable to the degradation of dissolved phase TCE by iron particles, while pure iron had a very low degradation rate for free-phase TCE. The iron-emulsion systems can be injected into a sand matrix where they become immobilized and are not moved by flowing water. It has been documented that surfactant micelles possess the ability to pull pooled TCE into emulsion droplets where degradation of TCE takes place.

  2. Emulsifying Agent Production During PAHs Degradation by the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus Ostreatus D1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetlana V. Nikiforova; Natalia N. Pozdnyakova; Olga V. Turkovskaya

    2009-01-01

    For the first time the production of an emulsifying agent during phthalic, 2,2?-diphenic and ?-hydroxy-?-naphthoic acids,\\u000a phenanthrene, anthracene, fluorene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and chrysene degradation by white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was found. The emulsifying activity of the cultivation medium after degradation of these compounds was assessed. Maximal\\u000a activities were found in the presence of chrysene (48.4%) and ?-hydroxy-?-naphthoic acid (52.2%).

  3. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Heat-set Whey Protein Emulsion Gels: Effect of Emulsifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianshe Chen; Eric Dickinson; Maud Langton; Anne-Marie Hermansson

    2000-01-01

    A comparison of the viscoelastic properties of heat-set whey protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsion gels in the presence and absence of added emulsifier has been complemented by structural information from confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Emulsions (300 mL\\/L triolein oil, pH 7.0) were prepared with pure ? -lactoglobulin (8 g\\/kg) or water-soluble surfactant (20 g\\/kg Tween 20) as emulsifier and commercial whey

  4. Characterization and stability evaluation of ?-carotene nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenization under various emulsifying conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Yuan; Yanxiang Gao; Jian Zhao; Like Mao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, oil-in-water nanoemulsions of ?-carotene were produced by high pressure homogenization. The influence of emulsifying conditions including emulsifier type and concentration, homogenization pressure, temperature and cycle on the properties and stability of the nanoemulsions were investigated using a Zetasizer and a Turbiscan Lab, respectively. The mean diameters (z-average) of the dispersed particles containing ?-carotene ranged from 132 to

  5. Influence of emulsifier type on in vitro digestibility of lipid droplets by pancreatic lipase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saehun Mun; Eric A. Decker; D. Julian McClements

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of interfacial composition on the in vitro digestion of emulsified lipids coated by various emulsifiers by pancreatic lipase. Sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate (WPI), lecithin and Tween 20 were used to prepare corn oil-in-water emulsions (3wt% oil). Pancreatic lipase (1.6mg\\/mL) and\\/or bile extract (5.0mg\\/mL) were added to each emulsion and

  6. Characterization and Properties of Metallic Iron Nanoparticles: Spectroscopy, Electrochemistry, and Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, J T.; Tratnyek, P G.; Sarathy, Vaishnavi; Baer, Donald R.; Amonette, James E.; Pecher, Klaus H.; Wang, Chong M.; Linehan, John C.; Matson, Dean W.; Penn, R. Lee; Driessen, Michelle D.

    2005-03-01

    There are reports that nano-sized zero-valent iron (Fe?) exhibits greater reactivity than micro-sized particles of Fe?, which may impart advantages for groundwater remediation or other environmental applications. However, most of these reports are preliminary in that they leave a host of potentially significant (and often challenging) material or process variables either uncontrolled or unresolved. To better understand the reactivity of iron nanoparticles, we have used a variety of complementary techniques to characterize two widely studied nano Fe? preparations: one synthesized by heat-reduction of goethite under H? (FeH?) and the other by reductive precipitation with borohydride (FeBH). X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (STXM) showed particles of similar size (40-80 nm), but surface area measurements varied widely with method of measurement (4-60 m? g-?). FeH? is a two-phase material consisting of ?-Fe? and Fe?O?, doped with reduced sulfur, whereas FeBH is mostly metallic Fe with an oxide shell that is high in boron. Both materials exhibit corrosion potentials that are more negative than nano-sized Fe?O?, Fe?O?, micro-sized Fe?, or a solid Fe? disk, consistent with their rapid reduction of oxygen, benzoquinone, and carbon tetrachloride. Benzoquinone-which presumably probes inner-sphere surface reactions-reacts more rapidly with FeBH than with FeH?, whereas with carbon tetrachloride, FeBH and FeH? react at similar rates, presumably by outer-sphere electron transfer. Whether either material reacts more rapidly with the probes than micro-sized Fe? is unclear due to uncertainties in the appropriate specific surface areas. The distribution of products from reduction of carbon tetrachloride is more favorable with FeH?, which produces less chloroform than reaction with FeBH.

  7. Iron Sulfide as a Sustainable Reactive Material for Permeable Reactive Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, A. D.; Demond, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are gaining acceptance for groundwater remediation, as they operate in situ and do not require continuous energy input. The majority of PRBs use zero-valent iron (ZVI). However, some ZVI PRBs have hydraulically failed [1,2], due to the fact that ZVI may reduce not only contaminants but also water and non-contaminant solutes. These reactions may form precipitates or gas phases that reduce permeability. Therefore, there is a need to assess the hydraulic suitability of possible alternatives, such as iron sulfide (FeS). The capability of FeS to remove both metals and halogenated organics from aqueous systems has been demonstrated previously [3,4], and FeS formed in situ within a ZVI PRB has been linked to contaminant removal [5]. These results suggest possible applications in groundwater remediation as a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) material. However, the propensity of FeS for permeability loss, due to solids and gas production, must be evaluated in order to address its suitability for PRBs. The reduction in permeability for FeS-coated sands under the anoxic conditions often encountered at contaminated groundwater sites was examined through column experiments and geochemical modeling under conditions of high calcium and nitrate, which have been previously shown to cause significant permeability reduction in zero-valent iron (ZVI) systems [6]. The column experiments showed negligible production of both solids and gases. The geochemical model was used to estimate solid and gas volumes generated under conditions of varying FeS concentration. Then, the Kozeny-Carman equation and a power-law relationship was used to predict permeability reduction, with a maximum reduction in permeability of 1% due to solids and about 30% due to gas formation under conditions for which a complete loss of permeability was predicted for ZVI systems. This difference in permeability reduction is driven by the differences in thermodynamic stability of ZVI and FeS in aqueous solutions. The results suggest that geochemical conditions that result in high permeability losses for ZVI systems will necessarily not be problematic, from a permeability perspective, for FeS-based reactive materials. Therefore, this research represents an important advance for sustainable groundwater remediation. References: [1] Mushovic, P., Bartlett, T. R., Morrison, S. (2006) Tech. News & Trends 23, 1-3. [2] Kiilerich, O., Larsen, J. W., Nielsen, C., Deigaard, L. D. (2000) In: Wickramanayake, G.B., et al. (Eds.), Chemical Oxidation and Reactive Barriers: Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, 377-384. [3] Han, Y., Gallegos, T. J., Demond, A. H., Hayes, K. F. (2011) Water Res. 45(2), 593-604. [4] Jeong, H. Y. and Hayes, K. F. (2007) Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(18), 6390-6396. [5] Beak, D. G. and Wilkin, R. T. (2009) J. Contam. Hydrol. 106(1-2), 15-28. [6] Henderson, A. D. and Demond, A. H. (2007) Environ. Eng. Sci. 24(4), 401-423.

  8. Perchlorate reduction using electrochemically induced pitting corrosion of zero-valent titanium 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Chun Woo

    2009-05-15

    reduced to chloride using electrochemically developed pitting corrosion on Ti(0). Perchlorate reduction was believed to be caused by an active reductant (dissolved Ti(II)) during the pitting corrosion of Ti(0). The rate of perchlorate reduction...

  9. Zero-valent Group 6 complexes of 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(diphenylphosphino)benzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme Hogarth; Tim Norman

    1996-01-01

    The tetradentate ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(diphenylphosphino)benzene (TPPB) (1), has been utilised to prepare linked Group 6 carbonyl complexes [{M(CO)4}2(?-TPPB)] (M = Cr, Mo, W) (2a-c), facfac-[{Mo(CO)3(MeCN)}2(?-TPPB)] (3), facfac-[{Mo(CO)3?} (PPh3)}2(?-TPPB)] (4), facfac-[{Mo(CO)3(?1-DPPE)}2(?-TPPB)] (5) and both cis and trans isomers of [{M(CO)2(?2-DPPE)}2?(?-TPPB)] (M = Mo, W) (6b-c). Attempts to prepare oligomers or polymers were unsuccessful, further reaction of 2b with TPBB afforded [(?2-TPPB){Mo(CO)2}(?-TPPB){Mo(CO)4}](7). The

  10. Reduction of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with zero-valent zinc and catalyzed zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Hak Choi; Young-Hun Kim

    2009-01-01

    Reductive dechlorination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was conducted with Zn and Zn bimetals, Pd\\/Zn, Ni\\/Zn, Cu\\/Zn, Pt\\/Zn. Zn showed relatively low reaction rate toward 2,4,6-TCP, while Pd\\/Zn had dramatically increased reactivity and other bimetals had higher reaction rates than that of plain zinc. Phenol and less chlorinated phenols were found as dechlorination products. Pd\\/Zn produced cyclohexanone which is a product of

  11. Perchlorate reduction using electrochemically induced pitting corrosion of zero-valent titanium

    E-print Network

    Lee, Chun Woo

    2009-05-15

    reduced to chloride using electrochemically developed pitting corrosion on Ti(0). Perchlorate reduction was believed to be caused by an active reductant (dissolved Ti(II)) during the pitting corrosion of Ti(0). The rate of perchlorate reduction...

  12. Effects of supplemental exogenous emulsifier on performance, nutrient metabolism, and serum lipid profile in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amitava; Haldar, Sudipto; Mondal, Souvik; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The effects of an exogenous emulsifier, glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate, on performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens were assessed. The emulsifier was added to the diet at dose rates of 0 (control), 1 (E1) and 2 (E2) % of added fat (saturated palm oil). Live weight gain (P < .07) and feed conversion ratio (P < .05) in 39 days were higher in the E1 dietary group. Gain: ME intake and gain: protein intake during the grower phase improved quadratically (P < .05). Gross carcass traits were not affected. Body fat content and fat accretion increased (P < .05) and liver fat content decreased (P < .05) linearly with the level of emulsifier in diet. Fat excretion decreased (P < .001) leading to increased ileal fat digestibility (P < .06) in the E1 group (quadratic response). Metabolizable intake of N (P < .1) and fat (P < .05) increased quadratically due to supplementation of emulsifier in diet. Metabolism of trace elements and serum lipid profiles were not affected. The study revealed that supplementation of exogenous emulsifiers in diets containing moderate quantities of added vegetable fats may substantially improve broiler performance. PMID:20671938

  13. Effects of Supplemental Exogenous Emulsifier on Performance, Nutrient Metabolism, and Serum Lipid Profile in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amitava; Haldar, Sudipto; Mondal, Souvik; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The effects of an exogenous emulsifier, glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate, on performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens were assessed. The emulsifier was added to the diet at dose rates of 0 (control), 1 (E1) and 2 (E2) % of added fat (saturated palm oil). Live weight gain (P < .07) and feed conversion ratio (P < .05) in 39 days were higher in the E1 dietary group. Gain: ME intake and gain: protein intake during the grower phase improved quadratically (P < .05). Gross carcass traits were not affected. Body fat content and fat accretion increased (P < .05) and liver fat content decreased (P < .05) linearly with the level of emulsifier in diet. Fat excretion decreased (P < .001) leading to increased ileal fat digestibility (P < .06) in the E1 group (quadratic response). Metabolizable intake of N (P < .1) and fat (P < .05) increased quadratically due to supplementation of emulsifier in diet. Metabolism of trace elements and serum lipid profiles were not affected. The study revealed that supplementation of exogenous emulsifiers in diets containing moderate quantities of added vegetable fats may substantially improve broiler performance. PMID:20671938

  14. The influence of humic acid and clay content on the transport of polymer-coated iron nanoparticles through sand.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bahngmi; O'Carroll, Denis; Sleep, Brent

    2014-10-15

    The introduction of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) into the subsurface has recently received significant attention as a potentially effective method for remediation of source zones of chlorinated solvents present as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). One of the challenges in the deployment of nZVI is to achieve good subsurface nZVI mobility to permit delivery of the nZVI to the target treatment zone. Stabilization of nZVI with various polymers has shown promise for enhancing nZVI subsurface mobility, but the impact of subsurface conditions on nZVI mobility has not been fully explored. In this study, the effect of humic acid and kaolinite on the transport of polymer-stabilized nZVI (carboxylmethyl cellulose-surface modified nZVI, CMC90K-RNIP) in sand was investigated using column experiments. In addition, effects of electrolytes on the stability of CMC90K-RNIP in the presence of humic acid, and the stability of humic acid-coated reactive nanoscale iron particles (HA-RNIP) at various humic acid concentrations were investigated. Humic acid enhanced the mobility of bare RNIP, whereas the transport of CMC90K-RNIP was not significantly affected by humic acid injected as a background solution, except at the highest concentration of 500mg/L. At lower pore water velocity, the effect of humic acid on the transport of CMC90K-RNIP was greater than that at high water velocity. Adding kaolinite up to 2% by weight to the sand column reduced the retention of CMC90K-RNIP, but further increases in kaolinite content (to 5%) did not significantly affect nZVI retention. The impact of kaolinite on nZVI retention was more pronounced at lower pore water velocities. PMID:25079234

  15. Reductive Sequestration Of Pertechnetate (99TcO4–) By Nano Zerovalent Iron (nZVI) Transformed By Abiotic Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Dimin; Anitori, Roberto; Tebo, Bradley M.; Tratnyek, Paul G.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.

    2013-04-24

    Under anoxic conditions, soluble 99TcO4– can be reduced to less soluble TcO2•nH2O, but the oxide is highly susceptible to reoxidation. Here we investigate an alternative strategy for remediation of Tc-contaminated groundwater whereby sequestration as Tc sulfide is favored by sulfidic conditions stimulated by nano zero-valent iron (nZVI). nZVI was pre-exposed to increasing concentrations of sulfide in simulated Hanford groundwater for 24 hrs to mimic the stages of aquifer sulfate reduction and onset of biotic sulfidogenesis. Solid-phase characterizations of the sulfidated nZVI confirmed the formation of nanocrystalline FeS phases, but higher S/Fe ratios (>0.112) did not result in the formation of significantly more FeS. The kinetics of Tc sequestration by these materials showed faster Tc removal rates with increasing S/Fe between S/Fe = 0–0.056, but decreasing Tc removal rates with S/Fe > 0.224. The more favorable Tc removal kinetics at low S/Fe could be due to a higher affinity of TcO4– for FeS (over iron oxides), and electron microscopy confirmed that the majority of the Tc was associated with FeS phases. The inhibition of Tc removal at high S/Fe appears to have been caused by excess HS–. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that as S/Fe increased, Tc speciation shifted from TcO2•nH2O to TcS2. The most substantial change of Tc speciation occurred at low S/Fe, coinciding with the rapid increase of Tc removal rate. This agreement further confirms the importance of FeS in Tc sequestration.

  16. X-ray Spectroscopic Tools for Structural Determination of Cr(VI)-Treated Iron Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, B. A.; Kiser, J.; Ruiz, A.

    2007-12-01

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) is a highly soluble groundwater contaminant of environmental concern. We are developing and investigating zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nano-Fe) for possible use in remediation of Cr(VI). In this paper we focus on the application of X-ray techniques to determine the electronic environment and solid phase chemistry of Cr and Fe in Cr(VI)-and Cr(III)-treated nano-Fe. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) confirmed that Cr(VI) was quantitatively reduced to Cr(III) by nano- Fe. Parallel experiments with 100-mesh Fe filings as a model system show similar Cr(VI) reduction properties but with a somewhat different Fe(III) corrosion product. Detailed analysis of XPS O 1s line spectra revealed that both Cr(III)- and Cr(VI)-treated nano-Fe yielded a predominantly Cr(III) hydroxide product. The Cr local atomic structure in Cr(III)- and Cr(VI)-treated nano-Fe was determined using extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and revealed octahedral Cr(III) with Cr-O interatomic distances between 1.97-1.98 angstroms for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) treatments. A pronounced second Cr-Cr (and/or Cr-Fe) interatomic shell at 3.01 angstroms was also detected. Our results suggest that the reaction product of Cr(VI)-treated nano-Fe is an insoluble, poorly ordered Cr(III) precipitate and/or a mixed-phase Cr(III)/Fe(III) hydroxide.

  17. Comparison of subarachnoid anesthetic effect of emulsified volatile anesthetics in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiao; Zhou, Cheng; Liang, Peng; Huang, Han; Li, Fengshan; Chen, Xiangdong; Liu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord is an important target of volatile anesthetics in particular for the effect of immobility. Intrathecal injection of volatile anesthetics has been found to produce subarachnoid anesthesia. The present study was designed to compare spinal anesthetic effects of emulsified volatile anesthetics, and to investigate the correlation between their spinal effects and general effect of immobility. In this study, halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were emulsified by 30% Intralipid. These emulsified volatile anesthetics were intravenously and intrathecally injected, respectively. ED50 of general anesthesia and EC50 of spinal anesthesia were determined. The durations of general and spinal anesthesia were recorded. Correlation analysis was applied to evaluate the anesthetic potency of volatile anesthetics between their spinal and general effects. ED50 of general anesthesia induced by emulsified halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were 0.41 ± 0.07, 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.11 and 0.78 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively, with significant correlation to their inhaled MAC (R2 = 0.8620, P = 0.047). For intrathecal injection, EC50 of spinal anesthesia induced by emulsified halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were 0.35, 0.27, 0.33 and 0.26 mol/L, respectively, which could be predicted by the product of inhaled MAC and olive oil/gas partition coefficients (R2 = 0.9627, P = 0.013). In conclusion, potency and efficacy of the four emulsified volatile anesthetics in spinal anesthesia were similar and could be predicted by the product of inhaled MAC and olive oil/gas partition coefficients (MAC × olive oil/gas partition coefficients). PMID:25674241

  18. Comparison of subarachnoid anesthetic effect of emulsified volatile anesthetics in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiao; Zhou, Cheng; Liang, Peng; Huang, Han; Li, Fengshan; Chen, Xiangdong; Liu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord is an important target of volatile anesthetics in particular for the effect of immobility. Intrathecal injection of volatile anesthetics has been found to produce subarachnoid anesthesia. The present study was designed to compare spinal anesthetic effects of emulsified volatile anesthetics, and to investigate the correlation between their spinal effects and general effect of immobility. In this study, halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were emulsified by 30% Intralipid. These emulsified volatile anesthetics were intravenously and intrathecally injected, respectively. ED50 of general anesthesia and EC50 of spinal anesthesia were determined. The durations of general and spinal anesthesia were recorded. Correlation analysis was applied to evaluate the anesthetic potency of volatile anesthetics between their spinal and general effects. ED50 of general anesthesia induced by emulsified halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were 0.41 ± 0.07, 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.11 and 0.78 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively, with significant correlation to their inhaled MAC (R(2) = 0.8620, P = 0.047). For intrathecal injection, EC50 of spinal anesthesia induced by emulsified halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were 0.35, 0.27, 0.33 and 0.26 mol/L, respectively, which could be predicted by the product of inhaled MAC and olive oil/gas partition coefficients (R(2) = 0.9627, P = 0.013). In conclusion, potency and efficacy of the four emulsified volatile anesthetics in spinal anesthesia were similar and could be predicted by the product of inhaled MAC and olive oil/gas partition coefficients (MAC × olive oil/gas partition coefficients). PMID:25674241

  19. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of hZVI Process for Treating Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater at Plant Wansley, Carrollton, GA 

    E-print Network

    Peddi, Phani 1987-

    2011-12-06

    The hybrid Zero Valent Iron (hZVI) process is a novel chemical treatment platform that has shown great potential in our previous bench-scale tests for removing selenium, mercury and other pollutants from Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) wastewater...

  20. ISAP 2012 Goyer et al: Environmental data of cold mix using emulsified bitumen for a better selection of road materials

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the achievement of environmental assessment for techniques with bitumen emulsion. So an example detailed graveISAP 2012 Goyer et al: Environmental data of cold mix using emulsified bitumen for a better selection of road materials 1/12 Environmental data of cold mix using emulsified bitumen for a better

  1. Recent patents survey on self emulsifying drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Jethara, Sahilhusen I; Patel, Alpesh D; Patel, Mukesh R

    2014-01-01

    Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System is a unique feasible approach to overcome low oral bioavailability problem which is associated with the hydrophobic drugs due to their unparalleled potential as a drug delivery with the broad range of application. The estimated 40% of active pharmaceuticals are poorly water soluble. Now recently, formulation containing oral SEDDS has received much interest as it solve problems related to oral bioavailability, intra and inter-subject variability and lack of dose proportionality of hydrophobic drugs. Now a days, it is the first way to investigate the development of any kind of innovative dosage forms. Many important in-vitro characteristics such as surfactant concentration, oil/surfactant ratio, emulsion polarity, droplet size and zeta potential play an important role in oral absorption of drug from SEEDS. It can be orally administered in the form of SGC or HGC and also enhances bioavailability of drugs to increase solubility and minimizes the gastric irritation. After administration the drug remains entrapped in the oily droplets (inside the droplet or in the surfactant`s film at the interface) of the emulsion that are formed in the GIT upon self-emulsification process. It is also a bit problematic to say that the drug is being released from SMEDDS, it would be more precise to say that it diffuses out of oily droplets into the GIT media resulting in the formation of an equilibrium between the drug dissolved in oily droplets and the outer dispersed media (e.g. GIT fluids). Many of the application and preparation methods of SEDDS are reported by research articles and patents in different countries. We present an exhaustive and updated account of numerous literature reports and more than 150 patents published on SEDDS in the recent period. This current patent review is useful in knowledge of SEDDS for its preparations and patents in different countries with emphasis on their formulation, characterization and systematic optimization strategies, thus paving the way for accelerated progress into the SEDDS application in pharmaceutical research as well as patents on SEDDS methods. PMID:25146965

  2. Improving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothea; Maazoun, Bouthaina; Besbes, Souhail; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-02-15

    Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These constituents provide high fibre content and technological potential for retaining water and fat. Standard halva supplemented with date fibre concentrate, defatted sesame testae and emulsifier was evaluated for oil separation, texture and colour changes, sensory qualities and acceptability to a taste panel. Addition of both fibres with an emulsifier, improved emulsion stability and increased the hardness of halva significantly. The functional properties of sesame testae and date fibres promote nutrition and health, supplying polyphenol antioxidants and laxative benefits. PMID:24128542

  3. Preparation and properties of polyurea microcapsules with non-ionic surfactant as emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Yan, N; Ni, P; Zhang, M

    1993-01-01

    Polyurea microcapsules containing oily substances were prepared by using cyanate and polyamine as the monomers with non-ionic surfactant as the emulsifiers. Results showed that TDI-DETA microcapsules had the best stability. The mean diameter decreased and the size distribution curves became narrower and sharper as the stirring speed and the emulsifier concentration during emulsification increased. Addition of Tween 80 to aqueous solution containing OP led to an increase in microcapsule diameter and wider distribution of microcapsules due to the changes in interfacial tension. The isoelectric point of the polyurea microcapsules was found to be pH 5.8. PMID:8397303

  4. An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend 

    E-print Network

    Nam, Hyungseok

    2012-07-16

    in emulsions causes a high probability of microexplosion event due to the sudden expansion of the emulsified fluid. Also, the effect of size on microexplosion was evident in the greater probability of explosion. Methanol-in-canola oil emulsion with 15...

  5. Formulating Neem Oil Emulsion as Potent Agrochemicals Using a Binary Emulsifier System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shrinivas C. Kothekar; Shamim A. Momin

    2008-01-01

    Neem oil is a natural pesticide and has excellent insecticidal properties. Hence, in this study the efforts have been made to formulate the Neem oil emulsions which would be used as agrochemicals. In order to formulate stable Neem oil emulsions, a binary emulsifier system of Hydol-6 (Polyoxyethylene Alkyl Ether-6 moles of ethylene oxids) and Hydol-10 (Polyoxyethylene Alkyl Ether-10 moles of

  6. Enhancement of emulsifying properties of whey proteins by controlling spray-drying parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clémence Bernard; Stéphanie Regnault; Solie Gendreau; Stéphanie Charbonneau; Perla Relkin

    2011-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate is the main source of globular proteins in food products which are principally used as emulsifying, foaming and gelling ingredients. These whey proteins are commonly used in powder form obtained by a spray-drying process. It is well known that ?-lactoglobulin, the major protein component in whey, is greatly affected by heat treatments, with consequences on its adsorption

  7. Improved atomization of residual fuels for marine boilers. Volume III: cold flow characterization of emulsified fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Smith; R. C. LaFlesh; J. Solomon; Y. Lachowicz

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to study the physical properties of water\\/oil emulsions and determine how these properties affect atomization in a non-combustion environment. A literature survey was performed to establish a technical base. An emulsifier was obtained and tests run to establish a correlation between Bunker 'C' fuel oil emulsions and model test fluid emulsions. Droplet size distribution

  8. Persistence of fenitrothion in oranges and clementines after treatment with emulsifiable concentrate and microencapsulate formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Montemurro; F. Grieco; G. Lacertosa; A. Visconti

    2005-01-01

    The rate of decline of fenitrothion residues was investigated in oranges and clementines after treatment with two different kinds of commercial formulations: emulsifiable concentrate (Afidina M) and microencapsulate (Fenitrocap and IPM 400). The study was performed on the fruit and leaves over 131 and 161 days for oranges, and over 78 and 86 days for clementines, respectively. In fruit, the

  9. A new approach for the characterization of insoluble amphiphilic copolymers based on their emulsifying properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cédric Chauvierre; Denis Labarre; Patrick Couvreur; Christine Vauthier

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to propose a new approach for the characterization of insoluble amphiphilic copolymers using their emulsifying properties. The capacity of four newly-synthesized block copolymers to stabilize a model emulsion formed by mixing equal volumes of water and ethyl acetate was investigated. The copolymers were composed of dextran or heparin and poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) and were obtained

  10. Effects of blackcurrant seeds and rosemary extracts on oxidative stability of bulk and emulsified lipid substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urszula Samotyja; Maria Ma?ecka

    2007-01-01

    The effects of blackcurrant seeds extract and commercially available rosemary extracts on rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil triacylglycerol oxidative stability were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of plant extracts was investigated, both in bulk and emulsified lipid substrates, and compared with those of ?-tocopherol and BHT. The investigation showed that blackcurrant seeds and rosemary extracts are the source of active antioxidants

  11. Development of a low fat wheat tortilla: optimization of lipids, emulsifiers, and fat replacers

    E-print Network

    Dollak, Christina

    1993-01-01

    A low fat tortilla was developed by optimizing lipids, emulsifiers and fat replacers. Hot-press wheat tortillas were prepared from wheat flour with 11.6% protein. Lard, pie shortening (PS), all-purpose shortening (AP), liquid frying oil (LF...

  12. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF AN EMULSIFIED HEAVY FUEL OIL IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measuring emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion flue gases of a No. 6 fuel oil, both with and without an emulsifying agent, in a 2.5 million Btu/hr (732 kW) firetube boiler with the purpose of determining the impacts of the e...

