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1

Application of Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron to Marine Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contamination of marine waters and sediments with heavy metals and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) including chlorinated solvents, pesticides and PCBs pose ecological and human health risks through the contaminant's potential bioaccumulation in fish, shellfish and avian populations. The contaminants enter marine environments through improper disposal techniques and storm water run-off. Current remediation technologies for application to marine environments include costly dredging and off-site treatment of the contaminated media. Emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) has been proven to effectively degrade dissolved-phase and DNAPL-phase contaminants in freshwater environments on both the laboratory and field-scale level. However, the application to marine environments is only just being explored. This paper discusses the potential use of EZVI in brackish and saltwater environments, with supporting laboratory data detailed. Laboratory studies were performed in 2005 to establish the effectiveness of EZVI to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE) in saltwater. Headspace vials were setup to determine the kinetic rate of TCE degradation using EZVI in seawater. The reaction vials were analyzed by Gas Chromatographic/Flame Ionization Detection (GC/FID) for ethene production after a 48 day period using a GC/FID Purge and Trap system. Analytical results showed that EZVI was very effective at degrading TCE. The reaction by-products (ethene, acetylene and ethane) were produced at 71% of the rate in seawater as in the fresh water controls. Additionally, iron within the EZVI particles was protected from oxidation of the corrosive seawater, allowing EZVI to perform in an environment where zero-valent iron alone could not compete. Laboratory studies were also performed to establish the effectiveness of emulsified zero-valent metal (EZVM) to remove dissolved-phase cadmium and lead found in seawater. EZVM is comprised of a combination of magnesium and iron metal surrounded by the same oil/surfactant membrane used in EZVI. The removal of cadmium and lead from a seawater matrix is a unique challenge. It requires a system that is resistant to the corrosive nature of seawater while removing specific ions that are in a relatively low concentration compared to naturally occurring seawater salts. Laboratory studies conducted show greater than 99% removal of lead and 96% removal of cadmium from a seawater solution spiked at 5 mg/L that was treated with an Emulsified Zero-Valent Metal (EZVM). The cadmium and lead are removed from the solution as they transport across the emulsion membrane and plate out onto the zero-valent metal surface.

Brooks, Kathleen B.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Clausen, Christian A.; Geiger, Cherie L.

2005-01-01

2

Application of Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron to Marine Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contamination of marine waters and sediments with heavy metals and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) including chlorinated solvents, pesticides and PCBs pose ecological and human health risks through the potential of the contaminant to bioaccumulate in fish, shellfish and avian populations. The contaminants enter marine environments through improper disposal techniques and storm water runoff. Current remediation technologies for application to marine environments include costly dredging and off-site treatment of the contaminated media. Emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) has been proven to effectively degrade dissolved-phase and DNAPL-phase contaminants in freshwater environments on both the laboratory and field-scale level. Emulsified Zero-Valent Metal (EZVM) using metals such as iron and/or magnesium have been shown in the laboratory and on the bench scale to be effective at removing metals contamination in freshwater environments. The application to marine environments, however, is only just being explored. This paper discusses. the potential use of EZVI or EZVM in brackish and saltwater environments, with supporting laboratory data detailing its effectiveness on trichloroethylene, lead, copper, nickel and cadmium.

Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Brooks, Kathleen B.; Geiger, Cherie L.; Clausen, Christian A.; Milum, Kristen M.

2006-01-01

3

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF DNAPL USING EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALENT IRON (BATTELLE PRESENTATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot scale field demonstration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) treatment using emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) is being conducted at Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island SC. The EZVI technology was developed at the University of Central ...

4

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF DNAPL USING EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALENT IRON (Battelle Conference)  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot scale field demonstration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) treatment using emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) was conducted at Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, SC. The EZVI technology was developed at the University of Central Fl...

5

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF DNAPL USING EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALENT IRON (DNAPL CONFERENCE)  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot scale field demonstration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) treatment using emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) is being conducted at Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island SC. The demonstration is being conducted by Geosyntec, the Nationa...

6

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF DNAPL USING EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALENT IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot scale field demonstration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) treatment using emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) is being conducted at Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island SC. The demonstration is being conducted by Geosyntec, the Nationa...

7

Field Demonstration of DNAPL Dehalogenation Using Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of the first field-scale demonstration conducted to evaluate the performance of nano-scale emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) injected into the saturated zone to enhance in situ dehalogenation of dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) containing trichloroethene (TCE). EZVI is an innovative and emerging remediation technology. EZVI is a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable emulsion that forms emulsion droplets consisting of an oil-liquid membrane surrounding zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in water. EZVI was injected over a five day period into eight wells in a demonstration test area within a larger DNAPL source area at NASA's Launch Complex 34 (LC34) using a pressure pulse injection method. Soil and groundwater samples were collected before and after treatment and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (V005) to evaluate the changes in VOC mass, concentration and mass flux. Significant reductions in TCE soil concentrations (>80%) were observed at four of the six soil sampling locations within 90 days of EZVI injection. Somewhat lower reductions were observed at the other two soil sampling locations where visual observations suggest that most of the EZVI migrated up above the target treatment depth. Significant reductions in TCE groundwater concentrations (57 to 100%) were observed at all depths targeted with EZVI. Groundwater samples from the treatment area also showed significant increases in the concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene. The decrease in concentrations of TCE in soil and groundwater samples following treatment with EZVI is believed to be due to abiotic degradation associated with the ZVI as well as biodegradation enhanced by the presence of the oil and surfactant in the EZVI emulsion.

Quinn, Jacqueline; Geiger, Cherie; Clausen, Chris; Brooks, Kathleen; Coon, Christina; O'Hara, Suzanne; Krug, Thomas; Major, David; Yoon, Sam; Gavaskar, Arun; Holdsworth, Thomas

2004-01-01

8

Field demonstration of DNAPL dehalogenation using emulsified zero-valent iron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of the first field-scale demonstration conducted to evaluate the performance of nanoscale emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) injected into the saturated zone to enhance in situ dehalogenation of dense, nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) containing trichloroethene (TCE). EZVI is an innovative and emerging remediation technology. EZVI is a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable emulsion that forms emulsion droplets consisting of an oil-liquid membrane surrounding zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in water. EZVI was injected over a five day period into eight wells in a demonstration test area within a larger DNAPL source area at NASA's Launch Complex 34 (LC34) using a pressure pulse injection method. Soil and groundwater samples were collected before and after treatment and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate the changes in VOC mass, concentration and mass flux. Significant reductions in TCE soil concentrations (>80%) were observed at four of the six soil sampling locations within 90 days of EZVI injection. Somewhat lower reductions were observed at the other two soil sampling locations where visual observations suggest that most of the EZVI migrated up above the target treatment depth. Significant reductions in TCE groundwater concentrations (57 to 100%) were observed at all depths targeted with EZVI. Groundwater samples from the treatment area also showed significant increases in the concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene. The decrease in concentrations of TCE in soil and groundwater samples following treatment with EZVI is believed to be due to abiotic degradation associated with the ZVI as well as biodegradation enhanced by the presence of the oil and surfactant in the EZVI emulsion.

Quinn, Jacqueline; Geiger, Cherie; Clausen, Chris; Brooks, Kathleen; Coon, Christina; O'Hara, Suzanne; Krug, Thomas; Major, David; Yoon, Woong-Sang; Gavaskar, Arun; Holdsworth, Thomas

2005-01-01

9

Field demonstration of DNAPL dehalogenation using emulsified zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

This paper describes the results of the first field-scale demonstration conducted to evaluate the performance of nanoscale emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) injected into the saturated zone to enhance in situ dehalogenation of dense, nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) containing trichloroethene (TCE). EZVI is an innovative and emerging remediation technology. EZVI is a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable emulsion that forms emulsion droplets consisting of an oil-liquid membrane surrounding zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in water. EZVI was injected over a five day period into eight wells in a demonstration test area within a larger DNAPL source area at NASA's Launch Complex 34 (LC34) using a pressure pulse injection method. Soil and groundwater samples were collected before and after treatment and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate the changes in VOC mass, concentration and mass flux. Significant reductions in TCE soil concentrations (>80%) were observed at four of the six soil sampling locations within 90 days of EZVI injection. Somewhat lower reductions were observed at the other two soil sampling locations where visual observations suggest that most of the EZVI migrated up above the target treatment depth. Significant reductions in TCE groundwater concentrations (57 to 100%) were observed at all depths targeted with EZVI. Groundwater samples from the treatment area also showed significant increases in the concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene. The decrease in concentrations of TCE in soil and groundwater samples following treatment with EZVI is believed to be due to abiotic degradation associated with the ZVI as well as biodegradation enhanced by the presence of the oil and surfactant in the EZVI emulsion. PMID:15787371

Quinn, Jacqueline; Geiger, Cherie; Clausen, Chris; Brooks, Kathleen; Coon, Christina; O'Hara, Suzanne; Krug, Thomas; Major, David; Yoon, Woong-Sang; Gavaskar, Arun; Holdsworth, Thomas

2005-03-01

10

Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by zero valent iron and modified zero valent irons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disappearance of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aqueous solutions in contact with zero valent metals (ZVMs) may be due to dechlorination reactions or sorption to ZVM-related surfaces. Previously reported results on PCP and zero valent iron measured only PCP loss from aqueous solutions and attributed this loss to reaction. In this study, the total amount of unreacted PCP, both that in

Young-Hun Kim; Elizabeth R. Carraway

2000-01-01

11

Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by zero valent iron and modified zero valent irons  

SciTech Connect

The disappearance of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aqueous solutions in contact with zero valent metals (ZVMs) may be due to dechlorination reactions or sorption to ZVM-related surfaces. Previously reported results on PCP and zero valent iron measured only PCP loss from aqueous solutions and attributed this loss to reaction. In this study, the total amount of unreacted PCP, both that in aqueous solution and that sorbed to ZVM-related surfaces, was measured using a modified extraction method. PCP dechlorination was confirmed by following the appearance of tetrachlorophenol isomers. The results indicate that the rate of dechlorination is much slower than previously reported. In their experiments, electrolytic zero valent iron with a surface area of 0.12 m{sup 2}/g resulted in an observed first-order rate constant of 3.9 x 10{sup {minus}3} h{sup {minus}1} or a half-life of approximately 7.4 days. Normalized to surface area, the rate constant (k{sub SA}) is 3.2 x 10{sup {minus}4} L m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}. Four amended irons prepared by coating iron with palladium (Pd/Fe), platinum (Pt/Fe), nickel (Ni/Fe), and copper (Cu/Fe) were also used and showed slower removal rates as compared to unamended iron. Slower reaction rates obtained with amended irons as compared to iron have not been previously reported. Overall, this study conclusively demonstrates PCP dechlorination by iron and several bimetallic ZVMs and indicates that it is essential to separate reaction and sorption processes.

Kim, Y.H.; Carraway, E.R.

2000-05-15

12

Microbiological Characteristics in a Zero-Valent Iron Reactive Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zero-valent iron (Fe0)-based permeable reactive barriertreatment has been generating great interest for passivegroundwater remediation, yet few studies have paid particularattention to the microbial activity and characteristics withinand in the vicinity of the Fe0-barrier matrix. The presentstudy was undertaken to evaluate the microbial population andcommunity composition in the reducing zone of influence byFe0 corrosion in the barrier at the Oak Ridge

Baohua Gu; David B. Watson; Liyou Wu; Debra Helen Phillips; David C. White; Jizhong Zhou

2002-01-01

13

Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets  

E-print Network

Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets Chromate transport through columns packed with zeolite/zero valent iron (Z/ZVI) pellets, either untreated of immobile water was responsible for the earlier breakthrough of chromate in columns packed with zeolite

Li, Zhaohui

14

Kinetics of RDX degradation by zero-valent iron (ZVI).  

PubMed

Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a common groundwater contaminant at military facilities. The current research has been conducted to evaluate the use of zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the remediation of water contaminated with RDX. RDX was found to degrade rapidly in the presence of ZVI. The observed first-order kinetic constant for RDX reduction follows an enzymatic-like kinetic model with respect to the ZVI concentration. At low ZVI concentrations, RDX reduction follows pseudo first order kinetics with respect to ZVI concentration; while at high ZVI concentrations the RDX reduction is zero-order. Nitroso compounds (MNX, DNX, and TNX), nitrate, nitrite and nitrous oxide were identified as the main by-products for the RDX reduction by ZVI. The nitroso compounds were found to undergo reduction by ZVI. PMID:16386362

Wanaratna, Pischa; Christodoulatos, Christos; Sidhoum, Mohammed

2006-08-10

15

Kinetics of zero valent iron nanoparticle oxidation in oxygenated water.  

PubMed

Zero valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles are versatile in their ability to remove a wide variety of water contaminants, and ZVI-based bimetallic nanoparticles show increased reactivity above that of ZVI alone. ZVI nanoparticles degrade contaminants through the reactive species (e.g., OH*, H(2(g)), H(2)O(2)) that are produced during iron oxidation. Measurement and modeling of aqueous ZVI nanoparticle oxidation kinetics are therefore necessary to optimize nanoparticle design. Stabilized ZVI and iron-nickel nanoparticles of approximately 150 nm in diameter were synthesized through solution chemistry, and nanoparticle oxidation kinetics were determined via measured mass change using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Under flowing aerated water, ZVI nanoparticles had an initial exponential growth behavior indicating surface-dominated oxidation controlled by migration of species (H(2)O and O(2)) to the surface. A region of logarithmic growth followed the exponential growth which, based on the Mott-Cabrera model of thin oxide film growth, suggests a reaction dominated by movement of species (e.g., iron cations and oxygen anions) through the oxide layer. The presence of ethanol or a nickel shell on the ZVI nanoparticles delayed the onset of iron oxidation and reduced the extent of oxidation. In oxygenated water, ZVI nanoparticles oxidized primarily to the iron oxide-hydroxide lepidocrocite. PMID:23130994

Greenlee, Lauren F; Torrey, Jessica D; Amaro, Robert L; Shaw, Justin M

2012-12-01

16

Electrophoresis enhanced transport of nano-scale zero valent iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrokinetics (EK) has been used extensively to remove heavy metals from low permeability porous media. Electrokinetics (EK) or more specifically electrophoresis (EP) has also been proposed to enhance transport of nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI) in fine grained porous media in the subsurface. However, increased dissolved oxygen and lower pH, due to electrolysis of water at the anode oxidizes NZVI particles and thus affects the remediation potential of EP with NZVI. This study focuses on minimization of NZVI oxidation and quantification of NZVI migration enhancement through the application of EP. Application of 50 and 100 mA currents under constant current conditions with an oxygen scavenger enhanced NZVI transport from the cathode to the anode. The enhancement in transport compared to diffusion was proportional to the applied current. Predictions of a numerical model, based on traditional colloidal filtration theory (CFT), were consistent with experimental results. In developing the model, the traditional CFT based mass balance equation was modified for the case of no advection. This study suggests that EP has the potential to deliver NZVI in low permeability porous media and that the numerical simulator can be used to predict NZVI mobility with EP.

Chowdhury, Ahmed I. A.; O'Carroll, Denis M.; Xu, Yanqing; Sleep, Brent E.

2012-05-01

17

Electrokinetics Enhanced Delivery of Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-scale zero valent iron (NZVI) has shown promising results for remediation of a wide range of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Although rapid aggregation and subsequent sedimentation limit bare NZVI migration in subsurface systems, surface modifications have improved the colloidal stability of NZVI, enhancing NZVI migration through porous media in lab-scale experiments. However, delivery of NZVI through low permeability soil is still an unresolved challenge. Electrokinetics (EK) has been used extensively in low permeability porous media for the remediation of a variety of hazardous wastes and in particular heavy metals. Since NZVI has a net negative surface charge electrokinetics has been proposed to enhance NZVI transport in the subsurface. However, increased dissolved oxygen and lower pH, due to electrolysis of water at the anode, oxidizes Fe0 particles to Fe2+/Fe3+ and thus affects the remediation potential. This study focuses on minimization of NZVI oxidation and quantification of NZVI migration enhancement due to the EK application. Application of 50 and 100 mA currents delivered 6.0 and 4.8 times more NZVI through coarse sand, respectively, when compared to no EK application. This ratio increased to 21 and 31 at 50 and 100 mA currents when finer sand was used. In addition, a numerical model based on traditional colloidal filtration theory (CFT) fit the experimental results well.

Chowdhury, A. I.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Xu, Y.; Sleep, B. E.

2010-12-01

18

Antimicrobial and Genotoxicity Effects of Zero-valent Iron Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background: In a world of nanotechnology, the first concern is the potential environmental impact of nanoparticles. An efficient way to estimate nanotoxicity is to monitor the responses of bacteria exposed to these particles. Objectives: The current study explored the antimicrobial properties of nZVI (zero-valent Iron nanoparticles) on the Gram-negative bacterial systems Erwinia amylovora, Xanthomonas oryzae and the Gram-positive bacterial systems Bacillus cereus and Streptomyces spp. The genotoxicity potential of nZVI was also assayed. Materials and Methods: The toxicity of nZVI was tested by two different methods: Growing bacteria in liquid (broth dilution) and agar media (challenge test) containing different nZVI concentrations for 24-72 hours. The genotoxicity of nZVI was assessed using the preincubation version of the Ames test. Results: The lowest concentrations of nZVI that inhibited the visible growth (MIC) of E. amylovora, X. oryzae, B. cereus and Streptomyces spp. were 625, 550, 1250 and 1280 ppm, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for E. amylovora and X. oryzae were 10,000 and 5,000 ppm of nZVI, respectively. MBC was not observed for the Gram positive bacteria. No bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects were observed for oxidized nZVI. Mutant frequency did not increase according to the vehicle control at the concentrations assayed, indicating a lack of mutagenicity associated with nZVI. Conclusions: nZVI nanoparticles are not mutagenic at low concentrations, therefore they can be used without detrimental effects on soil bacteria. PMID:25147712

Barzan, Elham; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Irian, Saeed

2014-01-01

19

Can zero-valent iron nanoparticles remove waterborne estrogens?  

PubMed

Steroidal estrogens are one of the most challenging classes of hazardous contaminants as they can cause adverse effects to biota in extremely low concentrations. They emerge in both waste waters and surface waters serving as a source of drinking water. Environmental Quality Standards for 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), promulgated within the EU Water Framework Directive, are 0.4 and 0.035 ng L(-1), respectively. Because nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles have been previously used in numerous remediation technologies and have the advantage of possible magnetic separation, interaction of nZVI with E2 and EE2 in water was investigated to assess the potential role of nZVI in removing steroidal estrogens. A mixture of E2 and EE2 dissolved in water was shaken with varying doses of nZVI for 1-5 h. Concentration-dependent removal of the estrogens was observed but removal did not increase significantly with time. Concentrations of the estrogens were determined by HPLC/MS/MS and a biodetection reporter gene assay. Sorption and nonspecific oxygen-mediated oxidation of estrogens were identified as the most probable removal mechanisms. Two independent experiments confirmed that significant decrease of estrogens concentration is achieved when at least 2 g L(-1) of nZVI is applied. The presented study provides insights into the mechanisms of nZVI interaction with steroidal estrogens under aerobic conditions prevailing in currently applied water treatment technologies. PMID:25567735

Jarošová, Barbora; Filip, Jan; Hilscherová, Klára; Tu?ek, Ji?í; Šimek, Zden?k; Giesy, John P; Zbo?il, Radek; Bláha, Lud?k

2015-03-01

20

EFFECTS OF PH ON DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY ZERO-VALENT IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The reduction rates of trichloroethylene (TCE) using zero-valent iron (ZVI) and the rates of iron hydrolysis were characterized at pH values of 5 to 10. The reduction of TCE by ZVI was carried out in batch reactors filled with pH-buffered (phosphate based) solutions under anaerob...

21

HIGH-LEVEL ARSENITE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER BY ZERO-VALENT IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this study were to conduct batch and column studies to (i) assess the effectiveness of zero-valent iron for arsenic remediation in groundwater, (ii) determine removal mechanisms of arsenic, and (iii) evaluate implications of these processes with regard to the st...

22

GROUND WATER REMEDIATION OF CHROMIUM USING ZERO-VALENT IRON IN A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of laboratory experiments were performed to elucidate the chromium transformation and precipitation reactions caused by the corrosion of zero-valent iron in water-based systems. Reaction rates were determined for chromate reduction in the presence of different types of ...

23

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT WATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examines the applicability and limitations of granular zero-valent iron for the treatment of water impacted by mine wastes. Rates of acid neutralization and of metal (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Hg, Al, and Mn) and metalloid (As) uptake were determined in batch systems using simu...

24

Inorganic Contaminant Fate Assessment in Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the fate assessment of several inorganic contaminants in zero-valent iron treatment walls used for the cleanup of acidic plumes and the prevention of groundwater contamination in active or abandoned mixed sulphide and coal mining sites. The fate assessment of contaminants provides useful information for potential forensics investigations carried out in affected mining and waste disposal sites. Laboratory

Kostas Komnitsas; Georgios Bartzas; Ioannis Paspaliaris

2006-01-01

25

Advanced treatment of coking wastewater by coagulation and zero-valent iron processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced treatment of coking wastewater was investigated experimentally with coagulation and zero-valent iron (ZVI) processes. Particular attention was paid to the effect of dosage and pH on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the two processes. The results showed that ZVI was more effective than coagulation for advanced treatment of coking wastewater. The jar tests revealed that maximal

Peng Lai; Hua-zhang Zhao; Chao Wang; Jin-ren Ni

2007-01-01

26

ZERO VALENT IRON AND PYRITE SYSTEM USED TO DE-CHLORINATE TOXAPHENE-CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The project consisted of a preliminary laboratory study; an outdoor bench scale study and an in situ field Pilot Study to which the zero valent iron and pyrite system (ZVI system) was applied. Several beakers were filled with contaminated soil, the ZVI system and a solvent then...

27

Chemical Reduction of PCE by Zero Valent Iron Colloids Batch and Column Experiments  

E-print Network

of degradation potential of nZVI particles in column tests: experimental simulation of plume vs. source/l · Significant increase of pH after Ca(OH)2 injection · nZVI-reinjection induced recovery of PCE-degradation of the art for plume treatment · Injectable nano-scaled zero valent iron particles (nZVI) have potential

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

28

Zero Valent Iron: Impact of Anions Present during Synthesis on Subsequent Nanoparticle Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Zero-valent iron particles are an effective remediation technology for groundwater contaminated with halogenated organic compounds. In particular, nano-scale zero-valent iron is a promising material for remediation due to its high specific surface area, which results in faster rate constants and more effective use of the iron. An aspect of iron nanoparticle reactivity that has not been explored is the impact of anions present during iron metal nanoparticle synthesis. Solutions containing chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and nitrate anions and ferric ions were used to generate iron oxide nanoparticles. The resulting materials were dialyzed to remove dissolved byproducts and then dried and reduced by hydrogen gas at high temperature. The reactivity of the resulting zero valent iron nanoparticles was quantified by monitoring the kinetics as well as products of carbon tetrachloride reduction, and significant differences in reactivity and chloroform yield were observed. The reactivity of nanoparticles prepared in the presence of sulfate and phosphate demonstrated the highest reactivity and chloroform yield. Furthermore, substantial variations in the solid-state products of oxidation (magnetite, iron sulfide, and goethite, among others) were also observed.

Moore, Kirsten; Forsberg, Brady; Baer, Donald R.; Arnold, William A.; Penn, R. Lee

2011-10-01

29

Zero-valent iron pretreatment for enhancing the biodegradability of RDX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (C3H6N3(NO2)3, royal demolition explosive or RDX) is a common nitramine explosive and one of the major constituents in wastewaters from ammunitions plants. The objective of this study is to investigate zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) pretreatment for enhancing the biodegradability of recalcitrant RDX. It was hypothesized that iron pretreatment can reductively transform RDX to products that are more amenable to biological

Seok-Young Oh; Pei C. Chiu; Byung J. Kim; Daniel K. Cha

2005-01-01

30

Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO3 and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO3 as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD

Yuxin Wu; Roelof Versteeg; Lee Slater; Douglas LaBrecque

2009-01-01

31

Reductive precipitation of uranium(VI) by zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of zero-valent iron (Fe°) and several adsorbent materials in removing uranium (U) from contaminated groundwater and to investigate the rates and mechanisms that are involved in the reactions. Fe° filings were used as reductants, and the adsorbents included peat materials, iron oxides, and a carbon-based sorbent (Cercona Bone-Char). Results indicate that Fe°

B. Gu; M. J. Dickey; X. Yin; S. Dai; L. Liang

1998-01-01

32

Electrochemically fabricated zero-valent iron, iron-nickel, and iron-palladium nanowires for environmental remediation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monodisperse crystalline zero-valent iron, iron-nickel, iron-palladium nanowires were synthesised using template-directed electrodeposition methods. Prior to nanowire fabrication, alumina nanotemplates with controlled pore structure (e.g. pore diameter and porosity) were fabricated by anodising high purity aluminium foil in sulphuric acid. After fabrication of alumina nanotemplates, iron, iron-nickel and iron- palladium nanowires were electrodeposited within the pore structure. The dimensions of nanowires

B.-Y. Yoo; S. C. Hernandez; B. Koo; Y. Rheem; N. V. Myung

2007-01-01

33

The use of zero-valent iron for groundwater remediation and wastewater treatment: a review.  

PubMed

Recent industrial and urban activities have led to elevated concentrations of a wide range of contaminants in groundwater and wastewater, which affect the health of millions of people worldwide. In recent years, the use of zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the treatment of toxic contaminants in groundwater and wastewater has received wide attention and encouraging treatment efficiencies have been documented. This paper gives an overview of the recent advances of ZVI and progress obtained during the groundwater remediation and wastewater treatment utilizing ZVI (including nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI)) for the removal of: (a) chlorinated organic compounds, (b) nitroaromatic compounds, (c) arsenic, (d) heavy metals, (e) nitrate, (f) dyes, and (g) phenol. Reaction mechanisms and removal efficiencies were studied and evaluated. It was found that ZVI materials with wide availability have appreciable removal efficiency for several types of contaminants. Concerning ZVI for future research, some suggestions are proposed and conclusions have been drawn. PMID:24457611

Fu, Fenglian; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Liu, Hong

2014-02-28

34

REDUCTION AND IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIONUCLIDES AND TOXIC METAL IONS USING COMBINED ZERO VALENT IRON AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Large groundwater plumes contaminated with toxic metal ions, including radionuclides, exist at several DOE facilities. Previous research indicated that both zero valent iron and sulfate reducing bacteria can yield significant decreases in concentrations of redox sensitive metals ...

35

EFFECTS OF PH ON DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY ZERO-VALENT IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The surface normalized reaction rate constants (ksa) of trichloroethylene (TCE) and zero-valent iron (ZVI) was quantified in batch reactors at pH values between 1.7 and 10. The ksa of TCE linearly decreased from 0.044 to 0.009 L/hr-m2 between pH 3.8 and 8.0, whereas the ksa at pH...

36

Effect of Zero-Valent Iron Application on Cadmium Uptake in Rice Plants Grown in Cadmium-Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) contamination in soils is a serious problem for crop production in the world. Zero-valent iron [Fe (0)] is a reactive material with reducing power capable of stabilizing toxic elements in a solution. In the present study, we examined the effect of zero-valent iron [Fe (0)] application on Cd accumulation in rice plants growing in Cd-contaminated paddy soils. The

Toshihiro Watanabe; Yasutoshi Murata; Takashi Nakamura; Yuki Sakai; Mitsuru Osaki

2009-01-01

37

Remediating RDX-contaminated water and soil using zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and water contaminated with RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) pose a serious threat to the environment and human health. The objective was to determine the potential for using zero-valent iron (Fe°) to remediate RDX-contaminated water and soil. Mixing an aqueous solution of 32 mg RDX L⁻¹ (spiked with ¹⁴C-labeled RDX) with 10 g Fe° L⁻¹ resulted in complete RDX destruction within 72

J. Singh; S. D. Comfort; P. J. Shea

1998-01-01

38

Methods of preparation and modification of advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles, their properties and application in water treatment technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zero-valent iron nanoparticles are commonly used in modern water treatment technologies. Compared to conventionally-used macroscopic iron or iron microparticles, the using of nanoparticles has the advantages given mainly by their generally large specific surface area (it drives their high reactivity and/or sorption capacity), small dimensions (it allows their migration e.g. in ground water), and particular physical and chemical properties. Following the applications of zero-valent iron particles in various pilot tests, there arose several critical suggestions for improvements of used nanomaterials and for development of new generation of reactive nanomaterials. In the presentation, the methods of zero-valent iron nanoparticles synthesis will be summarized with a special attention paid to the thermally-induced solid-state reaction allowing preparation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in an industrial scale. Moreover, the method of thermal reduction of iron-oxide precursors enables to finely tune the critical parameters (mainly particle size and morphology, specific surface area, surface chemistry of nanoparticles etc.) of resulting zero-valet iron nanoparticles. The most important trends of advanced nanoparticles development will be discussed: (i) surface modification of nanomaterilas, (ii) development of nanocomposites and (iii) development of materials for combined reductive-sorption technologies. Laboratory testing of zero-valent iron nanoparticles reactivity and migration will be presented and compared with the field observations: the advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles were used for groundwater treatment at the locality contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons (VC, DCE, TCE and PCE) and reacted nanoparticles were extracted from the sediments for their fate assessment. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic "Competence Centres" (project No. TE01020218) and the EU FP7 (project NANOREM).

Filip, Jan; Kašlík, Josef; Med?ík, Ivo; Petala, Eleni; Zbo?il, Radek; Slunský, Jan; ?erník, Miroslav; Stav?lová, Monika

2014-05-01

39

Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

2006-01-01

40

Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles

Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

2003-01-01

41

Reduction and Immobilization of Radionuclides and Toxic Metal Ions Using Combined Zero Valent Iron and Anaerobic Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The use of zero valent iron, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater remediation continues to increase. AN exciting variation of this technology involves introducing anaerobic bacteria into these barriers so that both biological and abiotic pollutant removal processes are functional. This work evaluated the hypothesis that a system combining a mixed culture of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) with zero valent iron would have a greater cr(VI) removal efficiency and a greater total Cr(VI) removal capacity than a zero valent iron system without the microorganisms. Hence, the overall goal of this research was to compare the performance of these types of systems with regard to their Cr(VI) removal efficiency and total Cr(VI) removal capacity. Both batch and continuous flow reactor systems were evaluated.

Lenly J. Weathers; Lynn E. Katz

2002-05-29

42

Sulfur-Modified Zero-Valent Iron for Remediation Applications at DOE Sites - 13600  

SciTech Connect

Many DOE remediation sites have chemicals of concern that are compounds in higher oxidation states, which make them both more mobile and more toxic. The chemical reduction of these compounds both prevents the migration of these chemicals and in some cases reduces the toxicity. It has also been shown that zero-valent iron is a very effective substance to use in reducing oxygenated compounds in various treatment processes. These have included the treatment of halogenated hydrocarbons in the form volatile organic compounds used as solvents and pesticides. Zero-valent iron has also been used to reduce various oxidized metals such as chromium, arsenic, and mercury in order to immobilize them, decrease their toxicity, and prevent further transport. In addition, it has been used to immobilize or break down other non-metallic species such as selenium compounds and nitrates. Of particular interest at several DOE remediation sites is the fact that zero-valent iron is very effective in immobilizing several radioactive metals which are mobile in their oxidized states. These include both technetium and uranium. The main difficulty in using zero-valent iron has been its tendency to become inactive after relatively short periods of time. While it is advantageous to have the zero-valent iron particles as porous as possible in order to provide maximum surface area for reactions to take place, these pores can become clogged when the iron is oxidized. This is due to the fact that ferric oxide has a greater volume for a given mass than metallic iron. When the surfaces of the iron particles oxidize to ferric oxide, the pores become narrower and will eventually shut. In order to minimize the degradation of the chemical activity of the iron due to this process, a modification of zero-valent iron has been developed which prevents or slows this process, which decreases its effectiveness. It is called sulfur-modified iron, and it has been produced in high purity for applications in municipal water treatment applications. Sulfur-modified iron has been found to not only be an extremely economical treatment technology for municipal water supplies, where very large quantities of water must be treated economically, but it has also been demonstrated to immobilize technetium. It has the added benefit of eliminating several other harmful chemicals in water supplies. These include arsenic and selenium. In one large-scale evaluation study an integrated system implemented chemical reduction of nitrate with sulfur-modified iron followed by filtration for arsenic removal. The sulfur-modified iron that was used was an iron-based granular medium that has been commercially developed for the removal of nitrate, co-contaminants including uranium, vanadium and chromium, and other compounds from water. The independent study concluded that 'It is foreseen that the greatest benefit of this technology (sulfur-modified iron) is that it does not produce a costly brine stream as do the currently accepted nitrate removal technologies of ion exchange and reverse osmosis. This investigation confirmed that nitrate reduction via sulfur-modified iron is independent of the hydraulic loading rate. Future sulfur-modified iron treatment systems can be designed without restriction of the reactor vessel dimensions. Future vessels can be adapted to existing site constraints without being limited to height-to-width ratios that would exist if nitrate reduction were to depend on hydraulic loading rate'. Sulfur-modified iron was studied by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for its effectiveness in the reduction and permanent sequestration of technetium. The testing was done using Hanford Site groundwater together with sediment. The report stated, 'Under reducing conditions, TcO{sub 4} is readily reduced to TcIV, which forms highly insoluble oxides such at TcO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O. However, (re)oxidation of TcIV oxides can lead to remobilization. Under sulfidogenic conditions, most TcIV will be reduced and immobilized as Tc{sub 2}S{sub 7}, which is less readily re-mobilized, ev

Fogwell, Thomas W. [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20221, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States)] [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20221, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States); Santina, Pete [SMI-PS, Inc., 2073 Prado Vista, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States)] [SMI-PS, Inc., 2073 Prado Vista, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States)

2013-07-01

43

Remediating RDX-contaminated water and soil using zero-valent iron  

SciTech Connect

Soil and water contaminated with RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) pose a serious threat to the environment and human health. The objective was to determine the potential for using zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) to remediate RDX-contaminated water and soil. Mixing an aqueous solution of 32 mg RDX L{sup {minus}1} (spiked with {sup 14}C-labeled RDX) with 10 g Fe{sup 0} L{sup {minus}1} resulted in complete RDX destruction within 72 h. Nitroso derivatives of RDX accounted for approximately 26% of the RDX transformed during the first 24 h; these intermediates disappeared within 96 h ad the remaining {sup 14}C products were water soluble and not strongly sorbed by iron surfaces. When RDX-contaminated soil was treated with a single amendment of Fe{sup 0} in a static soil microcosm, more than 60% of the initial {sup 14}C-RDX was recovered as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} after 112 d. Treating surface and subsurface soils containing 3,600 mg RDX kg{sup {minus}1} with 50 g Fe{sup 0} kg{sup {minus}1} at a constant soil water content resulted in a 52% reduction in extractable RDX following 12 mo of static incubation. A second Fe{sup 0} addition at 12 mo further reduced the initial extractable RDX by 71% after 15 mo. These results support the use of zero-valent iron for in situ remediation of RDX-contaminated soil.

Singh, J.; Comfort, S.D.; Shea, P.J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1998-09-01

44

LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS USING ZERO-VALENT IRON: GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Geochemical and microbiological factors that control long-term performance of subsurface permeable reactive barriers were evaluated at the Elizabeth City, NC and the Denver Federal Center, CO sites. These ground water treatment systems use zero-valent iron filings (Peerless Meta...

45

USE OF PRETREATMENT ZONES AND ZERO-VALENT IRON FOR THE REMEDIATION OF CHLOROALKENES IN AN OXIC AQUIFER  

EPA Science Inventory

Pre-treatment zones (PTZs) composed of sand, 10% zero-valent iron [Fe(0)]/sand, and 10% pyrite (FeS2)/sand were examined for their ability to prolong Fe(0) reactivity in aboveground column reactors and a subsurface permeable reactive barrier (PRB). The test site had an acidic, o...

46

Demonstration of combined zero-valent iron and electrical resistance heating for in situ trichloroethene remediation.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of in situ treatment using zero-valent iron (ZVI) for nonaqueous phase or significant sediment-associated contaminant mass can be limited by relatively low rates of mass transfer to bring contaminants in contact with the reactive media. For a field test in a trichloroethene (TCE) source area, combining moderate-temperature subsurface electrical resistance heating with in situ ZVI treatment was shown to accelerate TCE treatment by a factor of about 4 based on organic daughter products and a factor about 8 based on chloride concentrations. A mass-discharge-based analysis was used to evaluate reaction, dissolution, and volatilization processes at ambient groundwater temperature (~10 °C) and as temperature was increased up to about 50 °C. Increased reaction and contaminant dissolution were observed with increased temperature, but vapor- or aqueous-phase migration of TCE out of the treatment zone was minimal during the test because reactions maintained low aqueous-phase TCE concentrations. PMID:21591672

Truex, M J; Macbeth, T W; Vermeul, V R; Fritz, B G; Mendoza, D P; Mackley, R D; Wietsma, T W; Sandberg, G; Powell, T; Powers, J; Pitre, E; Michalsen, M; Ballock-Dixon, S J; Zhong, L; Oostrom, M

2011-06-15

47

Remediation of a nonachloro biphenyl congener with zero-valent iron in subcritical water.  

PubMed

Dechlorination of a nonachloro biphenyl congener with zero-valent iron in water under high temperature and pressure was investigated over time. Temperature has the main influence on the speed of dechlorination. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) according to the grade of chlorination was performed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection in single ion monitoring mode. Dechlorination results in a variety of lower chlorinated biphenyls. The level of chlorination decreases with time. The amount of PCB molecules decreases to one-third within 90 min at 250 degrees C and 100 atm. However, no increase of biphenyl could be detected over time. A first-order kinetic model fitted the data obtained. PMID:11256641

Hinz, D C; Wai, C M; Wenclawiak, B W

2000-02-01

48

Injection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using Shear-Thinning Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 190 kg of two micron-diameter zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles were injected into a test zone in the top two meters of an unconfined aquifer within a trichloroethene (TCE) source area. A shear-thinning fluid was used to enhance ZVI delivery in the subsurface to a radial distance of up to four meters from a single injection well. The ZVI particles were mixed in-line with the injection water, shear-thinning fluid, and a low concentration of surfactant. ZVI was observed at each of the seven monitoring wells within the targeted radius of influence during injection. Additionally, all wells within the targeted zone showed low TCE concentrations and primarily dechlorination products present 44 days after injection. These results suggest that ZVI can be directly injected into an aquifer with shear-thinning fluids and extends the applicability of ZVI to situations where other emplacement methods may not be viable.

Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Macbeth, Tamzen

2011-02-18

49

Removal of As from groundwater by in situ bioprecipitation and zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ bioprecipitation (ISBP) and zero-valent iron (ZVI) for removal of arsenic from groundwater. Batch experiments were set up to test the metal/oxyanion removal efficiency using the processes induced by ZVI, by ISBP and by combining both technologies. For the construction of microcosms in anaerobic condition, aquifer material was mixed with synthetic groundwater in serum bottles. Solutions that contained commercial iron (powder, filings), iron from foundry (chips) and lactate with the carbon concentration of 0.02% (w/v) were amended. After 57 days the pH increased to 7.9 in the microcosm with lactate + iron chips. In the microcosms amended with lactate + commercial iron (powder and filings), pH was between 6.9 and 7.5 The highest decrease in sulfate concentrations was observed in the microcosm supplied with lactate (from 1,976 to 630 mg/L), and with lactate + iron filings (from 1,985 to 1,280 mg/L). The results showed that ISBP and ZVI can be efficient in the removal of As from groundwater; however, it strongly depends on the type and particle size of ZVI. The most effective was commercial ZVI. The highest decrease in As concentration was observed in the microcosm supplied with ethanol and iron powder (from 4,832 to 131 ?g/L). PMID:24225108

Tkaczynska, A

2013-01-01

50

Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions  

SciTech Connect

Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO{sub 3} and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO{sub 3} as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO{sub 3} dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO{sub 3} forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, R.; Slater, L.; LaBrecque, D.

2009-06-01

51

Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions.  

PubMed

Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO(3) and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO(3) as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO(3) dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO(3) forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO(3) precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation. PMID:19342119

Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, Roelof; Slater, Lee; LaBrecque, Douglas

2009-05-12

52

Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO 3 and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO 3 as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO 3 dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO 3 forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO 3 precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, Roelof; Slater, Lee; LaBrecque, Douglas

2009-05-01

53

Mineral Precipitation Upgradient from a Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier  

SciTech Connect

Core samples taken from a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB) at Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant, Nebraska, were analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics. Precipitates containing iron and sulfide were present at much higher concentrations in native aquifer materials just upgradient of the PRB than in the PRB itself. Sulfur mass balance on core solids coupled with trends in ground water sulfate concentrations indicates that the average ground water flow after 20 months of PRB operation was approximately twenty fold less than the regional ground water velocity. Transport and reaction modeling of the aquifer PRB interface suggests that, at the calculated velocity, both iron and hydrogen could diffuse upgradient against ground water flow and thereby contribute to precipitation in the native aquifer materials. The initial hydraulic conductivity (K) of the native materials is less than that of the PRB and, given the observed precipitation in the upgradient native materials, it is likely that K reduction occurred upgradient to rather than within the PRB. Although not directly implicated, guar gum used during installation of the PRB is believed to have played a role in the precipitation and flow reduction processes by enhancing microbial activity.

Johnson, R. L.; Thoms, R. B.; Johnson, R. O.; Nurmi, J. T.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

2008-07-01

54

Mobility and Deposition of pre-Synthesis Stabilized Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron in Long Column Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive zero-valent iron is currently being used for remediation of contaminated groundwater. Permeable reactive barriers are the current state-of-the-art method for using zero-valent iron. Instead of an excavated trench filled with granular zero-valent iron, a relatively new and promising method is the injection of a nano -scale zero-valent iron colloid suspension (nZVI) into the subsurface using injection wells. One goal of nZVI injection can be to deposit the iron in the aquifer and form a reactive permeable zone which is no longer bound to limited depths and plume treatment, but can also be used for source zone remediation. A good understanding of the transport behavior of nZVI is necessary to design a field application. So far transport was mainly tested using commercially available nZVI, however these studies suggest that further work is required as commercial nZVI was prone to aggregation, resulting in low physical stability of the suspension and very short travel distances in the subsurface. In the presented work, nZVI is stabilized during synthesis to significantly increase the physical suspension stability. To improve our understanding of nZVI transport, the feasibility for injection into various types of porous media and controlled nZVI deposition, a suite of column experiments are conducted. The column experiments are performed using a long 1.5m column and a novel nZVI measuring technique. The measuring technique was developed to non-destructively determine the concentration of nano-scale iron during the injection. It records the magnetic susceptibility, which makes it possible to get transient nZVI retention profiles along the column. These transient nZVI retention profiles of long columns provide unique insights in the transport behavior of nZVI which cannot be obtained using short columns or effluent breakthrough curves.

de Boer, C. V.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Sleep, B. E.

2013-12-01

55

Bioinhibitory effect of hydrogenotrophic bacteria on nitrate reduction by nanoscale zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Hydrogenotrophic bacteria (HTB) were introduced into a nitrate removal system, which used nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) as reductant, to investigate its bioinhibitory effect. Based on the results, it was noted that addition of HTB culture (10-50 mL) led to 58.9-91.4% decrease in the first observed rate constant (kobs1), which represented the nitrate removal rate by nZVI, and a reduction in the generated poisonous by-products from 94.9% to 38.5%. In other words, HTB had a significant inhibitory effect on nitrate reduction by nZVI. However, the pathway of this bioinhibition only prevented the occurrence of chemical reduction, but not competition for nitrate. Furthermore, FeOOH coating was observed on the surface of nZVI, instead of Fe3O4 or Fe2O3, which could prevent electron transmission from nZVI to nitrate. Considering that FeOOH was the product of iron corrosion, the result indicated that HTB could inhibit chemical reduction by enhancing the reaction between nZVI and water. PMID:24331034

An, Yi; Dong, Qi; Zhang, Keqiang

2014-05-01

56

Enhanced paramagnetic Cu(2+) ions removal by coupling a weak magnetic field with zero valent iron.  

PubMed

A weak magnetic field (WMF) was proposed to enhance paramagnetic Cu(2+) ions removal by zero valent iron (ZVI). The rate constants of Cu(2+) removal by ZVI with WMF at pH 3.0-6.0 were -10.8 to -383.7 fold greater than those without WMF. XRD and XPS analyses revealed that applying a WMF enhanced both the Cu(2+) adsorption to the ZVI surface and the transformation of Cu(2+) to Cu(0) by ZVI. The enhanced Cu(2+) sequestration by ZVI with WMF was accompanied with expedited ZVI corrosion and solution ORP drop. The uneven distribution of paramagnetic Cu(2+) along an iron wire in an inhomogeneous MF verified that the magnetic field gradient force would accelerate the paramagnetic Cu(2+) transportation toward the ZVI surface due to the WMF-induced sharp decay of magnetic flux intensity from ZVI surface to bulk Cu(2+) solution. The paramagnetic Fe(2+) ions generated by ZVI corrosion would also accumulate at the position with the highest magnetic flux intensity on the ZVI surface, causing uneven distribution of Fe(2+), and facilitate the local galvanic corrosion of ZVI, and thus, Cu(2+) reduction by ZVI. The electrochemical analysis verified that the accelerated ZVI corrosion in the presence of WMF partly arose from the Lorentz force-enhanced mass transfer. PMID:25464332

Jiang, Xiao; Qiao, Junlian; Lo, Irene M C; Wang, Lei; Guan, Xiaohong; Lu, Zhanpeng; Zhou, Gongming; Xu, Chunhua

2015-02-11

57

Continuous phosphorus removal from water by physicochemical method using zero valent iron packed column.  

PubMed

Excessive phosphorus in aquatic systems causes algal bloom resulting in eutrophication. To treat wastewater including effluent of wastewater treatment plant containing various amounts of phosphorus, a series of continuous experiments on removal of phosphorus from water were performed by using an electrochemical method. The spherical type of zero valent iron (ZVI) and silica sand were packed at appropriate volume ratio of 1:2 in a cylindrical column. An electric potential was applied externally, which can be changed as per the operational requirement. The results indicate that optimum hydraulic retention time of 36 min was required to meet the effluent standards with our laboratory-scale experimental setup. Lower amounts of phosphorus were removed by precipitation due to contact with iron, and additional electric potential was not required. In order to remove high amounts of phosphorus (around 150 mg/L as phosphate), external electric potential of 600 V was applied to the reactor. As the precipitation of phosphate mainly occurs at neutral pH, it is likely that FeHPO4 will be the main phosphorus-containing compound. Through the results of the large-scale experiments, the ZVI packed reactor can be used as a filter for removal of phosphorus of less than 10 mg/L as phosphate concentration. PMID:25225938

Jeong, Joo-Young; Ahn, Byoung-Min; Kim, Yu-Jin; Park, Joo-Yang

2014-01-01

58

Toxicity of Nano-Zero Valent Iron to Freshwater and Marine Organisms  

PubMed Central

We tested whether three commercial forms (uncoated, organic coating, and iron oxide coating) of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) are toxic to freshwater and marine organisms, specifically three species of marine phytoplankton, one species of freshwater phytoplankton, and a freshwater zooplankton species (Daphnia magna), because these organisms may be exposed downstream of where nZVI is applied to remediate polluted soil. The aggregation and reactivity of the three types of nZVI varied considerably, which was reflected in their toxicity. Since levels of Fe2+ and Fe3+ increase as the nZVI react, we also evaluated their toxicity independently. All four phytoplankton species displayed decreasing population growth rates, and Daphnia magna showed increasing mortality, in response to increasing levels of nZVI, and to a lesser degree with increasing Fe2+ and Fe3+. All forms of nZVI aggregated in soil and water, especially in the presence of a high concentration of calcium ions in groundwater, thus reducing their transports through the environment. However, uncoated nZVI aggregated extremely rapidly, thus vastly reducing the probability of environmental transport and potential for toxicity. This information can be used to design a risk management strategy to arrest the transport of injected nZVI beyond the intended remediation area, by injecting inert calcium salts as a barrier to transport. PMID:22952836

Keller, Arturo A.; Garner, Kendra; Miller, Robert J.; Lenihan, Hunter S.

2012-01-01

59

Standardization of the reducing power of zero-valent iron using iodine.  

PubMed

Because iron-based materials that are used for the permeable reactive barrier systems come in various shapes, sizes, and with various surface properties depending on the manufacturing sources, their reductive powers vary in a wide spectrum. A new experimental procedure to evaluate the reductive power of iron material was developed in this study. Tri-iodide (I3(-)) was used as the representative oxidizing agent that reacts with zero-valent iron (ZVI). Three iron-based materials (two scraps, two powders) and four chlorinated chemicals [perchloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)] were used in this study. Redox reactions were conducted in glass vials containing aqueous solutions of chlorinated compounds or tri-iodide with known masses of iron material. After a predetermined reaction time each vial was opened and the solution was analyzed for the concentration of reduced compound. The apparent rate contant (k(i)(obs)) of iodine reduction reaction with ZVIs was found to be proportional to that (k(c)(obs)) of chlorinated contaminant. The surface area-normalized reduction rate constants (k(c)(nor)) for contaminants and tri-iodide (k(i)(nor)) were also proportional to each other. The ratio of rate constants, K(nor) (= k(c)(nor)/k(i)(nor)) was estimated for each contaminant; 3.29 × 10(-7), 5.86 × 10(-7), 6.70 × 10(-7), and 7.87 × 10(-10) M, for PCE, TCE, TCA, and PCP, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the reductive power of ZVI materials can be standardized using tri-iodide, and thus, can provide a good reference for the quantitative assessment of the reactivity of metallic reducing agents of environmental interest including ZVIs. PMID:24410682

Kim, Heonki; Yang, Haewon; Kim, Juyoung

2014-01-01

60

ARSENATE AND ARSENITE REMOVAL BY ZERO-VALENT IRON: EFFECTS OF PHOSPHATE, SILICATE, CARBONATE, BORATE, SULFATE, CHROMATE, MOLYBDATE, AND NITRATE, RELATIVE TO CHLORIDE: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-ADA-01667 Su, C., and Puls*, R.W. Arsenate and Arsenite Removal by Zero-Valent Iron: Effects of Phosphate, Silicate, Carbonate, Borate, Sulfate, Chromate, Molybdate, and Nitrate, Relative to C...

61

Enhancement of electrokinetic remediation of hyper-Cr(VI) contaminated clay by zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

This paper investigated the effectiveness of incorporating zero-valent iron (ZVI) into electrokinetic (EK) to remediate hyper-Cr(VI) contaminated clay (2497 mg/kg). A ZVI wall was installed in the center of the soil specimen and was filled with 1:1 (w/w) ratio of granular ZVI and sand. Results show that transport of H(+) is greatly retarded by the strong opposite migration of anionic chromate ions, whereupon a revered electroosmosis flow (EO) was resulted and alkaline zone across the specimen was developed promoting the release of Cr(VI) from the clay. Chromium removal was characterized by high Cr(VI) concentration occurred in the anolyte and the presence of Cr(III) precipitates in the catholyte. The Cr(VI) reduction efficiencies for the process without ZVI wall were 68.1 and 79.2% for 1 and 2V/cm, respectively. As ZVI wall was installed, the corresponding reduction efficiencies increased to 85.8 and 92.5%. The costs for energy and ZVI utilized in this process are US$ 41.0 and 57.5 per cubic meter for the system with electric gradient of 1 and 2V/cm, respectively. The role of ZVI wall effectively reducing Cr(VI) contamination and the operation simultaneous collection of Cr(VI) from the electrode reservoirs are two major advantages of this process. PMID:17485164

Weng, Chih-Huang; Lin, Yao-Tung; Lin, T Y; Kao, C M

2007-10-22

62

Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in the presence of zero-valent iron.  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to achieve the decomposition of carbon tetrachloride through anaerobic and aerobic bioremediation and chemical transformation have met with limited success because of the conditions required and the formation of hazardous intermediates. Recently, particles of zero-valent iron (ZVI) have been used with limited success for in situ remediation of carbon tetrachloride. We studied a modified microparticulate product that combines controlled-release carbon with ZVI for stimulation of in situ chemical reduction of persistent organic compounds in groundwater. With this product, a number of physical, chemical, and microbiological processes were combined to create very strongly reducing conditions that stimulate rapid, complete dechlorination of organic solvents. In principle, the organic component of ZVI microparticles is nutrient rich and hydrophilic and has high surface area capable of supporting the growth of bacteria in the groundwater environment. In our experiments, we found that as the bacteria grew, oxygen was consumed, and the redox potential decreased to values reaching -600 mV. The small modified ZVI particles provide substantial reactive surface area that, in these conditions, directly stimulates chemical dechlorination and cleanup of the contaminated area without accumulation of undesirable breakdown products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of ZVI microparticles in reducing carbon tetrachloride under laboratory and field conditions. Changes in concentrations and in chemical and physical parameters were monitored to determine the role of the organic products in the reductive dechlorination reaction. Laboratory and field studies are presented.

