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Sample records for emulsion behavior surfactant

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FOR NOVEL ALCOHOL ETHOXYCARBOXYLATE SURFACTANTS

    SciTech Connect

    LEBONE MOETI; RAMANATHAN SAMPATH

    1998-11-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Clark Atlanta University under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period April 01, 1998 to October 01, 1998 which covers the second six months of the project. Presently work is in progress at the EOR Laboratory, Clark Atlanta University (CAU), to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for a novel, hybrid (ionic/non-ionic), alcohol ethoxycarboxylate surfactant (NEODOX 23-4 from Shell Chemical Company). During this reporting period, salinity scans were completed for 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, and 6000 mM salt concentrations at 20, 25, and 30 °C to identify optimal salinity intervals in which all three phases coexist for this surfactant. Temperature scans were also performed at 20 mM salt concentration for various surfactant concentrations ranging from 0 to 60 weight percent at temperatures ranging from 5 to 50 °C to identify optimal surfactant concentration and temperature intervals in which all three phases coexist. This resulted in an "alpha" curve with an interval of temperature in which all three phases coexisted. Presently, temperature scans are being repeated at 100, 250, 500, 1000, and 5000 mM salt concentrations to see whether increase in salt concentration has any effect on the temperature interval. This will provide us better understanding and experimental control of the many variables involved in this research in the future. Following completion of the temperature scans, phase studies will be conducted at CAU, and coreflooding experiments at the facility of our industrial partner, Surtek, Golden, CO.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FOR NOVEL ALCOHOL ETHOXYCARBOXYLATE SURFACTANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath

    2001-09-28

    This final technical report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to August 31, 2001 which covers the total performance period of the project. During this period, detailed information on optimal salinity, temperature, emulsion morphologies, effectiveness for surfactant retention and oil recovery was obtained for an Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate (AEC) surfactant to evaluate its performance in flooding processes. Tests were conducted on several AEC surfactants and NEODOX (23-4) was identified as the most suitable hybrid surfactant that yielded the best proportion in volume for top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. Following the selection of this surfactant, temperature and salinity scans were performed to identify the optimal salinity and temperature, and the temperature and salinity intervals in which all three phases coexisted. NEODOX 23-4 formed three phases between 4 and 52.5 C. It formed an aqueous rich microemulsion phase at high temperatures and an oleic rich microemulsion phase at low temperatures--a characteristic of the ionic part of the surfactant. The morphology measurement system was set-up successfully at CAU. The best oil/water/surfactant system defined by the above phase work was then studied for emulsion morphologies. Electrical conductivities were measured for middle and bottom phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system and by mixing measured volumes of the middle phase into a fixed volume of the bottom phase and vice versa at room temperature. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. These experiments were then repeated for bottom/middle (B/M) and middle/bottom (M/B) conjugate pair phases at 10, 15, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 C. Electrical conductivity measurements were then compared with the predictions of the conductivity model developed in this project. The M/B and B/M morphologies and their inversion hysteresis lines conformed to the previously postulated dispersion morphology diagram; that is, within experimental uncertainties, the two emulsion inversion lines in phase volume-temperature space met at a critical point that coincided with the upper critical end point for the phases. Coreflooding measurements were performed by our industrial partner in this project, Surtek, Golden, CO which showed poor hydrocarbon recovery (38.1%) for NEODOX 23-4. It was also found that NEODOX 23-4 surfactant adsorbed too much to the rock (97.1% surfactant loss to the core), a characteristic of the non-ionic part of the surfactant.

  3. Characterization of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention, and Oil Recovery for Novel Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate Surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Moeti, Lebone T.; Sampath, Ramanathan

    2002-03-13

    Electrical conductivity measurements for middle, bottom, and top phases, as well as bottom/middle, and middle/bottom conjugate pair phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system were continued from the previous reporting period. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. Following this, more emulsion studies at various temperatures were progresses. A theoretical model to predict the conductivity measurements using Maxwell equations was developed and sensitivity analyses to test the performance of the model was completed. Surtek, Golden, CO, our industrial partner in this project, investigated the suitability of the surfactant for enhanced oil recovery employing coreflooding techniques and observed lower surfactant and hydrocarbon recovery for NEODOX 23-4.

  4. Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2004-09-30

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period April 01, 2004 to September 30, 2004 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. During this reporting period, work was under way and the electrical conductivity experimental system was set up at the Atlanta University Center. Following the set-up of the emulsion measurement system, the electronic instruments and data acquisition modules involved were tested for proper operation of the system. Then, the conductivity output was normalized with that obtained for 10mM NaCl water. Radial coreflooding experiments with ethanol injection prior to and after water injection were completed to assess the effectiveness of the surfactant flooding in the recovery of condensate by our industrial partner, Surtek, CO, in this reporting period. In Run 1, 10 mM NaCl without ethanol injection recovered 31.5% of the initial ethyl benzene saturation. Injection of ethanol following 10 mM NaCl produced a tertiary ethyl benzene bank with maximum ethyl benzene cuts of 32%. In Run 2, 50 vol% of pure (100%) ethanol was injected and flowed through the Berea sandstone after Ethyl Benzene Saturation. 69% of the initial ethyl benzene was recovered. Results of the radial corefloods are very encouraging. Emulsion conductivity measurements for conjugate pair phases are in progress at Morehouse.

  5. Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2004-03-31

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period October 01, 2003 to March 31, 2004 which covers the third six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. During this reporting period, temperature scans were performed mixing equal volumes of ethylbenzene and 10mM NaCl water with various concentrations of ethanol ranging from 2 to 70 vol%. For the range of temperatures tested (2 to 70 C), results indicate that temperature is invariant and produced a single phase for ethanol concentrations greater than 60 vol%. For ethanol concentrations less than 60 vol%, only two phases were obtained with aqueous rich bottom phase more in volume than that of the ethylbenzene rich top phase. Linear coreflooding experiments were completed by our industrial partner in this project, Surtek, CO, to measure the condensate recovery in flooding processes. It was found about 30% ethylbenzene recovery was obtained by the waterflooding, however, 2wt% ethanol flooding did not produce incremental recovery of the ethylbenzene. Radial coreflooding with ethanol injection prior to water injection is in progress to assess the effectiveness of the surfactant flooding in the recovery of condensate.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND CONDENSATE RECOVERY FOR CONDENSATE/WATER/ETHANOL MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2003-10-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period April 01, 2003 to September 30, 2003 which covers the second six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. During this reporting period, salinity scans were completed for 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mM salt concentrations at room temperature to identify optimal salinity intervals in which all three phases coexist for this system. Temperature scans are in progress at Morehouse College to identify the optimal temperature, and the temperature intervals in which all three phases coexist for this system. Coreflooding experiments are being conducted by our industrial partner in this project, Surtek, CO, to measure the effectiveness for surfactant retention and condensate recovery in flooding processes. Review of the current literature in the subject area, and modeling efforts that were established in our previous studies to predict electrical conductivities and inversion phenomena was continued from the previous reporting period. Based on the review a computer model to predict electrical conductivities of the ethylbenzene (that has the equivalent carbon number of the condensate)/water/ethanol system is being developed.

  7. Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2003-03-31

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period October 01, 2002 to April 01, 2003 which covers the first six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for condensate/water/ethanol system. Temperature and salinity scans are planned to identify the optimal salinity and temperature, and the temperature and salinity intervals in which all three phases coexist for this system. Test matrix to perform salinity and temperature scans has been established. Supply requests to obtain hydrocarbons, surfactant, etc., were processed and supplies obtained. Current literature in the subject area, and modeling efforts that were established in our previous studies to predict electrical conductivities and inversion phenomena were reviewed. Based on the review a computer model to predict electrical conductivities of the ethylbenzene (that has the equivalent carbon number of the condensate)/water/ethanol system is being developed. These activities resulted in one published conference abstract during this reporting period.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND CONDENSATE RECOVERY FOR CONDENSATE/WATER/ETHANOL MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2005-12-01

    This final technical report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period October 01, 2002 to September 30, 2005, which covers the total performance period of the project. During this period, work was conducted to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number was used as the model condensate. Salinity scans were performed for 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mM salt concentrations at room temperature to identify the optimal salinity and salinity intervals in which all phases coexisted. It was found that only two phases formed, and salinity has no significant effect in the volumes of the phases formed. Experiments were repeated at 30 C and observed salinity has no effect at higher temperatures as well. Following the salinity experiments, measurements were made with 10mM NaCl water for surfactant concentrations from 2 to 70 volume percent at room temperature. It was found that only two phases were formed upto 60 vol% concentration of the surfactant. Above 60 vol% surfactant, the mixture produced only a single phase. Experiments were repeated from 2 to 70 C and observed that temperature has no significant effect on the number of phases formed. At the temperatures and surfactant concentration tested, volume fraction of the aqueous bottom phase was found to be larger than that of the top phase. Electrical conductivity measurements were then conducted for bottom/top, and top/bottom conjugate pair phases of the ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system formed by mixing ethanol at various volume percentages including 2,10,33,and 56% while keeping the volumes of ethylbenzene and water the same in the mixture. Electrical conductivity of the bottom phase decreased as ethanol volume fraction in the mixture increased. Conductivity of the top phase was found small and remained almost the same for variations in ethanol volume fraction in the mixture. Also inversion phenomena was observed. Prediction of the conductivity data obtained was then conducted employing a theoretical model developed in this project based on Maxwell relations. Results of the comparisons for 2, 10, 33, and 56% ethanol volume in the mixture are presented here. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted emulsion conductivities and the measured values. Work was also conducted at Surtek, Golden, CO, our industrial partner in this project, to measure the effectiveness for condensate recovery employing coreflooding techniques. In Run 1 of the radial coreflooding experiments conducted, 10 mM NaCl without ethanol injection recovered 31.5% of the initial ethyl benzene saturation. Injection of ethanol following 10 mM NaCl produced a tertiary ethyl benzene bank with maximum ethyl benzene cuts of 32%. In Run 2, 50 vol% of pure (100%) ethanol was injected and flowed through the Berea sandstone after Ethyl Benzene Saturation. 69% of the initial ethyl benzene was recovered. While 50 vol% of ethanol injection does not make economic sense when injecting a large fraction of a pore volume, injection of sufficient volume to remove water and condensate from around the near well bore area of a gas well could be economic.

  9. Viscosity of the oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer and nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Tushar; Kumar, G. Suresh; Chon, Bo Hyun; Sangwai, Jitendra S.

    2014-11-01

    Information on the viscosity of Pickering emulsion is required for their successful application in upstream oil and gas industry to understand their stability at extreme environment. In this work, a novel formulation of oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsion stabilized using nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer (polyacrylamide) system as formulated in our earlier work (Sharma et al., Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2014) is investigated for rheological stability at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions using a controlled-strain rheometer. The nanoparticle (SiO2 and clay) concentration is varied from 1.0 to 5.0 wt%. The results are compared with the rheological behavior of simple o/w emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system. Both the emulsions exhibit non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. A positive shift in this behavior is observed for surfactant-polymer stabilized emulsion at high pressure conditions. Yield stress is observed to increase with pressure for surfactant-polymer emulsion. In addition, increase in temperature has an adverse effect on the viscosity of emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system. In case of nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer stabilized o/w emulsion system, the viscosity and yield stress are predominantly constant for varying pressure and temperature conditions. The viscosity data for both o/w emulsion systems are fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and found to be satisfactory. In general, the study indicates that the Pickering emulsion stabilized by nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer system shows improved and stable rheological properties as compared to conventional emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system indicating their successful application for HPHT environment in upstream oil and gas industry.

  10. Feasibility of Surfactant-Free Supported Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shih-Yao B.; Li, Jin; Wiencek, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Supported emulsion liquid membrane (SELM) is an effective means to conduct liquid-liquid extraction. SELM extraction is particularly attractive for separation tasks in the microgravity environment where density difference between the solvent and the internal phase of the emulsion is inconsequential and a stable dispersion can be maintained without surfactant. In this research, dispersed two-phase flow in SELM extraction is modeled using the Lagrangian method. The results show that SELM extraction process in the microgravity environment can be simulated on earth by matching the density of the solvent and the stripping phase. Feasibility of surfactant-free SELM (SFSELM) extraction is assessed by studying the coalescence behavior of the internal phase in the absence of the surfactant. Although the contacting area between the solvent and the internal phase in SFSELM extraction is significantly less than the area provided by regular emulsion due to drop coalescence, it is comparable to the area provided by a typical hollow-fiber membrane. Thus, the stripping process is highly unlikely to become the rate-limiting step in SFSELM extraction. SFSELM remains an effective way to achieve simultaneous extraction and stripping and is able to eliminate the equilibrium limitation in the typical solvent extraction processes. The SFSELM design is similar to the supported liquid membrane design in some aspects.

  11. Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2005-09-30

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period April 01, 2005 to September 30, 2005 which covers the sixth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. In the last reporting period, electrical conductivity measurements for bottom/top, and top/bottom conjugate pair phases of the ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system were performed for various ethanol volume percentage in the mixture: 2,10,20,33,43,50, and 56. During this reporting period, prediction of electrical conductivity data obtained in the past was conducted employing a theoretical model already developed in this project. Results of the comparisons for 2, and 10% ethanol volume in the mixture are presented here. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted emulsion conductivities and the measured values. To date about 99% of the proposed work has been completed. Conductivity prediction for 56% ethanol volume in the mixture is in progress. Following this prediction, a final report will be developed describing the research activities conducted through the entire project period including results and conclusions.

  12. Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2005-03-31

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period October 01, 2004 to March 31, 2005 which covers the fifth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. During this reporting period, electrical conductivity measurements for bottom, and top phases, as well as bottom/top, and top/bottom conjugate pair phases of the ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system were performed for various ethanol volume percentage of the mixtures starting from 2% to 60%. Preliminary findings are that electrical conductivity of the bottom phase decreased as ethanol volume fraction of the mixture increased. Conductivity of the top phase was small and remained almost the same for variations in ethanol volume fraction of the mixture. Conductivity of the emulsion of the conjugate pair phases decreased as the fraction of volume of the top phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. Detailed analyses are in progress including the prediction of conductivity data using the theoretical model already developed in this project.

  13. Crude oil emulsions containing a compatible fluorochemical surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Karydas, A.; Rodgers, J.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a crude oil in water emulsion, which is stable to both breakdown and phase inversion up to at least about 50{degrees} C., the emulsion containing an effective, compatible, emulsion stabilizing amount of a fluorochemical surfactant of the formula (R{sub {ital f}}){sub {ital n}}A{sub {ital m}}Q wherein R{sub {ital f}} is an inert, stable, oleophobic and hydrophobic fluoroaliphatic group having up to about 20 carbon atoms; n is an integer from 1 to 3; A is a direct bond or an organic linking group and is covalently bonded to both R{sub {ital f}} and Q; Q is an anionic, nonionic or amphoteric group; and m is an integer from 1 to 3; wherein the amount of weight of the fluorochemical surfactant present in the emulsion being between about 0.001 and 1% by weight of the emulsion, in the presence of absence of up to about 2% by weight of a crude oil emulsion promoting hydrocarbon surfactant, with the proviso that at least about 0.005% by weight total fluorochemical and hydrocarbon surfactant is present, based upon the weight of emulsion, and wherein the emulsion contains bout 15 to about 90 percent by weight water, based upon the weight of emulsion, such that the viscosity of the emulsion is less than about 50% of the viscosity of the crude oil, and wherein the emulsion spontaneously breaks down into an aqueous and crude oil phase at a temperature between about 55{degrees} and 75{degrees} C.