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

  14. The effects of water emulsified fuel on diesel particulate matter concentrations in underground mines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Noll; S. E. Mischler; L. D. Patts; G. H. Schnakenberg; A. D. Bugarski; R. J. Timko

    In this study, we evaluated the ambient diesel particulate matter (DPM) concentrations (at the intakes and exhausts of the mine) as the entire vehicle fleet of a stone mine switched from using 35% biodiesel to using a water emulsified fuel (PuriNOx). Elemental carbon (EC) was reduced by 45% when a PuriNOx blend containing 10% water replaced 35% biodiesel and by

  15. Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems: Strategy for Improving Oral Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-ling Tang; Jin Sun; Zhong-Gui He

    2007-01-01

    Drugs are most often administered by the oral route. However, more than 40% of new chemical entities exhibit poor aqueous solubility, resulting in unsatisfactory oral drug delivery. Recently, much attention has been focused on self- emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. SEDDS are isotropic mixtures of oil, surfactants, solvents and co-solvents\\/surfactants.

  16. NOx AND HC EMISSION CONTROL USING WATER EMULSIFIED DIESEL IN SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kannan; M. Udayakumar

    This paper reports on the effect of water emulsified diesel fuel combustion on brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and NOx and hydrocarbon emissions in a diesel engine. The experiments were conducted on a single cylinder four stroke cycle direct injection diesel engine at constant speed with a fuel injection pressure of 200 bars. Tests were conducted using commercial

  17. In situ SERS detection of emulsifiers at lipid interfaces using label-free amphiphilic gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Driver, Michael; Winuprasith, Thunnalin; Zheng, Jinkai; McClements, David Julian; He, Lili

    2014-10-21

    Herein, we fabricated amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (GNPs) that can self-assemble at oil-water interfaces. We applied those GNPs for in situ SERS detection of emulsifier molecules within the interfacial region of oil in water (O/W) emulsion systems. PMID:25134491

  18. Emulsified halothane produces long-term epidural anesthetic effect: a study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengshan; Liao, Daqing; Liu, Jin; Xiao, Lin; Guo, Jiao; Yi, Mingliang; Zhou, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile anesthetics could produce local anesthesia. Emulsified isoflurane at 8% has been reported to produce epidural anesthetic effect in rabbits. This study was designed to investigate the long-term epidural anesthetic effect of emulsified halothane in rabbits. In this study, 40 healthy adult rabbits (weighting 2.0-2.5 kg) with an epidural catheter were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10/group), receiving epidural administration of 1% lidocaine (lido group), 8% emulsified isoflurane 1ml (8% E-iso group), 8% emulsified halothane (8% E-Halo group) and 12% emulsified halothane (12% E-Halo group). After administration, sensory and motor functions as well as consciousness state were assessed until 60 minutes after sensory and motor function returned to its baseline or at least for 180 min. After epidural anesthesia, all the rabbits were continuously observed for 7 days and sacrificed for pathological evaluations. As a result, all the four study solutions produced typical epidural anesthesia. Onset times of sensory and motor function blockade were similar among the four groups (P>0.05). Duration of sensory blockade in 12% E-Halo group (83±13 min) was significantly longer than other groups: 51±12 min in 8% E-Halo group (P<0.01), 57±8 min in 8% E-iso group (P<0.01) and 47±9 min in lido group (P<0.01). Duration of sensory blockade in 8% E-iso group is longer than lido group (P<0.05). Duration of motor blockade in 12% E-Halo group (81±12 min) was also significantly longer than other groups: 40±8 min in 8% E-Halo group (P<0.01), 37±3 min in 8% E-iso group (P<0.01), 37±6 min in lido group (P<0.01). Normal consciousness was found in the rabbits from 8% E-Halo, 8% E-iso and lido groups while there were four rabbits in 12% E-Halo group (4/10) showed a light sedation. For all the rabbits, no pathological injury was found. The present study demonstrates that emulsified halothane produces reversible concentration-dependent epidural anesthesia and at 12% (v/v), emulsified halothane could produce long-term anesthesia without pathological injury. PMID:26191147

  19. The Acinetobacter outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is a secreted emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Gil; Rosenberg, Eugene; Ron, Eliora Z

    2006-06-01

    Acinetobacter strains use hydrophobic carbon sources and most of them are efficient oil degraders. They secrete a variety of emulsifiers which are efficient in producing and stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. The bioemulsifier of Acinetobacter radioresistens KA53 (Alasan) is a high-mass complex of proteins and polysaccharides. The major emulsification activity of this complex is associated with a 45 kDa protein (AlnA), which is homologous to the outer membrane protein OmpA. The emulsification ability of AlnA depends on the presence of hydrophobic residues in the four loops spanning the transmembrane domains. The finding of a secreted OmpA was unexpected, in view of the fact that this protein is essential in all Gram-negative bacteria, has four trans-membrane domains and is considered to be an integral structural component of the outer membrane. However, secretion of an OmpA with emulsifying ability could be of physiological importance in the utilization of hydrophobic substrates as carbon sources. Here we examined the possibility that secretion of OmpA with emulsifying activity is a general property of the oil-degrading Acinetobacter strains. The results indicate that OmpA is secreted in five strains of Acinetobacter, including strain Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 whose genome has been sequenced. The ompA genes of ADP1 and an additional strain, Acinetobacter sp. V-26 were cloned and sequenced. Structure analysis of the sequence of the two proteins indicated the existence of the hydrophobic regions, previously shown to be responsible for the emulsification activity of AlnA. Further examination of the recombinant OmpA proteins indicated that they are, indeed, strong emulsifiers, even when produced in Escherichia coli. The finding that Acinetobacter OmpA has emulsifying activity and that it is secreted in five strains of Acinetobacter may be physiologically significant and suggests the involvement of this protein in biodegradation of hydrophobic substrates, including hydrocarbons. PMID:16689723

  20. Amphiphilic Pickering Emulsifiers Based on Mushroom-Type Janus Particles.

    PubMed

    Passas-Lagos, E; Schüth, F

    2015-07-21

    Iron-based mushroom-type Janus particles consisting of a poly(sytrene-co-divinylbenzene) and a silica moiety both with controllable morphologies were successfully synthesized on the gram scale and investigated as surfactants for Pickering emulsions. Two oil-water model systems, namely toluene-water and vegetable oil-water, were stabilized, giving mainly water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. By varying several parameters, including Janus particle morphologies and the oil-water ratio, fine-tuning of the emulsion systems was possible; it was even possible to invert the continuous phase to an oil-in-water (o/w) system. Furthermore, the emulsions were stable against coalescence and sedimentation and could be easily separated by centrifugation or a strong magnet. The synthesized mushroom-type Janus particles are suitable for creating Pickering emulsions and can be used as building blocks for creating nanostructures with tailored properties for specific applications. PMID:26152905

  1. Iron-mediated remediation of RDX-contaminated water and soil under controlled Eh/pH

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.; Comfort, S.D.; Shea, P.J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). School of Natural Resource Sciences] [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). School of Natural Resource Sciences

    1999-05-01

    Soil and water contaminated with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a serious environmental problem at several active and abandoned munitions production facilities. Zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) can effectively remediate RDX-contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to manipulate Eh and pH for enhanced Fe{sup 0}-mediated destruction of RDX. This was accomplished by monitoring RDX destruction under controlled Eh-pH conditions (Eh: {minus}300 to +150 mV; pH: 2--10). Decreasing Eh and pH increased RDX destruction in aqueous solution. Treating 20 mg of RDX L{sup {minus}1} (90 {micro}M) under a static Eh of {minus}150 mV and pH 7 with 20 g of Fe{sup 0} L{sup {minus}1} removed 95% of the RDX within 4 h; no RDX was detected after 8 h. Treating a soil slurry (20% solids; 510 mg RDX kg{sup {minus}1} soil) with 20 g of Fe{sup 0} L{sup {minus}1} at an Eh of {minus}150 mV and pH 7 increased RDX destruction by 24% over the unbuffered control and resulted in 99% RDX destruction within 24 h. Adding 4.2 mM sodium sulfide (in lieu of a static Eh) under similar conditions resulted in 93% RDX loss within 24 h. Results indicated that lowering Eh and maintaining neutral pH during Fe{sup 0} treatment can increase RDX destruction in contaminated soil and water.

  2. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of vitamin E TPGS-emulsified PLGA nanoparticles for delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanbin; Yu, Bo; Wang, Guoying; Wu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiaomin; Chen, Yanmin; Tang, Suoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Lee, Robert J; Teng, Lesheng; Xu, Shun

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles are efficient delivery vehicles for cancer therapy such as paclitaxel (PTX). In this study, we formulated PTX into PLGA polymeric nanoparticles. Vitamin E TPGS was used as an emulsifier to stabilize the nanoparticle formulation. PTX was encapsulated in TPGS-emulsified polymeric nanoparticles (TENPs) by a nanoprecipitation method in ethanol-water system. The resultant PTX-TENPs showed a very uniform particle size (?100 nm) and high drug encapsulation (>80%). The cytotoxicity of PTX-TENPs was examined in A549 lung cancer cell line. Preferential tumor accumulation of TENPs was observed in the A549 lung cancer xenograft model. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by intravenous injection of PTX-TENPs. Our results suggested that the modified nanoprecipitation method holds great potential for the fabrication of the PTX loaded polymeric nanoparticles. TPGS can be used in the manufacture of polymeric nanoparticles for the controlled release of PTX and other anti-cancer drugs. PMID:25456995

  3. Identification of an emulsifier and conditions for preparing stable nanoemulsions containing the antioxidant astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Kim, D-M; Hyun, S-S; Yun, P; Lee, C-H; Byun, S-Y

    2012-02-01

    In this study, oil-in-water nanoemulsions of astaxanthin were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The influence of emulsifying conditions including emulsifier type, concentration, passing time, astaxanthin concentration and coantioxidants were optimized. The stabilities of nanoemulsions were measured using zetasizer, FF-SEM, TEM, colorimeter and particle size analyzer. The mean diameter of the dispersed particles containing astaxanthin ranged from 160 to 190 nm. The size distribution was unimodal and extended from 100 to 200 nm. The nanoemulsions prepared with glyceryl citrate/lactate/linoleate/oleate (glyceryl ester) had smaller particle size and narrower size distribution than the emulsion prepared with hydrogenated lecithin. Stable incorporation of astaxanthin in nanoemulsion was performed and checked using HPLC, FF-SEM and TEM. The nanoemulsion was not significantly affected during storage under light and thermal condition for one month indicating that the nanoemulsion had a zeta potential of less than -41 mV, indicating a stable colloid. PMID:21883294

  4. Application of emulsifiers in the manufacture of cast boosters and related products

    SciTech Connect

    Joginadham, C.; Shankar, P.S.; Gupta, A.N. [Premier Explosives Limited, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    1996-12-01

    Cast boosters made with pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and trinitro toluene (TNT) give high velocities of detonation and are sensitive to initiation even under high pressures. However, the manufacture of the same involves heating of TNT to its melting temperature and mixing of dry PETN in it. In the present work, wet PETN, TNT and water soluble nitrate salts were used for the manufacture of the boosters. The nitrate salt solution formed with the excess water available in wet PETN was emulsified with the aid of emulsifiers. The velocities of detonation of boosters with various percentages of water were determined. The data of explosive characters of these boosters were compared with normal pentolite cast boosters.

  5. Use of poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethyleneoxide) as emulsifier in emulsion polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Berger; Walter Richtering; Rolf Miilhaupt

    1994-01-01

    Poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethyleneoxide), abbreviated as (PS-b-PEO) were used as emulsifiers in emulsion polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate. The block copolymers had a poly(styrene) block with Mn=1000 g\\/mol and a poly(ethyleneoxide) block with Mn=1000, 3000 or 5000 g\\/mol, respectively. Stable dispersions were obtained when the PEO block molecular weight was higher than 1000 g\\/mol. Also the amphiphilic properties of the copolymers depended

  6. Enhanced oral bioavailability of dexibuprofen by a novel solid Self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabagar Balakrishnan; Beom-Jin Lee; Dong Hoon Oh; Jong Oh Kim; Myung Ja Hong; Jun-Pil Jee; Jung Ae Kim; Bong Kyu Yoo; Jong Soo Woo; Chul Soon Yong; Han-Gon Choi

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to prepare a solid form of lipid-based self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) by spray drying liquid SEDDS with an inert solid carrier Aerosil 200 to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug dexibuprofen. The liquid SEDDS was a system that consisted of dexibuprofen, Labrasol, Capryol 90 and Labrafil M 1944 CS. The

  7. Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, Benoit; Koren, Omry; Goodrich, Julia K; Poole, Angela C; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Ley, Ruth E; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2015-03-01

    The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of microbes collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. While the gut microbiota provides important benefits to its host, especially in metabolism and immune development, disturbance of the microbiota-host relationship is associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and the group of obesity-associated diseases collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome. A primary means by which the intestine is protected from its microbiota is via multi-layered mucus structures that cover the intestinal surface, thereby allowing the vast majority of gut bacteria to be kept at a safe distance from epithelial cells that line the intestine. Thus, agents that disrupt mucus-bacterial interactions might have the potential to promote diseases associated with gut inflammation. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that emulsifiers, detergent-like molecules that are a ubiquitous component of processed foods and that can increase bacterial translocation across epithelia in vitro, might be promoting the increase in inflammatory bowel disease observed since the mid-twentieth century. Here we report that, in mice, relatively low concentrations of two commonly used emulsifiers, namely carboxymethylcellulose and polysorbate-80, induced low-grade inflammation and obesity/metabolic syndrome in wild-type hosts and promoted robust colitis in mice predisposed to this disorder. Emulsifier-induced metabolic syndrome was associated with microbiota encroachment, altered species composition and increased pro-inflammatory potential. Use of germ-free mice and faecal transplants indicated that such changes in microbiota were necessary and sufficient for both low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome. These results support the emerging concept that perturbed host-microbiota interactions resulting in low-grade inflammation can promote adiposity and its associated metabolic effects. Moreover, they suggest that the broad use of emulsifying agents might be contributing to an increased societal incidence of obesity/metabolic syndrome and other chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25731162

  8. Emulsifying Activities of Purified Alasan Proteins from Acinetobacter radioresistens KA53

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMIR TOREN; SHIRI NAVON-VENEZIA; ELIORA Z. RON; EUGENE ROSENBERG

    2001-01-01

    The bioemulsifier of Acinetobacter radioresistens KA53, referred to as alasan, is a high-molecular-weight complex of polysaccharide and protein. The emulsifying activity of the purified polysaccharide (apo-alasan) is very low. Three of the alasan proteins were purified by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and had apparent molecular masses of 16, 31, and 45 kDa. Emulsification assays using the isolated alasan

  9. Electroflotation of emulsified oil in industrial wastes evaluated with a full factorial design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. N. B. Nahui; M. R. Nascimento; E. B. Cavalcanti; E. O. Vilar

    2008-01-01

    The use of electroflotation in emulsified oil wastes was studied. A rectangular electroflotation cell was designed and constructed in acrylic with stainless steel cathode and DSA® anode with a nominal composition of Ti\\/Ru0.34Ti0.66O2. The variables studied in the present work were current density and oil, flocculant and electrolyte (NaCl) concentrations. The experiments were carried out in accordance with 24 full

  10. Efficiency of the EPS emulsifier produced by Ochrobactrum anthropi in different hydrocarbon bioremediation assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Calvo; G. A. Silva-Castro; I. Uad; C. García Fandiño; J. Laguna; J. González-López

    2008-01-01

    Ochrobactrum anthropi strain AD2 was isolated from the waste water treatment plant of an oil refinery and was identified by analysis of the sequence\\u000a of the gene encoding 16S rDNA. This bacterium produced exopolysaccharides in glucose nutrient broth media supplemented with\\u000a various hydrocarbons (n-octane, mineral light and heavy oils and crude oils). The exopolysaccharide AD2 (EPS emulsifier) synthesized showed a

  11. Chlorhexidine digluconate as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel dissolution in emulsified diesel fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Deyab; S. T. Keera; S. M. El Sabagh

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines are reduced by mixing water in the diesel fuel in the form of water-in-diesel emulsion. The results of experiment showed that blend of span 80 and tween 80 at HLB 6 was found to be the most suitable emulsifier for water\\/diesel emulsion. The effect of chlorhexidine digluconate on the

  12. Whey protein–maltodextrin conjugates as emulsifying agents: An alternative to gum arabic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmood Akhtar; Eric Dickinson

    2007-01-01

    The emulsifying properties of covalent complexes of maltodextrin (MD) with whey protein (WP) isolate have been investigated under both acidic and high electrolyte concentration conditions in systems containing medium-chain triglyceride oil or orange oil. Covalent coupling of protein to polysaccharide was achieved by dry-heat treatment of a protein+polysaccharide mixture for up to 2h. It was confirmed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

  13. Growth and polyhydroxybutyrate production by Ralstonia eutropha in emulsified plant oil medium.

    PubMed

    Budde, Charles F; Riedel, Sebastian L; Hübner, Florian; Risch, Stefan; Popovi?, Milan K; Rha, ChoKyun; Sinskey, Anthony J

    2011-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural polyesters synthesized by bacteria for carbon and energy storage that also have commercial potential as bioplastics. One promising class of carbon feedstocks for industrial PHA production is plant oils, due to the high carbon content of these compounds. The bacterium Ralstonia eutropha accumulates high levels of PHA and can effectively utilize plant oil. Growth experiments that include plant oil, however, are difficult to conduct in a quantitative and reproducible manner due to the heterogeneity of the two-phase medium. In order to overcome this obstacle, a new culture method was developed in which palm oil was emulsified in growth medium using the glycoprotein gum arabic as the emulsifying agent. Gum arabic did not influence R. eutropha growth and could not be used as a nutrient source by the bacteria. R. eutropha was grown in the emulsified oil medium and PHA production was measured over time. Additionally, an extraction method was developed to monitor oil consumption. The new method described in this study allows quantitative, reproducible R. eutropha experiments to be performed with plant oils. The method may also prove useful for studying growth of different bacteria on plant oils and other hydrophobic carbon sources. PMID:21279345

  14. Influence of astaxanthin, emulsifier and organic phase concentration on physicochemical properties of astaxanthin nanodispersions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The emulsification-evaporation method was used to prepare astaxanthin nanodispersions using a three-component emulsifier system composed of Tween 20, sodium caseinate and gum Arabic. Using Response-surface methodology (RSM), we studied the main and interaction effects of the major emulsion components, namely, astaxanthin concentration (0.02–0.38 wt %, x1), emulsifier concentration (0.2–3.8 wt %, x2) and organic phase (dichloromethane) concentration (2–38 wt %, x3) on nanodispersion characteristics. The physicochemical properties considered as response variables were: average particle size (Y1), PDI (Y2) and astaxanthin loss (Y3). Results The results indicated that the response-surface models were significantly (p??0.930) for all responses. The overall optimum region resulted in a desirable astaxanthin nanodispersions obtained with the concentrations of 0.08 wt % astaxanthin, 2.5 wt % emulsifier and 11.5 wt % organic phase. Conclusion No significant differences were found between the experimental and predicted values, thus certifying the adequacy of the Response-surface models developed for describing the changes in physicochemical properties as a function of main emulsion component concentrations. PMID:23875816

  15. Peroxidase-mediated conjugation of corn fiber gum and bovine serum albumin to improve emulsifying properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Qiu, Shuang; Li, Jinlong; Chen, Hao; Tatsumi, Eizo; Yadav, Madhav; Yin, Lijun

    2015-03-15

    The emulsifying properties of corn fiber gum (CFG), a naturally occurring polysaccharide-protein complex, was improved by kinetically controlled formation of hetero-covalent linkages with bovine serum albumin (BSA), using horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The formation of hetero-crosslinked CFG-BSA conjugates was confirmed using ultraviolet-visible and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. The optimum CFG-BSA conjugates were prepared at a CFG:BSA weight ratio of 10:1, and peroxidase:BSA weight ratio of 1:4000. Selected CFG-BSA conjugates were used to prepare oil-in-water emulsions; the emulsifying properties were better than those of emulsions stabilized with only CFG or BSA. Measurements of mean droplet sizes and zeta potentials showed that CFG-BSA-conjugate-stabilized emulsions were less susceptible to environmental stresses, such as pH changes, high K ionic strengths, and freeze-thaw treatments than CFG- or BSA-stabilized emulsions. These conjugates have potential applications as novel emulsifiers in food industry. PMID:25542109

  16. Influence of emulsifiers on the characteristics of polyurethane structures used as drug carrier

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emulsifiers have a significant role in the emulsion polymerization by reducing the interfacial tension thus increasing the stability of colloidal dispersions of polymer nanostructures. This study evaluates the impact of four emulsifiers on the characteristics of polyurethane hollow structures used as drug delivery system. Results Polyurethane (PU) structures with high stability and sizes ranging from nano- to micro-scale were obtained by interfacial polyaddition combined with spontaneous emulsification. The pH of PU aqueous solutions (0.1% w/w) was slightly acidic, which is acceptable for products intended to be used on human skin. Agglomerated structures with irregular shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized structures have melting points between 245-265°C and reveal promising results in different evaluations (TEWL, mexametry) on murine skin. Conclusions In this study hollow PU structures of reduced noxiousness were synthesized, their size and stability being influenced by emulsifiers. Such structures could be used in the pharmaceutical field as future drug delivery systems. PMID:23575277

  17. Removal of Emulsified Oil from Water by Fruiting Bodies of Macro-Fungus (Auricularia polytricha)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xunan; Guo, Mengting; Wu, Yinghai; Wu, Qunhe; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of utilizing the fruiting bodies of a jelly macro-fungus Auricularia polytricha as adsorbents to remove emulsified oil from water. The effects of several factors, including temperature, initial pH, agitation speed, and adsorbent dosage, were taken into account. Results showed that the optimized conditions for adsorption of A. polytricha were a temperature of 35°C, pH of 7.5, and agitation speed of 100 rpm. The adsorption kinetics were characterized by the pseudo-first order model, which showed the adsorption to be a fast physical process. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm described the adsorption very well and predicted the maximum adsorption capacity of 398 mg g?1, under optimized conditions. As illustrated by scanning electron micrographs, the oil particles were adsorbed onto the hairs covering the bottom surface and could be desorbed by normal temperature volatilization. The material could be used as an emulsified oil adsorbent at least three times, retaining more than 95% of the maximum adsorption capacity. The results demonstrated that the fruiting bodies of A. polytricha can be a useful adsorbent to remove emulsified oil from water. PMID:24743498

  18. Emulsification by high frequency ultrasound using piezoelectric transducer: formation and stability of emulsifier free emulsion.

    PubMed

    Kaci, Messaouda; Meziani, Smail; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Gillet, Guillaume; Desjardins-Lavisse, Isabelle; Desobry, Stephane

    2014-05-01

    Emulsifier free emulsion was developed with a new patented technique for food and cosmetic applications. This emulsification process dispersed oil droplets in water without any emulsifier. Emulsions were prepared with different vegetable oil ratios 5%, 10% and 15% (v/v) using high frequency ultrasounds generated by piezoelectric ceramic transducer vibrating at 1.7 MHz. The emulsion was prepared with various emulsification times between 0 and 10h. Oil droplets size was measured by laser granulometry. The pH variation was monitored; electrophoretic mobility and conductivity variation were measured using Zêtasizer equipment during emulsification process. The results revealed that oil droplets average size decreased significantly (p<0.05) during the first 6h of emulsification process and that from 160 to 1 ?m for emulsions with 5%, 10% and from 400 to 29 ?m for emulsion with 15% of initial oil ratio. For all tested oil ratios, pH measurement showed significant decrease and negative electrophoretic mobility showed the accumulation of OH(-) at oil/water interface leading to droplets stability in the emulsion. The conductivity of emulsions showed a decrease of the ions quantity in solution, which indicated formation of positive charge layer around OH(-) structure. They constitute a double ionic layer around oil particles providing emulsion stability. This study showed a strong correlation between turbidity measurement and proportion of emulsified oil. PMID:24315670

  19. Iron chelators and iron toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Brittenham

    2003-01-01

    Iron chelation may offer new approaches to the treatment and prevention of alcoholic liver disease. With chronic excess, either iron or alcohol alone may individually injure the liver and other organs. In combination, each exaggerates the adverse effects of the other. In alcoholic liver disease, both iron and alcohol contribute to the production of hepatic fibrosis through their effects on

  20. Investigating the potential for long-term permeable reactive barrier (PRB) monitoring from the electrical signatures associated with the reduction in reactive iron performance

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Lee D.; Korte, N.; Baker, J.

    2005-12-14

    The objective of this work was to conduct laboratory and field experiments to determine the sensitivity of low frequency electrical measurements (resistivity and induced polarization) to the processes of corrosion and precipitation that are believed to limit permeable reactive barrier (PRB) performance. The research was divided into four sets of experiments that were each written up and submitted to a peer-reviewed journal: [1] A laboratory experiment to define the controls of aqueous chemistry (electrolyte activity; pH; valence) and total zero valent iron (Fe0) available surface area on the electrical properties of Fe0 columns. [2] A laboratory experiment to determine the impact of corrosion and precipitation on the electrical response of synthetic Fe0 columns as a result of geochemical reactions with NaSO4 and NaCO3 electrolytes. [3] Laboratory experiments on a sequence of cores retrieved from the Kansas City PRB to determine the magnitude of electrical and geochemical changes within a field active PRB after eight years of operation [4] Field-scale cross borehole resistivity and induced polarization monitoring of the Kansas City PRB to evaluate the potential of electrical imaging as a technology for non-invasive, long-term monitoring of indicators of reduced PRB performance This report first summarizes the findings of the four major experiments conducted under this research. The reader is referred to the four papers in Appendices 1-4 for a full description of each experiment, including motivation and significance, technical details, findings and implications. The deliverables of the project, including the publications, conference papers and new collaborative arrangements that have resulted are then described. Appendices 5-6 contain two technical reports written by co-PI Korte describing (1) supporting geochemical measurements, and (2) the coring procedure, conducted at the Kansas City PRB as part of this project.

  1. Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (part 1): porous medium rheology and guar gum-induced clogging.