Alvarado, J. S.; Rose, C.; LaFreniere, L.; Environmental Science Division

2010-01-01

63

Zero-valent iron mediated degradation of ciprofloxacin - assessment of adsorption, operational parameters and degradation products.  

PubMed

The zero-valent iron (ZVI) mediated degradation of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) was studied under oxic condition. Operational parameters such as ZVI concentration and initial pH value were evaluated. Increase of the ZVI concentration from 1 to 5gL(-1) resulted in a sharp increase of the observed pseudo-first order rate constant of CIP degradation, reaching a plateau at around 10 g L(-1). The contribution of adsorption to the overall removal of CIP and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was evaluated after a procedure of acidification to pH 2.5 with sulfuric acid and sonication for 2 min. Adsorption increased as pH increased, while degradation decreased, showing that adsorption is not important for degradation. Contribution of adsorption was much more important for DOC removal than for CIP. Degradation of CIP resulted in partial defluorination since the fluoride measured corresponded to 34% of the theoretical value after 120 min of reaction. Analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed the presence of products of hydroxylation on both piperazine and quinolonic rings generating fluorinated and defluorinated compounds as well as a product of the piperazine ring cleavage. PMID:25150686

Perini, João Angelo de Lima; Silva, Bianca Ferreira; Nogueira, Raquel F Pupo

2014-12-01

64

-encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles for degradation of organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of nanocomposites consisting of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a successive two-step method, i.e., the wet chemical reduction by borohydride followed by a modified Stöber method. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The catalytic performance of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model dye in the presence of H2O2. The results showed that the degradation efficiency and apparent rate constant of the degradation reaction were significantly enhanced with increased ZVI NPs encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres, whereas the dosage of H2O2 remarkably promoted degradation rate without affecting degradation efficiency. The content-dependent magnetic property ensured the excellent magnetic separation of degradation products under an external magnet. This strategy for the synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI NPs nanocomposites was low cost and easy to scale-up for industrial production, thereby enabling promising applications in environmental remediation.

Mao, Zhou; Wu, Qingzhi; Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Long, Jia; Chen, Xiaohui

2014-09-01

65

Potential environmental implications of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles for environmental remediation  

PubMed Central

Objectives Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles are widely used in the field of various environmental contaminant remediation. Although the potential benefits of nZVI are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential risks after environmental exposure. In this respect, we review recent studies on the environmental applications and implications of nZVI, highlighting research gaps and suggesting future research directions. Methods Environmental application of nZVI is briefly summarized, focusing on its unique properties. Ecotoxicity of nZVI is reviewed according to type of organism, including bacteria, terrestrial organisms, and aquatic organisms. The environmental fate and transport of nZVI are also summarized with regards to exposure scenarios. Finally, the current limitations of risk determination are thoroughly provided. Results The ecotoxicity of nZVI depends on the composition, concentration, size and surface properties of the nanoparticles and the experimental method used, including the species investigated. In addition, the environmental fate and transport of nZVI appear to be complex and depend on the exposure duration and the exposure conditions. To date, field-scale data are limited and only short-term studies using simple exposure methods have been conducted. Conclusions In this regard, the primary focus of future study should be on 1) the development of an appropriate and valid testing method of the environmental fate and ecotoxicity of reactive nanoparticles used in environmental applications and 2) assessing their potential environmental risks using in situ field scale applications. PMID:25518840

Jang, Min-Hee; Lim, Myunghee; Hwang, Yu Sik

2014-01-01

66

Demonstration of Combined Zero-Valent Iron and Electrical Resistance Heating for In Situ Trichloroethene Remediation  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of in situ treatment using zero-valent iron to remediate sites with non-aqueous phase or significant sediment-associated contaminant mass can be limited by relatively low rates of mass transfer to bring contaminants in contact with the reactive media. For a field test in a trichloroethene source area, combining moderate-temperature (maximum 50oC) subsurface electrical resistance heating with in situ ZVI treatment was shown to accelerate dechlorination and dissolution rates by a factor of 4 to 6 based on organic daughter products and a factor 8-16 using a chloride concentrations. A mass-discharge-based analysis was used to evaluate reaction, dissolution, and volatilization at ambient groundwater temperature (~10oC) and as temperature was increased up to about 50oC. Increased reaction and contaminant dissolution were observed with increased temperature, but volatilization was minimal during the test because in situ reactions maintained low aqueous-phase TCE concentrations.

Truex, Michael J.; Macbeth, Tamzen; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Mackley, Rob D.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Sandberg, Greg; Powell, Thomas; Powers, Jeff; Pitre, Emile; Michalsen, Mandy M.; Ballock-Dixon, Sage; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus

2011-06-27

67

Reduction and immobilization of chromate in chromite ore processing residue with nanoscale zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) poses a great environmental and health risk with persistent Cr(VI) leaching. To reduce Cr(VI) and subsequently immobilize in the solid matrix, COPR was incubated with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and the Cr(VI) speciation and leachability were studied. Multiple complementary analysis methods including leaching tests, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to investigate the immobilization mechanism. Geochemical PHREEQC model calculation agreed well with our acid neutralizing capacity experimental results and confirmed that when pH was lowered from 11.7 to 7.0, leachate Cr(VI) concentrations were in the range 358-445mgL(-1) which contributed over 90% of dissolved Cr from COPR. Results of alkaline digestion, XANES, and XPS demonstrated that incubation COPR with nZVI under water content higher than 27% could result in a nearly complete Cr(VI) reduction in solids and less than 0.1mgL(-1) Cr(VI) in the TCLP leachate. The results indicated that remediation approaches using nZVI to reduce Cr(VI) in COPR should be successful with sufficient water content to facilitate electron transfer from nZVI to COPR. PMID:22417394

Du, Jingjing; Lu, Jinsuo; Wu, Qiong; Jing, Chuanyong

2012-05-15

68

Immobilization of chromate in hyperalkaline waste streams by green rusts and zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Zero-valent iron (ZVI) and green rusts can be used as reductants to convert chromium from soluble, highly toxic Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(III). This study compared the reduction rates of Cr(VI) by ZVI and two carbonate green rust phases in alkaline/hyperalkaline solutions. Batch experiments were carried out with synthetic chromate solutions at pH 7.7-12.3 and a chromite ore processing residue (COPR) leachate (pH approximately 12.2). Green rust removes chromate from high pH solutions (pH 10-12.5) very rapidly (<400 s). Chromate reduction rates for both green rust phases were consistently higher than for ZVI throughout the pH range studied; the surface area normalized rate constants were two orders of magnitude higher in the COPR leachate solution at pH 12.2. The performances of both green rusts were unaffected by changes in pH. In contrast, ZVI exhibited a marked decline in reduction rate with increasing pH to become almost ineffective above pH12. PMID:24600891

Rogers, Christine M; Burke, Ian T; Ahmed, Imad A M; Shaw, Samuel

2014-01-01

69

Enhanced chromium (VI) removal using activated carbon modified by zero valent iron and silver bimetallic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Recently, adsorption process has been introduced as a favorable and effective technique for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. In the present study, bimetallic nanoparticles consisting of zero valent iron and silver were loaded on the activated carbon powder for the preparation of a new adsorbent (PAC-Fe(o)/Ag). The above adsorbent was characterized by using XRD, SEM and TEM techniqes. Experimental data were exploited for kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic evaluations related to the adsorption processes. The Cr(VI) adsorption process was found to be favorable at pH 3 and it reached equilibrium state within 60 min. The stirring rate did not have a significant effect on the adsorption efficiency. Furthermore, the monolayer adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) based on the Langmuir model was measured to be 100 mg/g. The experimental equilibrium data were fitted to the Freundlich adsorption and pseudo second-order models. According to the thermodynamic study, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature, indicating the adsorption capacity increases with increasing the temperature. The results also revealed that the synthesized composite can be potentially applied as a magnetic adsorbent to remove Cr(VI) contaminants from aqueous solutions. PMID:25184050

Kakavandi, Babak; Kalantary, Roshanak Rezaei; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Esrafili, Ali; Azari, Ali; Yari, Ahmad Reza; Javid, Allah Bakhsh

2014-01-01

70

Zero valent iron reduces toxicity and concentrations of organophosphate pesticides in contaminated groundwater.  

PubMed

The potential of zero valent iron (ZVI) for remediation of contaminated groundwater from an abandoned chemical disposal site was examined through batch and column experiments. The key contaminants were organophosphate pesticides but the chemical analysis also comprised additional 22 compounds including synthesis intermediates and degradation products of organophosphates. The ZVI treatment showed that all the contaminants were degraded with the exception of two diesters (phosphorothioates). The most rapid reduction was found for methyl parathion, ethyl parathion and malathion, which had first-order degradation rate constants on the order of 10(-3) min(-1). In the study, acute toxicity towards freshwater crustaceans (Daphnia magna) was included to evaluate the overall efficiency of ZVI treatment of the complex mixture. The acute toxicity tests with D. magna showed that the untreated groundwater was highly toxic. Thus, 50% of the daphnids were unable to swim upon 24h exposure to groundwater diluted 770 times. ZVI facilitated degradation resulted in a complete toxicity removal for the first four pore volumes, where after a three times dilution caused 50% inhibition of the mobility of the daphnids. The rapid degradation of the highly toxic organophosphates combined with the significant decrease in the ecotoxicological potential shows a promising potential for site remediation of organophosphates with ZVI technologies. PMID:23021613

Fjordbøge, Annika S; Baun, Anders; Vastrup, Troels; Kjeldsen, Peter

2013-01-01

71

Weak magnetic field significantly enhances selenite removal kinetics by zero valent iron.  

PubMed

The effect of weak magnetic field (WMF) on Se(IV) removal by zero valent iron (ZVI) was investigated as functions of pH and initial Se(IV) concentrations. The presence of WMF significantly accelerated Se(IV) removal and extended the working pH range of ZVI from 4.0-6.0 to 4.0-7.2. The WMF induced greater enhancement in Se(IV) removal by ZVI at lower initial Se(IV) concentrations. The influence of WMF on Se(IV) removal by ZVI was associated with a more dramatic drop in ORP and a more rapid release of Fe(2+) compared to the case without WMF. SEM and XRD analysis revealed that WMF accelerated the corrosion of ZVI and the transformation of amorphous iron (hdyr)oxides to lepidocrocite. XANES analyses showed that WMF expedited the reduction of Se(IV) to Se(0) by ZVI at pH 6.0 when its initial concentration was ?20.0 mg L(-1). Se(IV) dosed at 40.0 mg L(-1) was removed by ZVI via adsorption followed by reduction to Se(0) at pH 7.0 but via adsorption at 7.2 in the presence of WMF. Regardless of WMF, Se(IV) applied at 40.0 mg L(-1) was removed by reduction at pH 4.0-6.0. The WMF-induced improvement in Se(IV) removal by ZVI may be mainly attributable to the Lorentz force and magnetic field gradient force. Employing WMF to enhance Se(IV) removal by ZVI is a promising and environmental-friendly method since it does not need extra energy and costly reagents. PMID:24199999

Liang, Liping; Sun, Wu; Guan, Xiaohong; Huang, Yuying; Choi, Wonyong; Bao, Hongliang; Li, Lina; Jiang, Zheng

2014-02-01

72

Influence of zero-valent iron nanoparticles on nitrate removal by Paracoccus sp.  

PubMed

Nitrate contamination in drinking water is a major threat to public health. This study investigated the efficiency of denitrification of aqueous solutions in the co-presence of synthesized nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI; diameter: 20-80 nm) and a previously isolated Paracoccus sp. strain YF1. Various influencing factors were studied, such as oxygen, pH, temperature, and anaerobic corrosion products (Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Fe3O4). With slight toxicity to the strain, nZVI promoted denitrification efficiency by providing additional electron sources under aerobic conditions. For example, 50 mg L(-1) nZVI increased the nitrate removal efficiency from 66.9% to 85.2%. However, a high concentration of nZVI could lead to increased production of Fe(2+), a toxic ion which could compromise the removal efficiency. Kinetic studies suggest that denitrification by both free cells, and nZVI-amended cells fitted well to the zero-order model. Temperature and pH are the major factors affecting nitrate removal and cell growth, with or without the presence of nZVI. In this study, nitrate removal and cell growth increased in the pH range of 6.5-8.0, and temperature range of 25-35 °C. These conditions favor the growth of the strain, which dominated denitrification in all scenarios involved. As for anaerobic corrosion products, compared with Fe(2+) and Fe(3+), Fe3O4 promoted denitrification by serving as an electron donor. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed attachments of nZVI on the surface of the cell, and the formation of iron oxides. This study indicated that, as an electron donor source with minimal cellular toxicity, nZVI could be used to promote denitrification efficiency under biotic conditions. PMID:24630453

Liu, Yan; Li, Shibin; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

2014-08-01

73

Zero-valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer Additions  

SciTech Connect

At the Hanford Site in Washington, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments to enhance the barrier’s reductive capacity using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments. The flow cell experiments indicated that iron concentration enhancements of at least 0.6% (w/w) could be obtained using moderate flow rates and injection of 30 pore volumes. The aqueous pressure increased by a maximum of 25 KPa during infiltration, but a decrease in permeability was not observed. Under optimal conditions, the 0.6% amended Fe0 concentration would provide approximately 20 times the average reductive capacity that is provided by the dithionite-reduced Fe (II) in the ISRM barrier.

Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

2007-02-15

74

Foam-assisted delivery of nanoscale zero valent iron in porous media  

SciTech Connect

Foam is potentially a promising vehicle to deliver nanoparticles for vadose zone remediation as foam can overcome the intrinsic problems associated with solution-based delivery, such as preferential flow and contaminant mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of using foam to deliver nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) in unsaturated porous media was investigated. Foams generated using surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) showed excellent ability to carry nZVI. SLES and nZVI concentrations in the foaming solutions did not affect the percentages of nZVI concentrations in foams relative to nZVI concentrations in the solutions. When foams carrying nZVI were injected through the unsaturated columns, the fractions of nZVI exiting the column were much higher than those when nZVI was injected in liquid. The enhanced nZVI transport implies that foam delivery could significantly increase the radius of influence of injected nZVI. The type and concentrations of surfactants and the influent nZVI concentrations did not noticeably affect nZVI transport during foam delivery. In contrast, nZVI retention increased considerably as the grain size of porous media decreased. Oxidation of foam-delivered nZVI due to oxygen diffusion into unsaturated porous media was visually examined using a flow cell. It was demonstrated that if foams are injected to cover a deep vadose zone layer, oxidation would only cause a small fraction of foam-delivered nZVI to be oxidized before it reacts with contaminants.

Ding, Yuanzhao; Liu, Bo; Shen, Xin; Zhong, Lirong; Li, Xiqing

2013-09-01

75

Degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether by nano zero-valent iron immobilized in mesoporous silica microspheres.  

PubMed

The agglomeration of nanoparticles reduces the surface area and reactivity of nano zero-valent iron (NZVI). In this paper, highly dispersive and reactive NZVI immobilized in mesoporous silica microspheres covered with FeOOH was synthesized to form reactive mesoporous silica microspheres (SiO(2)@FeOOH@Fe). The characteristics of SiO(2)@FeOOH@Fe were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy simultaneous thermal analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Brunnaer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. The mean particle size of the reactive mesoporous silica microspheres was 450 nm, and its specific surface area was 383.477 m(2) g(-1). The degradation of dcabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) was followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the observed reaction rate constant could be improved by increasing the SiO(2)@FeOOH@Fe dosage and by decreasing the initial BDE209 concentration. The stability and longevity of the immobilized Fe nanoparticles were evaluated by repeatedly renewing the BDE209 solution in the reactor. The stable degradation of BDE209 by SiO(2)@FeOOH@Fe was observed within 10 cycles. Agglomeration-resistance and magnetic separation of SiO(2)@FeOOH@Fe were also performed. The improved dispersion of SiO(2)@FeOOH@Fe in solution after one-month storage and its good performance in magnetic separation indicated that SiO(2)@FeOOH@Fe has the potential to be efficiently applied to environmental remediation. PMID:21802203

Qiu, Xinhong; Fang, Zhanqiang; Liang, Bin; Gu, Fenglong; Xu, Zhencheng

2011-10-15

76

Straining of polyelectrolyte-stabilized nanoscale zero valent iron particles during transport through granular porous media.  

PubMed

In this study, the relevance of straining of nano-sized particles of zero valent iron coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-NZVI) during transport in model subsurface porous media is assessed. Although deposition of polyelectrolyte stabilized-NZVI on granular subsurface media due to physicochemical attachment processes has been reported previously, there is limited knowledge on the significance of the collector (sand) diameter on the deposition and spatial distribution of the retention of such nanoparticles. Experiments were conducted to assess the transport of CMC-NZVI in columns packed with four different-sized sands of mean diameter of 775 ?m, 510 ?m, 250 ?m and 150 ?m and at three different particle concentrations of 0.085 g L(-1), 0.35 g L(-1) and 1.70 g L(-1). CMC-NZVI effluent concentrations decreased with smaller sand diameters. High CMC-NZVI particle retention near the inlet, particularly for the finer sands was observed, even with a low ionic strength of 0.1 mM for the electrolyte medium. These observations are consistent with particle retention in porous media due to straining and/or wedging. Two colloid transport models, one considering particle retention by physicochemical deposition and detachment of those deposited particles, and the other considering particle retention by straining along with particle deposition and detachment, were fitted to the experimental data. The model accounting for straining shows a better fit, especially to the CMC-NZVI retention data along the length of the column. The straining rate coefficients decreased with larger sand diameters. This study demonstrates that CMC-NZVI particles, despite of their small size (hydrodynamic diameters of 167-185 nm and transmission electron microscopy imaged diameters of approximately 85 nm), may be removed by straining during transport, especially through fine granular subsurface media. The tailing effect, observed in the particle breakthrough curves, is attributed to detachment of deposited particles. PMID:24361705

Raychoudhury, Trishikhi; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Ghoshal, Subhasis

2014-03-01

77

Chlorine and carbon isotope measurements can help assessing the effectivenes of a zero valent iron barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH's) such as trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinylchloride (VC) are extensively used in industrial applications. One of the most promising remediation techniques for CAH's in groundwater is their removal via abiotic reductive dechlorination using Zero Valent Iron (ZVI). This is applied for the treatment of contaminated sites by installing permeable reactive barriers (PRB). In this study, isotope fractionation of chlorinated ethylenes in transformation by cast iron has been investigated, because such types of iron are commonly used in PRBs. Batch experiments have been carried out in closed flasks, containing cast iron with aqueous solutions of TCE, cDCE and VC. These substrates and their respective products have been monitored by headspace samplings for their concentration (by GC-FID) and isotope fractionation of carbon and chlorine (by GC-IRMS). A decreasing reactivity trend was observed when compounds contain less chlorine atoms, with differences in rate constants of about one order of magnitude between each of the substances TCE > cDCE > VC. This resulted in the accumulation of products with fewer chlorine atoms. Therefore a similar observation can be expected if degradation in the field is incomplete, for example in the case of aged or improperly designed PRB. Pronounced carbon and chlorine isotope fractionation was measured for each of the compounds, and characteristic dual isotope plots (C, Cl) were obtained for TCE and cDCE. These results may serve as an important reference for the interpretation of isotope data from field sites, since stable isotope fractionation is widely recognized as robust indicator for such pollutant transformations. However, carbon isotope fractionation in a given parent compound may be caused by either abiotic or biotic degradation. In the field, it can therefore be difficult to delineate the contribution of abiotic transformation by PRB in the presence of ongoing biodegradation. This study investigates two different approaches to resolve these concurring modes of transformation: (i) evidence from dual (C, Cl) isotope plots; (ii) evidence from carbon isotope values of degradation products (e.g., cDCE and ethene from TCE, respectively). The comparison of dual isotope patterns for TCE degradation with cast iron and with Geobacter lovleyi exhibited similar slopes for these two types of reaction. This indicates that dual isotope plots may not be able to distinguish biotic and abiotic pathways in this case. However, the information from carbon isotope values in this study confirms earlier results (Elsner et al.), which suggest that isotope values from reaction products can be a expedient way of delineating the occurrence of abiotic trans¬formation, even in the presence of ongoing biodegradation.

Cretnik, S.; Audi, C.; Bernstein, A.; Palau, J.; Soler, A.; Elsner, M.

2012-04-01

78

Mechanisms of NOx removal from flue gas by zero valent iron  

SciTech Connect

Chemical reaction between nitric oxide (NO) and zero valent iron (ZVI) was studied in a packed-bed column process with high temperatures based on ZVI strong reducing abilities. For six controlled temperatures of 523- 773 K and 400 ppm of NO (typical flue gas temperature and concentration), under short empty bed contact time, NO was completely removed for temperature of 573-773 K but not for 523 K. Breakthrough curves were conducted for the five working temperatures, and the results indicated that NO reductions by ZVI were varied from 2 to 26.7 mg NO/g ZVI. Higher temperature and longer EBCT achieved better NO removal efficiency. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) were conducted to analyze the crystal structure and oxidation state of the reacted ZVI. Three layers of iron species were detected by XRD: ZVI, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. ZVI was the most prevalent species, and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were less from the XRD analysis. By ESCA, the oxidation state on the reacted ZVI surface was determined, and the species was identified as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which is the most oxidizing species for iron. Therefore, three layers from the ZVI core to the ZVI surface can be identified: ZVI, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Combining the results from XRD and ESCA, the mechanisms for ZVI and NO can be proposed as two consecutive reactions from lower oxidation state (ZVI) in the core to higher oxidation state on the iron surface (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Because there was only {lt}5% ZVI used to remove NO comparing to theoretical ZVI used based on the proposed stoichiometry, it can be concluded that the heterogeneous reaction only occurred on the ZVI surface instead of on bulk of the ZVI. 11 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Shiao-Shing Chen; Chih-Yu Cheng; Jung-Chun Chang; Chih-Hui Tang [National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (Taiwan). Institute of Environment Planning and Management

2006-06-15

79

Degradation of Perchloroethene by zero-valent iron evaluated by carbon isotope fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perchloroethene (PCE) is a widely spread groundwater contaminant in formally used industrial sites. Zero valent iron (ZVI) is used for in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) of PCE contaminants in the groundwater. A key factor in the application of in situ remediation technologies is a proper monitoring of contaminant reduction. The measurement of the stable isotope ratio is a promising method that is already used for quantifying microbial degradation of chlorinated contaminants. The carbon isotope ratio of PCE, measured by - isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled to a gas chromatograph via a combustion interface (GC-C-IRMS), increases during degradation of PCE and can be directly related to the degree of degradation. It can be used to directly quantify chemical degradation and thus serves as a useful monitoring tool for groundwater remediation. An experiment to determine the carbon isotopic fractionation factor was performed as a lab experiment using Nanofer Star (NANOIRON). Two different PCE concentrations (c1: 220mgL-1, c2: 110mgL-1) mixed with 0.5 g of ZVI were sealed under deoxygenated conditions in 250 ml glas bottles locked with mininert caps. The bottles were incubated on a shaker for 865 h. Samples were taken weekly to measure the change in the carbon isotopic ratio of PCE as well as its concentration. Results showed a strong increase in the carbon isotope ratio (?-value) of PCE (start: -27 o end: -4 ), which indicates a significant dechlorination process of PCE. Beside PCE also one degradation product (Trichloroethylene - TCE) was measured. TCE was further dechlorinated as indicated by the ?-value change of TCE from -26 o to -4 oȦn unexpected intermediate value of -45 o for TCE was observed in the experiment. This fluctuation could be induced by the time depending concentration due to degradation and conversation processes. Furthermore, it seems that the progress of the ?-value is affected by the starting concentration of PCE (?-value of c1 < c2) as there is a higher ratio of PCE to ZVI.

Leitner, Simon; Watzinger, Andrea; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

2014-05-01

80

Effectiveness of nanoscale zero-valent iron for treatment of a PCE-DNAPL source zone.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has received considerable attention as a potential in situ remediation technology for treating chlorinated solvent source zones. Experimental and mathematical modeling studies were conducted to investigate the performance of nZVI in the transformation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) entrapped as a dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). Injection of a 60 g/L suspension of nZVI into a column containing 20-30 mesh Ottawa sand and PCE-DNAPL at a residual saturation of 5.5% resulted in a uniform distribution of nZVI and minimal displacement of PCE. Subsequent flushing with 267 pore volumes of water containing 3mM CaCl(2) at a Darcy velocity of 0.75 m/day resulted in steady-state effluent concentrations of PCE near the solubility limit (ca. 200mg/L) and production of dissolved-phase ethene (10-30 mg/L). Over the duration of the experiment, approximately 30% of the initial PCE-DNAPL mass reacted to form ethene, 50% was eluted as dissolved-phase PCE, and 20% remained in the column as PCE-DNAPL. To further explore the implications of the nZVI column results, a multiphase transport model was developed that incorporated rate-limited PCE-DNAPL dissolution and reactions with nZVI. Using a fitted pseudo first-order transformation rate coefficient of 1.421/h, the model accurately captured observed trends in effluent concentrations of PCE and ethene and overall mass balance. A model sensitivity study reveals a strong dependence of treatment effectiveness on system characteristics. The sensitivity analysis suggests that an increase in the extent of PCE transformation is facilitated by decreasing flow rate, emplacement of nZVI down-gradient of the DNAPL source zone, and decreasing length of the DNAPL source zone. These findings indicate that, although emplacement of high concentrations of nZVI within a PCE-DNAPL source zone can result in substantial transformation of the parent compound, careful attention to design parameters (e.g. flow rate, location and amount nZVI delivered) will be required to achieve complete conversion to benign reaction products. PMID:20888664

Taghavy, Amir; Costanza, Jed; Pennell, Kurt D; Abriola, Linda M

2010-11-25

81

Conjunctive effect of CMC-zero-valent iron nanoparticles and FYM in the remediation of chromium-contaminated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromium is an important industrial metal used in various products and processes but at the same time causing lethal environmental hazards. Remediation of Cr-contaminated soils poses both technological and economic challenges, as conventional methods are often too expensive and difficult to operate. Zero-valent iron particles at nanoscale are proposed to be one of the important reductants of Cr(VI), transforming the same into nontoxic Cr(III). In the present investigation, soils contaminated with Cr(VI) are allowed to react with the various loadings of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe0) for a reaction period of 24 h. Fe0 nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction of ferrous sulfate in the presence of sodium borohydride and stabilized with carboxy methyl cellulose and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform-infra red spectrophotometer, Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering technique and zeta potential. Further, this work demonstrates the potential utilization of farm yard manure (FYM) and Fe0 nanoparticles in combination and individually for the effective remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soils. An increase in the reduction of Cr(VI) from 60 to 80 % was recorded with the increase in the loading of Fe0 nanoparticles from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/100 g individually and in combination with FYM ranging from 50 to 100 mg/100 g soil.

Madhavi, Vemula; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Reddy, Balam Ravindra; Reddy, Ambavaram Vijay Bhaskar; Gajulapalle, Madhavi

2013-04-01

82

Removal of heavy metals and dyes by supported nano zero-valent iron on barium ferrite microfibers.  

PubMed

The binary nano zero-valent iron/barium ferrite (NZVI/BFO) microfibers with uniform diameters and high porosity were prepared by the organic gel-thermal selective reduction process. The composite microfibers are fabricated from nano zero-valent iron and nano BaFe12O19 grains. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time on the adsorption of heavy metals and dyes have been investigated. The adsorption isotherms of heavy metals and dyes on the microfibers are well described by the Langmuir model, in which the estimated adsorption capacities are 14.5, 29.9, 68.3 and 110.4 mg/g for Pb(II), As(V), Congo red and methylene blue, respectively. After five cycles, these microfibers still exhibit a high removal efficiency for As(V), Pb(II), Congo red and methylene blue. The enhanced adsorption characteristics can be attributed to the porous structure, strong surface activity and electronic hopping. Therefore, the magnetic NZVI/BFO microfibers can be used as an efficient, fast and high capacity adsorbent for heavy metals and dyes removal. PMID:24758012

Yang, Xinchun; Shen, Xiangqian; Jing, Maoxiang; Liu, Ruijiang; Lu, Yi; Xiang, Jun

2014-07-01

83

Degradation of azo dye direct sky blue 5B by sonication combined with zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

The degradation of azo dye direct sky blue 5B by sonication combined with zero-valent iron (US-Fe(0))was investigated and an evident synergistic effect was observed. The synergetic effect is mainly due to the increase of ()OH radical concentration from Fenton's reaction. The ()OH radical concentrations in sole sonication and US-Fe(0) process were detected by using terephthalic acid as a fluorescent probe and found that ()OH radicals were generated continuously during sonication and the production of ()OH radicals in US-Fe(0) process was much higher than that in sole sonication. The degradation of direct sky blue 5B followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics and the degradation rate constants were found to be 0.0206 and 0.169 min(-1) with sole sonication and US-Fe(0) process respectively. It was also found that the degradation ratio of direct sky blue 5B increased with the increase of zero-valent iron dosage and decrease of pH value of the dye aqueous solution. The degradation mechanism of direct sky blue 5B with US-Fe(0) process was discussed by the changes of UV-Vis spectrogram of the dye during degradation. The dramatic changes of UV spectra showed a disappearance of both azo and aromatic groups during the degradation. PMID:21514206

Chen, Bing; Wang, Xikui; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Wenqiang; Li, Shuping

2011-09-01

84

Conjunctive effect of CMC-zero-valent iron nanoparticles and FYM in the remediation of chromium-contaminated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromium is an important industrial metal used in various products and processes but at the same time causing lethal environmental hazards. Remediation of Cr-contaminated soils poses both technological and economic challenges, as conventional methods are often too expensive and difficult to operate. Zero-valent iron particles at nanoscale are proposed to be one of the important reductants of Cr(VI), transforming the same into nontoxic Cr(III). In the present investigation, soils contaminated with Cr(VI) are allowed to react with the various loadings of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe0) for a reaction period of 24 h. Fe0 nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction of ferrous sulfate in the presence of sodium borohydride and stabilized with carboxy methyl cellulose and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform-infra red spectrophotometer, Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering technique and zeta potential. Further, this work demonstrates the potential utilization of farm yard manure (FYM) and Fe0 nanoparticles in combination and individually for the effective remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soils. An increase in the reduction of Cr(VI) from 60 to 80 % was recorded with the increase in the loading of Fe0 nanoparticles from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/100 g individually and in combination with FYM ranging from 50 to 100 mg/100 g soil.

Madhavi, Vemula; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Reddy, Balam Ravindra; Reddy, Ambavaram Vijay Bhaskar; Gajulapalle, Madhavi

2014-04-01

85

EFFECTS OF NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER, ANTHROPOGENIC SURFACTANTS, AND MODEL QUINONES ON THE REDUCTION OF CONTAMINANTS BY ZERO-VALENT IRON. (R827117)  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies of contaminant reduction by zero-valent iron metal (Fe0) have highlighted the role of iron oxides at the metal–water interface and the effect that sorption has at the oxide–water interface on contaminant reduction kinetics. The results s...

86

Hydraulic and geochemical performance of a permeable reactive barrier containing zero-valent iron, Denver Federal Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydraulic and geochemical performance of a 366 m long permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at the Denver Federal Center; Denver, Colorado, was evaluated. The funnel and gate system, which was installed in 1996 to intercept and remediate ground water contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), contained four 12.2 m wide gates filled with zero-valent iron. Ground water mounding on the upgradient side of the PRB resulted in a tenfold increase in the hydraulic gradient and ground water velocity through the gates compared to areas of the aquifer unaffected by the PRB. Water balance calculations for April 1997 indicate that about 75% of the ground water moving toward the PRB from upgradient areas moved through the gates. The rest of the water either accumulated on the upgradient side of the PRB or bypassed the PRB. Chemical data from monitoring wells screened down-gradient, beneath, and at the ends of the PRB indicate that contaminants had not bypassed the PRB, except in a few isolated areas. Greater than 99% of the CAH mass entering the gates was retained by the iron. Fifty-one percent of the CAH carbon entering one gate was accounted for in dissolved C1 and C2 hydrocarbons, primarily ethane and ethene, which indicates that CAHs may adsorb to the iron prior to being dehalogenated. Treated water exiting the gates displaced contaminated ground water at a distance of at least 3 m downgradient from the PRB by the end of 1997. Measurements of dissolved inorganic ions in one gate indicate that calcite and siderite precipitation in the gate could reduce gate porosity by about 0.35% per year. Results from this study indicate that funnel and gate systems containing zero-valent iron can effectively treat ground water contaminated with CAHs. However, the hydrologic impacts of the PRB on the flow system need to be fully understood to prevent contaminants from bypassing the PRB.

McMahon, P.B.; Dennehy, K.F.; Sandstrom, M.W.

1999-01-01

87

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS USING ZERO-VALENT IRON: AN EVALUATION AT TWO SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Geochemical and microbiological factors that control long-term performance of subsurface permeable reactive barriers were evaluated at the Elizabeth City, NC and the Denver Federal Center, CO sites. These groundwater treatment systems use zero-valent iron filings to intercept an...

88

Treatment of dissolved perchlorate, nitrate, and sulfate using zero-valent iron and organic carbon.  

PubMed

Waters containing ClO and dissolved NO, derived from detonated explosives and solid propellants, often also contain elevated concentrations of other dissolved constituents, including SO. Four column experiments, containing mixtures of silica sand, zero-valent Fe (ZVI) and organic C (OC) were conducted to evaluate the potential for simultaneous removal of NO, SO and ClO. Initially, the flow rate was maintained at 0.5 pore volumes (PV) d and then decreased to 0.1 PV d after 100 PV of flow. Nitrate concentrations decreased from 10.8 mg L (NO-N) to trace levels through NO reduction to NH using ZVI alone and through denitrification using OC. Observations from the mixture of ZVI and OC suggest a combination of NO reduction and denitrification. Up to 71% of input SO (24.5 ± 3.5 mg L) was removed in the column containing OC, and >99.7% of the input ClO (857 ± 63 ?g L) was removed by the OC- and (ZVI + OC)-containing columns as the flow rate was maintained at 0.1 PV d. Nitrate and ClO removal followed first-order and zero-order rates, respectively. Nitrate >2 mg L (NO-N) inhibited ClO removal in the OC-containing column but not in the (ZVI + OC)-containing column. Sulfate did not inhibit ClO degradation within any of the columns. PMID:25602813

Liu, YingYing; Ptacek, Carol J; Blowes, David W

2014-05-01

89

Generation of Oxidants From the Reaction of Nanoparticulate Zero-Valent Iron and Oxygen for the use in Contaminant Remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of zero-valent iron (ZVI) with oxygen can lead to the formation of oxidants, which may be used to transform recalcitrant contaminants including non-polar organics and certain metals. Nanoparticulate iron might provide a practical mechanism of remediating oxygen-containing groundwater and contaminated soil. To gain insight into the reaction mechanism and to quantify the yield of oxidants, experiments were performed with model organic compounds in the presence of nanoparticulate zero-valent iron and oxygen. At pH values below 5, ZVI nanoparticles were oxidized within 30 minutes with a stoichiometry of approximately two Fe0 oxidized per O2 consumed. Using the oxidation of methanol and ethanol to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively, we found that less than 2% of the consumed oxygen was converted to reactive oxidants under acidic conditions. The yield of aldehydes increased with pH up to pH 7, with maximum oxidant yields of around 5% relative to the mass of ZVI added. The increase of aldehyde yield with pH was attributable to changes in the processes responsible for oxidant production. At pH values below 5, the corrosion of ZVI by oxygen produces hydrogen peroxide, which subsequently reacts with ferrous iron [Fe(II)] via the Fenton reaction. At higher pH values, the aldehydes are produced when Fe(II), the initial product of ZVI oxidation, reacts with oxygen. The decrease in oxidant yield at pH values above 7 may be attributable to precipitation of Fe(II). The oxidation of benzoic acid and 2-propanol to para-hydroxybenzoic acid and acetone, respectively, followed a very different trend compared to the primary alcohols. In both cases, the highest product yields (approximately 2% with respect to ZVI added) were observed at pH 3. Yields decreased with increasing pH, with no oxidized product detected at neutral pH. These results suggest that two different oxidants may be produced by the system: hydroxyl radical (OH-·) at acidic pH and a more selective oxidant such as the ferryl ion [Fe(IV)] at neutral pH. This provides insight into the type of compounds that may be oxidized using the zero-valent iron and oxygen system. The addition of certain compounds such as oxalate and polyoxometalate (POM) may improve contaminant remediation efficiencies by enhancing oxidant yields. The introduction of 1 mM oxalate improved the formaldehyde yield by approximately 20% at neutral pH. Oxalate accelerates the Fenton reaction and limits the passivation of the ZVI surface by increasing iron solubility. The presence of excess POM greatly enhanced the yield of formaldehyde, with maximum yields of 60 and 35% with respect to ZVI added at pH 2 and 7, respectively. The mechanism of POM enhancement is a function of solution pH. At acidic pH, POM acts an electron shuttle by directly transferring electrons from ZVI to oxygen to increase the hydrogen peroxide production. At neutral pH, POM may act by forming soluble iron-complexes and preventing the build-up of an iron oxide layer on the ZVI surface.

Keenan, C. R.; Lee, C.; Sedlak, D. L.

2007-12-01

90

Zero Valent Iron Significantly Enhances Methane Production from Waste Activated Sludge by Improving Biochemical Methane Potential Rather Than Hydrolysis Rate  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system. PMID:25652244

Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

2015-01-01

91

Zero valent iron significantly enhances methane production from waste activated sludge by improving biochemical methane potential rather than hydrolysis rate.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system. PMID:25652244

Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

2015-01-01

92

Comparisons of the reactivity, reusability and stability of four different zero-valent iron-based nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Our previous reports showed that nano zero-valent iron (nZVI), steel pickle liquor for the synthesis of nZVI (S-nZVI), nZVI immobilised in mesoporous silica microspheres (SiO2@FeOOH@Fe) and nano Ni/Fe bimetallic particles (Ni/Fe) have been proved to show good property for elimination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). However, it is necessary to compare their reactivity, reusability and stability when applied to in situ remediation. In this study, the performances of different iron-based nanoparticles were compared through reusability, sedimentation and iron dissolution experiments. The SiO2@FeOOH@Fe and Ni/Fe nanoparticles were shown to have higher reusability and stability, as they could be reused more than seven times, and that the SiO2@FeOOH@Fe can effectively avoid leaching iron ions into the solution and causing secondary pollution in the reaction. This study may serve as a reference for PBDE remediation in the future. PMID:24582360

Xie, Yingying; Fang, Zhanqiang; Qiu, Xinhong; Tsang, Eric Pokeung; Liang, Bin

2014-08-01

93

Application of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles for the Removal of Aqueous Zinc Ions under Various Experimental Conditions  

PubMed Central

Application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for Zn2+ removal and its mechanism were discussed. It demonstrated that the uptake of Zn2+ by nZVI was efficient. With the solids concentration of 1 g/L nZVI, more than 85% of Zn2+ could be removed within 2 h. The pH value and dissolved oxygen (DO) were the important factors of Zn2+ removal by nZVI. The DO enhanced the removal efficiency of Zn2+. Under the oxygen-contained condition, oxygen corrosion gave the nZVI surface a shell of iron (oxy)hydroxide, which could show high adsorption affinity. The removal efficiency of Zn2+ increased with the increasing of the pH. Acidic condition reduced the removal efficiency of Zn2+ by nZVI because the existing H+ inhibited the formation of iron (oxy)hydroxide. Adsorption and co-precipitation were the most likely mechanism of Zn2+ removal by nZVI. The FeOOH-shell could enhance the adsorption efficiency of nZVI. The removal efficiency and selectivity of nZVI particles for Zn2+ were higher than Cd2+. Furthermore, a continuous flow reactor for engineering application of nZVI was designed and exhibited high removal efficiency for Zn2+. PMID:24416439

Liang, Wen; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

2014-01-01

94

Hexavalent chromium reduction in contaminated soil: A comparison between ferrous sulphate and nanoscale zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Iron sulphate (FeSO4) and colloidal nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) as reducing agents were compared, with the aim of assessing their effectiveness in hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] removal from a contaminated industrial soil. Experiments were performed on soil samples collected from an industrial site where a nickel contamination, caused by a long-term productive activity, was also verified. The influence of reducing agents amount with respect to chromium content and the effectiveness of deoxygenation of the slurry were discussed. The soil was fully characterized before and after each test, and sequential extractions were performed to assess chemico-physical modifications and evaluate metals mobility induced by washing. Results show that both the reducing agents successfully lowered the amount of Cr(VI) in the soil below the threshold allowed by Italian Environmental Regulation for industrial reuse. Cr(VI) reduction by colloidal nZVI proved to be faster and more effective: the civil reuse of soil [Cr(VI)<2mg/kg] was only achieved using colloidal nZVI within 60min adopting a nZVI/Cr(VI) molar ratio of 30. The reducing treatment resulted in an increase in the amount of chromium in the oxide-hydroxide fraction, thus confirming a mechanism of chromium-iron hydroxides precipitation. In addition, a decrease of nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) content in soil was also observed when acidic conditions were established. PMID:25139286

Di Palma, L; Gueye, M T; Petrucci, E

2015-01-01

95

Transformation and composition evolution of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) synthesized by borohydride reduction in static water.  

PubMed

The reactivity of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) toward targeted contaminants is affected by the initial nZVI composition and the iron oxides formed during the aging process in aquatic systems. In this paper, the aging effects of nZVI, prepared using a borohydride reduction method in static water over a period of 90days (d), are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the corrosion products of nZVI. Results show that both the structures and the compositions of the corrosion products change with the process of aging. The products of nZVI aged for 5d in static water media are mainly magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (?-Fe2O3), accompanied by lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH). For products aged 10d, XRD data show the formation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. When aged up to 90d, the products are mainly ?-FeOOH mixed with small amounts of Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) images show that the core-shell structure forms into a hollow spherical shape after 30d of aging in aquatic media. The results indicate first that iron ions in the Fe(0) core diffuse outwardly toward the shell, and hollowed-out iron oxide shells emerge. Then, the iron oxide shell collapses and becomes a flaky, acicular-shaped structure. The type and the crystal phase of second iron oxide minerals are vastly different at various aging times. This study helps to explain the patterns of occurrence of specific iron oxides in different natural conditions. PMID:25317915

Liu, Airong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Xian

2015-01-01

96

Mechanism insights into enhanced trichloroethylene removal using xanthan gum-modified microscale zero-valent iron particles.  

PubMed

This report focuses on the enhancement in trichloroethylene (TCE) removal from contaminated groundwater using xanthan gum (XG)-modified, microscale, zero-valent iron (mZVI). Compared with bare mZVI, XG-coated mZVI increased the TCE removal efficiency by 30.37% over a 480-h experimental period. Because the TCE removal is attributed to both sorption and reduction processes, the contributions from sorption and reduction were separately investigated to determine the mechanism of XG on TCE removal using mZVI. The results showed that the TCE sorption capacity of mZVI was lower in the presence of XG, whereas the TCE reduction capacity was significantly increased. The FTIR spectra confirmed that XG, which is rich in hydrophilic functional groups, was adsorbed onto the iron surface through intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which competitively repelled the sorption and mass transfer of TCE toward reactive sites. The variations in the pH, Eh, and Fe(2+) concentration as functions of the reaction time were recorded and indicated that XG buffered the solution pH, inhibited surface passivation, and promoted TCE reduction by mZVI. Overall, the XG-modified mZVI was considered to be potentially effective for the in-situ remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater due to its high stability and dechlorination reactivity. PMID:25556871

Xin, Jia; Han, Jun; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Kolditz, Olaf

2015-03-01

97

Influences of nanoscale zero valent iron loadings and bicarbonate and calcium concentrations on hydrogen evolution in anaerobic column experiments.  

PubMed

The estimation of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) reactivity after its injection into the subsurface is essential for its application in groundwater remediation. In the present study H2 generation of commercially available nZVI and novel milled nZVI flakes were investigated in column experiments with varying nZVI loads (ranging from 8 to 43 g nZVI per kg sand). H2 evolution rates were determined for column experiments without and with hydrogen carbonate and/or calcium. On average 0.29 mmol H2/L per g Fe(0) evolved within the first 30 days in column experiments with spherical, commercial nZVI particles. The H2 evolution developed almost independently of the water matrices applied. The application of nZVI flakes resulted in lower H2 generation rates. In general corrosion rates accelerated linearly with increasing initial amounts of iron. This was evident in experiments with both particle types. Concentration profiles of carbonate and calcium in influent and effluent were used to estimate corrosion products and precipitates. Despite the presence of high concentrations of inorganic carbon, Fe(2+) reacted preferably with hydroxide ions to form ferrous hydroxide which is the precursor of magnetite. As a result only minor passivation of the reactive nZVI was observed. PMID:25462777

Paar, Hendrik; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Jekel, Martin

2014-11-01

98

Biodegradable surfactant stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron for in situ treatment of vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) stabilized with dispersants is a promising technology for the remediation of contaminated groundwater. In this study, we demonstrated the use of biodegradable surfactant stabilized NZVI slurry for successful treatment of vinyl chloride (VC) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in a contaminated site in Taiwan. The biodegradable surfactant stabilized NZVI was coated with palladium and synthesized on-site. From monitoring the iron concentration breakthrough and distribution, it was found that the stabilized NZVI is capable of transporting in the aquifer at the test plot (200 m(2)). VC was effectively degraded by NZVI while the 1,2-DCA degradation was relatively sluggish during the 3-month field test. Nevertheless, as 1,2-DCA is known to resist abiotic reduction by NZVI, the observation of 1,2-DCA degradation and hydrocarbon production suggested a bioremediation took place. ORP and pH results revealed that a reducing condition was achieved at the testing area facilitating the biodegradation of chlorinated organic hydrocarbons. The bioremediation may be attributed to the production of hydrogen gas as electron donor from the corrosion of NZVI in the presence of water or the added biodegradable surfactant serving as the carbon source as well as electron donor to stimulate microbial growth. PMID:22118849

Wei, Yu-Ting; Wu, Shian-chee; Yang, Shi-wei; Che, Choi-Hong; Lien, Hsing-Lung; Huang, De-Huang

2012-04-15

99

Oxidation of Orange G by persulfate activated by Fe(II), Fe(III) and zero valent iron (ZVI).  

PubMed

Persulfate (PS) was employed in the oxidation of Orange G (OG), an azo dye commonly found in textile wastewaters. Activation of PS was conducted with iron to generate sulfate free radicals (SO4(-)) with high redox potential capable to oxidize most of the organics in water. Identification of oxidation intermediates was carried out by analyzing at different times organic by-products generated from treatment of a concentrate dye solution (11.6 mM) with 153 mM of PS and 20 mM of Fe(II) at 20 °C. Intermediate reaction products (mainly phenol (PH) and benzoquinone (BQ), and in less extent aniline, phenolic compounds and naphthalene type compounds with quinone groups) were identified by GC/MS and HPLC, and an oxidation pathway was proposed for the oxidation of OG with iron activated PS. The effect of iron valence (0, II and III) in the oxidation of an aqueous solution of OG (containing 0.1 mM) was studied in a 0.5 L batch reactor at 20 °C. Initial activator and PS concentrations employed were both 1 mM. Complete pollutant removal was achieved within the first 30 min when iron II or III were employed as activators. Quinone intermediates generated during pollutant oxidation may act as electron shuttles, allowing the reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) in the redox cycling of iron. Therefore, activation of PS by Fe(III) allowed complete OG removal. When zero valent iron (ZVI) was employed (particle diameter size 0.74 mm) the limiting step in SO4(-) generation was the surface reaction between ZVI and the oxidant yielding a lower oxidation rate of the dye. An increase in the oxidant dosage (0.2 mM OG, 2 mM Fe(III) and 6 mM PS) allowed complete pollutant and ecotoxicity removal, as well as mineralization close to 75%. PMID:24439838

Rodriguez, S; Vasquez, L; Costa, D; Romero, A; Santos, A

2014-04-01

100

Effect of anions and humic acid on the performance of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles coated with polyacrylic acid.  

PubMed

Effects of anions (NO3(-), HCO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and humic acid on the reactivity and core/shell chemistries of polyacrylic acid-coated nanoscale zero-valent iron (PAA-NZVI) and inorganically modified NZVI (INORG-NZVI) particles were investigated. The reactivity tests under various ion concentrations (0.2-30mN) revealed the existence of a favorable molar ratio of anion/NZVI that increased the reactivity of NZVI particles. The presence of a relatively small amount of humic acid (0.5mgL(-1)) substantially decreased the INORG-NZVI reactivity by 76%, whereas the reactivity of PAA-NZVI decreased only by 12%. The XRD and TEM results supported the role of the PAA coating of PAA-NZVI in impeding the oxidation of the Fe(0) core by groundwater solutes. This protective role provided by the organic coating also resulted in a 2.3-fold increase in the trichloroethylene (TCE) reduction capacity of PAA-NZVI compared to that of INORG-NZVI in the presence of anions/humic acid. Ethylene and ethane were simultaneously produced as the major reduction products of TCE in both NZVI systems, suggesting that a hydrodechlorination occurred without the aid of metallic catalysts. The PAA coating, originally designed to improve the mobility of NZVI, enhanced TCE degradation performances of NZVI in the presence of anions and humic acid. PMID:25065795

Kim, Hong-Seok; Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Cheolyong; Lee, Seockheon; Hwang, Inseong

2014-10-01

101

Evaluation of the effects of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) dispersants on intrinsic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE).  

PubMed

In this study, the biodegradability of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) dispersants and their effects on the intrinsic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated. Results of a microcosm study show that the biodegradability of three dispersants followed the sequence of: polyvinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate-co-itaconic acid (PV3A) > polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) > polyacrylic acid (PAA) under aerobic conditions, and PV3A > Tween 20 > PAA under anaerobic conditions. Natural biodegradation of TCE was observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. No significant effects were observed on the intrinsic biodegradation of TCE under aerobic conditions with the presence of the dispersants. The addition of PAA seemed to have a slightly adverse impact on anaerobic TCE biodegradation. Higher accumulation of the byproducts of anaerobic TCE biodegradation was detected with the addition of PV3A and Tween 20. The diversity of the microbial community was enhanced under aerobic conditions with the presence of more biodegradable PV3A and Tween 20. The results of this study indicate that it is necessary to select an appropriate dispersant for nZVI to prevent a residual of the dispersant in the subsurface. Additionally, the effects of the dispersant on TCE biodegradation and the accumulation of TCE biodegrading byproducts should also be considered. PMID:24901632

Chang, Y C; Huang, S C; Chen, K F

2014-01-01

102

Nonionic surfactant greatly enhances the reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by nanoscale zero-valent iron: mechanism and kinetics.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has been considered as an effective agent for reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). But the high lipophilicity of PBDEs will hinder their debromination owing to the inefficient contact of PBDEs with nZVI. In this study, different ionic forms of surfactants were investigated aiming to promote PBDE debromination, and the beneficial effects of surfactant were found to be: nonionic polyethylene glycol octylphenol ether (Triton X-100, TX)>cationic cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)>anionic sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDDBS). Except for with SDDBS, the promotion effect for PBDE debromination was positively related to the surfactant concentrations until a critical micelle concentration (CMC). The debromination process of octa-BDE and its intermediates could be described as a consecutive reaction. The corresponding rate constants (k) for the debromination of parent octa-BDE (including nona- to hepta-BDEs), the intermediates hexa-, penta-, and tetra-BDEs are 1.24 × 10(-1) h(-1), 8.97 × 10(-2) h(-1), 6.50 × 10(-2) h(-1) and 2.37 × 10(-3) h(-1), respectively. PMID:25019577

Liang, Da-wei; Yang, Yu-han; Xu, Wei-wei; Peng, Si-kan; Lu, Shan-fu; Xiang, Yan

2014-08-15

103

Effect of zero-valent iron on the start-up performance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process.  