  14. Model System for Surfactant-free Emulsion Copolymerization of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic

    E-print Network

    Wu, Chi

    Model System for Surfactant-free Emulsion Copolymerization of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Monomers-free emulsion copolymerization. The formation and stabilization of such particles were studied by a combination microphase inversion procedure was adopted.7 Such particles resemble those formed in surfactant-free emulsion

  15. The jamming elasticity of emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Scheffold, Frank; Wilking, James N; Haberko, Jakub; Cardinaux, Frédéric; Mason, Thomas G

    2014-07-28

    Oil-in-water emulsions composed of colloidal-scale droplets are often stabilized using ionic surfactants that provide a repulsive interaction between neighboring droplet interfaces, thereby inhibiting coalescence. If the droplet volume fraction is raised rapidly by applying an osmotic pressure, the droplets remain disordered, undergo an ergodic-nonergodic transition, and jam. If the applied osmotic pressure approaches the Laplace pressure of the droplets, then the jammed droplets also deform. Because solid friction and entanglements cannot play a role, as they might with solid particulate or microgel dispersions, the shear mechanical response of monodisperse emulsions can provide critical insight into the interplay of entropic, electrostatic, and interfacial forces. Here, we introduce a model that can be used to predict the plateau storage modulus and yield stress of a uniform charge-stabilized emulsion accurately if the droplet radius, interfacial tension, surface potential, Debye screening length, and droplet volume fraction are known. PMID:24913542

  16. Photoinduced demulsification of emulsions using a photoresponsive gemini surfactant.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Fukuyasu, Kengo; Horiuchi, Tatsuya; Kondo, Yukishige; Stroeve, Pieter

    2014-01-14

    This Article reports on the influence of light irradiation on the stability of emulsions prepared using a photoresponsive gemini surfactant (C7-azo-C7) having an azobenzene skeleton as a spacer. When mixtures of trans C7-azo-C7 aqueous solution and n-octane are homogenized, stable emulsions are obtained in a specific region of weight fraction and surfactant concentration. Fluorescence microscopy observations using a small amount of fluorescent probes show that the stable emulsions are oil-in-water (O/W)-type. UV irradiation of stable O/W emulsions promotes the cis isomerization of trans C7-azo-C7 and leads to the coalescence of the oil (octane) droplets in the emulsions, that is, demulsification. While the equilibrated interfacial tension (IFT) between aqueous trans C7-azo-C7 solution and octane is almost the same as that between aqueous cis C7-azo-C7 and octane, the occupied area per molecule for C7-azo-C7 at octane/water interface decreases with the cis photoisomerization of trans isomer. Dynamic IFT measurement shows that UV irradiation to the interface between aqueous trans C7-azo-C7 solution and octane brings about an increase in the interfacial tension, indicating that the Gibbs free energy at the interface increases. From these results, the cis isomerization of trans C7-azo-C7 molecules at the O/W interface due to UV irradiation leads to direct contact between the water and octane phases, because of the reduction of molecular area at the interface, and subsequently makes the emulsions demulsified. PMID:24354334

  17. Clusters and inverse emulsions from nanoparticle surfactants in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Michael T; Pozzo, Lilo D

    2015-02-01

    A method is presented for the synthesis of self-assembling nanoparticle surfactants in nonpolar organic solvents. The method relies on the control of long-range steric repulsion imparted by grafted polystyrene and short-range attraction from short-chain thiol molecules with an alcohol or carboxylic functionality. Similar to water-based nanoparticle surfactants, these oil-dispersed materials are found to cluster in dispersion and also to stabilize oil-water interfaces to form water-in-oil emulsions. The clustering process is characterized with dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is used to quantify the surface concentration of grafted polymer, which is found to be a parameter of critical importance for the formation of stable clusters. The clustering kinetics and dispersion stability are both affected by the polymer molecular weight, surface concentration, and chemical structure of the thiol molecules that induce particle attraction. Nanometer-sized water-in-oil emulsions are formed by sonication in the presence of nanoparticle surfactants. A large broadening of the optical absorption spectrum in the NIR region is observed because of changes in the collective surface plasmon resonance of the gold particle shell. PMID:25584773

  18. Eect of the surfactant concentration on the kinetic stability of thin foam and emulsion lms

    E-print Network

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Eect of the surfactant concentration on the kinetic stability of thin foam and emulsion Ðlms K. PÐa, Bulgaria The thinning and the lifetime of foam and emulsion Ðlms formed in a model experimental cell have polyoxyethylene-2 sulfate. The emulsion Ðlms contained either Tween 20 or Span 20. The time of hydrodynamic

  19. Hierarchical polymerized high internal phase emulsions synthesized from surfactant-stabilized emulsion templates.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ling L C; Villafranca, Pedro M Baiz; Menner, Angelika; Bismarck, Alexander

    2013-05-21

    In building construction, structural elements, such as lattice girders, are positioned specifically to support the mainframe of a building. This arrangement provides additional structural hierarchy, facilitating the transfer of load to its foundation while keeping the building weight down. We applied the same concept when synthesizing hierarchical open-celled macroporous polymers from high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templates stabilized by varying concentrations of a polymeric non-ionic surfactant from 0.75 to 20 w/vol %. These hierarchical poly(merized)HIPEs have multimodally distributed pores, which are efficiently arranged to enhance the load transfer mechanism in the polymer foam. As a result, hierarchical polyHIPEs produced from HIPEs stabilized by 5 vol % surfactant showed a 93% improvement in Young's moduli compared to conventional polyHIPEs produced from HIPEs stabilized by 20 vol % of surfactant with the same porosity of 84%. The finite element method (FEM) was used to determine the effect of pore hierarchy on the mechanical performance of porous polymers under small periodic compressions. Results from the FEM showed a clear improvement in Young's moduli for simulated hierarchical porous geometries. This methodology could be further adapted as a predictive tool to determine the influence of hierarchy on the mechanical properties of a range of porous materials. PMID:23617331

  20. Synergistic formation and stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by a weakly interacting mixture of zwitterionic surfactant and silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Worthen, Andrew J; Foster, Lynn M; Dong, Jiannan; Bollinger, Jonathan A; Peterman, Adam H; Pastora, Lucinda E; Bryant, Steven L; Truskett, Thomas M; Bielawski, Christopher W; Johnston, Keith P

    2014-02-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions were formed and stabilized at low amphiphile concentrations by combining hydrophilic nanoparticles (NPs) (i.e., bare colloidal silica) with a weakly interacting zwitterionic surfactant, caprylamidopropyl betaine, to generate a high hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. The weak interaction of the NPs with surfactant was quantified with contact angle measurements. Emulsions were characterized by static light scattering to determine the droplet size distributions, optical photography to quantify phase separation due to creaming, and both optical and electron microscopy to determine emulsion microstructure. The NPs and surfactant acted synergistically to produce finer emulsions with a greater stability to coalescence relative to the behavior with either NPs or surfactant alone. As a consequence of the weak adsorption of the highly hydrophilic surfactant on the anionic NPs along with the high critical micelle concentration, an unusually large surfactant concentration was available to adsorb at the oil-water interface and lower the interfacial tension. The synergy for emulsion formation and stabilization for the two amphiphiles was even greater in the case of a high-salinity synthetic seawater aqueous phase. Here, higher NP adsorption at the oil-water interface was caused by electrostatic screening of interactions between (1) NPs and the anionic oil-water interface and (2) between the NPs. This greater adsorption as well as partial flocculation of the NPs provided a more efficient barrier to droplet coalescence. PMID:24409832

  1. Effective Surfactants Blend Concentration Determination for O/W Emulsion Stabilization by Two Nonionic Surfactants by Simple Linear Regression.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K

    2015-01-01

    In this work, O/W emulsion sets were prepared by using different concentrations of two nonionic surfactants. The two surfactants, tween 80(HLB=15.0) and span 80(HLB=4.3) were used in a fixed proportions equal to 0.55:0.45 respectively. HLB value of the surfactants blends were fixed at 10.185. The surfactants blend concentration is starting from 3% up to 19%. For each O/W emulsion set the conductivity was measured at room temperature (25±2°), 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80°. Applying the simple linear regression least squares method statistical analysis to the temperature-conductivity obtained data determines the effective surfactants blend concentration required for preparing the most stable O/W emulsion. These results were confirmed by applying the physical stability centrifugation testing and the phase inversion temperature range measurements. The results indicated that, the relation which represents the most stable O/W emulsion has the strongest direct linear relationship between temperature and conductivity. This relationship is linear up to 80°. This work proves that, the most stable O/W emulsion is determined via the determination of the maximum R² value by applying of the simple linear regression least squares method to the temperature-conductivity obtained data up to 80°, in addition to, the true maximum slope is represented by the equation which has the maximum R² value. Because the conditions would be changed in a more complex formulation, the method of the determination of the effective surfactants blend concentration was verified by applying it for more complex formulations of 2% O/W miconazole nitrate cream and the results indicate its reproducibility. PMID:26664063

  2. Effective Surfactants Blend Concentration Determination for O/W Emulsion Stabilization by Two Nonionic Surfactants by Simple Linear Regression

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, O/W emulsion sets were prepared by using different concentrations of two nonionic surfactants. The two surfactants, tween 80(HLB=15.0) and span 80(HLB=4.3) were used in a fixed proportions equal to 0.55:0.45 respectively. HLB value of the surfactants blends were fixed at 10.185. The surfactants blend concentration is starting from 3% up to 19%. For each O/W emulsion set the conductivity was measured at room temperature (25±2°), 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80°. Applying the simple linear regression least squares method statistical analysis to the temperature-conductivity obtained data determines the effective surfactants blend concentration required for preparing the most stable O/W emulsion. These results were confirmed by applying the physical stability centrifugation testing and the phase inversion temperature range measurements. The results indicated that, the relation which represents the most stable O/W emulsion has the strongest direct linear relationship between temperature and conductivity. This relationship is linear up to 80°. This work proves that, the most stable O/W emulsion is determined via the determination of the maximum R² value by applying of the simple linear regression least squares method to the temperature–conductivity obtained data up to 80°, in addition to, the true maximum slope is represented by the equation which has the maximum R² value. Because the conditions would be changed in a more complex formulation, the method of the determination of the effective surfactants blend concentration was verified by applying it for more complex formulations of 2% O/W miconazole nitrate cream and the results indicate its reproducibility. PMID:26664063

  3. Alginate-based emulsion template containing high oil loading stabilized by nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wan-Ding; Tey, Beng-Ti; Quek, Siew Young; Tang, Siah-Ying; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-01-01

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-gel systems containing high oil payloads are of increasing interest for food applications because of the reduction in encapsulation cost, consumption frequency or volume of food products. This study shows a facile approach to prepare stable alginate-based O/W emulsions at high oil loading using a mixture of nonionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 20) as a template to form gelled-emulsions. The synergistic effects of alginate and surfactants on the O/W emulsion properties were evaluated in terms of oil droplet size and emulsion stability. At 2% (w/v) of alginate and 1% (w/v) of surfactants, the size distribution of oil droplets was narrow and monomodal, even at an oil loading of 70% (v/v). The emulsions formed were stable against phase separation. The oil droplet size could be further reduced to below 1 ?m using a high-shear homogenizer. The emulsions formed could be easily molded and gelled into solids of different shapes via ionic gelation. The findings of this study create possible avenues for applications in food industries. PMID:25529579

  4. Emulsion electrospinning of polycaprolactone: influence of surfactant type towards the scaffold properties.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jue; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ding, Xin; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-01-01

    Producing uniform nanofibers in high quality by electrospinning remains a huge challenge, especially using low concentrated polymer solutions. However, emulsion electrospinning assists to produce nanofibers from less concentrated polymer solutions compared to the traditional electrospinning process. The influence of individual surfactants towards the morphology of the emulsion electrospun poly (?-caprolactone)/bovine serum albumin (PCL/BSA) nanofibers were investigated by using (i) non-ionic surfactant sorbitane monooleate (Span80); (ii) anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); and (iii) cationic benzyltriethylammonium chloride, and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer Pluronic F108 of different concentrations. The morphology, along with the chemical and mechanical properties of the fibers, was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, water contact angle, and tensile tester. With the addition of surfactants, the electrospinnability of dilute PCL solution was enhanced, with either branched or uniform fibers were obtained. Electrospinning of an emulsion containing 0.4% (w/v) SDS produced the smallest and the most uniform nanofibers (167 ± 39 nm), which was attributed to the high conductivity of the solution. Analysis revealed that the emulsion electrospun nanofibers containing different surfactants and surfactant concentrations differ in fiber morphology and mechanical properties. Results suggest that surfactants have the ability to modulate the fiber morphology via electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, depending on their chemical structure. PMID:25427625

  5. How do (fluorescent) surfactants affect particle-stabilized emulsions? Job H. J. Thijssen,* Andrew B. Schofield and Paul S. Clegg

    E-print Network

    Schofield, Andrew B.

    effects between particulate and molecular emulsifiers, we start with a reference emulsion of water and oilHow do (fluorescent) surfactants affect particle-stabilized emulsions? Job H. J. Thijssen,* Andrew05968h We present the first confocal-microscopy study of synergistic effects in emulsions stabilized

  6. Measurement of the coalescence frequency in surfactant-stabilized concentrated emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, V.; Leal-Calderon, F.

    2004-08-01

    We produce different oil-in-water concentrated emulsions stabilized by surfactants and we follow their kinetic evolution. We get evidence that the size evolution is first determined by Ostwald ripening and then by coalescence. The crossover between the two regimes occurs at a well-defined droplet diameter that characterizes the surfactant monolayer. We exploit this general type of evolution to measure the characteristic coalescence frequency in the thin liquid films.

  7. Response of surfactant stabilized oil-in-water emulsions to the addition of particles in an aqueous suspension.

    PubMed

    Katepalli, Hari; Bose, Arijit

    2014-11-01

    As a model for understanding how surfactant-stabilized emulsions respond to the addition of interacting and noninteracting particles, we investigated the response of dodecane-in-water emulsions stabilized by SDS (anionic), CTAB (cationic), and Triton X-100 (nonionic) surfactants to the addition of an aqueous suspension of negatively charged fumed silica particles. The stability of the emulsion droplets and the concentration of surfactants/particles at the oil-water interfaces are sensitive to surfactant-particle interactions, mixing conditions, and the particle concentration in the bulk. Addition of the particle suspension to the SDS-stabilized emulsions showed no effect on emulsion stability. Coarsening of emulsion droplets is observed when fumed silica particles were added to emulsions stabilized by Triton X-100. Depending on the concentration of silica particles in the suspension, the addition of fumed silica particles to CTAB-stabilized emulsions resulted in droplet coalescence and phase separation of oil and water or formation of particle-coated droplets. Vigorous (vortex) mixing allows the particles to breach the oil-water interfaces and stabilize emulsions. While we have examined a specific particle suspension and a set of three surfactants, these observations can be generalized for other surfactant-particle mixtures. PMID:25312030

  8. Covalent incorporation of the surfactant into high internal phase emulsion templated polymeric foams.

    PubMed

    Kova?i?, Sebastijan; Preishuber-Pflügl, Florian; Pahovnik, David; Žagar, Ema; Slugovc, Christian

    2015-05-01

    High internal phase emulsions of water in cyclooctene stabilised by sorbitan monooleate (Span 80) were cured by ring-opening metathesis polymerisation to release fully open macroporous polymer foams wherein the surfactant was covalently incorporated into the poly(cyclooctene) strands via chain transfer reactions. PMID:25853147

  9. Direct Numerical Simulation of Surfactant-Stabilized Emulsions Morphology and Shear Viscosity in Starting Shear Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Roar Skartlien; Espen Sollum; Andreas Akselsen; Paul Meakin

    2012-07-01

    A 3D lattice Boltzmann model for two-phase flow with amphiphilic surfactant was used to investigate the evolution of emulsion morphology and shear stress in starting shear flow. The interfacial contributions were analyzed for low and high volume fractions and varying surfactant activity. A transient viscoelastic contribution to the emulsion rheology under constant strain rate conditions was attributed to the interfacial stress. For droplet volume fractions below 0.3 and an average capillary number of about 0.25, highly elliptical droplets formed. Consistent with affine deformation models, gradual elongation of the droplets increased the shear stress at early times and reduced it at later times. Lower interfacial tension with increased surfactant activity counterbalanced the effect of increased interfacial area, and the net shear stress did not change significantly. For higher volume fractions, co-continuous phases with a complex topology were formed. The surfactant decreased the interfacial shear stress due mainly to advection of surfactant to higher curvature areas. Our results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data for polymer blends in terms of transient interfacial stresses and limited enhancement of the emulsion viscosity at larger volume fractions where the phases are co-continuous.

  10. Kinetic aspects of emulsion stabilization by surfactants: a microfluidic analysis.

    PubMed

    Baret, Jean-Christophe; Kleinschmidt, Felix; El Harrak, Abdeslam; Griffiths, Andrew D

    2009-06-01

    In classical emulsification processes, surfactants play two roles: first, they reduce the interfacial tension, facilitating droplet deformation and rupture, and second, they reduce droplet coalescence. Here, we use a microfluidic emulsification system to completely uncouple these two processes, allowing stabilization against coalescence to be studied quantitatively and independently of droplet formation. We demonstrate that, in addition to the classical effect of stabilization by an increase of surfactant concentration, the dynamics of adsorption of surfactant at the water-oil interface is a key element for droplet stabilization. Microfluidic emulsification devices can therefore be tailored to improve emulsification while decreasing the concentration of surfactant by increasing the time before the droplets first come into contact. PMID:19292501

  11. Dynamic behavior of natural sea surfactant films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mass, John T.; Milgram, Jerome H.