    PubMed

    Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-10-01

    The present work is the first part of a comprehensive study on the use of guar gum to improve delivery of microscale zero-valent iron particles in contaminated aquifers. Guar gum solutions exhibit peculiar shear thinning properties, with high viscosity in static conditions and lower viscosity in dynamic conditions: this is beneficial both for the storage of MZVI dispersions, and also for the injection in porous media. In the present paper, the processes associated with guar gum injection in porous media are studied performing single-step and multi-step filtration tests in sand-packed columns. The experimental results of single-step tests performed by injecting guar gum solutions prepared at several concentrations and applying different dissolution procedures evidenced that the presence of residual undissolved polymeric particles in the guar gum solution may have a relevant negative impact on the permeability of the porous medium, resulting in evident clogging. The most effective preparation procedure which minimizes the presence of residual particles is dissolution in warm water (60°C) followed by centrifugation (procedure T60C). The multi-step tests (i.e. injection of guar gum at constant concentration with a step increase of flow velocity), performed at three polymer concentrations (1.5, 3 and 4g/l) provided information on the rheological properties of guar gum solutions when flowing through a porous medium at variable discharge rates, which mimic the injection in radial geometry. An experimental protocol was defined for the rheological characterization of the fluids in porous media, and empirical relationships were derived for the quantification of rheological properties and clogging with variable injection rate. These relationships will be implemented in the second companion paper (Part II) in a radial transport model for the simulation of large-scale injection of MZVI-guar gum slurries. PMID:25065767

  2. Formulation strategies to improve the bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs with special emphasis on self-emulsifying systems.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shweta; Kesarla, Rajesh; Omri, Abdelwahab

    2013-12-26

    Poorly water-soluble drug candidates are becoming more prevalent. It has been estimated that approximately 60-70% of the drug molecules are insufficiently soluble in aqueous media and/or have very low permeability to allow for their adequate and reproducible absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) following oral administration. Formulation scientists have to adopt various strategies to enhance their absorption. Lipidic formulations are found to be a promising approach to combat the challenges. In this review article, potential advantages and drawbacks of various conventional techniques and the newer approaches specifically the self-emulsifying systems are discussed. Various components of the self-emulsifying systems and their selection criteria are critically reviewed. The attempts of various scientists to transform the liquid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) to solid-SEDDS by adsorption, spray drying, lyophilization, melt granulation, extrusion, and so forth to formulate various dosage forms like self emulsifying capsules, tablets, controlled release pellets, beads, microspheres, nanoparticles, suppositories, implants, and so forth have also been included. Formulation of SEDDS is a potential strategy to deliver new drug molecules with enhanced bioavailability mostly exhibiting poor aqueous solubility. The self-emulsifying system offers various advantages over other drug delivery systems having potential to solve various problems associated with drugs of all the classes of biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS). PMID:24459591

  3. Formulation Strategies to Improve the Bioavailability of Poorly Absorbed Drugs with Special Emphasis on Self-Emulsifying Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shweta; Kesarla, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Poorly water-soluble drug candidates are becoming more prevalent. It has been estimated that approximately 60–70% of the drug molecules are insufficiently soluble in aqueous media and/or have very low permeability to allow for their adequate and reproducible absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) following oral administration. Formulation scientists have to adopt various strategies to enhance their absorption. Lipidic formulations are found to be a promising approach to combat the challenges. In this review article, potential advantages and drawbacks of various conventional techniques and the newer approaches specifically the self-emulsifying systems are discussed. Various components of the self-emulsifying systems and their selection criteria are critically reviewed. The attempts of various scientists to transform the liquid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) to solid-SEDDS by adsorption, spray drying, lyophilization, melt granulation, extrusion, and so forth to formulate various dosage forms like self emulsifying capsules, tablets, controlled release pellets, beads, microspheres, nanoparticles, suppositories, implants, and so forth have also been included. Formulation of SEDDS is a potential strategy to deliver new drug molecules with enhanced bioavailability mostly exhibiting poor aqueous solubility. The self-emulsifying system offers various advantages over other drug delivery systems having potential to solve various problems associated with drugs of all the classes of biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS). PMID:24459591

  4. Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (Part 2): Iron transport tests and modeling in radial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosco, Tiziana; Gastone, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-10-01

    In the present work column transport tests were performed in order to study the mobility of guar-gum suspensions of microscale zero-valent iron particles (MZVI) in porous media. The results were analyzed with the purpose of implementing a radial model for the design of full scale interventions. The transport tests were performed using several concentrations of shear thinning guar gum solutions as stabilizer (1.5, 3 and 4 g/l) and applying different flow rates (Darcy velocity in the range 1 · 10- 4 to 2 · 10- 3 m/s), representative of different distances from the injection point in the radial domain. Empirical relationships, expressing the dependence of the deposition and release parameters on the flow velocity, were derived by inverse fitting of the column transport tests using a modified version of E-MNM1D (Tosco and Sethi, 2010) and the user interface MNMs (www.polito.it/groundwater/software). They were used to develop a comprehensive transport model of MZVI suspensions in radial coordinates, called E-MNM1R, which takes into account the non Newtonian (shear thinning) rheological properties of the dispersant fluid and the porous medium clogging associated with filtration and sedimentation in the porous medium of both MZVI and guar gum residual undissolved particles. The radial model was run in forward mode to simulate the injection of MZVI dispersed in guar gum in conditions similar to those applied in the column transport tests. In a second stage, we demonstrated how the model can be used as a valid tool for the design and the optimization of a full scale intervention. The simulation results indicated that several concurrent aspects are to be taken into account for the design of a successful delivery of MZVI/guar gum slurries via permeation injection, and a compromise is necessary between maximizing the radius of influence of the injection and minimizing the injection pressure, to guarantee a sufficiently homogeneous distribution of the particles around the injection point and to prevent preferential flow paths.

  5. Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (part 2): iron transport tests and modeling in radial geometry.

    PubMed

    Tosco, Tiziana; Gastone, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-10-01

    In the present work column transport tests were performed in order to study the mobility of guar-gum suspensions of microscale zero-valent iron particles (MZVI) in porous media. The results were analyzed with the purpose of implementing a radial model for the design of full scale interventions. The transport tests were performed using several concentrations of shear thinning guar gum solutions as stabilizer (1.5, 3 and 4g/l) and applying different flow rates (Darcy velocity in the range 1·10(-4) to 2·10(-3)m/s), representative of different distances from the injection point in the radial domain. Empirical relationships, expressing the dependence of the deposition and release parameters on the flow velocity, were derived by inverse fitting of the column transport tests using a modified version of E-MNM1D (Tosco and Sethi, 2010) and the user interface MNMs (www.polito.it/groundwater/software). They were used to develop a comprehensive transport model of MZVI suspensions in radial coordinates, called E-MNM1R, which takes into account the non Newtonian (shear thinning) rheological properties of the dispersant fluid and the porous medium clogging associated with filtration and sedimentation in the porous medium of both MZVI and guar gum residual undissolved particles. The radial model was run in forward mode to simulate the injection of MZVI dispersed in guar gum in conditions similar to those applied in the column transport tests. In a second stage, we demonstrated how the model can be used as a valid tool for the design and the optimization of a full scale intervention. The simulation results indicated that several concurrent aspects are to be taken into account for the design of a successful delivery of MZVI/guar gum slurries via permeation injection, and a compromise is necessary between maximizing the radius of influence of the injection and minimizing the injection pressure, to guarantee a sufficiently homogeneous distribution of the particles around the injection point and to prevent preferential flow paths. PMID:25063698

  6. Development and Characterization of Solid Self-emulsifying Drug Delivery System of Cilnidipine.

    PubMed

    Bakhle, Suparna Sacchit; Avari, Jasmine Gev

    2015-01-01

    The present investigations highlight the development of solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system (solid-SEDDS) for improved oral delivery of the poorly water-soluble drug; cilnidipine. Liquid SEDDS of the drug were formulated using Capryol 90 as the oil phase, Tween 80 as the surfactant, and Transcutol HP as the co-surfactant after screening various vehicles. The prepared systems were characterized for self-emulsification time, robustness to dilution, % transmittance, globule size, drug release, and thermodynamic stability. Ternary phase diagrams were plotted to identify the area of microemulsification. The optimized liquid SEDDS was transformed into a free-flowing powder using Neusilin US2 as the adsorbent. Solid self-emulsifying powder retained the self-emulsifying property of the liquid SEDDS. Differential scanning calorimetric, X-ray powder diffraction studies revealed the possibility of transformation of the crystalline form of the drug to the amorphous form in the SEDDS prepared with the carrier. The morphology of solid-SEDDS from scanning electron microscopy studies demonstrated the presence of spherical, granular particles indicating good flowing ability. Dissolution studies revealed enhanced dissolution of the drug from the solid system compared with the pure drug and its marketed formulation. Similarly, the in vitro absorption profile of the drug from the formulated SEDDS was significantly higher compared with pure drug. Thus it can be concluded that solid-SEDDS, amenable for development of solid dosage form, can be successfully developed using Neusilin US2 with the potential of enhancing the solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability of the drug. PMID:26027464

  7. Preparation of polystyrene latex particles by ?-rays-induced emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinbo; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2006-09-01

    Monodisperse polystyrene latex particles were prepared by 60Co- ?-ray radiation-induced emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization with the use of surfactant monomer at room temperature. The surfactant monomer 10(9)-hydroxyl-9(10)-allyl ether octadecanoic acid (HAEOA) was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectra. TEM was used to characterize the polystyrene latex particles. HAEOA acted as not only a comonomer but also a stabilizer to copolymerize with styrene and stabilize the polystyrene latex particles. Kinetics analysis shows that there is no constant rate stage which seems to indicate a droplet nucleation mechanism.

  8. [FTIR analysis of cosrelation between emulsifying properties and the secondary structure of the proteins in modified egg yolk powder ].

    PubMed

    Ge, Shao-Yang; Liu, Mei-Yu; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Fang; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Zhang, Lu-Da; Guo, Hui-Yuan

    2011-08-01

    Spray drying is an important processing of producing modificatied yolk powder (MEYP). To investigate the correlation between the secondary structure and emulsifying property of MEYP made at different spray-drying-temperatures, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was applied in the present study. The result indicated that emulsifiability and the percentage of alpha-helix were both significantly increased firstly and then remarkably decreased with rising of spray-drying-temperature, and the emulsifying property of MEYP was relative to the percentage of alpha-helix. After heat-treating, the percentage of alpha-helix was significantly decreased and the percentage of p-sheet was remarkably increased, however, the total percentage of the two structures was maintained. The stable total percentage of alpha-helix and beta-sheet would be a good explanation for the great heat stability of emulsion presented in the MEYP made at different spray-drying temperature. PMID:22007391

  9. Design and Evaluation of Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) Of Carvedilol to Improve the Oral Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Anayatollah; Sharif Makhmal Zadeh, Behzad; Hemati, Ali asghar; Akbari Birgani, Sanaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Self-emulsifying drug delivery system is an isotropic mixture of natural or synthetic oils, non-ionic surfactants or, one or more hydrophilic solvent and co-solvents/surfactant and polymer that improve bioavailability and increase solubility of poorly-soluble drugs. Objectives: This study was aimed to prepare and develop a stable formulation for self-emulsifying drug delivery system to enhance the solubility, release rate, and oral absorption of the poorly-soluble drug, carvedilol. Materials and Methods: The prepared self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulations were evaluated regarding their particle size, refractory index (RI), emulsifying efficiency, drug release, and rat intestine permeability. Results: The results showed oleic acid as oil with Labrafil as surfactant and Labrafac PG (propylene glycol dicaprylocapraye) as co-surfactant with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and Poloxamer as polymer prepared stable emulsions with a refractive index higher than acidic medium and water. The particle size of formulations was influenced by the type of polymer so that the mean particle size in the self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulations containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose have a higher particle size compared to Poloxamer formulations. The percentage of drug release after 24 hours (R24) for Poloxamer and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose formulations were 61.24-70.61% and to 74.26-91.11%, respectively. The correlation between percentages of drug released after 24 hours with type of polymer was significant. In permeation studies, a significant and direct correlation existed between P4 and surfactant/co-surfactant ratio. The self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulations showed drug permeability through the rat intestine 2.76 times more, compared with the control. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that physicochemical properties, in vitro release and rat intestine permeability were dependent upon the contents of S/C, water and oil percentage in formulations. PMID:25237644

  10. Emulsifying and interfacial properties of vicilins: role of conformational flexibility at quaternary and/or tertiary levels.

    PubMed

    Liang, Han-Ni; Tang, Chuan-He

    2013-11-20

    Although the functionality of plant proteins (and soy proteins in particular) has been widely investigated in the last decades, the importance of conformational characteristics to their functionalities is still far away from being understood. The aim of the present work was to unravel the role of conformational flexibility at the quaternary and/or tertiary levels in the emulsifying and interfacial properties of phaseolin, an ideal vicilin (or 7S globulin) from red kidney bean. The conformational flexibility at quaternary and tertiary levels of phaseolin was modulated by urea with increasing concentrations from 0 to 8 M, as characterized by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), intrinsic fluorescence and derivative UV spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The emulsifying and interfacial properties, including emulsifying ability, flocculated state of oil droplets (in fresh emulsions), emulsion stability against creaming, and adsorption dynamics at the oil-water interface, were characterized at a specific protein concentration of 0.5% (w/v). The results indicated that increasing the urea concentration resulted in a progressive dissociation of trimeric phaseolin molecules into monomeric subunits, and even a structural unfolding of dissociated subunits; the urea-induced conformational changes at quaternary and/or tertiary levels were reversible, and the molecules at high urea concentrations shared similar structural features to the "molten globule state". On the other hand, increasing the urea concentration progressively improved the emulsifying ability of the protein, and flocculated extent of oil droplets in the fresh emulsions, but led to a progressive decrease in interfacial protein concentration. The improvement of the emulsifying ability was not related to diffusion (during initial adsorption) and penetration at the interface, but highly dependent on ease of structural rearrangement of the adsorbed proteins. These observations clearly confirmed that the flexibility of phaseolin at quaternary and/or tertiary levels plays a vital role in its emulsifying ability, mainly through the way of affecting the ease of structural rearrangement of adsorbed proteins at the interface. The findings could provide an in-depth understanding of the importance of conformational flexibility for the emulsifying properties of oligomeric storage globulins, and thus are of great help to guide the modifications of the proteins for better emulsifying properties. PMID:24151988

  11. Anti-cancer evaluation of quercetin embedded PLA nanoparticles synthesized by emulsified nanoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sanjeev K; Patel, Dinesh K; Thakur, Ravi; Mishra, Durga P; Maiti, Pralay; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to synthesize quercetin (Qt) embedded poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles (PLA-Qt) and to evaluate anti-cancer efficacy of PLA-Qt by using human breast cancer cells. PLA-Qt were synthesized by using novel emulsified nanoprecipitation technique with varying dimension of 32 ± 8 to 152 ± 9 nm of PLA-Qt with 62 ± 3% (w/w) entrapment efficiency by varying the concentration of polymer, emulsifier, drug and preparation temperature. The dimension of PLA-Qt was measured through transmission electron microscopy indicating larger particle size at higher concentration of PLA. The release rate of Qt from PLA-Qt was found to be more sustained for larger particle dimension (152 ± 9 nm) as compared to smaller particle dimension (32 ± 8 nm). Interaction between Qt and PLA was verified through spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. Delayed diffusion and stronger interaction in PLA-Qt caused the sustained delivery of Qt from the polymer matrix. In vitro cytotoxicity study indicate the killing of ? 50% breast cancer cells in two days at 100 ?g/ml of drug concentration while the ? 40% destruction of cells require 5 days for PLA-Qt (46 ± 6 nm; 20mg/ml of PLA). Thus our results propose anticancer efficacy of PLA-Qt nanoparticles in terms of its sustained release kinetics revealing novel vehicle for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25701491

  12. Influence of aqueous phase emulsifiers on lipid oxidation in water-in-walnut oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianhua; Zhu, Zhenbao; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2014-03-01

    Effects of selected aqueous phase emulsifiers on lipid oxidative stability of water-in-walnut oil (W/O) emulsions stabilized by polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) were evaluated. The formation of primary oxidation products (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary oxidation products (headspace hexanal) increased with increasing dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) concentration (0.1-0.2 wt % of emulsions). In contrast, the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the aqueous phase reduced lipid hydroperoxide and hexanal formation. In addition, the presence of Tween 20 in the aqueous phase did not significantly influence lipid oxidation rates in W/O emulsions compared to the control (without Tween 20). Whey protein isolate (WPI) was observed to inhibit lipid oxidation in the W/O emulsions (0.05-0.2 wt % of emulsions). Aqueous phase pH had an important impact on the antioxidant capability of WPI, with higher pH improving its ability to inhibit lipid oxidation. The combination of WPI and DTAB in the aqueous phase suppressed the prooxidant effect of DTAB. The combination of WPI and SDS resulted in improved antioxidant activity, with inhibition being greater at pH 7.0 than at pH 3.0. These results suggest that the oxidative stability of W/O emulsions could be improved by the use of suitable emulsifiers in the aqueous phase. PMID:24446832

  13. Influence of photo-cross-linking on emulsifying performance of the self-assemblies of poly(7-(4-vinylbenzyloxyl)-4-methylcoumarin-co-acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Yi, Chenglin; Sun, Jianhua; Zhao, Donghua; Hu, Qiong; Liu, Xiaoya; Jiang, Ming

    2014-06-17

    Polymeric micelles could be used as model polymeric particulate emulsifiers to elucidate the correlation between the micellar structure and their emulsifying performance. Photo-cross-linkable and pH-responsive micelles were prepared with amphiphilic random copolymers, poly(7-(4-vinylbenzyloxyl)-4-methylcoumarin-co-acrylic acid) (PVMAA), via the self-assembly in selective-solvent DMF/H2O and then used as polymeric particulate emulsifiers to stabilize toluene-in-water emulsions. Primary micelles, based on PVMAA with 12 mol % of hydrophobic composition, were chosen as model to investigate the influence of photo-cross-linking on the emulsifying performance. The larger shrinkage degree by photo-cross-linking (SDC) the micelles have, the lower emulsifying efficiency the micelles exhibit. Furthermore, the structural transitions of micelles with SDC of 0% and 95% in response to pH change were comparatively confirmed by a combination of electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The micelles of various states, manipulated by photo-cross-linking and pH changes, were used as emulsifiers to stabilize toluene-in-water or styrene-in-water emulsions. For the un-cross-linked micelles, polymer chains gradually protrude from micelles with pH increasing, which benefits the increase in the emulsifying efficiency of micelles. However, as pH elevated over 8, the stability of emulsions significantly decreases due to the disintegration of micelles. On the contrary, micelles with SDC of 95% keep their structural integrity and become more rigid as pH increase, leading to lower emulsifying efficiency of micelles and worse stability of the emulsions. This paper provides a new insight into the principles governing the extremely high emulsifying efficiency of polymeric particulate emulsifiers and pH-dependent or pH-responsive properties of the formed emulsions. PMID:24845778

  14. The Effect of the Concentration of Oxidant, Cr(VI), on the Iron Oxidation in Saline Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H.; Jo, H. Y.; Ryu, J. H.; Koh, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    Deep geological disposal is currently considered as the most appropriate method to isolate high level radioactive wastes (HLRWs) from the ecosystem. If groundwater seeps into underground disposal facilities, water molecules can be dissociated to radicals or peroxides, which can oxidize metal canisters and HLRWs. The oxidized radionuclides with a high solubility can be dissolved in the groundwater. Some dissolved radionuclides can act as oxidants. The continuous radiolysis of water molecules, which results from continuous seepage of groundwater, can enable the continuous production of the radioactive oxidants, resulting in an increase in concentration of oxidants. In this study, the effect of oxidant concentration on iron oxidation in the presence of salt was evaluated. Zero valent iron (ZVI) particles were reacted with Cr(VI) solutions with initial Cr(VI) concentrations ranged from 50 to 300 mg/L in reactors. The initial pH and NaCl concentration were fixed at 3 and 0.5 M, respectively. An increase in the initial Cr(VI) concentration caused an increase in the rate and extend of H2 gas production. The decrement of Cr(VI) was increased as the initial Cr(VI) concentration was increased. The penetration of H+ ions in the presence Cl- ions through the passive film on the ZVI particles caused the reaction between H+ ions and ZVI particles, producing H2 gas and Fe2+ ions. The passive film was damaged during the reaction due to the eruption of H2 gas or peptization by Cl- ions. The Fe2+ ions were reacted with Cr(VI) ions in the solution, producing Fe(III)-Cr(III) (oxy)hydroxides on the passive film of ZVI particles or in the solution as colloidal particles. The Fe(III)-Cr(III) (oxy)hydroxides tends to be precipitated as colloidal particles at a high Cr(VI) concentration and precipitated on the passive film at a low Cr(VI) concentration. The passive film was repaired or thickened by additional formation of Fe(III)-Cr(III) (oxy)hydroxides at a lower Cr(VI) concentration.

  15. Effects of Solution Chemistry on the Dechlorination of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane by Zero-Valent Zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2011-04-12

    The reactivity of zerovalent zinc (ZVZ) toward 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) was evaluated under a variety of solution conditions, including deionized water, groundwater, and artificial groundwater, over a pH range of about 6.5-12. In deionized water, first-order rate constants for TCP disappearance (kobs) exhibit a broad minimum between pH 8 and 10, with increasing kobs observed at lower and higher pH. The similarity between this trend and zinc oxide (ZnO) solubility behavior suggests pH related changes to the ZnO surface layer strongly influence ZVZ reactivity. Values of kobs measured in acidic groundwater are similar to those measured in DI water, whereas values measured in alkaline groundwater are much smaller (>1 order of magnitude at pH values >10). Characterization of the surfaces of ZVZ exposed to deionized water, acidic groundwater, and alkaline groundwater suggests that the slower rates obtained in alkaline groundwater are related to the presence of a morphologically distinct surface film that passivates the ZVZ surface. TCP degradation rates in artificial groundwater containing individual solutes present in groundwater suggest that silicate anions contribute to the formation of this passivating film.

  16. Incomplete femtosecond laser-assisted capsulotomy and lens fragmentation due to emulsified silicone oil in the anterior chamber.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Dilraj S; Singh Grewal, Satinder Pal; Basti, Surendra

    2014-12-01

    We report 2 cases involving femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery following a retinal-detachment repair performed 1 and 2 years earlier using silicone oil endotamponade that was subsequently removed. Preoperative slitlamp examination did not show emulsified silicone oil in the anterior chamber. Intraoperatively, however, emulsified silicone oil was seen on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) as a distinct hyperreflective retrocorneal line and there was no penetration of the OCT signal or delivery of the femtosecond laser treatment through this area, resulting in incomplete capsulotomy and lens fragmentation in both cases. Because silicone oil has a lower density than aqueous and migrates superiorly, careful preoperative gonioscopic examination to evaluate for emulsified silicone oil in the superior angle is warranted in eyes having femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery after a vitrectomy with silicone-oil endotamponade. Review of intraoperative OCT images can detect emulsified silicone oil, which would allow the procedure to be modified appropriately to prevent complications. PMID:25447197

  17. Dithranol in an Emulsifying Oil Base (Bio-Wash-Oil) for the Treatment of Psoriasis of the Scalp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wulff-Woesten; D. Ohlendorf; B. M. Henz; N. Haas

    2004-01-01

    On the scalp, dithranol has been studied in only a few trials. The dithranol molecule that contains both hydrophilic and lipophilic centers can be incorporated into detergents and allows easy removal from hair. This property has led to the incorporation of dithranol in an emulsifying oil base (bio-wash-oil). The formulation has been used routinely for more than two decades in

  18. UPTAKE AND EFFECTS OF DISPERSED OIL DROPLETS AND EMULSIFIED OIL BY ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results from this project will provide information on the extent of uptake of dispersed petroleum from the seawater and uptake of emulsified oil from the sediment by blue crabs and grass shrimp of different life history stages. The primary focus of the study will be eff...

  19. A single dose of emulsified versus capsular fish oils has equivalent effects on chylomicron fatty acids over 8 hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long chain omega-3 fatty acids are important in nutrition and disease management. Flavored emulsified fish oil supplements provide an alternative to encapsulated fish oils. Oil in water emulsions may offer an advantage in bio-availability of the fatty acids. Chylomicrons transport triglyceride from...

  20. Adsorption at the biocompatible ?-pinene-water interface and emulsifying properties of two eco-friendly surfactants.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Cayado, Luis Alfonso; Ramírez, Pablo; Alfaro, María Carmen; Ruíz, Manuela; Muñoz, José

    2014-10-01

    In this contribution, we provide an accurate characterization at the ?-pinene/water interface of two commercial polyoxytheylene glycerol ester surfactants which differ in the number of ethylene oxide (EO) groups, comprising a systematic analysis of interfacial pressure isotherms, dynamic curves, interfacial rheology and emulsifying properties. Polyoxyethylene glycerol esters derived from cocoa oil are non-ionic surfactants obtained from a renewable source which fulfill the environmental and toxicological requirements to be used as eco-friendly emulsifying agents. ?-Pinene is a renewable biosolvent completely insoluble in water, which could find numerous applications. Interfacial rheology and equilibrium interfacial pressure data fitted a rigorous reorientation model that assumes that the surfactant molecules, when adsorbed at the interface, can acquire two orientations. The surfactant with the highest number of EO groups (Levenol C201) turned out to be more surface active at the ?-pinene/water interface. In addition, the surfactant with the lowest number of EO groups (Levenol H&B) is solubilized into the adjacent oil phase. Slightly concentrated ?-pinene emulsions were obtained using both surfactants. Nevertheless, more stable ?-pinene emulsions with smaller droplet sizes and lower polidispersity were obtained when Levenol C201 was used as emulsifier instead of Levenol H&B. The systematic characterization presented in this work provides important new findings on the interfacial and emulsifying properties of polyoxytheylene glycerol ester surfactants, which can be applied in the rational development of new biocompatible products. PMID:25129697

  1. Effects of oils and emulsifiers on the skin penetration of stearyl glycyrrhetinate in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Osamu; Fujii, Makiko; Koizumi, Naoya; Nakade, Masato; Kameyama, Koichi; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether an emulsifier or an emulsified oil affects the skin penetration of stearyl glycyrrhetinate (SG) when it is applied in an oil-in-water (O/W)-type emulsion under finite dose conditions in vitro. SG has a high molecular weight (MW: 723) and high lipophilicity (log?P: 15.6). Skin penetration of SG applied with O/W emulsions was evaluated using 6 types of emulsifiers that are commonly used in cosmetics; however, no significant differences were observed between these emulsifiers. When applied with liquid paraffins in oil phase, SG skin penetration increased significantly as the molecular weight of the liquid paraffin decreased. The skin penetration of the fluorescent dye 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI; MW: 834, log?P: 23.2) also increased with O/W-type emulsions containing liquid paraffins of lower molecular weights. These results indicate that use of O/W-type emulsions with an appropriate oil phase can improve SG skin penetration. PMID:24583868

  2. Development of a solid supersaturatable self-emulsifying drug delivery system of docetaxel with improved dissolution and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Chen; Zheng, Jianling; Chen, Zhiyu; Shi, Qiongzhi; Liu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare a solid supersaturatable self-emulsifying drug delivery system (S-sSEDDS) using docetaxel (DTX). Different from conventional self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs), a solid supersaturatable self-emulsifying drug delivery system of docetaxel (DTX-S-sSEDDS) was prepared by spray drying, using lactose as the solid carrier and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the supersaturation promoter. Physicochemical properties and in vitro dissolution was observed while taking into account factors such as formulations, supersaturated promoters, solid carriers, and preparation methods. The bioavailability of the DTX-S-sSEDDS(1) compared with other formulations of DTX was evaluated in rats. The results showed that the presence of HPMC effectively sustained the supersaturated state by retarding the precipitation kinetics. Although the total amount of emulsifying excipients in the DTX-S-sSEDDS(1) was only 3/5 as much as that of the conventional SEDDS (DTX-SEDDS(2)), the percent of the accumulated dissolved DTX-S-sSEDDS(1) at 2 h reached 90.96%, which was higher than that of the DTX-SEDDS(2) (76.26%) and approximately 29.8 times as much as that of the DTX crude powder. The in vivo studies indicated that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(0-?)) of the DTX-S-sSEDDS(1) increased by nearly 8.77-fold, 1.45-fold more than those of the DTX powder and the conventional SEDDS without the presence of HPMC (DTX-SEDDS(1)) at a dose of 10 mg/kg. In conclusion, the S-sSEDDS provides an effective approach for improving the dissolution and bioavailability of docetaxel with a low level of emulsifying excipients and provides a reference for good stabilization and the safety of SEDDSs. PMID:21415541

  3. Effects of emulsifying components in the continuous phase of cream on the stability of fat globules and the physical properties of whipped cream.