PubMed

The long start-up time of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process hinders the widespread application of anammox technology in practical wastewater treatment when anammox seed sludge is not available. Meanwhile, the production of nitrate cannot meet the increasingly more strict discharge standards. To combine the chemical nitrate reduction to ammonium with biological nitrogen removal, two anammox upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors packed with different types of zero-valent iron (ZVI), microscale ZVI (mZVI) and nanoscale ZVI (nZVI), were developed to accelerate the start-up of anammox process. The results revealed that anammox start-up time shortened from 126 to 105 and 84 days with the addition of mZVI and nZVI. The nitrogen removal performance was also improved remarkably by adding ZVI, especially in the start-up stage. The value of dissolved oxygen showed that ZVI could be regarded as a useful deoxidant to create anaerobic condition for the proliferation of anammox bacteria. ZVI was favorable for the secretion of EPS, which would represent the activity of anammox bacteria. The result of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) further confirmed that the proliferation of anammox bacteria was enhanced by ZVI. PMID:25226835

Ren, Long-Fei; Ni, Shou-Qing; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Zhang, Bo; Kong, Qiang; Guo, Ning

2015-02-01

104

Enhanced colloidal stability of nanoscale zero valent iron particles in the presence of sodium silicate water glass.  

PubMed

A method for the stabilization of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) particles using silica was developed. Stabilization can significantly improve the performance characteristics of currently available nZVI products containing agglomerated particles. In the first step of the method, the agglomerates were broken using a sonication. A subsequent stabilizing effect was brought about by the deposition of silica onto the surface of the nZVI particles. The method was tested on three commercially available nZVI suspensions which formed agglomerates with mean sizes ranging from 1000 to 5000?nm. The application of the method resulted in a significant reduction of the mean size of the agglomerates to the values from 100 to 200?nm. The stabilizing effect of silica was also evidenced using scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential measurements and sedimentation analysis. The introduction of typical groundwater ions did not significantly affect the colloidal stability of the treated nZVI suspensions. The results of this study indicate that the silica coating have the potential to protect nZVI against agglomeration. PMID:25323113

Honetschlägerová, Lenka; Janouškovcová, Petra; Kubal, Martin; Sofer, Zden?k

2015-02-01

105

Synthesis and characterization of porous zero-valent iron nanoparticles for remediation of chromium-contaminated wastewater.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical properties of porous zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVINs) have highly been acknowledged in the decontamination of heavy metal containing wastes and groundwater. In the present work, the treatment of Cr-contaminant through adsorption onto the ZVINs has been studied. The morphology, crystal structure, and surface composition of Fe(O) nanoparticles were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) revealed that the Cr(VI) species reduce to Cr(III) while oxidizing the ZVINs to Fe2O3, Fe3O4 or FeO electrochemically. Furthermore, the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm of the porous nanoparticles was similar to a type IV curve with an obvious mesopore-characteristic H3 hysteresis loop, whereas the sizes of mesopores were in the range of 30-50 nm. Experimentally, the efficiency for Cr(VI) removal in the range of 150-300 ppm was found to be > 99.9%. Remarkably, the reduction reaction was completed within 10 min in the absence of additional pH controls. This work also highlights the utility of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with conventional characterization methods to comprehensively study the speciation and possible reaction pathway in adsorption process. PMID:23763143

Lin, Kuen-Song; Dehvari, Khalilalrahman; Liu, Yeu-Jye; Kuo, Hua; Hsu, Pei-Ju

2013-04-01

106

Removal of para-nitrochlorobenzene from aqueous solution on surfactant-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron/graphene nanocomposites.  

PubMed

This study demonstrated a remarkably simple and efficient method for the synthesis of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI)/graphene (GN) nanocomposites. In order to prevent the agglomeration and restack of nanocomposites, chemical functionalization of nanocomposites with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was proposed. The adsorption performance of surfactant-modified NZVI/GN nanocomposites was evaluated for the removal of para-nitrochlorobenzene (p-NCB) from aqueous solutions. The characteristics of nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The effect factors including initial solution pH, contact time, reaction temperature, dosage, initial concentration of humic acid (HA) on the adsorption property of p-NCB onto surfactant-modified nanocomposites were investigated. The adsorption kinetics fitted well with pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption capacity of p-NCB on surfactant-modified nanocomposites inferred from the Langmuir model was 105.15 mg/g at 293 K. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of p-NCB onto surfactant-modified nanocomposites was an exothermic and spontaneous process. HA had a strong suppression effect on p-NCB uptake in the adsorption experiment. PMID:25176304

Wu, Yan; Luo, Hanjin; Wang, Hou

2014-01-01

107

Electromagnetic Borehole Flowmeter Surveys at Selected In Situ Redox Manipulation Barrier Wells, Zero-Valent Iron Site, Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Ambient (i.e., static) and dynamic (i.e., pumping-induced) electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF) surveys were performed in 10 selected In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) barrier wells to characterize the distribution of in-well vertical flow conditions and to infer the relative hydraulic conductivity distribution in the upper-part of the unconfined aquifer. These wells are located in two areas where the aquifer is targeted for testing of zero-valent iron injection to mend a failed portion of the ISRM barrier at the 100 D Area, Hanford Site. Each of these two areas consists of a group of five wells, one group to the southwest and one group to the northeast. The upper ~15 to 20 ft (~4.6 to 6.1 m) of the unconfined aquifer was characterized for in-well vertical flow conditions and vertical profile information regarding relative hydraulic conductivity. At some well site locations, the upper ~2 to 3 ft (~0.6 to 1 m) of the well-screen interval could not be characterized under pumping (dynamic) conditions because of the presence of the pump.

Newcomer, Darrell R.

2009-02-09

108

Mobility enhancement of nanoscale zero-valent iron in carbonate porous media through co-injection of polyelectrolytes.  

PubMed

The mobility of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), which is used for in situ groundwater remediation, is affected by chemical and physical heterogeneities within aquifers. Carbonate minerals in porous aquifers and the presence of divalent cations reduce nZVI mobility. This study assesses the potential for enhancing the mobility of polyacrylic acid coated nZVI (PAA-nZVI) in such aquifers through the co-injection of polyelectrolytes (natural organic matter, humic acid, carboxymethyl cellulose, and lignin sulfonate). When applied at the same concentration, all of the polyelectrolytes produced similar enhancement of PAA-nZVI mobility in carbonate porous media. This increase in mobility was a result of increased repulsion between PAA-nZVI and the carbonate matrix. Lignin sulfonate, an environmentally friendly and inexpensive agent, was identified as the most suitable polyelectrolyte for field applications. The greatest increase in PAA-nZVI mobility was achieved with co-injection of lignin sulfonate at concentrations ?50 mg L(-1); at these concentrations the maximum PAA-nZVI travel distance in carbonate porous media was twice of that in the absence of lignin sulfonate. PMID:24361704

Laumann, Susanne; Mici?, Vesna; Hofmann, Thilo

2014-03-01

109

Temperature programmed reduction for measurement of oxygen content in nanoscale zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has increasingly been used for environmental remediation and in toxic waste treatment. Most applications exploit its large surface area and high reactivity, the latter being a function of zerovalent iron content. In this work, temperature programmed reduction was applied to measure oxygen in nZVI. Iron oxides in nZVI were reduced by hydrogen to form metallic iron and water, which was then measured with an online mass spectrometer to determine oxygen content of the sample. For fresh nZVI prepared by sodium borohydride reduction of iron salts, average oxygen content was 8.21%. Total iron content was approximately 90.35% by the method of acid digestion; Fe(III) content was estimated at 14.37%, and that of zerovalent iron [Fe(0)] at 75.98%. The oxygen content quickly increased to 26.14% after purging with oxygen for four hours. Several other techniques were also used to characterize the iron nanoparticles. High resolution TEM provided direct evidence of the oxide shell structure and indicated that the shell thickness was predominantly in the range of 2-4 nm. The surface elemental composition was determined from high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The nZVI oxygen content results fill a knowledge gap on nZVI composition. PMID:18546722

Cao, Jiasheng; Li, Xiaoqin; Tavakoli, Javad; Zhang, Wei-Xian

2008-05-15

110

Oxidation of nanoscale zero-valent iron under sufficient and limited dissolved oxygen: Influences on aggregation behaviors.  

PubMed

Oxidations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) under aerobic (dissolved oxygen?8mgL(-1)) and anaerobic (dissolved oxygen <3mgL(-1)) conditions were simulated, and their influences on aggregation behaviors of nZVI were investigated. The two oxidation products were noted as HO-nZVI (nZVI oxidized in highly oxygenated water) and LO-nZVI (nZVI oxidized in lowly oxygenated water) respectively. The metallic iron of the oxidized nZVI was almost exhausted (Fe(0)?8±5%), thus magnetization mainly depended on magnetite content. Since sufficient dissolved oxygen led to the much less magnetite (?15%) in HO-nZVI than that in LO-nZVI (>90%), HO-nZVI was far less magnetic (Ms=88kAm(-1)) than LO-nZVI (Ms=365kAm(-1)). Consequently, HO-nZVI formed small agglomerates (228±10nm), while LO-nZVI tended to form chain-like aggregations (>1?m) which precipitated rapidly. Based on the EDLVO theory, we suggested that dissolved oxygen level determined aggregation morphologies by controlling the degree of oxidation and the magnitude of magnetization. Then the chain-like alignment of LO-nZVI would promote further aggregation, but the agglomerate morphology of HO-nZVI would eliminate magnetic forces and inhibit the aggregation while HO-nZVI remained magnetic. Our results indicated the fine colloidal stability of HO-nZVI, which might lead to the great mobility in the environment. PMID:25441925

Jiang, Danlie; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yin, Daqiang

2015-03-01

111

Capture and storage of hydrogen gas by zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Granular Fe(o), used to reductively degrade a variety of contaminants in groundwater, corrodes in water to produce H2(g). A portion enters the Fe(o) lattice where it is stored in trapping sites such as lattice defects and microcracks. The balance is dissolved by the groundwater where it may exsolve as a gas if its solubility is exceeded. Gas exsolution can reduce the effectiveness of the Fe(o) treatment zone by reducing contact of the contaminant with iron surfaces or by diverting groundwater flow. It also represents a lost electron resource that otherwise could be involved in reductive degradation of contaminants. It is advantageous to select an iron for remediation purposes that captures a large proportion of the H2(g) it generates. This study examines various aspects of the H2(g) uptake process and has found 1) H2(g) does not have to be generated at the water/iron interface to enter the lattice. It can enter directly from the gas/water phases, 2) exposure of granular sponge iron to H2(g) reduces the dormant period for the onset of iron corrosion, 3) the large quantities of H2(g) generated by nano-Fe(o) injected into a reactive barrier of an appropriate granular iron can be captured in the lattice of that iron, and 4) lattice-bound hydrogen represents an additional electron resource to Fe(o) for remediation purposes and may be accessible using physical or chemical means. PMID:24389351

Reardon, Eric J

2014-02-01

112

Enhancing Fenton oxidation of TNT and RDX through pretreatment with zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of reductive treatment with elemental iron on the rate and extent of TOC removal by Fenton oxidation was studied for the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) using a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The results support the hypothesis that TNT and RDX are reduced with elemental iron to products that are oxidized more rapidly and completely by

Seok-Young Oh; Pei C. Chiu; Byung J. Kim; Daniel K. Cha

2003-01-01

113

Deployment of an innovative thermally enhanced soil mixing process augmented with zero-valent iron.  

SciTech Connect

An innovative in-situ soil treatment process, referred to as soil mixing/thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction (SM/TESVE), was used to remediate the 317 Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (i.e., Argonne), which is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Following the initial soil treatment, polishing was required to reduce residual concentrations of contaminants. A study of polishing methods was conducted. It determined that injecting metallic iron particles into the soil, in conjunction with soil mixing, would reduce residual VOC concentrations more effectively than the original conventional soil ventilation approach. After the effectiveness of iron injection was verified, it replaced the soil ventilation step. The modified process involved mixing the soil while hot air and steam were injected into it. Off-gases were captured in a hood over the treatment area. During this process, an iron slurry, consisting of up to 50% iron particles in water with guar gum added as a thickening agent, was injected and mixed into the soil by the mixing equipment. Approximately 6,246 m{sup 3} (8, 170 yd{sup 3}) of soil was treated during this project. Confirmatory samples were then collected. In these samples, VOC concentrations were usually reduced by more than 80%.

Lynch, P. L.

1999-01-15

114

Arsenic stabilization by zero-valent iron, bauxite residue, and zeolite at a contaminated site planting Panax notoginseng.  

PubMed

Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, a rare traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is a widely used phytomedicine used all over the world. In recent years, the arsenic contamination of the herb and its relative products becomes a serious problem due to elevated soil As concentration. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types and dosages of amendments on As stabilization in soil and its uptake by P. notoginseng. Results showed that comparing to control treatment, the As concentrations of P. notoginseng declined by 49-63%, 43-61% and 52-66% in 0.25% zero-valent iron (Fe(0)), 0.5% bauxite residue, and 1% zeolite treatment, respectively; whereas the biomasses were elevated by 62-116%, 45-152% and 114-265%, respectively. The As(III) proportions of P. notoginseng increased by 8%, 9%, and 8%, and the transfer factors of As from root to shoot increased by 37%, 42% and 84% in the optimal treatments of Fe(0), bauxite residue, and zeolite. For soil As, all the three amendments could transform the non-specifically adsorbed As fraction to hydrous oxides Fe/Al fractions (by Fe(0) and red mud) or specifically adsorbed As fraction (by zeolite), therefore reduced the bioavailability of soil As. With a comprehensive consideration of stabilization efficiency, plant growth, environmental influence, and cost, Fe(0) appeared to be the best amendment, and zeolite could also be a good choice. In conclusion, this study was of significance in developing As contamination control in P. notoginseng planting areas, and even other areas for medicinal herb growing. PMID:23871591

Yan, X L; Lin, L Y; Liao, X Y; Zhang, W B; Wen, Y

2013-10-01

115

Transformation of chlorinated hydrocarbons using aquocobalamin or coenzyme F{sub 430} in combination with zero-valent iron  

SciTech Connect

More effective methods are necessary for the remediation of soils, sediments, and ground waters contaminated with halogenated organic compounds. The authors objective was to determine the feasibility and utility of using a tetrapyrrole-Fe(0) mixture for reductive dehalogenation of synthetic organic contaminants. Aquocobalamin or coenzyme F{sub 430} was combined with Fe(0) in aqueous systems containing either a single chlorinated compound or mixtures of chlorinated compounds, and substrate disappearance was monitored using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Zero-valent iron effectively dehalogenated CCl{sub 4} at low to neutral pH values, while increases in CCl{sub 4} dehalogenation resulting from inclusion of tetrapyrrole catalysts along with Fe(0) occurred only at basic pH values. Rates of CCl{sub 4} disappearance increased with additional aquocobalamin, but reached a maximum and decreased at higher aquocobalamin concentrations. overall dehalogenation rates may thus be a function of Fe(0)'s limited reactive surface area. There was a trend for both tetrapyrrole catalysts to promote the disappearance of halogenated compounds in a mixed substrate containing 20 compounds. Studies with five individual substrates likewise showed trends for increased substrate removal with F{sub 430} beyond that for Fe(0) alone. This increase is most important for compounds such as 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,4-dichlorobenzene that are not readily dehalogenated by Fe(0). Chloride concentrations in the reaction mixtures indicated that reductive dehalogenation was the dominant process responsible for substrate disappearance. Use of a combination of aquocobalamin or coenzyme F{sub 430} and Fe(0) may effectively promote dehalogenation, thus producing fewer products and more complete dehalogenation of the target substrates than can be achieved using only one of the abiotic reductants alone.

Morra, M.J.; Borek, V.; Koolpe, J.

2000-06-01

116

Remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater using zero valent iron and direct current: experimental results and electron competition model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study are to design an optimal electro-enhanced permeable reactive barrier (E2PRB) system for the remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated water using zero valent iron (ZVI) and direct current (DC) and to investigate the mechanisms responsible for TCE degradation in different ZVI-DC configurations. A series of column experiments was conducted to evaluate the effect of different arrangements of electrodes and ZVI barriers in the column on the TCE removal capacity (RC). In twelve different combinations of ZVI and/or DC application in the test columns, the rate of reductive dechlorination of TCE was improved up to six times with simultaneous application of ZVI and DC compared to that using ZVI only. The most effective arrangement of electrode and ZVI for TCE removal was the column set with ZVI and a cathode installed at the down gradient. Based on the electrokinetic study for the column systems with only DC input, single acid front movement could explain different RCs. An enhanced dechlorination rate of TCE using E2PRB systems, compared to a conventional PRB system, was observed, and is considered to be attributed to more electron sources: (1) external DC, (2) electrolysis of water, (3) oxidation of ZVI, (4) oxidation of dissolved Fe2+, (5) oxidation of molecular hydrogen at the cathode, and (6) oxidation of Fe2+ in mineral precipitates. Each of these electron sources was evaluated for their potential influencing the TCE RC through the electron competition model and energy consumption. A strong correlation between the quantity of electrons generated, RC, and the energy-effectiveness was found.

Moon, Ji-Won; Moon, Hi-Soo; Kim, Heonki; Roh, Yul

2005-09-01

117

Graphene-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron: removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution and mechanistic study.  

PubMed

Excess phosphorus from non-point pollution sources is one of the key factors causing eutrophication in many lakes in China, so finding a cost-effective method to remove phosphorus from non-point pollution sources is very important for the health of the aqueous environment. Graphene was selected to support nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for phosphorus removal from synthetic rainwater runoff in this article. Compared with nZVI supported on other porous materials, graphene-supported nZVI (G-nZVI) could remove phosphorus more efficiently. The amount of nZVI in G-nZVI was an important factor in the removal of phosphorus by G-nZVI, and G-nZVI with 20 wt.% nZVI (20% G-nZVI) could remove phosphorus most efficiently. The nZVI was very stable and could disperse very well on graphene, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy were used to elucidate the reaction process, and the results indicated that Fe-O-P was formed after phosphorus was adsorbed by G-nZVI. The results obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the reaction product between nZVI supported on graphene and phosphorus was Fe?(PO?)?·8H?O (Vivianite). It was confirmed that the specific reaction mechanism for the removal of phosphorus with nZVI or G-nZVI was mainly due to chemical reaction between nZVI and phosphorus. PMID:25108732

Liu, Fenglin; Yang, JingHe; Zuo, Jiane; Ma, Ding; Gan, Lili; Xie, Bangmi; Wang, Pei; Yang, Bo

2014-08-01

118

Reduced transport potential of a palladium-doped zero valent iron nanoparticle in a water saturated loamy sand.  

PubMed

Direct in situ injection of palladium-doped nanosized zero valent iron (Pd-NZVI) particles can contribute to remediation of various environmental contaminants. A major challenge encountered is rapid aggregation of Pd-NZVI and hence very limited mobility. To reduce aggregation and concurrently improve particle mobility, the surface of bare Pd-NZVI can be modified with stabilizing surface modifiers. Selected surface-modified Pd-NZVI has shown dramatically improved stability and transport. However, little is known regarding the effects of aquifer grain geochemical heterogeneity on the transport and deposition behavior of surface-modified Pd-NZVI. Herein, the mobility of surface stabilized Pd-NZVI in two granular matrices representative of model ground water environments (quartz sand and loamy sand) was assessed over a wide range of environmentally relevant ionic strengths (IS). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), soybean flour and rhamnolipid biosurfactant were used as Pd-NZVI surface modifiers. Our results show that, both in quartz sand and loamy sand, an increase in solution IS results in reduced Pd-NZVI transport. Moreover, at a given water chemistry, Pd-NZVI transport is notably attenuated in loamy sand implying that geochemical heterogeneity associated with loamy sand is a key factor influencing Pd-NZVI transport potential. Experiments conducted at a higher Pd-NZVI particle concentration, to be more representative of field conditions, show that rhamnolipid and CMC are effective stabilizing agents even when 1 g/L Pd-NZVI is injected into quartz sand. Overall, this study emphasizes the extent to which variation in groundwater chemistry, coupled with changes in aquifer geochemistry, could dramatically alter the transport potential of Pd-NZVI in the subsurface environment. PMID:25462742

Basnet, Mohan; Tommaso, Caroline Di; Ghoshal, Subhasis; Tufenkji, Nathalie

2014-10-01

119

Abiotic aspects of zero-valent iron induced degradation of pentachlorophenol in water  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of dehalogenation of aqueous pentachlorophenol (PCP) were performed under aerobic conditions using laboratory batch systems containing granular electrolytic iron. It was observed that the kinetics of degradation of PCP were strongly dependent on a number of factors including substrate concentration, temperature, pH of solution and the presence of certain inorganic substances. Experiments on the mechanisms of the reaction have been carried out as well.

Ravary, C.; Lipczynska-Kochany, E. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-01

120

DEMONSTRATION OF IN SITU DEHALOGENATION OF DNAPL THROUGH INJECTION OF EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALIENT IRON AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the technical and cost performance of emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology when applied to DNAPL contaminants in the saturated zone. This demonstration was conducted at Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL, w...

121

Carboxymethyl Cellulose Stabilized Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Transport in Porous Media: An Experimental and Modeling Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental and modeling study is being conducted to evaluate carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) transport in porous media. A two-dimensional water-saturated glass-walled sandbox (55 cm x 45 cm x 1.3 cm in size) is being used for the study. The sandbox was packed uniformly with silica sand (600 ?m to 425 ?m grain diameter) under water-saturated conditions. From a series of hydraulic tests permeability of the system was calculated to be 1.0 x 10-12 m2. The transport tests are being conducted at pore-water velocities of 3, 5, and 10 m.d-1 to identify any shear-thinning effects associated with the CMC (MW = 90,000) solution, and effects of velocity on nZVI attachment to the porous media. A set of transport tests is being carried out using LissamineTM Green B (LGB) dye and CMC mixtures to characterize the CMC transport without nZVI. The transport tests are being conducted at various CMC concentrations ranging from 0.2% to 0.8% (w/v) to determine the effect of CMC concentration on nZVI transport under flowing conditions. For the CMC stabilized nZVI transport tests, nZVI is synthesized freshly in CMC solution before each experiment using sodium borohydride and ferrous sulfate. The synthesized nZVI concentrations range from 0.1 to 2.5 g.L-1. While higher nZVI concentration is desired for higher contaminant degradation, the higher nZVI concentration may cause greater aggregation and attachment to the porous media limiting the delivery distance for nZVI. In each transport experiment, the LGB-CMC solution or nZVI-CMC solution is injected into the sandbox as a pulse of 0.25 pore volume (PV). For LGB, the mass recovery was calculated to be ~ 96.5% indicating non-reactive transport in silica sand. The preliminary results also show that increased concentration of CMC (from 0.2% to 0.4 %) causes higher pressure drop across the sandbox, indicating that use of high CMC concentrations will limit injection rates with a corresponding effect on velocity and nZVI attachment. The transport experiments are being modeled using a two-dimensional multiphase flow and transport model. The sandbox is being discretized into 55 by 45 grid blocks (1 cm x 1 cm x 1.3 cm in size). LGB and CMC are modeled as soluble components, while nZVI is being considered as a colloid. In case of nZVI transport, attachment coefficients are being fitted to match the experimental breakthrough curves. The estimated attachment coefficients can be used to predict the CMC stabilized nZVI transport in field scale applications.

Mondal, P.; Rrokaj, E.; Sleep, B. E.

2013-12-01

122

Injection of polyelectrolytes enhances mobility of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in carbonate-rich porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for in situ groundwater remediation has received increased attention as a beneficial and novel remediation technique. A precondition for effective nZVI field applications is its delivery to the contaminated source zones. This has proved to be difficult due to the limited mobility of nZVI, which remains one major obstacle to widespread utilization of this remediation approach (O'CAROLL ET AL., 2012). One important factor that controls mobility of nZVI is physical and chemical heterogeneity within the subsurface, such as mineralogical variations (KIM ET AL., 2012). In our previous study we showed that the nZVI transport in carbonate-rich porous media is significantly reduced compared to that in quartz porous media (LAUMANN ET AL., 2012). This is caused by favorable nZVI deposition onto carbonate sand and is attributed to the less negative surface charge of carbonate compared to that of quartz sand under the range of water chemical conditions typically encountered in aquifers. New strategies are therefore required to improve nZVI mobility in carbonate-rich porous media. One approach can be the injection of polyelectrolytes in the subsurface, which are expected to adsorb onto aquifer grains and provide greater repulsion between nZVI and the porous media. In this study the effect of co-injected polyelectrolytes on the transport of polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated nZVI in two model porous media, quartz and carbonate sands was evaluated. Column experiments were carried out aiming to evaluate mobility of PAA-nZVI co-injected with four polyelectrolytes, including natural organic matter (NOM), humic acid, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and lignin sulfonate. The results demonstrated that the co-injection of the chosen polyelectrolytes does not influence mobility of PAA-nZVI in quartz sand; the breakthrough with co-injected polyelectrolytes was similar to that of the pure PAA-nZVI dispersion. This observation can be explained by the strong negative surface charge of the quartz sand, which was apparently not changed in the presence of polyelectrolytes. Conversely, the co-injected polyelectrolytes affected the breakthrough in carbonate sand, increasing nZVI mobility for approximately 15%. This can be explained by the attachment of the polyelectrolytes to the less negatively charged carbonate sand, which then promoted the PAA-nZVI mobility. Even though there are structural differences among the polyelectrolytes applied in this study, our results showed no significant variations in the PAA-nZVI mobility when these polyelectrolytes are present at concentration of 50 mg L-1. Lignin sulfonate was furthermore selected to investigate the effect of different polyelectrolyte concentrations (0, 10, 25, 50, 250, and 500 mg L-1) on the PAA-nZVI mobility. The results showed that higher lignin sulfonate concentrations (250 and 500 mg L-1) do not affect the transport of PAA-nZVI in quartz sand. In carbonate sand, on contrary, increasing mobility due to co-injected lignin sulfonate was observed at concentrations above 25 mg L-1, having the highest value with 500 mg L-1 co-injected with the PAA-nZVI dispersion. Overall, the results demonstrated that lignin sulfonate adsorption onto the carbonate sand reduce PAA-nZVI deposition onto aquifer grains and promote its mobility, the effect which is more pronounced at higher polyelectrolyte concentrations co-injected with the PAA-nZVI dispersion. The project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW). Management by Kommunalkredit Public Consulting GmbH. Literature O'CAROLL, D. ET AL., (2012): Advances in Water Resources, in press. KIM, H.-J. ET AL., (2012): Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 370, 1-10. LAUMANN, S. ET AL., (2012): Environmental Pollution, submitted.

Laumann, Susanne; Mici?, Vesna; Schmid, Doris; Hofmann, Thilo

2013-04-01

123

An Experimental Study of Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer-Enhanced Fluids  

SciTech Connect

At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. In these zones, groundwater moves relatively fast and is able to oxidize iron more rapidly. There is also a possibility that the high-permeability flow paths are deficient in reducing equivalents (e.g. reactive iron), required for barrier performance. One way enhancement of the current barrier reductive capacity can be achieved is by the addition of micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments (Ringold Unit E gravels) using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Polymers were used to create a suspension viscous enough to keep the Fe0 in solution for extended time periods to improve colloid movement into the porous media without causing a permanent detrimental decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone in between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments.

Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

2005-12-22

124

Estimate of the optimum weight ratio in zero-valent iron/pumice granular mixtures used in permeable reactive barriers for the remediation of nickel contaminated groundwater.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of laboratory column tests aimed at defining the optimum weight ratio of zero-valent iron (ZVI)/pumice granular mixtures to be used in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for the removal of nickel from contaminated groundwater. The tests were carried out feeding the columns with aqueous solutions of nickel nitrate at concentrations of 5 and 50 mg/l using three ZVI/pumice granular mixtures at various weight ratios (10/90, 30/70 and 50/50), for a total of six column tests; two additional tests were carried out using ZVI alone. The most successful compromise between reactivity (higher ZVI content) and long-term hydraulic performance (higher Pumice content) seems to be given by the ZVI/pumice granular mixture with a 30/70 weight ratio. PMID:21885195

Calabrò, P S; Moraci, N; Suraci, P

2012-03-15

125

Effects of hardness and alkalinity on the removal of arsenic(V) from humic acid-deficient and humic acid-rich groundwater by zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

The effects of hardness (Ca(2+)) and alkalinity (HCO(3)(-)) on arsenic(V) removal from humic acid (HA)-deficient and HA-rich groundwater by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated using batch experiments. Arsenic, in general, is removed from groundwater possibly by adsorption and co-precipitation with the iron corrosion products. However, in the co-presence of HCO(3)(-) and Ca(2+), the removal rate of arsenic increased with increasing concentrations of either Ca(2+) or HCO(3)(-). It was observed that the removal of arsenic was significantly enhanced by the formation of CaCO(3) as a nucleation seed for the growth of large iron (hydr)oxide particles. In the co-existence of Ca(2+), HCO(3)(-) and HA, the presence of HA diminished the positive role of Ca(2+) due to the formation of Fe-humate complexes in solution and delaying of the formation of CaCO(3). As a result, the formation of the large iron (hydr)oxide particles was inhibited in the earlier stage which, in turn, affected the removal of arsenic. However, after the formation of CaCO(3) and the subsequent growth of such particles, the presence of large iron (hydr)oxide particles resulted in the rapid removing of arsenic and Fe-humate by adsorption and/or co-precipitation. PMID:19580986

Mak, Mark S H; Rao, Pinhua; Lo, Irene M C

2009-09-01

126

Inhibition of nitrate reduction by NaCl adsorption on a nano-zero-valent iron surface during a concentrate treatment for water reuse.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) has been considered as a possible material to treat water and wastewater. However, it is necessary to verify the effect of the matrix components in different types of target water. In this study, different effects depending on the sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on reductions of nitrates and on the characteristics of NZVI were investigated. Although NaCl is known as a promoter of iron corrosion, a high concentration of NaCl (>3?g/L) has a significant inhibition effect on the degree of NZVI reactivity towards nitrate. The experimental results were interpreted by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson reaction in terms of inhibition, and the decreased NZVI reactivity could be explained by the increase in the inhibition constant. As a result of a chloride concentration analysis, it was verified that 7.7-26.5% of chloride was adsorbed onto the surface of NZVI. Moreover, the change of the iron corrosion product under different NaCl concentrations was investigated by a surface analysis of spent NZVI. Magnetite was the main product, with a low NaCl concentration (0.5?g/L), whereas amorphous iron hydroxide was observed at a high concentration (12?g/L). Though the surface was changed to permeable iron hydroxide, the Fe(0) in the core was not completely oxidized. Therefore, the inhibition effect of NaCl could be explained as the competitive adsorption of chloride and nitrate. PMID:25358487

Hwang, Yuhoon; Kim, Dogun; Shin, Hang-Sik

2014-12-01

127

SCANNING ELECTRON ANALYSIS OF IRON FILINGS FROM A ZERO-VALENT IRON PERMEABLE BARRIER USED FOR GROUND WATER RESTORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Permeable iron reactive barriers have become a popular way to remediate contaminated ground water. Although this technology has been in use for about a decade, there is still little knowledge about long-term performance issues (l). One of the biggest concerns is the corrosion of ...

128

A Two and Half-Year-Performance Evaluation of a Field Test on Treatment of Source Zone Tetrachloroethene and Its Chlorinated Daughter Products Using Emulsified Zaro Valent Iron Nanoparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

A field test of emulsified zero valent iron (EZVI) nanoparticles was conducted at Parris Island, SC, USA and was monitored for two and half years to assess the treatment of subsurface-source zone chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) dominated by tetrachloroethene (PCE) ...

129

Enhanced degradation of ortho-nitrochlorobenzene by the combined system of zero-valent iron reduction and persulfate oxidation in soils.  

PubMed

ortho-Nitrochlorobenzene (o-NCB) in soil poses significant health risks to human because of its persistence and high toxicity. The removal of o-NCB by both zero-valent iron (ZVI) and chemical oxidation (persulfate) was investigated by batch experiments. The o-NCB removal rate increases significantly from 15.1 to 97.3 % with an increase of iron dosage from 0.1 to 1.0 mmol g(-1). The o-NCB removal rate increases with the decrease of the initial solution pH, and a removal efficiency of 90.3 % is obtained at an initial pH value of 6.8 in this combined system. It is found that temperature and soil moisture could also increase the o-NCB removal rate. The o-NCB degradation rate increases from 83.9 to 96.2 % and from 41.5 to 82.4 % with an increase of temperature (15 to 35 °C) and soil moisture (0.25 to 1.50 mL g(-1)), respectively. Compared to the persulfate oxidation system and ZVI system, the persulfate-iron system shows high o-NCB removal capacity. o-NCB removal rates of 41.5 and 62.4 % are obtained in both the persulfate oxidation system and the ZVI system, while the removal rate of o-NCB is 90.3 % in the persulfate-iron system. PMID:24385185

Xu, Hai-bo; Zhao, Dao-yuan; Li, Yu-jiao; Liu, Pei-ya; Dong, Chang-xun

2014-04-01

130

Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Porous Media Using Polymer Additives: Column and Flow Cell Ex-periments  

SciTech Connect

At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to investigate whether barrier reductive capacity can be enhanced by adding micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers. Porous media were packed in a wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel sur-rounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments. The flow cell experiments indicated that iron concentration enhancements of at least 0.6% (w/w) could be obtained using moderate flow rates and injection of 30 pore volumes. The 0.6% amended Fe0 concentration would provide approximately 20 times the average reductive capacity that is provided by the dithionite-reduced iron in the ISRM barrier. Calculations show that a 1-m-long Fe0 amended zone with an average concentration of 0.6% w/w iron subject to a groundwater velocity of 1 m/day will have an estimated longevity of 7.2 years.

Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

2006-03-20

131

A comparison of the low frequency electrical signatures of iron oxide versus calcite precipitation in granular zero valent iron columns.  

PubMed

Geophysical methods have been proposed as technologies for non-invasively monitoring geochemical alteration in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in Fe0 columns using (a) Na2SO4, and (b) NaHCO3 plus CaCl2 mixture, solutions. At the influent interface where the reactions were most severe, a contrasting time-lapse electrical response was observed between the two columns. Solid phase analysis confirmed the formation of corrosion halos and increased mineralogical complexity in the corroded sections of the columns compared to the minimal/non-corroded sections. We attribute the contrasting time-lapse signatures to the differences in the electrical properties of the mineral phases formed within the two columns. While newly precipitated/transformed polarizable and semi-conductive iron oxides (mostly magnetite and green rust) increase the polarization and conductivity of the sulfate column, the decrease of both parameters in the bicarbonate column is attributed to the precipitation of non-polarizable and non-conductive calcite. Our results show that precipitate mineralogy is an important factor influencing the electrical properties of the corroded iron cores and must be considered if electrical geophysical methods are to be developed to monitor PRB barrier corrosion processes in situ. PMID:17996979

Wu, Yuxin; Slater, Lee; Versteeg, Roelof; LaBrecque, Douglas

2008-01-28

132

Synthesis and characterization of pentaphosphino zero-valent iron complexes and their corresponding iron(II)-chloride and -hydride complexes.  

PubMed

A pentaphosphino iron(II)-chloride species [(t)SiP(3)(dmpm)FeCl][Cl] (1-Cl) ((t)SiP(3) = (t)BuSi(CH(2)PMe(2))(3), dmpm = Me(2)PCH(2)PMe(2)) was prepared from [((t)SiP(3)Fe)(2)(mu-Cl)(3)][Cl] and dmpm. This species was reduced to give the corresponding iron(0) complex, (t)SiP(3)(dmpm)Fe (3), in near quantitative yield. Analogous complexes [SiP(3)(dmpe)FeCl][Cl] (2-Cl) and SiP(3)(dmpe)Fe (4) (SiP(3) = MeSi(CH(2)PMe(2))(3), dmpe = Me(2)PCH(2)CH(2)PMe(2)) were prepared in the same manner as 1 and 3 but with lower yields because of competitive ligand rearrangement reactions that gave byproduct of trans-(dmpe)(2)FeCl(2) and (dmpe)(5)Fe(2) (5). [(t)SiP(3)(dmpm)FeH][A] (6) was prepared from the reaction of 3 with weak acids (HA), and the pK(a) of 6 was established to be approximately 25. Attempts to prepare pentaphosphino-iron(0) complexes of the form SiP(3)(PR(3))(2)Fe using PPh(3) and PMe(3) resulted in cyclometalated products, SiP(3)FeH((o-C(6)H(4))PPh(2)) (7) and SiP(3)FeH(CH(2)PMe(2)) (8). Synthesis and characterization of these complexes, including crystal structures of 1-5, are reported. PMID:20230063

Thoreson, Kristen A; Follett, Angela D; McNeill, Kristopher

2010-04-19

133

Fine structural features of nanoscale zero-valent iron characterized by spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM).  

PubMed

An angstrom-resolution physical model of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is generated with a combination of spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) on the Fe L-edge. Bright-field (BF), high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) and secondary electron (SE) imaging of nZVI acquired by a Hitachi HD-2700 STEM show near atomic resolution images and detailed morphological and structural information of nZVI. The STEM-EDS technique confirms that the fresh nZVI comprises of a metallic iron core encapsulated with a thin layer of iron oxides or oxyhydroxides. SAED patterns of the Fe core suggest the polycrystalline structure in the metallic core and amorphous nature of the oxide layer. Furthermore, Fe L-edge of EELS shows varied structural features from the innermost Fe core to the outer oxide shell. A qualitative analysis of the Fe L(2,3) edge fine structures reveals that the shell of nZVI consists of a mixed Fe(II)/Fe(III) phase close to the Fe (0) interface and a predominantly Fe(III) at the outer surface of nZVI. PMID:25050411

Liu, Airong; Zhang, Wei-xian

2014-09-21

134

Environmental benefits and risks of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for in situ remediation: Risk mitigation or trade-off?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of nanoscaled zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater has received increasing amounts of attention within the last decade, primarily due to its potential for broader application, higher reactivity, and cost-effectiveness compared to conventional zero-valent iron applications and other in situ methods. However, the potential environmental risks of nZVI in in situ field scale applications are largely unknown at the present and traditional environmental risk assessment approaches are not yet able to be completed. Therefore, it may not yet be fully clear how to consider the environmental benefits and risks of nZVI for in situ applications. This analysis therefore addresses the challenges of comprehensively considering and weighing the expected environmental benefits and potential risks of this emerging environmentally-beneficial nanotechnology, particularly relevant for environmental engineers, scientists, and decision makers. We find that most of the benefits of using nZVI are based on near-term considerations, and large data gaps currently exist within almost all aspects of environmental exposure and effect assessments. We also find that while a wide range of decision support tools and frameworks alternative to risk assessment are currently available, a thorough evaluation of these should be undertaken in the near future to assess their full relevancy for nZVI at specific sites. Due to the absence of data in environmental risk evaluations, we apply a 'best' and 'worst' case scenario evaluation as a first step to qualitatively evaluate the current state-of-knowledge regarding the potential environmental risks of nZVI. The result of this preliminary qualitative evaluation indicates that at present, there are no significant grounds on which to form the basis that nZVI currently poses a significant, apparent risk to the environment, although the majority of the most serious criteria (i.e. potential for persistency, bioaccumulation, toxicity) are generally unknown. We recommend that in cases where nZVI may be chosen as the 'best' treatment option, short and long-term environmental monitoring is actively employed at these sites. We furthermore recommend the continued development of responsible nZVI innovation and better facilitated information exchange between nZVI developers, nano-risk researchers, remediation industry, and decision makers.

Grieger, Khara D.; Fjordbøge, Annika; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Eriksson, Eva; Bjerg, Poul L.; Baun, Anders

2010-11-01

135

A comparative evaluation of hexavalent chromium treatment in contaminated soil by calcium polysulfide and green-tea nanoscale zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

A column study for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal from contaminated soil was performed using calcium polysulfide (CPS) and nanoscale zero-valent iron stabilized with green tea extract (GT-nZVI). Injection of CPS at 12 times the stoichiometric requirement (12×) resulted in quantitative Cr(VI) removal for up to 195 days of equivalent groundwater flow. Solid-bound Cr(VI) was reduced up to >99% (<2mg/kg). Treatment with CPS resulted in a short-term release of high sulfur concentrations. Injections of 12× and 24× stoichiometric GT-nZVI resulted in decrease in leachate pH from 6 to 2.5, which rebounded to 4.5 after the equivalent of 45 days and remained stable for the next equivalent 3 years. Metals concentrations in the effluent (Pb, Cr and Fe) increased following injection and quickly decreased, such that the mass flux was low with respect to the total amounts in the solid. Aqueous Cr(VI) was non-detect for the majority of the monitoring time, but concentrations eventually increased with respect to the control sample. Solid-bound Cr(VI) concentrations decreased by 30% and 66% in the 12× and 24× treatments, respectively. The low efficiency was attributed to increased sorption to iron surfaces at pH 2.5 and slow dissolution of PbCrO4, both of which were identified by micro-X-ray fluorescence and absorption analyses. PMID:22169240

Chrysochoou, Maria; Johnston, Chad P; Dahal, Geeta

2012-01-30

136

Effects of washing solution and drying condition on reactivity of nano-scale zero valent irons (nZVIs) synthesized by borohydride reduction.  

PubMed

Washing and drying processes are essential when synthesizing nano-scale zero valent irons (nZVIs) by borohydride reduction of iron salts in aqueous phase. However, effects of these processes on nZVI reactivity have not been investigated in detail, although different washing and drying conditions might alter surface characteristics of nZVIs and thus vary their reactivity towards reducible contaminants. In this study, effects of three washing solutions and drying conditions on the reactivity of nZVIs for nitrate were investigated. Washing with volatile solvents and drying under anaerobic condition decreased thickness of Fe-oxide layer on nZVIs and increased content of Fe(2+)-containing oxides in the layer, which enhanced nZVI reactivity toward nitrate. Volatile solvent washing could minimize the decrease in nZVI reactivity according to changing anaerobic drying condition to aerobic. Findings from this study suggest that application of washing with volatile solvents and drying under aerobic condition should be recommended as effective processes to obtain nZVIs with maximum reactivity at reasonable costs and efforts. PMID:24290304

Woo, Heesoo; Park, Junboum; Lee, Seockheon; Lee, Seunghak

2014-02-01

137

Conversion of mill-scale waste to nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) for 'green' hydrogen generation via metal-steam reforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) are the most preferred and efficient energy conversion devices for automotive applications but demand high purity hydrogen which comes at a premium price. The currently pursued hydrogen generation methods suffer from issues such as, low efficiency, high cost, environmental non-benignity, and, in some cases, commercial non-viability. Many of these drawbacks including the CO contamination and, storage and delivery can be overcome by resorting to metal-steam reforming (MSR) using iron from steel industry's mill-scale waste. A novel solution-based room temperature technique using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the reducing agent has been developed that produces highly active nanoscale (30-40 nm) iron particles. A slightly modified version of this technique using a surfactant and water oil microemulsion resulted in the formation of 5 nm Fe particles. By using hydrazine (N2H4) as an inexpensive and more stable (compared to NaBH4) reductant, body centered cubic iron particles with edge dimensions ˜5 nm were obtained under mild solvothermal conditions in ethanol. The nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) powder showed improved kinetics and greater propensity for hydrogen generation than the coarser microscale iron obtained through traditional reduction techniques. To initiate and sustain the somewhat endothermic MSR process, a solar concentrator consisting of a convex polyacrylic sheet with aluminum reflective coating was fabricated. This unique combination of mill-scale waste as iron source, hydrazine as the reductant, mild process conditions for nZVI generation and solar energy as the impetus for actuating MSR, obviates several drawbacks plaguing the grand scheme of producing, storing and delivering pure and humidified H2 to a PEMFC stack.

Kesavan, Sathees Kumar

138

Bio-beads with immobilized anaerobic bacteria, zero-valent iron, and active carbon for the removal of trichloroethane from groundwater.  

PubMed

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are the most common organic pollutants in groundwater systems worldwide. In this study, we developed bio-beads with immobilized anaerobic bacteria, zero-valent iron (ZVI), and activated carbon (AC) powder and evaluated their efficacy in removing 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) from groundwater. Bio-beads were produced by polyvinyl alcohol, alginate, and AC powder. We found that the concentration of AC powder used significantly affected the mechanical properties of immobilized bio-beads and that 1.0 % (w/v) was the optimal concentration. The bio-beads effectively degraded TCA (160 mg L(-1)) in the anaerobic medium and could be reused up to six times. The TCA degradation rate of bio-beads was 1.5 and 2.3 times greater, respectively, than ZVI + AC treatment or microbes + AC treatment. Measuring FeS produced by microbial reactions indicated that TCA removal occurred via FeS-catalyzed dechlorination. Analysis of clonal libraries derived from bio-beads demonstrated that the dominant species in the community were Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, which may contribute to the long-term stability of ZVI reactivity during TCA dechlorination. This study shows that the combined use of immobilized anaerobic bacteria, ZVI, and AC in bio-beads is effective and practical for TCA dechlorination and suggests they may be applicable towards developing a groundwater treatment system for the removal of TCA. PMID:24906831

Zhou, Ya-Zhen; Yang, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Li; Pan, Yue-Qing; Li, Hui; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Yong-Di; Wang, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong; Lu, Qiang; Qiu, Yue-Feng; Lin, Kuang-Fei

2014-10-01

139

Examination of Cr(VI) treatment by zero-valent iron using in situ, real-time X-ray absorption spectroscopy and Cr isotope measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of replicate flow-through cell experiments was conducted to characterize Cr isotope fractionation during Cr(VI) treatment by granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). Synthetic groundwater containing 50 mg L-1 Cr(VI) was pumped upward through a custom-made cell packed with ZVI under anaerobic conditions. The geochemical evolution of the system was monitored using pH and redox measurements, while aqueous effluent samples were retained for analysis of cations and Cr isotopes. Real-time, in situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy collected via a Kapton® window in the cell provided additional information on the speciation of the reaction products. Increases in ?53Cr values corresponding to decreases in Cr(VI) concentration suggested the occurrence of redox processes. Spectroscopic results correlated well with the isotope data, indicating reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The isotope data did not appear to follow a single trend. A two-stage system was proposed to explain the complex isotope trend, where the rapid Cr removal was associated with very little fractionation (? = -0.2‰), whereas slower removal was associated with a greater degree of fractionation (? = -1.2‰ to -1.5‰). Reactive transport modeling was used to quantify distinct isotope fractionation values (?), differentiated by a significant change in the Cr removal rate.

Jamieson-Hanes, Julia H.; Lentz, Adam M.; Amos, Richard T.; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W.

2014-10-01

140

Surface coating with Ca(OH)2 for improvement of the transport of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in porous media.  

PubMed

A novel thermal deposition method was developed to coat Ca(OH)2 on the surface of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). The nZVI particles with the Ca(OH)2 coating layer, nZVI/Ca(OH)2, had a clear core-shell structure based on the transmission electron microscopy observations, and the Ca(OH)2 shell was identified as an amorphous phase. The Ca(OH)2 coating shell would not only function as an effective protection layer for nZVI but also improve the mobility of nZVI in porous media for its use in environmental decontamination. A 10% Ca/Fe mass ratio was found to result in a proper thickness of the Ca(OH)2 shell on the nZVI surface. Based on the filtration tests in sand columns, the Ca(OH)2-based surface coating could greatly improve the mobility and transport of nZVI particles in porous media. In addition, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the reactivity of Ca(OH)2-coated nZVI particles for the reduction of Cr(VI) and its removal from water. PMID:24292480

Wei, Cai-jie; Li, Xiao-yan

2013-01-01

141

Degradation pathway and kinetics of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides oxidation in an ultrasonic nanoscale zero-valent iron/hydrogen peroxide system.  

PubMed

Fenton and Fenton-like oxidation has been already demonstrated to be efficient for the degradation of imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), but little is known for their degradation pathway and kinetics in such systems. In this work, degradation pathway and kinetics of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides ([Cnmim]Br, n=2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) were investigated in an ultrasound nanoscale zero-valent iron/hydrogen peroxide (US-nZVI/H2O2) system. For this purpose, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4mim]Br) was used as a representative ionic liquid to optimize pH value, nZVI dose, and H2O2 concentration for the degradation reaction. Then, the degradation kinetics of [Cnmim]Br was investigated under optimal conditions, and their degradation intermediates were monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was shown that the degradation of [Cnmim]Br in such a heterogeneous Fenton-like system could be described by a second order kinetic model, and a number of intermediate products were detected. Based on these intermediate products, detailed pathways were proposed for the degradation of [Cnmim]Br in the ultrasound-assisted nZVI/H2O2 system. These findings may be useful for the better understanding of degradation mechanism of the imidazolium ILs in aqueous solutions. PMID:25463239

Zhou, Haimei; Shen, Yuanyuan; Lv, Ping; Wang, Jianji; Li, Pu

2015-03-01

142

Pilot-scale demonstration of the hybrid zero-valent iron process for treating flue-gas-desulfurization wastewater: part I.  

PubMed

The hybrid zero-valent-iron (hZVI) process is a novel chemical treatment process that has shown great potential in previous laboratory and field bench-top scale tests for removing selenium, mercury and nutrients from various industrial wastewaters. In this study, a pilot-scale demonstration was conducted to continuously treat 3.8-7.6 L/min (1-2 gpm) of the flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) wastewater at a coal-fired power plant for five months. Results show that the hZVI process could simultaneously reduce selenate-Se from 1 to 3 mg/L to below 10 ?g/L and mercury from over 100 ?g/L to below 10 ng/L in compliance with the new stringent effluent discharge limits planned by the U.S. EPA for Se and Hg. A three-stage hZVI system with a combined hydraulic retention time of 12 h is sufficient for Se treatment, while a single-stage system can meet Hg treatment requirement. The successful pilot study demonstrated that the hZVI process is scalable and could be a reliable, low-cost, high-performance treatment platform with many application potentials, particularly, for solving some of the toughest heavy metal water problems. PMID:23128616

Huang, Yong H; Peddi, Phani K; Zeng, Hui; Tang, Ci-Lai; Teng, Xinjun

2013-01-01

143

SBA-15-incorporated nanoscale zero-valent iron particles for chromium(VI) removal from groundwater: mechanism, effect of pH, humic acid and sustained reactivity.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVIs) were incorporated inside the channels of SBA-15 rods by a "two solvents" reduction technique and used to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. The resulting NZVIs/SBA-15 composites before and after reaction were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results helped to propose the mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by NZVIs/SBA-15, where Cr(VI) in aqueous was firstly impregnated into the channels of the silica, then adsorbed on the surfaces of the incorporated NZVIs and reduced to Cr(III) directly in the inner pores of the silica. Corrosion products included Fe2O3, FeO(OH), Fe3O4 and Cr2FeO4. Batch experiments revealed that Cr(VI) removal decreased from 99.7% to 92.8% when the initial solution pH increased from 5.5 to 9.0, accompanied by the decrease of the kobs from 0.600 to 0.024 min(-1). Humic acid (HA) had a little effect on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) by NZVIs/SBA-15 but could decrease the reduction rate. The stable reduction of NZVIs/SBA-15 was observed within six cycles. NZVIs/SBA-15 composites offer a promising alternative material to remove heavy metals from groundwater. PMID:24374562

Sun, Xia; Yan, Yubo; Li, Jiansheng; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

2014-02-15

144

Molecular stress responses to nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles in the soil bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri.  