    1998-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of sea surfactants is studied at timescales from 0.04 to 2 seconds by generating waves on the water containing its natural surfactants in the laboratory and comparing dynamical measurements with theoretical predictions for prescribed surfactant properties. The properties considered are film pressure, elasticity and surface viscosity. For longitudinal Marangoni waves in the frequency range of 0.5 to 4.0 Hz, time-varying film pressures are measured. For transverse waves in the frequency range of 3 to 25 Hz, spatial decay rates are measured. Prior to conducting experiments with sea water containing soluble natural surfactants, the procedures and methods of analysis are validated by experiments with clean fresh water and with an insoluble oleyl alcohol film. A notable finding is that the static film elasticity accurately predicts the dynamic behavior of both the insoluble oleyl alcohol film and the soluble natural sea surfactant films. To better understand the reasons for this finding, sea surfactant adsorption and desorption time histories were measured. The adsorption/desorption time scales ranged from 46 to 196 min. One reason for the accurate prediction of surfactant dynamic behavior by the static elasticity is that the timescales of the waves are much shorter than the adsorption/desorption timescales. The conclusion is that the static elasticity controls the interactions of surfactants with most hydrodynamic disturbances having timescales up to several min.

  12. A Novel Algorithm for the Estimation of the Surfactant Surface Excess at Emulsion Interfaces

    E-print Network

    German Urbina-Villalba; Sabrina Di Scipio; Neyda Garcia-Valera

    2014-01-06

    When the theoretical values of the interfacial tension -resulting from the homogeneous distribution of ionic surfactant molecules amongst the interface of emulsion drops- are plotted against the total surfactant concentration, they produce a curve comparable to the Gibbs adsorption isotherm. However, the actual isotherm takes into account the solubility of the surfactant in the aqueous bulk phase. Hence, assuming that the total surfactant population is only distributed among the available oil/water interfaces, one can calculate what surface concentration is necessary to reproduce the experimental values of the interfacial tension. A similar procedure can be followed using the zeta potential of the drops as a standard for a given set of salt and surfactant concentrations. We applied these procedures to the case of hexadecane/water nanoemulsions at different salt concentrations. This information was used to compute typical interaction potentials between non-deformable nanoemulsion drops. The results indicate that there are significant differences between the surfactant population expected from macroscopic adsorption isotherms, and the actual surfactant popula- tion adsorbed to the surface of nanoemulsion drops.

  13. P450cam biocatalysis in surfactant-stabilized two-phase emulsions.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jessica D; Clark, Douglas S

    2008-04-15

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are powerful biocatalysts that have the ability to oxidize a broad range of substrates, often at non-reactive carbon centers. However, incorporation of P450s into synthetic schemes has so far been limited to a few whole-cell transformations. P450 substrates are often hydrophobic and have low water solubility, limiting the amount of product that can be produced. To help overcome this limitation, we have examined P450cam activity in two-phase hexane/water emulsions with and without the anionic surfactant, bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT). Hydroxylation of camphor to hydroxycamphor by the three- component P450cam system was chosen as the model reaction, and regeneration of NADH was accomplished with yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). P450cam was activated in the surfactant-free emulsions, and addition of AOT improved the activity even further, at least over the range of camphor concentrations for which initial rates were readily measurable in all media. The largest observed rate enhancement was 4.5-fold. Nearly 50-times more product was formed in the surfactant-stabilized emulsions than was achieved in aqueous buffer, with total turnover numbers reaching 28,900 for P450cam and 11,800 for YADH. In the absence of surfactant, the two-phase reaction appeared to be mass-transfer limited, while inclusion of AOT alleviated transport limitations and/or afforded a larger interfacial area for P450 activation. The oxidation of hydroxycamphor to 2,5-diketocamphane was also observed, owing to the large concentration of hydroxycamphor relative to camphor in the aqueous phase of the two-phase emulsion. This competing reaction was accompanied by the uncoupled oxidation of NADH (i.e., NADH oxidation without formation of 2,5-diketocamphane), which reduced the availability of NADH for camphor oxidation and further limited the yield of hydroxycamphor in the two-phase emulsions. These results indicate that a surfactant-stabilized two-phase emulsion is a promising reaction medium for practical P450 biocatalysis, although its effectiveness for a given P450/substrate combination can depend on several factors, including competitive or sequential reactions, product inhibition, and NAD(P)H uncoupling. PMID:18098319

  14. Interfacial adsorption and surfactant release characteristics of magnetically functionalized halloysite nanotubes for responsive emulsions.

    PubMed

    Owoseni, Olasehinde; Nyankson, Emmanuel; Zhang, Yueheng; Adams, Daniel J; He, Jibao; Spinu, Leonard; McPherson, Gary L; Bose, Arijit; Gupta, Ram B; John, Vijay T

    2016-02-01

    Magnetically responsive oil-in-water emulsions are effectively stabilized by a halloysite nanotube supported superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle system. The attachment of the magnetically functionalized halloysite nanotubes at the oil-water interface imparts magnetic responsiveness to the emulsion and provides a steric barrier to droplet coalescence leading to emulsions that are stabilized for extended periods. Interfacial structure characterization by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy reveals that the nanotubes attach at the oil-water interface in a side on-orientation. The tubular structure of the nanotubes is exploited for the encapsulation and release of surfactant species that are typical of oil spill dispersants such as dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate. The magnetically responsive halloysite nanotubes anchor to the oil-water interface stabilizing the interface and releasing the surfactants resulting in reduction in the oil-water interfacial tension. The synergistic adsorption of the nanotubes and the released surfactants at the oil-water interface results in oil emulsification into very small droplets (less than 20?m). The synergy of the unique nanotubular morphology and interfacial activity of halloysite with the magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles has potential applications in oil spill dispersion, magnetic mobilization and detection using magnetic fields. PMID:26555959

  15. Droplet size distributions in turbulent emulsions: Breakup criteria and surfactant effects from direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skartlien, R.; Sollum, E.; Schumann, H.

    2013-11-01

    Lattice Boltzmann simulations of water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsions of moderate viscosity ratio (?1/3) and with oil soluble amphiphilic surfactant were used to study the droplet size distribution in forced, steady, homogeneous turbulence, at a water volume fraction of 20%. The viscous stresses internal to the droplets were comparable to the interfacial stress (interfacial tension), and the droplet size distribution (DSD) equilibrated near the Kolmogorov scale with droplet populations in both the viscous and inertial subranges. These results were consistent with known breakup criteria for W/O and oil-in-water emulsions, showing that the maximum stable droplet diameter is proportional to the Kolmogorov scale when viscous stresses are important (in contrast to the inviscid Hinze-limit where energy loss by viscous deformation in the droplet is negligible). The droplet size distribution in the inertial subrange scaled with the known power law ˜d-10/3, as a consequence of breakup by turbulent stress fluctuations external to the droplets. When the turbulent kinetic energy was sufficiently large (with interfacial Péclet numbers above unity), we found that turbulence driven redistribution of surfactant on the interface inhibited the Marangoni effect that is otherwise induced by film draining during coalescence in more quiescent flow. The coalescence rates were therefore not sensitive to varying surfactant activity in the range we considered, and for the given turbulent kinetic energies. Furthermore, internal viscous stresses strongly influenced the breakup rates. These two effects resulted in a DSD that was insensitive to varying surfactant activity.

  16. Thermosensitive ionic microgels via surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization and in situ quaternization cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianjing; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Jingjing; Ji, Zhichao; Xu, Junting; Zhang, Xinghong; Du, Binyang

    2014-03-26

    A type of thermosensitive ionic microgel was successfully prepared via the simultaneous quaternized cross-linking reaction during the surfactant-free emulsion copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) as the main monomer and 1-vinylimidazole or 4-vinylpyridine as the comonomer. 1,4-Dibromobutane and 1,6-dibromohexane were used as the halogenated compounds to quaternize the tertiary amine in the comonomer, leading to the formation of a cross-linking network and thermosensitive ionic microgels. The sizes, morphologies, and properties of the obtained ionic microgels were systematically investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic and static light scattering (DLS and SLS), electrophoretic light scattering (ELS), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The obtained ionic microgels were spherical in shape with narrow size distribution. These ionic microgels exhibited thermosensitive behavior and a unique feature of poly(ionic liquid) in aqueous solutions, of which the counteranions of the microgels could be changed by anion exchange reaction with BF4K or lithium trifluoromethyl sulfonate (PFM-Li). After the anion exchange reaction, the ionic microgels were stable in aqueous solution and could be well dispersed in the solvents with different polarities, depending on the type of counteranion. The sizes and thermosensitive behavior of the ionic microgels could be well tuned by controlling the quaternization extent, the type of comonomer, halogenated compounds, and counteranions. The ionic microgels showed superior swelling properties in aqueous solution. Furthermore, these ionic microgels also showed capabilities to encapsulate and release the anionic dyes, like methyl orange, in aqueous solutions. PMID:24588095

  17. Droplet size distributions in turbulent emulsions: breakup criteria and surfactant effects from direct numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Skartlien, R; Sollum, E; Schumann, H

    2013-11-01

    Lattice Boltzmann simulations of water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsions of moderate viscosity ratio (?1/3) and with oil soluble amphiphilic surfactant were used to study the droplet size distribution in forced, steady, homogeneous turbulence, at a water volume fraction of 20%. The viscous stresses internal to the droplets were comparable to the interfacial stress (interfacial tension), and the droplet size distribution (DSD) equilibrated near the Kolmogorov scale with droplet populations in both the viscous and inertial subranges. These results were consistent with known breakup criteria for W/O and oil-in-water emulsions, showing that the maximum stable droplet diameter is proportional to the Kolmogorov scale when viscous stresses are important (in contrast to the inviscid Hinze-limit where energy loss by viscous deformation in the droplet is negligible). The droplet size distribution in the inertial subrange scaled with the known power law ~d(-10/3), as a consequence of breakup by turbulent stress fluctuations external to the droplets. When the turbulent kinetic energy was sufficiently large (with interfacial Péclet numbers above unity), we found that turbulence driven redistribution of surfactant on the interface inhibited the Marangoni effect that is otherwise induced by film draining during coalescence in more quiescent flow. The coalescence rates were therefore not sensitive to varying surfactant activity in the range we considered, and for the given turbulent kinetic energies. Furthermore, internal viscous stresses strongly influenced the breakup rates. These two effects resulted in a DSD that was insensitive to varying surfactant activity. PMID:24206328

  18. Nonaqueous Dispersion Formed by an Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Method Using Block-Random Copolymer Surfactant Synthesized by RAFT Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ezaki, Naofumi; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Mori, Hideharu

    2015-10-27

    As surfactants for preparation of nonaqueous microcapsule dispersions by the emulsion solvent evaporation method, three copolymers composed of stearyl methacrylate (SMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) with different monomer sequences (i.e., random, block, and block-random) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Despite having the same comonomer composition, the copolymers exhibited different functionality as surfactants for creating emulsions with respective dispersed and continuous phases consisting of methanol and isoparaffin solvent. The optimal monomer sequence for the surfactant was determined based on the droplet sizes and the stabilities of the emulsions created using these copolymers. The block-random copolymer led to an emulsion with better stability than obtained using the random copolymer and a smaller droplet size than achieved with the block copolymer. Modification of the epoxy group of the GMA unit by diethanolamine (DEA) further decreased the droplet size, leading to higher stability of the emulsion. The DEA-modified block-random copolymer gave rise to nonaqueous microcapsule dispersions after evaporation of methanol from the emulsions containing colored dyes in their dispersed phases. These dispersions exhibited high stability, and the particle sizes were small enough for application to the inkjet printing process. PMID:26421355

  19. Microwave selective heating for size effect of water droplet in W/O emulsion with sorbitan fatty acid monostearate surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, Takuya; Horikoshi, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    A stable water/oil (W/O) emulsion was prepared by adjustment with sorbitan fatty acid monoester surfactants. The prepared W/O emulsion was stable for 60 min in the atmosphere; however, the formation of non-uniform water droplets in the height of the emulsion in the quartz tube reactor were observed by the backscattering measurements with an infrared laser at 850 nm. The increase of temperature under microwave irradiation was influenced sensitively by the position of those water droplets. Those results were caused from the size and concentration of water droplets in the W/O emulsion. On the other hand, selective heating of the water droplets caused heating of the entire W/O emulsion, although the temperature difference between the water droplets and the oil phase was 20 °C.

  20. Coalescence kinetics in surfactant stabilized emulsions: evolution equations from direct numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Skartlien, R; Grimes, B; Meakin, P; Sjöblom, J; Sollum, E

    2012-12-01

    Lattice Boltzmann simulations were used to study the coalescence kinetics in emulsions with amphiphilic surfactant, under neutrally buoyant conditions, and with a significant kinematic viscosity contrast between the phases (emulating water in oil emulsions). The 3D simulation domain was large enough (256(3) ~ 10(7) grid points) to obtain good statistics with droplet numbers ranging from a few thousand at early times to a few hundred near equilibrium. Increased surfactant contents slowed down the coalescence rate between droplets due to the Gibbs-Marangoni effect, and the coalescence was driven by a quasi-turbulent velocity field. The kinetic energy decayed at a relatively slow rate at early times, due to conversion of interfacial energy to kinetic energy in the flow during coalescence. Phenomenological, coupled differential equations for the mean droplet diameter D(t) and the number density n(d)(t) were obtained from the simulation data and from film draining theories. Local (in time) power law exponents for the growth of the mean diameter (and for the concomitant decrease of n(d)) were established in terms of the instantaneous values of the kinetic energy, coalescence probability, Gibbs elasticity, and interfacial area. The model studies indicated that true power laws for the growth of the droplet size and decrease of the number of droplets with time may not be justified, since the exponents derived using the phenomenological model were time dependent. In contrast to earlier simulation results for symmetric blends with surfactant, we found no evidence for stretched logarithmic scaling of the form D ~ [ln (ct)](?) for the morphology length, or exponential scalings associated with arrested growth, on the basis of the phenomenological model. PMID:23231250

  1. Coalescence kinetics in surfactant stabilized emulsions: Evolution equations from direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skartlien, R.; Grimes, B.; Meakin, P.; Sjöblom, J.; Sollum, E.

    2012-12-01

    Lattice Boltzmann simulations were used to study the coalescence kinetics in emulsions with amphiphilic surfactant, under neutrally buoyant conditions, and with a significant kinematic viscosity contrast between the phases (emulating water in oil emulsions). The 3D simulation domain was large enough (2563 ˜ 107 grid points) to obtain good statistics with droplet numbers ranging from a few thousand at early times to a few hundred near equilibrium. Increased surfactant contents slowed down the coalescence rate between droplets due to the Gibbs-Marangoni effect, and the coalescence was driven by a quasi-turbulent velocity field. The kinetic energy decayed at a relatively slow rate at early times, due to conversion of interfacial energy to kinetic energy in the flow during coalescence. Phenomenological, coupled differential equations for the mean droplet diameter D(t) and the number density nd(t) were obtained from the simulation data and from film draining theories. Local (in time) power law exponents for the growth of the mean diameter (and for the concomitant decrease of nd) were established in terms of the instantaneous values of the kinetic energy, coalescence probability, Gibbs elasticity, and interfacial area. The model studies indicated that true power laws for the growth of the droplet size and decrease of the number of droplets with time may not be justified, since the exponents derived using the phenomenological model were time dependent. In contrast to earlier simulation results for symmetric blends with surfactant, we found no evidence for stretched logarithmic scaling of the form D ˜ [ln (ct)]? for the morphology length, or exponential scalings associated with arrested growth, on the basis of the phenomenological model.

  2. Coalescence kinetics in surfactant stabilized emulsions: Evolution equations from direct numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    R. Skartlien; E. Sollum; A. Akselsen; P. Meakin; B. Grimes; J. Sjoblom

    2012-12-01

    Lattice Boltzmann simulations were used to study the coalescence kinetics in emulsions with amphiphilic surfactant, under neutrally buoyant conditions, and with a significant kinematic viscosity contrast between the phases (emulating water in oil emulsions). The 3D simulation domain was large enough (256 3rd power -- 10 7th power grid points) to obtain good statistics with droplet numbers ranging from a few thousand at early times to a few hundred near equilibrium. Increased surfactant contents slowed down the coalescence rate between droplets due to the Gibbs-Marangoni effect, and the coalescence was driven by a quasi-turbulent velocity field. The kinetic energy decayed at a relatively slow rate at early times, due to conversion of interfacial energy to kinetic energy in the flow during coalescence. Phenomenological, coupled differential equations for the mean droplet diameter D(t) and the number density nd(t) were obtained from the simulation data and from film draining theories. Local (in time) power law exponents for the growth of the mean diameter (and for the concomitant decrease of nd) were established in terms of the instantaneous values of the kinetic energy, coalescence probability, Gibbs elasticity, and interfacial area. The model studies indicated that true power laws for the growth of the droplet size and decrease of the number of droplets with time may not be justified, since the exponents derived using the phenomenological model were time dependent. In contrast to earlier simulation results for symmetric blends with surfactant, we found no evidence for stretched logarithmic scaling of the formD -- [ln (ct)]a for the morphology length, or exponential scalings associated with arrested growth, on the basis of the phenomenological model.