    PubMed

    Ihara, K; Hirota, M; Akitsu, T; Urakawa, K; Abe, T; Sumi, M; Okawa, T; Fujii, T

    2015-05-01

    The emulsifying components in cream are very important in controlling the physical characteristics of whipped cream. The effects of those components on the stability of fat globules and the physical characteristics of whipped cream were investigated. A low-molecular-weight emulsifier, and protein ingredients such as sodium caseinate and a casein partial hydrolysate (casein peptides), were used as emulsifying components in this investigation. The viscosity of deaerated whipped cream (called the serum viscosity) was measured to evaluate the degree of fat-globule aggregation. Furthermore, the shape-retention ability, which is the degree of reduction in the firmness of whipped cream between immediately after whipping and after 1d of refrigeration, was explored. The addition of the low-molecular-weight emulsifier in the continuous phase of dairy cream, which does not contain added low-molecular-weight emulsifiers, increased the stability of the fat globules and reduced the shape-retention ability of the whipped cream. The addition of protein ingredients (sodium caseinate and casein peptides) to the continuous phase of dairy cream had little effect. However, the addition of casein peptide in the continuous phase of dairy cream together with the low-molecular-weight emulsifier reduced the effect of the low-molecular-weight emulsifier on the stabilization of fat globules and the shape-retention ability of the whipped cream. The addition of casein peptide did not recover the serum viscosity; thus, other mechanisms might underlie this phenomenon. PMID:25704969

  4. Preparation of magnetic latexes functionalized with chloromethyl groups via emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Sharifi-Sanjani, Naser

    2007-04-01

    Functionalized crosslinked polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene-co-chloromethylstyrene magnetic latex particles were prepared via emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization using 2, 2' azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (V-50) as an initiator and in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles in the monomers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved the presence of magnetite nanoparticles in polymer particles. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) analysis of the product showed an exothermic signal due to crosslinking of chains through electrophilic aromatic substitution of phenyl groups with chloromethyl groups in the presence of the dispersed Fe 3O 4 as Lewis acid. This was proven by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) via the loss of gaseous HCl. The results were also compared with those of magnetite-free miniemulsion polymerization using V-50.

  5. Self emulsifying drug delivery system for enhanced solubility and dissolution of glipizide.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anuj G; Kumar, Ashok; Gide, Paraag S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop self emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) of glipizide and to convert it into solid SEDDS (S-SEDDS) using Syloid(®) 244 FP as adsorbent. Solubility study, ternary phase diagram, robustness to dilution, thermodynamic stability study and globule size analysis were adopted to optimize liquid SEDDS. S-SEDDS were evaluated for various studies including in vivo study. The optimized liquid SEDDS formulation consisted of phosphatidylcholine, Tween 80 and Transcutol P as oil, surfactant and cosolvent. In vivo study demonstrated that blood glucose levels were efficiently controlled with S-SEDDS compared with pure drug. The results of this study suggest the potential use of developed S-SEDDS formulation for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drug glipizide. PMID:25576032

  6. Bacterial iron homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon C Andrews; Andrea K Robinson; Francisco Rodr??guez-Quiñones

    2003-01-01

    Iron is essential to virtually all organisms, but poses problems of toxicity and poor solubility. Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to counter the problems imposed by their iron dependence, allowing them to achieve effective iron homeostasis under a range of iron regimes. Highly efficient iron acquisition systems are used to scavenge iron from the environment under iron-restricted conditions. In many

  7. Are block copolymer worms more effective Pickering emulsifiers than block copolymer spheres?

    PubMed

    Thompson, K L; Mable, C J; Cockram, A; Warren, N J; Cunningham, V J; Jones, E R; Verber, R; Armes, S P

    2014-11-21

    RAFT-mediated polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare six types of amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles which were subsequently evaluated as putative Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilisation of n-dodecane-in-water emulsions. It was found that linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA) diblock copolymer spheres and worms do not survive the high shear homogenisation conditions used for emulsification. Stable emulsions are obtained, but the copolymer acts as a polymeric surfactant; individual chains rather than particles are adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Particle dissociation during emulsification is attributed to the weakly hydrophobic character of the PHPMA block. Covalent stabilisation of these copolymer spheres or worms can be readily achieved by addition of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) during the PISA synthesis. TEM studies confirm that the resulting cross-linked spherical or worm-like nanoparticles survive emulsification and produce genuine Pickering emulsions. Alternatively, stabilisation can be achieved by either replacing or supplementing the PHPMA block with the more hydrophobic poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA). The resulting linear spheres or worms also survive emulsification and produce stable n-dodecane-in-water Pickering emulsions. The intrinsic advantages of anisotropic worms over isotropic spheres for the preparation of Pickering emulsions are highlighted. The former particles are more strongly adsorbed at similar efficiencies compared to spheres and also enable smaller oil droplets to be produced for a given copolymer concentration. The scalable nature of PISA formulations augurs well for potential applications of anisotropic block copolymer nanoparticles as Pickering emulsifiers. PMID:25254485

  8. Lecithin-linker formulations for self-emulsifying delivery of nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jacquelene; Cheng, Yu-Ling; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Nouraei, Mehdi; Zarate-Muñoz, Silvia; Acosta, Edgar J

    2014-08-25

    Lecithin-linker microemulsions are formulations produced with soybean lecithin in combination with a highly lipophilic (lipophilic linker) and highly hydrophilic (hydrophilic linkers) surfactant-like additives. In this work, lecithin-linker systems were formulated to produce self-emulsifying delivery systems for ?-carotene and ?-sitosterol. The concentration of the lipophilic linker, sorbitan monooleate, was adjusted to minimize the formation of liquid crystals. The concentration of hydrophilic linkers, decaglyceryl caprylate/caprate and PEG-6-caprylic/capric glycerides, was gradually increased (scanned) until single phase clear microemulsions were obtained. For these scans, the oil (ethyl caprate) to water ratio was set to 1. The single phase, clear microemulsions were diluted with fed-state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) and produced stable emulsions, with drop sizes close to 200 nm. Using pseudo-ternary phase diagrams to evaluate the process of dilution of microemulsion preconcentrates (mixtures of oil, lecithin and linkers with little or no water) with FeSSIF, it was determined that self-emulsifying systems are obtained when the early stages of the dilution produce single phase microemulsions. If liquid crystals or multiple phase systems are obtained during those early stages, then the emulsification yields unstable emulsions with large drop sizes. An in vitro permeability study conducted using a Flow-Thru Dialyzer revealed that stable emulsions with drop sizes of 150-300 nm produce large and irreversible permeation of ?-carotene to sheep intestine. On the other hand, unstable emulsions produced without the linker combination separated in the dialyzer chamber. PMID:24810240

  9. Self micro-emulsifying drug delivery system of tacrolimus: Formulation, in vitro evaluation and stability studies

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pranav V; Patel, Hitesh K; Panchal, Shital S; Mehta, Tejal A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tacrolimus has poor solubility in water ranging from 4 to 12 ?g/mL. The oral bio availabilities of tacrolimus is poor and exhibits high intra and inter-subject variability (4-89%, average 25%) in the liver and the kidney transplant recipients and in patients with renal impairment. Aim: The present study deals with the development and characterization of self-micro-emulsifying drug delivery system to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug tacrolimus. Materials and Methods: Solubility of the tacrolimus was estimated in various oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants. Various in vitro tests such as percentage transmittance, emulsification time, cloud point, precipitation, and thermodynamic stabilities were used to find out optimized formulations. Optimized liquid self micro-emulsifying (SMEDDS) were characterized by particle size analysis and converted in solid by using the Florite RE as an adsorbent, which is further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and particle size analysis. Results: The optimized liquid SMEDDS formulation contained 10% Lauroglycol FCC as an oil, 60% Cremophor RH, and 30% PEG (polyethylene glycol) 400 as a surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. The optimized liquid and solid SMEDDS showed higher drug release than the marketed capsule and pure API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) powder. For optimized liquid SMEDDS and solid SMEDDS, the globule sizes were found 113 nm and 209 nm respectively. The solid state characterization of solid-SMEDDS by SEM, DSC, FTIR, and XRD revealed the absence of crystalline tacrolimus in the solid-SMEDDS. Shelf-lives for liquid SMEDDS and solid SMEDDS were found to be 1.84 and 2.25 year respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that liquid SMEDDS and solid SMEDDS of tacrolimus, owing to nano-sized, have potential to enhance the absorption of the drug. PMID:24015381

  10. Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1992-01-01

    All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

  11. In vitro and in vivo studies on vitamin E TPGS-emulsified poly( d, l-lactic- co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for paclitaxel formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khin Yin Win; Si-Shen Feng

    2006-01-01

    This work shows a full spectrum of research on Vitamin E TPGS-emulsified Poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for paclitaxel formulation to improve its therapeutic index and to reduce the adverse effects of adjuvant Cremophor EL in its current clinical formulation of Taxol®. Paclitaxel-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by a modified solvent extraction\\/evaporation technique with vitamin E TPGS as emulsifier. The

  12. Investigation Factors Affecting Cutting Oil Formulations Prepared by Emulsifiers Based on Linear Alkyl Benzene and Oleic Acid?Maleic Anhydride Esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nermine; E. Maysour; N. M. Nasser

    2008-01-01

    Seven emulsifiers based on linear alkyl benzene and five others based on oleic acid maleic anhydride esters were prepared previously (Al?Sabagh, A.M., Maysour, N.E., Nasser, N.M., and Srour, M.R. (2006) J. Dispersion Sci. Technol., 27 (2): 239–250). The prepared emulsifier package contains four components: synthesized surfactant, oleic acid, diethanol amine, and solvents. These four components and the base paraffin oil

  13. Biogeochemical Modeling of In Situ U(VI) Reduction and Immobilization with Emulsified Vegetable Oil as the Electron Donor at a Field Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Parker, J.; Wu, W.; Schadt, C. W.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.; Orifrc Team

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive biogeochemical model was developed to quantitatively describe the coupled hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological processes that occurred following injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) as the electron donor to immobilize U(VI) at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site (ORIFRC) in Tennessee. The model couples the degradation of EVO, production and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), glycerol, hydrogen and acetate, reduction of nitrate, manganese, ferrous iron, sulfate and uranium, and methanoganesis with growth of multiple microbial groups. The model describes the evolution of geochemistry and microbial populations not only in the aqueous phase as typically observed, but also in the mineral phase and therefore enables us to evaluate the applicability of rates from the literature for field scale assessment, estimate the retention and degradation rates of EVO and LCFA, and assess the influence of the coupled processes on fate and transport of U(VI). Our results suggested that syntrophic bacteria or metal reducers might catalyze LCFA oxidation in the downstream locations when sulfate was consumed, and competition between methanogens and others for electron donors and slow growth of methanogen might contribute to the sustained reducing condition. Among the large amount of hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological parameter values, the initial biomass, and the interactions (e.g., inhibition) of the microbial functional groups, and the rate and extent of Mn and Fe oxide reduction appear as the major sources of uncertainty. Our model provides a platform to conduct numerical experiments to study these interactions, and could be useful for further iterative experimental and modeling investigations into the bioreductive immobiliztion of radionuclide and metal contaminants in the subsurface.

  14. A new route of emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization for the preparation of polymer coated magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Quyen, D. H.; Hoang, T. K. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new route of emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization based on the homogenous mechanism was investigated to prepare magnetic nanoparticles coated by poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The experimental results confirm the formation of PMMA thin and unique layers covering magnetite cores. The polymer layer thickness, determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, increases from 4.3 nm to 6.8 nm with increasing mass ratio of MMA to magnetite from 3:1 to 11:1. The increase of the polymer thickness results in the decrease in magnetization saturation of polymeric coated magnetic particles. However, this reduction, no more than 13 emu g-1, is much lower compared to that in other studies with the presence of surfactants or emulsifiers. Besides, the dispersion stability of the prepared particles is significantly improved.

  15. Effect of emulsifier content of sizing agent on the surface of carbon fibres and interface of its composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. L.; Huang, Y. D.; Liu, L.; Tang, Y. R.; Su, D.; Xu, L. W.

    2011-02-01

    In this work, carbon fibres were sized with different emulsifier content sizing agent in order to improve the performances of carbon fibres and the interface of carbon fibres composites. The surface characteristic changing after modification was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wetting and surface energy along with contact angles were determined by the dynamic contact angle analysis test (DCAT). At the same time, the single fibre strengths and weibull distributions were also studied in order to understand the effect of the emulsifier content of sizing agent on the carbon fibres. The interfacial shear strength and hygrothermal ageing of the composites were measured which showed a different enhancement, respectively. The results revealed that sizing agent E-3 showed better interface adhesion between fibres and matrix and sizing agent E-2 sized carbon fibre has better ageing resistant properties.

  16. Physical stability of coconut oil lotions formulated using hydrophile-lipophile balance system of various emulsifier pairs.

    PubMed

    Boonme, Prapaporn; Maneenuan, Duangkhae; Channarong, Sunee

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare coconut oil lotions using a hydrophile-lipophile balance system to calculate the proportion of each nonionic surfactant used. The effects of emulsifier pairs in the formulations on physical properties (i.e., appearance, emulsion type, pH, flow type, viscosity) were investigated. The physical stability of the lotions was determined at ambient temperature (approximatley 30 degrees C) after the lotions were kept for 30 as well as 60 days and in accelerated conditions (6 freeze-thaw cycles). It was found that the formulations most tolerant to such harsh conditions were F1 and F2, o/w lotions containing 40% w/w coconut oil, 50% w/w water and 10% w/w of the mixed emulsifier of a low hydrophile-lipophile balance surfactant (sorbitan monostearate) and a high hydrophile-lipophile balance surfactant (either polyoxyethylene [20] sorbitan monooleate or polyethylene [20] sorbitan monolaurate). PMID:24261151

  17. Development of isradipine loaded self-nano emulsifying powders for improved oral delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ramasahayam, Bindu; Eedara, Basanth Babu; Kandadi, Prabhakar; Jukanti, Raju; Bandari, Suresh

    2015-05-01

    Isradipine (ISR) is a potent calcium channel blocker with low oral bioavailability due to low aqueous solubility, extensive first-pass metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux transport. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to develop isradipine-loaded self-nano emulsifying powders (SNEP) for improved oral delivery. The liquid self-nano emulsifying formulations (L-SNEF/SNEF) of isradipine were developed using vehicles with highest drug solubility, i.e. Labrafil® M 2125 CS as oil phase, Capmul® MCM L8 and Cremophor® EL as surfactant/co-surfactant mixture. The developed formulations revealed desirable characteristics of self-emulsifying system such as nano-size globules ranging from 32.7 to 40.2?nm, rapid emulsification (around 60?s), thermodynamic stability and robustness to dilution. The optimized stable self-nano emulsifying formulation (SNEF2) was transformed into SNEP using Neusilin US2 (SNEPN) as adsorbent inert carrier, which exhibited similar characteristics of liquid SNEF. The solid state characterization of SNEPN by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies shown transformation of crystalline drug into amorphous form or molecular state without any chemical interaction. The in vitro dissolution of SNEPN compared to pure drug was indicated by 18-fold increased drug release within 5?min. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in Wistar rats showed significant improvement of oral bioavailability of isradipine from SNEPN with 3- and 2.5-fold increments in peak drug concentration (Cmax), area under curve (AUC0-?) compared to pure isradipine. In conclusion, these results signify the improved oral delivery of isradipine from developed SNEP. PMID:24641324

  18. Simulation of the separation of emulsified oil products from water in an apparatus with sinusoidal-profiled oleophilic plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yu. Ivanenko; M. A. Yablokova; S. I. Petrov

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm of the stochastic simulation of the separation of emulsified oil from water in coalescer apparatuses with oleophilic\\u000a corrugated plates allowing one to take into account almost all factors affecting the separation of polydispersed emulsions\\u000a is presented. The algorithm and the program developed based on it can be used for the calculation and design of industrial\\u000a thin-film coalescers of

  19. Influence of Interfacial Composition on in Vitro Digestibility of Emulsified Lipids: Potential Mechanism for Chitosan's Ability to Inhibit Fat Digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saehun Mun; Eric A. Decker; Jochen Weiss; D. Julian McClements

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of interfacial composition and electrical charge on the in vitro digestion of emulsified fats by pancreatic lipase. An electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition technique was used to prepare corn oil-in-water emulsions (3 wt% oil) that contained droplets coated by (1) lecithin, (2) lecithin–chitosan, or (3) lecithin–chitosan–pectin. Pancreatic lipase (1.6 mg mL?1) and\\/or bile extract

  20. Effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of soy protein isolates and on the emulsifying properties of hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Chen, Jianshe; Ren, Jiaoyan; Zhao, Mouming

    2011-03-23

    Soy protein isolate (SPI) was modified by ultrasound pretreatment (200 W, 400 W, 600 W) and controlled papain hydrolysis, and the emulsifying properties of SPIH (SPI hydrolysates) and USPIH (ultrasound pretreated SPIH) were investigated. Analysis of mean droplet sizes and creaming indices of emulsions formed by SPIH and USPIH showed that some USPIH had markedly improved emulsifying capability and emulsion stabilization against creaming during quiescent storage. Compared with control SPI and SPIH-0.58% degree of hydrolysis (DH), USPIH-400W-1.25% (USPIH pretreated under 400W sonication and hydrolyzed to 1.25% DH) was capable of forming a stable fine emulsion (d43=1.79 ?m) at a lower concentration (3.0% w/v). A variety of physicochemical and interfacial properties of USPIH-400W products have been investigated in relation to DH and emulsifying properties. SDS-PAGE showed that ultrasound pretreatment could significantly improve the accessibility of some subunits (?-7S and A-11S) in soy proteins to papain hydrolysis, resulting in changes in DH, protein solubility (PS), surface hydrophobicity (H0), and secondary structure for USPIH-400W. Compared with control SPI and SPIH-0.58%, USPIH-400W-1.25% had a higher protein adsorption fraction (Fads) and a lower saturation surface load (?sat), which is mainly due to its higher PS and random coil content, and may explain its markedly improved emulsifying capability. This study demonstrated that combined ultrasound pretreatment and controlled enzymatic hydrolysis could be an effective method for the functionality modification of globular proteins. PMID:21329351

  1. Preparation of low density TiO 2\\/poly (methyl methacrylate) composite particles by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junming Liu; Lixin Cao; Ge Su; Wei Liu

    2011-01-01

    Based on the 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propylmethacrylate (MPS) modified TiO2 particles, the TiO2\\/poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite particles have been prepared successfully via emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization in water. A facile floating-sinking method is proposed to roughly evaluate the composite particles’ density. Chemical component of obtained composite particles was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). The morphology and grain size of the

  2. Iron and iron derived radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... July 2014 What is iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia? Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of ...

  4. Effect of alkaline deamidation on the structure, surface hydrophobicity, and emulsifying properties of the Z19 alpha-zein.

    PubMed

    Cabra, Vanessa; Arreguin, Roberto; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Farres, Amelia

    2007-01-24

    Different deamidation conditions for the Z19 alpha-zein were studied in order to find the best conditions for the development of the emulsifying properties. Alkaline deamidation was chosen, and the effects on the peptide bond cleavage, secondary structure, emulsifying properties, and surface hydrophobicity were studied. The Z19 alpha-zein was deamidated by using 0.5 N NaOH containing 70% ethanol at 70 degrees C for 12 h. A deamidation degree (DD) of 60.6 +/- 0.5%, and a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 5 +/- 0.5% were achieved. Analysis by far-UV circular dichroism showed that the denaturation was mainly promoted by the high temperature used during the incubation. The adequate balance between the DD and the DH results in an effective emulsifying property improvement for the Z19 alpha-zein. Thus, after the deamidation treatment, the surface hydrophobicity decreased from 9.5 x 104 +/- 6.8 x 103 to 46 x 104 +/- 2.1 x 103, and the emulsion stability increased from 18 +/- 0.7% to 80 +/- 4.7% since the oil globules stabilized by the modified protein were smaller (57.7 +/- 5.73 nm) and more resistant to coalescence than those present in the native protein emulsions (1488 +/- 3.92 nm). PMID:17227077

  5. Effectiveness of different emulsifiers for neem oil against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) and the warehouse moth (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Schroer, S; Sermann, H; Reichmuth, C; Büttner, C

    2001-01-01

    The neem tree produces highly specified acting insecticides mainly in its seeds. By pressurizing or extracting the seeds an insecticide oil can be manufactured. For successful application emulsifiers are needed to render the oil soluble in water. The heavy oil has to be stable in emulsion, but on the other hand the surfactant should not reduce the ecological property of the neem oil. The emulsifiers Lutensol TO10, Emulan ELP, Rimulgan and Tween 80 and for comparison the formulation NeemAzal-T/S were tested in their emulsion stability, as well as in their insecticidal effects towards two different insect pests: The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the ware house moth Ephestia elutella. The emulsifiers were applied purely, and in different contents mixed in neem oil. Data showed significant differences of mortality and development on the tested pests. Lutensol TO10 and Emulan ELP caused spontaneous mortality on the western flower thrips and an additive efficacy when mixed with neem oil. Rimulgan led to mortality of the larvae of the warehouse moth. NeemAzal showed in both bioassays the highest efficacy of 95% mortality. PMID:12425067

  6. Microwave heating enhances antioxidant and emulsifying activities of ovalbumin glycated with glucose in solid-state.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zong-Cai; Hu, Yue-Ming; Wang, Hui; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Xia, Shi-Qi; Niu, Pei-Pei

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the properties of ovalbumin (OVA) after glycated with glucose under microwave heating. For this purpose, microwave at 480 and 640 W power levels were used for heating the OVA-glucose system in solid-state for 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min, respectively. The results indicated that the protein molecular weight was increased after glycated with glucose under microwave treatment, the pH of the system was decreased with the increase of microwave treatment power and time, while the UV absorbance, browning intensity, antioxidant activities as well as the emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were increased in according with the raise of microwave treatment power and time. The reaction time of microwave treatment is much shorter than those using traditional methods, suggesting that microwave irradiation is a novel and efficient approach to promote Maillard reaction (MR) in dry state and improve protein antioxidant and functional properties. PMID:25745213

  7. Stability and emulsifying capacity of biosurfactants obtained from lignocellulosic sources using Lactobacillus pentosus.

    PubMed

    Portilla-Rivera, O; Torrado, A; Domínguez, J M; Moldes, A B

    2008-09-10

    Lactobacillus pentosus grown on sugars from agricultural residues produces biosurfactants with emulsifying properties that could facilitate the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The biosurfactans obtained after growing L. pentosus cells on distilled grape marc hydrolyzates gave values of relative emulsion volume (EV) close to 50%, being stable after 72 h when gasoline or kerosene were employed. These EV values were higher than those achieved using commercial surfactin (14.1% for gasoline and 27.2% for kerosene). Moreover, assays carried out with kerosene showed that L. pentosus produced biosurfactants from distilled grape marc hydrolyzates with the highest stabilizing capacity value (ES) to maintain the emulsion (99%) followed by biosurfactants produced from hazelnut shell hydrolyzates (97%). These data are comparable with those obtained using sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS (87.7%), whereas surfactin only gave an ES value of 65.4%. Consequently, this work shows that utilization of low-cost feedstock agricultural residues as substrates for producing biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers is possible thus removing obstacles for the wide-scale industrial application of biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers. PMID:18707111

  8. Enhanced oral bioavailability of dexibuprofen by a novel solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS).

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Lee, Beom-Jin; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jong Oh; Hong, Myung Ja; Jee, Jun-Pil; Kim, Jung Ae; Yoo, Bong Kyu; Woo, Jong Soo; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to prepare a solid form of lipid-based self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) by spray drying liquid SEDDS with an inert solid carrier Aerosil 200 to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug dexibuprofen. The liquid SEDDS was a system that consisted of dexibuprofen, Labrasol, Capryol 90 and Labrafil M 1944 CS. The particle size analysis revealed no difference in the z-average particle diameter of the reconstituted emulsion between liquid and solid SEDDS. The solid SEDDS was characterized by SEM, DSC and XRD studies. In vivo results of solid SEDDS and dexibuprofen powder in rats at the dose of 10mg/kg showed that the initial plasma concentrations of drug in solid SEDDS were significantly higher than those of dexibuprofen powder (P<0.05). The solid SEDDS gave significantly higher AUC and Cmax than did dexibuprofen powder (P<0.05). In particular, the AUC of solid SEDDS was about twofold higher than that of dexibuprofen powder. Our results suggested that this solid SEDDS could be used as an effective oral solid dosage form to improve the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug dexibuprofen. PMID:19298857

  9. Production of metabolites with antioxidant and emulsifying properties by antarctic strain Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AL?.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Stela; Pavlova, Kostantsa; Lukanov, Ludmil; Korotkova, Elena; Petrova, Ekaterina; Zagorchev, Plamen; Kuncheva, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AL(1) Antarctic strain was cultivated and two bioproducts were obtained: exopolysaccharide and biomass. The biologically active substances ergosterol, torularhodin, torulene, ?-carotene and CoQ(10) were extracted from the biomass and were quantified as follows: ergosterol 5.2?±?0.2 mg/g, torularhodin 458.3?±?24.5 ?g/g, torulene 273.7?±?14.5 ?g/g, ?-carotene 129.2?±?7.3 ?g/g and coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) 236.1?±?12.1 ?g/g. Their antioxidant activity was estimated according to the cathode voltammetry method. The most pronounced antioxidant activity (according to trolox) was exhibited by ?-carotene 3.78, followed by CoQ(10) 3.60, both of them being the main contributors to the total extract activity of 3.19. The biologically active metabolites in combination with exoglucomannan as emulsifier were used for the creation of model emulsion systems characterised by great stability. The absorption of UVA rays by the model emulsions was studied. PMID:23179285

  10. Powdered self-emulsified lipid formulations of meloxicam as solid dosage forms for oral administration.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vikas; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Nazzal, Sami

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare a powdered self-emulsified (SEDDS) formulation of meloxicam and to compare its oral bioavailability against commercial Mobic tablets. The SEDDS formulation was prepared by in situ salt formation of meloxicam in a blend of lipid excipients and aqueous tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane solution. The liquid SEDDS was subsequently adsorbed on silica powder and was tested for size, flow, and crystal growth. The flowability index of the powdered SEDDS was borderline acceptable. Absence of crystal growth with storage was confirmed by DSC and PXRD studies. Dissolution of meloxicam from the powdered SEDDS was >90% vs. <12% for powdered meloxicam and <80% for the commercial tablets. Stability of the powdered formulations after storage in gelatin and HPMC capsules was also evaluated to study the effect of water migration from the fill into capsule shells. Capsules softened to a different extent as a function of fill material with HPMC capsules showing greater resistance to water migration. Finally, oral bioavailability of the formulations was evaluated in beagle dogs. Powdered meloxicam SEDDS formulation showed a 1.3-fold increase in AUC vs. commercial Mobic® tablets. Overall, this study described a novel SEDDS formulation of meloxicam and outlined a systematic approach to adsorbing and testing the flow and stability behavior of powdered SEDDS formulations. PMID:23072611

  11. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system and the applications in herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lanying; Zhang, Manhong; Pang, Yue; Li, Zhaoming; Zhao, Aili; Feng, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Herbal drugs have been used for thousands of years in the east and have had a recent resurgence in popularity among consumers in the west. However, most of herbal drug are poorly soluble and have hydrophobic properties and poor distribution, leading to reduced bioavailability and hence decreased treatment efficacy, requiring repeated administration or increased dose. In the past few decades, considerable attention has been focused on the development of self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for herbal drugs. SEDDS is isotropic and thermodynamically stable solutions consisting of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug that can spontaneously form oil-in-water micro/nanoemulsion when mixed with water under gentle stirring. The formulation can be a viable alternative to classical formulations to take advantage of their lipophilic nature and to solve their problems of poor solubility, poor bioavailability, low oral absorption and instability. The mechanism of self-emulsification, solubility studies, construction of phase diagram, optimization and characterization of herbal drugs-loaded SEDDS formulation and in situ absorption evaluation of herbal drugs in rat intestine are presented in our article. PMID:24321014