PubMed

Nanotoxicological studies were performed in vitro using the common soil bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri to assess the potentially toxic impact of commercial nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles, which are currently used for environmental remediation projects. The phenotypic response of P. stutzeri to nZVI toxicity includes an initial insult to the cell wall, as evidenced by TEM micrographs. Transcriptional analyses using genes of particular relevance in cellular activity revealed that no significant changes occurred among the relative expression ratios of narG, nirS, pykA or gyrA following nZVI exposure; however, a significant increase in katB expression was indicative of nZVI-induced oxidative stress in P. stutzeri. A proteomic approach identified two major defence mechanisms that occurred in response to nZVI exposure: a downregulation of membrane proteins and an upregulation of proteins involved in reducing intracellular oxidative stress. These biomarkers served as early indicators of nZVI response in this soil bacterium, and may provide relevant information for environmental hazard assessment. PMID:24586957

Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Fajardo, Carmen; Martinez-Gomariz, Montserrat; Costa, Gonzalo; Nande, Mar; Martin, Margarita

2014-01-01

145

Transcriptional and proteomic stress responses of a soil bacterium Bacillus cereus to nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles.  

PubMed

Nanosized zero valent iron (nZVI) is emerging as an option for treating contaminated soil and groundwater even though the potentially toxic impact exerted by nZVI on soil microorganisms remains uncertain. In this work, we focus on nanotoxicological studies performed in vitro using commercial nZVI and one common soil bacterium (Bacillus cereus). Results showed a negative impact of nZVI on B. cereus growth capability, consistent with the entrance of cells in an early sporulation stage, observed by TEM. Despite no changes at the transcriptional level are detected in genes of particular relevance in cellular activity (narG, nirS, pykA, gyrA and katB), the proteomic approach used highlights differentially expressed proteins in B. cereus under nZVI exposure. We demonstrate that proteins involved in oxidative stress-response and tricarboxilic acid cycle (TCA) modulation are overexpressed; moreover proteins involved in motility and wall biosynthesis are repressed. Our results enable to detect a molecular-level response as early warning signal, providing new insight into first line defense response of a soil bacterium after nZVI exposure. PMID:23816452

Fajardo, C; Saccà, M L; Martinez-Gomariz, M; Costa, G; Nande, M; Martin, M

2013-10-01

146

Application of ultrasound to enhance the zero-valent iron-initiated abiotic degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeable iron barriers, while effective as a near-passive in situ remediation technology for halogenated organic solvents, are susceptible to the loss of reactivity over time, most probably due to a build up of corrosion products or other precipitates on the iron surface. If such material can be removed, a barrier's lifetime can be significantly extended. This proof-of-concept project employed ultrasonic energy to rejuvenate an iron surface. Through batch studies, iron's capacity to degrade dissolved chlorinated solvents under various conditions before and after sonication was examined. The impact of iron pretreatment, groundwater quality, and sonication and the nature of the deposits formed on iron during solvent degradation were determined in order to evaluate the physical mechanism of ultrasonic enhancement of iron and to develop guidelines for barrier design and an ultrasound delivery system for a future field study. Iron (coarse filings, 100-mesh powder, or foamed pellets) placed in deoxygenated natural groundwater was exposed to 330 W-hr of ultrasonic energy prior to the introduction of trichloroethylene (TCE). The iron was also subjected to various pretreatments to create surface conditions with differing rates of activity for chlorinated solvent degradation. Aqueous concentrations of TCE and any degradation products were monitored over time. Geochemical modeling indicated that an iron barrier in this water would be subject to heavy precipitation of carbonates and hydroxides. Sonication positively impacted iron's degradation of chlorinated solvents, probably most directly linked to an increase in active specific surface area, achieved by removing deposits and/or etching the surface, as suggested by scanning electron micrographs. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that sonication also changes the chemical composition of the outermost 40 Angstroms of an iron surface. For some degraded irons, activity was restored to near initial rates after sonication. The nonchlorinated fraction of degradation products increased after sonication, suggesting more complete, as well as more rapid, degradation. The application of ultrasound to restore an iron barrier holds great promise. Sonication removes obstructive material from an iron surface, improves its activity for the degradation of chlorinated solvents, and is effective even in water environments with a great tendency to form precipitates.

Ruiz, Nancy Elaine

147

[Effects of particle size of zero-valent iron on the reactivity of activating persulfate and kinetics for the degradation of acid orange 7].  

PubMed

This research described the heterogeneous reactions of persulfate with different particle sizes of zero-valent iron (including 1 mm-ZVI,150 ?m-ZVI,50 nm-ZVI) for degradation of acid orange 7(AO7) , and studied the kinetics and intermediate products of AO7 under these systems. The results demonstrated that these three types of ZVI were efficient in promoting the degradation of AO7, the degradation efficiencies of AO7 were 43% , 97% , and 100% within 90 min respectively, in the 1 mm-ZVI,150 ?m-ZVI and 50 nm- ZVI systems, respectively. With the results of kinetic fitting models, the pseudo first-order kinetics exhibited better fitting results in the 1 mm-ZVI,150 ?m-ZVI systems, while the second-order kinetics exhibited better fitting results in the 50 nm-ZVI system. And the different ZVI types exhibited difference on the AO7 degradation rate constant, which ranged as 50 nm-ZVI > 150 ?m-ZVI > 1 mm-ZVI. The iron corrosion products coating on the ZVI after reaction were composed of ?-Fe2 O3 and some Fe3O4 in the 1 mm-ZVI system while that consisted of Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3, FeOOH respectively, in thel50 ?m-ZVI and 50 nm-ZVI systems,. Which were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. Some intermediate products, including 2-naphthalenol, 2-methylphenol, 4-ethyl- 3-methyl-phenol, isoindole- 1,3-dione and phthalic acid et al. were identified by GC/MS measurement. Both UV-vis absorbance spectra and GC/MS determination indicated that there was difference in degradation paths of AO7 between the three systems. PMID:25518660

Li, Huan-xuan; Wan, Jin-quan; Ma, Yong-wen; Huang, Ming-zhiz; Wang, Yan; Chen Yang, Mei

2014-09-01

148

Conceptual analysis of zero-valent iron fracture reactive barriers for remediating a trichloroethylene plume in a chalk aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel concept, the Fe0 fracture reactive barrier (Fe0 FRB), is proposed to clean up chlorinated solvent pollution of groundwater in a chalk aquifer. Iron particles, suspended in a viscous biodegradable gel, can be injected into selected fractures to create an extended reactive zone of partly iron-filled fractures. To evaluate the feasibility of Fe0 FRB as a remediation strategy, we

Zuansi Cai; David N. Lerner; Robert G. McLaren; Ryan D. Wilson

2007-01-01

149

Degradation of bromothymol blue by 'greener' nano-scale zero-valent iron synthesized using tea polyphenols  

EPA Science Inventory

A green single-step synthesis of iron nanoparticles using tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenols is described that uses no added surfactants/polymers as a capping or reducing agents. The expeditious reaction between polyphenols and ferric nitrate occurs within few minutes at room te...

150

Applicability of Zero-Valent Iron With Lignite Additives as Geochemical In Situ Barrier for Acid Mine Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine waters can contain high concentrations of metals like iron, aluminum, zinc, uranium and heavy metals. Research has been conducted for several years to establish the extent to which under the conditions of the former uranium mine of Königstein (Saxony, Germany) reduction of pollutant concentrations can be positively influenced and accelerated by storage of reactive materials in open mine

Christoph Klinger; Ulf Jenk; Jochen Schreyer

151

Exploring the Role of Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron and Bacteria on the Degradation of a Multi-component Chlorinated Solvent at the Field Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) has advanced as a technology for the remediation of priority source zone contaminants in response to early laboratory studies that showed rapid rates of compound degradation. The challenges associated with the delivery of nZVI particles (eg. rapid aggregation and settling) were partially resolved with the addition of a polyelectrolyte polymers, like Carboxymethyl cellulose, that significantly improves the colloidal stability of particles allowing for more controlled injection and transport in the subsurface. Following nZVI application and abiotic contaminant degradation nZVI oxidizes and yields reducing conditions. These reducing conditions are ideal for many dechlorinating bacteria. Given this, application of nZVI for abiotic contaminant degradation followed by bioremediation has become an area of active research interest. In this study nZVI was injected into a contaminated sandy subsurface area. Concentrations of a range of chlorinated compounds, including chlorinated ethenes, ethanes, and methanes were monitored in detail following nano-particle injection in order to access short term abiotic degradation. Monitoring continued over a 2 year period to evaluate the long term effects of nZVI injection on the bacterial communities and the biotic degradation of targeted chlorinated compounds. The study focusses on the degradation and evolution of intermediate compounds from reaction with targeted contaminant compounds along the nZVI flow path. Bacterial populations were quantified before injection to confirm that beneficial chloride reducing bacteria were present on site. The microbiological response to the injection of nZVI was studied and the performance of bacteria along the nZVI flow path and outside the nZVI affected area will be compared.

Kocur, C. M.; Lomheim, L.; Boparai, H.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Weber, K.; Austrins, L. M.; Sleep, B. E.; Edwards, E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

2013-12-01

152

Potential artifacts in interpretation of differential breakthrough of colloids and dissolved tracers in the context of transport in a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier.  

PubMed

Many published studies have used visual comparison of the timing of peak breakthrough of colloids versus conservative dissolved tracers (hereafter referred to as dissolved tracers or tracers) in subsurface media to determine whether they are advected differently, and to elucidate the mechanisms of differential advection. This purely visual approach of determining differential advection may have artifacts, however, due to the attachment of colloids to subsurface media. The attachment of colloids to subsurface media may shift the colloidal peak breakthrough to earlier times, causing an apparent "faster" peak breakthrough of colloids relative to dissolve tracers even though the transport velocities for the colloids and the dissolved tracers may actually be equivalent. In this paper, a peak shift analysis was presented to illustrate the artifacts associated with the purely visual approach in determining differential advection, and to quantify the peak shift due to colloid attachment. This peak shift analysis was described within the context of microsphere and bromide transport within a zero-valent iron (ZVI) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) located in Fry Canyon, Utah. Application of the peak shift analysis to the field microsphere and bromide breakthrough data indicated that differential advection of the microspheres relative to the bromide occurred in the monitoring wells closest to the injection well in the PRB. It was hypothesized that the physical heterogeneity at the grain scale, presumably arising from differences in inter- versus intra-particle porosity, contributed to the differential advection of the microspheres versus the bromide in the PRB. The relative breakthrough (RB) of microspheres at different wells was inversely related to the ionic strength of ground water at these wells, in agreement with numerous studies showing that colloid attachment is directly related to solution ionic strength. PMID:11708449

Zhang, B P; Johnson, W P; Piana, M J; Fuller, C C; Naftz, D L

2001-01-01

153

Pilot-scale demonstration of the hybrid zero-valent iron process for treating flue-gas-desulfurization wastewater: part II.  

PubMed

The hybrid zero-valent-iron (hZVI) process is a novel chemical treatment process that has shown promise for removing heavy metals and nutrients from industrial wastewaters. In this study, a pilot-scale demonstration was conducted to continuously treat 3.8-7.6 L/min (1-2 gpm) of the flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) wastewater at a coal-fired power plant for 5 months. In this paper, a spike test was conducted to evaluate performance of the hZVI process for removing selected toxic metals at artificially elevated concentrations. The results showed that a multiple-stage hZVI process could decrease selenate-Se from 22 mg/L to ~10 ?g/L and dissolved Hg(2+) from 1.15 mg/L to ~10 ng/L. In addition, the process simultaneously removed a broad spectrum of heavy metals such as As(III), As(V), Cr(VI), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) from mg/L to near or sub-ppb (?g/L) level after a single-stage treatment. The process consumed about 0.3 kg ZVI per 1 m(3) FGD wastewater treated at a cost of about US$0.6/m(3). Solid waste production and energy consumption were reasonably low. The successful pilot study demonstrated that the hZVI technology can be a low-cost, high-performance treatment platform for solving some of the toughest heavy metal water problems. PMID:23168619

Huang, Yong H; Peddi, Phani K; Zeng, Hui; Tang, Ci-Lai; Teng, Xinjun

2013-01-01

154

Removal of organic compounds and trace metals from oil sands process-affected water using zero valent iron enhanced by petroleum coke.  

PubMed

The oil production generates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), referring to the water that has been in contact with oil sands or released from tailings deposits. There are concerns about the environmental impacts of the release of OSPW because of its toxicity. Zero valent iron alone (ZVI) and in combination with petroleum coke (CZVI) were investigated as environmentally friendly treatment processes for the removal of naphthenic acids (NAs), acid-extractable fraction (AEF), fluorophore organic compounds, and trace metals from OSPW. While the application of 25 g/L ZVI to OSPW resulted in 58.4% removal of NAs in the presence of oxygen, the addition of 25 g petroleum coke (PC) as an electron conductor enhanced the NAs removal up to 90.9%. The increase in ZVI concentration enhanced the removals of NAs, AEF, and fluorophore compounds from OSPW. It was suggested that the electrons generated from the oxidation of ZVI were transferred to oxygen, resulting in the production of hydroxyl radicals and oxidation of NAs. When OSPW was de-oxygenated, the NAs removal decreased to 17.5% and 65.4% during treatment with ZVI and CZVI, respectively. The removal of metals in ZVI samples was similar to that obtained during CZVI treatment. Although an increase in ZVI concentration did not enhance the removal of metals, their concentrations effectively decreased at all ZVI loadings. The Microtox(®) bioassay with Vibrio fischeri showed a decrease in the toxicity of ZVI- and CZVI-treated OSPW. The results obtained in this study showed that the application of ZVI in combination with PC is a promising technology for OSPW treatment. PMID:24681364

Pourrezaei, Parastoo; Alpatova, Alla; Khosravi, Kambiz; Drzewicz, Przemys?aw; Chen, Yuan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

2014-06-15

155

Potential artifacts in interpretation of differential breakthrough of colloids and dissolved tracers in the context of transport in a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many published studies have used visual comparison of the timing of peak breakthrough of colloids versus conservative dissolved tracers (hereafter referred to as dissolved tracers or tracers) in subsurface media to determine whether they are advected differently, and to elucidate the mechanisms of differential advection. This purely visual approach of determining differential advection may have artifacts, however, due to the attachment of colloids to subsurface media. The attachment of colloids to subsurface media may shift the colloidal peak breakthrough to earlier times, causing an apparent "faster" peak breakthrough of colloids relative to dissolve tracers even though the transport velocities for the colloids and the dissolved tracers may actually be equivalent. In this paper, a peak shift analysis was presented to illustrate the artifacts associated with the purely visual approach in determining differential advection, and to quantify the peak shift due to colloid attachment. This peak shift analysis was described within the context of microsphere and bromide transport within a zero-valent iron (ZVI) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) located in Fry Canyon, Utah. Application of the peak shift analysis to the field microsphere and bromide breakthrough data indicated that differential advection of the microspheres relative to the bromide occurred in the monitoring wells closest to the injection well in the PRB. It was hypothesized that the physical heterogeneity at the grain scale, presumably arising from differences in inter- versus intra-particle porosity, contributed to the differential advection of the microspheres versus the bromide in the PRB. The relative breakthrough (RB) of microspheres at different wells was inversely related to the ionic strength of ground water at these wells, in agreement with numerous studies showing that colloid attachment is directly related to solution ionic strength.

Zhang, P.; Johnson, W.P.; Piana, M.J.; Fuller, C.C.; Naftz, D.L.

2001-01-01

156

THE APPLICATION OF IN SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE (ZERO-VALENT IRON) BARRIER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMEDIATION OF CHROMATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER: A FIELD TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

A small-scale field test was initiated in September 1994 to evaluate the in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated with chromate using a permeable reactive barrier composed of a mixture of zero-valent Fe, sand and aquifer sediment. The site used was an old chrome-plating f...

157

ARSENATE AND ARSENITE REMOVAL BY ZERO-VALENT IRON: KINETICS, REDOX TRANSFORMATION, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR IN SITU GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch tests were performed utilizing four zerovalent iron (Fe0) filings (Fisher, Peerless, Master Builders, and Aldrich) to remove As(V) and As(III) from water. One gram of metal was reacted headspace-free at 23 °C for up to 5 days in the dark with 41.5 mL of 2 mg L-1 As(V), or A...

158

Removal of Arsenic (III, V) from aqueous solution by nanoscale zero-valent iron stabilized with starch and carboxymethyl cellulose.  

PubMed

In this work, synthetic nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) stabilized with two polymers, Starch and Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were examined and compared for their ability in removing As (III) and As (V) from aqueous solutions as the most promising iron nanoparticles form for arsenic removal. Batch operations were conducted with different process parameters such as contact time, nanoparticles concentration, initial arsenic concentration and pH. Results revealed that starch stabilized particles (S-nZVI) presented an outstanding ability to remove both arsenate and arsenite and displayed?~?36.5% greater removal for As (V) and 30% for As (III) in comparison with CMC-stabilized nanoparticles (C-nZVI). However, from the particle stabilization viewpoint, there is a clear trade off to choosing the best stabilized nanoparticles form. Removal efficiency was enhanced with increasing the contact time and iron loading but reduced with increasing initial As (III, V) concentrations and pH. Almost complete removal of arsenic (up to 500 ?g/L) was achieved in just 5 min when the S-nZVI mass concentration was 0.3 g/L and initial solution pH of 7?±?0.1. The maximum removal efficiency of both arsenic species was obtained at pH?=?5?±?0.1 and starched nanoparticles was effective in slightly acidic and natural pH values. The adsorption kinetics fitted well with pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption data obeyed the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14 mg/g for arsenic (V), and 12.2 mg/g for arsenic (III). It could be concluded that starch stabilized Fe(0) nanoparticles showed remarkable potential for As (III, V) removal from aqueous solution e.g. contaminated water. PMID:24860660

Mosaferi, Mohammad; Nemati, Sepideh; Khataee, Alireza; Nasseri, Simin; Hashemi, Ahmad Asl

2014-01-01

159

Removal of Arsenic (III, V) from aqueous solution by nanoscale zero-valent iron stabilized with starch and carboxymethyl cellulose  

PubMed Central

In this work, synthetic nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) stabilized with two polymers, Starch and Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were examined and compared for their ability in removing As (III) and As (V) from aqueous solutions as the most promising iron nanoparticles form for arsenic removal. Batch operations were conducted with different process parameters such as contact time, nanoparticles concentration, initial arsenic concentration and pH. Results revealed that starch stabilized particles (S-nZVI) presented an outstanding ability to remove both arsenate and arsenite and displayed?~?36.5% greater removal for As (V) and 30% for As (III) in comparison with CMC-stabilized nanoparticles (C-nZVI). However, from the particle stabilization viewpoint, there is a clear trade off to choosing the best stabilized nanoparticles form. Removal efficiency was enhanced with increasing the contact time and iron loading but reduced with increasing initial As (III, V) concentrations and pH. Almost complete removal of arsenic (up to 500 ?g/L) was achieved in just 5 min when the S-nZVI mass concentration was 0.3 g/L and initial solution pH of 7?±?0.1. The maximum removal efficiency of both arsenic species was obtained at pH?=?5?±?0.1 and starched nanoparticles was effective in slightly acidic and natural pH values. The adsorption kinetics fitted well with pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption data obeyed the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14 mg/g for arsenic (V), and 12.2 mg/g for arsenic (III). It could be concluded that starch stabilized Fe0 nanoparticles showed remarkable potential for As (III, V) removal from aqueous solution e.g. contaminated water. PMID:24860660

2014-01-01

160

Removal of uranium (VI) from aqueous systems by nanoscale zero-valent iron particles suspended in carboxy-methyl cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carboxy-methyl-cellulose (CMC), a common "delivery vehicle" for the subsurface deployment of iron nanoparticles (INP) has been tested in the current work for the removal of aqueous uranium from synthetic water samples. A comparison of the removal of aqueous uranium from solutions using carboxy-methyl-cellulose with and without iron nanoparticles (CMC-INP and CMC, respectively) was tested over a 48 h reaction period. Analysis of liquid samples using spectrophotometry determined a maximum sorption capacity of uranium, Qmax, of 185.18 mg/g and 322.58 mg/g for CMC and CMC-INP respectively, providing strong evidence of an independent aqueous uranium removal ability exhibited by CMC. The results point out that CMC provides an additional capacity for aqueous uranium removal. Further tests are required to determine whether similar behaviour will be observed for other aqueous contaminant species and if the presence of CMC within a INP slurry inhibits or aids the reactivity, reductive capacity and affinity of INP for aqueous contaminant removal.

Popescu (Ho?tuc), Ioana-Carmen; Filip, Petru; Humelnicu, Doina; Humelnicu, Ionel; Scott, Thomas Bligh; Crane, Richard Andrew

2013-11-01

161

Reduction of chlorinated ethanes by nanosized zero-valent iron: kinetics, pathways, and effects of reaction conditions.  

PubMed

Nanosized iron (< 100 nm in diameter) was synthesized in the laboratory and applied to the reduction of eight chlorinated ethanes (hexachloroethane (HCA), pentachloroethane (PCA), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TeCA), 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,1,2-TeCA), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA)) in batch reactors. Reduction of 1,1,1-TCA increased linearly with increasing iron loading between 0.01 and 0.05 g per 124 mL solution (0.08-0.4 g/L). Varying initial concentrations of PCA between 0.025 and 0.125 mM resulted in relatively constant pseudo-first-order rate constants, indicating PCA removal conforms to pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reduction of 1,1,2,2-TeCA decreased with increasing pH; however, dehydrohalogenation of 1,1,2,2-TeCA became important at high pH. All chlorinated ethanes except 1,2-DCA were transformed to less chlorinated ethanes or ethenes. The surface-area-normalized rate constants from first-order kinetics analysis ranged from < 4 x 10(-6) to 0.80 L m(-2) h(-1). In general, the reactivity increased with increasing chlorination. Among tri- and tetrasubstituted compounds, the reactivity was higher for compounds with chlorine atoms more localized on a single carbon (e.g., 1,1,1-TCA > 1,1,2-TCA). Reductive beta-elimination was the major pathway for the chlorinated ethanes possessing alpha,beta-pairs of chlorine atoms to form chlorinated ethenes, which subsequently reacted with nanosized iron. Reductive alpha-elimination and hydrogenolysis were concurrent pathways for compounds possessing chlorine substitution on one carbon only, forming less chlorinated ethanes. PMID:16173587

Song, Hocheol; Carraway, Elizabeth R

2005-08-15

162

Field Application of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Particles to In-Situ Treatment of Trichloroethylene in an Aquifer with an Oxic Condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) is a promising reactive medium for rapid in situ remediation of various contaminants including chlorinated solvents, in the groundwater and soil. However, once NZVI particles are injected into an aquifer, they can have poor mobility and reactivity due to their aggregation tendency and to interactions with groundwater solutes such as anions, dissolved organic matter (NOM), and oxygen. Therefore, key technical challenges in the field application are to distribute NZVI particles effectively within the contaminated area, and to maintain the reactivity of NZVI particles while they are delivered. Field studies were conducted to evaluate: (i) mobility of a polymer-coated NZVI in an aquifer with a strong oxic condition, (ii) effect of dissolved oxygen on the degradation of TCE, and (iii) effects of dissolved anions and oxygen on the sustainability of injected NZVI. Initially, natural gradient and forced gradient tracer tests were carried out to investigate the hydrogeological characteristics of the site before injecting NZVI. Preferential flow paths of the groundwater identified by the tracer tests were towards northeast and northwest. The NZVI slurry was then prepared on site and injected at a concentration of up to 10 g/L into the subsurface having area of 140 ft2. A total of approximately 66 pounds of the coated NZVI were successfully injected. During the field injections, NZVI particles were observed in a monitoring well located 13 feet downgradient from the injection well. Iron monitoring data showed that the NZVI could reasonably be delivered under the oxic condition that could enhance the formation of iron oxides, which could be deleterious for the NZVI transport. TCE degradation was more active at the wells with high DO concentrations, based on the correlation between TCE concentrations and DO or NZVI concentrations. It was suspected that solid or liquid form of ferrous ion from the oxidation of NZVI caused a Fenton reaction in presence of oxygen. The TCE monitoring data showed that 99% of the TCE at the site was removed by the NZVI injection. The concentrations of degradation products such as ethane and ethene increased in the monitoring wells following the NZVI injections. A lab evaluation showed that TCE degradation capacity of the injected NZVI (collected after 5 months) remained up to 30% compared with the initial capacity. Groundwater monitoring was conducted for approximately eight months to evaluate the long-term performance of the NZVI particles.

Ahn, J.; Kim, C.; Huynh, T. N.; Hwang, I.

2013-12-01

163

Effects of carbonate species on the kinetics of dechlorination of 1,1,1-trichloroethane by zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

The effect of precipitates on the reactivity of iron metal (Fe0) with 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) was studied in batch systems designed to model groundwaters that contain dissolved carbonate species (i.e., C(IV)). At representative concentrations for high-C(IV) groundwaters (approximately 10(-2) M), the pH in batch reactors containing Fe0 was effectively buffered until most of the aqueous C(IV) precipitated. The precipitate was mainly FeCO3 (siderite) but may also have included some carbonate green rust. Exposure of the Fe0 to dissolved C(IV) accelerated reduction of TCA, and the products formed under these conditions consisted mainly of ethane and ethene, with minor amounts of several butenes. The kinetics of TCA reduction were first-order when C(IV)-enhanced corrosion predominated but showed mixed-order kinetics (zero- and first-order) in experiments performed with passivated Fe0 (i.e., before the onset of pitting corrosion and after repassivation by precipitation of FeCO3). All these data were described by fitting a Michaelis-Menten-type kinetic model and approximating the first-order rate constant as the ratio of the maximum reaction rate (Vm) and the concentration of TCA at half of the maximum rate (K(1/2)). The decrease in Vm/K(1/2) with increasing C(IV) exposure time was fit to a heuristic model assuming proportionality between changes in TCA reduction rate and changes in surface coverage with FeCO3. PMID:12387405

Agrawal, Abinash; Ferguson, William J; Gardner, Bruce O; Christ, John A; Bandstra, Joel Z; Tratnyek, Paul G

2002-10-15

164

Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium in Soil and Ground Water Using Zero-Valent Iron Under Batch and Semi-Batch Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical remediation of soil and groundwater containing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was carried out under batch and semi-batch\\u000a conditions using different iron species: (Fe(II) (sulphate solution); Fe0\\u000a G (granulated elemental iron); ZVIne (non-stabilized zerovalent iron) and ZVIcol (colloidal zerovalent iron). ZVIcol was synthesized\\u000a using different experimental conditions with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and ultra-sound. Chemical analysis revealed that\\u000a the contaminated soil (frank

Débora V. Franco; Leonardo M. Da Silva; Wilson F. Jardim

2009-01-01

165

ARSENATE AND ARSENITE REMOVAL BY ZERO-VALENT IRON: EFFECTS OF PHOSPHATE, SILICATE, CARBONATE, BORATE, SULFATE, CHROMATE, MOLYBDATE, AND NITRATE, RELATIVE TO CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch tests were performed to evaluate the effects of inorganic anion competition on the kinetics of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) removal by zerovalent iron (Peerless Fe0) in aqueous solution. The oxyanions underwent either sorption-dominated reactions (phosphate, sil...

166

Reduction and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metal ions using combined zero valent iron and anaerobic bacteria. Year one technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this project is to design a combined abiotic/microbial, reactive, permeable, in-situ barrier with sufficient reductive potential to prevent downgradient migration of toxic metal ions. The field-scale application of this technology would utilize anaerobic digester sludge, Fe(O) particles for supporting anaerobic biofilms, and suitable aquifer material for construction of the barrier. The major goals for Year 1 were to establish the sulfate reducing mixed culture, to obtain sources of iron metal, and to conduct background experiments which will establish baseline rates for abiotic chromium reduction rates. Research completed to date is described.'

Weathers, L.J.; Katz, L.E.

1997-10-01

167

USING ZERO-VALENT METAL NANOPARTICLES TO REMEDIATE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The transport of organic contaminants down the soil profile constitutes a serious threat to the quality of ground water. Zero-valent metals are considered innocuous abiotic agents capable of mediating decontamination processes in terrestrial systems. In this investigation, ze...

168

Oxidative degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution using zero valent copper under aerobic atmosphere condition.  

PubMed

Oxidative degradation of organic pollutants and its mechanism were investigated in aqueous solution using zero valent copper (ZVC) under aerobic atmosphere condition. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was completely oxidized after 120 min reaction by ZVC at initial pH 2.5 open to the air. DEP degradation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics after the lag period, and the degradation rate of DEP increased gradually with the increase of ZVC dosage, and the decrease of initial pH from 5.8 to 2.0. ZVC required a shorter induction time and exhibited persistent oxidation capacity compared to that of zero valent iron and zero valent aluminium. The mechanism investigation showed that remarkable amount of Cu(+)/Cu(2+) and H2O2 were formed in ZVC acidic system, which was due to the corrosive dissolution of ZVC and the concurrent reduction of oxygen. The addition of tert-butanol completely inhibited the degradation of DEP and the addition of Fe(2+) greatly enhanced the degradation rate, which demonstrated that hydroxyl radical was mainly responsible for the degradation of DEP in ZVC acidic system under aerobic atmosphere condition, and the formation of hydroxyl radical was attributed to the Fenton-like reaction of in situ formed Cu(+) with H2O2. PMID:24857902

Wen, Gang; Wang, Sheng-Jun; Ma, Jun; Huang, Ting-Lin; Liu, Zheng-Qian; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Jin-Lan

2014-06-30

169

Reductive elimination of chlorinated ethylenes by zero-valent metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date it does not appear to have been demonstrated in the literature that halogenated ethylenes can undergo reductive β-elimination to alkynes under environmental conditions. The purpose of this paper is to provide experimental evidence that such pathways may be involved in the reaction of chloroethylenes with zero-valent metals as well as to speculate on the significance of the products

A. Lynn Roberts; Lisa A. Totten; William A. Arnold; David R. Burris; Timothy J. Campbell

1996-01-01

170

[Zero valent seleniume nanoparticles bioavailability estimation in rats].  

PubMed

Bioavailability of zero valent selenium (Se) nanoparticles with average size 60 nm was measured in rats receiving selenium deficient diet. There was demonstrated that intragastric administration of Se nanoparticles resulted in dose-dependent increase of serum Se level, normalization of tissue thiol pools, immune status and hepatocytes apoptosis. Possibilities are discussed of Se nanoparticles use in nutrition as a source of this trace element. PMID:22232881

Raspopov, R V; Arianova, E A; Trushina, É N; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Kuz'min, P G; Shafeev, G A; Prodvorova, S M; Gmoshinski?, I V; Khotimchenko, S A

2011-01-01

171

FINAL REPORT. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE REMOVAL OF CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUND AND WASTE WATER VIA REDUCTION BY ZERO-VALENT METALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites, and in other areas of the U.S. A potential remediation method is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron (ZVI). We ar...

172

Electrochemical deposition of green rust on zero-valent iron  

E-print Network

Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Bill Batchelor Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a toxic contaminant that has been introduced into the environment over many years through industrial and agricultural wastes. Research has been done in the past...’ble Vijay D. Kulkarni) …whose toil in the barren soil of my mind bore this fruit, finally! vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I hereby wholeheartedly acknowledge the help provided by my lab-mates, especially Jin- Kun Song and Choi; and my advisor Dr. Batchelor...

Kulkarni, Dhananjay Vijay

2006-08-16

173

ZERO-VALENT IRON PRB APPLICATION EXPANDS TO ARSENIC REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development?s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and Region 8 have begun evaluating performance of a pilot-scale permeable reactive barrier (PRB) to treat arsenic-contaminated ground water at the ASARCO Superfund near Helena, ...

174

Perchlorate reduction using electrochemically induced pitting corrosion of zero-valent titanium  

E-print Network

effective technologies, especially chemical treatments, to completely destroy trace levels of perchlorate present in drinking and groundwater. The research on perchlorate reduction by zero-valent titanium (Ti(0)) showed that perchlorate was effectively...

Lee, Chun Woo

2009-05-15

175

Zero-Valent Metallic Treatment System and Its Application for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PCBs are removed from contaminated media using a treatment system including zero-valent metal particles and an organic hydrogen donating solvent. The treatment system may include a weak acid in order to eliminate the need for a coating of catalytic noble metal on the zero-valent metal particles. If catalyzed zero-valent metal particles are used, the treatment system may include an organic hydrogen donating solvent that is a non-water solvent. The treatment system may be provided as a "paste-like" system that is preferably applied to natural media and ex-situ structures to eliminate PCBs.

Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen B. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

176

Rapid degradation of endosulfan by zero-valent zinc in water and soil.  

PubMed

Endosulfan has been included in the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in 2011. The degradation of endosulfan by zero-valent zinc in water and soil was first investigated. The results showed that >90% endosulfan could be degraded in 180 min. The degradation was accelerated under acidic conditions with the absence of dissolved oxygen, while the nature of the soil only exhibited a negligible effect. The half-life was decreased from 130.75 min to 41.75 min with the increment of Zn(0) from 0.1 g to 1 g in soil. The use of Zn(0) was more effective than Fe(0) for the degradation of endosulfan with a half-life of 110 min and 330 min. The cationic surfactant was more effective at enhancing the degradation of endosulfan than anionic and nonionic surfactant. The degradation pathway was speculated, and four chlorine of endosulfan were proposed to be reduced. The method exhibited obvious advantages over traditional endosulfan treatments, and the research results will lay a foundation for practical application of the method. PMID:25556870

Cong, Lujing; Guo, Jing; Liu, Jisong; Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Minghua

2015-03-01

177

In situ synthesis of zero-valent silver nanoparticles in polymethylmethacrylate under high temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix under high temperature with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as additional stabilizer and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as reaction medium. The UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were adopted to investigate the growth and shape conversion of Ag nanoparticles with the lacking of additional Ag source. The results showed that the stable zero-valent Ag in PMMA was obtained successfully. Two types of Ag nanoparticles, single-crystal and twinned ones, could form in the initial period. While the twinned ones will gradually disappear along with the reaction processed, the single-crystal ones could survive and slowly grow by consuming the Ag atoms which were etched form twinned ones. The single-crystal ones will take shape conversion from sphere to nanocube with nearly the same particle size after the total disappearance of twinned ones. The size and shape of Ag nanoparticles can be well controlled by reaction time. The high viscosity PMMA matrix plays the important role of controlling the growth of the Ag nanoparticles, and the PVP takes the responsibility of the shape conversion.

Xiong, Yuanlu; Luo, Guoqiang; Chen, Cheng; Yuan, Huan; Shen, Qiang; Li, Meijuan

2012-05-01

178

REMEDIATING RDX-CONTAMINATED WATER AND SOIL USING ZERO-VALENT IRON. (R825549C043)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

179

Dechlorination of PCE by mixtures of green rust and zero-valent iron  

E-print Network

such as pH (8, 9, and 10), ZVI pretreatment, and preparation method of the mixtures (GR[S]?? synthesized in the presence of ZVI; GR[S]?? and ZVI mixed after preparation). For all the experimental conditions evaluated, the activities of these reductants...

Marchal, Fabienne

2012-06-07

180

Performance evaluation of a zero-valent iron reactive barrier: mineralogical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a limited amount of information about the effects of mineral precipitates and corrosion on the lifespan and long-term performance of in situ Fe° reactive barriers. The objectives of this paper are (1) to investigate mineral precipitates through an in situ permeable Fe° reactive barrier and (2) to examine the cementation and corrosion of Fe° filings in order to

Debra Helen Phillips; Baohua Gu; David B Watson; Yul Roh; Liyuan Liang; S. Y. Lee

2000-01-01

181

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ZERO-VALENT IRON TO TREAT GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The generation and release of acidic, metal-rich water from mine wastes continues to be an intractable environmental problem. Although the effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) are most evident in surface waters, there is an obvious need for developing cost-effective approaches fo...

182

Influence of hydrogeochemical processes on zero-valent iron reactive barrier performance: a field investigation.  

PubMed

Geochemical and mineralogical changes were evaluated at a field Fe0-PRB at the Oak Ridge Y-12 site concerning operation performance during the treatment of U in high NO3- groundwater. In the 5-year study period, the Fe0 remained reactive as shown in pore-water monitoring data, where increases in pH and the removal of certain ionic species persisted. However, coring revealed varying degrees of cementation. After 3.8-year treatment, porosity reduction of up to 41.7% was obtained from mineralogical analysis on core samples collected at the upgradient gravel-Fe0 interface. Elsewhere, Fe0 filings were loose with some cementation. Fe0 corrosion and pore volume reduction at this site are more severe due to the presence of NO3- at a high level. Tracer tests indicate that hydraulic performance deteriorated: the flow distribution was heterogeneous and under the influence of interfacial cementation a large portion of water was diverted around the Fe0 and transported outside the PRB. Based on the equilibrium reductions of NO3- and SO4(2-) by Fe0 and mineral precipitation, geochemical modeling predicted a maximum of 49% porosity loss for 5 years of operation. Additionally, modeling showed a spatial distribution of mineral precipitate volumes, with the maximum advancing from the interface toward downgradient with time. This study suggests that water quality monitoring, coupled with hydraulic monitoring and geochemical modeling, can provide a low-cost method for assessing PRB performance. PMID:16051393

Liang, Liyuan; Moline, Gerilynn R; Kamolpornwijit, Wiwat; West, Olivia R

2005-08-01

183

Influence of hydrogeochemical processes on zero-valent iron reactive barrier performance: a field investigation.  

PubMed

Geochemical and mineralogical changes were evaluated at a field Fe0-PRB at the Oak Ridge Y-12 site concerning operation performance during the treatment of U in high NO3- groundwater. In the 5-yr study period, the Fe0 remained reactive as shown in pore water monitoring data, where increases in pH and the removal of certain ionic species persisted. However, coring revealed varying degrees of cementation. After 3.8-yr treatment, porosity reduction of up to 41.7% was obtained from mineralogical analysis on core samples collected at the upgradient gravel-Fe0 interface. Elsewhere, Fe0 filings were loose with some cementation. Fe0 corrosion and pore volume reduction at this site are more severe due to the presence of NO3- at a high level. Tracer tests indicate that hydraulic performance deteriorated: the flow distribution was heterogeneous and under the influence of interfacial cementation a large portion of water was diverted around the Fe0 and transported outside the PRB. Based on the equilibrium reductions of NO3- and SO4(2-) by Fe0 and mineral precipitation, geochemical modeling predicted a maximum of 49% porosity loss for 5 yr of operation. Additionally, modeling showed a spatial distribution of mineral precipitate volumes, with the maximum advancing from the interface toward downgradient with time. This study suggests that water quality monitoring, coupled with hydraulic monitoring and geochemical modeling, can provide a low-cost method for assessing PRB performance. PMID:16126304

Liang, Liyuan; Moline, Gerilynn R; Kamolpornwijit, Wiwat; West, Olivia R

2005-11-01

184

Effects of zero-valent metals together with quartz sand on the mechanochemical destruction of dechlorane plus coground in a planetary ball mill.  

PubMed

Mechanochemical destruction by grinding with additives in high energy ball milling has been identified as a good alternative to traditional incineration for the disposal of wastes containing halogenated organic pollutants. Despite CaO normally used as an additive, recently Fe+SiO2 has been used to replace CaO for a faster destruction. In the present study, zero-valent metals (Al, Zn, besides Fe) together with SiO2 were investigated for their efficiencies of prompting the destruction of dechlorane plus (DP). Aluminum was found of be the best with a destruction percentage of nearly 99% for either syn- or anti-DP after 2.5h milling. In comparison, only 88/85% and 37/32% of syn-/anti-DP were destroyed when using zinc and iron after the same time, respectively. The detected water soluble chloride was lower than the stoichiometric amount containing in the original DP samples, due to the Si-Cl bond formed during the process. The potential fate of C and Cl present in DP is in the form of inorganic carbon, inorganic Cl and formation of Si-Cl bonds, respectively. The results suggested that Al+SiO2 is promising in the mechanochemical destruction of chlorinated organic pollutants like DP. PMID:24295775

Wang, Haizhu; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Kunlun; Yu, Yunfei; Liu, Kai; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin

2014-01-15

185

Field test on the treatment of source zone chloroethenes using emulsified zerovalent iron  

EPA Science Inventory

This talk summarizes the research activities currently underway at the Solid Waste Management Unit 45 (Site 45), Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina. A pilot field test was initiated in 2005 at this site to evaluate the effectiveness of nanoscale emulsified...

186

Evaluating Trichloroethylene Degradation Using Differing Nano- and Micro-Scale Iron Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trichioroethylene, or TCE, is a central nervous system depressant and possible carcinogen, as well as a persistent groundwater pollutant. TCE exists in the aquifer either as free product in the form of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) or as a dissolved-phase constituent. It is only slightly soluble in water, so dissolution of the contaminant is a long-term process and in-situ remediation is difficult. To remedy this, NASA and the University of Central Florida developed Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron, or EZVI. The emulsion droplet contains ZVI particles and water encapsulated by an oil/surfactant membrane, and effectively penetrates to degrade DNAPL-phase TCE. To maximize the efficiency of this process, several commercially available ZVIs of radically different particle sizes and morphologies both in emulsion and as neat (unemulsified) metal were evaluated for relative effectiveness at TCE degradation.

Berger, Cristina M.; Geiger, Cherie L.; Clausen, Christian A.; Billow, Alexa M.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Brooks, Kathleen B.

2006-01-01

187

Preparation of spherical iron nanoclusters in ethanol–water solution for nitrate removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a higher surface area spherical nanoscale zero valent iron (HNZVI) cluster (80nm, 54.25m2g?1) was synthesized in ethanol–water mixed solvent in the presence of dispersion agent of polyglycol (PEG). At the same time, a lower surface area nanoscale zero valent iron (LNZVI) particle (80nm, 8.08m2g?1) was also prepared with only de-ioned water as reaction media. Their structures, compositions

Wei Wang; Zhao-hui Jin; Tie-long Li; Huan Zhang; Si Gao

2006-01-01

188

Laboratory evaluation of zero valent iron and sulfur modified iron filter materials for agricultural drainage water treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On site filter treatment systems have the potential to remove nutrients and pesticides from agricultural subsurface drainage waters. The effectiveness and efficiency of this type of drainage water treatment will depend on the actual filter materials utilized. Two promising filter materials that coul...

189

Formation of ferrihydrite and associated iron corrosion products in permeable reactive barriers of zero-valent iron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferrihydrite, which is known to form in the presence of oxygen and to be stabilized by the adsorption of Si, PO4 and SO4, is ubiquitous in the fine-grained fractions of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center (Elizabeth City, NC) and the Denver Federal Center (Lakewood, CO) studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The concurrent energy-dispersive X-ray data indicate a strong association between ferrihydrite and metals such as Si, Ca, and Cr. Magnetite, green rust 1, aragonite, calcite, mackinawite, greigite and lepidocrocite were also present, indicative of a geochemical environment that is temporally and spatially heterogeneous. Whereas magnetite, which is known to form due to anaerobic Fe0 corrosion, passivates the Fe0 surface, ferrihydrite precipitation occurs away from the immediate Fe0 surface, forming small (<0.1 microm) discrete clusters. Consequently, Fe0-PRBs may remain effective for a longer period of time in slightly oxidized groundwater systems where ferrihydrite formation occurs compared to oxygen-depleted systems where magnetite passivation occurs. The ubiquitous presence of ferrihydrite suggests that the use of Fe0-PRBs may be extended to applications that require contaminant adsorption rather than, or in addition to, redox-promoted contaminant degradation.

Furukawa, Yoko; Kim, Jin-Wook; Watkins, Janet; Wilkin, Richard T.

2002-01-01

190

Enhanced ozonation degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by zero-valent zinc in aqueous solution: performance and mechanism.  

PubMed

Enhanced ozonation degradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by zero-valent zinc (ZVZ) has been investigated using a semi-continuous reactor in aqueous solution. The results indicated that the combination of ozone (O3) and ZVZ showed an obvious synergetic effect, i.e. an improvement of 54.8% on DBP degradation was obtained by the O3/ZVZ process after 10min reaction compared to the cumulative effect of O3 alone and O2/ZVZ. The degradation efficiency of DBP increased gradually with the increase of ZVZ dosage, enhanced as solution pH increasing from 2.0 to 10.0, and more amount of DBP was degraded with the initial concentration of DBP arising from 0.5 to 2.0mgL(-1). Recycling use of ZVZ resulted in the enhancement of DBP degradation, because the newly formed zinc oxide took part in the reaction. The mechanism investigation demonstrated that the enhancement effect was attributed to the introduction of ZVZ, which could promote the utilization of O3, enhance the formation of superoxide radical by reducing O2 via one-electron transfer, accelerate the production of hydrogen peroxide and the generation of hydroxyl radical. Additionally, the newly formed zinc oxide on ZVZ surface also contributed to the enhancement of DBP degradation in the recycling use of ZVZ. Most importantly, the O3/ZVZ process was also effective in enhanced ozonation degradation of DBP under the background of actual waters. PMID:24333716

Wen, Gang; Wang, Sheng-Jun; Ma, Jun; Huang, Ting-Lin; Liu, Zheng-Qian; Zhao, Lei; Su, Jun-Feng

2014-01-30

191

Fundamental studies of the removal of contaminants from ground and waste waters via reduction by zero-valent metals. Annual progress report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

'Contaminated groundwater is a problem throughout the US and the world. In many instances the tvpes of contamination can be directly attributed to man''s actions. For instance, the burial of wastes, casual disposal of solvents in unlined pits, and the development of irrigated agriculture have all contributed to groundwater contamination. The kinds of contaminants include chlorinated solvents and toxic trace elements that are soluble and mobile in soils and aquifers. Oxyanions of selenium. chromium. uranium. arsenic. and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites. In addition. the careless disposal of cleaning solvents. such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene. has further contaminated many groundwaters at these sites. In agricultural areas of the western US, shallow groundwaters have become contaminated with high levels of selenate, chromate, and uranyl. The management of these waters requires treatment to remove the contaminants before reuse or surface water disposal. In one instance in the Central Valley of California. the discharge of selenate-contaminated shallow groundwater to a wildlife refuge caused catastrophic bird deaths and deformities of embryos. At sites where solid-propellant rocket motors were tested or disposed of, high concentrations of perchlorate and trichloroethylene are being found in the groundwater. A potential remediation method for many of these oxyanions and chlorinated-solvents is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron. In this reaction, the iron serves as both an electron source and as a catalyst. Elemental iron is already being used, on an experimental basis, for the reductive dechlorination of solvents and the removal of toxic trace elements. Both in situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are being developed for this purpose. However, the design and operation of these treatment systems requires a detailed process-level understanding of the interactions between the contaminants and the iron surfaces. Only limited success has been achieved in the field, partly because the basic surface chemical reactions are not well understood. The authors are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant chlorinated solvents, trace elements, and trace element-containing compounds with single- and poly-crystalline Fe surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop the fundamental physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures. The authors are perforrming both bulk chemical measurements of the reduction reactions and surface science studies of model chemical systems. During this first year of funding, the authors have already made significant progress in both areas. Initially, they have focused primarily on the reduction of selenate by elemental iron. They have also performed some work with chromate, perchlorate, uranyl, and carbon tetrachloride, as well. In the following sections, some of the progress is described.'

Yarmoff, J.A.; Amrhein, C.

1997-01-01

192

Travel distance and transformation of injected emulsified zerovalent iron nanoparticles in the subsurface during two and half years.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effective mass destruction of chlorinated ethenes dominated by tetrachloroethene (PCE) using emulsified zerovalent iron (EZVI) nanoparticles of RNIP-10DS in a shallow aquifer (1-6 m below ground surface, BGS) at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, USA. Here we report test results on transport and transformation of injected EZVI in the subsurface. We employed two EZVI delivery methods: pneumatic injection and direct injection. Effective delivery of EZVI to the targeted zone was achieved with pneumatic injection showing a travel distance from injection points of up to 2.1 m and direct injection showing a travel distance up to 0.89 m. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies on particles harvested from well purge waters indicated that injected black colored NZVI (?-Fe(0)) was transformed largely to black colored cube-like and plate-like magnetites (Fe3O4, 0.1-1 ?m, 0-9 months), then to orange colored irregularly shaped lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH, 0.1-1 ?m, 9 months to 2.5 years), then to yellowish lath-like goethite (?-FeOOH, 2-5 ?m, 2.5 years) and ferrihydrite-like spherical particles (0.05-0.1 ?m) in the top portion of the aquifer (1-2 m BGS). No ?-Fe(0) was found in most monitoring wells three months after injection. The formed iron oxides appeared to have a wider range of particle size (submicron to 5 ?m) than the pristine NZVI (35-140 nm). Injected NZVI was largely transformed to magnetite (0.1-1 ?m) during two and half years in the lower portion of the aquifer (3-6 m). PMID:23562563

Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W; Krug, Thomas A; Watling, Mark T; O'Hara, Suzanne K; Quinn, Jacqueline W; Ruiz, Nancy E

2013-08-01

193

Mineral precipitation and porosity losses in granular iron columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

As permeable reactive barriers containing zero-valent iron are becoming more widely used to remediate contaminated groundwaters, there remains much uncertainty in predicting their long-term performance. This study focuses on two factors affecting performance and lifetime of the granular iron media: plugging at the treatment zone entrance and precipitation in the bulk iron media. Plugging at the system entrance is due

Patricia D. Mackenzie; David P. Horney; Timothy M. Sivavec

1999-01-01

194

DIRECT PUSH METHODS FOR LOCATING AND COLLECTING CORES OF AQUIFER SEDIMENT AND ZERO-VALENT IRON FROM PERMEABLE REACYTIVE BARRIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

It is often necessary to collect core samples that do not fit the normal sampling protocol. This Field Innovation Forum submission describes new methodology that enables researchers to collect soil samples in situations where the normal vertical sampling techniques will deliver ...

195

Iron Nanoparticles in Reactive Environmental Barriers  

SciTech Connect

Zero-valent iron is cheap, environmentally innocuous, and effective at reducing chlorinated organics. It has, as a result, become a popular candidate for remediating aquifers contaminated with trichloroethylene and other halogenated pollutants. In this paper, we discuss one such system, where iron nanoparticles are synthesized and incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol membranes, forming water-permeable barriers to these pollutants. These barriers are tested against a variety of contaminants, including carbon tetrachloride, copper, and chromate.

Nuxoll, Eric E.; Shimotori, Tsutomu; Arnold, William A.; Cussler, Edward L.

2003-09-23

196

FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE REMOVAL OF CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUND AND WASTE WATERS VIA REDUCTION BY ZERO-VALENT METALS  

EPA Science Inventory

In an effort to remove trace contaminants from wastewaters and groundwaters, elemental iron is being used for the reductive dechlorination of solvents and the removal of toxic trace elements, such as Se, Cr, and U. Both in situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are bein...

197

Iron(II,III)-polyphenol complex nanoparticles derived from green tea with remarkable ecotoxicological impact  

EPA Science Inventory

There are several greener methods exist to synthesize zero?valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) using different bio-based reducing agents. Although their useful properties in degradation of organic dyes, chlorinated organics, or arsenic have been described earlier, their characteriza...

198

APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE ANALYSIS IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES: DEHALOGENATION OF CHLOROCARBONS WITH ZERO-VALENT IRON AND IRON-CONTAINING MINERAL SURFACES. (R828771C006)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

199

APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE ANALYSIS IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES: DEHALOGENATION OF CHLOROCARBONS WITH ZERO-VALENT IRON AND IRON-CONTAINING MINERAL SURFACES. (R828164)  

EPA Science Inventory

Halogenated organic compounds are common pollutants in groundwater. Consequently, there is widespread interest in understanding the reactions of these compounds in the environment and developing remediation strategies. One area of ongoing research involves the reductive dechlo...