  3. The efficient separation of surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions with a superhydrophobic filter paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Bo; Zhu, Xiaotao; Li, Yong; Men, Xuehu; Li, Peilong; Zhang, Zhaozhu

    2015-11-01

    The filtration membranes have been acknowledged as efficient way for separation of emulsion. Nevertheless, most of the methods have limitations of high cost and complex fabrication process. Here, we present a simple method for preparing superhydrophobic/superoleophilic filter paper by solution immersion process. The superhydrophobic filter paper exhibited high selectivity for oil-water mixture. Importantly, the filter paper can be applied to separate surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsion. Separation process is achieved by one step under gravity. Moreover, the superhydrophobic filter paper maintains stable superhydrophobicity and emulsion separation property after using for five cycles. We expected that this low-cost process can be used for water-in-oil emulsion separation.

  4. Phase and Topological Behavior of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals in Double Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Zoey S.; Jeong, Joonwoo; Tu, Fuquan; Lohr, Matt; Lee, Daeyeon; Collings, Peter J.; Lubensky, Tom C.; Yodh, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals, assembled by non-covalent interactions, have fascinating temperature- and concentration-dependent phase behavior. Using water-oil-water double emulsions, we are able control the inner droplet chromonic phase concentration by osmosis through the oil phase. We then study the configurations of the chromonic liquid crystal phases in droplets by varying the oil types, oil soluble surfactants, and inner droplet diameter. We employ polarization microscopy to observe resulting nematic and columnar phases of Sunset Yellow FCF, and we deduce the liquid crystal configuration of both phases within the droplets. Simulations based on Jones matrices confirm droplet appearance, and preliminary observations of chromonic liquid crystal shells in oil-water-oil double emulsions are reported. Supported by UPenn MRSEC DMR 11-20901 and NSF DMR 12-05463

  5. VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF POLYMER-THICKENED WATER-IN-OIL EMULSIONS

    E-print Network

    Natelson, Douglas

    VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF POLYMER-THICKENED WATER-IN- OIL EMULSIONS MONTESI PEÑA HIRASAKI PASQUALI to compressed. Emulsions avec polymère , émulsions eau dans huile , PIB Polymer-thickened emulsions, water une phase compressée. #12;VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF POLYMER-THICKENED WATER-IN-OIL EMULSIONS 1

  6. Evaluation of HLB values of mixed non-ionic surfactants on the stability of oil-in-water emulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nursakinah, I.; Ismail, A. R.; Rahimi, M. Y.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    Emulsion oil-in-water was prepared with combination of emulsifiers (non-ionic surfactants) following the HLB (hydrophylic-lipophylic balance) method developed by Griffin. The emulsions were prepared at HLB 10, 11, 12, 13 and 13.6 consisting blend of non-ionic emulsifiers fatty acid ethoxylate with 20 moles bound ethylene oxide and Dehydol LS 1 with 1 mole bound ethylene oxide. A mixture of palm-based methyl ester consisting of C6-10 and C12-18 fatty acid composition was used as palm-based solvent. The physicochemical parameters of the emulsion were characterized by accelerate stability tested at 45°C for two months, measurement of particle size and viscosity test. The result of accelerate test showed that all the emulsion at different HLB were found to be stable in the 2 months observation which assumed to be stable in 1 year of storage. Meanwhile, the particle size measurement data showed that the optimum stable particle size of the emulsion was HLB 12±1. The viscosity test of the emulsion tends to support the data from the particle size and have maximum viscosity 189.89 cP at HLB 12. The obtained results indicate that the optimum stable emulsions can be formulated by a combination of emulsifiers with HLB 12±1 which is compatible with that of required HLB of the oil phase.

  7. Effect of surfactants on interfacial films and stability of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, D P; Baydak, E N; Yarranton, H W

    2010-11-15

    The effect of additives on asphaltene interfacial films and emulsion stability was analyzed through the change in film properties. Surface pressure isotherms were measured at 23°C for model interfaces between aqueous surfactant solutions and asphaltenes dissolved in toluene and heptane-toluene mixtures. Compressibility, crumpling film ratio and surface pressure were determined from the surface pressure isotherms. The stability of water-in-oil emulsions was determined for the same systems based on the proportion of unresolved emulsified water after repeated treatment involving heating at 60°C and centrifugation. Experimental variables included concentration of asphaltenes (5 and 10 kg/m(3)), concentration and type of surfactant (Aerosol OT, nonylphenol ethoxylates, polypropylene oxide block-copolymer, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acids, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid-polymer blend, diisopropyl naphthalene sulfonic acid, and sodium naphthenate) and aging time (from 10 min to 4 h). Additives were found to have two opposing effects on film properties and emulsion stability: (1) decreasing or eliminating the crumpling ratio which destabilized emulsions and (2) decreasing interfacial tension which enhanced emulsion stability. A stability parameter was defined to include both the crumpling ratio and interfacial tension and provided a consistent correlation for the percent residual emulsified water. PMID:20804982

  8. Chemomechanical behaviors of polymer gels by surfactant binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tetsuharu; Gong, Jianping; Osada, Yoshihito

    1999-05-01

    A weakly crosslinked poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) immersed in cationic surfactant (N-n-alkylpyridinium chloride) shows biomimetic chemomechanical movement under dc current. The principle of the movement is based on an electrokinetic molecular assembly reaction of the surfactant onto the polymer network. In order to analyze the diffusion and binding processes which are both of importance for understanding the alkyl size dependence of the chemomechanical behavior, kinetic studies of the surfactants binding were made systematically changing the alkyl size and concentration of the surfactants and ionic strength. It was found that the driving force of the surfactant diffusion is the electrochemical potential gradient, while the surfactant binding enhances the diffusion proces. A mathematical model for the surfactant diffusion was developed taking account of the surfactant binding process and obtained results were well explained the experimental observations.

  9. An algorithm for emulsion stability simulations: account of flocculation, coalescence, surfactant adsorption and the process of Ostwald ripening.

    PubMed

    Urbina-Villalba, German

    2009-03-01

    The first algorithm for Emulsion Stability Simulations (ESS) was presented at the V Conferencia Iberoamericana sobre Equilibrio de Fases y Diseño de Procesos [Luis, J.; García-Sucre, M.; Urbina-Villalba, G. Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Emulsion Stability In: Equifase 99. Libro de Actas, 1(st) Ed., Tojo J., Arce, A., Eds.; Solucion's: Vigo, Spain, 1999; Volume 2, pp. 364-369]. The former version of the program consisted on a minor modification of the Brownian Dynamics algorithm to account for the coalescence of drops. The present version of the program contains elaborate routines for time-dependent surfactant adsorption, average diffusion constants, and Ostwald ripening. PMID:19399220

  10. Flows of Wet Foamsand Concentrated Emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemer, Martin B.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was is to advance a microstructural understanding of foam and emulsion flows. The dynamics of individual surfactant-covered drops and well as the collective behavior of dilute and concentrated was explored using numerical simulations. The long-range goal of this work is the formulation of reliable microphysically-based statistical models of emulsion flows.

  11. Adsorption of Anionic or Cationic Surfactants in Polyanionic Brushes and Its Effect on Brush Swelling and Fouling Resistance during Emulsion Filtration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhefei; Tarabara, Volodymyr V; Bruening, Merlin L

    2015-11-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization of ionic monomers from membrane surfaces yields polyelectrolyte brushes that swell in water and repel oil droplets to resist fouling during filtration of oil-in-water emulsions. However, surfactant adsorption to polyelectrolyte brushes may overcome this fouling resistance. This work examines adsorption of cationic and anionic surfactants in polyanionic brushes and the effect of these surfactants on emulsion filtration. In situ ellipsometry with films on flat surfaces shows that brushes composed of poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate salts) (pSPMK) swell 280% in water and do not adsorb sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). pSPMK-modified microfiltration membranes reject >99.9% of the oil from SDS-stabilized submicron emulsions, and the specific flux through these modified membranes is comparable to that through NF270 nanofiltration membranes. Moreover, the brush-modified membranes show no decline in flux over a 12 h filtration, whereas the flux through NF270 membranes decreases by 98.7%. In contrast, pSPMK brushes adsorb large quantities of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and at low chain densities the brushes collapse in the presence of this cationic surfactant. Filtration of CTAB-stabilized emulsions through pSPMK-modified membranes gives minimal oil rejection, presumably due to the brush collapse. Thus, the fouling resistance of polyelectrolyte brush-modified membranes clearly depends on the surfactant composition in a particular emulsion. PMID:26442835

  12. Kinetics of Narrowly dispersed Latex Formation in a Surfactant-free Emulsion Polymerization of Styrene in Acetone-Water Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, He; Li, Zhiyong; Han, Charles

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of narrowly dispersed latex formation in a surfactant-free emulsion polymerization of styrene in acetone-water was studied by a combination of transmission electron microscopy and light scattering. The critical nuclei were experimentally observed and the formation of narrowly dispersed PS latex is proved to be originated from competitive growth kinetics. Spherical nuclei were regenerated via a microphase inversion of PS oligomer in 50% volume fraction acetone-water mixture at 70^oC. They follow a polydispersed log-normal distribution and the smallest nucleus with Rs 1.1nm is similar to critical nuclei. Note the spherical nuclei are not necessarily narrowly dispersed. Competitive growth kinetics makes smaller nuclei grow much faster than large nuclei in the subsequent polymerization process, resulting in narrowly dispersed PS latex. Two kinds of PS seed particles were added, separately, into two parallel surfactant-free emulsion polymerization batches of styrene in acetone-water mixture at 70^oC. It was found that the size of seed particles almost does not change, but the small size PS latex grows rapidly. Our fitting results proves competitive growth kinetics proposed by Vanderhoff and coworkers.

  13. Surfactant effects on bio-based emulsions used as lubrication fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The successful formulation of a lubricating emulsion requires carefully balancing the mixture of base oil, water and a plethora of additives. The factors that affect the performance of lubrication emulsions range from the macroscopic stability to the microscopic surface properties of the base oil. ...

  14. Evaluation of a novel soybean oil-based surfactant for fine emulsion preparation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is currently the world’s second largest source of vegetable oil. The growth in soybean oil production and the concerns over petrochemical surfactants have promoted the development of soybean oil-based surfactants. In this paper, we briefly describe the synthesis and properties of soybean...

  15. Characterization of flaxseed oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-En; Choo, Wee-Sim

    2015-07-01

    The emulsifying capacity of surfactants (polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80 and soy lecithin) and proteins (soy protein isolate and whey protein isolate) in flaxseed oil was measured based on 1 % (w/w) of emulsifier. Surfactants showed significantly higher emulsifying capacity compared to the proteins (soy protein isolate and whey protein isolate) in flaxseed oil. The emulsion stability of the flaxseed oil emulsions with whey protein isolate (10 % w/w) prepared using a mixer was ranked in the following order: 1,000 rpm (58 min)???1,000 rpm (29 min)???2,000 rpm (35 min) >2,000 rpm (17.5 min). The emulsion stability of the flaxseed oil emulsions with whey protein isolate (10 % w/w) prepared using a homogenizer (Ultra Turrax) was independent of the speed and mixing time. The mean particle size of the flaxseed oil emulsions prepared using the two mixing devices ranged from 23.99?±?1.34 ?m to 47.22?±?1.99 ?m where else the particle size distribution and microstructure of the flaxseed oil emulsions demonstrated using microscopic imaging were quite similar. The flaxseed oil emulsions had a similar apparent viscosity and exhibited shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. The flaxseed oil emulsions had L* value above 70 and was in the red-yellow color region (positive a* and b* values). PMID:26139903

  16. Surfactant-free high internal phase emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Capron, Isabelle; Cathala, Bernard

    2013-02-11

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are rod-like colloidal particles that irreversibly adsorb at the oil-water interface to produce ultrastable emulsions. When the internal phase fraction is increased, these CNCs can produce gel-like oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) in which more than 90% of the hydrophobic phase is stabilized by less than 0.1% wt. of CNCs. However, a one-step preparation of HIPEs is not possible, and incorporation of the high internal phase fraction requires the prior preparation of Pickering emulsions. We propose that this two-step process to create CNC HIPEs relies on a swelling process of the droplets that does not desorb the CNCs from the interface, decreasing the coverage ratio of the droplets and leading to coalescence. As a result, this process leads to a drops deformation and a new interfacial networking organization as revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. PMID:23289355

  17. Engineering interfacial properties by anionic surfactant-chitosan complexes to improve stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zinoviadou, Kyriaki G; Scholten, Elke; Moschakis, Thomas; Biliaderis, Costas G

    2012-03-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions (10% w/w n-tetradecane) were prepared at pH = 5.7 by using, as surface active agents, electrostatically formed complexes of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) at a concentration of 0.4% (w/w) and chitosan (CH) in a concentration range between 0 and 0.48% w/w. The use of complexes in emulsions with a low concentration of CH (<0.24% w/w) resulted in highly flocculated systems; instead, with increased level of CH, the emulsions had a smaller average droplet size and exhibited greater stability during storage. Emulsions stabilised by SSL/CH complexes showed non-Newtonian flow behavior with pronounced shear thinning. Among all formulations studied none showed a gel-like behavior since in all cases the G' (storage modulus) was lower that G'' (loss modulus). Adsorption kinetics of pure SSL and SSL/CH complexes to the oil/water interfaces were evaluated using an automated drop tensiometer (ADT). Even though complexation of SSL with CH resulted in a delay of the adsorption of the surface active species at the oil/water interface, the inclusion of the polysaccharide resulted in substantially improved interfacial properties as indicated by a significant increase of the dilatational modulus. Furthermore, the enhanced interfacial properties of the emulsion droplets resulted in improved stability against freeze-thaw cycling. The results of this study may facilitate the development of frozen food products such as desserts with an ameliorated stability and favorable sensorial characteristics. PMID:22298029

  18. Coalescence behavior of oil droplets coated in irreversibly-adsorbed surfactant layers.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Matthew D; Walker, Lynn M

    2015-07-01

    Coalescence between oil caps with irreversibly adsorbed layers of nonionic surfactant is characterized in deionized water and electrolyte solution. The coalescence is characterized using a modified capillary tensiometer allowing for accurate measurement of the coalescence time. Results suggest two types of coalescence behavior, fast coalescence at low surface coverages that are independent of ionic strength and slow coalescence at high coverage. These slow coalescence events (orders of magnitude slower) are argued to be due to electric double layer forces or more complicated stabilization mechanisms arising from interfacial deformation and surface forces. A simple film drainage model is used in combination with measured values for interfacial properties to quantify the interaction potential between the two interfaces. Since this approach allows the two caps to have the same history, interfacial coverage and curvature, the results offer a tool to better understand a mechanism that is important to emulsion stability. PMID:25766654

  19. Phase behavior and formation of o/w nano-emulsion in vegetable oil/ mixture of polyglycerol polyricinoleate and polyglycerin fatty acid ester/water systems.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Masami; Gohtani, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    It is reported that mixing polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and polyglycerol laurilester has a great emulsifying capacity, and consequently fine oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions can be formed. However, the role of PGPR is not clear. The objective of this research is to investigate the phase behavior of vegetable oil/mixture of PGPR and polyglycerol fatty acid ester/water systems, and to clarify the role of PGPR in making a fine emulsion. Phase diagrams were constructed to elucidate the optimal process for preparing fine emulsions. In all the systems examined in this study, the phases, including the liquid crystal phase (L(c)) and sponge phase (L(3)), spread widely in the phase diagrams. We examined droplet size of the emulsions prepared from each phase and found that o/w nano-emulsions with droplet sizes as small as 50 nm were formed by emulsifying either from a single L(3) phase or a two-phase region, L(c) + L(3). These results indicate that a sponge phase L(3) or liquid crystal phase L(c) or both is necessary to form an o/w nano-emulsion whose average droplet diameter is less than 50 nm for PGPR and polyglycerin fatty acid ester mixtures used as surfactant. PMID:24521844

  20. Use of Biobased Surfactants to Stabilize Emulsions Relevant for Industrial Lubrication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emulsion based lubricants are used widely in metalworking, mining, fire-resistant hydraulic applications, and more, due to their low cost high performance. Key emulsification factors, such as appearance, particle size distribution and stability, are very important to lubricant applications. Water ...

  1. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800484 Colloid Surfactants for Emulsion Stabilization**

    E-print Network

    , and inverted micelles. This parameter is also used for predicting whether oil-in-water (O/W) structures or water-in-oil (W/O) structures are preferred for a given surfactant.[14] Similar concepts of packing. By varying the amount of monomer used during the elastic stress-driven phase separation of monomer

  2. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the equilibrium and dynamic interfacial behavior of mixed surfactant solutions

    E-print Network

    Mulqueen, Michael (Michael Patrick), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    In many commercial applications involving surfactants, the desired properties are controlled by both the equilibrium and the dynamic interfacial behavior. In particular, surfactant adsorption at air-water interfaces causes ...