  12. Excipient effects on in vitro cytotoxicity of a novel paclitaxel self-emulsifying drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Neslihan; Garrigue, Jean-Sebastien; Razafindratsita, Alain; Lambert, Gregory; Benita, Simon

    2003-12-01

    Paclitaxel is a potent chemotherapeutic agent currently administered intravenously in polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor EL) and dehydrated ethanol (1:1) for the treatment of solid tumors. The objective of this work was to develop a novel self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) devoid of cremophor for the i.v./oral delivery of paclitaxel and to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the combined excipients. The SEDDS formulations were characterized in terms of droplet size using a ternary phase diagram. The Caco-2 cell line was used to monitor the cytotoxicity of the excipients. Cell viability was determined colorimetrically at 570 nm utilizing the MTT assay. The distribution of the formulations on the phase diagram indicated the presence of macroemulsions ( approximately 1 microm), submicron emulsions (50-200 nm), and microemulsions (below 10 nm). An increase in the sodium deoxycholate excipient content led to an increase in physical stability but caused more chemical degradation of the drug and more cytotoxicity. The drug in the novel SEDDS was chemically stable for at least 1 year when kept as a two-part formulation. The drug loading was increased by approximately fivefold compared to the marketed i.v. formulation; the excipients presented a significantly reduced cytotoxicity and led to a stable microemulsion. PMID:14603486

  13. Dissolution and powder flow characterization of solid self-emulsified drug delivery system (SEDDS).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vikas; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Ali, Hazem; Nazzal, Sami

    2009-01-21

    In this study, the dynamics of powder flow upon griseofulvin-self-emulsified drug delivery system (SEDDS) addition to silica and silicates and the effect of these adsorbents on drug release were investigated. SEDDS was adsorbed at SEDDS/adsorbent ratios from 0.25:1 to 3:1 on magnesium aluminum silicate [5 and 80 microm], calcium silicate [25 microm], and silicon dioxide [3.6, 20, and 300 microm]. Powder flow was evaluated using the powder rheometer and compared to angle of repose. Release of drug from a 1:1 SEDDS/adsorbent powder was determined by dissolution using USP Type 2 apparatus. Powder rheometer profiles indicated that effect of SEDDS on the flow behavior of the adsorbents could be correlated to stepwise or continuous growing behavior as observed in wet granulation process. However, due to their porous nature, adsorbents exhibited an initial lag phase during which no change in flow was observed. Dissolution of drug from adsorbed-SEDDS was found to be dependent on pore length and nucleation at the lipid/adsorbent interface. Increase in dissolution rate was observed with an increase in surface area and was independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbents. Therefore, in order to manufacture free flowing powder containing liquid SEDDS, special attention should be given to particle size, specific surface area, type and amount of adsorbent. PMID:18832019

  14. Characterization of edible emulsified films with low affinity to water based on kefiran and oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Oromiehie, Abdulrasoul; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2011-10-01

    New edible composite films based on kefiran and oleic acid (OA) at the ratio of 15, 25, and 35% (w/w) were prepared using emulsification with the aim of improving their water vapour barrier and mechanical properties. Film-forming solutions were characterized in terms of rheological properties and particle-size distribution. The impact of the incorporation of OA into the film matrix was studied by investigating the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the films. The water vapour permeability (WVP) of the emulsified films was reduced by approximately 33% by adding OA. The mechanical properties of kefiran films were also affected by adding OA: tensile strength was diminished, and elongation increased considerably. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the kefiran film was -16°C and was not considerably affected by adding OA. Therefore, OA could be incorporated into these films for some food-technology applications that need a low affinity toward water. PMID:21640752

  15. Impact of various emulsifiers on ALA bioavailability and chylomicron synthesis through changes in gastrointestinal lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Couëdelo, L; Amara, S; Lecomte, M; Meugnier, E; Monteil, J; Fonseca, L; Pineau, G; Cansell, M; Carrière, F; Michalski, M C; Vaysse, C

    2015-05-13

    Formulating healthy food rich in omega 3 fatty acids requires prior knowledge of the parameters influencing their bioavailability and their metabolic fate. In this context, we studied the effects of various emulsifiers widely used in the food industry, on the gastrointestinal lipolysis of flaxseed oil emulsions in an in vitro model and on the intestinal absorption and lymphatic secretion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in rats. In vitro data showed that the emulsification of flaxseed oil with soya lecithin improved the gastric lipolysis of the oil (+30%), while the presence of Tween 80 or of sodium caseinate decreased it (-80% and -40%, respectively). The in vivo data demonstrated that the intestinal absorption and the lymphatic secretion of ALA were improved with soya lecithin (Cmax = 24 mg mL(-1)) and reduced in the presence of sodium caseinate (Cmax = 7 mg mL(-1)) compared to unemulsified flaxseed oil (Cmax = 16 mg mL(-1)); Tween 80 had no effect. In addition, the synthesized chylomicrons were notably larger and more numerous with soya lecithin whereas they were smaller in the presence of sodium caseinate (p < 0.05). This study shows that the intestinal bioavailability of ALA was increased by the emulsification of flaxseed oil with soya lecithin via an improved lipolysis, favouring the intestinal absorption of ALA and the secretion of many large chylomicrons in lymph. PMID:25923344

  16. Micrometer-sized gold-silica Janus particles as particulate emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Syuji; Yokoyama, Yuichi; Miyanari, Yuki; Shiono, Takafumi; Ito, Masanori; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Yoshinobu

    2013-05-01

    Micrometer-sized gold-silica Janus particles act as an effective stabilizer of emulsions by adsorption at the oil-water interface. The Janus particles were adsorbed at the oil-water interface as a monolayer and stabilized near-spherical and nonspherical oil droplets that remained stable without coalescence for longer than one year. Gold and silica surfaces have hydrophobic and hydrophilic features; these surfaces were exposed to oil and water phases, respectively. In contrast, bare silica particles cannot stabilize stable emulsion, and completed demulsification occurred within 2 h. Greater stability of the emulsion for the Janus particle system compared to the silica particle system was achieved by using the adsorption energy of the Janus particles at the oil-water interface; the adsorption energy of the Janus particles is more than 3 orders of magnitude greater than that of silica particles. Suspension polymerization of Janus particle-stabilized vinyl monomer droplets in the absence of any molecular-level emulsifier in aqueous media led to nonspherical microspheres with Janus particles on their surface. Furthermore, polymer microspheres carrying Au femtoliter cups on their surfaces were successfully fabricated by removal of the silica component from the Janus-particle stabilized microspheres. PMID:23617765

  17. Systematic Development of Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems of Atorvastatin with Improved Bioavailability Potential

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fariba; Islam, Md. Saiful; Roni, Monzurul Amin; Jalil, Reza-Ul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) with a high drug load of poorly water-soluble atorvastatin for the enhancement of dissolution and oral bioavailability. Solubility of atorvastatin in oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant was determined. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed by the aqueous titration method, and formulations were developed based on the optimum excipient combinations. A high drug load (10% w/w) was achieved with a combination of oleic acid, Tween 80, and polyethylene glycol 400, ensuring the maximum dissolution property (in the case of SES6). Effects of lipids and surfactants on physical properties of SEDDS such as in vitro emulsification efficiency in terms of self-emulsification time, emulsion droplet size, and percent transmittance were measured. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a higher amount of surfactants significantly increased dissolution of ATV while decreasing emulsion droplet size and emulsification time. About a four-fold increase in dissolution was achieved by SEDDS compared to pure ATV powder. Overall, this study suggests that dissolution and oral bioavailability of ATV could be improved by SEDDS technology. PMID:23264948

  18. Transport of carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized nanoscale zerovalent iron in porous media, an experimental and modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Brent; Mondal, Pulin; Furbacher, Paul; Cui, Ziteng; Krol, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    Nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) is capable of reacting with a wide variety of groundwater contaminants. Therefore, during the last decade nZVI has received significant attention for application in subsurface remediation, particularly for sites contaminated with chlorinated compounds and heavy metals. However, due to agglomeration of the nZVI, delivery into the contaminated subsurface zones is challenging. Polymer stabilization of nZVI can enhance the mobility of the iron particles in the subsurface. In this study, a set of laboratory-scale transport experiments and numerical simulations were performed to evaluate carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) polymer stabilized nZVI transport in porous media. Experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional water-saturated lab-scale glass-walled sandbox, uniformly packed with silica sand, to identify the effects of water specific discharge and CMC concentration on nZVI transport. Experiments were also performed using Lissamine Green B (LGB) dye as a non-reactive tracer to characterize the sand media. The CMC stabilized nZVI was synthesized freshly at a concentration of 1000 mg/L before each transport experiment. The synthesized CMC-nZVI mixture was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-visual spectrophotometry. The movement of the LGB dye and nZVI in the sandbox during the experiments was monitored using time-lapsed images captured using a light source and a dark box. The transport of LGB, CMC, and CMC-nZVI was evaluated through analysis of the breakthrough curves at the outlet and the retained nZVI in the sandbox. The LGB, CMC, and nZVI transport was also modeled using a multiphase flow and transport model considering LGB and CMC as solutes, and nZVI as a colloid. Analysis of the breakthrough data showed that the mass recovery of LGB and CMC was greater than 95 % indicating conservative transport in silica sand. However, the mean residence time of CMC was significantly higher than that of LGB due to CMC viscosity effects. Increasing the CMC concentration from 0.2 % to 0.8 % increased nZVI stability, but caused higher pressure drops in the sand box, indicating that use of high CMC concentration may limit the injection rates. The images captured during transport experiments and the total iron analysis of the sand after the transport experiments showed that a significant amount of nZVI was retained in the sandbox. The mass recovery of nZVI was lower than 40 % due to the attachment onto the sand surfaces. The simulation results of LGB, CMC, and nZVI matched the experimental observations and allowed estimation of transport parameters that could be used to predict CMC stabilized nZVI transport under a variety of conditions.

  19. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL OF TCE IN A LABORATORY MODEL OF A PRB CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past ten years, passive reactive barriers (PRBs) have found widespread application to treat chlorinated solvent contamination in ground water. The traditional PRB commonly uses granular zero-valent iron and/or iron alloys as filling materials for treatment of chlorinated ...

  20. PLANT MULCH TO TREAT TCE IN GROUND WATER IN A PRB

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past ten years, passive reactive barriers (PRBs) have found widespread application to treat chlorinated solvent contamination in ground water. The traditional PRB commonly uses granular zero-valent iron and/or iron alloys as filling materials for treatment of chlorinated ...

  1. PLANT MULCH TO TREAT TCE IN GROUND WATER IN A PRB (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past ten years, passive reactive barriers (PRBs) have found widespread application to treat chlorinated solvent contamination in ground water. The traditional PRB commonly uses granular zero-valent iron and/or iron alloys as filling materials for treatment of chlorinated ...

  2. Carbothermal Synthesis of Carbon-supported Nanoscale

    E-print Network

    -saturated porousmediacanbemadeinascalableprocessfrominexpensive starting materials by carbothermal reduction. Introduction The contamination of soil contaminants, but its utility in full-scale remediation projects is limited by material costs. Iron a contamination site (2). The in situ chemical reduction of contaminants by zero-valent iron nanoparticles

  3. TRANSFORMATION OF HALOGENATED PBTS WITH NANOSCALE BIMETALLIC PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticle technology is becoming a popular option for treatment of a variety of hazardous and toxic wastes, and for remediation of contaminated sites. As a matter of fact, nano iron has quickly become the most widely used nanomaterial in environmental ...

  4. Saving energy and reducing emissions of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter by adding bio-solution to emulsified diesel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2006-09-01

    Development of emulsified diesel has been driven by the need to reduce emissions from diesel engines and to save energy. Emulsification technology and bio-solution (NOE-7F) were used to produce emulsified diesel in this study. The experimental results indicated that there were no significant separation layers in W13 (13 wt % water + 87 wt % PDF), W16 (16 wt % water + 84 wt % PDF), W19 (19 wt % water + 81 wt % PDF), E13 (13 wt % NOE-7F water + 87 wt % PDF), E16 (16 wt % NOE-7F water + 83 wt % PDF), and E19 (19 wt % NOE-7F water + 81 wt % PDF) after premium diesel fuel (PDF) was emulsified for more than 30 days. In addition, there was no significant increase in damage from using these six emulsified fuels after the operation of the diesel generator for more than one year. The energy saving and reduction of particulate matter (PM) and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for W13, W16, W19, E13, E16 and E19, respectively, were 3.90%, 30.9%, 27.6%; 3.38%, 37.0%, 34.9%; 2.17%, 22.2%, 15.4%; 5.87%, 38.6%, 49.3%; 5.88%, 57.8%, 58.0%; and 4.75%, 31.1%, 47.3%, compared with PDF. The above results revealed that the bio-solution (NOE-7F) had a catalytic effect which elevated the combustion efficiency and decreased pollutant emissions during the combustion process. Furthermore, bio-solution (NOE-7F) can stabilize the emulsified fuels and enhance energy saving. Thus, emulsified fuels are highly suitable for use as alternative fuels. Due to the increasing price of diesel, emulsified diesel containing NOE-7F has potential for commercial application. PMID:16999139

  5. Pharmacology of Iron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

  6. Effects of emulsifying salts on the turbidity and calcium-phosphate-protein interactions in casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, R; Lucey, J A

    2005-09-01

    Influence of emulsifying salts (ES) on some physical properties of casein micelles was investigated. A reconstituted milk protein concentrate (MPC) solution (5% wt/wt) was used as the protein source and the effects of ES [0 to 2.0% (wt/wt)] were estimated by measuring turbidity, acid-base titration curves and amount of casein-bound Ca and inorganic P (P(i)). Various ES, trisodium citrate (TSC), or sodium phosphates (ortho-, pyro-, or hexameta-) were added to MPC solution, and all samples were adjusted to pH 5.8. Acid-base buffering curves were used to observe changes in the amount and type of insoluble Ca phosphates. An increase in the concentration of TSC added to MPC solution decreased turbidity, buffering at pH approximately 5 (contributed by colloidal Ca phosphate), and amount of casein-bound Ca and P(i). Addition of up to 0.7% disodium orthophosphate (DSP) did not significantly influence turbidity, buffering curves, or amount of casein-bound Ca and P(i). When higher concentrations (i.e., > or =1.0%) of DSP were added, there was a slow decrease in turbidity. With increasing concentration of added tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), turbidity and buffering at pH approximately 5 decreased, and amount of casein-bound Ca and P(i) increased. When small concentrations (i.e., 0.1%) of sodium hexameta-phosphate were added, effects were similar to those when TSPP were added but when higher concentrations (i.e., > or =0.5%) were added, the buffering peak shifted to a higher pH value, and amount of casein-bound Ca and P(i) decreased. These results suggested that each type of ES influenced casein micelles by different mechanisms. PMID:16107395

  7. Enhanced effectiveness of tocotrienol-based nano-emulsified system for topical delivery against skin carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pham, Jimmy; Nayel, Amy; Hoang, Christina; Elbayoumi, Tamer

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of tocotrienols (T3) against cancer, but not normal tissues, have been hampered by their limited systemic bioavailabilty. Recent expansive development of diverse nanoemulsion (NE) vehicles emphasized their vast potential to improve the effective dosing of different clinical and experimental drugs of lipophilic nature, such as T3. The emphasis of the present work is to develop a pharmaceutically scalable, low-energy nano-emulsification approach for optimized incorporation of T3-rich palm oil (Tocomin®), possessing anticancer activity as a potential cutaneous delivery platform for adjunctive therapy of skin carcinomas, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Different Tocomin®-NEs, obtained with different homogenization strategies, were screened based on physicochemical uniformity (droplet size, charge and polydispersity) and subjected to stress physical stability testing, along with chemical content analysis (?90% Tocomin® - incorporation efficiency). Adopted hybrid nano-emulsification of Tocomin®, correlated with highest preservation of DPPH-radical scavenging capacity of active T3 in prototype formulation, Tocomin®-NE, which effectively permeated diffusion cell membranes 4-folds higher than propyleneglycol (PG)-admixed Tocomin® control. Against two different cell models of human cutaneous carcinoma, Tocomin®-hybrid NE demonstrated significantly stronger cytotoxic profiles (p???0.01), visible in both concentration- and time- dependent manners, with at least 5-folds lower IC50 values, compared to those estimated for the closest Tocomin®-control. The proposed hybrid nano-emulsified formulation of Tocomin® provides simple and stable delivery platform, for effective topical application against keratinocyte tumors. PMID:25293973

  8. [Efficacy of emulsifiable formulations of two entomopathogenic fungi against small green leafhoppers on tea plant].

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiaoying; Feng, Mingguang

    2004-04-01

    A field trial was conducted to test the efficacy of emulsifiable formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Bb) and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pf) conidia in controlling small green leafhoppers (Empoasca spp.) on tea plant in a hillside tea garden located in Shuichang, Zhejiang during mid-summer 2002. Both Bb and Pf formulations contained 10(10) conidia x ml(-1). Adding 3% of imidacloprid 10% WP to each fungal formulation (W/V) resulted in two other formulations, i.e., Bb-imidacloprid mixture (BbIM) and Pf-imidacloprid mixture (PfIM). Besides the four formulations, a mineral oil-based liquid used to formulate the fungal conidia and containing 3% of imidacloprid 10% WP (OBLI) was also tested, and water spray was used as control (CK). Each of the treatments included three 60-m2 plots (replicates), which were sprayed twice with a 500-fold aqueous dilution of the corresponding formulation or preparation at a 12-d interval. Based on the leafhopper densities estimated by sampling in all plots at 3- or 4-d intervals after the first spray, the spray of BbIM or PfIM could better control the leafhoppers than the spray of Bb or Pf formulation. The maximal efficacy relative to CK reached 83.4% and 71.3% in the BbIM and PfIM treatments, respectively. Estimates of field efficacy obtained during the 25-d period after the first spray was 66.8% for BbIM, 62.1% for PfIM, 50.3% for OBLI, 49.5% for Bb, and 19.0% for Pf, respectively. A discussion was also given on the effect of local weather pattern and leafhopper population age structure on the results of the field trial, and on the application techniques to enhance the efficacy of mycoinsecticides against Empoasca species on tea plant. PMID:15334957

  9. Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~ 75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity.

  10. Double emulsions and colloidosomes-in-colloidosomes using silica-based Pickering emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark; Armes, Steven P; Verstraete, Pierre; Smets, Johan

    2014-03-18

    Poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) has been adsorbed onto the surface of fumed silica particles at pH 10 in order to produce an effective "hybrid" Pickering emulsifier. Systematically increasing the PEI/silica mass ratio at a fixed silica concentration of 1.0% w/w modifies the silica particle surface and hence allows the formation of oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsions prepared via homogenization of an aldehyde-rich multi-component fragrance oil (at 12,000 rpm for 2 min at 20 °C). Further increasing the PEI/silica mass ratio leads to phase inversion, producing water-in-oil (w/o) Pickering emulsions. Thus this approach allows formation of stable water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions using two batches of hydrophilic and hydrophobic PEI/silica hybrid particles that differ only in their PEI/silica mass ratios prior to homogenization. Stable w/o/w double emulsions can be prepared with oil volume fractions ranging from 5 to 42%. Moreover, controlling the volume fraction of the w/o Pickering emulsion homogenized in the presence of an aqueous dispersion of the hydrophilic PEI/silica particles allows the mean diameter of the resulting oil droplets to be conveniently controlled between 20 and 160 ?m. Fluorescence microscopy studies confirm that controlling the mean diameter of these oil droplets allows encapsulation of either single or multiple droplets within them. Although these double emulsions do not require cross-linking at either interface to withstand an alcohol challenge, epoxy-amine cross-linking between the physically-adsorbed PEI chains and either an oil-soluble or a water-soluble bisepoxy-based polymeric cross-linker can be achieved to produce novel colloidosomes-in-colloidosomes, which may offer payload retention benefits over conventional colloidosomes. PMID:24559174

  11. Iron and Prochlorococcus/

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Anne Williford

    2009-01-01

    Iron availability and primary productivity in the oceans are intricately linked through photosynthesis. At the global scale we understand how iron addition induces phytoplankton blooms through meso-scale iron-addition ...

  12. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia. Red blood cells bring oxygen to the ... such as your spleen, remove old blood cells. Iron is a key part of red blood cells. ...

  13. An alkyl polyglucoside-mixed emulsifier as stabilizer of emulsion systems: the influence of colloidal structure on emulsions skin hydration potential.

    PubMed

    Savic, Snezana; Lukic, Milica; Jaksic, Ivana; Reichl, Stephan; Tamburic, Slobodanka; Müller-Goymann, Christel

    2011-06-01

    To be considered as a suitable vehicle for drugs/cosmetic actives, an emulsion system should have a number of desirable properties mainly dependent on surfactant used for its stabilization. In the current study, C(12-14) alkyl polyglucoside (APG)-mixed emulsifier of natural origin has been investigated in a series of binary (emulsifier concentration 10-25% (w/w)) and ternary systems with fixed emulsifier content (15% (w/w)) with or without glycerol. To elucidate the systems' colloidal structure the following physicochemical techniques were employed: polarization and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (WAXD and SAXD), thermal analysis (DSC and TGA), complex rheological, pH, and conductivity measurements. Additionally, the emulsion vehicles' skin hydration potential was tested in vivo, on human skin under occlusion. In a series of binary systems with fixed emulsifier/water ratios ranging from 10/90 to 25/75 the predominance of a lamellar mesophase was found, changing its character from a liquid crystalline to a gel crystalline type. The same was observed in gel emulsions containing equal amounts of emulsifier and oil (15% (w/w)), but varying in glycerol content (0-25%). Different emulsion samples exhibited different water distribution modes in the structure, reflecting their rheological behavior and also their skin hydration capacity. PMID:21421214

  14. Selective factors governing in vitro ?-carotene bioaccessibility: negative influence of low filtration cutoffs and alterations by emulsifiers and food matrices.

    PubMed

    Corte-Real, Joana; Richling, Elke; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    Because of their putative health benefits, the biological fate of carotenoids after digestion has been met with much interest, and ex vivo methods using carotenoid standards to study their digestion and further metabolism have been developed. In the absence of a complex food matrix, that is, when studying isolated carotenoids, protocol conditions of gastrointestinal digestion models have to be adjusted. In this investigation, we hypothesized that certain selected factors would significantly influence the bioaccessibility of ?-carotene in vitro. The factors considered included (i) type of lipid matrix employed (milk, cream, or oil), (ii) presence/absence of emulsifiers (e.g. lecithin and taurocholate), (iii) addition of a gastric lipase, and (iv) final filtration (20 or 200 nm) of the digesta. Adding an emulsifier mixture (10 mg lecithin + 50 mg monoolein + 5 mg oleic acid) enhanced ?-carotene bioaccessibility 3 times (P < 0.001), whereas additional taurocholate and the presence/absence of gastric lipase added before intestinal digestion had no significant effect. ?-Carotene bioaccessibility was superior with oil than with milk (18.8% ± 0.7% and 6.1% ± 0.7%, respectively; P = 0.03), especially after filtration, thus suggesting incomplete micelle formation after addition of milk. Filtration through 20 nm filters reduced carotenoid concentration in the aqueous fraction (from 7.1% ± 0.2% to 5.5% ± 0.2% in samples digested with canola oil, P < 0.001), indicating that not all formed micelles compared in size with those normally formed in vivo. When studying carotenoid standards during in vitro digestion, care should be taken to separate mixed micelles by filtration, and the choice of emulsifier and matrix should be considered. PMID:25476193

  15. Formulation and optimization of nonionic surfactants emulsified nimesulide-loaded PLGA-based nanoparticles by design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Turk, Ceyda Tuba Sengel; Oz, Umut Can; Serim, Tugrul Mert; Hascicek, Canan

    2014-02-01

    This investigation aimed to develop nimesulide (NMS)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticulate formulations as a biodegradable polymeric drug carrier to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared with two different nonionic surfactants, vitamin E d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), using an ultrasonication solvent evaporation technique. Nine batches were formulated for each surfactant using a 3(2) factorial design for optimal concentration of the emulsifying agents, 0.03-0.09% for vitamin E TPGS and 2-4% for PVA. The surfactant percentage and the drug/polymer ratio (1:10, 1:15, 1:20) of the NMS-loaded NPs were investigated based on four responses: encapsulation efficiency, particle size, the polydispersity index, and the surface charge. The response surface plots and linearity curves indicated a relationship between the experiment's responses and a set of independent variables. The NPs produced with both surfactants exhibited a negative surface charge, and scanning electron micrographs revealed that all of the NPs were spherical in shape. A narrower size distribution and higher drug loadings were achieved in PVA-emulsified PLGA NPs than in the vitamin E TPGS emulsified. Decreasing amounts of both nonionic surfactants resulted in a reduction in the emulsion's viscosity, which led to a decrease in the particle size of NPs. According to the ANOVA results obtained in this present research, vitamin E TPGS exhibited the best correlation between the independent variables, namely drug/polymer ratio and the surfactant percentage, and the dependent variables (encapsulation efficiency R(2) = 0.9603, particle size R(2) = 0.9965, size distribution R(2) = 0.9899, and surface charge R(2) = 0.8969) compared with PVA. PMID:24222270

  16. Effects of Hydrophile-Lypophile Balance of Emulsifier on Electrooptical Properties and Morphology of Poly(vinylalcohol)/Liquid Crystal Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    1995-12-01

    We clarified the relationship between the morphology of a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/liquid crystal (LC) composite film fabricated by an emulsification method and a hydrophile-lypophile balance (HLB) of an emulsifier. The LC domain size was affected by the surface tension of the PVA aqueous solution and of the LC. The surface tension of the PVA aqueous solution and the LC was varied by changing the HLB value. The electrooptical properties, such as threshold voltage and response time, were strongly dependent on the LC droplet size, in good qualitative agreement with results obtained using the equations of Doane et al. [Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 5 (1989) 1453].

  17. HEPCIDIN AND IRON HOMEOSTASIS

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2014-01-01

    Despite fluctuations in dietary iron intake and intermittent losses through bleeding, the plasma iron concentrations in humans remain stable at 10–30 ?M. While most of the iron entering blood plasma comes from recycling, appropriate amount of iron is absorbed from the diet to compensate for losses and maintain nontoxic amounts in stores. Plasma iron concentration and iron distribution are similarly regulated in laboratory rodents. The hepatic peptide hepcidin was identified as the systemic iron-regulatory hormone. In the efferent arc, hepcidin regulates intestinal iron absorption, plasma iron concentrations, and tissue iron distribution by inducing degradation of its receptor, the cellular iron exporter ferroportin. Ferroportin exports iron into plasma from absorptive enterocytes, from macrophages that recycle the iron of senescent erythrocytes, and from hepatocytes that store iron. In the more complex and less well understood afferent arc, hepatic hepcidin synthesis is transcriptionally regulated by extracellular and intracellular iron concentrations through a molecular complex of bone morphogenetic protein receptors and their iron-specific ligands, modulators and iron sensors. Through as yet undefined pathways, hepcidin is also homeostatically regulated by the iron requirements of erythroid precursors for hemoglobin synthesis. In accordance with the role of hepcidin-mediated iron redistribution in host defense, hepcidin production is regulated by inflammation as well. Increased hepcidin concentrations in plasma are pathogenic in iron-restrictive anemias including anemias associated with inflammation, chronic kidney disease and some cancers. Hepcidin deficiency causes iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis and ineffective erythropoiesis. Hepcidin, ferroportin and their regulators represent potential targets for the diagnosis and treatment of iron disorders and anemias. PMID:22306005

  18. Interfacial Tension in Binary Polymer Blends and the Effects of Copolymers as Emulsifying Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiadis, Spiros H.