200

Bio-emulsifiers.  

PubMed

This review discusses the currect state of the art on the subject of emulsifiers, particularly those of biological origins. The basic principles involved in the mode of action of emulsifier molecules are reviewed. Current ideas on the classification, physicochemical properties, stability, and rheological properties of emulsions are discussed. The literature review on bio-emulsifiers emphasizes those of microbial origins and their application in industry. Some of the more common methods for the study of emulsion properties are also outlined. PMID:793775

Zajjc, J E; Panchal, C J

1976-11-01

201

Contact sensitivity to emulsifiers.  

PubMed

Common emulsifiers were tested in over 1,200 patients with eczema. Triethanolamine stearate tested at 5% in petrolatum caused irritant reactions in 9.5% of the patients. On the other hand, non-ionic emulsifying agents tested at 10-20% produced irritation in only a few cases. Allergic reactions were found in 2.1% of those tested. Lanette, sorbitan sesquioleate, the Spans, polyoxyethylene oxypropylene stearate, polyoxyethylene sorbitol lanolin derivative, and triethanolamine stearate each elicited allergic reactions in 0.3-0.7% of the cases. The Tweens caused an allergy in only two cases, but glycerol monostearate caused no reaction at all. Five out of six patients sensitive to sorbitan sesquioleate reacted positively to the Spans as well. The patients allergic to one or more emulsifiers were also sensitive to several other substances included in our routine test series with the exception of four patients who reacted only to the emulsifying agents. PMID:1021350

Hannuksela, M; Kousa, M; Pirilä, V

1976-08-01

202

Performance of a field-scale permeable reactive barrier based on organic substrate and zero-valent iron for in situ remediation of acid mine drainage.  

PubMed

A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in Aznalcóllar (Spain) in order to rehabilitate the Agrio aquifer groundwater severely contaminated with acid mine drainage after a serious mining accident. The filling material of the PRB consisted of a mixture of calcite, vegetal compost and, locally, Fe(0) and sewage sludge. Among the successes of the PRB are the continuous neutralisation of pH and the removal of metals from groundwater within the PRB (removals of >95%). Among the shortcomings are the improper PRB design due to the complexity of the internal structure of the Agrio alluvial deposits (which resulted in an inefficient capture of the contaminated plume), the poor degradability of the compost used and the short residence time within the PRB (which hindered a complete sulphate reduction), the clogging of a section of the PRB and the heterogeneities of the filling material (which resulted in preferential flows within the PRB). Undoubtedly, it is only through accumulated experience at field-scale systems that the potentials and limits of the PRB technology can be determined. PMID:23361181

Gibert, Oriol; Cortina, José Luis; de Pablo, Joan; Ayora, Carlos

2013-11-01

203

Removal of TNT and RDX from water and soil using iron metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminated water and soil at active or abandoned munitions plants is a serious problem since these compounds pose risks to human health and can be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial life. Our objective was to determine if zero-valent iron (Fe0) could be used to promote remediation of water and soil contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). As little as

L. S. Hundal; J. Singh; E. L. Bier; P. J. Shea; S. D. Comfort; W. L. Powers

1997-01-01

204

Pyrite formation by reactions of iron monosulfides with dissolved inorganic and organic sulfur species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrite formation has been investigated at 70°C and pH 6–8 by aging precipitated, disordered mackinawite, Fe9S8, and greigite, Fe3S4, in solutions containing aqueous H2S, HS?, Sx2?, S2O32?, SO32?, colloidal elemental sulfur, and the organic sulfur species thiol, disulfide, and sulfonate. Pyrite formed in all experiments where unoxidized iron monosulfides were aged with species containing zero-valent sulfur, i.e., polysulfides and colloidal

R. T. Wilkin; H. L. Barnes

1996-01-01

205

Use of iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation: a review.  

PubMed

Reactions involving iron play a major role in the environmental cycling of a wide range of important organic, inorganic and radioactive contaminants. Consequently, a range of environmental clean-up technologies have been proposed or developed which utilise iron chemistry to remediate contaminated land and surface and subsurface waters, e.g. the use of injected zero zero-valent iron nanoparticles to remediate organic contaminant plumes; the generation of iron oxyhydroxide-based substrates for arsenic removal from contaminated waters; etc. This paper reviews some of the latest iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation, their current state of development, and their potential applications and limitations. PMID:18692221

Cundy, Andrew B; Hopkinson, Laurence; Whitby, Raymond L D

2008-08-01

206

Emulsifier-Carbohydrate Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since emulsifiers are amphiphilic molecules, they interact with other polar and nonpolar ingredients commonly present in food\\u000a (Gaonkar and McPherson, 2005). Interactions with water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, oils, and flavors have been studied.\\u000a Interactions may be beneficial, such as retardation of staling in bread, or adverse, such as distortion of a flavor profile.\\u000a Several mechanisms may be responsible for producing

Gerard L. Hasenhuettl

207

Contribution of the interfacial layer to the protection of emulsified lipids against oxidation.  

PubMed

The oxidative stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is highly dependent on the type of emulsifier. The purpose of this work was to investigate the specific role of the adsorbed emulsifiers on lipid oxidation of O/W emulsions. Emulsions of similar droplet size distribution stabilized by minimum amounts of proteins or surfactants were oxidized at 25 °C in the presence of equimolar iron-EDTA complex. The pH and the amount of emulsifier in the aqueous phase were also varied to investigate the role of the droplet charge and the emulsifier in the aqueous phase. Oxygen uptake, conjugated dienes (CD), and volatile compound formation demonstrated that the protein-stabilized interfaces are less efficient at protecting emulsified lipids against oxidation than surfactant-stabilized interfaces. The antioxidant effect of unadsorbed proteins was also confirmed. PMID:21480612

Berton, Claire; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Viau, Michèle; Genot, Claude

2011-05-11

208

EZVI Injection Field Test Leads to Pilot-Scale Application  

EPA Science Inventory

Testing and monitoring of emulsified zero-valent ironTM (EZVI) injections was conducted at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station?s Launch Complex 34, FL, in 2002 to 2005 to evaluate the technology?s efficacy in enhancing in situ dehalogenation of dense nonaqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL) ...

209

THE EFFECT OF SMECTITE ON THE CORROSION OF IRON METAL  

SciTech Connect

The combination of zero-valent iron and a clay-type amendment is often observed to have a synergistic effect on the rate of reduction reactions. In this paper, electrochemical techniques are used to determine the mechanism of interaction between the iron and smectite clay minerals. Iron electrodes coated with an evaporated smectite suspension (clay-modified iron electrodes, CMIEs) were prepared using five different smectites: SAz-1, SWa-1, STx-1, SWy-1, and SHCa-1. All the smectites were exchanged with Na+ and one sample of SWy-1 was also exchanged with Mg2+. Potentiodynamic potential scans and cyclic voltammograms were taken using the CMIEs and uncoated but passivated iron electrodes. These electrochemical experiments, along with measurements of the amount of Fe2+ and Fe3+ sorbed in the smectite coating, suggested that the smectite removed the passive layer of the underlying iron electrode during the evaporation process. Cyclic voltammograms taken after the CMIEs were biased at the active-passive transition potential for varying amounts of time suggested that the smectite limited growth of a passive layer, preventing passivation. These results are attributed to the Broensted acidity of the smectite as well as to its ability to sorb iron cations. Oxides that did form on the surface of the iron in the presence of the smectite when it was biased anodically seemed to be different than those that form on the surface of an uncoated iron electrode under otherwise similar conditions; this difference suggested that the smectite reacted with the Fe2+ formed from the oxidation of the underlying iron. No significant correlation could be found between the ability of the smectite to remove the iron passive film and the smectite type. The results have implications for the mixing of sediments and iron particles in permeable reactive barriers, underground storage of radioactive waste in steel canisters, and the use of smectite supports in preventing aggregation of nano-sized zero-valent iron.

Balko, Barbara A.; Bosse, Stephanie A.; Cade, Anne E.; Jones-Landry, Elise F.; Amonette, James E.; Daschbach, John L.

2012-04-24

210

A New Emulsifier Behavior of the Preparation for Micro-emulsified Diesel Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel oil emulsified with water can reduce diesel engine emissions, enhance fuel combustion efficiency, and save oil resources. However, the emulsions are not thermodynamically stable, which limits its commercial application. The micro-emulsion technique application improves stabilization of diesel-water system. The RW emulsifier was synthesized with oleic acid and amine, and methanol acts as co-emulsifier. The optimal composition of micro-emulsified diesel

X. Fan; W. Hu; J. Yang; X. Xu; J. Gao

2008-01-01

211

Environmental application of millimetre-scale sponge iron (s-Fe?) particles (I): pretreatment of cationic triphenylmethane dyes.  

PubMed

To investigate the removal capability of millimetric zero valent iron (mmZVI), sponge iron (s-Fe(0)) particles were characterized with XRD, XPS, TEM, HRSEM and EDS techniques. Moreover, the roles of particle size, catalyst dosage, dye concentration, mixing conditions (e.g. ultrasound (US), stirring or shaking), and regeneration treatment were studied with the removal of cationic triphenylmethane dyes. Notably, the reduction process was also revealed as compared to nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI), microscale iron power, and iron scurf. Furthermore, the reductive mechanism was exemplified with brilliant green. The results demonstrated that (1) the synergetic effect between US and s-Fe(0) greatly enhanced the removal of dyes, (2) the dosage of preferred s-Fe(0) (1-3mm) particles was optimized as 30.0g/L; (3) reuse cycles of s-Fe(0) catalyst were enhanced with the assistance of diluted HCl solution; (4) the main degradation routes included the cleavage of conjugated structure reactions, N-de-ethylation reactions, hydroxylation reactions, the removal of benzene ring reactions, and opening ring reactions. Accordingly, the pretreatment of aqueous solution over s-Fe(0) was hypothesized to achieve mainly through direct reduction reaction by electron transfer and indirect reductive reactions by the highly activated hydrogen atom. Additionally, decoration with noble metals was utilized to reveal the reaction mechanism. PMID:25464285

Ju, Yongming; Liu, Xiaowen; Li, Zhaoyong; Kang, Juan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yukui; Fang, Jiande; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

2015-02-11

212

Iron-mediated remediation of RDX-contaminated water and soil under controlled Eh\\/pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and water contaminated with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a serious environmental problem at several active and abandoned munitions production facilities. Zero-valent iron (Fe°) can effectively remediate RDX-contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to manipulate Eh and pH for enhanced Fe°-mediated destruction of RDX. This was accomplished by monitoring RDX destruction under controlled Eh-pH conditions (Eh: -300

J. Singh; S. D. Comfort; P. J. Shea

1999-01-01

213

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

214

Effect of Cement on Emulsified Asphalt Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsified asphalt mixtures have environmental, economical, and logistical advantages over hot mixtures. However, they have attracted little attention as structural layers due to their inadequate performance and susceptibility to early life damage by rainfall. The objective of this article is to provide an improved insight into how the mechanical properties of emulsion mixtures may be improved and to determine the influence of cement on emulsified asphalt mixtures. Laboratory tests on strength, temperature susceptibility, water damage, creep and permanent deformation were implemented to evaluate the mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures. The test results showed that mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures have significantly improved with Portland cement addition. This experimental study suggested that cement modified asphalt emulsion mixtures might be an alternate way of a structural layer material in pavement.

Oruc, Seref; Celik, Fazil; Akpinar, M. Vefa

2007-10-01

215

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

... mealtime or when you take iron supplements.RiboflavinTaking riboflavin supplements may improve the way iron supplements work ... significant only in people with low levels of riboflavin.SoySoy protein seems to reduce the body's ability ...

216

IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The document surveys the effects of organic and inorganic iron that are relevant to humans and their environment. The biology and chemistry of iron are complex and only partially understood. Iron participates in oxidation reduction processes that not only affect its geochemical m...

217

Stimulation of Carbonate Reservoirs Using a New Emulsified Acid System  

E-print Network

calcite and dolomite formations, measuring the reaction rate and diffusion coefficient when the new emulsified acid systems react with both calcite and dolomite, and testing the new emulsified acid using core samples obtained from carbonate reservoirs...

Sayed, Mohammed Ali Ibrahim

2013-05-15

218

Laboratory Evaluation of Sulfur Modified Iron for Use as a Filter Material to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where subsurface drainage practices are employed, fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields and municipal locations are commonly intercepted by the buried drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes producing adverse environmental impacts on these surface water bodies. On-site water filter treatment systems can be employed to prevent the release of agricultural nutrients/pesticides into adjacent waterways. Sulfur modified iron is a relatively unknown industrial product that may have promise for use as a filter material to remove contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. Sulfur modified iron (SMI) is a high surface area iron powder (zero valent iron) that has been altered via chemical reaction with pure sulfur to produce a sulfur/iron surface coating on the iron particles. A laboratory investigation was conducted with contaminant removal batch tests, saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, and saturated solute transport column experiments to evaluate the feasibility for using SMI to treat subsurface drainage waters. Contaminant removal batch tests showed that three SMI samples were much more effective removing nitrate (> 94% nitrate removed) than three zero valent iron samples (< 10% nitrate removed). Batch test results additionally showed that SMI removed greater that 94% of dissolved phosphate, but was not particularly effective removing the pesticide, atrazine (< 37% atrazine removed). Hydraulic conductivity tests indicated that all three SMI samples that were evaluated had sufficient hydraulic conductivity, much greater than the 1 x 10-3 cm/s standard used for stormwater sand filters. The saturated solute transport tests confirmed that SMI can be effective removing nitrate and phosphate from drainage waters. Analysis of column effluent also showed that the large majority of nitrate removed by SMI was converted to ammonium. Consequently, these laboratory findings support the use of SMI in agricultural drainage water filter treatment systems, particularly when nitrate and phosphate pollution are major environmental concerns.

Allred, B. J.

2009-12-01

219

Iron monosulfide as a scavenger for dissolved hexavalent chromium and cadmium.  

PubMed

Iron sulfide minerals are common components of soil/sedimentary environments. Reactions near the surfaces of iron sulfides play important roles in metal retention, mobility, and bioavailability. A series of batch experiments was conducted to study the removal of aqueous chromium and cadmium by iron monosulfide. Hexavalent chromium was reduced to Cr(III) by iron monosulfide with simultaneous precipitation of chromium and iron oxyhydroxide. In contrast to chromium, the primary retention mechanism of cadmium by iron monosulfide was lattice exchange. Surface adsorption to iron monosulfide and precipitation with sulfide on the iron monosulfide surface also contributed to the removal of aqueous cadmium. New phases of both chromium and cadmium were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy. The solution pH was an important factor in this research; it can change particle surface charge and metal species, hence affecting the removal of chromium, but not cadmium. Ferrous ions without FeS exhibited less Cr(VI) removal than with FeS, which might be owing to sulfides from FeS and the existence of the solid phase. Iron monosulfide exhibited higher removal efficiency for chromium and cadmium than zero valent iron and other iron oxide minerals, and the synergistic effect of ferrous iron and sulfide appeared to cause this result. PMID:18844124

Jo, S; Lee, J Y; Kong, S H; Choi, J; Park, J W

2008-09-01

220

Dehalogenation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyl by Bimetallic, Impregnated, and Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron  

PubMed Central

Nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI), bimetallic nanoparticles (nZVI/Pd), and nZVI/Pd impregnated activated carbon (nZVI/Pd-AC) composite particles were synthesized and investigated for their effectiveness to remove polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Palladization of nZVI promoted the dehalogenation kinetics for mono- to tri-BDEs and 2,3,4-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 21). Compared to nZVI, the iron-normalized rate constants for nZVI/Pd were about 2-, 3-, and 4-orders of magnitude greater for tri-, di-, and mono-BDEs, respectively, with diphenyl ether as a main reaction product. The reaction kinetics and pathways suggest an H-atom transfer mechanism. The reaction pathways with nZVI/Pd favor preferential removal of para-halogens on PBDEs and PCBs. X-ray fluorescence mapping of nZVI/Pd-AC showed that Pd mainly deposits on the outer part of particles, while Fe was present throughout the activated carbon particles. While BDE 21 was sorbed onto activated carbon composites quickly, debromination was slower compared to reaction with freely dispersed nZVI/Pd. Our XPS and chemical data suggest about 7% of the total iron within the activated carbon was zero-valent, which shows the difficulty with in-situ synthesis of a significant fraction of zero-valent iron in the micro-porous material. Related factors that likely hinder the reaction with nZVI/Pd-AC are the heterogenous distribution of nZVI and Pd on activated carbon and/or immobilization of hydrophobic organic contaminants at the adsorption sites thereby inhibiting contact with nZVI. PMID:21557574

Zhuang, Yuan; Ahn, Sungwoo; Seyfferth, Angelia L.; Masue-Slowey, Yoko; Fendorf, Scott; Luthy, Richard G.

2011-01-01

221

Valiant 'Zero-Valent' Effort Restores Contaminated Grounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are chemical compounds that can contaminate soil and groundwater to the point of irreparability. These substances are only slightly soluble in water, and are much denser than water. Because of their solubility, DNAPLs form separate liquid phases in groundwater, and because of their density, DNAPLs sink in aquifers instead of floating at the water table, making it extremely difficult to detect their presence. If left untreated in the ground, they can taint fresh water sources. Common DNAPLs include chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. Trichloroethylene was used during the early days of the Space Program, as a solvent for flushing rocket engines, and for metal cleaning and degreasing of equipment, electronics, and heavy machinery. As a result, areas of Cape Canaveral s Launch Complex 34, the site of several historic Saturn rocket launches occurring from 1959 to 1968, were polluted with chlorinated DNAPLs. Through the direction and guidance of Dr. Jacqueline Quinn, an environmental engineer in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at NASA s Kennedy Space Center, a biodegradable environmental cleanup technology was developed to reductively dechlorinate DNAPL sources in polluted water at Launch Complex 34. It was important for Kennedy to nip this problem in the bud, in light of the fact that the Space Center is also a National Wildlife Refuge, home to thousands of shorebirds, endangered sea turtles and eagles, manatees, alligators, and diverse habitats that include brackish marshes and salt water estuaries. The success in remediating this historic launch site has led to numerous commercial applications that are restoring the health of our environmental surroundings.

2005-01-01

222

Reductive denitrification of nitrate by scrap iron filings.  

PubMed

Reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron is a highly exergonic reaction that has long been known to occur. Use of scrap iron filings (SIF) as the PRB (Permeable Reactive Barrier) material can be used to recycle certain by-products, and identify cheaper replacements for expensive conventional PRB materials, especially pure metallic iron. The feasibility of reductive denitrification of nitrate by SIF was studied by batch experiments. Operational parameters such as pH value, SIF dosage and initial concentration of nitrate were investigated. The removal efficiency of nitrate reached 80% under the conditions of pH of 2.5, nitrate initial concentration of 45 mg/L and SIF dosage of 100 g/L within 4 h. Results indicated that nitrate removal is inversely related to pH. Low pH value condition favors for the nitrate transformation. Different from the results of others who studied nitrate reduction using iron powder, we found that there was a lag time before nitrate reduction occurs, even at low pH. Finally, the possible mechanism of nitrate reduction by Fe0 is discussed. PMID:15682502

Hao, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Xin-Hua; Wang, Da-Hui

2005-03-01

223

Reductive denitrification of nitrate by scrap iron filings*  

PubMed Central

Reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron is a highly exergonic reaction that has long been known to occur. Use of scrap iron filings (SIF) as the PRB (Permeable Reactive Barrier) material can be used to recycle certain by-products, and identify cheaper replacements for expensive conventional PRB materials, especially pure metallic iron. The feasibility of reductive denitrification of nitrate by SIF was studied by batch experiments. Operational parameters such as pH value, SIF dosage and initial concentration of nitrate were investigated. The removal efficiency of nitrate reached 80% under the conditions of pH of 2.5, nitrate initial concentration of 45 mg/L and SIF dosage of 100 g/L within 4 h. Results indicated that nitrate removal is inversely related to pH. Low pH value condition favors for the nitrate transformation. Different from the results of others who studied nitrate reduction using iron powder, we found that there was a lag time before nitrate reduction occurs, even at low pH. Finally, the possible mechanism of nitrate reduction by Fe0 is discussed. PMID:15682502

Hao, Zhi-wei; Xu, Xin-hua; Wang, Da-hui

2005-01-01

224

Occupational asthma due to an emulsified oil mist.  

PubMed Central

A toolsetter developed occupational asthma due to the oil mist generated by his lathe on which it was used as a coolant. The diagnosis was confirmed by serial measurements of peak expiratory flow at home and work, including a prolonged period away from work. Occupational type bronchial provocation tests were performed using the whole emulsified oil and its components separately. He reacted specifically to the whole emulsified oil and to the reodorant, a pine oil preparation. He also reacted to colophony, a constituent of the emulsifier. PMID:3965015

Hendy, M S; Beattie, B E; Burge, P S

1985-01-01

225

Formulation design for target delivery of iron nanoparticles to TCE zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (NZVI) are effective reducing agents for some dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, target delivery of iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones in the aquifer remains an elusive feature for NZVI technologies. This work discusses three strategies to deliver iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones. To this end, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleate (OL) ions were used as stable analogs for NZVI. The OL-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are rendered lipophilic via (a) the addition of CaCl2, (b) acidification, or (c) the addition of a cationic surfactant, benzethonium chloride (BC). Mixtures of OL and BC show promise as a target delivery strategy due to the high stability of the nanoparticles in water, and their preferential partition into TCE in batch experiments. Column tests show that while the OL-BC coated iron oxide nanoparticles remain largely mobile in TCE-free columns, a large fraction of these particles are retained in TCE-contaminated columns, confirming the effectiveness of this target delivery strategy.

Wang, Ziheng; Acosta, Edgar

2013-12-01

226

Effective distribution of emulsified edible oil for enhanced anaerobic bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that injection of emulsified edible oils can provide an effective, low-cost alternative for stimulating anaerobic biodegradation processes. A pilot-scale permeable reactive bio-barrier (PRBB) was installed at a perchlorate and chlorinated solvent impacted site by injecting 380 L of commercially available emulsion (EOS®) containing emulsified soybean oil, food-grade surfactants, lactate, and yeast extract through ten

Robert C. Borden

2007-01-01

227

Reactive iron barriers: a niche enabling microbial dehalorespiration of 1,2-dichloroethane.  

PubMed

A reactive iron barrier in a contaminated aquifer with low pH was found to dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in situ. This chlorinated ethane is known to resist abiotic reduction by zero valent iron. Samples taken up-gradient and within the barrier were used to inoculate anaerobic batch cultures amended with various electron donors. Cultures inoculated with groundwater from within the reactive iron barrier reduced 1,2-DCA to ethene. The same effect could be achieved by simultaneously supplying hydrogen while neutralising pH. The presence of iron or hydrogen at neutral pH had negligible effects on 1,2-DCA reduction in cultures inoculated with groundwater sampled up-gradient of the barrier. Molecular microbial community characterisation revealed that Dehalobacter species were more abundant in groundwater sampled from within the barrier. These findings suggest reactive iron barriers represent a remediation technology for 1,2-DCA degradation acting through in situ recruitment of 1,2-DCA reducing bacteria such as Dehalobacter. PMID:20607230

Zemb, Olivier; Lee, Matthew; Low, Adrian; Manefield, Mike

2010-09-01

228

Oral solid self-emulsifying formulations: a patent review.  

PubMed

Self-emulsifying compositions are lipidic drug delivery systems that provide a number of delivery advantages. A variety of excipients are available for designing of these drug delivery systems. These systems can be classified as Type I, II, III, and IV, and alternatively as solid, semi-solid, and liquid. Till date many patents have been published on self-emulsifying compositions, and a few commercial products have also been launched. The purpose of this review is to have insights into the patent literature capturing the developments in the area of oral solid self-emulsifying formulations. Though the main emphasis is on developments in solid self-emulsifying formulations, an overview of different manufacturing techniques has also been provided. These formulations can be grouped as conventional, granules, pellets, tablets, supersaturable, controlled release, eutectic-based, and positively charged. The components of self-emulsifying formulations described in this review are not limited only to oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants but also include binders, polymers, diluents, alkalinizing agents, stabilizing agents, preservatives, and viscosity adjusting agents. The inventions highlighted in this article provide useful guidelines for enhancement of oral bioavailability of drugs through this drug delivery platform. PMID:24628371

Tarate, Bapurao; Chavan, Rahul; Bansal, Arvind K

2014-01-01

229

Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) for Phytoconstituents: a Review.  

PubMed

The self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) is considered to be the novel technique for the delivery of lipophillic plant actives. The herbals as self emulsifying (SE) formulation significantly enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble phytoconstituents. The self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) can be developed for such plant actives to enhance the oral bioavailability using different excipients (lipid, surfactant, co solvent etc.) and their concentration is selected on the basis of pre formulation studies like phase equilibrium studies, solvent capacity of oil for drug and mutual miscibility of excipients. The present review focuses mainly on the development of SEDDS and effect of excipients on oral bioavailability and aqueous solubility of poorly water soluble phytoconstituents/derived products. A recent list of patents issued for self emulsifying herbal formulation has also been included. The research data for various self emulsifying herbal formulation and patents issued was reviewed using different database such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Google patents, Scopus and Web of Science etc. In nutshell, we can say that SEDDS established as novel drug delivery system for herbals and with the advances in this technique, lots of patents on herbal SEDDS can be translated into the commercial products. PMID:25335929

Chouhan, Neeraj; Mittal, Vineet; Kaushik, Deepak; Khatkar, Anurag; Raina, Mitali

2014-10-21

230

Effect of droplet size on the behavior and characteristics of emulsified acid  

E-print Network

Emulsified acids have been extensively used in the oil industry since 1933. Most of the available research and publications discussed mainly the application of emulsified acid in the field. A fair number of the published work also discussed in depth...

Almutairi, Saleh Haif

2008-10-10

231

Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

2010-01-01

232

Role of Iron Anode Oxidation on Transformation of Chromium by Electrolysis  

PubMed Central

The potential for chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in contaminated water and formation of a stable precipitate by Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) anode electrolysis is evaluated in separated electrodes system. Oxidation of iron electrodes produces ferrous ions causing the development of a reducing environment in the anolyte, chemical reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and formation of stable iron-chromium precipitates. Cr(VI) transformation rates are dependent on the applied electric current density. Increasing the electric current increases the transformation rates; however, the process is more efficient under lower volumetric current density (for example 1.5 mA L?1 in this study). The transformation follows a zero order rate that is dependent on the electric current density. Cr(VI) transformation occurs in the anolyte when the electrodes are separated as well as when the electrolytes (anolyte/catholyte) are mixed, as used in electrocoagulation. The study shows that the transformation occurs in the anolyte as a result of ferrous ion formation and the product is a stable Fe15Cr5(OH)60 precipitate. PMID:23284182

Sarahney, Hussam; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

2012-01-01

233

Role of Iron Anode Oxidation on Transformation of Chromium by Electrolysis.  

PubMed

The potential for chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in contaminated water and formation of a stable precipitate by Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) anode electrolysis is evaluated in separated electrodes system. Oxidation of iron electrodes produces ferrous ions causing the development of a reducing environment in the anolyte, chemical reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and formation of stable iron-chromium precipitates. Cr(VI) transformation rates are dependent on the applied electric current density. Increasing the electric current increases the transformation rates; however, the process is more efficient under lower volumetric current density (for example 1.5 mA L(-1) in this study). The transformation follows a zero order rate that is dependent on the electric current density. Cr(VI) transformation occurs in the anolyte when the electrodes are separated as well as when the electrolytes (anolyte/catholyte) are mixed, as used in electrocoagulation. The study shows that the transformation occurs in the anolyte as a result of ferrous ion formation and the product is a stable Fe(15)Cr(5)(OH)(60) precipitate. PMID:23284182

Sarahney, Hussam; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

2012-12-30

234

Design of Hard Water Stable Emulsifier Systems for Petroleum-  

E-print Network

Design of Hard Water Stable Emulsifier Systems for Petroleum- and Bio-based Semi for petroleum and bio-based MWFs that improve fluid lifetime by providing emulsion stability under hard water. The newly developed petroleum and bio-based formulations with improved hard water stability are competitive

Clarens, Andres

235

Hydrogeochemical and biological processes affecting the long-term performance of an iron-based permeable reactive barrier.  

PubMed

Despite the wide diffusion of zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), there is still a great uncertainty about their longevity and long-term performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological and the hydrogeochemical processes that take place at a Fe(0) installation located in Avigliana, Italy, and to derive some general considerations about long-term performance of PRBs.The examined PRB was installed in November 2004 to remediate a chlorinated solvents plume (mainly trichloroethene and 1,2-dichloroethene). The investigation was performed during the third year of operation and included: (1) groundwater sampling and analysis for chlorinated solvents, dissolved CH(4), dissolved H(2) and major inorganic constituents; (2) Fe(0) core sampling and analysis by SEM-EDS, XRD, and FTIR spectroscopy for the organic fraction; (3) in situ permeability tests and flow field monitoring by water level measurements.The study revealed that iron passivation is negligible, as the PRB is still able to effectively treat the contaminants and to reduce their concentrations below target values. Precipitation of several inorganic compounds inside the PRB was evidenced by SEM-EDS and XRD analysis conducted on iron samples. Groundwater sampling evidenced heavy sulfate depletion and the highest reported CH(4) concentration (>5,000 microg/L) at zero-valent iron PRB sites. These are due to the intense microbial activity of sulfate-reducers and methanogens, whose proliferation was most likely stimulated by the use of a biopolymer (i.e. guar gum) as shoring fluid during the excavation of the barrier. Slug tests within the barrier evidenced an apparent hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude lower than the predicted value. This occurrence can be ascribed to biofouling and/or accumulation of CH(4)(g) inside the iron filings.This experience suggests that when biopolymer shoring is planned to be used, long-term column tests should be performed beforehand with initial bacterial inoculation and organic substrate dosing, in order to predict the effects of bacterial overgrowth and gas generation. During construction particular care should be taken in order to minimize the amount of used biopolymer so that complete breakdown can be achieved. PMID:19329678

Zolla, Valerio; Freyria, Francesca Stefania; Sethi, Rajandrea; Di Molfetta, Antonio

2009-01-01

236

Optimization of soil mixing technology through metallic iron addition.  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced soil mixing is a process used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil. In this process, also known as soil mixing with thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, or SM/TESVE, a soil mixing apparatus breaks up and mixes a column of soil up to 9 m (30 ft) deep; simultaneously, hot air is blown through the soil. The hot air carries the VOCs to the surface where they are collected and safely disposed of. This technology is cost effective at high VOC concentrations, but it becomes cost prohibitive at low concentrations. Argonne National Laboratory-East conducted a project to evaluate ways of improving the effectiveness of this system. The project investigated the feasibility of integrating the SM/TESVE process with three soil treatment processes--soil vapor extraction, augmented indigenous biodegradation, and zero-valent iron addition. Each of these technologies was considered a polishing treatment designed to remove the contaminants left behind by enhanced soil mixing. The experiment was designed to determine if the overall VOC removal effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the SM/TESVE process could be improved by integrating this approach with one of the polishing treatment systems.

Moos, L. P.

1999-01-15

237

Research of inverted emulsions properties on the base of new emulsifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emulsifiers on the base of tallol and ethanolamines derived acids have been researched in the paper. Electrical stability of emulsions drilling muds has been investigated. It is proved that synthesized emulsifiers according to emulsion stability can be divided into two groups. The first group is emulsifiers with high initial electrical stability but low emulsion stability under long-term storing, and the second group is emulsifiers with low electrical stability but with high emulsion stability. Emulsions flow characteristics have been researched. It is established that emulsifier on the base of ethanolamine provides better emulsion characteristics for drilling muds emulsions.

Minaev, K.; Epikhin, A.; Novoseltsev, D.; Andropov, M.; Yanovsky, V.; Ulyanova, O.

2014-08-01

238

Ambient iron-mediated aeration (IMA) for water reuse.  

PubMed

Global water shortages caused by rapidly expanding population, escalating water consumption, and dwindling water reserves have rendered water reuse a strategically significant approach to meet current and future water demand. This study is the first to our knowledge to evaluate the technical feasibility of iron-mediated aeration (IMA), an innovative, potentially economical, holistic, oxidizing co-precipitation process operating at room temperature, atmospheric pressure, and neutral pH, for water reuse. In the IMA process, dissolved oxygen (O?) was continuously activated by zero-valent iron (Fe?) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) at ambient pH, temperature, and pressure. Concurrently, iron sludge was generated as a result of iron corrosion. Bench-scale tests were conducted to study the performance of IMA for treatment of secondary effluent, natural surface water, and simulated contaminated water. The following removal efficiencies were achieved: 82.2% glyoxylic acid, ~100% formaldehyde as an oxidation product of glyoxylic acid, 94% of Ca²? and associated alkalinity, 44% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 26% of electrical conductivity (EC), 98% of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), 80% of 17?-estradiol (E2), 45% of total nitrogen (TN), 96% of total phosphorus (TP), 99.8% of total Cr, >90% of total Ni, 99% of color, 3.2 log removal of total coliform, and 2.4 log removal of E. Coli. Removal was attributed principally to chemical oxidation, precipitation, co-precipitation, coagulation, adsorption, and air stripping concurrently occurring during the IMA treatment. Results suggest that IMA is a promising treatment technology for water reuse. PMID:23232032

Deng, Yang; Englehardt, James D; Abdul-Aziz, Samer; Bataille, Tristan; Cueto, Josenrique; De Leon, Omar; Wright, Mary E; Gardinali, Piero; Narayanan, Aarthi; Polar, Jose; Tomoyuki, Shibata

2013-02-01

239

Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for water treatment of trace element contaminants.  

PubMed

A laboratory investigation provided preliminary comparison of trace element contaminant water treatment capabilities for four iron-based filter materials. The iron-based filter materials tested were zero-valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/hydroxide (IOH). Two types of trace element contaminant solutions were tested, one combined As, Cr, and Se (added as AsO4(3-), CrO4(2-), and SeO4(2-), respectively), while the second combined Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+. The laboratory investigation included saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, contaminant removal-desorption/dissolution batch tests, and low-to-high flow rate saturated solute transport column tests. Hydraulic conductivity test results indicate that all four iron-based filter materials have sufficient water flow capacity as indicated by saturated hydraulic conductivity values greater than 1 x 10(-2) cm/s. Essentially, 100% of each trace element (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Se) was removed by SMI during the contaminant removal portion of the batch tests and during the column tests, while IOH exhibited good removal of each trace element except Se. Results from the contaminant removal portion of the batch tests and from the column tests showed ZVI and PIC were effective in treating Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb. With the exception of Se adsorption/precipitation onto IOH, the desorption/dissolution portion of the batch tests showed that once As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, or Se are adsorbed/precipitated onto ZVI, PIC, SMI, or IOH particle surfaces, these trace elements are then not readily desorbed or dissolved back into solution. PMID:25509527

Allred, Barry J; Tost, Brian C

2014-11-01

240

Iron and Iron Deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... iron. (NIH) back to top Iron Overload and Hemochromatosis Iron overload is the accumulation of excess iron in body tissues. Hemochromatosis is the disease resulting from significant iron overload. ...

241

Permeability of iron sulfide (FeS)-based materials for groundwater remediation.  

PubMed

Iron sulfide (FeS) has been extensively assessed as a reactive medium to remove both metals and halogenated organics from groundwater. However, to address its suitability as a material for permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), its propensity for solids and gas production, which result in reduced permeability, must be evaluated. The reduction in permeability for sands coated with FeS (as mackinawite), under the anoxic conditions often encountered at contaminated groundwater sites, was examined through column experiments and geochemical modeling under conditions of high calcium and nitrate, which have been previously shown to cause significant permeability reduction in zero-valent iron (ZVI) systems. The column experiments showed negligible production of both solids and gases. The geochemical modeling predicted a maximum reduction in permeability of 1% due to solids and about 30% due to gas formation under conditions for which a complete loss of permeability was predicted for ZVI systems. This difference in permeability reduction is driven by the differences in thermodynamic stability of ZVI and FeS in aqueous solutions. The results suggest that geochemical conditions that result in high permeability losses for ZVI systems will likely not be problematic for FeS-based reactive materials. PMID:23246668

Henderson, Andrew D; Demond, Avery H

2013-03-01

242

Effective distribution of emulsified edible oil for enhanced anaerobic bioremediation.  

PubMed

Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that injection of emulsified edible oils can provide an effective, low-cost alternative for stimulating anaerobic biodegradation processes. A pilot-scale permeable reactive bio-barrier (PRBB) was installed at a perchlorate and chlorinated solvent impacted site by injecting 380 L of commercially available emulsion (EOS) containing emulsified soybean oil, food-grade surfactants, lactate, and yeast extract through ten direct push injection wells over a two day period. Soil cores collected six months after emulsion injection indicate the oil was distributed up to 5 m downgradient of the injection wells. A previously developed emulsion transport model was used to simulate emulsion transport and retention using independently estimated model parameters. While there was considerable variability in the soil sampling results, the model simulations generally agreed with the observed oil distribution at the field site. Model sensitivity analyses indicate that increasing the injection flow rate or diluting the oil with more water will have little effect on final oil distribution in the aquifer. The only effective approach for enhancing the spread of emulsified oil away from the injection well appears to be injecting a greater mass of oil. PMID:17673332

Borden, Robert C

2007-10-30

243

Foaming and emulsifying properties of porcine red cell protein concentrate.  

PubMed

This work focuses on studying the effects of pH (7.0 and 4.5) and protein concentration on the foaming and emulsifying properties of fresh (F) and spray-dried (SD) porcine red cell protein (RCP) concentrates in order to evaluate the proper use of this blood protein as a functional food ingredient. Also, protein solubility is measured through the pH range from 3.0 to 8.0. In each case, all concentrates show a high solubility, although this is significantly affected by pH. Spray drying slightly reduces the solubility at mild acid and neutral conditions. The foaming capacity is found to be dependent on pH as well as on the drying treatment. SD-RCP concentrates show better foaming capacity than F-RCP. The minimum protein concentration required to attain the highest foaming capacity is found under acid pH for the spray-dried concentrates. Although F-RCP shows low foam stability at acid and neutral pH, spray drying and protein content enhance the stability of foams. Emulsifying properties show dependence on pH as well as on protein content. Furthermore, spray drying affects the emulsifying properties but in different ways, depending on pH and protein concentration. PMID:21339145

Salvador, P; Saguer, E; Parés, D; Carretero, C; Toldrà, M

2010-08-01

244

Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties  

PubMed Central

Background: Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Materials and Methods: Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w), containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. Results: The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Conclusion: Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation. PMID:24741276

Panda, Dibya Sundar

2014-01-01

245

Low-Frequency Electrical Properties of Zero Vvalent Iron-Sand Columns: Implications for Monitoring the Performance of Reactive Iron Wall Barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactive iron barrier is an in-situ technology for passive remediation of chlorinated solvents and heavy metals. Redox reactions occurring on the iron surface effectively remove these contaminants from groundwater. The effectiveness of this redox reaction diminishes with time due to oxidation and precipitation occurring on the metal surface, such that the long-term performance of reactive barriers is uncertain. Non-invasive measurement methods for evaluating reactive barrier performance are thus required to support remedial strategies at reactive barrier installations. Low-frequency (0.1-1000 Hz) electrical measurements are sensitive to the electrochemistry of the metal surface-pore fluid interface. We are conducting a series of laboratory experiments to assess the sensitivity of electrical methods (induced polarization and resistivity) to changes in the physicochemical properties of the metal-fluid interface that occur over time. In this paper we present the results of baseline studies on zero-valent iron-sand columns as a function of (a) reactive iron concentration (b) saturating fluid chemistry, and (c) degree of surface oxidation. The sensitivity of low-frequency electrical parameters to total zero-valent iron (Fe0) surface area was investigated by synthesizing Fe-Ottawa sand samples with varying Fe0 concentration from 0-10 percent. The dependence on ionic strength and electrolyte activity was investigated by making measurements on samples saturated with 0.001-1.0 for NaNO3, NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. The effect of pH was evaluated at constant electrolyte activity. As a first step towards evaluating the sensitivity of electrical measurements to reduction in reactive iron performance, measurements were made over a three month period of ageing and correlated with geochemical indicators (pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, iron concentrations) of Fe surface oxidation and precipitation. We find that induced polarization (IP) parameters are highly sensitive to Fe0 surface area whereas conduction parameters measured with the resistivity method are insensitive to Fe0 concentration over the investigated range. Polarization at the iron-electrolyte interface shows a power law relationship with electrolyte activity for all solutions and is consistent with Warburg impedance theory. Power-law exponents are slightly higher than that predicted for the active ion species based on Warburg impedance theory. Polarization magnitude depends on ionic composition of the electrolyte with the magnitude following the order CaCl2: NaCl: NaNO3. Conduction parameters are insensitive to ionic composition at constant electrolyte activity. Electrolyte activity exerts a strong control on the polarization relaxation length-scale, with time constant of the relaxation decreasing with increasing electrolyte activity. Polarization parameters measured during three months of ageing are clearly correlated with time and suggest that electrical measurements are sensitive to reduction in reactive iron performance.

Choi, J.; Slater, L. D.; Wu, Y.

2003-12-01

246

Chemical stabilization of metals in mine wastes by transformed red mud and other iron compounds: laboratory tests.  

PubMed

A series of static and kinetic laboratory-scale tests were designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of transformed red mud (TRM) from bauxite refining residues, commercial zero-valent iron, and synthetic iron (III) hydroxides as sorbents/reagents to minimize the generation of acid drainage and the release of toxic elements from multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes. In particular, in some column experiments the percolation of meteoric water through a waste pile, alternated with periods of dryness, was simulated. Wastes were placed in columns together with sorbents/reagents in three different set-ups: as blended amendment (mixing method), as a bed at the bottom of the column (filtration method), or as a combination of the two previous methods. The filtration methods, which simulate the creation of a permeable reactive barrier downstream of a waste pile, are the most effective, while the use of sorbents/reagents as amendments leads to unsatisfactory results, because of the selective removal of only some contaminants. The efficacy of the filtration method is not significantly affected by the periods of dryness, except for a temporary rise of metal contents in the leachates due to dissolution of soluble salts formed upon evaporation in the dry periods. These results offer original information on advantages/limits in the use of TRM for the treatment of multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes, and represent the starting point for experimentation at larger scale. PMID:25244134

Ardau, C; Lattanzi, P; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

2014-01-01

247

Influence of emulsifiers on ice cream produced by conventional freezing and low-temperature extrusion processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice cream at six different levels of emulsification was produced by freezing in a conventional scraped surface freezer and with a serial configuration of a conventional freezer followed by a low-temperature extruder. The aim was to examine the influence of emulsifiers on the process, since both emulsifier addition and low-temperature extrusion may have similar effects on promotion of colloidal structure

S. Bolliger; B. Kornbrust; H. D. Goff; B. W. Tharp; E. J. Windhab

2000-01-01

248

EFFECT OF EMULSIFIERS ON TEXTURAL PROPERTIES OF WHOLE WHEAT TORTILLAS DURING STORAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

All three emulsifiers tested (SSL, GMS, de-oiled lecithin) impacted the textural quality of 100% WW tortillas during storage. However, the amount of emulsifier incorporated into the formulation was crucial. SSL was more effective at its lowest usage level (0.125%), unlike the de-oiled lecithin, whi...

249

Treatment of oilfield produced water using Fe/C micro-electrolysis assisted by zero-valent copper and zero-valent aluminium.  

PubMed

In this study, the Fe/Cu/C and Fe/Al/C inner micro-electrolysis systems were used to treat actual oilfield produced water to evaluate the feasibility of the technology. Effects of reaction time, pH value, the dosage of metals and activated carbon, and Fe:C mass ratio on the treatment efficiency of wastewater were studied. The results showed that the optimum conditions were reaction time 120?min, initial solution pH 4.0, Fe dosage 13.3?g/L, activated carbon dosage 6.7?g/L, Cu dosage 2.0?g/L or Al dosage 1.0?g/L. Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 39.3%, 49.7% and 52.6% in the Fe/C, Fe/Cu/C and Fe/Al/C processes, respectively. Meanwhile, the ratio of five-day biochemical oxygen demand to COD was raised from 0.18 to above 0.35, which created favourable conditions for the subsequent biological treatment. All these led to an easy maintenance and low operational cost. PMID:25182172

Zhang, Qi

2015-02-01

250

The preparation of magnetically guided lipid based nanoemulsions using self-emulsifying technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports an easy and highly reproducible preparation route, using self-emulsifying technology, for an orally administered high quality magnetically responsive drug delivery system. Hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles of about 5 nm in diameter were prepared and incorporated into the lipid core of the produced oil droplets of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (MagC18/SNEDDS). The produced nanoemulsion exhibits colloidal stability at high ionic strengths and temperatures. The observed value of the saturation magnetization at 2 K is ?4.1 emu g-1. The nanoemulsion displayed the magnetic properties of a non-interacting assembly of superparamagnetic particles and a low blocking temperature. Moreover the effect of MagC18/SNEDDS on biological systems in vitro was investigated in rodent fibroblasts (3T3 cells). The cytotoxicity studies show that none of the formulations tested affected cell activity significantly over the 24 h incubation. Such systems might have a potential use for oral delivery of poorly soluble compounds by extending the residence time of the formulation in the small intestine resulting in increased drug absorption values.

Bakandritsos, Aristides; Zboril, Radek; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Kallinteri, Paraskevi; Favretto, Marco E.; Parker, Terry L.; Mullertz, Anette; Fatouros, Dimitrios G.

2010-02-01

251

Electrodialytic remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil with iron nanoparticles and two different surfactants.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants (POP) that strongly adsorb in soils and sediments. There is a need to develop new and cost-effective solutions for the remediation of PCB contaminated soils. The suspended electrodialytic remediation combined with zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) could be a competitive alternative to the commonly adapted solutions of incineration or landfilling. Surfactants can enhance the PCB desorption, dechlorination, and the contaminated soil cleanup. In this work, two different surfactants (saponin and Tween 80) were tested to enhance PCB desorption and removal from a soil sampled at a polluted site, in a two-compartment cell where the soil was stirred in a slurry with 1% surfactant, 10mL of nZVI commercial suspension, and a voltage gradient of 1Vcm(-1). The highest PCB removal was obtained with saponin. Higher chlorinated PCB congeners (penta, hexa, hepta and octachlorobiphenyl) showed removal percentages between 9% and 96%, and the congeners with highest removal were PCB138, PCB153 and PCB180. The use of low level direct current enhanced PCB removal, especially with saponin. Electrodechlorination of PCB with surfactants and nZVI showed encouraging tendencies and a base is thus formed for further optimization towards a new method for remediation of PCB polluted soils. PMID:25129337

Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

2014-11-01

252

Emulsifiers and thickeners on extrusion-cooked instant rice product.  

PubMed

Extrusion-cooked instant rice was prepared by optimizing the formulation with emulsifiers, glycerol monostearate (GMS), soybean lecithin (LC), and sodiumstearoyl lactylate (SSL), and thickeners, gum Arabic (GA), sodium alginate (SA), and sticky rice (SR). The emulsifiers addition caused increase of degree of gelatinization (DG), and decrease of water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), ?-amylase sensitivity, water soluble index (WAI) and adhesive for extrudates, while the thickeners addition increased extrudates DG, bulk density (BD), WSC, ?-amylase sensitivity, WAI, hydration rate (HR) and adhesiveness. Based on the data generated by a single additive at various levels, optimum formulation was obtained employing orthogonal matrix system with combination of the selected additives for extrusion cooking. Extrudates were evaluated for optimum hydration time followed by drying to prepare the finished product. Texture profile analysis and sensory evaluation indicate that quality of the finished product is equivalent to that of the round shaped rice and superior to a commercial instant rice product. This study also demonstrates possibility of value-added and versatile instant rice product development using broken rice. PMID:24425967

Wang, Jin Peng; An, Hong Zhou; Jin, Zheng Yu; Xie, Zheng Jun; Zhuang, Hai Ning; Kim, Jin Moon

2013-08-01

253

Performance Evaluation of In-Situ Iron Reactive Barriers at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Site  

SciTech Connect

In November 1997, a permeable iron reactive barrier trench was installed at the S-3 Ponds Pathway 2 Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The overall goal of the project is to evaluate the ability of permeable reactive barrier technology to remove uranium, nitrate, and other inorganic contaminants in groundwater and to assess impacts of biogeochemical interactions on long-term performance of the treatment system. Zero-valent iron (Fe0) was used as the reactive medium, which creates a localized zone of reduction or low oxidation reduction potential (ORP), elevated pH, and dissolved H{sub 2} as Fe{sup 0} corrodes in groundwater. These conditions favor the removal of metals and radionuclides (such as uranium and technetium) through redox-driven precipitation and/or sorption to iron corrosion byproducts, such as iron oxyhydroxides. The technology is anticipated to be economical and low in maintenance as compared with conventional pump-and-treat technology. Groundwater monitoring results indicate that the iron barrier is effectively removing uranium and technetium, the primary contaminants of concern, as anticipated from our previous laboratory studies. In addition to uranium and technetium, nitrate, sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium, and magnesium are also found to be removed, either partially or completely by the iron barrier. Elevated concentrations of ferrous ions and sulfide, and pH were observed within the iron barrier. Although ferrous iron concentrations were initially very high after barrier installation, ferrous ion concentrations have decreased to low to non-detectable levels as the pH within the iron has increased over time (as high as 9 or 10). Iron and soil core samples were taken in February 1999 and May 2000 in order to evaluate the iron surface passivation, morphology, mineral precipitation and cementation, and microbial activity within and in the vicinity of the iron barrier. Results indicate that most of the iron filings collected in cores were still loose and not clogged after approximately 2.5 years of barrier installation. However, significant amounts of cemented iron filings were observed in the upgradient portion of the iron. In particular, the cementation appeared to have increased significantly over time from the 1999 to 2000 coring events in both the upgradient and downgradient portions of the iron. Minerals identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) that have precipitated in the iron include iron sulfide, calcium carbonate (aragonite), iron oxyhydroxides (goethite, akagneite, amorphous), siderite (iron carbonate), makinawite, and green rusts. These mineral precipitants are responsible for the cementation observed within the iron barrier. Elevated microbial activity and increased diversity within and in the vicinity of the iron barrier were also observed, particularly denitrifiers and sulfate-reducers, which may have been responsible or partially responsible for the removal of nitrate and sulfate in groundwater and the formation of ferrous sulfide minerals within the iron barrier. Hydraulic gradients across the Pathway 2 site have remained relatively stable and consistent from east to west. Increases and decreases in the gradients across the site observed over the past 2.5 years appear to be primarily related to recharge during precipitation events and seasonal fluctuations. However, closer inspection of gradient fluctuations within the iron appear to indicate that cementation within the iron may be starting to impact groundwater flow through the iron. Since the spring of 1999, recharge events have had a more pronounced impact on hydraulic gradients observed between wells located upgradient, within, and downgradient of the iron. This data suggests that the connectivity of the iron and gravel in the upgradient portion of the trench to the iron and gravel in the downgradient portion of the trench may be decreasing over time due to cementation in the iron.

Watson, D.B.

2003-12-30

254

Efficiency of the EPS emulsifier produced by Ochrobactrum anthropi in different hydrocarbon bioremediation assays.  