  3. Low-temperature polymerization of methyl methacrylate emulsion gels through surfactant catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tan; Xu, Gu; Regev, Oren; Blum, Frank D

    2016-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/silica/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) composites were prepared through surfactant catalyzed free radical polymerizations at 40°C. Fumed silica particles controlled the morphology of the polymeric composites producing porous structures. The internal structures of the porous composite were determined using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). The fumed silica particles were encapsulated by an incompletely covered CTAB monolayer, with a crystallization temperature, TC,CTAB=76°C, and a mixed PMMA/CTAB shell, with TC,CTAB=63°C. The fumed silica surfaces acted as inhibitors for PMMA free radical polymerizations. Much of the PMMA formed in the composites was adsorbed on the silica, as evidenced by its elevated glass transition temperature compared to bulk. The enhanced decomposition of the initiator was catalyzed by CTAB and resulted in free radical polymerization of PMMA at 40°C, which is considerably lower than the temperatures normally used for PMMA synthesis by free radical means with thermal initiation. These lowered polymerization temperatures allow energy efficient production of composites, which can incorporate temperature sensitive materials. PMID:26397919

  4. Characterization of phase separation behavior, emulsion stability, rheology, and microstructure of egg white-polysaccharide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Erçelebi, E Alben; Ibano?lu, E

    2009-08-01

    Phase separation behavior of egg white-pectin/guar gum mixtures was investigated. These systems led to phase separation arisen by either depletion flocculation or thermodynamic incompatibility. The influence of polysaccharides on the emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsifying stability index (ESI), creaming stability, microstructure, and rheological properties was also studied at different polysaccharide concentrations (0% to 0.5%, [w/v]). Increasing pectin and guar gum concentration from 0.01% to 0.5% significantly improved EAI by 51% and 25%, respectively. The highest ESI and EAI values were obtained in the presence of 0.5% (w/v) pectin/guar gum. Microscopic images showed that emulsions containing polysaccharides had small droplets as compared to that of emulsions without polysaccharides. The addition of polysaccharides improved emulsion stability against creaming. Egg white-stabilized emulsions with and without polysaccharides reflect the pseudoplastic behavior with n < 1.0. Polysaccharides, especially at high concentrations, affected the viscoelastic behavior of the emulsions; storage (G') and loss modulus (G'') crossed-over at lower frequency values as compared to that of emulsions containing no polysaccharide. PMID:19723189

  5. Behavior of Malondialdehyde in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Vandemoortele, Angelique; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2015-06-17

    The impact of temperature, emulsifier, and protein type on the reactivity of malondialdehyde in oil-in-water emulsions was elucidated. Malondialdehyde recoveries in aqueous buffer, protein solutions, saturated oil, and fully hydrogenated coconut oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by whey proteins or Tween 20 at 4 or 40 °C were compared. At both temperatures, the reactivity of malondialdehyde in aqueous buffer was the same. In protein solutions, malondialdehyde concentrations were reduced further and its decrease was protein-dependent. Similar trends were found for emulsions. Surprisingly, malondialdehyde was very reactive in saturated oil because only 15% was recovered at 40 °C. However, the degradation in oil proved to be strongly temperature-dependent; at 4 °C, losses amounted to only 8%. This study revealed that malondialdehyde is a very reactive molecule, both in the presence and absence of proteins. Its use as a general oxidation marker should therefore be considered with care. PMID:26016781

  6. Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Nick J.

    The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to concentration and micellization of the surfactant. At the same time, the silica solidifies around the surfactant structures, forming equally sized mesoporous particles. The procedure can be tuned to produce well-separated particles or alternatively particles that are linked together. The latter allows us to create 2D or 3D structures with hierarchical porosity. Oil, water, and surfactant liquid mixtures exhibit very complex phase behavior. Depending on the conditions, such mixtures give rise to highly organized structures. A proper selection of the type and concentration of surfactants determines the structuring at the nanoscale level. In this work, we show that hierarchically bimodal nanoporous structures can be obtained by templating silica microparticles with a specially designed surfactant micelle/microemulsion mixture. Tuning the phase state by adjusting the surfactant composition and concentration allows for the controlled design of a system where microemulsion droplets coexist with smaller surfactant micellar structures. The microemulsion droplet and micellar dimensions determine the two types of pore sizes (single nanometers and tens of nanometers). We also demonstrate the fabrication of carbon and carbon/platinum replicas of the silica microspheres using a "lost-wax" approach. Such particles have great potential for the design of electrocatalysts for fuel cells, chromatography separations, and other applications. It was determined that slight variations in microemulsion mixture components (electrolyte concentration, wt% of surfactants, oil to sol ratio, etc.) produces strikingly different pore morphologies and particle surface areas. Control over the size and structure of the smaller micelle-templated pores was made possible by varying the length of the hydrocarbon block within the trimethyl ammonium bromide surfactant and characterized using X-ray diffraction. The effect of emulsion aging was studied by synthesizing particles at progressive time levels from a sample emulsion. It was discovered surface pore size increases after just a few hours, with

  7. Screening of mixed surfactant systems: Phase behavior studies and CT imaging of surfactant-enhanced oil recovery experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; Lorenz, P.B.; Cook, I.M.; Scott, L.J.

    1993-11-01

    A systematic chemical screening study was conducted on selected anionic-nonionic and nonionic-nonionic systems. The objective of the study was to evaluate and determine combinations of these surfactants that would exhibit favorable phase behavior and solubilization capacity. The effects of different parameters including (a) salinity, (b) temperature, (c) alkane carbon number, (c) hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB) of nonionic component, and (d) type of surfactant on the behavior of the overall chemical system were evaluated. The current work was conducted using a series of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants in combinations of several anionic systems with various hydrocarbons. Efforts to correlate the behavior of these mixed systems led to the development of several models for the chemical systems tested. The models were used to compare the different systems and provided some guidelines for formulating them to account for variations in salinity, oil hydrocarbon number, and temperature. The models were also evaluated to determine conformance with the results from experimental measurements. The models provided good agreement with experimental results. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. CT-monitored corefloods were conducted to examine the effect of changing surfactant slug size injection on oil bank formation and propagation. Reducing surfactant slug size resulted in lower total oil production. Oil recovery results, however, did not correlate with slug size for the low-concentration, alkaline, mixed surfactant system used in these tests. The CT measurements showed that polymer mobility control and core features also affected the overall oil recovery results.

  8. Depletion interactions and fluid-solid equilibrium in emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibette, J.; Roux, D.; Nallet, F.

    1990-11-01

    Silicon-oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), have been studied. They exhibit practically no coalescence, whereas for high surfactant concentrations a ``creaming'' of the emulsion is observed. We demonstrate that this behavior is related to a fluid-solid phase transition due to an attractive interaction induced by the depletion of SDS micelles. A simple model for the fluid-solid transition is proposed, in quantitative agreement with experiment.

  9. Emulsion of aqueous-based nonspherical droplets in aqueous solutions by single-chain surfactants: templated assembly by nonamphiphilic lyotropic liquid crystals in water.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Nisha; Shetye, Gauri S; Bandyopadhyay, Debjyoti; Gobalasingham, Nemal; Seo, JinAm; Wang, Jo-Han; Theiler, Barbara; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2012-07-24

    Single-chain surfactants usually emulsify and stabilize oily substances into droplets in an aqueous solution. Here, we report a coassembly system, in which single types of anionic or non-ionic surfactants emulsify a class of water-soluble nonamphiphilic organic salts with fused aromatic rings in aqueous solutions. The nonamphiphilic organic salts are in turn promoted to form droplets of water-based liquid crystals (chromonic liquid crystals) encapsulated by single-chain surfactants. The droplets, stabilized against coalescence by encapsulated in a layer (or layers) of single chain surfactants, are of both nonspherical tactoid (elongated ellipsoid with pointy ends) and spherical shapes. The tactoids have an average long axis of ?9 ?m and a short axis of ?3.5 ?m with the liquid crystal aligning parallel to the droplet surface. The spherical droplets are 5-10 ?m in diameter and have the liquid crystal aligning perpendicular to the droplet surface and a point defect in the center. Cationic and zwitterionic surfactants studied in this work did not promote the organic salt to form droplets. These results illustrate the complex interplay of self-association and thermodynamic incompatibility of molecules in water, which can cause new assembly behavior, including potential formation of vesicles or other assemblies, from surfactants that usually form only micelles. These unprecedented tactoidal shaped droplets also provide potential for the fabrication of new soft organic microcapsules. PMID:22726240

  10. PHASE BEHAVIOR OF WATER/PERCHLOROETHYLENE/ANIONIC SURFACTANT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winsor Type I (o/w), Type II (w/o), and Type III (middle phase) microemulsions have been generated for water and perchloroethylene (PCE) in combination with anionic surfactants and the appropriate electrolyte concentration. The surfactant formulation was a combination of sodium d...

  11. Lithographic performance and dissolution behavior of novolac resins for various developer surfactant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Gary E.; Loftus, James E.

    1992-06-01

    The use of surfactants in today's society ranges over a wide variety of technologies, from soaps and detergents to house paints and electronic materials. In the semiconductor industry, surfactants are commonly used as coating additives in photoresists, as additives in wet chemical etchants, as additives in developer solutions, and in other areas where surface activity is desirable. In most applications, the mechanisms of surfactant chemistry are well established, yet there has been only a limited amount of published literature pertaining to characterizing the behavior of surfactants in developer systems for photoresists. This project explores the application of surfactants in an aqueous tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) based developer for two optical resists, one incorporating a 2,1,4- diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ) sensitizer, while the other incorporates a 2,1,5-DNQ sensitizer. In addition, each optical resist is based on different positive novolac resins with distinct structural properties. This feature aids in illustrating the improtance of matching the developer surfactant with the photoresist resin structure. Four distinct non-ionic surfactants with well published physical and chemical properties are examined. Properties of the surfactants explored include differences in structure, surfactant concentration, various degrees of hydrophilic versus lipophilic content (known as the HLB, or hydrophilic - lipophilic balance), and the differences in reported critical micelle concentration (CMC). Previous research investigated the performance characteristics of the 2,1,5-DNQ for these four surfactants. This investigation is an extension of the previous project by next considering a significantly different photoresist. A discussion of potential mechanisms of the solubilization and wetting effects is utilized to promote an understanding of surfactant effects in resist/developer systems. Also, because of the extensive characterization involved in screening surfactants, a recommended selection and screening scheme is proposed.

  12. Surfactant-adsorption-induced initial depinning behavior in evaporating water and nanofluid sessile droplets.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Duan, Fei

    2015-05-19

    A surfactant-induced autophobic effect has been observed to initiate an intense depinning behavior at the initial stage of evaporation in both pure water and nanofluid sessile droplets. The cationic surfactant adsorbing to the negatively charged silicon wafer makes the solid surface more hydrophobic. The autophobing-induced depinning behavior, leading to an enlarged contact angle and a shortened base diameter, takes place only when the surfactant concentration is below its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The initial spreading degree right before the droplet retraction, the retracting velocity of the contact line, and the duration of the initial droplet retraction are shown to depend negatively on the surfactant concentration below the cmc. An unexpected enhancement in the initial depinning has been found in the nanofluid droplets, possibly resulting from the hydrophilic interplay between the graphite nanoparticle deposition and the surfactant molecules. Such promotion of the initial depinning due to the nanoparticle deposition makes the droplet retract even at a surfactant concentration higher than the cmc (1.5 cmc). The resulting deposition formed in the presence of the depinning behavior has great enhancement for coffee-ring formation as compared to the one free of surfactant, implying that the formation of a coffee ring does not require the pinning of the contact line during the entire drying process. PMID:25923721

  13. Synthesis and Crystallization Behavior of Surfactants with Hexamolybdate as the Polar Headgroup.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Chen, Kun; Hao, Jian; Wei, Zheyu; Zhang, Haocheng; Yin, Panchao; Wei, Yongge

    2015-07-01

    Alkyl chains with different lengths were covalently grafted onto the surface of hexamolybdate through the postfunctionalization protocol of polyoxometalates. The obtained compounds represent typical structures of the so-called giant surfactants. Unexpectedly, those surfactants with hexamolybdates as polar headgroups are able to crystallize, while single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystallization behavior of the surfactants is highly dependent on the length of the alkyl chains. For surfactants with comparatively short alkyl chains (C6 and C10), the alkyl chains prefer to interact with tetrabutylammonium, the countercation of hexamolybdate. However, the alkyl chains tend to pack with each other to form a domain of alkyl chains in the surfactant with a longer alkyl chain (C18). The possible mechanism is that a long alkyl chain cannot be fully compatible with the short chain (C4) of tetrabutylammonium. PMID:26067891

  14. Defect configurations and dynamical behavior in a gay-berne nematic emulsion

    PubMed

    Billeter; Pelcovits

    2000-07-01

    To model a nematic emulsion consisting of a surfactant-coated water droplet dispersed in a nematic host, we performed a molecular dynamics simulation of a droplet immersed in a system of 2048 Gay-Berne ellipsoids in a nematic phase. Strong radial anchoring at the surface of the droplet induced a Saturn ring defect configuration, consistent with theoretical predictions for very small droplets. A surface ring configuration was observed for lower radial anchoring strengths, and a pair of point defects was found near the poles of the droplet for tangential anchoring. We also simulated the falling ball experiment and measured the drag force anisotropy, in the presence of strong radial anchoring as well as zero anchoring strength. PMID:11088508

  15. High-impact polystyrene/halloysite nanocomposites prepared by emulsion polymerization using sodium dodecyl sulfate as surfactant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong; Ng, Kai Mo; Chan, Chi-Ming; Sun, Guoxing; Wu, Jingshen

    2011-06-15

    High-impact polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites filled with individually dispersed halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were prepared by emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of HNTs with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the emulsifier. The SDS is a good dispersing agent for HNTs in aqueous solution. The emulsion polymerization resulted in the formation of polystyrene nanospheres separating individual HNTs. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the PS matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry were used to characterize the PS/HNT nanocomposites. The impact strength of the PS/HNTs nanocomposites was 300% higher than that of the neat PS. This paper presents a simple yet feasible method for the preparation of high-impact PS/halloysite nanocomposites. PMID:21458819

  16. Surfactant induced aggregation behavior of Merocyanine-540 adsorbed on polymer coated positively charged gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Das, K; Uppal, A; Saini, R K

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant induced aggregation behavior of Merocyanine 540 adsorbed on polymer (PDD) coated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) is reported. The absorption band of the dye shifts to higher energy in the presence of free polymer and polymer coated AuNP implying aggregation. Addition of a negatively charged surfactant (SDS) induces multiple bands in the extinction spectrum of the dye adsorbed on nanoparticle surface. The highest (460nm) and lowest (564nm) energy bands of the dye become prominent at 10 and >50?M SDS concentrations respectively (dye: 10?M; AuNP: 100-200pM). Based on earlier results the high energy band is likely to originate from dye aggregates and the low energy band is likely to originate from dye monomers. This is attributed to the interplay between polymer-surfactant and polymer-dye interactions at the AuNP surface. The extinction spectra of dye adsorbed at AuNP surface remain unaffected in the presence of a positively charged (CTAB) or a neutral surfactant (Tx-100), at low surfactant concentrations. However at higher surfactant concentrations (>60?M) dye aggregation takes place which is attributed to dye-surfactant interactions. The fluorescence intensity of the dye quenched significantly but its lifetime increased in the presence of polymer coated AuNP. This is attributed to aggregation and reduction in the photoisomerization rate of the dye adsorbed on AuNP surface. PMID:26233787

  17. Surfactant induced aggregation behavior of Merocyanine-540 adsorbed on polymer coated positively charged gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, K.; Uppal, A.; Saini, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant induced aggregation behavior of Merocyanine 540 adsorbed on polymer (PDD) coated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) is reported. The absorption band of the dye shifts to higher energy in the presence of free polymer and polymer coated AuNP implying aggregation. Addition of a negatively charged surfactant (SDS) induces multiple bands in the extinction spectrum of the dye adsorbed on nanoparticle surface. The highest (460 nm) and lowest (564 nm) energy bands of the dye become prominent at 10 and >50 ?M SDS concentrations respectively (dye: 10 ?M; AuNP: 100-200 pM). Based on earlier results the high energy band is likely to originate from dye aggregates and the low energy band is likely to originate from dye monomers. This is attributed to the interplay between polymer-surfactant and polymer-dye interactions at the AuNP surface. The extinction spectra of dye adsorbed at AuNP surface remain unaffected in the presence of a positively charged (CTAB) or a neutral surfactant (Tx-100), at low surfactant concentrations. However at higher surfactant concentrations (>60 ?M) dye aggregation takes place which is attributed to dye-surfactant interactions. The fluorescence intensity of the dye quenched significantly but its lifetime increased in the presence of polymer coated AuNP. This is attributed to aggregation and reduction in the photoisomerization rate of the dye adsorbed on AuNP surface.