    The structure and the thermodynamic state of polymeric interfaces are important features in many materials of technological interest. This is especially true for multiconstituent systems such as blends of immiscible polymers, where the interface structure can affect greatly their morphology and, thus, their mechanical properties. In this article, we first present a review of the experimental and theoretical investigations of the interfacial tension in phase-separated homopolymer blends. We emphasize the effects of temperature and molecular weight on the behavior: interfacial tension ? decreases with increasing temperature (for polymer systems exhibiting upper critical solution temperature behavior) with a temperature coefficient of the order of 10-2 dyn/(cm °C), whereas it increases with increasing molecular weight. The increase follows a ? = ? _infty ( {1 - k_{operatorname{int} } M_{n}}^{ - z} } ) dependence (with z ? 1 for high molecular weights), where ? ? is the limiting interfacial tension at infinite molecular weight and M n the number average molecular weight. Suitably chosen block or graft copolymers are widely used in blends of immiscible polymers as compatibilizers for controlling the morphology (phase structure) and the interfacial adhesion between the phases. The compatabilitizing effect is due to their interfacial activity, i.e., to their affinity to selectively segregate to the interface between the phase-separated homopolymers, thus reducing the interfacial tension between the two macrophases. The experimental and theoretical works in this area are reviewed herein. The effects of concentration, molecular weight, composition, and macromolecular architecture of the copolymeric additives are discussed. An issue that can influence the efficient utilization of a copolymeric additive as an emulsifier is the possibility of micelle formation within the homopolymer matrices when the additive is mixed with one of the components. These micelles will compete with the interfacial region for copolymer chains. A second issue relates to the possible trapping of copolymer chains at the interface, which can lead to stationary states of partial equilibrium. The in-situ formation of copolymers by the interfacial reaction of functionalized homopolymers is also discussed.

  19. Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total microbial community. Bacterial richness rebounded after nine months, although community composition remained distinct from the pre-amendment conditions. Subsequent to the experiment we have isolated several of these organisms into pure culture including representatives of probable new species of Geobacter, Desulforegula and Desulfovibrio. A hypothesized model for the functioning of these limited communities will be verified in the laboratory using defined combinations of isolates from the field where possible. These results demonstrated EVO serves as an effective electron donor source for in situ U(VI) bioreduction, and subsurface EVO degradation and metal reduction was likely mediated by successive identifiable guilds of organisms.

  20. Novel Pickering emulsifiers based on pH-responsive poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) latexes.

    PubMed

    Morse, A J; Armes, S P; Thompson, K L; Dupin, D; Fielding, L A; Mills, P; Swart, R

    2013-05-01

    The emulsion copolymerization of 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEA) with a divinylbenzene cross-linker in the presence of monomethoxy-capped poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) at 70 °C afforded near-monodisperse, sterically stabilized PEGMA-PDEA latexes at 10% solids. Dynamic light scattering studies indicated intensity-average diameters of 190 to 240 nm for these latexes at pH 9. A latex-to-microgel transition occurred on lowering the solution pH to below the latex pKa of 6.9. When dilute HCl/KOH was used to adjust the aqueous pH, a systematic reduction in the cationic microgel hydrodynamic diameter of 80 nm was observed over ten pH cycles as a result of the gradual buildup of background salt. However, no such size reduction was observed when using CO2/N2 gases to regulate the aqueous pH because this protocol does not generate background salt. Thus, the latter approach offers better reversibility, albeit at the cost of slower response times. PEGMA-PDEA microgel does not stabilize Pickering emulsions when homogenized at pH 3 with n-dodecane, sunflower oil, isononyl isononanoate, or isopropyl myristate. In contrast, PEGMA-PDEA latex proved to be a ubiquitous Pickering emulsifier at pH 10, forming stable oil-in-water emulsions with each of these four model oils. Lowering the solution pH from 10 to 3 resulted in demulsification within seconds. This is because these pH-responsive particles undergo a latex-to-microgel transition, which leads to their interfacial desorption. Six successive demulsification/emulsification cycles were performed on these Pickering emulsions using HCl/KOH to adjust the solution pH. Demulsification could also be achieved by purging the emulsion solution with CO2 gas to lower the aqueous pH to 4.8. However, complete phase separation required CO2 purging for 4 h at 20 °C. A subsequent N2 purge raised the aqueous pH sufficiently to induce a microgel-to-latex transition, but rehomogenization did not produce a stable Pickering emulsion. Presumably, a higher pH is required, which cannot be achieved by a N2 purge alone. PMID:23570375

  1. Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty for Glaucoma Secondary to Emulsified Silicone Oil after Pars Plana Vitrectomy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Alkin, Zeynep; Satana, Banu; Ozkaya, Abdullah; Basarir, Berna; Altan, Cigdem; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Demirok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Background. To investigate the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG) secondary to emulsified silicone oil (SO). Methodology/Principal Findings. Prospective, interventional, consecutive case series of 11 eyes with sustained elevation of IOP after SO removal. The mean IOP at baseline, week 1, month 1, month 3, and month 6 was evaluated. The mean baseline IOP was significantly decreased from 25 ± 2.7?mmHg to 18.4 ± 5.5?mmHg at week 1 (P = 0.01), 17.9 ± 3.1?mmHg at month 1 (P = 0.008), 15.8 ± 3.9?mmHg at month 3 (P = 0.003), and 16.2 ± 4.7?mmHg at month 6 (P = 0.004). IOP < 21?mmHg was achieved in 91% of the eyes without a significant complication at month 6. Conclusion/Significance. SLT may be successful for lowering IOP in patients with OAG secondary to emulsified SO which was not controlled with maximum antiglaucomatous medical treatment. PMID:24822212

  2. Interfacial, stability and rheological study of microbubbles coated with a monostearin/monopalmitin-rich food emulsifier and PEG40 stearate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuyi

    Micron-scale bubbles (microbubbles) are of considerable interest in environmental, biomedical, and food sciences. The low cost food emulsifiers, which are used to stabilize the gas core of the microbubble, consist of a mixture of monoglycerides, diglycerides and sodium steroyl lactylate in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 40 sterate. Langmuir trough methods and fluorescence microscopy were combined to investigate the surface tension, interfacial elastic modulus, phase behavior and microstructure of monolayer shells coating these microbubbles. Polydisperse coated microbubbles can be generated using a probe sonication technique. The dissolution behavior of a microbubble in different unsaturated media was studied using a fluorescence microscope. These dissolution behaviors, involving the buckling and rupture of the coated monolayer, can be explained by the phase behavior of emulsifiers and their roles in the stabilization of microbubbles in aqueous systems. Nearly monodispersed populations of microbubbles ranged in 120--200mum were produced using flow focusing Technique. Sufficient short-term stability in size allows the rheological properties of microbubble suspension to be obtained by rheometer. The effect of shearing on the bubble sizes is investigated. There results show that the microbubble suspensions are viscoelastic and exhibit power law behavior. The relationship between the air fraction of the suspension and fluid rheology is determined.

  3. Comparison of emulsifying properties of milk fat globule membrane materials isolated from different dairy by-products.

    PubMed

    Phan, T T Q; Le, T T; Van der Meeren, P; Dewettinck, K

    2014-08-01

    Emulsifying properties of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) materials isolated from reconstituted buttermilk (BM; i.e., BM-MFGM) and BM whey (i.e., whey-MFGM), individually or in mixtures with BM powder (BMP) were compared with those of a commercial dairy ingredient (Lacprodan PL-20; Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S, Viby, Denmark), a material rich in milk polar lipids and proteins. The particle size distribution, viscosity, interfacial protein, and polar lipids load of oil-in-water emulsions prepared using soybean oil were examined. Pronounced droplet aggregation was observed with emulsions stabilized with whey-MFGM or with a mixture of whey-MFGM and BMP. No aggregation was observed for emulsions stabilized with BM-MFGM, Lacprodan PL-20, or a mixture of BM-MFGM and BMP. The surface protein load and polar lipids load were lowest in emulsions with BM-MFGM. The highest protein load and polar lipids load were observed for emulsions made with a mixture of whey-MFGM and BMP. The differences in composition of MFGM materials, such as in whey proteins, caseins, MFGM-specific proteins, polar lipids, minerals, and especially their possible interactions determine their emulsifying properties. PMID:24913653

  4. The utility of self-emulsifying oil formulation to improve the poor solubility of the anti HIV drug CSIC

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background CSIC (5-chloro-3-phenylsulfonylindole-2-carboxamide), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) has not been advanced as a therapeutic anti-HIV candidate drug due to its low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. Objective The objective of this work was to formulate CSIC into self-emulsifying oil formulations for the purpose of improving its aqueous solubility and evaluating in vitro antiretroviral activity. Methods CSIC self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEFs) were formulated and evaluated for droplet size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), viscosity, emulsification time, stability and bioactivity. Results Results showed significantly improved solubility of CSIC in the SEFs.The concentration of co-surfactant affected the droplet size, zeta potential and polydispersity index. In vitro bioactivity studies showed that the CSIC SEFs retained full anti-HIV activity. Conclusion The in vitro data from this first attempt to formulate CSIC SEFs suggest that improvement on the aqueous solubility of CSIC through this delivery system may accentuate its antiretroviral effectiveness in vivo via bioavailability enhancement. The formulation is therefore intended as an oral anti-HIV agent for prophylactic and therapeutic uses. PMID:23721408

  5. Iron and neurodegenerative disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khristy J Thompson; Shai Shoham; James R Connor

    2001-01-01

    The brain shares with other organs the need for a constant and readily available supply of iron and has a similar array of proteins available to it for iron transport, storage, and regulation. However, unlike other organs, the brain places demands on iron availability that are regional, cellular, and age sensitive. Failure to meet these demands for iron with an

  6. Hepcidin, the iron watcher

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydie Viatte; Sophie Vaulont

    2009-01-01

    Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced by the liver, constitutes the master regulator of iron homeostasis in mammals allowing iron adaptation according to the body iron needs. In recent years there has been important breakthrough in our knowledge of hepcidin regulation that has also implications for understanding the physiopathology of human iron disorders. Different aspects of hepcidin regulation will be considered

  7. Biogeochemical mineralogical, and hydrological characteristics of an iron reactive barrier used for treatment of uranium and other contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Phillips, Debra H. [Queen's University, Belfast; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL

    2002-05-01

    A permeable iron reactive barrier was installed in late November, 1997 at the U.S. Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The overall goal of this research was to determine the effectiveness of the use of zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) to retain or remove uranium and other contaminants such as technetium and nitrate in groundwater. The long-term performance issues were investigated by studying the biogeochemical interactions between Fe{sup 0} and groundwater constituents and the mineralogical and biological characteristics over an extended field operation. Results from nearly 3 years of monitoring indicated that the Fe{sup 0} barrier was performing effectively in removing contaminant radionuclides such as uranium and technetium. In addition, a number of groundwater constituents such as bicarbonates, nitrate, and sulfate were found to react with the Fe{sup 0}. Both nitrate and sulfate were reduced within or in the influence zone of the Fe{sup 0} with a low redox potential (i.e., low Eh). An increased anaerobic microbial population was also observed within and in the vicinity of the Fe{sup 0} barrier, and these microorganisms were at least partially responsible for the reduction of nitrate and sulfate in groundwater. Decreased concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and bicarbonate in groundwater occurred as a result of the formation of minerals such as aragonite (CaCO{sub 3}) and siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), which coincided with the Fe{sup 0} corrosion and an increased groundwater pH. A suite of mineral precipitates was identified in the Fe{sup 0} barrier system, including amorphous iron oxyhydroxides, goethite, ferrous carbonates and sulfides, aragonite, and green rusts. These minerals were found to be responsible for the cementation and possibly clogging of Fe{sup 0} filings observed in a number of core samples from the barrier. Significant increases in cementation of the Fe{sup 0} occurred between two coring events conducted at {approx}1 year apart and appeared to correspond to the changes in an apparent decrease in hydraulic gradient and connectivity. The present study concludes that, while Fe{sup 0} may be used as an effective reactive medium for the retention or degradation of many redox-sensitive contaminants, its long-term reactivity and performance could be severely hindered by its reactions with other groundwater constituents; and groundwater flow may be restricted because of the build up of mineral precipitates at the soil/Fe{sup 0} interface. Depending on the site biogeochemical conditions, the rate of Fe{sup 0} corrosion may increase; therefore, the life span of the Fe{sup 0} barrier could be shorter than predicted in previous studies ({approx}15-30 years).

  8. Development and Assessment of Oil-in-Water Emulsions for Encapsulation of Reactive Iron Particles for Subsurface Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, N. D.; Taghavy, A.; Ramsburg, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reactive iron particles hold promise for use in the destruction of contaminants in the subsurface environment. Application of these nano- to submicron-scale particles, however, may be limited by poor subsurface transport and non-uniform distribution of the reactive material. Delivery issues are particularly important when evaluating the efficacy of iron-based technologies for treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. Current approaches for the delivery of reactive iron particles within DNAPL source zones are hindered by particle agglomeration, flow bypassing, and presence of non-target reactions. Encapsulation of the reactive particles within an oil-in-water emulsion is a novel approach that may overcome these limitations. Development of kinetically-stable, iron-laden, oil-in-water emulsions commenced by identifying surfactant-based coatings to increase the stability of commercially-available iron particles within non-polar organic phases (e.g., soy oil). A phase inversion technique was employed to disperse approximately 10% wt of the iron-laden, organic phase within a continuous aqueous phase containing nonionic emulsifiers. Emulsions were designed to ensure emulsifier proportions yielded hydrophilic-lipophilic balances affiliated with oil-in-water emulsions. Micrographs of the oil-in-water emulsions suggest that the average diameter of the oil droplets is approximately one micrometer. The presence of iron within oil droplets was confirmed in the micrographs and supported by an absence of iron agglomeration within the continuous phase. Bulk characteristics of each emulsion (density and viscosity) were used in conjunction with interfacial tension measurements in total trapping number analyses to assess the propensity of these emulsions to mobilize an entrapped trichloroethene (TCE)-DNAPL. Results suggest that the emulsions described herein should not cause significant mobilization of entrapped TCE-DNAPL in fine-to-medium grain sandy media. Column experiments are being conducted to evaluate the transport of these emulsions through sandy media. Preliminary results from experiments with iron-free emulsions suggest conductivity reductions occurring during emulsion flushing are not the result of extensive pore-clogging but rather are due to viscosity changes (emulsion viscosities range from 2 to 10 cP). Current efforts are focused on assessing and comparing both transport and reaction of commercially available iron particles and iron-laden emulsions within sandy porous media.

  9. [Iron and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, B; Bresson, J L; Briend, A; Farriaux, J P; Ghisolfi, J; Navarro, J; Rey, J; Ricour, C; Rieu, D; Vidailhet, M

    1995-12-01

    Infants, young children, and childbearing aged women are particularly exposed to iron deficiency. Pregnancy further increases iron requirements. Nevertheless the consequences of anemia and/or iron deficiency on pregnancy outcome, development of the foetus and postnatal iron status of the infant, remain to be determined. There is a 3-fold increase of premature deliveries in iron deficient anemic pregnant women whose anemia is discovered in early pregnancy: however this increased risk of premature delivery is not observed when iron deficiency anemia is discovered in late pregnancy. Iron supplementation during pregnancy improves the maternal hematological parameters but it is still unclear whether it also improves the maternal health and the pre and postnatal development of the child. Based on our actual knowledge, iron supplementation during pregnancy is to be recommended in risk groups only (ie mainly adolescents, low income women, women with multiple pregnancies), using ferrous iron at a dosage of 30 mg per day. PMID:8548003

  10. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as emulsifier for submicron emulsions: influence of molecular weight and substitution type on the droplet size after high-pressure homogenization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela B Schulz; Rolf Daniels

    2000-01-01

    Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) is a known emulsifier as well as a common viscosity enhancer in eye drops. Therefore, HPMC stabilized emulsions appear as interesting drug carriers for ophthalmic use and as a suitable treatment of dry eye syndrome. Since submicron emulsions are known to have an improved drug delivery, attempts were made to reduce the emulsion's droplet size by high-pressure homogenization.

  11. Effect of Emulsifiers and Their Liquid Crystalline Structures in Emulsions on Dermal and Transdermal Delivery of Hydroquinone, Salicylic Acid and Octadecenedioic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Otto; J. W. Wiechers; C. L. Kelly; J. C. Dederen; J. Hadgraft; J. du Plessis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of emulsifiers and their liquid crystalline structures on the dermal and transdermal delivery of hydroquinone (HQ), salicylic acid (SA) and octadecenedioic acid (DIOIC). Emulsions containing liquid crystalline phases were compared with an emulsion without liquid crystals. Skin permeation experiments were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells and human abdominal skin dermatomed to a thickness of 400

  12. ZVI-CLAY SOIL MIXING TREATS DNAPL SOURCE AREA AT 35-FOOT DEPTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DuPont Company and Colorado State University (CSU) are collaborating in development and refinement of a technology that involves in-situ admixing of contaminated soil, granular zero valent iron (ZVI), and clay using conventional soil mixing equipment. A full-scale application...

  13. ACCUMULATION RATE OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS AT TWO PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation of mineral precipitates and microbial biomass are key factors that impact the long-term performance of in-situ Permeable Reactive Barriers for treating contaminated groundwater. Both processes can impact remedial performance by decreasing zero-valent iron reactivity...

  14. NZVI modified magnetic filter paper with high redox and catalytic activities for advanced water treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Datta, K K R; Petala, E; Datta, K J; Perman, J A; Tucek, J; Bartak, P; Otyepka, M; Zoppellaro, G; Zboril, R

    2014-12-25

    The in situ synthesis of air-stable zero-valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI) embedded in cellulose fibers leads to the assembly of highly reactive magnetic filter papers. These engineered materials display a wide range of applications in the treatment of wastewater and drinking water, including chromium removal, phenol degradation, environmental bioremediation, and catalysis. PMID:25299729

  15. TREATMENT OF ARSENIC AND METALS IN GROUND WATER USING A COMPOST-ZVI PRB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The PRB is designed to treat arsenic an...

  16. TREATMENT OF ARSENIC AND METALS IN GROUND WATER USING A COMPOST/ZVI PRB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of 30% yard waste compost, 20% zero-valent iron (ZVI), 5% limestone and 45% pea gravel by volume was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The pilo...

  17. Treatment of Arsenic, Heavy Metals, and Acidity Using a Mixed ZVI-Compost PRB

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 30-month performance evaluation of a pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility was conducted. The PRB is designed to remove ...

  18. Use of an Intermediate-Scale Tank to Study Strategies for Modified NZVI Emplacement for Effective Treatment of DNAPL Source Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Illangasekare; M. Mittal; T. Phenrat; F. Fagerlund; H. Kim; A. Cihan; G. V. Lowry

    2009-01-01

    Dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) sources act as long term sources of ground water contamination. Emplacing modified nano-scale zero valent iron (NZVI) particles in the source zone and area immediately downstream of the source zone may serve the dual purpose of reducing the mass transfer from entrapped DNAPL and reductive dechlorination of the dissolved mass, thus reducing the total mass

  19. THE APPLICATION OF PRB TECHNOLOGY AT TWO SITES: LESSONS LEARNED AFTER 7 YEARS OF PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In June of 1996, a 46 m long, 7.3 m deep, and 0.6 m wide permeable reactive barrier (continuous wall configuration) of zero-valent iron was installed at the USCG-SC site. The reactive wall was designed to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated groundwater, in addition to tre...

  20. Enhanced Bioremediation Field Experience: Using Observed Half Lives in Design and Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Moreno; Jim Mueller; Fayaz Lakhwala; John Valkenburg; Alan Seech; Kerry Bolanos-Shaw

    A priori assessment of the effectiveness of amendments for enhanced bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons is complicated by the varying geologic settings, groundwater flow rates, and background geochemistry encountered. Amendments employing a combination of carbon, nutrients, and micro-scale zero-valent iron result in multiple biotic and abiotic treatment mechanisms at various length and timescales which makes direct physical and chemical prediction of

  1. GROUND WATER ARSENIC AND METALS TREATMENT USING A COMBINATION COMPOST-ZVI PRB (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The PRB is designed to treat arsenic an...

  2. Linkage of Mineral Precipitation to the Development of Heterogeneity in Permeable Reactive Barrier: a Field Column Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Kamolpornwijit; L. Liang; G. R. Moline; A. B. Sullivan; O. R. West

    2001-01-01

    A column study was conducted on site at Y-12, Oak Ridge, TN, to investigate the rate of mineral accumulation in relation to the hydraulic change as a result of heterogeneity development in a Fe(0) permeable reactive barrier (PRB). To better simulate the fluctuation in groundwater characteristics and the least disturbance to gas-water equilibrium, two columns filled with zero valent iron

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: METAL-ENHANCED ABIOTIC DEGRADATION TECHNOLOGY - ENVIROMETAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EnviroMetal Technologies, Inc. (ETI), of Guelph, ON, Canada, has developed the metal-enhanced abiotic degradation technology to treat halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOC) in water. A reactive, zero-valent, granular iron medium causes reductive dehalogenation of VOCs yield...

  4. Removal of technetium, carbon tetrachloride, and metals from DOE properties. 1998 annual progress report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Mallouk; J. G. Darab; S. M. Ponder

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of the project is to develop and characterize supported reducing agents, and solid waste forms derived from them, which will be effective in the removal of transition metal ions, chlorinated organic molecules, and technetium from aqueous mixed wastes. This work follows the discovery that a nanoscale form of zero-valent iron, dispersed on high surface area supports, reduces metal

  5. Green synthesis of Fe0 and bimetallic Fe0 for oxidative catalysis and reduction applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    A single-step green approach to the synthesis of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) and nanoscale bimetallic (Fe0/Pd) particles using tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenols is described. The expedient reaction between polyphenols and ferric chloride (FeCl3) occurs within a minute at ...

  6. Formation Processes and Impacts of Reactive and Nonreactive Minerals in Permeable Reactive Barriers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mineral precipitates in zero-valent iron PRBs can be classified by formation processes into three groups: 1) those that result from changes in chemical conditions (i.e., changes in pH, e.g., calcite); 2) those that are a consequence of microbial activity (i.e., sulfate reduction,...

  7. FORMATION PROCESSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF REACTIVE AND NON-REACTIVE MINERAL PRECIPITATES IN PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mineral precipitates in zero-valent iron PRBs can be classified by formation processes into three groups: 1) those that result from changes in chemical conditions (i.e., change in pH, e.g., calcite); 2) those that are a consequence of microbial activity (i.e., sulfate reduction, ...

  8. Ocean iron cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.

    Interest in the biogeochemical cycle of iron has grown rapidly over the last two decades, due to the potential role of this element in modulating global climate in the geological past and ocean productivity in the present day. This trace metal has a disproportionately large effect (1 × 105 C:Fe) on photosynthetic carbon fixation by phytoplankton. In around one third of the open ocean, so-called high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions, the resident phytoplankton have low growth rates despite an abundance of plant nutrients. This is due to the low supply of iron. Iron is present in the ocean in three phases, dissolved, colloidal, and particulate (biogenic and lithogenic). However, iron chemistry is complex with interactions between chemistry and biology such as the production of iron-binding siderophores by oceanic bacteria. This results in the interplay of inorganic chemistry, photochemistry, and organic complexation. Sources of new iron include dust deposition, upwelling of iron-rich deep waters, and the resuspension and lateral transport of sediments. Sinks for iron are mainly biological as evidenced by the vertical nutrient-like profile for dissolved iron in the ocean. Iron is rapidly recycled by the upper ocean biota within a so-called "ferrous wheel." The fe ratio [(new iron)/(new + regenerated iron)] provides an index of the relative supply of iron to the biota by new versus recycled iron. Over the last 15 years, interest in the potential role of iron in shaping climate in the geological past resulted in some of the most ambitious experiments in oceanography: large-scale (i.e., 50-1000 km2) iron enrichment of HNLC waters. They have provided valuable insights into how iron supply influences the biogeochemical cycles of elements such as carbon, sulfur, silicon, nitrogen, and phosphate.

  9. Effect of protein concentrates, emulsifiers on textural and sensory characteristics of gluten free cookies and its immunochemical validation.

    PubMed

    Sarabhai, Swati; Indrani, D; Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Milind; Arun Kumar, V; Prabhasankar, P

    2015-06-01

    The effect of 5, 7.5 and 10 % protein concentrates namely soya protein isolate (SPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and addition of 0.5 % emulsifiers such as glycerol monostearate (GMS), sodium stearoyl- 2- lactylate (SSL) and lecithin (LEC) on the rheological, sensory and textural characteristics of cookies with rice flour and its immunochemical validation was studied. The results showed that the use of 7.5 % SPI/WPC along with GMS significantly improved the quality characteristics of cookies with rice flour. Dot-Blot and Western-blot studies of cookies with 7.5 % of SPI or WPC confirmed that the anti-gliadin did not recognize these proteins. Carry- through process using ELISA kit confirmed that gluten was within the permissible limit in all the stages of processing and hence these cookies can be consumed by people suffering from celiac disease. PMID:26028761

  10. Preformulation studies on solid self-emulsifying systems in powder form containing magnesium aluminometasilicate as porous carrier.