PubMed

Ochrobactrum anthropi strain AD2 was isolated from the waste water treatment plant of an oil refinery and was identified by analysis of the sequence of the gene encoding 16S rDNA. This bacterium produced exopolysaccharides in glucose nutrient broth media supplemented with various hydrocarbons (n-octane, mineral light and heavy oils and crude oils). The exopolysaccharide AD2 (EPS emulsifier) synthesized showed a wide range of emulsifying activity but none of them had surfactant activity. Yield production varied from 0.47 to 0.94 g of EPS l(-1) depending on the hydrocarbon added. In the same way, chemical composition and emulsification activity of EPS emulsifier varied with the culture conditions. Efficiency of the EPS emulsifier as biostimulating agent was assayed in soil microcosms and experimental biopiles. The AD2 biopolymer was added alone or combined with commercial products frequently used in oil bioremediation such as inorganic NPK fertilizer and oleophilic fertilizer (S200 C). Also, its efficiency was tested in mixture with activated sludge from an oil refinery. In soil microcosms supplemented with S200 C+EPS emulsifier as combined treatment, indigenous microbial populations as well as hydrocarbon degradation was enhanced when compared with microcosms treated with NPK fertilizer or EPS emulsifier alone. In the same way EPS emulsifier stimulated the bioremediation effect of S200 C product, increasing the number of bacteria and decreasing the amount of hydrocarbon remained. Finally, similar effects were obtained in biopile assays amended with EPS emulsifier plus activated sludge. Our results suggest that the bioemulsifier EPS emulsifier has interesting properties for its application in environment polluted with oil hydrocarbon compounds and may be useful for bioremediation purposes. PMID:18784947

Calvo, C; Silva-Castro, G A; Uad, I; García Fandiño, C; Laguna, J; González-López, J

2008-11-01

255

Textural, physicochemical and sensory properties compensation of fat replacing in pork liver pâté incorporating emulsified canola oil.  

PubMed

Saturated animal fat was replaced in pork pâté with pre-emulsified canola in a 3% sodium caseinate/0.5% xanthan gum solution in order to obtain a stable oily phase. Fat was replaced with different proportions of emulsified canola oil. The inclusion of emulsified oil in pâté enhanced cocking yield and moisture but increased fluids release. Nonetheless, total fat content remained practically constant, meaning no detrimental effect on caloric content. Replacing 50% of lard with emulsified oil did not affect color of the samples. Texture was improved since emulsified oil addition resulted in softer and more spreadable pâté. Samples with 50% of emulsified oil were more stable to lipid oxidation at 8 days of storage, with lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and volatile compounds resulting from oxidation reactions. Emulsified canola can be employed to replace fat until 50% in pâté or liver sausage with good functional properties, improving texture and reducing lipids rancidity. PMID:22773543

Morales-Irigoyen, E E; Severiano-Pérez, P; Rodriguez-Huezo, M E; Totosaus, A

2012-08-01

256

Recent advances in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS).  

PubMed

One of the biggest challenges confronting the contemporary drug delivery science today is to improve on the oral bioavailability of a vast number of drugs exhibiting poor and inconsistent gastrointestinal absorption. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) have been proved as highly useful technological innovations to surmount such bioavailability hiccups by virtue of their diminutive globule size, higher solubilization tendency for hydro-phobic drugs, robust formulation advantages, and easier scalability in the industrial milieu. Besides, these systems are also known to inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux, reduce metabolism by gut Cytochrome P-450 enzymes, and circumnavigate the hepatic first-pass effect, facilitating absorption of drugs via intestinal lymphatic pathways. In the last two decades, the phenomenal success of SEDDS as a potential tool for oral delivery of drugs has extrapolated their applications to non-oral delivery also. Various innovative approaches and patented techniques have been reported on formulation of diverse oral and non-oral self-emulsifying (SE) systems not only of various synthetic and semisynthetic drugs, but also of several phytopharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and biological macromolecules. Of late, an escalating number of reports have been pouring in on special types of SE systems, mostly nanosized, employing functional excipients such as polar lipids, phospholipids, cellulosic polymer, diblock polymers, etc. This review paper provides an updated bird's-eye view account on the publications and patents of such novel SE approaches for use in both oral and non-oral therapeutics. Providing a relatively pithy overview, this paper thus endeavors to act as a repertoire of knowledge and know-how to guide the product development scientist in formulating variegated SE systems. PMID:24940626

Singh, Bhupinder; Beg, Sarwar; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur; Sandhu, Premjeet Singh; Kaur, Ravinder; Katare, Om Parkash

2014-01-01

257

Effect of homogenization pressure, lipid content, and emulsifier content on the rheological properties of yogurt  

E-print Network

The interaction of high pressure homogenization lipid hics. content, and surfactant on the rheological properties of yogurt were evaluated. NFDM, cream, and a nontoxic emulsifier (Tween 20) were combined to obtain samples with of 0% and 2% fat...

Jaar Sansur, Patricia Mary

1998-01-01

258

Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for drainage water phosphate treatment.  

PubMed

A laboratory investigation evaluated phosphate (PO4(3-)) drainage water treatment capabilities of four iron-based filter materials. The iron-based filter materials tested were zero-valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/ hydroxide (IOH). Only filter material retained on a 60-mesh sieve (> 0.25 mm) was used for evaluation. The laboratory investigation included saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, contaminant removal or desorption/dissolution batch tests, and low-to-high flow rate saturated solute transport column tests. Each of the four iron-based filter materials have sufficient water flow capacity as indicated by saturated hydraulic conductivity values that in most cases were greater than 1 x 10(-2) cm/s. For the 1, 10, and 100 ppm PO4(3-)-P contaminant removal batch tests, each of the four iron-based filter materials removed at least 95% of the PO4(3-)-P originally present. However, for the 1000 ppm PO4(3-)-P contaminant removal batch tests, IOH by far exhibited the greatest removal effectiveness (99% PO4(3-)-P removal), followed by SMI (72% PO4(3-)-P removal), then ZVI (62% PO4(3-)-P removal), and finally PIC (15% PO4(3-)-P removal). The desorption/dissolution batch test results, especially with respect to SMI and IOH, indicate that once PO4(3-) is adsorbed/precipitated onto surfaces of iron-based filter material particles, this PO4(3-) becomes fixed and is then not readily desorbed/dissolved back into solution. The results from the column tests showed that regardless of low or high flow rate (contact time ranged from a few hours to a few minutes) and PO4(3-) concentration (1 ppm or 10 ppm PO4(3-)-P), PIC, SMI, and IOH reduced PO4(3-)-P concentrations to below detection limits, while ZVI removed at least 90% of the influent PO4(3-)-P. Consequently, these laboratory results indicate that the ZVI, PIC, SMI, and IOH filter materials all exhibit promise for phosphate drainage water treatment. PMID:25327026

Allred, Barry J; Racharaks, Ratanachat

2014-09-01

259

Emulsifier content and side effects of oil-based adjuvant vaccine in swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Side effects caused by the excessive emulsifier in oil-based adjuvant vaccine were examined practically in swine using one oil-in-water type adjuvant vaccine against swine pleuropneumonia. The vaccine was prepared from cell-free-antigen of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, liquid paraffin, and several polyoxyethylenesorbitan and sorbitan oleates. Based on findings about safety in mice and emulsion stability, 2 vaccines containing either 11.25% or 6.25% emulsifier

Kenji Oda; Fusayo Tsukahara; Sei Kubota; Kayoko Kida; Takashi Kitajima; Satoru Hashimoto

2006-01-01

260

Nanoscale and Microscale Iron Emulsions for Treating DNAPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study demonstrated the feasibility of using emulsified nanoscale and microscale iron particles to enhance dehalogenation of (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) DNAPL free-phase. The emulsified system consisted of a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable oil-in-water emulsion with nanoscale or microscale iron particles contained within the emulsion droplets. It was demonstrated that DNAPLs, such as trichloroethene (TCE), diffuse through the oil membrane of the emulsion particle whereupon they reach an aqueous interior and the surface of an iron particle where dehalogenation takes place. The hydrocarbon reaction by-products of the dehalogenation reaction, primarily ethene (no chlorinated products detected), diffuse out of the emulsion droplet. This study also demonstrated that an iron-emulsion system could be delivered in-situ to the DNAPL pool in a soil matrix by using a simulated push well technique. Iron emulsions degraded pure TCE at a rate comparable to the degradation of dissolved phase TCE by iron particles, while pure iron had a very low degradation rate for free-phase TCE. The iron-emulsion systems can be injected into a sand matrix where they become immobilized and are not moved by flowing water. It has been documented that surfactant micelles possess the ability to pull pooled TCE into emulsion droplets where degradation of TCE takes place.

Geiger, Cherie L.

2002-01-01

261

Cardiocerebral protection by emulsified isoflurane during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  

PubMed

Although improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance and the increasing success at achieving return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) have been possible in recent years, the survival and discharge rates of post-cardiac arrest (CA) patients remain disappointing. The high mortality rate is attributed to whole-body ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced multi-organ dysfunction that is well known as post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction and brain injury are the main clinical features of this complex pathophysiological process. Previous evidences have shown that volatile anesthetics, such as isoflurane, trigger a powerful and highly integrated cell survival response during I/R period in multiple organs, including heart and brain, which reduces I/R injury. This effect that called anesthetic-induced postconditioning can be shown when volatile anesthetics are administered after the onset of ischemia and at the time of reperfusion. Emulsified isoflurane (EIso) is a new anesthetic for intravenous administration, which is conveniently feasible outside operating room. Therefore, we hypothesize that EIso postconditioning could provide the cardiocerebral protection, and combined with therapeutic hypothermia as sedative agent could produce enhanced cardiocerebral protection, which can result in significant improvement of neurologically intact post-cardiac arrest survival. We consider that it would become a feasible, safe and efficient cardiocerebral protective intervention in the prevention and alleviation of post-cardiac arrest syndrome, which would also improve the outcomes after CA. PMID:25466299

Zhang, Ya-Jie; Wu, Meng-Jun; Li, Yi; Yu, Hai

2015-01-01

262

Emulsifying properties of acylated rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) peptides.  

PubMed

A peptide fraction having an average size of 5.6 amino acids has been purified from a rapeseed hydrolyzate, acylated using C(10)-C(14) acyl chlorides, and the surface tension values at the air-water interface and emulsifying properties studied. As compared with standard surface-active proteins, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), and with detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), acylated peptides exhibited particular surface characteristics. The surface tension at air-water interface of acylated peptides ranged from 29.1 to 37.8 mN/m at equilibrium; these values were considerably lower than those for BSA and closer those for SDS, suggesting that acylated peptides pack at the air-water interface more like detergents than like proteins. The adsorption of acylated peptides to the oil-water interface was slower than for SDS or BSA, as deduced from the rather large size of oil droplets in emulsions (31-17 microm). Consequently, these emulsions creamed extensively during aging. Nevertheless, emulsions generated from acylated peptides were in general more stable to phase separation than those prepared from SDS. The C(14) acylated peptides were more effective for generating emulsions than the C(10) and C(12) derivatives, especially concerning the stability of emulsions against coalescence and phase separation, which was better than SDS and close to BSA. PMID:14757098

Sánchez-Vioque, Raúl; Bagger, Christian L; Larré, Colette; Guéguen, Jacques

2004-03-01

263

High-Density Chemical Intercalation of Zero-Valent Copper into Bi2Se3 Nanoribbons  

E-print Network

disproportionation redox reaction. Layered 2D nanomaterials have attracted much recent research interest because disproportionation redox reaction. Previous strategies for intercalating copper into Bi2Se3 have employed either, 0 x 1.25).21-26 In this type of reaction, mercury is typically intercalated into a dichalcogenide

Cui, Yi

264

Safe, in situ methodologies for the destruction of triacetone triperoxide and other explosive peroxides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and other explosives of the peroxide family are safely degraded in situ. Nano and micron size metal particles in an elemental state include pure iron and magnesium or iron and magnesium particles that are mechanically alloyed with palladium and nickel. The metal particles are used in both the elemental state and in emulsions that are made from water, a hydrophobic solvent, such as corn oil, and a food-grade nonionic surfactant. The neat metals and emulsified zero valent metals (EZVM) safely degrade TATP with the major degradation product being acetone. The EZVM system absorbs and dissolves the TATP into the emulsion droplets where TATP degradation occurs. EZVM systems are ideal for degrading dry TATP crystals that may be present on a carpet or door entrance. Both the neat metal system and the emulsion system (EZVM) degrade TATP in an aqueous slurry.

Clausen, III, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Sigman, Michael (Inventor); Fidler, Rebecca (Inventor)

2011-01-01

265

Effect of emulsifier blend on the characteristics of sustained release diclofenac microspheres.  

PubMed

This investigation involved the evaluation of the emulsifier blend effect on the development of sustained release diclofenac microspheres intended for use in a suspension formulation. The microspheres were prepared using the hydrophobic congealable disperse phase method. The emulsifier blend consisted of glycerol, monostearate (GMS), a hydrophobic emulsifier with HLB = 3.8, and Tween 80, a hydrophilic emulsifier with a HLB value of 15. The effect of this blend on the encapsulation efficiency, size distribution and drug release from the microspheres was studied. A critical amount of GMS (> 0.2 g) was found to be necessary for good encapsulation efficiency. X-ray diffractograms revealed that the drug retains its crystalline state within the microspheres, indicating that the drug is present as a dispersion within the wax matrix. Increasing amounts of Tween 80 caused an increase in the drug release while increased amounts of GMS retarded the release. The hydrophilic emulsifier and the emulsifier blend influenced the size distribution of the formed microspheres. With an increase in the amount of hydrophilic emulsifier, there was an initial increase in the percent of desired size fraction (137.5 microns) of microspheres followed by a decrease. Microspheres with a larger size released the drug slowly compared to smaller size microspheres, while increase in drug load increased the rate of drug release. The release pattern fitted the Higuchi dissolution kinetics for spherical matrices. Different impeller blade designs formed microspheres that exhibited different release rates. The microspheres (mean size 137.5 microns), had a release profile that made them suitable to be formulated as a sustained release suspension. PMID:9608393

Lewis, L; Boni, R; Adeyeye, C M

1998-01-01

266

Modeling the injection of non-Newtonian shear-thinning dispersions of iron particles in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of groundwater remediation, an increasing interest has been devoted to the use of nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVI and MZVI, respectively). MZVI and NZVI are not stable when dispersed in water, due to the occurrence of fast aggregation and sedimentation. Consequently, the use of shear thinning solutions of green biopolymers has been recently studied as kinetic stabilizers and viscous carrier for the delivery of MZVI and NZVI in the subsurface. Shear thinning fluids exhibit high viscosity in static conditions, improving the colloidal stability, and lower viscosity at high flow rates enabling the injection at limited pressures. In this work, co-funded by European Union project AQUAREHAB (FP7 - Grant Agreement Nr. 226565), a modeling approach is described, and implemented in E-MNM1D software (www.polito.it/groundwater/software), to simulate the transport in porous media of nanoscale iron slurries. Colloid transport mechanisms are controlled by particle-collector and particle-particle interactions, usually modeled using a non equilibrium kinetic model accounting for deposition and release processes. The key aspects included in the E-MNM1D are clogging phenomena (i.e. reduction of porosity and permeability due to particles deposition), and the rheological properties of the carrier fluid (in this project, guar gum solution). The influence of colloid transport on porosity, permeability, and fluid viscosity is explicitly lumped into the model and the shear-thinning nature of the iron slurries is described by a modified Darcy law generalized for non Newtonian fluids. Since during the injection in wells the velocity field is not constant over the distance, E-MNM1D was modified in order to account for variable colloidal transport coefficients, thus allowing the estimation of the radius of influence during a full scale intervention.

sethi, R.; Tosco, T.; Gastone, F.

2013-12-01

267

Emulsifying and emulsion-stabilizing properties of gluten hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Gluten is produced as a coproduct of the wheat starch isolation process. In this study, gluten was hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-6-10 and 1-2-3 with alcalase and trypsin, respectively. These peptidases have a clearly distinct substrate specificity. Corn oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt % oil) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization at pH 7.5. Gluten peptides with DH 3 proved to be the most effective in producing peptides displaying emulsifying properties. Higher levels of alcalase hydrolysates (2.0 wt %) than of trypsin hydrolysates (1.0 wt %) were required to produce stable emulsions with small droplet sizes, which is attributed to differences in the nature of the peptides formed. The emulsions had small mean droplet diameters (d32 < 1000 nm). Emulsions produced with trypsin hydrolysates (stable after 9 days at 55 °C) displayed better thermal stability compared to those produced with alcalase hydrolysates (destabilized after 2 days at 37 °C). The hydrolysate-containing emulsions, however, were quickly destabilized by salt addition (?100 mM NaCl) and when the pH approached the isoelectric point of the coated droplets (pH ~5.5). Microscopic analysis revealed the formation of air-in-oil-in-water emulsions at lower hydrolysate concentrations, whereas at higher concentrations (?3.0 wt %) extensive flocculation occurred. Both phenomena contributed to creaming of the emulsions. These results may be useful for the utilization of gluten hydrolysates in food and beverage products. PMID:24571632

Joye, Iris J; McClements, David J

2014-03-26

268

Characterization and Properties of Metallic Iron and Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles: Spectroscopy, Electrochemistry, and Kinetics  

SciTech Connect

There are reports that nano-sized zero-valent iron (Fe0) exhibits greater reactivity than micro-sized particles of Fe0, and it has been suggested that the higher reactivity of nano-Fe0 may impart advantages for groundwater remediation or other environmental applications. However, most of these reports are preliminary in that they leave a host of potentially significant (and often challenging) material or process variables either uncontrolled or unresolved. In an effort to better understand the reactivity of nano-Fe0, we have used a variety of complementary techniques to characterize two widely studied nano-Fe0 preparations:�¢���� one synthesized by reduction of goethite with heat and H2 (FeH2) and the other by reductive precipitation with borohydride (FeBH). FeH2 is a two-phase material consisting of 40 nm ���±-Fe0 (made up of crystals approximately the size of the particles) and Fe3O4 particles of similar size or larger containing reduced sulfur; whereas FeBH is mostly 20�¢����80 nm metallic Fe particles (aggregates of <1.5 nm grains) with an oxide shell/coating that is high in oxidized boron. The FeBH particles further aggregate into chains. Both materials exhibit corrosion potentials that are more negative than nano-sized Fe2O3, Fe3O4, micro-sized Fe0, or a solid Fe0 disk, which is consistent with their rapid reduction of oxygen, benzoquinone, and carbon tetrachloride. Benzoquinonewhich presumably probes inner-sphere surface reactionsreacts more rapidly with FeBH than FeH2, whereas carbon tetrachloride reacts at similar rates with FeBH and FeH2, presumably by outer-sphere electron transfer. Both types of nano-Fe0 react more rapidly than micro-sized Fe0 based on mass-normalized rate constants, but surface area-normalized rate constants do not show a significant nano-size effect. The distribution of products from reduction of carbon tetrachloride is more favorable with FeH2, which produces less chloroform than reaction with FeBH.

JT Nurmi; PG Tratnyek; V Sarathy; DR Baer; JE Amonette; K Pecher; CM Wang; JC Linehan; DW Matson; RL Penn; MD Driessen

2005-12-01

269

Comparison of subarachnoid anesthetic effect of emulsified volatile anesthetics in rats  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord is an important target of volatile anesthetics in particular for the effect of immobility. Intrathecal injection of volatile anesthetics has been found to produce subarachnoid anesthesia. The present study was designed to compare spinal anesthetic effects of emulsified volatile anesthetics, and to investigate the correlation between their spinal effects and general effect of immobility. In this study, halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were emulsified by 30% Intralipid. These emulsified volatile anesthetics were intravenously and intrathecally injected, respectively. ED50 of general anesthesia and EC50 of spinal anesthesia were determined. The durations of general and spinal anesthesia were recorded. Correlation analysis was applied to evaluate the anesthetic potency of volatile anesthetics between their spinal and general effects. ED50 of general anesthesia induced by emulsified halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were 0.41 ± 0.07, 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.74 ± 0.11 and 0.78 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively, with significant correlation to their inhaled MAC (R2 = 0.8620, P = 0.047). For intrathecal injection, EC50 of spinal anesthesia induced by emulsified halothane, isoflurane, enflurane and sevoflurane were 0.35, 0.27, 0.33 and 0.26 mol/L, respectively, which could be predicted by the product of inhaled MAC and olive oil/gas partition coefficients (R2 = 0.9627, P = 0.013). In conclusion, potency and efficacy of the four emulsified volatile anesthetics in spinal anesthesia were similar and could be predicted by the product of inhaled MAC and olive oil/gas partition coefficients (MAC × olive oil/gas partition coefficients).

Guo, Jiao; Zhou, Cheng; Liang, Peng; Huang, Han; Li, Fengshan; Chen, Xiangdong; Liu, Jin

2014-01-01

270

Improving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier.  

PubMed

Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These constituents provide high fibre content and technological potential for retaining water and fat. Standard halva supplemented with date fibre concentrate, defatted sesame testae and emulsifier was evaluated for oil separation, texture and colour changes, sensory qualities and acceptability to a taste panel. Addition of both fibres with an emulsifier, improved emulsion stability and increased the hardness of halva significantly. The functional properties of sesame testae and date fibres promote nutrition and health, supplying polyphenol antioxidants and laxative benefits. PMID:24128542

Elleuch, Mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothea; Maazoun, Bouthaina; Besbes, Souhail; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi

2014-02-15

271

Reductive Sequestration Of Pertechnetate (99TcO4–) By Nano Zerovalent Iron (nZVI) Transformed By Abiotic Sulfide  

SciTech Connect

Under anoxic conditions, soluble 99TcO4– can be reduced to less soluble TcO2•nH2O, but the oxide is highly susceptible to reoxidation. Here we investigate an alternative strategy for remediation of Tc-contaminated groundwater whereby sequestration as Tc sulfide is favored by sulfidic conditions stimulated by nano zero-valent iron (nZVI). nZVI was pre-exposed to increasing concentrations of sulfide in simulated Hanford groundwater for 24 hrs to mimic the stages of aquifer sulfate reduction and onset of biotic sulfidogenesis. Solid-phase characterizations of the sulfidated nZVI confirmed the formation of nanocrystalline FeS phases, but higher S/Fe ratios (>0.112) did not result in the formation of significantly more FeS. The kinetics of Tc sequestration by these materials showed faster Tc removal rates with increasing S/Fe between S/Fe = 0–0.056, but decreasing Tc removal rates with S/Fe > 0.224. The more favorable Tc removal kinetics at low S/Fe could be due to a higher affinity of TcO4– for FeS (over iron oxides), and electron microscopy confirmed that the majority of the Tc was associated with FeS phases. The inhibition of Tc removal at high S/Fe appears to have been caused by excess HS–. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that as S/Fe increased, Tc speciation shifted from TcO2•nH2O to TcS2. The most substantial change of Tc speciation occurred at low S/Fe, coinciding with the rapid increase of Tc removal rate. This agreement further confirms the importance of FeS in Tc sequestration.

Fan, Dimin; Anitori, Roberto; Tebo, Bradley M.; Tratnyek, Paul G.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.

2013-04-24

272

In situ testing of metallic iron nanoparticle mobility and reactivity in a shallow granular aquifer.  

PubMed

This paper describes the results of a series of single well push-pull tests conducted to evaluate the in situ transport of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in saturated sediments and their reactivity toward chlorinated ethenes. CMC-stabilized nanoscale ZVI particles were synthesized on site by reducing ferrous ions with borohydride in water in the presence of CMC. Nanoscale ZVI and bimetallic ZVI-Pd nanoparticle suspensions were prepared and injected into depth-discrete aquifer zones during three push-pull tests. The injected nanoparticle suspensions contained a conservative tracer (Br(-)) and were allowed to reside in the aquifer pore space for various time periods prior to recovery by groundwater extraction. The comparison between Br(-) and Fe concentrations in extracted groundwater samples indicated that the CMC-stabilized nanoscale ZVI particles were mobile in the aquifer but appeared to lose mobility with time, likely due to the interactions between particles and aquifer sediments. After 13 h in the aquifer, the nanoscale ZVI particles became essentially immobilized. During the push-pull test with injection of Fe-Pd nanoparticles, ethane concentrations increased from non-detectable to 65 microg/L in extracted groundwater within less than 2 h of reaction time, indicating the rapid abiotic degradation of chlorinated ethenes. The amount of total chlorinated ethene mass destroyed was low presumably because the injected solutions "pushed" the dissolved chlorinated ethenes away from the injection well, without substantial mixing, and because stationary (sorbed) chlorinated ethene mass on the aquifer sediments was low. In situ remediation programs using highly reactive metallic nanoparticles should incorporate delivery methods that maintain high groundwater pore velocities during injection to increase advective transport distances (e.g. groundwater circulation wells). Also, source zones with abundant stationary contaminant mass that is accessible by advective transport should be targeted for remediation with the nanoparticles, as opposed to portions of dissolved plumes, in order to maximize the in situ destruction of contaminants. PMID:20542350

Bennett, Peter; He, Feng; Zhao, Dongye; Aiken, Brian; Feldman, Lester

2010-07-30

273

Inhibition of sulfate reducing bacteria in aquifer sediment by iron nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Batch microcosms were setup to determine the impact of different sized zero valent iron (Fe(0)) particles on microbial sulfate reduction during the in situ bio-precipitation of metals. The microcosms were constructed with aquifer sediment and groundwater from a low pH (3.1), heavy-metal contaminated aquifer. Nano (nFe(0)), micro (mFe(0)) and granular (gFe(0)) sized Fe(0) particles were added to separate microcosms. Additionally, selected microcosms were also amended with glycerol as a C-source for sulfate-reducing bacteria. In addition to metal removal, Fe(0) in microcosms also raised the pH from 3.1 to 6.5, and decreased the oxidation redox potential from initial values of 249 to -226 mV, providing more favorable conditions for microbial sulfate reduction. mFe(0) and gFe(0) in combination with glycerol were found to enhance microbial sulfate reduction. However, no sulfate reduction occurred in the controls without Fe(0) or in the microcosm amended with nFe(0). A separate dose test confirmed the inhibition for sulfate reduction in presence of nFe(0). Hydrogen produced by Fe(0) was not capable of supporting microbial sulfate reduction as a lone electron donor in this study. Microbial analysis revealed that the addition of Fe(0) and glycerol shifted the microbial community towards Desulfosporosinus sp. from a population initially dominated by low pH and metal-resisting Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. PMID:24388832

Kumar, Naresh; Omoregie, Enoma O; Rose, Jerome; Masion, Armand; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Diels, Ludo; Bastiaens, Leen

2014-03-15

274

Nanomaterialien in der Boden-und Grundwassersanierung: Status quo quo vadis?  

E-print Network

Bisherige Anwendung der Nano-Sanierungstechnologie in Europa ....................3 4 Reaktion der EU auf .................................................4 5.1 Nullwertige Eisen Nanopartikel ­ ,,Nano Zero Valent Iron, n Quo vadis - das EU-Projekt NanoRem...................................................................5

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

275

Effect of emulsifying salts on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese made from Mozzarella.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types and concentrations of emulsifying salts (trisodium citrate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and disodium orthophosphate) on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese. The physicochemical composition, texture profile, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, color, and nuclear magnetic resonance profile (NMR) of processed cheese were determined. Hardness, degree of casein dissociation, and pH increased as the concentration of emulsifying salts increased. The fat particle size of processed cheese was significantly influenced by the type of emulsifying salts, with processed cheese made with sodium hexametaphosphate having larger particles (4.68 µm) than cheeses made with the other salts (from 2.71 to 3.30 µm). The processed cheese prepared with trisodium citrate was whiter than those prepared with the other emulsifying salts. The NMR analysis showed that the relaxation time of processed cheese of 10 to 100 ms accounted for a major proportion, indicating that the moisture in processed cheese was mainly bound water combined with the fat globule and hydrated casein. PMID:22916886

Chen, L; Liu, H

2012-09-01

276

Interactions in dispersions of sugar particles in food oils: influence of emulsifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of oil-soluble surface-active components on the interactions of fine sugar particles dispersed in triglyceride oils has been investigated at different volume fractions by a combination of rheological and sedimentation experiments. Four different types of food oil were investigated: soybean, milk fat, lauric fat (palm kernel oil) and cocoa butter. The addition of a low concentration of emulsifier, soya

Hélène Babin; Eric Dickinson; Helen Chisholm; Steve Beckett

2005-01-01

277

THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

278

HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF AN EMULSIFIED HEAVY FUEL OIL IN A FIRETUBE BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of measuring emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion flue gases of a No. 6 fuel oil, both with and without an emulsifying agent, in a 2.5 million Btu/hr (732 kW) firetube boiler with the purpose of determining the impacts of the e...

279

Factors affecting the emulsifying and rheological properties of gum acacia in beverage emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gum acacia, a natural hydrocolloid, is extensively used as an emulsifier\\/stabilizer in beverage emulsions. Factors that may affect emulsion formation, emulsion stability and viscosity of the emulsion concentrate were studied to assess their significance, including proximal composition of the gum (protein content and mineral content), gum processing prior to emulsion preparation (pasteurization and demineralization), and pH of the dilute emulsion.

R. A Buffo; G. A Reineccius; G. W Oehlert

2001-01-01

280

Design of nanoemulsion-based delivery systems of natural antimicrobials: Effect of the emulsifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims at investigating the effect of the nanoemulsion delivery systems on the antimicrobial activity of different essential oil components.Carvacrol, limonene and cinnamaldehyde were encapsulated in the sunflower oil droplets of nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenization and stabilized by different emulsifiers: (a) lecithin, (b) pea proteins, (c) sugar ester and (d) a combination of Tween 20 and glycerol

Francesco Donsì; Marianna Annunziata; Mariarosaria Vincensi; Giovanna Ferrari

281

An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend  

E-print Network

in emulsions causes a high probability of microexplosion event due to the sudden expansion of the emulsified fluid. Also, the effect of size on microexplosion was evident in the greater probability of explosion. Methanol-in-canola oil emulsion with 15...

Nam, Hyungseok

2012-07-16

282

Development of a low fat wheat tortilla: optimization of lipids, emulsifiers, and fat replacers  

E-print Network

A low fat tortilla was developed by optimizing lipids, emulsifiers and fat replacers. Hot-press wheat tortillas were prepared from wheat flour with 11.6% protein. Lard, pie shortening (PS), all-purpose shortening (AP), liquid frying oil (LF...

Dollak, Christina

1993-01-01

283

Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.  

PubMed

Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use of water-emulsified diesel helps improve the effectiveness of the testing program. The analyzed consequences provide useful information to the government for setting policies to curb pollutant emissions from a light-duty diesel engine generator more effectively. PMID:25185398

Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

2014-08-01

284

In vivo Evaluation of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System for Oral Delivery of Nevirapine  

PubMed Central

Nevirapine is a highly lipophilic and water insoluble non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Lymphoid tissue constitutes the major reservoir of HIV virus and infected cells in HIV-infected patients. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system, using long chain triglycerides, is a popular carrier of drugs due to their ability to transport lipophilic drugs into the lymphatic circulation. However, HIV/AIDS patients experience a variety of functional and anatomical abnormalities in gastrointestinal tract that result in diarrhoea and nutrient malabsorption. Medium chain triglycerides are readily absorbed from the small bowel under conditions in which the absorption of long chain triglycerides is impaired. Therefore, nevirapine self-emulsifying drug delivery system containing medium chain fatty acid, caprylic acid and a solubilizer, Soluphor® P (2-pyrrolidone) was developed and found to be superior to the marketed conventional suspension with respect to in vitro diffusion and ex vivo intestinal permeability. This self-emulsifying drug delivery system has now been further investigated for in vivo absorption in an animal model. The contribution of caprylic acid and Soluphor® P on in vivo absorption of nevirapine was also studied in the present study. The bioavailability of nevirapine from self-emulsifying drug delivery system, after oral administration, was 2.69 times higher than that of the marketed suspension. The improved bioavailability could be due to absorption of nevirapine via both portal and intestinal lymphatic routes. The study indicates that medium chain or structured triglycerides can be a better option to develop self-emulsifying drug delivery system for lipophilic and extensively metabolised drugs like nevirapine for patients with AIDS-associated malabsorption. PMID:25035533

Chudasama, A. S.; Patel, V. V.; Nivsarkar, M.; Vasu, Kamala K.; Shishoo, C. J.

2014-01-01

285

Emulsifying Activities of Purified Alasan Proteins from Acinetobacter radioresistens KA53  

PubMed Central

The bioemulsifier of Acinetobacter radioresistens KA53, referred to as alasan, is a high-molecular-weight complex of polysaccharide and protein. The emulsifying activity of the purified polysaccharide (apo-alasan) is very low. Three of the alasan proteins were purified by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and had apparent molecular masses of 16, 31, and 45 kDa. Emulsification assays using the isolated alasan proteins demonstrated that the active components of the alasan complex are the proteins. The 45-kDa protein had the highest specific emulsifying activity, 11% higher than the intact alasan complex. The 16- and 31-kDa proteins gave relatively low emulsifying activities, but they were significantly higher than that of apo-alasan. The addition of the purified 16- and 31-kDa proteins to the 45-kDa protein resulted in a 1.8-fold increase in the specific emulsifying activity and increased stability of the oil-in-water emulsion. Fast-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the 45-kDa protein forms a dimer in nondenaturing conditions and interacts with the 16- and 31-kDa proteins to form a high-molecular-mass complex. The 45-kDa protein and the three-protein complex had substrate specificities for emulsification and a range of pH activities similar to that of alasan. The fact that the purified proteins are active emulsifiers should simplify structure-function studies and advance our understanding of their biological roles. PMID:11229898

Toren, Amir; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Ron, Eliora Z.; Rosenberg, Eugene

2001-01-01

286

Ice nucleation in emulsified aqueous solutions of antifreeze protein type III and poly(vinyl alcohol).  

PubMed

Antifreeze protein (AFP) III and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) are known as anti-ice nucleating agents (anti-INAs), which inhibit heterogeneous ice nucleation. However, the effectiveness of these anti-INAs in inhibiting ice nucleation in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions, in which homogeneous ice nucleation can be experimentally simulated, is unclear. In this study, the ice nucleation temperature in emulsified solutions of AFP III, PVA, and other nonanti-INA polymers was measured, and then the nucleation rate was analyzed based on classical nucleation theory. Results showed that ice nucleation was surface-initiated and, except for PVA solutions, probably caused heterogeneously by the emulsifier, SPAN 65, at the droplet surfaces. In this nucleation mode, AFP III had no significant effect on the ice nucleation rate. In contrast, PVA exhibited ice-nucleating activity only at the droplet surfaces, suggesting that the nucleation is due to the interaction between PVA and SPAN 65. PMID:21619040

Inada, Takaaki; Koyama, Toshie; Goto, Fumitoshi; Seto, Takafumi

2011-06-23

287

Influence of emulsifier type and content on functional properties of polysaccharide lipid-based edible films.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effect of different types of surfactant (glycerol monostearate, Tween 60, and Tween 80) on water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), percentage elongation at breaking (E), and structure of an emulsified edible film composed of cornstarch, methylcellulose, and cocoa butter or soybean oil. Factorial designs at two levels were used to analyze the effect of emulsifier (EM) and lipid content on the functional properties of film. Results showed that the effects of independent variables on WVP, TS, and E depend on surfactant and lipid type. The presence of EM significantly decreased the WVP of cocoa butter films but did not improve the barrier or mechanical properties of soybean oil-based film. PMID:15479005

Bravin, Barbara; Peressini, Donatella; Sensidoni, Alessandro

2004-10-20

288

Iron-mediated remediation of RDX-contaminated water and soil under controlled Eh/pH  

SciTech Connect

Soil and water contaminated with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a serious environmental problem at several active and abandoned munitions production facilities. Zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) can effectively remediate RDX-contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to manipulate Eh and pH for enhanced Fe{sup 0}-mediated destruction of RDX. This was accomplished by monitoring RDX destruction under controlled Eh-pH conditions (Eh: {minus}300 to +150 mV; pH: 2--10). Decreasing Eh and pH increased RDX destruction in aqueous solution. Treating 20 mg of RDX L{sup {minus}1} (90 {micro}M) under a static Eh of {minus}150 mV and pH 7 with 20 g of Fe{sup 0} L{sup {minus}1} removed 95% of the RDX within 4 h; no RDX was detected after 8 h. Treating a soil slurry (20% solids; 510 mg RDX kg{sup {minus}1} soil) with 20 g of Fe{sup 0} L{sup {minus}1} at an Eh of {minus}150 mV and pH 7 increased RDX destruction by 24% over the unbuffered control and resulted in 99% RDX destruction within 24 h. Adding 4.2 mM sodium sulfide (in lieu of a static Eh) under similar conditions resulted in 93% RDX loss within 24 h. Results indicated that lowering Eh and maintaining neutral pH during Fe{sup 0} treatment can increase RDX destruction in contaminated soil and water.

Singh, J.; Comfort, S.D.; Shea, P.J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). School of Natural Resource Sciences] [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). School of Natural Resource Sciences

1999-05-01

289

Controlled release of oral tetrahydrocurcumin from a novel self-emulsifying floating drug delivery system (SEFDDS).  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a novel self-emulsifying floating drug delivery system (SEFDDS) that resulted in improved solubility, dissolution, and controlled release of the poorly water-soluble tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The formulations of liquid self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS; mixtures of Labrasol, Cremophor EL, Capryol 90, Labrafac PG) were optimized by solubility assay and pseudo-ternary phase diagram analysis. The liquid SEDDS was mixed with adsorbent (silicon dioxide), glyceryl behenate, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose and transformed into pellets by the extrusion/spheronization technique. The resulting pellets with 22% liquid SEDDS had a uniform size and good self-emulsification property. The microemulsions in aqueous media of different self-emulsifying floating pellet formulations were in a particle size range of 25.9-32.5 nm. Use of different weight proportions of glyceryl behenate and sodium starch glycolate in pellet formulations had different effects on the floating abilities and in vitro drug release. The optimum formulation (F2) had a floating efficiency of 93% at 6 h and provided a controlled release of THC over an 8-h period. The release rate and extent of release of THC liquid SEDDS (80% within 2 h) and self-emulsifying floating pellet formulation (80% within 8 h) were significantly higher than that of unformulated THC (only 30% within 8 h). The pellet formulation was stable under intermediate and accelerated storage conditions for up to 6 months. Controlled release from this novel SEFDDS can be a useful alternative for the strategic development of oral solid lipid-based formulations. PMID:21181511

Setthacheewakul, Saipin; Kedjinda, Wichan; Maneenuan, Duangkhae; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

2011-03-01

290

Electroflotation of emulsified oil in industrial wastes evaluated with a full factorial design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of electroflotation in emulsified oil wastes was studied. A rectangular electroflotation cell was designed and constructed in acrylic with stainless steel cathode and DSA® anode with a nominal composition of Ti\\/Ru0.34Ti0.66O2. The variables studied in the present work were current density and oil, flocculant and electrolyte (NaCl) concentrations. The experiments were carried out in accordance with 24 full

F. N. B. Nahui; M. R. Nascimento; E. B. Cavalcanti; E. O. Vilar

2008-01-01

291

The properties of cement mortars modified by emulsified epoxy and micro-fine slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epoxy resin polymer cement mortars with excellent performances were made up through modifying ordinary Portland cement\\u000a with emulsified epoxy and micro-fine slag. The microstructure of the epoxy resin polymer cement materials was studied and\\u000a their hydration and hardening characteristics were discussed by means of modern analysis measures such as SEM, XRD and Hg-intrusion\\u000a micromeritics. The experimental results indicate that

Chen You-zhi; Wang Hong-xi; Ma Zhi-yong; Li Qing-hua

2003-01-01

292

Determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 as emulsifier by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel approach for identification and determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 (sorbitol mono-oleate) as the emulsifier and their postblast residues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed. 24 kinds of emulsion explosives collected have been processed by transesterification reaction with metholic KOH solution and the emulsifier has turned into methyl esters of fatty acids. From the peak area ratios of their methyl esters, most of these emulsion explosives can be differentiated. In order to detect the postblast residues of emulsion explosives, the sorbitols in the emulsifier Span-80 obtained after transesterification reaction have been further derivatized by silylation reaction with N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) as the derivatizing reagent. The derivatization conditions were optimized and the derivatives were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the silylation derivatives of sorbitol and it isomers, combined with hydrocarbon compounds and methyl esters of fatty acids, were the characteristic components for identification of the emulsion explosives. The established approach was applied to analyze the postblast residues of emulsion explosives. It has been found that the method was sensitive and specific, especially when detecting the derivatives of sorbitol and its isomers by GC-MS in selecting ion mode. The information of the characteristic components can help probe the origin of the emulsion explosives and providing scientific evidences and clues for solving the crimes of the emulsion explosive explosion. PMID:21497820

Tian, Fei-Fei; Yu, Jing; Hu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Meng-Xia; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Hai-Ling; Han, Jie

2011-06-01

293

New emulsifying and cryoprotective exopolysaccharide from Antarctic Pseudomonas sp. ID1.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas sp. ID1 is a cold-adapted bacterium isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) that is noted for the highly mucous appearance of its colonies. In this work, we have characterized an exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by this strain, which is mainly composed of glucose, galactose and fucose, and has a molecular mass higher than 2×10(6)Da. We have also studied its potential biotechnological applications as an emulsifier and cryoprotectant agent. The EPS emulsifying activity against different food and cosmetic oils was much higher than commercial gums such as xanthan gum and arabic gum, and surfarctants such as Span 20. It formed highly stable emulsions against the cosmetic oil cetiol V, exhibiting pseudoplastic flow behavior, low thixotrophy and yield stress. The EPS of Pseudomonas sp. ID1 conferred significant cryoprotection for the strain itself as well as for other bacteria, including Escherichia coli, suggesting a universal cryoprotectant role. The cryoprotective activity of the EPS showed a clear dose-response relation at -20°C and -80°C and was significantly higher than that observed for the membrane stabilizer fetal bovine serum (FBS). These properties make the EPS of Pseudomonas sp. ID1 a promising alternative to commercial polysaccharides as an emulsifier and cryoprotectant agent for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:25498731

Carrión, Ornella; Delgado, Lidia; Mercade, Elena

2015-03-01

294

Phase transitions and microstructure of emulsion systems prepared with acylglycerols/zinc stearate emulsifier.  

PubMed

The emulsification processes, during which acylglycerols/zinc stearate emulsifier, water, and oil phase formed ternary systems, such as water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions, oil-in-water (O/W) dispersions, and unstable oil-water mixtures, were investigated in order to characterize the progressive transformations of the dispersed systems. The type, structure, and phase transitions of the systems were found to be determined by temperature and water phase content. Crystallization of the emulsifier caused the destabilization and subsequent phase inversion of the emulsions studied, at a temperature of 60-61 degrees C. The observed destabilization was temporary and led, at lower temperature, to W/O emulsions, "O/W + O" systems, or O/W dispersions, depending on the water content. Simultaneous emulsification and cooling of 20-50 wt % water systems resulted in the formation of stable W/O emulsions that contained a number of large water droplets with dispersed oil globules inside them ("W/O + O/W/O"). In water-rich systems (60-80 wt % of water), crystallization of the emulsifier was found to influence the formation of crystalline vesicle structures that coexisted, in the external water phase, with globules of crystallized oil phase. Results of calorimetric, rheological, and light scattering experiments, for the O/W dispersions obtained, indicate the possible transition of a monostearoylglycerol-based alpha-crystalline gel phase to a coagel state, in these multicomponent systems. PMID:16519445

Macierzanka, Adam; Szelag, Halina; Moschakis, Thomas; Murray, Brent S

2006-03-14

295

Influence of emulsifiers on the characteristics of polyurethane structures used as drug carrier  

PubMed Central

Background Emulsifiers have a significant role in the emulsion polymerization by reducing the interfacial tension thus increasing the stability of colloidal dispersions of polymer nanostructures. This study evaluates the impact of four emulsifiers on the characteristics of polyurethane hollow structures used as drug delivery system. Results Polyurethane (PU) structures with high stability and sizes ranging from nano- to micro-scale were obtained by interfacial polyaddition combined with spontaneous emulsification. The pH of PU aqueous solutions (0.1% w/w) was slightly acidic, which is acceptable for products intended to be used on human skin. Agglomerated structures with irregular shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized structures have melting points between 245-265°C and reveal promising results in different evaluations (TEWL, mexametry) on murine skin. Conclusions In this study hollow PU structures of reduced noxiousness were synthesized, their size and stability being influenced by emulsifiers. Such structures could be used in the pharmaceutical field as future drug delivery systems. PMID:23575277

2013-01-01

296

Acacia gum as modifier of thermal stability, solubility and emulsifying properties of ?-lactalbumin.  

PubMed

Protein-polysaccharide conjugates often display improved techno-functional properties when compared to their individual involved biomolecules. ?-Lactalbumin:acacia gum (?-la:AG) conjugates were prepared via Maillard reaction by the dry-heating method. Conjugate formation was confirmed using results of absorbance, o-phthalaldehyde test, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography. Techno-functional properties (emulsifying characteristics, solubility, and thermal stability) were evaluated for ?-la, ?-la/AG mixtures and ?-la:AG conjugates. Conjugate thermal stability was improved compared to pure ?-la treated at the same conditions of conjugate formation. Response surface methodology was used to establish models to predict solubility and emulsifying activity as functions of the salt concentration, pH and reaction time. ?-la:AG conjugate solubility is affected in a complex manner by the three factors analyzed. Emulsifying activity index (EAI) of ?-la is significantly affected by pH, while the ?-la:AG EAI is affected by the three analyzed factors. Both solubility and EAI are maximized with pH 8.0, NaCl concentration of 0.3molL(-1) and two days of Maillard reaction. PMID:25563962

de Oliveira, Fabíola Cristina; Dos Reis Coimbra, Jane Sélia; de Oliveira, Eduardo Basílio; Rodrigues, Marina Quadrio Raposo Branco; Sabioni, Rachel Campos; de Souza, Bartolomeu Warlene Silva; Santos, Igor José Boggione

2015-03-30

297

Peroxidase-mediated conjugation of corn fiber gum and bovine serum albumin to improve emulsifying properties.  

PubMed

The emulsifying properties of corn fiber gum (CFG), a naturally occurring polysaccharide-protein complex, was improved by kinetically controlled formation of hetero-covalent linkages with bovine serum albumin (BSA), using horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The formation of hetero-crosslinked CFG-BSA conjugates was confirmed using ultraviolet-visible and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. The optimum CFG-BSA conjugates were prepared at a CFG:BSA weight ratio of 10:1, and peroxidase:BSA weight ratio of 1:4000. Selected CFG-BSA conjugates were used to prepare oil-in-water emulsions; the emulsifying properties were better than those of emulsions stabilized with only CFG or BSA. Measurements of mean droplet sizes and zeta potentials showed that CFG-BSA-conjugate-stabilized emulsions were less susceptible to environmental stresses, such as pH changes, high K ionic strengths, and freeze-thaw treatments than CFG- or BSA-stabilized emulsions. These conjugates have potential applications as novel emulsifiers in food industry. PMID:25542109

Liu, Yan; Qiu, Shuang; Li, Jinlong; Chen, Hao; Tatsumi, Eizo; Yadav, Madhav; Yin, Lijun

2015-03-15

298

Competitive displacement of sodium caseinate by low-molecular-weight emulsifiers and the effects on emulsion texture and rheology.  

PubMed

Low-molecular-weight (LMW) emulsifiers are used to promote controlled destabilization in many dairy-type emulsions in order to obtain stable foams in whippable products. The relation between fat globule aggregation induced by three LMW emulsifiers, lactic acid ester of monoglyceride (LACTEM), saturated monoglyceride (GMS), and unsaturated monoglyceride (GMU) and their effect on interfacial protein displacement was investigated. It was found that protein displacement by LMW emulsifiers was not necessary for fat globule aggregation in emulsions, and conversely fat globule aggregation was not necessarily accompanied by protein displacement. The three LMW emulsifiers had very different effects on emulsions. LACTEM induced shear instability of emulsions, which was accompanied by protein displacement. High stability was characteristic for emulsions with GMS where protein was displaced from the interface. Emulsions containing GMU were semisolid, but only low concentrations of protein were detected in the separated serum phase. The effects of LACTEM, GMS, and GMU may be explained by three different mechanisms involving formation of interfacial ?-gel, pickering stabilization and increased exposure of bound casein to the water phase. The latter may facilitate partial coalescence. Stabilizing hydrocolloids did not have any effect on the LMW emulsifiers' ability to induce protein displacement. PMID:25026245

Munk, M B; Larsen, F H; van den Berg, F W J; Knudsen, J C; Andersen, M L

2014-07-29

299

Partial purification and chemical characterization of a glycoprotein (putative hydrocolloid) emulsifier produced by a marine bacterium Antarctobacter.  

PubMed

During screening for novel emulsifiers and surfactants, a marine alphaproteobacterium, Antarctobacter sp. TG22, was isolated and selected for its production of an extracellular emulsifying agent, AE22. This emulsifier was produced optimally in a low-nutrient seawater medium supplemented with glucose and was extractable by cold ethanol precipitation of the high-molecular-weight fraction (>100 kDa). Production of AE22 commenced towards the late exponential phase of growth, with maximum emulsifying activity detected after approximately 4 days of the cells entering the death phase. Chemical, chromatographic and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis confirmed AE22 to be a high-molecular-weight (>2,000 kDa) glycoprotein with high uronic acids content, thus denoting an apparent polyanionic structure. Functional characterization showed this polymer to compare well to xanthan gum and gum arabic as an emulsion-stabilizing agent for a range of different food oils. However, AE22 exhibited better stabilizing than emulsifying properties, which could be conferred by its viscosifying effect in solution or from certain chemical groups found on the polysaccharide or protein moieties of the polymer. This new high-molecular-weight glycoprotein exhibits interesting functional qualities that are comparable to other biopolymers of this type and shows particular promise as an emulsion-stabilizing agent in biotechnological applications. PMID:17641887

Gutiérrez, Tony; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie; Black, Kenny; Green, David H

2007-10-01

300

Formulation strategies to improve the bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs with special emphasis on self-emulsifying systems.  

PubMed

Poorly water-soluble drug candidates are becoming more prevalent. It has been estimated that approximately 60-70% of the drug molecules are insufficiently soluble in aqueous media and/or have very low permeability to allow for their adequate and reproducible absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) following oral administration. Formulation scientists have to adopt various strategies to enhance their absorption. Lipidic formulations are found to be a promising approach to combat the challenges. In this review article, potential advantages and drawbacks of various conventional techniques and the newer approaches specifically the self-emulsifying systems are discussed. Various components of the self-emulsifying systems and their selection criteria are critically reviewed. The attempts of various scientists to transform the liquid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) to solid-SEDDS by adsorption, spray drying, lyophilization, melt granulation, extrusion, and so forth to formulate various dosage forms like self emulsifying capsules, tablets, controlled release pellets, beads, microspheres, nanoparticles, suppositories, implants, and so forth have also been included. Formulation of SEDDS is a potential strategy to deliver new drug molecules with enhanced bioavailability mostly exhibiting poor aqueous solubility. The self-emulsifying system offers various advantages over other drug delivery systems having potential to solve various problems associated with drugs of all the classes of biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS). PMID:24459591

Gupta, Shweta; Kesarla, Rajesh; Omri, Abdelwahab

2013-12-26

301

Formulation Strategies to Improve the Bioavailability of Poorly Absorbed Drugs with Special Emphasis on Self-Emulsifying Systems  

PubMed Central

Poorly water-soluble drug candidates are becoming more prevalent. It has been estimated that approximately 60–70% of the drug molecules are insufficiently soluble in aqueous media and/or have very low permeability to allow for their adequate and reproducible absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) following oral administration. Formulation scientists have to adopt various strategies to enhance their absorption. Lipidic formulations are found to be a promising approach to combat the challenges. In this review article, potential advantages and drawbacks of various conventional techniques and the newer approaches specifically the self-emulsifying systems are discussed. Various components of the self-emulsifying systems and their selection criteria are critically reviewed. The attempts of various scientists to transform the liquid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) to solid-SEDDS by adsorption, spray drying, lyophilization, melt granulation, extrusion, and so forth to formulate various dosage forms like self emulsifying capsules, tablets, controlled release pellets, beads, microspheres, nanoparticles, suppositories, implants, and so forth have also been included. Formulation of SEDDS is a potential strategy to deliver new drug molecules with enhanced bioavailability mostly exhibiting poor aqueous solubility. The self-emulsifying system offers various advantages over other drug delivery systems having potential to solve various problems associated with drugs of all the classes of biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS). PMID:24459591

Gupta, Shweta; Kesarla, Rajesh

2013-01-01

302

Methods of emulsifying linoleic acid in biohydrogenation studies in vitro may bias the resulting fatty acid profiles.  