  18. Coalescence during emulsification. 2. Role of small molecule surfactants.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Lloyd; Svereika, Aileen

    2003-05-15

    An oil-soluble hexadecyl pyrene (HDP) probe is used to monitor coalescence of hexadecane oil-in-water emulsions, during emulsification, in stirred systems and in a high-pressure homogenizer (microfluidizer), when small molecule surfactants are used as emulsifiers. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration and salt concentration on the amount of coalescence and final drop size is studied. The behavior of oil-soluble surfactants and mixtures of oil-soluble and water-soluble surfactants on emulsification performance is also discussed. For high-pressure homogenizers, the drop sizes obtained are found to depend mostly on the ability of surfactants to stabilize the drops against coalescence, rather than their ability to reduce the interfacial tension. Increasing oil phase fractions increase the coalescence rate, because of the increase in collision frequency, which, in turn, impacts the drop size of the homogenized emulsion. PMID:16256561

  19. Growth Behavior, Geometrical Shape, and Second CMC of Micelles Formed by Cationic Gemini Esterquat Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Bergström, L Magnus; Tehrani-Bagha, Alireza; Nagy, Gergely

    2015-04-28

    Micelles formed by novel gemini esterquat surfactants have been investigated with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The growth behavior of the micelles is found to differ conspicuously depending on the length of the gemini surfactant spacer group. The gemini surfactant with a long spacer form rather small triaxial ellipsoidal tablet-shaped micelles that grow weakly with surfactant concentration in the entire range of measured concentrations. Geminis with a short spacer, on the other hand, form weakly growing oblates or tablets at low concentrations that start to grow much more strongly into polydisperse rodlike or wormlike micelles at higher concentrations. The latter behavior is consistent with the presence of a second CMC that marks the transition from the weakly to the strongly growing regime. It is found that the growth behavior in terms of aggregation number as a function of surfactant concentration always appear concave in weakly growing regimes, while switching to convex behavior in strongly growing regimes. As a result, we are able to determine the second CMC of the geminis with short spacer by means of suggesting a rather precise definition of it, located at the point of inflection of the growth curve that corresponds to the transition from concave to convex growth behavior. Our SANS results are rationalized by comparison with the recently developed general micelle model. In particular, this theory is able to explain and reproduce the characteristic appearances of the experimental growth curves, including the presence of a second CMC and the convex strongly growing regime beyond. By means of optimizing the agreement between predictions from the general micelle model and results from SANS experiments, we are able to determine the three bending elasticity constants spontaneous curvature, bending rigidity, and saddle-splay constant for each surfactant. PMID:25835031

  20. Re-entrant phase behavior of a concentrated anionic surfactant system with strongly binding counterions.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sajal Kumar; Rathee, Vikram; Krishnaswamy, Rema; Raghunathan, V A; Sood, A K

    2009-08-01

    The phase behavior of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence of the strongly binding counterion p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) has been examined using small-angle X-ray diffraction and polarizing microscopy. A hexagonal-to-lamellar transition on varying the PTHC to SDS molar ratio (alpha) occurs through a nematic phase of rodlike micelles (Nc) --> isotropic (I) --> nematic of disklike micelles (N(D)) at a fixed surfactant concentration (phi). The lamellar phase is found to coexist with an isotropic phase (I') over a large region of the phase diagram. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of the phase behavior at phi = 0.4 confirm the transition from N(C) to N(D) on varying alpha. The viscoelastic and flow behaviors of the different phases were examined. A decrease in the steady shear viscosity across the different phases with increasing alpha suggests a decrease in the aspect ratio of the micellar aggregates. From the transient shear stress response of the N() and N(D) nematic phases in step shear experiments, they were characterized to be tumbling and flow aligning, respectively. Our studies reveal that by tuning the morphology of the surfactant micelles strongly binding counterions modify the phase behavior and rheological properties of concentrated surfactant solutions. PMID:19301881

  1. Adsorption and Aggregation behaviors of tetrasiloxane-tailed gemini surfactants with (EO)m spacers.

    PubMed

    Guoyong, Wang; Wenshan, Qu; Zhiping, Du; Wanxu, Wang; Qiuxiao, Li

    2013-03-21

    Adsorption and aggregation behaviors of novel tetrasiloxane-tailed gemini surfactants N,N'-ditetrasiloxane-N,N'-digluconamide oligo ethylene glycol diglycidyl (Si-m-Si, where m is the number of ethylene glycol of 1, 2, and 3) were investigasted using surface tension, bromophenol blue encapsulation, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods. The static surface tension of the aqueous Si-m-Si solutions measured at the critical aggregate concentration (CAC) was observed to be lower than that of traditional hydrocarbon gemini surfactants. This suggests that these newly synthesized gemini surfactants are capable of forming a closely packed monolayer film at the air/aqueous solution interface. With a combination of DLS data, TEM measurements, and bromophenol blue entrapment studies, formations of vesicles in Si-m-Si solutions appear to occur at a concentration well above the CAC. Moreover, the size of vesicles depended on their m values. PMID:23438340

  2. Stability criteria for emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibette, J.; Morse, D. C.; Witten, T. A.; Weitz, D. A.

    1992-10-01

    The coalescence of monodisperse silicone oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate has been studied. We report the existence of a sharp destabilization threshold, controlled by surfactant chemical potential, osmotic pressure, and droplet diameter, at which the rate of coalescence increases dramatically. We present evidence that the stability of the emulsions can be characterized by two microscopic parameters: a minimum stable value of the surfactant chemical potential and a maximum value of the pressure exerted upon a droplet-droplet interface.

  3. Effect of Water Content on the Behavior of Surfactants and Hydrophobic Organic Compounds in the Immobilization Zone for Contaminants Retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In-Sun; Park, Jae-Woo; Cho, Jong Soo; Hwang, Inseong

    2003-03-26

    An immobilization zone can be constructed by modifying soils in the vadose zone with surfactants and, thus, can be used to promote retardation of organic contaminants in the subsurface. Column experiments were conducted to investigate the behavior of surfactants and organic contaminants in unsaturated and saturated conditions with different water contents (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%). The transport and sorption behavior of two surfactants tested (monoalkylated disulfonated diphenyl oxide, dialkylated disulfonated diphenyl oxide) in the columns containing an aluminum oxide were similar under the conditions with different water contents. However, transport of a model organic compound (naphthalene) was retarded as the water content decreased by enhanced partitioning of the compound into the surfactants that were sorbed on the aluminum oxide. This suggests that the immobilization method could well be applied to vadose zone. A transport model, CXTFIT 2.1, was also used to evaluate the behavior of the surfactants and naphthalene.

  4. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions monitored by in situ near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Charin, R M; Nele, M; Tavares, F W

    2013-05-21

    Water-heptane/toluene model emulsions were prepared to study emulsion transitional phase inversion by in situ near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). The first emulsion contained a small amount of ionic surfactant (0.27 wt % of sodium dodecyl sulfate) and n-pentanol as a cosurfactant. In this emulsion, the study was guided by an inversion coordinate route based on a phase behavior study previously performed. The morphology changes were induced by rising aqueous phase salinity in a "steady-state" inversion protocol. The second emulsion contained a nonionic surfactant (ethoxylated nonylphenol) at a concentration of 3 wt %. A continuous temperature change induced two distinct transitional phase inversions: one occurred during the heating of the system and another during the cooling. NIR spectroscopy was able to detect phase inversion in these emulsions due to differences between light scattered/absorbed by water in oil (W/O) and oil in water (O/W) morphologies. It was observed that the two model emulsions exhibit different inversion mechanisms closely related to different quantities of the middle phases formed during the three-phase behavior of Winsor type III. PMID:23656562

  5. O/W nano-emulsion formation using an isothermal low-energy emulsification method in a mixture of polyglycerol polyricinoleate and hexaglycerol monolaurate with glycerol system.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takahisa; Gohtani, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how phase behavior changes by replacing water with glycerol in water/mixture of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and hexaglycerol monolaurate (HGML) /vegetable oil system, and studied the effect of glycerol on o/w nano-emulsion formation using an isothermal low-energy method. In the phase behavior study, the liquid crystalline phase (Lc) + the sponge phase (L3) expanded toward lower surfactant concentration when water was replaced with glycerol in a system containing surfactant HLP (a mixture of PGPR and HGML). O/W nano-emulsions were formed by emulsification of samples in a region of Lc + L3. In the glycerol/surfactant HLP/vegetable oil system, replacing water with glycerol was responsible for the expansion of a region containing Lc + L3 toward lower surfactant concentration, and as a result, in the glycerol/surfactant HLP/vegetable oil system, the region where o/w nano-emulsions or o/w emulsions could be prepared using an isothermal low-energy emulsification method was wide, and the droplet diameter of the prepared o/w emulsions was also smaller than that in the water/surfactant HLP/vegetable oil system. Therefore, glycerol was confirmed to facilitate the preparation of nano-emulsions from a system of surfactant HLP. Moreover, in this study, we could prepare o/w nano-emulsions with a simple one-step addition of water at room temperature without using a stirrer. Thus, the present technique is highly valuable for applications in several industries. PMID:25766932

  6. Isotachophoresis with emulsions.

    PubMed

    Goet, G; Baier, T; Hardt, S; Sen, A K

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study on isotachophoresis (ITP) in which an emulsion is used as leading electrolyte (LE) is reported. The study aims at giving an overview about the transport and flow phenomena occurring in that context. Generally, it is observed that the oil droplets initially dispersed in the LE are collected at the ITP transition zone and advected along with it. The detailed behavior at the transition zone depends on whether or not surfactants (polyvinylpyrrolidon, PVP) are added to the electrolytes. In a system without surfactants, coalescence is observed between the droplets collected at the ITP transition zone. After having achieved a certain size, the droplets merge with the channel walls, leaving an oil film behind. In systems with PVP, coalescence is largely suppressed and no merging of droplets with the channel walls is observed. Instead, at the ITP transition zone, a droplet agglomerate of increasing size is formed. In the initial stages of the ITP experiments, two counter rotating vortices are formed inside the terminating electrolyte. The vortex formation is qualitatively explained based on a hydrodynamic instability triggered by fluctuations of the number density of oil droplets. PMID:24404037

  7. Pressure effects on the phase behavior of a propylene/water/surfactant mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, E.J. ); Smith, R.D. )

    1991-04-18

    The phase behavior of the propylene/water/Tergitol 7 surfactant ternary mixture has been examined as a function of pressure at 25.5C. Unlike conventional liquid alkane based systems, a three-phase region is obtained in the absence of added electrolyte. This is likely due to a higher upper critical solution temperature for the propylene/Tergitol 7 binary mixture, in comparison to that for mixtures of various anionic surfactants and liquid alkanes. The effect of increasing pressure is similar to the effect of decreasing temperature or increasing electrolyte concentration, according to the Kahlweit phenomenological model for amphiphile/water/oil phase behavior (as well as models describing effects on interfacial curvature, such as the R ratio). The conductivities of the nominally propylene-continuous upper phases in the systems examined are high enough to suggest electrical percolation, implying the presence of significant volume fractions of micelles in these phases.

  8. Investigating the Effect of Particle Size on Pulmonary Surfactant Phase Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Akihisa T.; Kuo, Chin-Chang; Boatwright, Thomas; Dennin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of the addition of particles of a range of sizes on the phase transition behavior of lung surfactant under compression. Charged particles ranging from micro- to nanoscale are deposited on lung surfactant films in a Langmuir trough. Surface area versus surface pressure isotherms and fluorescent microscope observations are utilized to determine changes in the phase transition behavior. We find that the deposition of particles close to 20 nm in diameter significantly impacts the coexistence of the liquid-condensed phase and liquid-expanded phase. This includes morphological changes of the liquid-condensed domains and the elimination of the squeeze-out phase in isotherms. Finally, a drastic increase of the domain fraction of the liquid-condensed phase can be observed for the deposition of 20-nm particles. As the particle size is increased, we observe a return to normal phase behavior. The net result is the observation of a critical particle size that may impact the functionality of the lung surfactant during respiration. PMID:25296309

  9. Surfactant-free alternative fuel: Phase behavior and diffusion properties.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ibrahim; Jyothi, Chemboli K; Qamhieh, Khawla; Olsson, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Phase behavior of the three components, 1-propanol, water and oil is studied at 10, 25, and 40°C. Biodiesel, limonene and diesel are used as oil phases. NMR self-diffusion measurements are performed to investigate the microstructure of the one-phase regions. Tie lines in the two-phase regions are determined both by proton NMR analysis and compared with theoretical calculations. NMR self-diffusion results for the different components in these systems do not show any sign of confinement or obstructions, demonstrating these mixtures to be structureless solutions. A good agreement between the experimental and calculated phase behavior is obtained. The determined tie lines in the two-phase regions show higher affinity of 1-propanol to water than to oil. PMID:26520824

  10. Formation of thermally reversible optically transparent emulsion-based delivery systems using spontaneous emulsification.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Amir Hossein; Fang, Yuan; McClements, David Julian

    2015-12-01

    Transparent emulsion-based delivery systems suitable for encapsulating lipophilic bioactive agents can be fabricated using low-energy spontaneous emulsification methods. These emulsions are typically fabricated from non-ionic surfactants whose hydrophilic head groups are susceptible to dehydration upon heating. This phenomenon may promote emulsion instability due to enhanced droplet coalescence at elevated temperatures. Conversely, the same phenomenon can be used to fabricate optically transparent emulsions through the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of oil phase composition and surfactant-to-oil ratio on the thermal behavior of surfactant-oil-water systems containing limonene, medium chain triglycerides (MCT), and Tween 60. Various types of thermal behavior (turbidity versus temperature profiles) were exhibited by these systems depending on their initial composition. For certain compositions, thermoreversible emulsions could be formed that were opaque at high temperatures but transparent at ambient temperatures. These systems may be particularly suitable for the encapsulation of bioactive agents in applications where optical clarity is important. PMID:26431057

  11. Surfactant Behavior of Sodium Dodecylsulfate in Deep Eutectic Solvent Choline Chloride/Urea.

    PubMed

    Arnold, T; Jackson, A J; Sanchez-Fernandez, A; Magnone, D; Terry, A E; Edler, K J

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) resemble ionic liquids but are formed from an ionic mixture instead of being a single ionic compound. Here we present some results that demonstrate that surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) remains surface-active and shows self-assembly phenomena in the most commonly studied DES, choline chloride/urea. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) suggest that the behavior is significantly different from that in water. Our SANS data supports our determination of the critical micelle concentration using surface-tension measurements and suggests that the micelles formed in DES do not have the same shape and size as those seen in water. Reflectivity measurements have also demonstrated that the surfactants remain surface-active below this concentration. PMID:26540438

  12. Impact of fat and water crystallization on the stability of hydrogenated palm oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by a nonionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Thanasukarn, Parita; Pongsawatmanit, Rungnaphar; McClements, D Julian

    2006-05-17

    The influence of (0-40 wt %) sucrose and (0 and 150 mmol/kg) sodium chloride on the physical properties of 20 wt % hydrogenated palm oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by 2 wt % Tween 20 after crystallization of the oil phase only or both the oil and water phases has been examined. Emulsion stability was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry measurements of fat destabilization after cooling-heating cycles and by measurements of mean particle size, percent destabilized fat, and percent free oil obtained from gravitational separation after isothermal storage (at -40 to +37 degrees C). At storage temperatures where the oil phase was partially crystalline and the water was completely liquid, the emulsions were unstable to droplet coalescence and oiling off because of partial coalescence. Both NaCI and sucrose increased the extent of partial coalescence in the emulsions. At storage temperatures where both oil and water crystallized, the emulsions were completely destabilized. The stability of the emulsions to freezing and thawing could be improved somewhat by adding sucrose (>20 wt %). Emulsions stabilized by whey proteins were shown to have better freeze-thaw stability than those stabilized by Tween 20, especially in the presence of sucrose. These results may help formulate food emulsions with improved freeze-thaw stability. PMID:19127730

  13. Microemulsion formation and phase behavior of anionic and cationic surfactants with sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Lin, E.; Zhao, G.; Xiao, T.