    PubMed

    Krupa, Anna; Szl?k, Jakub; Jany, Benedykt R; Jachowicz, Renata

    2015-06-01

    The influence of alkaline and the neutral grade of magnesium aluminometasilicate as a porous solid carrier for the liquid self-emulsifying formulation with ibuprofen is investigated. Ibuprofen is dissolved in Labrasol, then this solution is adsorbed on the silicates. The drug to the silicate ratio is 1:2, 1:4, and 1:6, respectively. The properties of formulations obtained are analyzed, using morphological, porosity, crystallinity, and dissolution studies. Three solid self-emulsifying (S-SE) formulations containing Neusilin SG2 and six consisting of Neusilin US2 are in the form of powder without agglomerates. The nitrogen adsorption method shows that the solid carriers are mesoporous but they differ in a specific surface area, pore area, and the volume of pores. The adsorption of liquid SE formulation on solid silicate particles results in a decrease in their porosity. If the neutral grade of magnesium aluminometasilicate is used, the smallest pores, below 10 nm, are completely filled with liquid formulation, but there is still a certain number of pores of 40-100 nm. Dissolution studies of liquid SEDDS carried out in pH?=?1.2 show that Labrasol improves the dissolution of ibuprofen as compared to the pure drug. Ibuprofen dissolution from liquid SE formulations examined in pH of 7.2 is immediate. The adsorption of the liquid onto the particles of the silicate causes a decrease in the amount of the drug released. Finally, more ibuprofen is dissolved from S-SE that consist of the neutral grade of magnesium aluminometasilicate than from the formulations containing the alkaline silicate. PMID:25501870

  11. Preparation and pharmacokinetics evaluation of oral self-emulsifying system for poorly water-soluble drug Lornoxicam.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Song, Shuangshuang; Guo, Yingxin; Zhao, Qianqian; Zhang, Xuemei; Pan, Weisan; Yang, Xinggang

    2014-02-13

    Abstract The present work was performed aiming to develop a new solid self-emulsifying system (SMEDDS) for poorly water-soluble drug Lornoxicam and evaluate the bioavailability in Wister rats by oral gavage. Liquid SMEDDS of Lornoxicam was formulated with Labrafil M 1944 CS as oil phase, Kolliphor HS 15 as a surfactant and Transcutol HP as a cosurfactant after screening various vehicles. The microemulsion system selected from the phase diagram and optimized by central composite design (CCD) response surface method was transformed into solid-SMEDDS (S-SMEDDS) by lyophilization using sucrose as cryoprotectant. The formulations were further characterized by the particle size, poly dispersity index (PDI), self-emulsifying time, zeta potential, transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics. Results of DSC studies confirmed that the drug was incorporated in the S-SMEDDS. The in vitro drug release from Lornoxicam SMEDDS was found to be greatly higher in comparison with that from the commercial tablets. It was indicated that SMEDDS might be effective in reducing the effect of pH variability of Lornoxicam and improving the release performance of Lornoxicam. HPLC system was applied to study the concentration of Lornoxicam in the plasma of the Wister rats after oral administration of Lornoxicam SMEDDS and Lornoxicam commercial tablets. The pharmacokinetics parameters of the rats were Cmax 1065.91?±?224.90 and 1855.22?±?748.25?ngmL(-1), Tmax were 2.5?±?0.4?h and 1.8?±?0.5?h, and AUC0?t were 5316.35?±?323.62 and 7758.07?±?241.57?ngmL(-1)?h, respectively. Calculated by AUC0??, the relative bioavailability of Lornoxicam S-SMEDDS was 151.69?±?15.32%. It suggested that this S-SMEDDS could be used as a successful oral solid dosage form to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug Lornoxicam as well. PMID:24524289

  12. Stable emulsions with thermally responsive microstructure and rheology using poly(ethylene oxide) star polymers as emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Trishna; Yoshikawa, Alex; Kloss, Dennis; Kato, Masanari; Golas, Patricia Lynn; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Tilton, Robert D

    2013-03-15

    Poly(ethylene oxide) star polymers (PEO stars) were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization of 2000 molecular weight PEO methacrylate macromonomer with divinylbenzene as a crosslinking co-monomer. With an average of 460 arms per star, these PEO stars had a 12 nm radius of gyration that is consistent with a dense polymer core surrounded by an extended PEO corona. The PEO stars were extremely efficient emulsifiers, stabilizing cyclohexane-in-water or xylene-in-water emulsions against coalescence for several months at aqueous phase concentrations as low as 0.008 wt% or 0.01 wt%, respectively. Consistent with their emulsifying performance, PEO star adsorption decreased interfacial tension by approximately 22 mN/m and imparted significant dilatational elasticity to the xylene/water interface. PEO stars were thermally responsive, displaying a cloud point upon heating in water that was tuned by addition of kosmotropic electrolytes, and they in turn produced xylene-in-water emulsions that were thermally responsive in terms of the dispersion state of the emulsion droplets and the emulsion rheology. Emulsions prepared at room temperature mainly had non-flocculated droplets. Heating such an emulsion above the cloud point temperature triggered droplet flocculation, but not coalescence, that in turn was associated with increased viscous and elastic moduli of the emulsion measured after cooling back to room temperature. Emulsions that initially were homogenized above the cloud point temperature and then cooled showed neither droplet flocculation nor rheological thickening relative to emulsions that were prepared and held at room temperature. A mechanism based on the bridging behavior of PEO stars adsorbed at the droplet/water interface is postulated to explain this thermal response of the emulsion microstructure. PMID:23266031

  13. Novel solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system of coenzyme Q?? with improved photochemical and pharmacokinetic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Onoue, Satomi; Uchida, Atushi; Kuriyama, Kazuki; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Seto, Yoshiki; Kato, Masashi; Hatanaka, Junya; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Shizuo

    2012-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to develop a solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS) with high photostability and oral bioavailability. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS was prepared by spray-drying an emulsion preconcentrate containing CoQ(10), medium-chain triglyceride, sucrose ester of fatty acid, and hydroxypropyl cellulose, and its physicochemical, photochemical, and pharmacokinetic properties were evaluated. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS powder with a diameter of ca. 15 ?m was obtained by spray-drying, in which the CoQ(10) was mostly amorphized. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS exhibited immediate self-emulsification when introduced to aqueous media under gentle agitation, forming uniform fine droplets with a mean diameter of ca. 280 nm. There was marked generation of reactive oxygen species, in particular superoxide, from CoQ(10) exposed to simulated sunlight (250W/m(2)), suggesting potent photoreactivity. Nano-emulsified solution of CoQ(10) under light exposure underwent photodegradation with 22-fold higher degradation kinetics than crystalline CoQ(10), although the CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS was less photoreactive. After the oral administration of CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS (100 mg-CoQ(10)/kg) in rats, enhanced exposure of CoQ(10) was observed with increases in both C(max) and AUC of ca. 5-fold in comparison with those of orally administered crystalline CoQ(10). From the improved physicochemical and pharmacokinetic data, the s-SEDDS approach upon spray-drying might be a suitable dosage option for enhancing nutraceutical and pharmaceutical values of CoQ(10). PMID:22498005

  14. Taking iron supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... streaks Cramps, sharp pains, or soreness in the stomach occur Liquid forms of iron may stain your teeth. Try mixing the iron with water or other liquids (such as fruit juice or tomato juice) and drinking the medicine with ...

  15. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  16. Ironing out fatigue.

    PubMed

    von Drygalski, Annette; Adamson, John W

    2011-09-22

    Women who are not anemic but who suffer from fatigue may benefit from iron supplementation. In this issue of Blood, Krayenbühl et al provide strong evidence that women complaining of fatigue who were not anemic but who had reduced or absent iron stores were symptomatically improved after receiving parenteral iron. Given the numbers of women who are iron deficient, the findings could find broad application, but work needs to be done to refine the approach to this common problem. PMID:21940826

  17. Iron in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet - iron ... the body. Treatment consists of a low-iron diet, no iron supplements, and phlebotomy (blood removal) on ... The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine recommends the following: Infants and children Younger than 6 months: 0.27 milligrams ...

  18. Iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Naigamwalla, Dinaz Z.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Iron is essential to virtually all living organisms and is integral to multiple metabolic functions. The most important function is oxygen transport in hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia in dogs and cats is usually caused by chronic blood loss and can be discovered incidentally as animals may have adapted to the anemia. Severe iron deficiency is characterized by a microcytic, hypochromic, potentially severe anemia with a variable regenerative response. Iron metabolism and homeostasis will be reviewed, followed by a discussion of diagnostic testing and therapeutic recommendations for dogs and cats with iron deficiency anemia. PMID:22942439

  19. Ironing out cancer.

    PubMed

    Torti, Suzy V; Torti, Frank M

    2011-03-01

    New insights into the roles of proteins that regulate cellular iron in cancer growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis have recently emerged. Discoveries of the roles of ferroportin, hepcidin, lipocalin 2, and members of the six transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate (STEAP) and iron regulatory protein (IRP) families in cancer have provided specificity and molecular definition to the role of iron homeostasis in cancer growth and metastasis. A number of studies directly support a role of these proteins in modifying bioavailable iron, whereas other studies suggest that at least some of their effects are independent of their role in iron biology. PMID:21363917

  20. Iron, radiation, and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R G; Kalkwarf, D R

    1990-01-01

    Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals, and it may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and development of a transformed cell in vivo. Given the high available iron content of the western diet and the fact that the world is changing to the western model, it is important to determine if high iron increases the risk of cancer. PMID:2269234

  1. Hepcidin, the iron watcher.

    PubMed

    Viatte, Lydie; Vaulont, Sophie

    2009-10-01

    Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced by the liver, constitutes the master regulator of iron homeostasis in mammals allowing iron adaptation according to the body iron needs. In recent years there has been important breakthrough in our knowledge of hepcidin regulation that has also implications for understanding the physiopathology of human iron disorders. Different aspects of hepcidin regulation will be considered in this review, including regulation by the iron status and the BMP6/HJV/SMAD pathway. Hepcidin dysregulation in iron disorders will be also discussed. Although much can already be accomplished for treating iron disorders using the knowledge that has currently been developed, additional issues will be challenging for the coming years. PMID:19555735

  2. New rat models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload.

    PubMed

    Vu'o'ng Lê, Bá; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Villegier, Anne-Sophie; Bach, Véronique; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    The majority of murine models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload were carried out in adult subjects. This cannot reflect the high risk of iron overload in children who have an increased need for iron. In this study, we developed four experimental iron overload models in young rats using iron sucrose and evaluated different markers of iron overload, tissue oxidative stress and inflammation as its consequences. Iron overload was observed in all iron-treated rats, as evidenced by significant increases in serum iron indices, expression of liver hepcidin gene and total tissue iron content compared with control rats. We also showed that total tissue iron content was mainly associated with the dose of iron whereas serum iron indices depended essentially on the duration of iron administration. However, no differences in tissue inflammatory and antioxidant parameters from controls were observed. Furthermore, only rats exposed to daily iron injection at a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight for one week revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in iron-treated rats compared with their controls. The present results suggest a correlation between iron overload levels and the dose of iron, as well as the duration and frequency of iron injection and confirm that iron sucrose may not play a crucial role in inflammation and oxidative stress. This study provides important information about iron sucrose-induced iron overload in rats and may be useful for iron sucrose therapy for iron deficiency anemia as well as for the prevention and diagnosis of iron sucrose-induced iron overload in pediatric patients. PMID:21685238

  3. The ubiquity of iron.

    PubMed

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth. PMID:22845493

  4. Physical and high-temperature permeation features of double-layered cellular filtering membranes prepared via freeze casting of emulsified powder suspensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suelen Barg; Murilo D. M. Innocentini; Rodolfo V. Meloni; Welton S. Chacon; Hailing Wang; Dietmar Koch; Georg Grathwohl

    2011-01-01

    Double-layered cellular alumina membranes for use in hot aerosol filtration applications were prepared based on the freeze casting and sintering of high alkane phase emulsified suspensions (HAPES). Membranes were shaped as flat disks with diameter of 3cm and 8–9mm of total thickness (about 80% for the support layer and 20% for the filtering layer). Samples displayed open porosity of 77.4±0.1%

  5. The influence of various emulsifiers on the partitioning and antioxidant activity of hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives in oil-in-water emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiko Stöckmann; Karin Schwarz; Tuong Huynh-Ba

    2000-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of a series of hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives was determined in biphasic water-oil systems,\\u000a emulsifier solutions, and oil-in-water (O\\/W) emulsions. The effect of gradually decreasing polarity on partitioning behavior\\u000a and antioxidant efficiency in O\\/W emulsions was investigated by using gallic acid and its esters as antioxidants. Sodium dodecyl\\u000a sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl

  6. Emulsifying properties and surface behavior of native and denatured whey soy proteins in comparison with other proteins. Creaming stability of oil-in-water emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonzalo G. Palazolo; Delia A. Sorgentini; Jorge R. Wagner

    2004-01-01

    In this work a comparative study of emulsifying and surface behaviors of native whey soy proteins (NWSP) and denatured whey\\u000a soy proteins (DWSP) with those of native soy isolates, denatured soy isolates (DSI), and sodium caseinate was done. These\\u000a samples showed different molecular mass distributions in gel filtration profiles. Dissociation and soluble high-M.W. species\\u000a in DWSP and DSI were observed.

  7. Electrolytic iron or ferrous sulfate increase body iron in women with moderate to low iron stores.

    PubMed

    Swain, James H; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hunt, Janet R

    2007-03-01

    Commercial elemental iron powders (electrolytic and reduced iron), as well as heme iron supplements, were tested for efficacy in improving the iron status of women. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 51 women with moderate to low iron stores received daily for 12 wk: 1) placebo, 2) 5 mg iron as heme iron or 50 mg iron as 3) electrolytic iron, 4) reduced iron, or 5) FeSO(4). Treatments were provided in 2 capsules (heme carrier) and 3 wheat rolls (other iron sources). Differences in iron status, food nonheme iron absorption, and fecal properties were evaluated. Body iron, assessed from the serum transferrin receptor:ferritin ratio, increased significantly more in subjects administered FeSO(4) (127 +/- 29 mg; mean +/- SEM) and electrolytic (115 +/- 37 mg), but not the reduced (74 +/- 32 mg) or heme (65 +/- 26 mg) iron forms, compared with those given placebo (2 +/- 19 mg). Based on body iron determinations, retention of the added iron was estimated as 3.0, 2.7, 1.8, and 15.5%, in the 4 iron-treated groups, respectively. Iron treatments did not affect food iron absorption. The 50 mg/d iron treatments increased fecal iron and free radical-generating capacity in vitro, but did not affect fecal water cytotoxicity. In subjects administered FeSO(4), fecal water content was increased slightly but significantly more than in the placebo group. In conclusion, electrolytic iron was approximately 86% as efficacious as FeSO(4) for improving body iron, but the power of this study was insufficient to detect any efficacy of the reduced or heme iron within 12 wk. With modification, this methodology of testing higher levels of food fortification for several weeks in healthy women with low iron stores has the potential for economically assessing the efficiency of iron compounds to improve iron status. PMID:17311950

  8. Marked effects of combined TPGS and PVA emulsifiers in the fabrication of etoposide-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Saadati, Roonak; Dadashzadeh, Simin

    2014-04-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) alone or in combination with other emulsifiers in the fabrication of etoposide-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for in vivo applications. Nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation or single-emulsion solvent evaporation method using TPGS alone or in combination with other surfactants. These nanoparticles were fully characterized by different techniques. For nanoprecipitation preparations, by adding 0.1% TPGS to polyvinyl alcohol in the aqueous phase, encapsulation efficiency markedly increased (up to 82%); moreover, drug release was readily controlled up to 3 days. Regarding emulsion solvent evaporation method, the highest encapsulation efficiency was obtained for nanoparticles emulsified with polyvinyl alcohol or TPGS; however, the burst release was high. When the combination of TPGS and polyvinyl alcohol was applied a marked increase in encapsulation efficiency (? 90%) was observed and the drug release was extended to more than one week. Pharmacokinetic measurements showed that the optimum formulation generated 14.4 times higher AUC and lasted 5.1 times longer when compared to free drug. Overall, using TPGS in combination with polyvinyl alcohol as an emulsifier in preparing etoposide loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles markedly increased the encapsulation efficiency, sustained drug release and resulted in nanoparticles with noticeable sustainable in vivo disposition. PMID:24451238

  9. Nanohybrids from direct chemical self-assembly of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) as pH-responsive particulate emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianhua; Yi, Chenglin; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Donghua; Hu, Qiong; Liu, Xiaoya

    2014-12-16

    The nanohybrid particulate emulsifiers based on poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA) were facilely prepared via the direct chemical self-assembly triggered by the aminolysis of SMA with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and the in situ polycondensation of APTES under refluxing in acetone. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the spherical-like morphology of the nanohybrids. Dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis revealed the structure transition of the nanohybrids in response to pH change. The emulsification study showed that the nanohybrids were effective particulate emulsifiers when homogenized with various oils including toluene, paraffin oil, silicone oil, isooctyl palmitate, dicaprylyl carbonate, and propylheptyl caprylate. The nanohybrid particulate emulsifiers exhibited pH-sensitivity, and the diameter of paraffin oil droplets remarkably increased with pH of the nanohybrid aqueous dispersion decrease. Also, the reduced dynamic interfacial tension predicted the thermodynamically unstable state of the emulsions prepared at high pH values. Most interesting, the paraffin oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) with a high oil volume fraction of 83.3% were formed when the nanohybrids were heavily flocculated by adding HCl. The HIPEs were pH-responsive and capable of demulsification with the addition of an alkaline solution showing a potential application in the oil industry. PMID:25423487

  10. Emulsifying properties of legume proteins compared to ?-lactoglobulin and Tween 20 and the volatile release from oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, O; Silcock, P; Beauchamp, J; Buettner, A; Everett, D W

    2014-10-01

    The emulsifying properties of plant legume protein isolates (soy, pea, and lupin) were compared to a milk whey protein, ?-lactoglobulin (?-lg), and a nonionic surfactant (Tween 20). The protein fractional composition was characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The following emulsion properties were measured: particle diameter, shear surface ?-potential, interfacial tension (IT), and creaming velocity. The effect of protein preheat treatment (90 °C for 10 min) on the emulsifying behavior and the release of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from emulsions under oral conditions was also investigated in real time using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. The legume proteins showed comparable results to ?-lg and Tween 20, forming stable, negatively charged emulsions with particle diameter d3,2 < 0.4 ?m, and maintained stability over 50 d. The relatively lower stability of lupin emulsions was significantly correlated with the low protein surface hydrophobicity and IT of the emulsion. After heating the proteins, the droplet size of pea and lupin emulsions decreased. The VOC release profile was similar between the protein-stabilized emulsions, and greater retention was observed for Tween 20-stabilized emulsions. This study demonstrates the potential application of legume proteins as alternative emulsifiers to milk proteins in emulsion products. PMID:25212592

  11. Iron Pill–Induced Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Proksell, Siobhan; Kuan, Shih-Fan; Behari, Jaideep

    2013-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is a prevalent condition treated with iron supplementation. Iron pill–induced gastritis is an under-recognized, albeit serious potential complication of iron pill ingestion. This entity must be identified by healthcare providers who prescribe iron. We present a case of a 59-year-old male with iron deficiency anemia on ferrous sulfate tablets who underwent an upper endoscopy, during which a single superficial gastric ulceration in the body was noted. Biopsies revealed heavy iron deposition confirming the ulceration was a consequence of the iron tablets. Iron pill–induced gastritis causes corrosive mucosal injury similar to that caused by chemical burns.

  12. Iron sensors and signals in response to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2014-07-01

    The transcription of genes involved in iron acquisition in plants is induced under iron deficiency, but our understanding of iron sensors and signals remains limited. Iron Deficiency-responsive Element-binding Factor 1 (IDEF1) and Hemerythrin motif-containing Really Interesting New Gene- and Zinc-finger proteins (HRZs)/BRUTUS (BTS) have recently emerged as candidate iron sensors because of their functions as potent regulators of iron deficiency responses and their iron-binding properties. IDEF1 is a central transcriptional regulator of graminaceous genes involved in iron uptake and utilization, predominantly during the early stages of iron deficiency. HRZs/BTS are E3 ubiquitin ligases and negative regulators of iron deficiency responses in both graminaceous and non-graminaceous plants. Rice OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are also potent regulators of iron accumulation. Characterizing these putative iron sensors also provides clues to understanding the nature of iron signals, which may involve ionized iron itself, other metals, oxygen, redox status, heme and iron-sulfur clusters, in addition to metabolites affected by iron deficiency. Systemic iron responses may also be regulated by phloem-mobile iron and its chelators such as nicotianamine. Iron sensors and signals will be identified by demonstration of signal transmission by IDEF1, HRZs/BTS, or unknown factors. PMID:24908504

  13. Iron in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanta Galazka-Friedman; Andrzej Friedman; Erika R. Bauminger

    2009-01-01

    The results of our studies of iron in three brain structures, substantia nigra (SN), globus pallidus (GP), and hippocampus\\u000a (Hip), are presented. Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy and ELISA (enzyme-linked immuno-absorbent assay) were applied.\\u000a Mössbauer studies show that most of the iron in the brain is ferritin-like. The concentration of iron is similar in SN and\\u000a GP, but less than half

  14. Iron in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanta Galazka-Friedman; Andrzej Friedman; Erika R. Bauminger

    The results of our studies of iron in three brain structures, substantia nigra (SN), globus pallidus (GP), and hippocampus\\u000a (Hip), are presented. Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy and ELISA (enzyme-linked immuno-absorbent assay) were applied.\\u000a Mössbauer studies show that most of the iron in the brain is ferritin-like. The concentration of iron is similar in SN and\\u000a GP, but less than half

  15. 35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Physiology of iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. 'Ironomics' certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  17. Physics of iron

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  18. Emulsified isoflurane anesthesia decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and induces cognitive dysfunction in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, FAN; ZHU, ZHAO-QIONG; LIU, DE-XING; ZHANG, CHAO; GONG, QI-HAI; ZHU, YU-HANG

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a severe complication characterized by cognitive decline in patients following anesthesia and surgery. Previous studies have suggested that volatile anesthetics, for example isoflurane, may contribute to such impairment. In the present study, the effects of emulsified isoflurane (EI) exposure on cognitive function, as well as the potential mechanisms, were investigated in animal models. Eight-month-old male rats were administered a single intravenous injection of 8% EI. The rats were then subjected to the Morris water maze test to assess their cognitive functions at different time-points following drug administration. Samples were taken in order to detect the plasma corticosterone concentration and the levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), as well as the expression of BDNF and NGF in the hippocampal region. The results showed that a single injection of EI caused reversible learning and memory dysfunction in adult rats. It was found that downregulation of BDNF expression may contribute to the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment of these rats. Increased expression of NGF may be associated with the protection mechanism subsequent to learning and memory function decline, and therefore may accelerate the recovery of cognitive function. PMID:25009603

  19. Role of medium-chain fatty acids in the emulsification mechanistics of self-micro-emulsifying lipid formulations

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Naser M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of the present study was to design and develop stable o/w microemulsions comprising Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO as a non ionic surfactant. This was based on particle size measurements and phase behavior studies. The empirical role of incorporating medium-chain mono/di-glycerides in the lipid matrix in the mechanistic processes of emulsification was also established in various simulating physiological conditions. Methods The efficiency of self-emulsification was evaluated under conditions of varying key compositions in the lipid mixtures; oil, cosurfactant and surfactant. Droplet diameter was measured using laser diffraction and light scattering techniques. Equilibrium phase studies were performed and phase boundaries were determined for the lipid–water systems. Results Microemulsion systems were produced from blends of Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO. An optimized formulation consisted of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO spontaneously self-emulsified in water producing dispersions with droplet diameters of ?50 nm. Phase equilibrium diagrams have revealed significant enhancement in the water-solubilized region (L2) without any presence of liquid crystalline materials. Conclusions Potential SMEDDS formulations for the bioavailability enhancement of poorly water-soluble compounds were developed by mixing blends of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO as a non-ionic surfactant. ‘Diffusion and stranding’ appears to be the dominant mechanism of emulsification. PMID:25561872

  20. Dissolution improvement of solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of fenofibrate using an inorganic high surface adsorption material.

    PubMed

    Shazly, Gamal; Mohsin, Kazi

    2015-03-01

    Solidification of lipid formulations using adsorbents is a recent technique attracting great interest due to its favourable properties including flexibility in dose division, reduction of intra-subject and inter-subject variability, improvement in efficacy/safety profile and enhancement of physical/ chemical stability. The current study aims to convert liquid self-emulsifying/nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS/SNEDDS) into solid SEDDS/SNEDDS and to assess how adsorption of the drug onto an inorganic high surface area material, NeusilinR grade US2 (NUS2), affects its in vitro dissolution performance. Lipid formulation classification systems (LFCS) Type III formulations were designed for the model anti-cholesterol drug fenofibrate. NUS2 was used to solidify the SEDDS/SNEDDS. Particle size and SEM analyses of solid SEDDS/SNEDDS powder were carried out to investigate the adsorption efficiency. In vitro dissolution studies were conducted to compare the developed formulations with the marketed product. The results of characterization studies showed that the use of 50% (m/m) adsorbent resulted in superior flowability and kept the drug stable is amorphous state. Dissolution studies allow the conclusion that the formulation containing a surfactant of higher water solubility (particularly, Type IIIB SNEDDS) has comparably faster and higher release profiles than Type IIIA (SEDDS) and marketed product. PMID:25781702

  1. U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-Model application to a field test

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Parker, Jack C [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A one-time 2-hour emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection in a fast flowing aquifer decreased U discharge to a stream for over a year. Using a comprehensive biogeochemical model developed in the companion article based on microcosm tests, we approximately matched the observed acetate, nitrate, Fe, U, and sulfate concentrations, and described the major evolution trends of multiple microbial functional groups in the field test. While the lab-determined parameters were generally applicable in the field-scale simulation, the EVO hydrolysis rate constant was estimated to be an order of magnitude greater in the field than in the microcosms. The model predicted substantial biomass (sulfate reducers) and U(IV) accumulation near the injection wells and along the side boundaries of the treatment zone where electron donors (long-chain fatty acids) from the injection wells met electron acceptors (sulfate) from the surrounding environment. While EVO retention and hydrolysis characteristics were expected to control treatment longevity, modeling results indicated that electron acceptors such as sulfate may not only compete for electrons but also play a conducive role in degrading complex substrates and enhancing U(VI) reduction and immobilization. As a result, the spacing of the injection wells could be optimized for effective sustainable bioremediation.

  2. Emulsifying Activity and Stability of a Non-Toxic Bioemulsifier Synthesized by Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Chab, Juan Carlos; Guézennec, Jean; Chan-Bacab, Manuel Jesús; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Sinquin, Corinne; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; De la Rosa-García, Susana del C.; Reyes-Estebanez, Manuela; Ortega-Morales, Benjamín Otto

    2013-01-01

    A previously reported bacterial bioemulsifier, here termed microbactan, was further analyzed to characterize its lipid component, molecular weight, ionic character and toxicity, along with its bioemulsifying potential for hydrophobic substrates at a range of temperatures, salinities and pH values. Analyses showed that microbactan is a high molecular weight (700 kDa), non-ionic molecule. Gas chromatography of the lipid fraction revealed the presence of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids; thus microbactan may be considered a glycolipoprotein. Microbactan emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons and oils to various extents; the highest emulsification index was recorded against motor oil (96%). The stability of the microbactan-motor oil emulsion model reached its highest level (94%) at 50 °C, pH 10 and 3.5% NaCl content. It was not toxic to Artemia salina nauplii. Microbactan is, therefore, a non-toxic and non-ionic bioemulsifier of high molecular weight with affinity for a range of oily substrates. Comparative phylogenetic assessment of the 16S rDNA gene of Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10 with genes derived from other marine Microbacterium species suggested that this genus is well represented in coastal zones. The chemical nature and stability of the bioemulsifier suggest its potential application in bioremediation of marine environments and in cosmetics. PMID:24065097

  3. The case for iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN H. MARTIN; R. MICHAEL GORDON; STEVE E. FITZWATER

    1991-01-01

    Excess major nutrients occur in offshore areas ranging from the tropical equatorial Pacific to the polar Antarctic. In spite of the great ecological differences in these environments, the authors believe they share a common trait: iron deficiency. Here they present the case of iron; they point out that all of these areas are far from Fe-rich terrestrial sources and that

  4. Iron efficiency in sorghum

    E-print Network

    Esty, James Craig

    1979-01-01

    use of iron by two soy- bean genotypes and their isolines. Agron. J. 59:459-462. 24. Chancy, Rufus L. , John C. Brown, and Lee O. Tiffin. 1972. Obligator'y reduction of ferric che'. ates in iron uptake by soybeans. Plant Physiol. , 50:208-213. 25...

  5. Iron studies in hemophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Lottenberg, R.; Kitchens, C.S.; Roessler, G.S.; Noyes, W.D.