PubMed

The effects of three emulsifying methods on ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation (BH) in vitro were compared. Using a static in-vitro gas test system, four replicates of each treatment were incubated in buffered ruminal fluid. Hemicellulose (300 mg dry matter) was supplemented either with or without linoleic acid (9c12c-18:2, 5% in diet dry matter) and incubated for 4 and 24 h. Three methods of emulsifying 9c12c-18:2 were tested: (1) ethanol, (2) Tween 80, and (3) sonication. The products were then compared to non-emulsified 9c12c-18:2. Out of the three emulsifying methods tested, ethanol and sonication resulted in stable 9c12c-18:2 emulsions, indicating good 9c12c-18:2 distribution, while the Tween 80 emulsion was less stable. BH was strongly inhibited by treating 9c12c-18:2 with ethanol and sonication at different steps of the BH-pathway, resulting in changed concentrations of certain BH intermediates. The fatty acid profile generated from the major BH-pathways of 9c12c-18:2 with Tween 80 was comparable to that without emulsification after 24 h of incubation. We conclude that it is not recommended to emulsify lipids before incubating them in vitro when investigating fatty acid BH. If emulsification of 9c12c-18:2 is necessary, Tween 80 seems to be the method that interferes least with BH. PMID:20582723

Khiaosa-ard, Ratchaneewan; Leiber, Florian; Soliva, Carla R

2010-07-01

303

Eat Iron?!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To gain an understanding of mixtures and the concept of separation of mixtures, students use strong magnets to find the element of iron in iron-fortified breakfast cereal flakes. Through this activity, they see how the iron component of this heterogeneous mixture (cereal) retains its properties and can thus be separated by physical means.

NSF GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

304

Adelphi-Goddard emulsified fuel project. [using water/oil emulsions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal efficiency and particle emissions were studied using water/oil emulsions. These studies were done using number 2 and number 6 fuel oil. The number 6 oil had a sulfur content greater than one percent and experiments were conducted to remove the sulfur dioxide from the stack gases. Test findings include: (1) emulsion effected a reduction in soot at a low excess air levels; (2) a steam atomizing system will produce a water/oil emulsion. The fuel in the study was emulsified in the steam atomization process, hence, pre-emulsification did not yield a dramatic reduction in soot or an increase in thermal efficiency.

1977-01-01

305

Ultrasonic velocity measurements as a method for investigating phase transitions of monoglyceride emulsifier systems in pearlescent cosmetic creams.  

PubMed

The phase transitions of monoglyceride emulsifier systems and pearlescent effects in cosmetic creams are investigated using ultrasonic velocity measurements. The transitions between the different phases of monoglyceride emulsifier systems--the coagel, liquid-crystalline lamellar phase, and gel phase--are detected in creams by changes in the ultrasonic velocity with variation of the temperature. The phase transition temperatures correspond to DSC results. Furthermore, the slope of the ultrasound velocity curve correlates with the amount of bound water in the different phases. These insights into the ultrasonic velocity properties of the monoglyceride emulsifier system of creams make it possible to more closely study the pearlescent effect of the coagel. The temperature domain of the short time reversibility of the pearlescence as well as the back-formation time of the coagel can be determined with this method, which enable the optimization of the formulation of pearlescent creams. PMID:17188702

Alberola, Cécile; Dederichs, Thomas; Emeis, Detlef; Möller, Martin; Sokolowski, Tobias; Wittern, Klaus-Peter

2007-03-15

306

Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (Part 1): Porous medium rheology and guar gum-induced clogging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is the first part of a comprehensive study on the use of guar gum to improve delivery of microscale zero-valent iron particles in contaminated aquifers. Guar gum solutions exhibit peculiar shear thinning properties, with high viscosity in static conditions and lower viscosity in dynamic conditions: this is beneficial both for the storage of MZVI dispersions, and also for the injection in porous media. In the present paper, the processes associated with guar gum injection in porous media are studied performing single-step and multi-step filtration tests in sand-packed columns. The experimental results of single-step tests performed by injecting guar gum solutions prepared at several concentrations and applying different dissolution procedures evidenced that the presence of residual undissolved polymeric particles in the guar gum solution may have a relevant negative impact on the permeability of the porous medium, resulting in evident clogging. The most effective preparation procedure which minimizes the presence of residual particles is dissolution in warm water (60 °C) followed by centrifugation (procedure T60C). The multi-step tests (i.e. injection of guar gum at constant concentration with a step increase of flow velocity), performed at three polymer concentrations (1.5, 3 and 4 g/l) provided information on the rheological properties of guar gum solutions when flowing through a porous medium at variable discharge rates, which mimic the injection in radial geometry. An experimental protocol was defined for the rheological characterization of the fluids in porous media, and empirical relationships were derived for the quantification of rheological properties and clogging with variable injection rate. These relationships will be implemented in the second companion paper (Part II) in a radial transport model for the simulation of large-scale injection of MZVI-guar gum slurries.

Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

2014-10-01

307

Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (part 1): porous medium rheology and guar gum-induced clogging.  

PubMed

The present work is the first part of a comprehensive study on the use of guar gum to improve delivery of microscale zero-valent iron particles in contaminated aquifers. Guar gum solutions exhibit peculiar shear thinning properties, with high viscosity in static conditions and lower viscosity in dynamic conditions: this is beneficial both for the storage of MZVI dispersions, and also for the injection in porous media. In the present paper, the processes associated with guar gum injection in porous media are studied performing single-step and multi-step filtration tests in sand-packed columns. The experimental results of single-step tests performed by injecting guar gum solutions prepared at several concentrations and applying different dissolution procedures evidenced that the presence of residual undissolved polymeric particles in the guar gum solution may have a relevant negative impact on the permeability of the porous medium, resulting in evident clogging. The most effective preparation procedure which minimizes the presence of residual particles is dissolution in warm water (60°C) followed by centrifugation (procedure T60C). The multi-step tests (i.e. injection of guar gum at constant concentration with a step increase of flow velocity), performed at three polymer concentrations (1.5, 3 and 4g/l) provided information on the rheological properties of guar gum solutions when flowing through a porous medium at variable discharge rates, which mimic the injection in radial geometry. An experimental protocol was defined for the rheological characterization of the fluids in porous media, and empirical relationships were derived for the quantification of rheological properties and clogging with variable injection rate. These relationships will be implemented in the second companion paper (Part II) in a radial transport model for the simulation of large-scale injection of MZVI-guar gum slurries. PMID:25065767

Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

2014-10-01

308

Design and Evaluation of Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) Of Carvedilol to Improve the Oral Absorption  

PubMed Central

Background: Self-emulsifying drug delivery system is an isotropic mixture of natural or synthetic oils, non-ionic surfactants or, one or more hydrophilic solvent and co-solvents/surfactant and polymer that improve bioavailability and increase solubility of poorly-soluble drugs. Objectives: This study was aimed to prepare and develop a stable formulation for self-emulsifying drug delivery system to enhance the solubility, release rate, and oral absorption of the poorly-soluble drug, carvedilol. Materials and Methods: The prepared self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulations were evaluated regarding their particle size, refractory index (RI), emulsifying efficiency, drug release, and rat intestine permeability. Results: The results showed oleic acid as oil with Labrafil as surfactant and Labrafac PG (propylene glycol dicaprylocapraye) as co-surfactant with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and Poloxamer as polymer prepared stable emulsions with a refractive index higher than acidic medium and water. The particle size of formulations was influenced by the type of polymer so that the mean particle size in the self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulations containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose have a higher particle size compared to Poloxamer formulations. The percentage of drug release after 24 hours (R24) for Poloxamer and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose formulations were 61.24-70.61% and to 74.26-91.11%, respectively. The correlation between percentages of drug released after 24 hours with type of polymer was significant. In permeation studies, a significant and direct correlation existed between P4 and surfactant/co-surfactant ratio. The self-emulsifying drug delivery system formulations showed drug permeability through the rat intestine 2.76 times more, compared with the control. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that physicochemical properties, in vitro release and rat intestine permeability were dependent upon the contents of S/C, water and oil percentage in formulations. PMID:25237644

Salimi, Anayatollah; Sharif Makhmal Zadeh, Behzad; Hemati, Ali asghar; Akbari Birgani, Sanaz

2014-01-01

309

Approach for energy saving and pollution reducing by fueling diesel engines with emulsified biosolution/ biodiesel/diesel blends.  

PubMed

The developments of both biodiesel and emulsified diesel are being driven by the need for reducing emissions from diesel engines and saving energy. Artificial chemical additives are also being used in diesel engines for increasing their combustion efficiencies. But the effects associated with the use of emulsified additive/biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines have never been assessed. In this research, the premium diesel fuel (PDF) was used as the reference fuel. A soy-biodiesel was selected as the test biodiesel. A biosolution made of 96.5 wt % natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) and 3.5 wt % water (NOE-7F water) was used as the fuel additive. By adding additional 1 vol % of surfactant into the fuel blend, a nanotechnology was used to form emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends for fueling the diesel engine. We found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did not separate after being kept motionless for 30 days. The above stability suggests that the above combinations are suitable for diesel engines as alternative fuels. Particularly, we found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did have the advantage in saving energy and reducing the emissions of both particulate matters (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel engines as compared with PDF, soy-biodiesel/PDF blends, and emulsified soy-biodiesel/ PDF blends. The results obtained from this study will provide useful approaches for reducing the petroleum reliance, pollution, and global warming. However, it should be noted that NO(x) emissions were not measured in the present study which warrants the need for future investigation. PMID:18546733

Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

2008-05-15

310

Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (Part 2): Iron transport tests and modeling in radial geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work column transport tests were performed in order to study the mobility of guar-gum suspensions of microscale zero-valent iron particles (MZVI) in porous media. The results were analyzed with the purpose of implementing a radial model for the design of full scale interventions. The transport tests were performed using several concentrations of shear thinning guar gum solutions as stabilizer (1.5, 3 and 4 g/l) and applying different flow rates (Darcy velocity in the range 1 · 10- 4 to 2 · 10- 3 m/s), representative of different distances from the injection point in the radial domain. Empirical relationships, expressing the dependence of the deposition and release parameters on the flow velocity, were derived by inverse fitting of the column transport tests using a modified version of E-MNM1D (Tosco and Sethi, 2010) and the user interface MNMs (www.polito.it/groundwater/software). They were used to develop a comprehensive transport model of MZVI suspensions in radial coordinates, called E-MNM1R, which takes into account the non Newtonian (shear thinning) rheological properties of the dispersant fluid and the porous medium clogging associated with filtration and sedimentation in the porous medium of both MZVI and guar gum residual undissolved particles. The radial model was run in forward mode to simulate the injection of MZVI dispersed in guar gum in conditions similar to those applied in the column transport tests. In a second stage, we demonstrated how the model can be used as a valid tool for the design and the optimization of a full scale intervention. The simulation results indicated that several concurrent aspects are to be taken into account for the design of a successful delivery of MZVI/guar gum slurries via permeation injection, and a compromise is necessary between maximizing the radius of influence of the injection and minimizing the injection pressure, to guarantee a sufficiently homogeneous distribution of the particles around the injection point and to prevent preferential flow paths.

Tosco, Tiziana; Gastone, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

2014-10-01

311

Long-term potential of in situ chemical reduction for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well-known for being hydrophobic and persistent in the environment. Although many treatment approaches have been demonstrated to result in degradation of PCBs in water or water/cosolvent systems, few examples exist where such approaches have been applied successfully for PCB degradation in soil-water systems. A possible explanation for the limited treatment of PCBs in soil-water systems is that reactants that are capable of degrading PCBs in the aqueous phase are unlikely to persist long enough to achieve meaningful treatment of slowly-desorbing PCBs associated with the soil phase. To investigate this explanation, laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate chemical reductants, including zero valent metals, palladium (Pd) catalyst, and emulsified zero valent iron (EZVI), for dechlorination of PCBs in the presence and absence of soil. In the absence of soil, Pd-catalyzed treatments (Pd with electrolytic ZVI or iron/aluminum alloy) achieved rapid destruction of a model PCB congener, 2-chlorobiphenyl, with half-lives ranging from 43 to 110 min. For treatment of soils containing Aroclor 1248 at an initial concentration of approximately 1,500 mg kg(-1), Pd-catalyzed treatments achieved no measurable enhancement over the background PCB depletion rate (i.e., that measured in the untreated control) of 5.3 mg kg(-1)week(-1). In the presence of soils, EZVI was the only approach evaluated that resulted in a clear enhancement in PCB dechlorination rates. EZVI achieved PCB concentration reductions of greater than 50% at an average rate of 19 mg kg(-1)week(-1). The results suggest that slow PCB desorption limits treatment effectiveness in soils. PMID:25113195

Olson, Mitchell R; Blotevogel, J; Borch, T; Petersen, M A; Royer, R A; Sale, T C

2014-11-01

312

Application of a long-lasting colloidal substrate with pH and hydrogen sulfide control capabilities to remediate TCE-contaminated groundwater.  

PubMed

A long-lasting emulsified colloidal substrate (LECS) was developed for continuous carbon and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) release to remediate trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater under reductive dechlorinating conditions. The developed LECS contained nZVI, vegetable oil, surfactants (Simple Green™ and lecithin), molasses, lactate, and minerals. An emulsification study was performed to evaluate the globule droplet size and stability of LECS. The results show that a stable oil-in-water emulsion with uniformly small droplets (0.7?m) was produced, which could continuously release the primary substrates. The emulsified solution could serve as the dispensing agent, and nZVI particles (with diameter 100-200nm) were distributed in the emulsion evenly without aggregation. Microcosm results showed that the LECS caused a rapid increase in the total organic carbon concentration (up to 488mg/L), and reductive dechlorination of TCE was significantly enhanced. Up to 99% of TCE (with initial concentration of 7.4mg/L) was removed after 130 days of operation. Acidification was prevented by the production of hydroxide ion by the oxidation of nZVI. The formation of iron sulfide reduced the odor from produced hydrogen sulfide. Microbial analyses reveal that dechlorinating bacteria existed in soils, which might contribute to TCE dechlorination. PMID:25463237

Sheu, Y T; Chen, S C; Chien, C C; Chen, C C; Kao, C M

2015-03-01

313

Influence of photo-cross-linking on emulsifying performance of the self-assemblies of poly(7-(4-vinylbenzyloxyl)-4-methylcoumarin-co-acrylic acid).  

PubMed

Polymeric micelles could be used as model polymeric particulate emulsifiers to elucidate the correlation between the micellar structure and their emulsifying performance. Photo-cross-linkable and pH-responsive micelles were prepared with amphiphilic random copolymers, poly(7-(4-vinylbenzyloxyl)-4-methylcoumarin-co-acrylic acid) (PVMAA), via the self-assembly in selective-solvent DMF/H2O and then used as polymeric particulate emulsifiers to stabilize toluene-in-water emulsions. Primary micelles, based on PVMAA with 12 mol % of hydrophobic composition, were chosen as model to investigate the influence of photo-cross-linking on the emulsifying performance. The larger shrinkage degree by photo-cross-linking (SDC) the micelles have, the lower emulsifying efficiency the micelles exhibit. Furthermore, the structural transitions of micelles with SDC of 0% and 95% in response to pH change were comparatively confirmed by a combination of electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The micelles of various states, manipulated by photo-cross-linking and pH changes, were used as emulsifiers to stabilize toluene-in-water or styrene-in-water emulsions. For the un-cross-linked micelles, polymer chains gradually protrude from micelles with pH increasing, which benefits the increase in the emulsifying efficiency of micelles. However, as pH elevated over 8, the stability of emulsions significantly decreases due to the disintegration of micelles. On the contrary, micelles with SDC of 95% keep their structural integrity and become more rigid as pH increase, leading to lower emulsifying efficiency of micelles and worse stability of the emulsions. This paper provides a new insight into the principles governing the extremely high emulsifying efficiency of polymeric particulate emulsifiers and pH-dependent or pH-responsive properties of the formed emulsions. PMID:24845778

Yi, Chenglin; Sun, Jianhua; Zhao, Donghua; Hu, Qiong; Liu, Xiaoya; Jiang, Ming

2014-06-17

314

Effects of Solution Chemistry on the Dechlorination of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane by Zero-Valent Zinc  

SciTech Connect

The reactivity of zerovalent zinc (ZVZ) toward 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) was evaluated under a variety of solution conditions, including deionized water, groundwater, and artificial groundwater, over a pH range of about 6.5-12. In deionized water, first-order rate constants for TCP disappearance (kobs) exhibit a broad minimum between pH 8 and 10, with increasing kobs observed at lower and higher pH. The similarity between this trend and zinc oxide (ZnO) solubility behavior suggests pH related changes to the ZnO surface layer strongly influence ZVZ reactivity. Values of kobs measured in acidic groundwater are similar to those measured in DI water, whereas values measured in alkaline groundwater are much smaller (>1 order of magnitude at pH values >10). Characterization of the surfaces of ZVZ exposed to deionized water, acidic groundwater, and alkaline groundwater suggests that the slower rates obtained in alkaline groundwater are related to the presence of a morphologically distinct surface film that passivates the ZVZ surface. TCP degradation rates in artificial groundwater containing individual solutes present in groundwater suggest that silicate anions contribute to the formation of this passivating film.

Salter-Blanc, Alexandra; Tratnyek, Paul G.

2011-04-12

315

Season-long mating disruption of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, with an emulsified wax formulation of pheromone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, is a major world wide pest of citrus. Mating disruption has proven effective against this pest in small plot investigations. We achieved season-long disruption of P. citrella with a newly developed, flowable emulsified wax dispenser of pheromone (SPLAT-CLM™...

316

Incomplete femtosecond laser-assisted capsulotomy and lens fragmentation due to emulsified silicone oil in the anterior chamber.  

PubMed

We report 2 cases involving femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery following a retinal-detachment repair performed 1 and 2 years earlier using silicone oil endotamponade that was subsequently removed. Preoperative slitlamp examination did not show emulsified silicone oil in the anterior chamber. Intraoperatively, however, emulsified silicone oil was seen on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) as a distinct hyperreflective retrocorneal line and there was no penetration of the OCT signal or delivery of the femtosecond laser treatment through this area, resulting in incomplete capsulotomy and lens fragmentation in both cases. Because silicone oil has a lower density than aqueous and migrates superiorly, careful preoperative gonioscopic examination to evaluate for emulsified silicone oil in the superior angle is warranted in eyes having femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery after a vitrectomy with silicone-oil endotamponade. Review of intraoperative OCT images can detect emulsified silicone oil, which would allow the procedure to be modified appropriately to prevent complications. PMID:25447197

Grewal, Dilraj S; Singh Grewal, Satinder Pal; Basti, Surendra

2014-12-01

317

Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography of Emulsified Subretinal Silicone Oil Presenting as a Macular Inverted Pseudohypopyon.  

PubMed

The authors present a rare case of an inverted pseudohypopyon due to subretinal emulsified silicone oil in the macula of a patient who underwent pars plana vitrectomy surgery for repair of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy 1 year prior to presentation of this finding. The patient's predisposing diagnosis is pathologic myopia. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:xxx-xxx.]. PMID:25215873

Karth, Peter A; Moshfeghi, Darius M

2014-09-18

318

Fat reduction in comminuted meat products-effects of beef fat, regular and pre-emulsified canola oil.  

PubMed

The effects of fat reduction (25.0%, 17.5%, and 10.0%) and substituting beef fat with canola oil or pre-emulsified canola oil (using soy protein isolate, sodium caseinate or whey protein isolate) on cooking loss, texture and color of comminuted meat products were investigated. Reducing fat from 25 to 10% increased cooking loss and decreased hardness. Canola oil or pre-emulsified treatments showed a positive effect on improving yield and restoring textural parameters. Using sodium caseinate to pre-emulsify the oil resulted in the highest hardness value. Cohesiveness was affected by fat type and level. The color of reduced fat meat batters was darker for all, except the beef fat treatments. Using canola oil or pre-emulsified oil resulted in a significant reduction in redness. The results show that pre-emulsification can offset some of the changes in reduced fat meat products when more water is used to substitute for the fat and that pre-emulsification can also help to produce a more stable meat matrix. PMID:21146328

Youssef, M K; Barbut, S

2011-04-01

319

UPTAKE AND EFFECTS OF DISPERSED OIL DROPLETS AND EMULSIFIED OIL BY ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

The results from this project will provide information on the extent of uptake of dispersed petroleum from the seawater and uptake of emulsified oil from the sediment by blue crabs and grass shrimp of different life history stages. The primary focus of the study will be eff...

320

[Mechanisms of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose for the precipitation inhibitor of supersaturatable self-emulsifying drug delivery systems].  

PubMed

Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) propels self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) to achieve the supersaturated state in gastrointestinal tract, which possesses important significance to enhance oral absorption for poorly water-soluble drugs. This study investigated capacities and mechanisms of HPMC with different viscosities (K4M, K15M and K100M) to inhibit drug precipitation of SEDDS in the simulated gastrointestinal tract environment in vitro. The results showed that HPMC inhibited drug precipitation during the dispersion of SEDDS under gastric conditions by inhibiting the formation of crystal nucleus and the growth of crystals. HPMC had evident effects on the rate of SEDDS lipolysis and benefited the distribution of drug molecules across into the aqueous phase and the decrease of drug sediment. The mechanisms were related to the formed network of HPMC and its viscosities and molecular weight. These results offered a reference for selecting appropriate type of HPMC as the precipitation inhibitor of supersaturatable SEDDS. PMID:23888703

Xiao, Lu; Yi, Tao

2013-05-01

321

Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry  

SciTech Connect

Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

1999-11-01

322

Self micro-emulsifying drug delivery system of tacrolimus: Formulation, in vitro evaluation and stability studies  

PubMed Central

Background: Tacrolimus has poor solubility in water ranging from 4 to 12 ?g/mL. The oral bio availabilities of tacrolimus is poor and exhibits high intra and inter-subject variability (4-89%, average 25%) in the liver and the kidney transplant recipients and in patients with renal impairment. Aim: The present study deals with the development and characterization of self-micro-emulsifying drug delivery system to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug tacrolimus. Materials and Methods: Solubility of the tacrolimus was estimated in various oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants. Various in vitro tests such as percentage transmittance, emulsification time, cloud point, precipitation, and thermodynamic stabilities were used to find out optimized formulations. Optimized liquid self micro-emulsifying (SMEDDS) were characterized by particle size analysis and converted in solid by using the Florite RE as an adsorbent, which is further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and particle size analysis. Results: The optimized liquid SMEDDS formulation contained 10% Lauroglycol FCC as an oil, 60% Cremophor RH, and 30% PEG (polyethylene glycol) 400 as a surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. The optimized liquid and solid SMEDDS showed higher drug release than the marketed capsule and pure API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) powder. For optimized liquid SMEDDS and solid SMEDDS, the globule sizes were found 113 nm and 209 nm respectively. The solid state characterization of solid-SMEDDS by SEM, DSC, FTIR, and XRD revealed the absence of crystalline tacrolimus in the solid-SMEDDS. Shelf-lives for liquid SMEDDS and solid SMEDDS were found to be 1.84 and 2.25 year respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that liquid SMEDDS and solid SMEDDS of tacrolimus, owing to nano-sized, have potential to enhance the absorption of the drug. PMID:24015381

Patel, Pranav V; Patel, Hitesh K; Panchal, Shital S; Mehta, Tejal A

2013-01-01

323

Formulation development and pharmacokinetics of puerarin self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this work was to prepare a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for a poorly water-soluble drug, puerarin. The solubility of puerarin was determined in various oils and surfactants. Oleic acid and Tween 80 provided relatively higher solubility. The addition of propylene glycol as a cosurfactant improved the solubility of puerarin and the spontaneity of self-emulsification. A series of mixtures composed of oleic acid, propylene glycol, and Tween 80 were prepared and their self-emulsifying properties were studied. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the efficient self-emulsification region, and the particle sizes of the resultant emulsions were determined using a laser diffraction sizer. The pharmacokinetic behaviors of three different SEDDS formulations were investigated in beagle dogs. The bioavailability of puerarin was compared using the pharmacokinetic parameters, peak plasma concentration (C(max)), time to reach peak plasma concentration (T(max)), and total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)). The analysis of the data showed a statistically significant difference between F2 and F4 (P < 0.01) as well as F3 and F4 (P < 0.01) with regard to the values of AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) but not between those of F2 and F3 (P > 0.05). In the case of parameter T(max), ke, no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) among the values were observed. From these studies, a SEDDS containing oleic acid (17.5%), Tween 80 (34.5%), and propylene glycol (34.5%) (w/w) was selected as an optimized SEDDS formulation for puerarin. The data suggest the potential use of SEDDS to improve the oral absorption of puerarin. PMID:17390702

Dong-Qin, Quan; Gui-Xia, Xu; Xiang-Gen, Wu

2007-01-01

324

Cross-hole radar scanning of two vertical, permeable, reactive-iron walls at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A pilot-scale study was conducted by the U.S. Army National Guard (USANG) at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to assess the use of a hydraulic-fracturing method to create vertical, permeable walls of zero-valent iron to passively remediate ground water contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The study was conducted near the source area of the Chemical Spill-10 (CS-10) plume, a plume containing chlorinated solvents that underlies the MMR. Ground-water contamination near the source area extends from about 24 m (meters) to 35 m below land surface. The USANG designed two reactive-iron walls to be 12 m long and positioned 24 to 37 m below land surface to intersect and remediate part of the CS-10 plume.Because iron, as an electrical conductor, absorbs electromagnetic energy, the US Geological Survey used a cross-hole common-depth, radar scanning method to assess the continuity and to estimate the lateral and vertical extent of the two reactive-iron walls. The cross-hole radar surveys were conducted in boreholes on opposite sides of the iron injection zones using electric-dipole antennas with dominant center frequencies of 100 and 250 MHz. Significant decreases in the radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans that traversed the injection zones were interpreted by comparing field data to results of two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain numerical models and laboratory-scale physical models.The numerical and physical models simulate a wall of perfectly conducting material embedded in saturated sand. Results from the numerical and physical models show that the amplitude of the radar pulse transmitted across the edge of a conductive wall is about 43 percent of the amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted across background material. The amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted through a hole in a conductive wall increases as the aperture of the hole increases. The modeling results indicate that holes with an aperture of less than 40 percent of the dominant wavelength of the radar pulse are not likely to be detected.Based on the results of the numerical and physical modeling, the decreases in radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans traversing the injection zones are interpreted as electrically conductive zones that outline the distribution of iron. The area interpreted as iron in the northern A-wall contains two zones -- an upper zone about 10 m wide, extending from about 25 to 31 m below land surface, and a lower zone about 8 m wide, extending from 31.5 to 34.5 m below land surface. The area interpreted as iron in the southern B-wall is about 9 m wide, extending from about 27 to 34.5 m below land surface. No discrete holes were interpreted in either the A- or B-wall zones.The interpretation of the field data suggests that (1) the hydraulic-fracturing method introduced iron into the subsurface, but not in the dimensions originally proposed; (2) the iron within the treatment zones is distributed in a generally continuous manner; and (3) excluding the discontinuity in the A-wall, holes within the iron treatment zone, if any, exist at scales smaller than about 10 cm, the resolution limit of the radar antennas and acquisition geometry used for this study. The cross-hole radar method appears to have been an effective method for delineating the distribution of iron in the two walls; however, the veracity of the results cannot be ascertained without excavation or drilling into the treatment zone.

Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Savoie, J.G.

2001-01-01

325

Bacterial iron homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron is essential to virtually all organisms, but poses problems of toxicity and poor solubility. Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to counter the problems imposed by their iron dependence, allowing them to achieve effective iron homeostasis under a range of iron regimes. Highly efficient iron acquisition systems are used to scavenge iron from the environment under iron-restricted conditions. In many

Simon C Andrews; Andrea K Robinson; Francisco Rodr??guez-Quiñones

2003-01-01

326

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE Volume 21, Number 2, 2004  

E-print Network

reduction by iron metal (Fe0), nitrate and nitrite reduction rates were measured over a range of mixing in some studies and not in others. Key words: iron metal; zero-valent iron; nutrients; rotating disk was the compound most frequently detected at concentrations exceeding a regulatory standard [such as U.S. EPA

Alvarez, Pedro J.

327

Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on emulsifying properties of sweet potato protein in model protein-hydrocolloids system.  

PubMed

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on emulsifying properties of sweet potato protein (SPP) in presence of 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% (w/v) of guar gum (GG) and glycerol monostearate (GMS) were investigated. Emulsifying stability index (ESI) of the SPP with GG revealed significant increase (P<0.05) in ESI value at 600MPa treatment, while the stability of SPP-GMS emulsions significantly decreased with increase in GMS concentrations and HHP treatments (200-600MPa). HHP treatment considerably reduced the creaming rate for SPP-GG model while such case was not observed for SPP-GMS model. The flow index for SPP-GG emulsion model was found to decrease with increase in HHP treatment and had non-Newtonian behaviour. The SPP-GMS emulsion models with HHP treatments showed comparatively lower viscosities but had more Newtonian flow character. PMID:25236250

Khan, Nasir Mehmood; Mu, Tai-Hua; Ali, Farman; Arogundade, Lawrence A; Khan, Zia Ullah; Zhang, Maio; Ahmad, Shujaat; Sun, Hong-Nan

2015-02-15

328

Biogeochemical Modeling of In Situ U(VI) Reduction and Immobilization with Emulsified Vegetable Oil as the Electron Donor at a Field Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive biogeochemical model was developed to quantitatively describe the coupled hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological processes that occurred following injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) as the electron donor to immobilize U(VI) at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site (ORIFRC) in Tennessee. The model couples the degradation of EVO, production and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), glycerol, hydrogen and acetate, reduction of nitrate, manganese, ferrous iron, sulfate and uranium, and methanoganesis with growth of multiple microbial groups. The model describes the evolution of geochemistry and microbial populations not only in the aqueous phase as typically observed, but also in the mineral phase and therefore enables us to evaluate the applicability of rates from the literature for field scale assessment, estimate the retention and degradation rates of EVO and LCFA, and assess the influence of the coupled processes on fate and transport of U(VI). Our results suggested that syntrophic bacteria or metal reducers might catalyze LCFA oxidation in the downstream locations when sulfate was consumed, and competition between methanogens and others for electron donors and slow growth of methanogen might contribute to the sustained reducing condition. Among the large amount of hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological parameter values, the initial biomass, and the interactions (e.g., inhibition) of the microbial functional groups, and the rate and extent of Mn and Fe oxide reduction appear as the major sources of uncertainty. Our model provides a platform to conduct numerical experiments to study these interactions, and could be useful for further iterative experimental and modeling investigations into the bioreductive immobiliztion of radionuclide and metal contaminants in the subsurface.

Tang, G.; Parker, J.; Wu, W.; Schadt, C. W.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.; Orifrc Team

2011-12-01

329

Comparative study of the emulsifying and foaming properties of defatted coriander ( Coriandrum sativum) seed flour and protein concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emulsifying and foaming properties were determined for coriander protein products (defatted flour and protein concentrate) at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 and the results compared with those obtained for defatted soybean flour. Mean oil droplet size and interfacial protein concentration was smallest for emulsions (?17% oil, v\\/v) stabilized by the coriander protein concentrate, when compared to the coriander and soybean

Rotimi E. Aluko; Tara McIntosh; Martin Reaney

2001-01-01

330

Influence of vegetable shortening and emulsifiers on the unfrozen water content and textural properties of frozen French bread dough  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of vegetable shortening (VS) and emulsifiers (calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (CSL) and polysorbate 80 (PS80)) on frozen French bread dough has been studied. Eight formulations without yeast were used with different quantities of VS, CSL and PS80. Dough was prepared by mixing all ingredients in a dough mixer at two speeds. The fresh dough was divided into 60g pieces and

T. G. Matuda; D. F. Parra; A. B. Lugão; C. C. Tadini

2005-01-01

331

Development of isradipine loaded self-nano emulsifying powders for improved oral delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

Abstract Isradipine (ISR) is a potent calcium channel blocker with low oral bioavailability due to low aqueous solubility, extensive first-pass metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux transport. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to develop isradipine-loaded self-nano emulsifying powders (SNEP) for improved oral delivery. The liquid self-nano emulsifying formulations (L-SNEF/SNEF) of isradipine were developed using vehicles with highest drug solubility, i.e. Labrafil® M 2125 CS as oil phase, Capmul® MCM L8 and Cremophor® EL as surfactant/co-surfactant mixture. The developed formulations revealed desirable characteristics of self-emulsifying system such as nano-size globules ranging from 32.7 to 40.2?nm, rapid emulsification (around 60?s), thermodynamic stability and robustness to dilution. The optimized stable self-nano emulsifying formulation (SNEF2) was transformed into SNEP using Neusilin US2 (SNEPN) as adsorbent inert carrier, which exhibited similar characteristics of liquid SNEF. The solid state characterization of SNEPN by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies shown transformation of crystalline drug into amorphous form or molecular state without any chemical interaction. The in vitro dissolution of SNEPN compared to pure drug was indicated by 18-fold increased drug release within 5?min. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in Wistar rats showed significant improvement of oral bioavailability of isradipine from SNEPN with 3- and 2.5-fold increments in peak drug concentration (Cmax), area under curve (AUC0-?) compared to pure isradipine. In conclusion, these results signify the improved oral delivery of isradipine from developed SNEP. PMID:24641324

Ramasahayam, Bindu; Eedara, Basanth Babu; Kandadi, Prabhakar; Jukanti, Raju; Bandari, Suresh

2014-03-18

332

Methods of Emulsifying Linoleic Acid in Biohydrogenation Studies In Vitro May Bias the Resulting Fatty Acid Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of three emulsifying methods on ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation (BH) in vitro were compared. Using a static\\u000a in-vitro gas test system, four replicates of each treatment were incubated in buffered ruminal fluid. Hemicellulose (300 mg\\u000a dry matter) was supplemented either with or without linoleic acid (9c12c-18:2, 5% in diet dry matter) and incubated for 4 and 24 h. Three methods

Ratchaneewan Khiaosa-ard; Florian Leiber; Carla R. Soliva

2010-01-01

333

Development and Optimization of Polymeric Self-Emulsifying Nanocapsules for Localized Drug Delivery: Design of Experiment Approach  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to formulate polymeric self-emulsifying curcumin nanocapsules with high encapsulation efficiency, good emulsification ability, and optimal globule size for localized targeting in the colon. Formulations were prepared using modified quasiemulsion solvent diffusion method. Concentration of formulation variables, namely, X1 (oil), X2 (polymeric emulsifier), and X3 (adsorbent), was optimized by design of experiments using Box-Behnken design, for its impact on mean globule size (Y1) and encapsulation efficiency (Y2) of the formulation. Polymeric nanocapsules with an average diameter of 100–180?nm and an encapsulation efficiency of 64.85 ± 0.12% were obtained. In vitro studies revealed that formulations released the drug after 5?h lag time corresponding to the time to reach the colonic region. Pronounced localized action was inferred from the plasma concentration profile (Cmax 200?ng/mL) that depicts limited systemic absorption. Roentgenography study confirms the localized presence of carrier (0–2?h in upper GIT; 2–4?h in small intestine; and 4–24?h in the lower intestine). Optimized formulation showed significantly higher cytotoxicity (IC50 value 20.32??M) in HT 29 colonic cancer cell line. The present study demonstrates systematic development of polymeric self-emulsifying nanocapsule formulation of curcumin for localized targeting in colon.

Wadhwa, Jyoti; Asthana, Abhay; Gupta, Sumeet; Shilkari Asthana, Gyati; Singh, Ranjit

2014-01-01

334

Effect of a new emulsifier containing sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and carrageenan on the functionality of meat emulsion systems.  

PubMed

The emulsion capacity and stability of a new emulsifier containing sodium stearoyl lactylate plus iota carrageenan (SSL/iC) in comparison to caseinate and soy isolate was analysed. The emulsion capacity and stability of SSL/iC in oil/water (O/W) model system emulsions was higher than shown by caseinate and soy isolate. However, the O/W emulsion stability was negatively affected by sodium chloride addition, but positively affected by an increase in temperature. Meat batters were made with caseinate, soy isolate, and SSL/iC at the minimum concentration that showed a good performance (>75% stability) in the O/W emulsions. The emulsifier SSL/iC produced high cook yields and good stability when used in meat batters. However, the cooked meat batters containing SSL/iC showed texture characteristics highly detrimental to the sensory analysis. On the other hand, the addition of 2% potato starch reduced the differences in texture parameters among the samples made with the different emulsifiers. PMID:22064186

Flores, M; Giner, E; Fiszman, S M; Salvador, A; Flores, J

2007-05-01

335

Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

Sastri, Sankar

1992-01-01

336

Impact of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) on functional characteristics of emulsified sausages.  

PubMed

Inclusion of fibers, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), at the expense of fat or protein in meat batters could be used to produce healthier sausages while lowering production costs. To study the impact of CMC/MCC on structural/functional characteristics of emulsified sausages, standard-fat Lyoner-style sausages were formulated with CMC/MCC at concentrations of 0.3-2.0%. Methods of analysis included rheology, water binding capacity (WBC), texture measurements, and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). WBC, texture measurements, and rheology all indicated that addition of CMC (>0.7%) led to destabilization of the batter, which upon heating could no longer be converted into a coherent protein network, a fact that was also revealed in CLSM images. In contrast, MCC was highly compatible with the matrix and improved firmness (1405-1651N/100g) with increasing concentration compared to control (1381N/100g) while keeping WBC (4.6-5.9%) with <2% MCC at the level of the control (4.8%). Results were discussed in terms of molecular interactions of meat proteins with celluloses. PMID:23036941

Schuh, Valerie; Allard, Karin; Herrmann, Kurt; Gibis, Monika; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

2013-02-01

337

Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of new tacrolimus-loaded solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a novel tacrolimus-loaded solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) using Labrafac as an oil phase. The ternary phase diagram was plotted with Labrafac, Labrasol and Lauroglycol used as an oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. The liquid SEDDS formulated with Labrasol, Lauroglycol and Labrafac (70:15:15, volume ratio) furnished the smallest emulsion globule size. The solid SEDDS was obtained by spray-drying the liquid mixture containing the liquid SEDDS with 5 % tacrolimus and silicon dioxide. Furthermore, dissolution of tacrolimus from the solid SEDDS and pharmacokinetics in rats was studied compared to the commercial product. The solid SEDDS produced relatively larger emulsion globule size than that exhibited by the corresponding liquid SEDDS. However, this size variation was not significantly different. The solid SEDDS with approximately 280 nm emulsion droplet size improved the dissolution of the drug compared to drug power and the commercial product. It resulted in significantly higher plasma concentration, AUC and Cmax, and shorter Tmax values than did the commercial product (p < 0.05). The enormously enhanced oral bioavailability of tacrolimus in rats was attributed to relatively faster absorption due to accelerated dissolution of the drug from the solid SEDDS. Therefore, this novel solid SEDDS prepared with Labrafac as an oil phase is an excellent way to achieve better bioavailability of tacrolimus given via the oral route. PMID:25134927

Seo, Youn Gee; Kim, Dong-Wuk; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

2015-02-01

338

Tocopheryl acetate nanoemulsions stabilized with lipid-polymer hybrid emulsifiers for effective skin delivery.  

PubMed

Tocopheryl acetate is used as the oil component of nanoemulsions using a mixture of unsaturated phospholipids and polyethylene oxide-block-poly(?-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL). This study investigates the effects of the lipid-polymer composition on the size and surface charge of nanoemulsions, microviscosity of the interfacial layer, and skin absorption of tocopheryl acetate. The lipid-polymer hybrid system exhibits excellent colloidal dispersion stability, which is comparable to that of polymer-based nanoemulsions. If lipids are used as emulsifiers, nanoemulsions show poor dispersion stability despite a good skin absorption enhancing effect. The amount of tocopheryl acetate absorbed by the skin increases with an increased lipid-to-polymer ratio, as determined using the hairless guinea pig skin loaded in a Franz-type diffusion cell. An 8:2 (w/w) mixture of unsaturated phospholipids and PEO-b-PCL exhibits the most efficient delivery of tocopheryl acetate into the skin. Our results show that tocopheryl acetate is absorbed almost twice as fast by the lipid-polymer hybrid system than the nanoemulsions stabilized with PEO-b-PCL. This study suggests that the lipid-polymer hybrid system can be used as an effective means of optimizing nanoemulsions in terms of dispersion stability and skin delivery capability. PMID:22326341

Nam, Yoon Sung; Kim, Jin-Woong; Park, Jaeyoon; Shim, Jongwon; Lee, Jong Suk; Han, Sang Hoon

2012-06-01

339

Excipient effects on in vitro cytotoxicity of a novel paclitaxel self-emulsifying drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Paclitaxel is a potent chemotherapeutic agent currently administered intravenously in polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor EL) and dehydrated ethanol (1:1) for the treatment of solid tumors. The objective of this work was to develop a novel self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) devoid of cremophor for the i.v./oral delivery of paclitaxel and to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the combined excipients. The SEDDS formulations were characterized in terms of droplet size using a ternary phase diagram. The Caco-2 cell line was used to monitor the cytotoxicity of the excipients. Cell viability was determined colorimetrically at 570 nm utilizing the MTT assay. The distribution of the formulations on the phase diagram indicated the presence of macroemulsions ( approximately 1 microm), submicron emulsions (50-200 nm), and microemulsions (below 10 nm). An increase in the sodium deoxycholate excipient content led to an increase in physical stability but caused more chemical degradation of the drug and more cytotoxicity. The drug in the novel SEDDS was chemically stable for at least 1 year when kept as a two-part formulation. The drug loading was increased by approximately fivefold compared to the marketed i.v. formulation; the excipients presented a significantly reduced cytotoxicity and led to a stable microemulsion. PMID:14603486

Gursoy, Neslihan; Garrigue, Jean-Sebastien; Razafindratsita, Alain; Lambert, Gregory; Benita, Simon

2003-12-01

340

Mechanisms of composition change and toxic potentiation of chloramidophos emulsifiable concentrate during storage.  

PubMed

Storage instability is one of the serious problems that greatly restrict pesticide use. Routine checks on the composition and toxicity of 30% emulsifiable concentrates (EC) of chloramidophos (CP) during storage indicated that 78.6% of the active ingredient had decreased, whereas the anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the formulation was potentiated by 3.5 times. To understand the mechanism for these changes, detailed knowledge of the products present and their effects on anti-AChE potential deserves attention. It was likely that the basis for these changes was methanol, the cosolvent of CP EC, because when the purified CP was stored in methanol at 50 degrees C for 2 weeks, CP drop and toxic potentiation similar to those observed in CP EC also appeared. The major products of the CP-methanol reaction mixture were isolated and identified by HPLC and GC-MS, respectively, and their inhibitory potentials against AChE and effectiveness as potentiators were assessed. Following redetermination of the main product (O,S-dimethyl-[(2,2,2)-trichloro-1-methoxyethyl]phosphoramidothioate (MCP)) and high anti-AChE material (methamidophos), which were preconfirmed in the reaction mixture in CP EC, it was successfully demonstrated that the majority of CP in the formulation had been transformed to a new stable compound, MCP. Meanwhile, formation of another product, methamidophos, resulted in toxic potentiation. PMID:19132886

Zhou, Shanshan; Zhang, Datong; Yang, Huayun; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Weiping

2009-02-11

341

Voluntary Ingestion of Antiparasitic Drugs Emulsified in Honey Represents an Alternative to Gavage in Mice  

PubMed Central

The oral route is the most frequently used method of drug intake in humans. Oral administration of drugs to laboratory animals such as mice typically is achieved through gavage, in which a feeding needle is introduced into the esophagus and the drug is delivered directly into the stomach. This method requires technical skill, is stressful for animals, and introduces risk of injury, pain and morbidity. Here we investigated another method of drug administration. The benzimidazole derivative albendazole was emulsified in commercially available honey and administered to mice by voluntary feeding or gavage. Mice that received albendazole by either gavage or honey ingestion had virtually identical levels of serum albendazole sulfoxide, indicating that uptake and metabolism of albendazole was similar for both administration techniques. In addition, dosing mice with the albendazole–honey mixture for 8 wk had antiparasitic activity comparable to earlier studies using gavage for drug administration. Compared with gavage, voluntary ingestion of a drug in honey is more rapid, less stressful to the animal, and less technically demanding for the administrator. Because of its low cost and ready availability, honey presents a viable vehicle for drug delivery. PMID:22776122

Küster, Tatiana; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Hermann, Corina; Theurillat, Regula; Thormann, Wolfgang; Gottstein, Bruno; Hemphill, Andrew

2012-01-01

342

Effects of emulsifying salts on the turbidity and calcium-phosphate-protein interactions in casein micelles.  

PubMed

Influence of emulsifying salts (ES) on some physical properties of casein micelles was investigated. A reconstituted milk protein concentrate (MPC) solution (5% wt/wt) was used as the protein source and the effects of ES [0 to 2.0% (wt/wt)] were estimated by measuring turbidity, acid-base titration curves and amount of casein-bound Ca and inorganic P (P(i)). Various ES, trisodium citrate (TSC), or sodium phosphates (ortho-, pyro-, or hexameta-) were added to MPC solution, and all samples were adjusted to pH 5.8. Acid-base buffering curves were used to observe changes in the amount and type of insoluble Ca phosphates. An increase in the concentration of TSC added to MPC solution decreased turbidity, buffering at pH approximately 5 (contributed by colloidal Ca phosphate), and amount of casein-bound Ca and P(i). Addition of up to 0.7% disodium orthophosphate (DSP) did not significantly influence turbidity, buffering curves, or amount of casein-bound Ca and P(i). When higher concentrations (i.e., > or =1.0%) of DSP were added, there was a slow decrease in turbidity. With increasing concentration of added tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), turbidity and buffering at pH approximately 5 decreased, and amount of casein-bound Ca and P(i) increased. When small concentrations (i.e., 0.1%) of sodium hexameta-phosphate were added, effects were similar to those when TSPP were added but when higher concentrations (i.e., > or =0.5%) were added, the buffering peak shifted to a higher pH value, and amount of casein-bound Ca and P(i) decreased. These results suggested that each type of ES influenced casein micelles by different mechanisms. PMID:16107395

Mizuno, R; Lucey, J A

2005-09-01

343

Enhanced effectiveness of tocotrienol-based nano-emulsified system for topical delivery against skin carcinomas.  

PubMed

Abstract The potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of tocotrienols (T3) against cancer, but not normal tissues, have been hampered by their limited systemic bioavailabilty. Recent expansive development of diverse nanoemulsion (NE) vehicles emphasized their vast potential to improve the effective dosing of different clinical and experimental drugs of lipophilic nature, such as T3. The emphasis of the present work is to develop a pharmaceutically scalable, low-energy nano-emulsification approach for optimized incorporation of T3-rich palm oil (Tocomin®), possessing anticancer activity as a potential cutaneous delivery platform for adjunctive therapy of skin carcinomas, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Different Tocomin®-NEs, obtained with different homogenization strategies, were screened based on physicochemical uniformity (droplet size, charge and polydispersity) and subjected to stress physical stability testing, along with chemical content analysis (?90% Tocomin® - incorporation efficiency). Adopted hybrid nano-emulsification of Tocomin®, correlated with highest preservation of DPPH-radical scavenging capacity of active T3 in prototype formulation, Tocomin®-NE, which effectively permeated diffusion cell membranes 4-folds higher than propyleneglycol (PG)-admixed Tocomin® control. Against two different cell models of human cutaneous carcinoma, Tocomin®-hybrid NE demonstrated significantly stronger cytotoxic profiles (p???0.01), visible in both concentration- and time- dependent manners, with at least 5-folds lower IC50 values, compared to those estimated for the closest Tocomin®-control. The proposed hybrid nano-emulsified formulation of Tocomin® provides simple and stable delivery platform, for effective topical application against keratinocyte tumors. PMID:25293973

Pham, Jimmy; Nayel, Amy; Hoang, Christina; Elbayoumi, Tamer

2014-10-01

344

Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~ 75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity.

Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

2013-08-01

345

AMELIORATION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING REACTIVE MIXTURES IN PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The generation and release of acidic drainage from mine wastes is an environmental problem of international scale. The use of zero-valent iron and/or iron mixtures in subsurface Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) presents a possible passive alternative for remediating acidic grou...

346

Geophysical Monitoring of Two types of Subsurface Injection  

EPA Science Inventory

Nano-scale particles of zero-valent iron (ZVI) were injected into the subsurface at the 100-D area of the DOE Hanford facility. The intent of this iron injection was to repair a gap in the existing in-situ redox manipulation barrier located at the site. A number of geophysical me...

347

TRANSFORMATION OF HALOGENATED PBTS WITH NANOSCALE BIMETALLIC PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Zero-valent iron nanoparticle technology is becoming a popular option for treatment of a variety of hazardous and toxic wastes, and for remediation of contaminated sites. As a matter of fact, nano iron has quickly become the most widely used nanomaterial in environmental ...

348

Pharmacology of Iron Transport  

PubMed Central

Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

2013-01-01

349

Formulation and optimization of nonionic surfactants emulsified nimesulide-loaded PLGA-based nanoparticles by design of experiments.  

PubMed

This investigation aimed to develop nimesulide (NMS)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticulate formulations as a biodegradable polymeric drug carrier to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared with two different nonionic surfactants, vitamin E d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), using an ultrasonication solvent evaporation technique. Nine batches were formulated for each surfactant using a 3(2) factorial design for optimal concentration of the emulsifying agents, 0.03-0.09% for vitamin E TPGS and 2-4% for PVA. The surfactant percentage and the drug/polymer ratio (1:10, 1:15, 1:20) of the NMS-loaded NPs were investigated based on four responses: encapsulation efficiency, particle size, the polydispersity index, and the surface charge. The response surface plots and linearity curves indicated a relationship between the experiment's responses and a set of independent variables. The NPs produced with both surfactants exhibited a negative surface charge, and scanning electron micrographs revealed that all of the NPs were spherical in shape. A narrower size distribution and higher drug loadings were achieved in PVA-emulsified PLGA NPs than in the vitamin E TPGS emulsified. Decreasing amounts of both nonionic surfactants resulted in a reduction in the emulsion's viscosity, which led to a decrease in the particle size of NPs. According to the ANOVA results obtained in this present research, vitamin E TPGS exhibited the best correlation between the independent variables, namely drug/polymer ratio and the surfactant percentage, and the dependent variables (encapsulation efficiency R(2) = 0.9603, particle size R(2) = 0.9965, size distribution R(2) = 0.9899, and surface charge R(2) = 0.8969) compared with PVA. PMID:24222270

Turk, Ceyda Tuba Sengel; Oz, Umut Can; Serim, Tugrul Mert; Hascicek, Canan

2014-02-01

350

Iron metabolism and toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer.

Papanikolaou, G. [First Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Laikon General Hospital, Athens 11527 (Greece); Pantopoulos, K. [Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, H3T 1E2 (Canada) and Department of Medicine, McGill University (Canada)]. E-mail: kostas.pantopoulos@mcgill.ca

2005-01-15

351

Iron deficiency anemia  

MedlinePLUS

Anemia - iron deficiency ... Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia. Red blood cells bring oxygen to the ... such as your spleen, remove old blood cells. Iron is a key part of red blood cells. ...

352

Iron Sucrose Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... any other iron injection such as ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron dextran (Dexferrum, Infed, Proferdex), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit); any other medications; or any of the ingredients in iron sucrose injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list ...

353

Saugus Iron Works Forge  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Saugus Iron Works forge, which used a large hammer to compress the iron. Forging strenghened the iron, which, right out of the blast furnace, was brittle. The Saugus River, which powered the forge, can be seen in the background....