    1996-12-01

    The phase behavior and solubilization of multiphase microemulsions in mixed anionic-cationic surfactant systems were studied for fixed ratio of water-to-oil and surfactant-to-alcohol. In the mixed surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate + cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)/heptane/alcohol/water systems, microemulsions and birefringement phases are formed by adjusting the surfactant ratio {epsilon} and the cationic weight fraction {delta}. The bicontinuous (or w/o microemulsion) {yields} birefringement o/w microemulsion transition takes place and microemulsion domain enlarges with increasing {epsilon}. The optimum surfactant concentration {gamma} increases and the corresponding optimum {delta} decreases with increasing {epsilon} and both of them decrease with increasing the alcohol chain length butanol to hexanol. The birefringent region shrinks rapidly with increasing alcohol and/or CTAB weight fractions in total surfactant concentration. Conductivity measurements have been performed in the single-phase region of the system containing mixed surfactants and alcohols at 25 C. The conductivity results indicate where a transition takes place and which of these different types of phase structures may be in the single-phase of the system containing anionic-cationic mixed surfactants.

  14. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURES AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACES IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-11-20

    The aim of the project is to develop a knowledge base to help the design of enhanced processes for mobilizing and extracting untrapped oil. We emphasize evaluation of novel surfactant mixtures and obtaining optimum combinations of the surfactants for efficient chemical flooding EOR processes. In this regard, an understanding of the aggregate shape, size and structure is crucial since these properties govern the crude oil removal efficiency. During the three-year period, the adsorption and aggregation behavior of sugar-based surfactants and their mixtures with other types of surfactants have been studied. Sugar-based surfactants are made from renewable resources, nontoxic and biodegradable. They are miscible with water and oil. These environmentally benign surfactants feature high surface activity, good salinity, calcium and temperature tolerance, and unique adsorption behavior. They possess the characteristics required for oil flooding surfactants and have the potential for replacing currently used surfactants in oil recovery. A novel analytical ultracentrifugation technique has been successfully employed for the first time, to characterize the aggregate species present in mixed micellar solution due to its powerful ability to separate particles based on their size and shape and monitor them simultaneously. Analytical ultracentrifugation offers an unprecedented opportunity to obtain important information on mixed micelles, structure-performance relationship for different surfactant aggregates in solution and their role in interfacial processes. Initial sedimentation velocity investigations were conducted using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) to choose the best analytical protocol, calculate the partial specific volume and obtain information on sedimentation coefficient, aggregation mass of micelles. Four softwares: OptimaTM XL-A/XL-I data analysis software, DCDT+, Svedberg and SEDFIT, were compared for the analysis of sedimentation velocity experimental data. The results have been compared to that from Light Scattering. Based on the tests, Svedberg and SEDFIT analysis were chosen for further studies.

  15. Rheology of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Derkach, Svetlana R

    2009-10-30

    The review is devoted to the historical and modern understanding of rheological properties of emulsions in a broad range of concentration. In the limiting case of dilute emulsions, the discussion is based on the analogy and differences in properties of suspensions and emulsions. For concentrated emulsions, the main peculiarities of their rheological behaviour are considered. Different approaches to understand the concentration dependencies of viscosity are presented and compared. The effects of non-Newtonian flow curves and the apparent transition to yielding with increasing concentration of the dispersed phase are discussed. The problem of droplet deformation in shear fields is touched. The highly concentrated emulsions (beyond the limit of closest packing of spherical particles) are treated as visco-plastic media, and the principle features of their rheology (elasticity, yielding, concentration and droplet size dependencies) are considered. A special attention is paid to the problem of shear stability of drops of an internal phase starting from the theory of the single drop behaviour, including approaches for the estimation of drops' stability in concentrated emulsions. Polymer blends are also treated as emulsions, though taking into account their peculiarities due to the coexistence of two interpenetrated phases. Different theoretical models of deformation of polymer drops were discussed bearing in mind the central goal of predictions of the visco-elastic properties of emulsions as functions of the properties of individual components and the interfacial layer. The role of surfactants is discussed from the point of view of stability of emulsions in time and their special influence on the rheology of emulsions. PMID:19683219

  16. Scaling behavior of delayed demixing, rheology, and microstructure of emulsions flocculated by depletion and bridging.

    PubMed

    Blijdenstein, Theo B J; van der Linden, Erik; van Vliet, Ton; van Aken, George A

    2004-12-21

    This paper describes an experimental comparison of microstructure, rheology, and demixing of bridging- and depletion-flocculated oil-in-water emulsions. Confocal scanning laser microscopy imaging showed that bridging-flocculated emulsions were heterogeneous over larger length scales than depletion-flocculated emulsions. As a consequence, G' as determined from diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) corresponded well with G' as measured macroscopically for the depletion-flocculated emulsions, but this correspondence was not found for the bridging-flocculated emulsions. The heterogeneity of bridging-flocculated emulsions was confirmed by DWS-echo measurements, indicating that their structure breaks up into large fragments upon oscillatory shear deformation larger than 1%. Depletion- and bridging-flocculated emulsions showed a different scaling of the storage modulus with the volume fraction of oil and a difference in percolation threshold volume fraction. These differences will be discussed on the basis of the two types of droplet-droplet interactions studied. Gravity-induced demixing occurred in both emulsions, but the demixing processes differed. After preparation of bridging-flocculated emulsions, serum immediately starts to separate, whereas depletion-flocculated systems at polysaccharide concentrations in the overlap regime usually showed a delay time before demixing. The delay time was found to scale with the network permeability, B; the viscosity, eta, of the aqueous phase; and the density difference between oil and water, Deltarho, as tdelay approximately B(-1)etaDeltarho(-1). The results are in line with the mechanism proposed by Starrs et al. (J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2002, 14, 2485-2505), where erosion of the droplet network leads to widening of the channels within the droplet networks, facilitating drainage of liquid. PMID:15595753

  17. Produced fluid emulsions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, C.F.; Himmelblau, A.; Trom, L.

    1984-09-01

    Emulsion production and stabilization may be due to one or more of several phenomenon including water-oil ratio, oil and brine chemistry, and surfactant and polymer type and concentration. They may influence emulsification either independently or with dependence on one or more of the other factors. Task One has tried to define which factors are dominant and what effect variations in them will have on the emulsion characteristics for each of the fields investigated. Emulsions were produced using a hand homogenizer at a fixed setting for a specific length of time to ensure all samples were produced uniformly. A du Nouy apparatus was used to measure surface and interfacial tensions and a binocular microscope was used in the micro-visual studies. The emulsions were treated in a similar manner with a wide variety of materials to not only break them, but also to help define which mechanisms are responsible for the stabilization of a particular emulsion. Core floods in Task Two utilized a six-foot sand-pack for a mixing medium. A six-inch long Berea core which followed, provided shear similar to that of the reservoir. The choice of oil, brine, surfactant and polymer were chosen to correlate to the Task One studies. Similarities and differences in the results between the bench-top and core flood studies are noted. The conditions of emulsion production and characteristics and the effectiveness of emulsion breakers are compared to help determine the mechanism of emulsion stabilization. 8 figures, 85 tables.

  18. Characterizing the spreading behavior of radius, contact angle, and spreading velocity of trisiloxane "superspreader" surfactants:/

    E-print Network

    Vaskov, Sean K. (Sean Kikeri)

    2012-01-01

    The ability of surfactants to lower surface tension makes them a key element in many products in a variety of industries. Trisiloxane surfactants have shown extraordinary wetting on hydrophobic surfaces, and are known as ...

  19. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  20. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  1. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  2. Interfacial layers of complex-forming ionic surfactants with gelatin.

    PubMed

    Derkach, Svetlana R

    2015-08-01

    This review is devoted to discussing the results of studies of the influence of low-molecular weight surfactant additions on the composition and properties of gelatin adsorbed layers which are spontaneously created at water/air and water/non-polar-liquid interfaces. The interaction of surfactant with gelatin leads to the formation of complexes of variable content in the bulk of the aqueous phase. The composition content is determined by the component ratio and concentration of the added surfactant. The role of surfactants (anionic, cationic, non-ionic) capable of forming complexes with gelatin due to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions is considered. Analysis of the interfacial layer properties is based on literature information, as well as the own author's data. These data include the results of measuring thermodynamic properties (interface tension), laws of formation (adsorption kinetics and thickness), and rheological properties of the layers, which are considered to be dependent on gelatin and surfactant concentration, pH, and temperature. The evolution of the interfacial layers' properties (with increasing surfactant concentration) is discussed in connection with the properties and content of gelatin-surfactant complexes appearing in the aqueous phase. Such an approach allows us to explain the main peculiarities of the layers' behavior including their stabilizing activity in relation to bilateral foam and emulsion films. PMID:24970019

  3. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes at the Interface of Pickering Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Nicholas M; Weston, Javen S; Li, Brian; Venkataramani, Deepika; Aichele, Clint P; Harwell, Jeffrey H; Crossley, Steven P

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes exhibit very unique properties in biphasic systems. Their interparticle attraction leads to reduced droplet coalescence rates and corresponding improvements in emulsion stability. Here we use covalent and noncovalent techniques to modify the hydrophilicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and study their resulting behavior at an oil-water interface. By using both paraffin wax/water and dodecane/water systems, the thickness of the layer of MWNTs at the interface and resulting emulsion stability are shown to vary significantly with the approach used to modify the MWNTs. Increased hydrophilicity of the MWNTs shifts the emulsions from water-in-oil to oil-in-water. The stability of the emulsion is found to correlate with the thickness of nanotubes populating the oil-water interface and relative strength of the carbon nanotube network. The addition of a surfactant decreases the thickness of nanotubes at the interface and enhances the overall interfacial area stabilized at the expense of increased droplet coalescence rates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the interfacial thickness of modified carbon nanotubes has been quantified and correlated to emulsion stability. PMID:26549532

  4. pubs.acs.org/Langmuir On the Possible Role of Surface Elasticity in Emulsion Stability

    E-print Network

    Weeks, Eric R.

    pubs.acs.org/Langmuir On the Possible Role of Surface Elasticity in Emulsion Stability Daniela monodisperse oil-in-water emulsions with the same surfactants and monitored the time evolution of the emulsion) and alkanes with different chain lengths. The emulsion drop size evolution is first controlled by Ostwald

  5. Spontaneous formation of gel emulsions in organic solvents and commercial fuels induced by a novel class of amino acid derivatized surfactants.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Dibyendu; Dey, Joykrishna

    2005-01-01

    A novel class of amphiphiles, sodium N-(n-dodecyl-2-aminoethanoyl)-l-amino acidate, have been synthesized. These amphiphiles have been shown to form oil-in-water-type gel emulsions with a high internal-phase ratio in organic solvents as well as in commercial fuels simply by agitation. No heating and cooling cycle was required for the formation of gels. The amphiphiles also showed efficient phase-selective gelation in the presence of excess water. The minimum gelator concentrations for the amphiphiles in the solvents employed have been determined. The effects of the chain length of the hydrocarbon tail and the chirality of a representative amphiphile on its ability to promote gelation in a given organic solvent have been investigated. Also, the effect of acid and alkali on the gelation has been examined. The optical microscopic picture of the gel emulsion showed foamlike structures with oil compartments separated by the continuous aqueous phase. The mechanism of the formation of gel emulsions has been discussed. PMID:15620291

  6. Comparison of binding behavior for molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting or Pickering emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Giovannoli, Cristina; Passini, Cinzia; Anfossi, Laura; Nardo, Fabio Di; Spano, Giulia; Maurino, Valter; Baggiani, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the binding performances and selectivity of molecularly imprinted beads prepared toward several penicillins (i) by hierarchical bulk polymerization in the pores of template-grafted silica microbeads (hMIPs) and (ii) by Pickering emulsion polymerization in the presence of template-decorated silica nanobeads (pMIPs). 6-Aminopenicillanic acid was chosen as the common fragmental mimic template. Both approaches produced micron-sized polymeric beads with good recognition properties toward the target ligands whereas the selectivity pattern appeared quite different. The polymer prepared by the Pickering emulsion approach showed binding properties similar to imprinted beads prepared by hierarchical approach. Equilibrium binding constants changed their values from 0.1-0.2 × 10(6) (hMIPs) to 0.2-0.6 × 10(6) M(-1) (pMIPs), while the binding site densities changed from 3.7-4.8 (hMIPs) to 0.3-0.55 ?mol/g (pMIPs). Compared to the hierarchical polymerization, Pickering emulsion polymerization represents a more practical approach when a template mimic needs to be used. PMID:26249317

  7. Comparison of aggregation behaviors of a phytosterol ethoxylate surfactant in protic and aprotic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiu; Chen, Xiao; Li, Qintang

    2012-08-01

    Two different room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs), the protic ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and the aprotic 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim]BF(4)), have been employed to investigate the solvent protonation effect on aggregation behaviors of a phytosterol ethoxylate surfactant (BPS-10). The calculated thermodynamic parameters based on surface tension measurements present a stronger solvophobic interaction in EAN than that in [Bmim]BF(4) and disclose different driving forces for micelle formation. In addition, the polarized optical microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering techniques are used to characterize the phase structures formed in both systems at 25 °C. Due to the H-bonding networks in protic EAN, BPS-10 exhibits a lyotropic liquid-crystalline behavior different from that in [Bmim]BF(4). Results obtained from the rheological measurements reflect a more viscoelastic nature of lyotropic liquid-crystalline phases in EAN. The obtained results indicate that the protic EAN behaves more effective than [Bmim]BF(4) to promote the nonionic BPS-10 aggregation. PMID:22793994

  8. Molecular interactions at the hexadecane/water interface in the presence of surfactants studied with second harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yajun; Yang, Fangyuan; Chen, Shunli; Xu, Hongbo; Zhang, Si; Yuan, Qunhui; Gan, Wei

    2015-06-14

    It is important to investigate the influence of surfactants on structures and physical/chemical properties of oil/water interfaces. This work reports a second harmonic generation study of the adsorption of malachite green (MG) on the surfaces of oil droplets in a hexadecane/water emulsion in the presence of surfactants including sodium dodecyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween80), and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. It is revealed that surfactants with micromolar concentrations notably influence the adsorption of MG at the oil/water interface. Both competition adsorption and charge-charge interactions played very important roles in affecting the adsorption free energy and the surface density of MG at the oil/water interface. The sensitive detection of the changing oil/water interface with the adsorption of surfactants at such low concentrations provides more information for understanding the behavior of these surfactants at the oil/water interface. PMID:26071724

  9. Molecular interactions at the hexadecane/water interface in the presence of surfactants studied with second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Yajun; Yang, Fangyuan; Chen, Shunli; Xu, Hongbo; Zhang, Si; Yuan, Qunhui; Gan, Wei

    2015-06-01

    It is important to investigate the influence of surfactants on structures and physical/chemical properties of oil/water interfaces. This work reports a second harmonic generation study of the adsorption of malachite green (MG) on the surfaces of oil droplets in a hexadecane/water emulsion in the presence of surfactants including sodium dodecyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monooleate (Tween80), and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. It is revealed that surfactants with micromolar concentrations notably influence the adsorption of MG at the oil/water interface. Both competition adsorption and charge-charge interactions played very important roles in affecting the adsorption free energy and the surface density of MG at the oil/water interface. The sensitive detection of the changing oil/water interface with the adsorption of surfactants at such low concentrations provides more information for understanding the behavior of these surfactants at the oil/water interface.

  10. Emulsifying properties of legume proteins compared to ?-lactoglobulin and Tween 20 and the volatile release from oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, O; Silcock, P; Beauchamp, J; Buettner, A; Everett, D W

    2014-10-01

    The emulsifying properties of plant legume protein isolates (soy, pea, and lupin) were compared to a milk whey protein, ?-lactoglobulin (?-lg), and a nonionic surfactant (Tween 20). The protein fractional composition was characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The following emulsion properties were measured: particle diameter, shear surface ?-potential, interfacial tension (IT), and creaming velocity. The effect of protein preheat treatment (90 °C for 10 min) on the emulsifying behavior and the release of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from emulsions under oral conditions was also investigated in real time using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. The legume proteins showed comparable results to ?-lg and Tween 20, forming stable, negatively charged emulsions with particle diameter d3,2 < 0.4 ?m, and maintained stability over 50 d. The relatively lower stability of lupin emulsions was significantly correlated with the low protein surface hydrophobicity and IT of the emulsion. After heating the proteins, the droplet size of pea and lupin emulsions decreased. The VOC release profile was similar between the protein-stabilized emulsions, and greater retention was observed for Tween 20-stabilized emulsions. This study demonstrates the potential application of legume proteins as alternative emulsifiers to milk proteins in emulsion products. PMID:25212592

  11. Preparation of microemulsions with soybean oil-based surfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emulsions are widely applied in food, cosmeceutical and medicinal formulations. Smaller and highly stable droplets of emulsions are important for their application. This research reports that by using soybean oil-based surfactants, the higher stabilized oil-in-water emulsions were obtained via an ul...