    1981-12-01

    Although iron deficiency is not recognized as a usual complication of hemophilia, we questioned whether intermittent occult loss of blood in urine or stool might predispose hemophiliacs to chronic iron deficiency. Seven men with factor VII and one with factor IX deficiency were studied. Blood studied, bone marrow aspirates, urine and stool samples, and ferrokinetics with total-body counting up to five months were examined. These data showed no excessive loss of blood during the study period; however, marrow iron stores were decidedly decreased, being absent in four subjects. We suggest that in some hemophiliacs, iron deposits in tissues such as synovial membranes may form a high proportion of the body's total iron stores.

  6. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310.518 Section 310.518 Food...518 Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as an active ingredient in solid oral...

  7. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310.518 Section 310.518 Food...518 Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as an active ingredient in solid oral...

  8. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310.518 Section 310.518 Food...518 Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as an active ingredient in solid oral...

  9. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310.518 Section 310.518 Food...518 Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as an active ingredient in solid oral...

  10. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310.518 Section 310.518 Food...518 Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as an active ingredient in solid oral...

  11. Influence of emulsifying salts on the textural properties of nonfat process cheese made from direct acid cheese bases.

    PubMed

    Brickley, C A; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; McSweeney, P L H; Lucey, J A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of several types of emulsifying salts (ES) on the texture of nonfat process cheese (NFPC). Improperly produced nonfat cheese tends to exhibit several problems upon baking including stickiness, insufficient or excessive melt, pale color upon cooling, formation of a dry skin (skinning) often leading to dark blistering, and chewy texture. These attributes are due to the strength and number of interactions between and among casein molecules. We propose to disrupt these interactions by using suitable emulsifying salts (ES). These ES chelate Ca and disperse caseins. Stirred curd cheese bases were made from skim milk using direct acidification with lactic acid to pH values 5.0, 5.2, and 5.4, and ripened for 1 d. Various levels of trisodium citrate (TSC; 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 5%), disodium phosphate (DSP; 1, 2, 3, and 4%), or trisodium phosphate (TSP; 1, 2, 3, and 4%) were blended with the nonfat cheese base. Cheese, ES, and water were weighed into a steel container, which was placed in a waterbath at 98 degrees C and then stirred using an overhead stirrer for 9 min. Molten cheese was poured into plastic containers, sealed, and stored at 4 degrees C for 7 d before analysis. Texture and melting properties were determined using texture profile analysis and the UW-Melt-profiler. The pH 5.2 and 5.4 cheese bases were sticky during manufacture and had a pale straw-like color, whereas the pH 5.0 curd was white. Total calcium contents were approximately 400, 185, and 139 mg/100 g for pH 5.4, 5.2, and 5.0 cheeses, respectively. Addition of DSP resulted in NFPC with the lowest extent of flow, and crystal formation was apparent at DSP levels above 2%. The NFPC manufactured from the pH 5.0 base and using TSP had reduced melt and increased stickiness, whereas melt was significantly increased and stickiness was reduced in NFPC made with pH 5.4 base and TSP. However, for NFPC made from the pH 5.4 cheese and with 1% TSP, the pH value was >6.20 and crystals were observed within a few days. Use of TSC increased extent of flow up to a maximum with the addition of 2% ES for all 3 types of cheese bases. Addition of high levels of TSC to the pH 5.2 and 5.4 cheese bases resulted in increased stickiness. Similar pH trends for attributes such as extent of flow, hardness, and adhesiveness were observed for both phosphate ES but no consistent pH trends were observed for the NFPC made with TSC. These initial trials suggest that the pH 5.0 cheese base was promising for further research and scale-up to pilot-scale process cheese making, because cheeses had a creamy color, reasonable melt, and did not have high adhesiveness when TSC was used as the ES. However, the acid whey produced from the pH 5.0 curd could be a concern. PMID:18096923

  12. Water reclamation from emulsified oily wastewater via effective forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes under the PRO mode.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; de Wit, Jos S; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-09-15

    By using a novel hydrophilic cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) as the membrane material for the hollow fiber substrate and modifying its outer surface by polydopamine (PDA) coating and inner surface by interfacial polymerization, we have demonstrated that the thin-film composite (TFC) membranes can be effectively used for sustainable water reclamation from emulsified oil/water streams via forward osmosis (FO) under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode. The newly developed TFC-FO hollow fiber membrane shows characteristics of high water flux, outstanding salt and oil rejection, and low fouling propensity. Under the PRO mode, the newly developed TFC-FO membrane exhibits a water flux of 37.1 L m(-2) h(-1) with an oil rejection of 99.9% using a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution. Remarkable anti-fouling behaviors have also been observed. Under the PRO mode, the water flux decline is only 10% of the initial value even after a 12 h test for oil/water separation. The water flux of the fouled membrane can be effectively restored to 97% of the original value by water rinses on the fiber outer surface without using any chemicals. Furthermore, the flux declines are only 25% and 52% when the water recovery of a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion and a 2000 ppm petroleum oil/water emulsion containing 0.04 M NaCl reaches 82%, respectively. This study may not only provide insightful guidelines for the fabrication of effective TFC-FO membranes with high performance and low fouling behaviors for oily wastewater under the PRO mode but also add an alternative perspective to the design of new materials for water purification purposes. PMID:26043371

  13. Quality by design: characterization of self-nano-emulsified drug delivery systems (SNEDDs) using ultrasonic resonator technology.

    PubMed

    Shah, R B; Zidan, A S; Funck, T; Tawakkul, M A; Nguyenpho, A; Khan, M A

    2007-08-16

    In the present work, a novel application of ultrasonic measurements is detailed to characterize nano-emulsion formulations as a part of the overall Quality by Design (QbD) goal. Ultrasonic resonator technology (URT) was utilized to measure sound velocity and absorption of self-nanoemulsified drug delivery systems (SNEDDs) consisting of various ratios of oil:surfactant:co-surfactant. A QbD concept was used to create different SNEDDs formulations utilizing sweet orange oil (oil), Emulphor-620 (surfactant), and Capmul (co-surfactant) by dissolving Cyclosporine A in oil. The mixture was emulsified in water and ultrasonic measurements were carried out in an ultrasonic resonator system isothermally for a period of about 15-20min. Compressibility of the individual components in the droplets, hydration of the droplets and the influence of the composition on droplet stability were studied by systematic ultrasonic measurements at a single resonator frequency. The adiabetic compressibilities for the oil, aqueous and interfacial components were 68, 44.6, and 53 [10(-11)Pa(-1)], respectively as calculated using Urick's equation. Also the ultrasonic absorption correlated droplet size of nano-emulsions linearly with R(2) of 0.84 indicating this can be used as an additional technique to measure the droplet size of nano-emulsions. Correlation of ultrasonic data with formulation components indicated that the ultrasonic velocity correlated negatively with increasing oil amount in the formulation as well as surfactant-to-cosurfactant ratios where as droplet diameter correlated positively with these formulation factors. It can be envisioned from the results that the compressibility of the media increases with the addition of the oily component and thus reducing the sound velocity. Thus URT enabled direct and convenient analysis of the physical properties as well as influence of formulation factors of nano-emulsions which is an important indication of stability of these nano-emulsions. PMID:17521836

  14. Self-emulsifying pellets: relations between kinetic parameters of drug release and emulsion reconstitution-influence of formulation variables.

    PubMed

    Nikolakakis, Ioannis; Malamataris, Stavros

    2014-05-01

    The effects of surfactant type and content on the kinetics of emulsion reconstitution and release of drugs differing in lipophilicity from self-emulsifying microcrystalline cellulose pellets were studied. Furosemide and propranolol were the drugs, medium-chain triglyceride was the oil, and Cremophors ELP, RH40, and RH60 were the surfactants. Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with emulsions (75% water and 25%, w/w, oil/surfactant/drug). Stability of the emulsions was evaluated from changes in the back-scattered light, and re-emulsification and drug release from light transmittance and UV spectroscopy, respectively. Emulsion stability increased because of the incorporation of the drugs. Re-emulsification depended only on the surfactant content and was expressed by a simple power equation (Ra2 > 0.945, Q(2) > 0.752). Drug release was expressed by two biexponential equations (Ra2 > 0.989, Q(2) > 0.699 and Ra2 > 0.947, Q(2) > 0.693) implying initial burst and terminal slow release phase and by the linear form (Lineweaver-Burke) of Michaelis-Menten equation (Ra2 > 0.726, Q(2) > 0.397). Relationships exist between the rate constants of the equations describing emulsion reconstitution and drug release, for propranolol compositions (R(2) = 0.915), and for compositions of both drugs with less hydrophilic ELP and RH40 (R(2) = 0.511), and also, among dissolution efficiency, drug solubility in oil/surfactant, and emulsion reconstitution ability, indicating the importance of drug solubilization in oil/surfactant and re-emulsification ability on drug release. PMID:24596121

  15. Electrolytic Iron or Ferrous Sulfate Increase Body Iron in Women with Moderate to Low

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Swain; LuAnn K. Johnson; Janet R. Hunt

    Commercial elemental iron powders (electrolytic and reduced iron), as well as heme iron supplements, were tested for efficacy in improving the iron status of women. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 51 women with moderate to low iron stores received daily for 12 wk: 1) placebo,2) 5 mg iron as heme iron or 50 mg iron as 3) electrolytic iron, 4)

  16. Molecular control of vertebrate iron homeostasis by iron regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wallander, Michelle L.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.; Eisenstein, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Both deficiencies and excesses of iron represent major public health problems throughout the world. Understanding the cellular and organismal processes controlling iron homeostasis is critical for identifying iron-related diseases and in advancing the clinical treatments for such disorders of iron metabolism. Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 are key regulators of vertebrate iron metabolism. These RNA binding proteins post-transcriptionally control the stability or translation of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in iron homeostasis thereby controlling the uptake, utilization, storage or export of iron. Recent evidence provides insight into how IRPs selectively control the translation or stability of target mRNAs, how IRP RNA binding activity is controlled by iron-dependent and iron-independent effectors, and the pathological consequences of dysregulation of the IRP system. PMID:16872694

  17. Iron in Cereal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    Is there really iron in breakfast cereal? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate the removal of iron from a box of high-iron content breakfast cereal. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills being covered, complex reasoning strategies that are used, and a compilation of national science standards about this activity. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies and instructions to perform the activity, and presentation techniques. An explanation of the content of each activity and assessment suggestions are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  18. Electronic effects on iron porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, M. De La; Lopez, M.A. [California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We have inserted iron into a series of substituted iron tetraphenylporphyrins for the purposes of investigating electronic effects on properties of the iron porphyrins. The properties of interest are the CO stretching frequencies of the ferrous porphyrins, the rates of CO dissociation from the ferrous porphyrins, and the UV-visible spectra of the iron porphyrins. We will present our results to date.

  19. Coal desulfurization. [using iron pentacarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Organic sulfur is removed from coal by treatment with an organic solution of iron pentacarbonyl. Organic sulfur compounds can be removed by reaction of the iron pentacarbonyl with coal to generate CO and COS off-gases. The CO gas separated from COS can be passed over hot iron fillings to generate iron pentacarbonyl.

  20. Molecular Structure of Iron Monoxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-04

    Iron monoxide is an odorless black powder. Technologies and uses of iron and iron oxide powders have progressed steadily. Synthetic iron oxide powders are used primarily for pigmentary and magnetic properties. These powders are inexpensive to make and are used to color concrete products, paints, plastics and other media.

  1. Good Sources of Nutrients: Iron

    E-print Network

    Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

    2008-08-28

    Iron is a mineral that functions primarily to carry oxygen in the body. This publication explains how people can get enough iron in their diets and how to prepare foods to retain iron. It also lists foods that are good sources of iron. (2 pp., 2...

  2. Synthetic Control and Bioconjugation of Magnetite Nanoparticles for the Development of an in vivo Glucose Sensor

    E-print Network

    Gingrich, Phillip

    2014-08-31

    generating zero-valent metal nanostructures5 and for deposition of preformed gold nanoparticles as a chitosan-glucose oxidase biocomposite.6 Electrodeposition of nanostructures has also found use in solar cell fabrication with nanocrystalline films of Ti... et al. have monitored the temporal size evolution of synthesizing iron oxide from iron pentacarbonyl; while easily manipulated using standard air- free techniques, metal carbonyls present a health hazard and should be avoided where possible.15 Most...

  3. A validated stability-indicating LC method for estimation of etoposide in bulk and optimized self-nano emulsifying formulation: Kinetics and stability effects

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naseem; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Khar, Roop Kishan; Jaggi, Manu

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to establish a validated stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of etoposide (ETP) in bulk drug and self-nano emulsifying formulation. ETP was successfully separated from the degradation products formed under stress conditions on LiChrospher 100 C18 reverse-phase column (a 250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5-?m particle size) using 55:45 (v/v) acetonitrile–phosphate buffer saline (pH 4.5) as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min?1 and detection at 283 nm. The response was a linear function of analyte concentration (R2 > 0.9997) over the concentration range of 0.05–50 ?g mL?1. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, robustness, sensitivity and specificity. The % recovery of ETP at three different levels (50%, 100% and 150%) ranged between 93.84% and 100.06% in optimized self-nano emulsifying formulation, Etosid® soft-gelatin capsule and Fytosid® injection. First-order degradation kinetics of ETP were observed under acidic and alkaline conditions. The method was also applied for the stability assessment of self-nano emulsifying formulation under accelerated conditions, the formulation was found to be stable at all storage conditions with the shelf-life of 2.37 years at 25 °C. The method holds promise for routine quality control of ETP in bulk, pharmaceutical formulations as well as in stability-indicating studies. PMID:23960824

  4. Development and evaluation of an emulsified paraffin wax dispenser for season-long mating disruption of Grapholita molesta in commercial peach orchards.

    PubMed

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Miller, James R; Attrerholt, Cynthia A; Gut, Larry J

    2007-08-01

    The University of California at Davis patented the use of emulsified wax to release pheromones for mating disruption. Advantages of these dispensers include low cost, self-adhesion, and biodegradation. We compared the efficacy and practicality of Confuse-OFM, a commercial emulsified wax formulation of oriental fruit moth, Grapiholita molesta (Busck), pheromone with those of Check-Mate OFM-F sprayable pheromone and Isomate-M 100 polyethylene tube dispensers in commercial peach (Prunus spp.) orchards. Efficacy was measured with male captures in pheromone-, virgin female-, and liquid attractant-baited bucket traps as well as by noting injury to shoots and fruit. Two applications of Confuse-OFM were as effective as two applications of CheckMate OFM-F and one application of Isomate-M 100. However, Confuse-OFM was tedious to apply and wasted pheromone with an initially high release rate. We developed a new emulsified wax formulation (Wax Dollops) that maintained release rates above a 5 mg/ha/h threshold twice as long as Confuse-OFM in the laboratory. Field trials confirmed that one application of 3-ml dollops (590 dollops per ha) provided season-long (approximately 15 wk) control equivalent to that of Isomate-M 100 and Confuse-OFM applied as described above. Several applicators were developed for Wax Dollops, including a pneumatic gun that shot dollops >2 m. However, the most efficient method for application was wiping dollops onto tree branches by using a flat-bladed spatula. This research was the basis for a new line of commercial pheromone pest control products equally effective to current commercial formulations but with advantages in cost and flexibility. PMID:17849885

  5. Iron supplementation in renal anemia.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, Steven

    2006-07-01

    Iron-deficiency frequently develops in patients with chronic kidney disease who are treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). It results in reduced effectiveness of anemia therapy; patients may fail to reach hemoglobin targets or may require excessively large doses of rHuEPO. It has been recognized widely that iron management, monitoring for iron deficiency, and effective iron supplementation forms a core component of anemia therapy. This review discusses the physiology of iron balance, derangements in iron balance in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency in patients treated with rHuEPO. PMID:16949471

  6. Effect of soybean lecithin on iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of canola oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jeesu; Oh, Boyoung; Choe, Eunok

    2014-11-01

    The effect of soybean lecithin addition on the iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of emulsions consisting of purified canola oil and water (1:1, w/w) was studied based on headspace oxygen consumption using gas chromatography and hydroperoxide production using the ferric thiocyanate method. Addition levels of iron sulfate, chlorophyll, and soybean lecithin were 5, 4, and 350 mg/kg, respectively. Phospholipids (PLs) during oxidation of the emulsions were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. Addition of soybean lecithin to the emulsions significantly reduced and decelerated iron-catalyzed oil oxidation by lowering headspace oxygen consumption and hydroperoxide production. However, soybean lecithin had no significant antioxidant effect on chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of the emulsions. PLs in soybean lecithin added to the emulsions were degraded during both oxidation processes, although there was little change in PL composition. Among PLs in soybean lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were degraded the fastest in the iron-catalyzed and the chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation, respectively. The results suggest that addition of soybean lecithin as an emulsifier can also improve the oxidative stability of oil in an emulsion. PMID:25312008

  7. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection. PMID:25083899

  8. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  9. Chelation therapy for iron overload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Barton

    2007-01-01

    Iron overload is characterized by excessive iron deposition and consequent injury and dysfunction of the heart, liver, anterior\\u000a pituitary, pancreas, and joints. Because physiologic mechanisms to excrete iron are very limited, patients with iron overload\\u000a and its complications need safe, effective therapy that is compatible with their coexisting medical conditions. The availability\\u000a of three licensed iron chelation drugs (one parenteral,

  10. Dietary and prophylactic iron supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Kent; Eugene D. Weinberg; Patricia Stuart-Macadam

    1990-01-01

    Mild hypoferremia represents an aspect of the ability of the body to withhold iron from pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and protozoa,\\u000a and from neoplastic cells. However, our iron-withholding defense system can be thwarted by practices that enhance iron overload\\u000a such as indiscriminate iron fortification of foods, medically prescribed iron supplements, alcohol ingestion, and cigarette\\u000a smoking. Elevated standards for normal levels of

  11. An Ancient Gauge for Iron

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tracey Rouault (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Molecular Medicine Program)

    2009-10-30

    The iron regulatory proteins IRP1 and IRP2 are critical to the import, export, and sequestration of iron for achievement of the cytosolic concentrations needed to support the synthesis of iron-binding proteins and for prevention of unfavorable iron-dependent oxidation events in mammalian cells. This perspective discusses reports by Vashisht et al. and Salahudeen et al. that human cells gauge cellular iron and concomitantly alter the activity of IRPs through a mechanism that depends on the protein FBXL5.

  12. Mössbauer Spectra of Some Iron Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Epstein

    1962-01-01

    Mossbauer spectra were obtained for the following coordthation ; compounds: iron phthalocyanine, ferrocene, iron carbonyl, iron HI ; acetylacetonate, and iron II acetylacetonate dipyridine; for the following ; complex ion saIts iron n trisphenanthroline chloride, iron W EDTA Monosodium ; salt), iron II EDTA, hemin, ferricium picrate, sodium nitroprusside, and some ; ferro- and ferricyanides. The isomer shift (relative to

  13. A generic model for spoilage of acidic emulsified foods: combining physicochemical data, diversity and levels of specific spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Lambert, Ronald J W; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2014-01-17

    The spoilage pattern of three emulsified, vegetable-based spreads of low pH (3.90-4.15) adjusted with acetic acid was characterized by correlating the growth of spoilage flora with the organoleptic and physicochemical changes, as well as the changes in the species composition of the dominant microflora during storage under isothermal conditions. In a further step, a generic (hereafter called 'unified') model was developed to describe the maximum specific growth rate of the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) in all acetic acid acidified products, including literature data and additional in-house data from similar products, as a function of the storage temperature, pH (3.61-4.25) and initial concentration of the undissociated acetic acid in each product. The predictions of the unified model were compared with those of product-specific models, with temperature as the sole predictor variable. Two independent batches of commercially prepared pepper- (PS), fava beans- (FS) and eggplant-based (ES) spreads were stored at 4, 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 and 25°C. The growth of lactic acid bacteria (SSOs; LAB) was correlated with changes in pH, titratable acidity and organic acids concentration, as well as sensory characteristics, in order to define the shelf-life of the products. Isolates from each spread and storage temperature were grouped with SDS-PAGE and were identified with 16S rRNA, determining the association between spoilage and species diversity. Product-specific models were developed using the square root model, while a polynomial and the Ratkowsky model were used for the development of the unified model. Products with lower pH and/or higher acetic acid content showed higher microbial stability. Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus brevis dominated the LAB association in all three spreads, although their relative percentage at the beginning of storage varied significantly. These facultative or obligate hetero-fermentative bacteria increased lactic acid and, sporadically, acetic acid levels in the spreads. The developed models were validated under real chill chain conditions and showed very good agreement with the observed data in PS and FS. The spoilage perception patterns of the different products were similar and thus, the proposed unified model may provide accurate predictions for the spoilage of a wide variety of acetic acid-acidified spreads, regardless of differences in the formulation (e.g., raw materials) and the manufacturing procedure. PMID:24287294

  14. [Stabilization and long-term effect of chromium contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Luo, Qi-Shi; Zhang, Chang-Bo; Tan, Liang; Li, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Short-term (3 d and 28 d) and long-term (1 a) stabilization effects of Cr contaminated soil were investigated through nature curing, using four amendments including ferrous sulfide, ferrous sulfate, zero-valent iron and sodium dithionite. The results indicated that ferrous sulfide and zero-valent iron were not helpful for the stabilization of Cr(VI) when directly used because of their poor solubility and immobility. Ferrous sulfate could effectively and rapidly decrease total leaching Cr and Cr(VI) content. The stabilization effect was further promoted by the generation of iron hydroxides after long-term curing. Sodium dithionite also had positive effect on soil stabilization. Appropriate addition ratio of the two chemicals could help maintain the soil pH in range of 6-8. PMID:24364328

  15. The ability of single-chain surfactants to emulsify an aqueous-based liquid crystal oscillates with odd-even parity of alkyl-chain length.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Nisha; Shetye, Gauri S; Yang, Sijie; Wilkens, Stephan; Smith, Robert P; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2013-12-15

    The physical properties of many organic molecules often oscillate when the number of carbons in their aliphatic chains changes from odd to even. This odd-even effect for single-chain surfactants in solution is rarely observed. Here, we report the ability of single-chain surfactants to emulsify a class of non-amphiphilic organic salts, disodium cromoglycate (5'DSCG) oscillates as a function of the odd or even number of the aliphatic carbons. This system provides a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion, in which aqueous droplets of 5'DSCG in liquid crystal phases are coated with single-chain surfactants in a bulk carrying aqueous solution. For both surfactants of [Formula: see text] and CH3(CH2)nCOO(-)Na(+), the ability to emulsify 5'DSCG molecules in water is stronger for surfactants with an odd number of sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms in the aliphatic chains than those with an even number. This observed odd-even effect is consistent with the notion that conventional micelles possess a core of randomly arranged surfactant hydrocarbon tails. However, this water-in-oil-in-water resembles a vesicle system in which the surfactants assemble in a highly ordered structure that separates two aqueous systems. These new self-assembled phases have potential application in the formulation and design of new organic soft materials. PMID:24144379

  16. Retention and release of oil-in-water emulsions from filled hydrogel beads composed of calcium alginate: impact of emulsifier type and pH.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Benjamin; Saberi, Amir Hossein; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2015-03-21

    Delivery systems based on filled hydrogel particles (microgels) can be fabricated from natural food-grade lipids and biopolymers. The potential for controlling release characteristics by modulating the electrostatic interactions between emulsifier-coated lipid droplets and the biopolymer matrix within hydrogel particles was investigated. A multistage procedure was used to fabricate calcium alginate beads filled with lipid droplets stabilized by non-ionic, cationic, anionic, or zwitterionic emulsifiers. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by Tween 60, DTAB, SDS, or whey protein were prepared by microfluidization, mixed with various alginate solutions, and then microgels were formed by simple extrusion into calcium solutions. The microgels were placed into a series of buffer solutions with different pH values (2 to 11). Lipid droplets remained encapsulated under acidic and neutral conditions, but were released under highly basic conditions (pH 11) due to hydrogel swelling when the alginate concentration was sufficiently high. Lipid droplet release increased with decreasing alginate concentration, which could be attributed to an increase in the pore size of the hydrogel matrix. These results have important implications for the design of delivery systems to entrap and control the release of lipophilic bioactive components within filled hydrogel particles. PMID:25646949

  17. Formulation and immunological evaluation of a trivalent vaccine comprising emulsified submicron particles and inactivated virions of H5N1/EV71/JEV.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Chang, Ching-Yun; Chen, Wei-Lin; Lin, Shih-Chang; Liao, Chien-Chun; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Hu, Alan Yung-Chih; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Wu, Suh-Chin; Chong, Pele; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2013-11-01

    Combination vaccines can reduce the number of injections and simplify the immunization schedule required to prevent different diseases. Here we assessed the immunogenicity in a mouse model of a vaccine composition comprising inactivated influenza viruses (H5N1/H1N1), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and/or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and investigated whether the vaccine formulations can overcome the immunologic interference between the individual vaccine components. We demonstrated that the antigenic competition happens between H5N1/H1N1 or H5N1/EV71 inactivated virions when the vaccine combinations either formulated with Alum suspensions or without adjuvant. In the presence of PELC emulsified particles, EV71-specific immune responses before and after incorporating H5N1 virus into EV71 vaccine were detected of no significant difference; in addition, H5N1- and EV71-specific immune responses were found at the same level when H5N1/EV71/JEV consolidating into combination vaccine. Emulsified vaccine formulation was represented as a potential tool that is found to reduce the number of injections required to prevent multiple infectious strains causing the same disease (H5N1/H1N1) and/or that protect against different diseases (H5N1/EV71). Combination vaccines can also include a third component to protect against H5N1/EV71/JEV at the same time. PMID:23838466

  18. Iron loading and disease surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, E. D.

    1999-01-01

    Iron is an oxidant as well as a nutrient for invading microbial and neoplastic cells. Excessive iron in specific tissues and cells (iron loading) promotes development of infection, neoplasia, cardiomyopathy, arthropathy, and various endocrine and possibly neurodegenerative disorders. To contain and detoxify the metal, hosts have evolved an iron withholding defense system, but the system can be compromised by numerous factors. An array of behavioral, medical, and immunologic methods are in place or in development to strengthen iron withholding. Routine screening for iron loading could provide valuable information in epidemiologic, diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic studies of emerging infectious diseases. PMID:10341171

  19. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  20. Iron acquisition by Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Pidcock, K A; Wooten, J A; Daley, B A; Stull, T L

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms for acquisition of iron by Haemophilus influenzae and their role in pathogenesis are not known. Heme and nonheme sources of iron were evaluated for their effect on growth of type b and nontypable strains of H. influenzae in an iron-restricted, defined medium. All 13 strains acquired iron from heme, hemoglobin, hemoglobin-haptoglobin, and heme-hemopexin. Among nonheme sources of protein-bound iron, growth of H. influenzae was enhanced by partially saturated human transferrin but not by lactoferrin or ferritin. Purified ferrienterochelin and ferridesferrioxamine failed to provide iron to H. influenzae, and the supernatants of H. influenzae E1a grown in iron-restricted medium failed to enhance iron-restricted growth of siderophore-dependent strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Arthrobacter terregens. Marked alterations in the profile of outer membrane proteins of H. influenzae were observed when the level of free iron was varied between 1 microM and 1 mM. Catechols were not detected in the supernatants of strain E1a; however, iron-related hydroxamate production was detected by two biochemical assays. We conclude that the sources of iron for H. influenzae are diverse. The significance of hydroxamate production and iron-related outer membrane proteins to H. influenzae iron acquisition is not yet clear. Images PMID:2964410