354

Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total microbial community. Bacterial richness rebounded after nine months, although community composition remained distinct from the pre-amendment conditions. Subsequent to the experiment we have isolated several of these organisms into pure culture including representatives of probable new species of Geobacter, Desulforegula and Desulfovibrio. A hypothesized model for the functioning of these limited communities will be verified in the laboratory using defined combinations of isolates from the field where possible. These results demonstrated EVO serves as an effective electron donor source for in situ U(VI) bioreduction, and subsurface EVO degradation and metal reduction was likely mediated by successive identifiable guilds of organisms.

Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

2011-12-01

355

Iron and vegetarian diets.  

PubMed

Vegetarians who eat a varied and well balanced diet are not at any greater risk of iron deficiency anaemia than non-vegetarians. A diet rich in wholegrains, legumes, nuts, seeds, dried fruits, iron-fortified cereals and green leafy vegetables provides an adequate iron intake. Vitamin C and other organic acids enhance non-haem iron absorption, a process that is carefully regulated by the gut. People with low iron stores or higher physiological need for iron will tend to absorb more iron and excrete less. Research to date on iron absorption has not been designed to accurately measure absorption rates in typical Western vegetarians with low ferritin levels. PMID:25369923

Saunders, Angela V; Craig, Winston J; Baines, Surinder K; Posen, Jennifer S

2013-08-19

356

Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty for Glaucoma Secondary to Emulsified Silicone Oil after Pars Plana Vitrectomy: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background. To investigate the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG) secondary to emulsified silicone oil (SO). Methodology/Principal Findings. Prospective, interventional, consecutive case series of 11 eyes with sustained elevation of IOP after SO removal. The mean IOP at baseline, week 1, month 1, month 3, and month 6 was evaluated. The mean baseline IOP was significantly decreased from 25 ± 2.7?mmHg to 18.4 ± 5.5?mmHg at week 1 (P = 0.01), 17.9 ± 3.1?mmHg at month 1 (P = 0.008), 15.8 ± 3.9?mmHg at month 3 (P = 0.003), and 16.2 ± 4.7?mmHg at month 6 (P = 0.004). IOP < 21?mmHg was achieved in 91% of the eyes without a significant complication at month 6. Conclusion/Significance. SLT may be successful for lowering IOP in patients with OAG secondary to emulsified SO which was not controlled with maximum antiglaucomatous medical treatment. PMID:24822212

Alkin, Zeynep; Satana, Banu; Ozkaya, Abdullah; Basarir, Berna; Altan, Cigdem; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Demirok, Ahmet

2014-01-01

357

The utility of self-emulsifying oil formulation to improve the poor solubility of the anti HIV drug CSIC  

PubMed Central

Background CSIC (5-chloro-3-phenylsulfonylindole-2-carboxamide), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) has not been advanced as a therapeutic anti-HIV candidate drug due to its low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. Objective The objective of this work was to formulate CSIC into self-emulsifying oil formulations for the purpose of improving its aqueous solubility and evaluating in vitro antiretroviral activity. Methods CSIC self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEFs) were formulated and evaluated for droplet size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), viscosity, emulsification time, stability and bioactivity. Results Results showed significantly improved solubility of CSIC in the SEFs.The concentration of co-surfactant affected the droplet size, zeta potential and polydispersity index. In vitro bioactivity studies showed that the CSIC SEFs retained full anti-HIV activity. Conclusion The in vitro data from this first attempt to formulate CSIC SEFs suggest that improvement on the aqueous solubility of CSIC through this delivery system may accentuate its antiretroviral effectiveness in vivo via bioavailability enhancement. The formulation is therefore intended as an oral anti-HIV agent for prophylactic and therapeutic uses. PMID:23721408

2013-01-01

358

Iron fluorophosphates.  

PubMed

18 new iron fluorophosphates and a chlorofluorophosphate have been synthesised hydrothermally in a fluoride-rich medium, using FeF2, FeF3, Fe, HPF6. HCl, monovalent metal fluorides as reactants and amines as templating agents. Products have been fully structurally characterised using single crystal X-ray diffraction, and the stability of some compounds investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Reaction in fluoride-rich conditions produce ribbon-like, layer and framework structures containing new and unusual structural motifs based on the linking of Fe(O,F)6, PO3F, and PO2(OH,F)2 polyhedra. Structures exhibiting inter-layer spaces and channels are frequently lined by terminal fluoride anions of the PO3F, PO2(OH,F)2 and Fe(O,F)6 polyhedra. PMID:23770666

Keates, Adam C; Armstrong, Jennifer A; Weller, Mark T

2013-08-14

359

Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of U and nitrate from groundwater was observed in all wells in hydraulic connection to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. U concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 30 ppb (US EPA drinking water standard) at some well locations and nitrate was reduced to below detectable levels. Rebound of U in groundwater was observed together with the rebound of sulfate concentrations as the EVO was consumed. The flux of U and nitrate contamination from groundwater to the surface water receptor (Bear Creek) was significantly reduced by the EVO injection over a one year period. Uranium (VI) reduction to U(IV) in the field tests was confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. The reduced U(IV) was determined by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to be in an Fe-U complex, not uraninite. The activities of major Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria with U(VI)-reducing capability as well as methanogens was stimulated after injection of the oil.

Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

2011-12-01

360

Bi-layered self-emulsifying pellets prepared by co-extrusion and spheronization: influence of formulation variables and preliminary study on the in vivo absorption.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to produce by co-extrusion-spheronization pellets with two cohesive layers, one of them containing a self-emulsifying system for vinpocetine, a poorly water soluble model drug. Two layers were prepared: an inert layer of microcrystalline cellulose, lactose and water and a second one wetted with the self-emulsifying system. Different formulations of both layers were tested, evaluating the effects of formulation variables with an experimental design. The screening amongst formulations was performed preparing rod extrudates and using the extrusion profiles to assess their suitability for extrusion and to anticipate quality of the spheronized extrudates. Tubular extrudates and co-extrudates/spheronized pellets were then produced. Two types of bi-layered pellets were prepared: type I with the self-emulsifying system internally and the inert matrix externally, whereas type II vice versa. The pellets were characterized for sizing and shape, density, hardness, in vitro dissolution and disintegration and released droplets size and in vivo tests. Although both types of pellets demonstrated adequate morphological and technological characteristics, pellets type II revealed an improved drug solubility and in vivo bioavailability. These preliminary technological and pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that co-extrusion/spheronization is a viable technology to produce bi-layered cohesive self-emulsifying pellets of good quality and improved in vivo bioavailability. PMID:18191390

Iosio, Tamara; Voinovich, Dario; Grassi, Mario; Pinto, João F; Perissutti, Beatrice; Zacchigna, Marina; Quintavalle, Ugo; Serdoz, Francesca

2008-06-01

361

Iron metabolism in bifidobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bifidobacteria are Gram-positive, anaerobic microaerophilic rods that are capable of internalizing ferrous iron at pH 5.0 and 6.5 when assayed in a post-logarithmic growth phase. Dependent upon iron concentration, iron uptake is most efficient in cells grown in a metal-depleted medium. There are two iron-uptake systems: one operating at low outside iron concentrations (1 to 20 ?M); and one operating

Anatoly Bezkorovainy; Eva Kot; Robin Miller-Catchpole; George Haloftis; Sergey Furmanov

1996-01-01

362

Characteristics of bioemulsifier V2-7 synthesized in culture media added of hydrocarbons: chemical composition, emulsifying activity and rheological properties.  

PubMed

The bioemulsifier V2-7 is an exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesized by strain F2-7 of Halomonas eurihalina and it has the property of emulsifying a wide range of hydrocarbons i.e. n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, n-octane, xylene mineral light and heavy oils, petrol and crude oil. Characteristics of exopolysaccharide V2-7 produced in media supplemented with various hydrocarbons (n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, n-octane, xylene, mineral light oil, mineral heavy oil, petrol or crude oil) were studied. Yield production varied from 0.54 to 1.45 g L(-1) according to the hydrocarbon added, in the same way chemical composition, viscosity and emulsifying activity of EPS varied with the culture conditions. Respect to chemical composition, percentage of uronic acids found in exopolymers produced in hydrocarbon media was always higher than that described for V2-7 EPS (1.32%) obtained with glucose. This large amount of uronic acid present could be useful in biodetoxification and waste water treatment. On the other hand, the highest amount of biopolymer was synthesized with mineral light oil, while the most active emulsifiers were those obtained from media added with petrol and n-octane. Furthermore, all EPS were capable of emulsifying crude oil more efficiently than the three chemical surfactants tested as control (Tween 20, Tween 80 and Triton X-100). The capacity of strain F2-7 to grow and produce bioemulsifier in presence of oil hydrocarbons together with the high emulsifying activity and low viscosity power of the biopolymers synthesized in hydrocarbons media could be considered highly beneficial for application of both bioemulsifier and producing strain in bioremediation of oil pollutants. PMID:17182245

Martínez-Checa, F; Toledo, F L; El Mabrouki, K; Quesada, E; Calvo, C

2007-11-01

363

Antioxidant and emulsifying properties of alcalase-hydrolyzed potato proteins in meat emulsions with different fat concentrations.  

PubMed

The effect of hydrolyzed potato protein (HPP), a natural antioxidant, on emulsion quality was investigated using a factorial design with two Fat (15%, 30%) and two HPP (0%, 2.5%) levels, with three replications. The colour of the raw emulsions as well as cooking losses, textural properties and TBARS of cooked frankfurters were measured. Increasing the Fat proportion significantly (P<0.05) increased L(?), H(ab)(0) and decreased a(?), b(?), C(ab)(?) and hardness. Meat emulsions with added HPP were darker (lower L(?)) than those made without HPP and also had lower values of a(?) and b(?). The addition of HPP (2.5%) significantly (P<0.05) decreased cooking losses and fracture force, and had a significant (P<0.05) inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation in cooked frankfurters. These results suggest that HPP has both antioxidant and emulsifying properties which may be of potential use in meat emulsion manufacturing. PMID:20416748

Nieto, Gema; Castillo, Manuel; Xiong, Youling L; Alvarez, Daniel; Payne, Fred A; Garrido, María Dolores

2009-09-01

364

Experimental evaluation of oxygen-enriched air and emulsified fuels in a six-cylinder diesel engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this investigation are to (1) determine the technical feasibility of using oxygen-enriched air to increase the efficiency of and reduce emissions from diesel engines, (2) examine the effects of water-emulsified fuel on the formation of nitrogen oxides in oxygen-enriched combustion, and (3) investigate the use of lower-grade fuels in high-speed diesel engines by emulsifying the fuel with water. These tests, completed on a Caterpillar model 3406B, six-cylinder engine are a scale-up from previous, single-cylinder-engine tests. The engine was tested with (1) intake-air oxygen levels up to 30%, (2) water content up to 20% of the fuel, (3) three fuel-injection timings, and (4) three fuel-flow rates (power levels). The Taguchi technique for experimental design was used to minimize the number of experimental points in the test matrix. Four separate test matrices were run to cover two different fuel-flow-rate strategies and two different fuels (No. 2 diesel and No. 6 diesel). A liquid-oxygen tank located outside the test cell supplied the oxygen for the tests. The only modification of the engine was installation of a pressure transducer in one cylinder. All tests were run at 1800 rpm, which corresponds to the synchronous speed of a 60-Hz generator. Test results show that oxygen enrichment results in power increases of 50% or more while significantly decreasing the levels of smoke and particulates emitted. The increase in power was accompanied by a small increase in thermal efficiency. Maximum engine power was limited by the test-cell dynamometer capacity and the capacity of the fuel-injection pump. Oxygen enrichment increases nitrogen-oxide emissions significantly. No adverse effects of oxygen enrichment on the turbocharger were observed. The engine operated successfully with No. 6 fuel, but it operated at a lower thermal efficiency and emitted more smoke and particulates than with No. 2 fuel.

Sekar, R. R.; Marr, W. W.; Cole, R. L.; Marciniak, T. J.; Longman, D. E.

1993-01-01

365

Novel solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system of coenzyme Q?? with improved photochemical and pharmacokinetic behaviors.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to develop a solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS) with high photostability and oral bioavailability. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS was prepared by spray-drying an emulsion preconcentrate containing CoQ(10), medium-chain triglyceride, sucrose ester of fatty acid, and hydroxypropyl cellulose, and its physicochemical, photochemical, and pharmacokinetic properties were evaluated. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS powder with a diameter of ca. 15 ?m was obtained by spray-drying, in which the CoQ(10) was mostly amorphized. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS exhibited immediate self-emulsification when introduced to aqueous media under gentle agitation, forming uniform fine droplets with a mean diameter of ca. 280 nm. There was marked generation of reactive oxygen species, in particular superoxide, from CoQ(10) exposed to simulated sunlight (250W/m(2)), suggesting potent photoreactivity. Nano-emulsified solution of CoQ(10) under light exposure underwent photodegradation with 22-fold higher degradation kinetics than crystalline CoQ(10), although the CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS was less photoreactive. After the oral administration of CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS (100 mg-CoQ(10)/kg) in rats, enhanced exposure of CoQ(10) was observed with increases in both C(max) and AUC of ca. 5-fold in comparison with those of orally administered crystalline CoQ(10). From the improved physicochemical and pharmacokinetic data, the s-SEDDS approach upon spray-drying might be a suitable dosage option for enhancing nutraceutical and pharmaceutical values of CoQ(10). PMID:22498005

Onoue, Satomi; Uchida, Atushi; Kuriyama, Kazuki; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Seto, Yoshiki; Kato, Masashi; Hatanaka, Junya; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Shizuo

2012-08-15

366

Role of lipid-based excipients and their composition on the bioavailability of antiretroviral self-emulsifying formulations.  

PubMed

Abstract The objective of this study was to develop self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) to improve solubility and enhance the oral absorption of the poorly water-soluble drug, nevirapine. This lipid-based formulation may help to target the drug to lymphoid organs where HIV-1 virus resides mainly. The influence of the oil, surfactant and co-surfactant types on the drug solubility and their ratios on forming efficient and stable SEDDS were investigated in detail. Two SEDDS (F1 and F2) were prepared and characterized by morphological observation, droplet size and zeta potential determination, cloud point measurement and in vitro diffusion study. The influence of droplet size on the absorption from formulations with varying concentration of oil and surfactant was also evaluated from two self-emulsifying formulations. Oral bioavailability of nevirapine SEDDS was checked by using rat model. Results of diffusion rate and oral bioavailability of nevirapine SEDDS were compared with marketed suspension. The absorption of nevirapine from F1 and F2 showed 1.92 and 1.98-fold increase (p?

Chudasama, Arpan; Patel, Vineetkumar; Nivsarkar, Manish; Vasu, Kamala; Shishoo, Chamanlal

2014-03-01

367

Stable emulsions with thermally responsive microstructure and rheology using poly(ethylene oxide) star polymers as emulsifiers.  

PubMed

Poly(ethylene oxide) star polymers (PEO stars) were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization of 2000 molecular weight PEO methacrylate macromonomer with divinylbenzene as a crosslinking co-monomer. With an average of 460 arms per star, these PEO stars had a 12 nm radius of gyration that is consistent with a dense polymer core surrounded by an extended PEO corona. The PEO stars were extremely efficient emulsifiers, stabilizing cyclohexane-in-water or xylene-in-water emulsions against coalescence for several months at aqueous phase concentrations as low as 0.008 wt% or 0.01 wt%, respectively. Consistent with their emulsifying performance, PEO star adsorption decreased interfacial tension by approximately 22 mN/m and imparted significant dilatational elasticity to the xylene/water interface. PEO stars were thermally responsive, displaying a cloud point upon heating in water that was tuned by addition of kosmotropic electrolytes, and they in turn produced xylene-in-water emulsions that were thermally responsive in terms of the dispersion state of the emulsion droplets and the emulsion rheology. Emulsions prepared at room temperature mainly had non-flocculated droplets. Heating such an emulsion above the cloud point temperature triggered droplet flocculation, but not coalescence, that in turn was associated with increased viscous and elastic moduli of the emulsion measured after cooling back to room temperature. Emulsions that initially were homogenized above the cloud point temperature and then cooled showed neither droplet flocculation nor rheological thickening relative to emulsions that were prepared and held at room temperature. A mechanism based on the bridging behavior of PEO stars adsorbed at the droplet/water interface is postulated to explain this thermal response of the emulsion microstructure. PMID:23266031

Saigal, Trishna; Yoshikawa, Alex; Kloss, Dennis; Kato, Masanari; Golas, Patricia Lynn; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Tilton, Robert D

2013-03-15

368

A comparison of composition and emulsifying properties of MFGM materials prepared from different dairy sources by microfiltration.  

PubMed

Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), due to its specific nature and composition, is known as material possessing advantageous nutritional as well as technological properties. In this study MFGM materials were produced from several dairy sources such as buttermilk (BM), butter serum (BS) and buttermilk whey (BMW) by microfiltration (MF). The obtained materials, depending on the sources, were called BM-MFGM, BS-MFGM and BMW-MFGM, respectively. The compositions of starting materials and the isolated MFGM materials as well as their emulsifying properties were analyzed and compared. As expected, the MF resulted in enrichment of polar lipids (PLs), major components of MFGM. On dry matter basis, BM-MFGM and BS-MFGM were about 2.5 times higher in PLs compared to their beginning materials while BMW-MFGM was about 8.3 times compared to buttermilk powder (BMP). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the microfiltered products still contained a high amount of non-MFGM proteins such as caseins, ?-lactoglobulin, and ?-lactalbumin. Emulsions of 35% soya oil in water were prepared with the mentioned materials using a homogenizer at various pressures. Generally, emulsions prepared with BMP and butter serum powder had significantly higher particle sizes than those prepared with the MFGM materials. This result along with microscopy observation and viscosity measurement indicated the presence of aggregated particles in the former emulsions, probably as a result of lack of surface-active components. The differences in composition, especially in content of PLs and proteins of the materials were the main reasons for the differences in their emulsifying behaviors. PMID:23751553

Miocinovic, Jelena; Le Trung, Thien; Fredrick, Eveline; Van der Meeren, Paul; Pudja, Predrag; Dewettinck, Koen

2014-09-01

369

Preparation and pharmacokinetics evaluation of oral self-emulsifying system for poorly water-soluble drug Lornoxicam.  

PubMed

Abstract The present work was performed aiming to develop a new solid self-emulsifying system (SMEDDS) for poorly water-soluble drug Lornoxicam and evaluate the bioavailability in Wister rats by oral gavage. Liquid SMEDDS of Lornoxicam was formulated with Labrafil M 1944 CS as oil phase, Kolliphor HS 15 as a surfactant and Transcutol HP as a cosurfactant after screening various vehicles. The microemulsion system selected from the phase diagram and optimized by central composite design (CCD) response surface method was transformed into solid-SMEDDS (S-SMEDDS) by lyophilization using sucrose as cryoprotectant. The formulations were further characterized by the particle size, poly dispersity index (PDI), self-emulsifying time, zeta potential, transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics. Results of DSC studies confirmed that the drug was incorporated in the S-SMEDDS. The in vitro drug release from Lornoxicam SMEDDS was found to be greatly higher in comparison with that from the commercial tablets. It was indicated that SMEDDS might be effective in reducing the effect of pH variability of Lornoxicam and improving the release performance of Lornoxicam. HPLC system was applied to study the concentration of Lornoxicam in the plasma of the Wister rats after oral administration of Lornoxicam SMEDDS and Lornoxicam commercial tablets. The pharmacokinetics parameters of the rats were Cmax 1065.91?±?224.90 and 1855.22?±?748.25?ngmL(-1), Tmax were 2.5?±?0.4?h and 1.8?±?0.5?h, and AUC0?t were 5316.35?±?323.62 and 7758.07?±?241.57?ngmL(-1)?h, respectively. Calculated by AUC0??, the relative bioavailability of Lornoxicam S-SMEDDS was 151.69?±?15.32%. It suggested that this S-SMEDDS could be used as a successful oral solid dosage form to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug Lornoxicam as well. PMID:24524289

Li, Fei; Song, Shuangshuang; Guo, Yingxin; Zhao, Qianqian; Zhang, Xuemei; Pan, Weisan; Yang, Xinggang

2014-02-13

370

Effects of maternal iron nutrition during lactation on milk iron and rat neonatal iron status?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the milk iron content and iron status of lactating rats and their pups to investigatethe relationshipsbetween the iron concentrations of maternal diet and the iron content of milk, and that between the milk iron content and neonatal iron status. Three days after parturition lactating rats were divided into three groups and fed a control (250 ppm iron), a

Sunil G. Anaokar; Philip J. Garry

371

Technical Assistance to Ohio Closure Sites Technologies to Address Excavated VOC Contaminated Soil  

E-print Network

disposal, passive soil venting, enhanced soil venting, zero-valent iron, anaerobic bioremediation, aerobic technology ­ enhanced soil venting ­ stood out as best at meeting all of the requirements at FEMP. Enhanced soil venting is a simple process of removing the VOCs during the storage period using air extraction

Hazen, Terry

372

Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H. (Evanston, IL); Tzou, Ming-Shin (Evanston, IL); Jiang, Hui-Jong (Evanston, IL)

1987-01-01

373

GROUND WATER ARSENIC AND METALS TREATMENT USING A COMBINATION COMPOST-ZVI PRB (ABSTRACT ONLY)  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The PRB is designed to treat arsenic an...

374

Evaluation of simple methods of arsenic removal from domestic water supplies in rural communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looked at two arsenic removal technologies, method Bucket Treatment Unit and removal using citrus lime, lemon and filter. The method Bucket Treatment Unit used zero-valent iron and removal using citrus lime, lemon and filter used photochemical oxidation of arsenic. The citrus lime, lemon and filter setup was found to be ineffective with its current design. The results reviewed

E. Awuah; R. T. Morris; P. A. Owusu; R. Sundell; J. Lindstrom

2009-01-01

375

Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

1987-03-31

376

THE APPLICATION OF PRB TECHNOLOGY AT TWO SITES: LESSONS LEARNED AFTER 7 YEARS OF PERFORMANCE MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

In June of 1996, a 46 m long, 7.3 m deep, and 0.6 m wide permeable reactive barrier (continuous wall configuration) of zero-valent iron was installed at the USCG-SC site. The reactive wall was designed to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated groundwater, in addition to tre...

377

NZVI modified magnetic filter paper with high redox and catalytic activities for advanced water treatment technologies.  

PubMed

The in situ synthesis of air-stable zero-valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI) embedded in cellulose fibers leads to the assembly of highly reactive magnetic filter papers. These engineered materials display a wide range of applications in the treatment of wastewater and drinking water, including chromium removal, phenol degradation, environmental bioremediation, and catalysis. PMID:25299729

Datta, K K R; Petala, E; Datta, K J; Perman, J A; Tucek, J; Bartak, P; Otyepka, M; Zoppellaro, G; Zboril, R

2014-12-25

378

ACCUMULATION RATE OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS AT TWO PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Accumulation of mineral precipitates and microbial biomass are key factors that impact the long-term performance of in-situ Permeable Reactive Barriers for treating contaminated groundwater. Both processes can impact remedial performance by decreasing zero-valent iron reactivity...

379

Green synthesis of Fe0 and bimetallic Fe0 for oxidative catalysis and reduction applications  

EPA Science Inventory

A single-step green approach to the synthesis of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) and nanoscale bimetallic (Fe0/Pd) particles using tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenols is described. The expedient reaction between polyphenols and ferric chloride (FeCl3) occurs within a minute at ...

380

Treatment of Arsenic, Heavy Metals, and Acidity Using a Mixed ZVI-Compost PRB  

EPA Science Inventory

A 30-month performance evaluation of a pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility was conducted. The PRB is designed to remove ...

381

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: METAL-ENHANCED ABIOTIC DEGRADATION TECHNOLOGY - ENVIROMETAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

EnviroMetal Technologies, Inc. (ETI), of Guelph, ON, Canada, has developed the metal-enhanced abiotic degradation technology to treat halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOC) in water. A reactive, zero-valent, granular iron medium causes reductive dehalogenation of VOCs yield...

382

Perchlorate Reduction by Autotrophic Bacteria in the  

E-print Network

to study the combination of zero-valent iron (ZVI) with perchlorate- reducing microorganisms (PRMs by water is used by PRMs as an electron donor to reduce perchlorate to chloride. Perchlorate degradation-limiting step with complete conversion to chloride (7). Perchlorate reducing microorganisms (PRMs) are ubiq

383

PRB STRATEGIES AND PERFORMANCE MONITORING FOR REMEDIATION OF INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A combination of experimental and field investigations will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and long-term performance of zero-valent iron mixtures for treating inorganic contaminants. Long-term performance research will explore the geochemical and microbiological proce...

384

ZVI-CLAY SOIL MIXING TREATS DNAPL SOURCE AREA AT 35-FOOT DEPTH  

EPA Science Inventory

The DuPont Company and Colorado State University (CSU) are collaborating in development and refinement of a technology that involves in-situ admixing of contaminated soil, granular zero valent iron (ZVI), and clay using conventional soil mixing equipment. A full-scale application...

385

Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135  

SciTech Connect

DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)] [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)

2013-07-01

386

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL TRENDS IN GROUNDWATER CHEMISTRY AND PRECIPITATE FORMATION AT THE ELIZABETH CITY PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER  

EPA Science Inventory

Accumulation of mineral precipitates and microbial biomass are key factors that impact the long-term performance of PRBs. Both processes can impact remedial performance by affecting zero-valent iron reactivity and permeability. Results will be presented from solid-phase and gro...

387

Bioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale  

E-print Network

Bioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale Zero-valent Iron Angela Athey Advisers: Dr. Reyes Undergraduate Student Fellowship Program April 15, 2011 #12;Main Sources of Uranium Natural · Leaching from(IV) (UO2[s], uraninite) Anthropogenic · Release of mill tailings during uranium mining - Mobilization

Fay, Noah

388

Environmental Remediation Technologies Derived from Space Industry Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, an abundance of effort and initiative was focused on propelling the space industry outward for planetary exploration and habitation. During these early years, the push to take space science to new levels indirectly contributed to the evolution of another science field that would not fully surface until the early 1980s, environmental remediation. This field is associated with the remediation or cleanup of environmental resources such as groundwater, soil, and sediment. Because the space-exploration initiative began prior to the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in December of 1970, many NASA Centers as well as space-related support contractors allowed for the release of spent chemicals into the environment. Subsequently, these land owners have been directed by the EPA to responsibly initiate cleanup of their impacted sites. This paper will focus on the processes and lessons learned with the development, testing, and commercialization initiatives associated with four remediation technologies. The technologies include installation techniques for permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), the use of ultrasound to improve long-term performance of PRBs, emulsified zero-valent iron for product-level solvent degradation, and emulsion technologies for application to metal and polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated media. Details of the paper cover technology research, evaluation, and testing; contracts and grants; and technology transfer strategies including patenting, marketing, and licensing.

Quinn, Jacqueline; Sauser, Brian; Helminger, Andrew

2004-01-01

389

Mercury Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Commercial and Laboratory Prepared Metal Oxide Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

of arsenic. The other oxides which have shown promising results for arsenic removal include the nanoparticles of copper ox- ide [23], titanium dioxide [24],[25],[26],iron-titanium binary mixed oxide [27], humic acid coated iron oxide [28] and cerium doped... iron oxide [29]. Successful attempts have been also made to remove chromium (using nanoscale surface modi ed jacobsite [30], maghemite [31], akaganeite [32]), lead (using nanoscale titanium dioxide [33], zero-valent iron [34] and nanoscale chitosan [35...

Desai, Ishan

2010-10-12

390

Genetics Home Reference: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed July 2014 What is iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia? Iron-refractory iron deficiency ...

391

Iron Therapy for Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Preterm infants are at risk for both iron deficiency and iron overload. The role of iron in multiple organ functions suggests that iron supplementation is essential for the preterm infant. Conversely, the potential for iron overload and the poorly developed anti-oxidant measures in the preterm infant argues against indiscriminate iron supplementation in this population. The purpose of this article is to review the predisposing factors and consequences of iron deficiency and iron overload in the preterm infant, the current recommendation for iron supplementation and its appropriateness, and describe potential management strategies that strike a balance between iron deficiency and iron toxicity. PMID:19161863

Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.

2009-01-01

392

Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice for supplementation during pregnancy, the bioavailability of the iron needs to be determined. Our objective was to measure the relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a powdered supplement that can be sprinkled on semi-solid foods or beverages versus a traditional tablet supplement in pregnant women. Methods Eighteen healthy pregnant women (24 – 32 weeks gestation) were randomized to receive the supplements in a crossover design. Following ingestion of each supplement, the changes (over baseline) in serum iron and folate over 8 hours were determined. The powdered supplement contained 30 mg of iron as micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with an emulsifier coating and 600 ?g folic acid; the tablet contained 27 mg iron from ferrous fumarate and 1000 ?g folic acid. Results Overall absorption of iron from the powdered supplement was significantly lower than the tablet (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the overall absorption of folic acid between supplements. Based on the differences in the area under the curve and doses, the relative bioavailability of iron from powdered supplement was lower than from the tablet (0.22). Conclusion The unexpected lower bioavailability of iron from the powdered supplement is contrary to previously published reports. However, since pills and capsules are known to be poorly accepted by some women during pregnancy, it is reasonable to continue to explore alternative micronutrient delivery systems and forms of iron for this purpose. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789490 PMID:19635145

Hartman-Craven, Brenda; Christofides, Anna; O'Connor, Deborah L; Zlotkin, Stanley

2009-01-01

393

Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Share ... iron storage disease, and stay healthy. What Is Hemochromatosis? Hemochromatosis occurs when the body absorbs too much ...

394

Iron Chelation Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... This is caused by a hereditary condition called hemochromatosis . Hereditary hemochromatosis is most common in people whose ancestors came ... supplements or multivitamins with iron. Patients with hereditary hemochromatosis may develop iron overload after a very small ...

395

Iron supplements (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

396

Iron and hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum iron markers are often elevated in hepatitis C virus infection, particularly in African-American persons, although the\\u000a clinical significance of this finding remains unclear. Although hepatic iron is usually only mildly elevated in hepatitis\\u000a C virus, iron overload is associated with more advanced disease, nonresponse to interferon monotherapy, and increased risk\\u000a of hepatocellular carcinoma. Iron status does not predict response

James E. Nelson; Kris V. Kowdley

2004-01-01

397

Iron in diet  

MedlinePLUS

Diet - iron ... the body. Treatment consists of a low-iron diet, no iron supplements, and phlebotomy (blood removal) on ... The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine recommends the following: Infants and children Younger than 6 months: 0.27 milligrams ...

398

Delayed formation of zero-valent selenium nanoparticles by Bacillus mycoides SeITE01 as a consequence of selenite reduction under aerobic conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Selenite (SeO32?) oxyanion shows severe toxicity to biota. Different bacterial strains exist that are capable of reducing SeO32? to non-toxic elemental selenium (Se0), with the formation of Se nanoparticles (SeNPs). These SeNPs might be exploited for technological applications due to their physico-chemical and biological characteristics. The present paper discusses the reduction of selenite to SeNPs by a strain of Bacillus sp., SeITE01, isolated from the rhizosphere of the Se-hyperaccumulator legume Astragalus bisulcatus. Results Use of 16S rRNA and GyrB gene sequence analysis positioned SeITE01 phylogenetically close to B. mycoides. On agarized medium, this strain showed rhizoid growth whilst, in liquid cultures, it was capable of reducing 0.5 and 2.0 mM SeO32? within 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The resultant Se0 aggregated to form nanoparticles and the amount of Se0 measured was equivalent to the amount of selenium originally added as selenite to the growth medium. A delay of more than 24 hours was observed between the depletion of SeO32 and the detection of SeNPs. Nearly spherical-shaped SeNPs were mostly found in the extracellular environment whilst rarely in the cytoplasmic compartment. Size of SeNPs ranged from 50 to 400 nm in diameter, with dimensions greatly influenced by the incubation times. Different SeITE01 protein fractions were assayed for SeO32? reductase capability, revealing that enzymatic activity was mainly associated with the membrane fraction. Reduction of SeO32? was also detected in the supernatant of bacterial cultures upon NADH addition. Conclusions The selenite reducing bacterial strain SeITE01 was attributed to the species Bacillus mycoides on the basis of phenotypic and molecular traits. Under aerobic conditions, the formation of SeNPs were observed both extracellularly or intracellullarly. Possible mechanisms of Se0 precipitation and SeNPs assembly are suggested. SeO32? is proposed to be enzimatically reduced to Se0 through redox reactions by proteins released from bacterial cells. Sulfhydryl groups on peptides excreted outside the cells may also react directly with selenite. Furthermore, membrane reductases and the intracellular synthesis of low molecular weight thiols such as bacillithiols may also play a role in SeO32? reduction. Formation of SeNPs seems to be the result of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. PMID:24606965

2014-01-01

399

Double emulsions of water-in-oil-in-water stabilized by ?-form fat microcrystals. Part 1: Selection of emulsifiers and fat microcrystalline particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double emulsions are commonly stabilized by monomeric and\\/or polymeric emulsifiers. Pickering stabilization by solid particles\\u000a such as colloidal microcrystalline cellulose has been mentioned only once as a possible technique to stabilize the external\\u000a interface of the water-in-oil-in-water emulsion. No further work was carried out exploring this option. The present study\\u000a shows that solid microcrystalline fat particles of ?-form are capable

N. Garti; A. Aserin; I. Tiunova; H. Binyamin

1999-01-01

400

An Exocellular Protein from the Oil-Degrading Microbe Acinetobacter venetianus RAG1 Enhances the Emulsifying Activity of the Polymeric Bioemulsifier Emulsan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil-degrading microorganism Acinetobacter venetianus RAG-1 produces an extracellular polyanionic, heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier termed emulsan. Emulsan forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. Removal of the protein fraction yields a product, apoemulsan, which exhibits much lower emulsifying activity on hydrophobic substrates such as n-hexadecane. One of the key proteins associated with the emulsan complex is a cell

Horacio Bach; Yevgeny Berdichevsky; David Gutnick

2003-01-01

401

Iron, radiation, and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals, and it may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and development of a transformed cell in vivo. Given the high available iron content of the western diet and the fact that the world is changing to the western model, it is important to determine if high iron increases the risk of cancer. PMID:2269234

Stevens, R G; Kalkwarf, D R

1990-01-01

402

Marked effects of combined TPGS and PVA emulsifiers in the fabrication of etoposide-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) alone or in combination with other emulsifiers in the fabrication of etoposide-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for in vivo applications. Nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation or single-emulsion solvent evaporation method using TPGS alone or in combination with other surfactants. These nanoparticles were fully characterized by different techniques. For nanoprecipitation preparations, by adding 0.1% TPGS to polyvinyl alcohol in the aqueous phase, encapsulation efficiency markedly increased (up to 82%); moreover, drug release was readily controlled up to 3 days. Regarding emulsion solvent evaporation method, the highest encapsulation efficiency was obtained for nanoparticles emulsified with polyvinyl alcohol or TPGS; however, the burst release was high. When the combination of TPGS and polyvinyl alcohol was applied a marked increase in encapsulation efficiency (? 90%) was observed and the drug release was extended to more than one week. Pharmacokinetic measurements showed that the optimum formulation generated 14.4 times higher AUC and lasted 5.1 times longer when compared to free drug. Overall, using TPGS in combination with polyvinyl alcohol as an emulsifier in preparing etoposide loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles markedly increased the encapsulation efficiency, sustained drug release and resulted in nanoparticles with noticeable sustainable in vivo disposition. PMID:24451238

Saadati, Roonak; Dadashzadeh, Simin

2014-04-10

403

Formulation and in vitro and in vivo characterization of a phenytoin self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS).  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to develop and characterize a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) of phenytoin, and to compare its relative bioavailability to a commercially available suspension. Four phenytoin SEDDS were prepared and evaluated. Following emulsification, the optimized formula was selected to have the smallest mean particle size and the highest absolute zeta potential, which should yield the formation of a stable emulsion. Its dissolution characteristics were superior to the other SEDDS formulas. In vivo and in vitro tests were run to compare the optimized formula, SEDDS II, to a commercially available Dilantin suspension. The in vitro dissolution indicated a significant improvement in phenytoin release characteristics. The in vivo study using male rats showed a clear enhancement in phenytoin oral absorption from SEDDS compared to Dilantin suspension. The area under the curve AUC((-10min-->10h)) of phenytoin after SEDDS administration increased by 2.3 times compared to Dilantin (p<0.05), and the rate of absorption of phenytoin was significantly faster from the SEDDS. The concentration after 30min (C(30min)) of SEDDS administration was 4.9 times higher than C(30min) after Dilantin administration (p<0.05). A sustained effect of phenytoin in plasma was also observed. After 12 weeks storage, SEDDS II was found to be chemically and physically stable under stressed conditions. PMID:18706499

Atef, Eman; Belmonte, Albert A

2008-11-15

404

Role of medium-chain fatty acids in the emulsification mechanistics of self-micro-emulsifying lipid formulations  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective of the present study was to design and develop stable o/w microemulsions comprising Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO as a non ionic surfactant. This was based on particle size measurements and phase behavior studies. The empirical role of incorporating medium-chain mono/di-glycerides in the lipid matrix in the mechanistic processes of emulsification was also established in various simulating physiological conditions. Methods The efficiency of self-emulsification was evaluated under conditions of varying key compositions in the lipid mixtures; oil, cosurfactant and surfactant. Droplet diameter was measured using laser diffraction and light scattering techniques. Equilibrium phase studies were performed and phase boundaries were determined for the lipid–water systems. Results Microemulsion systems were produced from blends of Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO. An optimized formulation consisted of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO spontaneously self-emulsified in water producing dispersions with droplet diameters of ?50 nm. Phase equilibrium diagrams have revealed significant enhancement in the water-solubilized region (L2) without any presence of liquid crystalline materials. Conclusions Potential SMEDDS formulations for the bioavailability enhancement of poorly water-soluble compounds were developed by mixing blends of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO as a non-ionic surfactant. ‘Diffusion and stranding’ appears to be the dominant mechanism of emulsification.

Hasan, Naser M.Y.

2014-01-01

405

High internal phase emulsion templating with self-emulsifying and thermoresponsive chitosan-graft-PNIPAM-graft-oligoproline.  

PubMed

High internal phase emulsion (HIPE)-templating is an attractive method of producing high porosity polymer foams with tailored pore structure, pore size and porosity. However, this method typically requires the use of large amounts of surfactants to stabilize the immiscible liquid phases, and polymerizable monomers/cross-linker in the continuous minority phase to solidify the HIPE, which may not be desirable in many applications. We show that polyHIPEs with a porosity of 73% can be formed solely using a copolymer of chitosan-graft-PNIPAM-graft-oligoproline (CSN-PRO), which acts simultaneously as emulsifier and thermoresponsive gelator, and forms upon removal of the liquid templating phases, the bulk structure of the resulting polyHIPE. With only a small amount of surfactant (1%v/v in the aqueous phase), and varying the polymer concentration and internal phase volume ratio, different polyHIPEs with porosities of up to 99%, surface areas in excess of 300 m(2)/g and controlled pore interconnectivity can be formed. The poly(CSN-PRO)HIPEs are also shown to be thermoresponsive and remained intact when immersed into water above 34 °C but dissolve below their LCST, which is useful for applications such as drug delivery and tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:24661070

Oh, Bernice H L; Bismarck, Alexander; Chan-Park, Mary B

2014-05-12

406

U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-Model application to a field test  

SciTech Connect

A one-time 2-hour emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection in a fast flowing aquifer decreased U discharge to a stream for over a year. Using a comprehensive biogeochemical model developed in the companion article based on microcosm tests, we approximately matched the observed acetate, nitrate, Fe, U, and sulfate concentrations, and described the major evolution trends of multiple microbial functional groups in the field test. While the lab-determined parameters were generally applicable in the field-scale simulation, the EVO hydrolysis rate constant was estimated to be an order of magnitude greater in the field than in the microcosms. The model predicted substantial biomass (sulfate reducers) and U(IV) accumulation near the injection wells and along the side boundaries of the treatment zone where electron donors (long-chain fatty acids) from the injection wells met electron acceptors (sulfate) from the surrounding environment. While EVO retention and hydrolysis characteristics were expected to control treatment longevity, modeling results indicated that electron acceptors such as sulfate may not only compete for electrons but also play a conducive role in degrading complex substrates and enhancing U(VI) reduction and immobilization. As a result, the spacing of the injection wells could be optimized for effective sustainable bioremediation.

Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Parker, Jack C [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

2013-01-01

407

U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-- Microcosm tests and model development  

SciTech Connect

Microcosm tests were conducted to study U(VI) bioreduction in contaminated sediments with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) as the electron donor. In the microcosms, EVO was degraded by indigenous microorganisms and stimulated Fe, U, and sulfate bioreduction, and methanogenesis. Removal of aqueous U occurred concurrently with sulfate reduction, with more reduction of total U in the case of higher initial sulfate concentrations. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis confirmed U(VI) reduction to U(IV). As the acetate concentration peaked in 10~20 days in oleate microcosms, the maximum was reached in 100~120 days in the EVO microcosms, indicating that EVO hydrolysis was rate-limiting. The acetate accumulation was sustained over 50 days longer in the oleate and EVO than in the ethanol microcosms, suggesting that acetate-utilizing methanogenesis was slower in the cases of oleate and EVO. Both slow hydrolysis and methanogenesis could contribute to potential sustained bioreduction in field application. Biogeochemical models were developed to couple degradation of EVO, production and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, glycerol, acetate, and hydrogen, reduction of Fe(III), U(VI) and sulfate, and methanogenesis with growth and decay of microbial functional groups. The models were used to simulate the coupled processes in a field test in a companion article.

Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Shi, Xiaoqing [ORNL

2013-01-01

408

Formulation of a self-emulsifying system for oral delivery of simvastatin: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

The objective of the present work was to formulate a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for simvastatin, which is widely used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia as an adjunct to diet. Simvastatin SEDDS were formulated using a 1:1 (V/V) mixture of diesters of caprylic/capric acids and polyglycolyzed glycerides with varying concentrations of polyoxy castor oil and C8/C10 mono-/diglycerides. The developed SEDDS were evaluated for turbidimetry, droplet size analysis, drug content and in vitro diffusion profiles. In vivo performance of the optimized formulation was evaluated in rats using pharmacodynamic marker parameters like plasma total cholesterol (CH), triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-CH) for 21 days. SEDDS containing 9.1% (m/m) simvastatin and 23.0% (m/m) of each excipient showed minimum mean droplet size (124 nm) and optimal drug diffusion. This test formulation showed significant reduction in plasma CH and TG (around 5-fold and 4-fold, respectively), while HDL-CH concentration was markedly higher (2-fold) compared a reference simvastatin suspension formulation after oral administration for 21 days of study. Test formulation has shown enhanced pharmacodynamic performance compared to reference formulation in rats. The study illustrated the potential of simvastatin SEDDS for oral administration and its biopharmaceutic performance. PMID:19839411

Patil, Pradeep; Patil, Vandana; Paradkar, Anant

2007-03-01

409

Emulsified isoflurane anesthesia decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and induces cognitive dysfunction in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a severe complication characterized by cognitive decline in patients following anesthesia and surgery. Previous studies have suggested that volatile anesthetics, for example isoflurane, may contribute to such impairment. In the present study, the effects of emulsified isoflurane (EI) exposure on cognitive function, as well as the potential mechanisms, were investigated in animal models. Eight-month-old male rats were administered a single intravenous injection of 8% EI. The rats were then subjected to the Morris water maze test to assess their cognitive functions at different time-points following drug administration. Samples were taken in order to detect the plasma corticosterone concentration and the levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), as well as the expression of BDNF and NGF in the hippocampal region. The results showed that a single injection of EI caused reversible learning and memory dysfunction in adult rats. It was found that downregulation of BDNF expression may contribute to the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment of these rats. Increased expression of NGF may be associated with the protection mechanism subsequent to learning and memory function decline, and therefore may accelerate the recovery of cognitive function. PMID:25009603

ZHANG, FAN; ZHU, ZHAO-QIONG; LIU, DE-XING; ZHANG, CHAO; GONG, QI-HAI; ZHU, YU-HANG

2014-01-01

410

Mechanisms of mammalian iron homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Iron is vital for almost all organisms because of its ability to donate and accept electrons with relative ease. It serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes necessary for oxygen and energy metabolism, as well as for several other essential processes. Mammalian cells utilize multiple mechanisms to acquire iron. Disruption of iron homeostasis is associated with various human diseases: iron deficiency resulting from defects in acquisition or distribution of the metal causes anemia; whereas iron surfeit resulting from excessive iron absorption or defective utilization causes abnormal tissue iron deposition, leading to oxidative damage. Mammals utilize distinct mechanisms to regulate iron homeostasis at the systemic and cellular levels. These involve the hormone hepcidin and iron regulatory proteins, which collectively ensure iron balance. This review outlines recent advances in iron regulatory pathways, as well as in mechanisms underlying intracellular iron trafficking, an important but less-studied area of mammalian iron homeostasis. PMID:22703180

Pantopoulos, Kostas; Porwal, Suheel Kumar; Tartakoff, Alan; Devireddy, L.

2012-01-01

411

IRON IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma is a non-curable B cell malignancy in which iron metabolism plays an important role. Patients with this disorder almost universally suffer from a clinically significant anemia, which is often symptomatic, and which is due to impaired iron utilization. Recent studies indicate that the proximal cause of dysregulated iron metabolism and anemia in these patients is cytokine-induced upregulation of hepcidin expression. Malignant myeloma cells are dependent on an increased influx of iron and therapeutic efforts are being made to target this requirement. The studies detailing the characteristics and biochemical abnormalities in iron metabolism causing anemia and the initial attempts to target iron therapeutically are described in this review. PMID:23879589

VanderWall, Kristina; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Penichet, Manuel; Lichtenstein, Alan

2013-01-01

412

Concurrent bioremediation of perchlorate and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in an emulsified oil barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed field pilot test was conducted to evaluate the use of edible oil emulsions for enhanced in situ biodegradation of perchlorate and chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Edible oil substrate (EOS®) was injected into a line of ten direct push injection wells over a 2-day period to form a 15-m-long biologically active permeable reactive barrier (bio-barrier). Field monitoring results over a 2.5-year period indicate the oil injection generated strongly reducing conditions in the oil-treated zone with depletion of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate, and increases in dissolved iron, manganese and methane. Perchlorate was degraded from 3100 to 20,000 ?g/L to below detection (< 4 ?g/L) in the injection and nearby monitor wells within 5 days following the injection. Two years after the single emulsion injection, perchlorate was less than 6 ?g/L in every downgradient well compared to an average upgradient concentration of 13,100 ?g/L. Immediately after emulsion injection, there were large shifts in concentrations of chlorinated solvents and degradation products due to injection of clean water, sorption to the oil and adaptation of the in situ microbial community. Approximately 4 months after emulsion injection, concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), perchloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE) and their degradation products appeared to reach a quasi steady-state condition. During the period from 4 to 18 months, TCA was reduced from 30-70 ?M to 0.2-4 ?M during passage through the bio-barrier. However, 1-9 ?M 1,1-dichloroethane (DCA) and 8-14 ?M of chloroethane (CA) remained indicating significant amounts of incompletely degraded TCA were discharging from the oil-treated zone. During this same period, PCE and TCE were reduced with concurrent production of 1,2- cis-dichloroethene ( cis-DCE). However, very little VC or ethene was produced indicating reductive dechlorination slowed or stopped at cis-DCE. The incomplete removal of TCA, PCE and TCE is likely associated with the short (5-20 days) hydraulic retention time of contaminants in the oil-treated zone. The permeability of the injection wells declined by 39-91% (average = 68%) presumably due to biomass growth and/or gas production. However, non-reactive tracer tests and detailed monitoring of the perchlorate plume demonstrated that the permeability loss did not result in excessive flow bypassing around the bio-barrier. Contaminant transport and degradation within the bio-barrier was simulated using an advection-dispersion-reaction model where biodegradation rate was assumed to be linearly proportional to the residual oil concentration ( Soil) and the contaminant concentration. Using this approach, the calibrated model was able to closely match the observed contaminant distribution. The calibrated model was then used to design a full-scale barrier to treat both ClO 4 and chlorinated solvents.

Borden, Robert C.

2007-10-01

413

Field assessment of carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron nanoparticles for in situ destruction of chlorinated solvents in source zones.  

PubMed

This study pilot-tested carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles (with a trace amount of Pd catalyst) for in situ destruction of chlorinated ethenes such as perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that had been in groundwater for decades. The test site was located in a well-characterized secondary source zone of PCBs and chlorinated ethenes. Four test wells were installed along the groundwater flow direction (spaced 5 ft apart), including one injection well (IW), one up-gradient monitoring well (MW-3) and two down-gradient monitoring wells (MW-1 and MW-2). Stabilized nanoparticle suspension was prepared on-site and injected into the 50-ft deep, unconfined aquifer. Approximately 150 gallons of 0.2 g/L Fe-Pd (CMC = 0.1 wt%, Pd/Fe = 0.1 wt%) was gravity-fed through IW-1 over a 4-h period (Injection #1). One month later, another 150 gallons of 1.0 g/L Fe-Pd (CMC = 0.6 wt%, Pd/Fe = 0.1 wt%) was injected into IW-1 at an injection pressure <5 psi (Injection #2). When benchmarked against the tracer, approximately 37.4% and 70.0% of the injected Fe was detected in MW-1 during injection #1 and #2, respectively, confirming the soil mobility of the nanoparticles through the aquifer, and higher mobility of the particles was observed when the injection was performed under higher pressure. Rapid degradation of PCE and TCE was observed in both MW-1 and MW-2 following each injection, with the maximum degradation being observed during the first week of the injections. The chlorinated ethenes concentrations gradually returned to their pre-injection levels after approximately 2 weeks, indicating exhaustion of the ZVI's reducing power. However, the injection of CMC-stabilized nanoparticle and the abiotic reductive dechlorination process appeared to have boosted a long-term in situ biological dechlorination thereafter, which was evidenced by the fact that PCE and TCE concentrations showed further reduction after two weeks. After 596 days from the first injection, the total chlorinated ethenes concentration decreased by about 40% and 61% in MW-1 and MW-2, respectively. No significant long-term reduction of PCB 1242 was observed in MW-1, but a reduction of 87% was evident in MW-2. During the 596 days of testing, the total concentrations of cis-DCE (dichloroethylene) and VC (vinyl chloride) decreased by 20% and 38% in MW-1 and MW-2, respectively. However, the combined fraction of cis-DCE and VC in the total chlorinated ethenes (PCE, TCE, cis-DCE and VC) increased from 73% to 98% and from 62% to 98%, respectively, which supports the notion that biological dechlorination of PCE and TCE was active. It is proposed that CMC-stabilized ZVI-Pd nanoparticles facilitated the early stage rapid abiotic degradation. Over the long run, the existing biological degradation process was boosted with CMC as the carbon source and hydrogen from the abiotic/biotic processes as the electron donor, resulting in the sustained enhanced destruction of the chlorinated organic chlorinated ethenes in the subsurface. PMID:20106501

He, Feng; Zhao, Dongye; Paul, Chris

2010-04-01

414

Iron sensors and signals in response to iron deficiency.  

PubMed

The transcription of genes involved in iron acquisition in plants is induced under iron deficiency, but our understanding of iron sensors and signals remains limited. Iron Deficiency-responsive Element-binding Factor 1 (IDEF1) and Hemerythrin motif-containing Really Interesting New Gene- and Zinc-finger proteins (HRZs)/BRUTUS (BTS) have recently emerged as candidate iron sensors because of their functions as potent regulators of iron deficiency responses and their iron-binding properties. IDEF1 is a central transcriptional regulator of graminaceous genes involved in iron uptake and utilization, predominantly during the early stages of iron deficiency. HRZs/BTS are E3 ubiquitin ligases and negative regulators of iron defi