  12. Magnetically Targeted Nanocapsules for PAA-Cisplatin-Conjugated Cores in PVA/SPIO Shells via Surfactant-Free Emulsion for Reduced Nephrotoxicity and Enhanced Lung Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chih-Sheng; Tseng, Yi-Hsuan; Liao, Bang-Jie; Chen, San Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin, CDDP) is one of the most potent chemotherapy agents, but its side effects toward normal tissues, particularly toxicity in the kidney and nonspecific biodistribution, limit its ability to have significant clinical activity against a variety of solid tumors. A magnetic CDDP-encapsulated nanocapsule (CDDP-PAA-NC) with CDDP-polyacrylic acid (PAA) core in amphiphilic polyvinyl alcohol/superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles shell is synthesized through a double emulsion to provide both high loading efficiency and controlled drug release. The CDDP-PAA-NCs significantly increase the blood circulation time of CDDP in vivo, with nearly 100-fold higher concentration, and drastically reduce side effects, including nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, compared with the delivery of free CDDP. Furthermore, with a magnetic targeting effect, the CDDP-PAA-NCs show ninefold higher level accumulation in tumor tissue than the free CDDP treatment when administered at the equivalent dose, and mice treated with the CDDP-PAA-NCs display approximately 3.5-fold lower tumor volume than those of the control group on day 24. This result demonstrates that the magnetic CDDP-PAA-NCs, which are synthesized using a facile emulsion process, can significantly reduce toxicity and exhibit anticancer activity in A549-tumor bearing mice with negligible side effects. PMID:25656800

  13. On the transport of emulsions in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Cortis, Andrea; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.

    2007-06-27

    Emulsions appear in many subsurface applications includingbioremediation, surfactant-enhanced remediation, and enhancedoil-recovery. Modeling emulsion transport in porous media is particularlychallenging because the rheological and physical properties of emulsionsare different from averages of the components. Current modelingapproaches are based on filtration theories, which are not suited toadequately address the pore-scale permeability fluctuations and reductionof absolute permeability that are often encountered during emulsiontransport. In this communication, we introduce a continuous time randomwalk based alternative approach that captures these unique features ofemulsion transport. Calculations based on the proposed approach resultedin excellent match with experimental observations of emulsionbreakthrough from the literature. Specifically, the new approach explainsthe slow late-time tailing behavior that could not be fitted using thestandard approach. The theory presented in this paper also provides animportant stepping stone toward a generalizedself-consistent modeling ofmultiphase flow.

  14. Langmuir monolayer behavior of an ion pair amphiphile with a double-tailed cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ta; Yang, Yu-Min; Chang, Chien-Hsiang

    2008-10-15

    The spread or Langmuir monolayer behavior of an ion pair amphiphile (IPA), hexadecyltrimethylammonium-dodecylsulfate (HTMA-DS), with a double-tailed cationic surfactant, dihexadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DHDAB), at the air/water interface was analyzed with surface pressure-area isotherms, area relaxation curves, and Brewster angle microscope (BAM) images. The surface pressure-area isotherms showed that with increasing the DHDAB molar ratio, X(DHDAB), spread monolayers of HTMA-DS with DHDAB became rigid. In addition, unreasonably small limiting areas per alkyl chain of the molecules in the monolayers were found, especially at X(DHDAB)=0.5, implying the molecular loss from the monolayers at the interface. For spread HTMA-DS/DHDAB monolayers at the interface, a new IPA, DHDA-DS, was proposed to form through the displacement of HTMA(+) from HTMA-DS by DHDA(+), leaving HTMA(+) dissociated. The formation of DHDA-DS and the desorption of dissociated HTMA(+) upon the interface compression were supported by the results obtained from designed monolayer experiments with BAM observations, and were discussed by considering the hydrophilicity, packing efficiency, and headgroup charge characteristic of the species. Moreover, the area relaxation curves of spread HTMA-DS/DHDAB monolayers suggested that the formation of DHDA-DS was strongly related to the improved monolayer stability at the interface, which may have implications for the DHDAB-enhanced physical stability of catanionic vesicles composed of HTMA-DS. PMID:18667294

  15. Behavior of oil droplets on an electrified solid metal surface immersed in ionic surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Morton, S A; Keffer, D J; Counce, R M; DePaoli, D W

    2005-03-01

    The present study investigates the change in the shape of oil droplets immersed in an ionic surfactant solution when the droplets are in contact with metal surfaces to which an electrical potential is applied. The three-phase system of aqueous solution-oil-steel was subjected to low-voltage electric potentials, which resulted in sometimes dramatic changes in droplet shape and wetting. This electric potential was applied to the conductive steel surface directly, and the counter electrode was immersed in the solution. Changes in both the shape and wetting extent of hexadecane and phenylmethyl polysiloxane were observed for voltages between +/-3.0 V in both sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide solutions. The droplets' behavior was opposite to what would be expected for traditional electrowetting. In one instance, hexadecane droplets in sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions with a voltage of -3.0 V, a rapid and repeating droplet elongation and detachment was observed. Additionally, the impact of the observed phenomena on electrowetting enhanced ultrasonication is presented to demonstrate the potential improvements in industrial ultrasonic cleaning processes. The observations lead to the possibility of employing simple electrowetting techniques in the removal of oil from metal surfaces in a manner that could greatly improve the environmental and economic performance of aqueous cleaning techniques. PMID:15723470

  16. Influence of Surfactants on the Aggregation Behavior of Water-Soluble Dendritic Phthalocyanines

    E-print Network

    Wu, Chi

    and the cationic surfactant CTAB has also been monitored by dynamic laser light scattering in 0.01 mol dm-3 Na serve as an important class of photosensitizers which can be used in photo- dynamic therapy

  17. Mathematical modeling of a water-in-oil emulsion droplet behavior under the microwave impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatkhullina, Y. I.; Musin, A. A.; Kovaleva, L. A.; Akhatov, I. S.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of microwave (MW) electromagnetic radiation impact on a single water-in-oil droplet is considered. The system of heat equations within the droplet and in the surrounding liquid, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations within the droplet and in the surrounding liquid, and equation of state are considered. The formulated problem is solved numerically using TDMA (Tri-diagonal-matrix algorithm), SIMPLE algorithm and VOF method (volume of fluid method for the dynamics of free boundaries) in Euler coordinates. The results in the form of the dependence of the temperature within the droplet and in the surrounding liquid on the time of microwave impact and streamlines thermal convection are represented; dependence of the velocity of droplet's moving on the power of the of the microwave impact is shown. The obtained results can help to establish criteria for the efficient applicable of the microwave method for the water-in-oil emulsions destruction.

  18. Unique Phase Behaviors in the Gemini Surfactant/EAN Binary System: The Role of the Hydroxyl Group.

    PubMed

    Li, Qintang; Wang, Xudong; Yue, Xiu; Chen, Xiao

    2015-12-22

    The hydroxyl group in the spacer of a cationic Gemini surfactant (12-3OH-12) caused dramatic changes of the phase behaviors in a protic ionic liquid (EAN). Here, the effects of the hydroxyl group on micellization and lyotropic liquid crystal formation were investigated through the surface tension, small-angle X-ray scattering, polarized optical microscopy, and rheological measurements. With the hydroxyl group in the spacer, the critical micellization concentration of 12-3OH-12 was found to be lower than that of the homologue without hydroxyl (12-3-12) and the 12-3OH-12 molecules packed more densely at the air/EAN interface. It was then interesting to observe a coexistence of two separated phases at wide concentration and temperature ranges in this 12-3OH-12/EAN system. Such a micellar phase separation was rarely observed in the ionic surfactant binary system. With the increase of surfactant concentration, the reverse hexagonal and bicontinuous cubic phases appeared in sequence, whereas only a reverse hexagonal phase was found in 12-3-12/EAN system. But, the hexagonal phases formed with 12-3OH-12 exhibited lower viscoelasticity and thermostability than those observed in 12-3-12/EAN system. Such unique changes in phase behaviors of 12-3OH-12 were ascribed to their enhanced solvophilic interactions of 12-3OH-12 and relatively weak solvophobic interactions in EAN. PMID:26634877

  19. Synthesis, micellization behavior and alcohol induced amphipathic cellulose film of cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang; Liu, Ya-nan; Yu, Jian-ling; Li, Hai-peng; Li, Gang

    2015-08-01

    This paper presented a novel preparation method of the cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant, and the surfactant was used to prepare amphipathic cellulose membrane. The native cotton cellulose was tailored to cellulose segments in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. Then, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic modification of cellulose segments were carried out by esterification and graft polymerization of the ?-caprolactone (?-CL) monomer onto the hydroxyl group of cellulose as well as sulphonation with sulfamic acid. The amphipathic cellulose membrane was made by cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The molecular structure of amphipathic cellulose surfactant was confirmed by FT-IR, and its surface active properties were investigated by Wilhelmy plate method and Steady-state fluorescence probe method, respectively. Experimental results showed that cellulose-based amphiphilic surfactant caused low interfacial tension of 48.62 mN/m and its critical micelle concentration (cmc) value was 0.65 wt% when the grafting ratio of cellulose-g-PCL (poly-caprolactone) was 25.40%. The contact angle between a droplet of water and the surface of membrane was 90.84o, and the surface free energy of the alcohol induced cellulose membrane was 15.7 mJ/m2. This study may help increase using natural and biodegradable surface-activity materials with improved properties as surfactants.

  20. Tuning Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Phase Behavior of Gemini Surfactants by Linker Parity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perroni, Dominic; Baez-Cotto, Carlos; Mantha, Sriteja; Sorenson, Gregory; Yethiraj, Arun; Mahanthappa, Mahesh

    2015-03-01

    Aqueous bicontinuous lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) derived from small molecule surfactants are useful nanostructured materials with myriad applications, in fields ranging from structural biology to membrane science. However, access to these coveted phases is limited by the fact that few surfactant platforms readily stabilize these network phases over the wide amphiphile concentration and temperature phase windows necessary for their widespread applications. We have recently shown that gemini (``twin tail'') dicarboxylate surfactants, comprising two single tail amphiphiles covalently linked near the headgroup by a hydrophobic bridge, exhibit a greatly increased propensity to form stable double gyroid LLC phases. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the unusual sensitivity of gemini dicarboxylate surfactant lyotropic self-assembly to the length of the hydrophobic bridge: odd-carbon linkers produce stable double gyroid phases over amphiphile composition windows as wide as 40 wt% that are stable between T = 22-100 °C. We rationalize these results in terms of the detailed molecular conformations of the surfactants that stem from the length of the bridging moiety, which suggests that this molecular design strategy may generally extend to other surfactant classes.

  1. Shear-Induced Deformation of Surfactant Multilamellar Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommella, Angelo; Caserta, Sergio; Guida, Vincenzo; Guido, Stefano

    2012-03-01

    Surfactant multilamellar vesicles (SMLVs) play a key role in the formulation of many industrial products, such as detergents, foodstuff, and cosmetics. In this Letter, we present the first quantitative investigation of the flow behavior of single SMLVs in a shearing parallel plate apparatus. We found that SMLVs are deformed and oriented by the action of shear flow while keeping constant volume and exhibit complex dynamic modes (i.e., tumbling, breathing, and tank treading). This behavior can be explained in terms of an excess area (as compared to a sphere of the same volume) and of microstructural defects, which were observed by 3D shape reconstruction through confocal microscopy. Furthermore, the deformation and orientation of SMLVs scale with radius R in analogy with emulsion droplets and elastic capsules (instead of R3, such as in unilamellar vesicles). A possible application of the physical insight provided by this Letter is in the rationale design of processing methods of surfactant-based systems.

  2. Concentrated emulsions of perflubron in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Habif, S S; Rosano, H L; Oleksiak, C B

    1994-01-01

    Flocculation of o/w emulsions consisting of a perfluorochemical (PFC) emulsified by either phospholipids or decaglyceroldioleate (10-2-O) was assessed both by direct observation and through photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and viscoelasticity measurements in unsteady oscillatory flow. Flocculation gives rise to emulsion instability but can be prevented (a) by the addition of a negatively charged surfactant to either phosphatidylcholine (PC) or 10-2-O, respectively the zwitterionic phospholipid and the nonionic surfactant used as primary emulsifiers, or (b) by using a saccharide solution as the continuous phase. The study indicates that both electrostatic (Coulombic) repulsive forces and hydration (steric) forces play a role in preventing flocculation. Various minor components of the egg yolk phospholipids (EYP) used in commercial emulsion preparation probably stabilize the emulsion by increasing both electrostatic and hydration repulsion. PMID:7849940

  3. Relation between viscosity and stability for heavy oil emulsions 

    E-print Network

    Ye, Sherry Qianwen

    1998-01-01

    The relation between viscosity and stability has been hics. found by investigating the effect of surfactant concentration on emulsion stability. Based on the Bingham plastic model for viscosity as a function of shear rate, two parameters were found...

  4. Dispersion behavior and aqueous foams in mixtures of a vesicle-forming surfactant and edible nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Campbell, Shawn; Mashinchi, Saeed; Piatko, Michael P

    2015-03-17

    In an attempt to prepare ultrastable aqueous foams composed entirely of food-grade ingredients, we describe the foamability and foam stability of aqueous phases containing either calcium carbonate particles (CaCO3), sodium stearoyl lactylate surfactant (SSL), or their mixtures. Techniques including zeta potential measurements, adsorption isotherm determination, contact angles and optical and cryo-scanning electron microscopy are used to probe the interaction between particles and surfactant molecules. Aqueous dispersions of inherently hydrophilic cationic CaCO3 nanoparticles do not foam to any great extent. By contrast, aqueous dispersions of anionic SSL, which forms a lamellar phase/vesicles, foam progressively on increasing the concentration. Despite their foamability being low compared to that of micelle-forming surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate, they are much more stable to collapse with half-lives (of up to 40 days) of around 2 orders of magnitude higher above the respective aggregation concentrations. We believe that, in addition to surfactant lamellae around bubbles, the bilayers within vesicles contain surfactant chains in a solidlike state yielding indestructible aggregates that jam the aqueous films between bubbles, reducing the drainage rate and both bubble coalescence and gas-transfer between bubbles. In mixtures of particles and surfactant, the adsorption of SSL monomers occurs on particle surfaces, leading to an increase in their hydrophobicity, promoting particle adsorption to bubble surfaces. Ultrastable foams result with half-lives of around an order of magnitude higher again at low concentrations and foams which lose only around 30% of their volume within a year at high concentrations. In the latter case, we evidence a high surface density of discrete surfactant-coated particles at bubble surfaces, rendering them stable to coalescence and disproportionation. PMID:25734773

  5. Analysis of emulsion stability in acrylic dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2012-02-01

    Emulsions either micro or nano permit transport or solubilization of hydrophobic substances within a water-based phase. Different methods have been introduced at laboratory and industrial scales: mechanical stirring, high-pressure homogenization, or ultrasonics. In digital imaging, toners may be formed by aggregating a colorant with a latex polymer formed by batch or semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. Latex emulsions are prepared by making a monomer emulsion with monomer like Beta-carboxy ethyl acrylate (?-CEA) and stirring at high speed with an anionic surfactant like branched sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonates , aqueous solution until an emulsion is formed. Initiator for emulsion polymerization is 2-2'- azobis isobutyramide dehydrate with chain transfer agent are used to make the latex. If the latex emulsion is unstable, the resulting latexes produce a toner with larger particle size, broader particle size distribution with relatively higher latex sedimentation, and broader molecular weight distribution. Oswald ripening and coalescence cause droplet size to increase and can result in destabilization of emulsions. Shear thinning and elasticity of emulsions are applied to determine emulsion stability.

  6. Hydrophobically Modified Halloysite Nanotubes as Reverse Micelles for Water-in-Oil Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Milioto, Stefana; Parisi, Filippo

    2015-07-14

    An easy strategy to obtain inorganic reverse micelles based on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides has been developed. The selective modification of the HNTs external surface with cationic surfactants endows to generate tubular nanostructures with a hydrophobic shell and a hydrophilic cavity. The influence of the surfactants alkyl chain on the HNTs functionalization degree has been investigated. The dynamic behavior of the surfactant/HNT hybrids in solvents with variable polarity has been correlated to their affinity toward hydrophobic media explored through partition experiments. The water-in-oil emulsion is able to solubilize copper sulfate, proving the incorporation and the loading of hydrophilic compounds into the HNTs lumen. Here we have fabricated ecocompatible reverse micelles with tunable hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface that might be suitable for industrial and biological applications as well as for selective organic synthesis. PMID:26119491

  7. Effect of surfactants on single bubble sonoluminescence behavior and bubble surface stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Thomas; Yasui, Kyuichi; Kato, Kazumi; Harvie, Dalton; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Kentish, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    The effect of surfactants on the radial dynamics of a single sonoluminescing bubble has been investigated. Experimentally, it is observed that an increase in the surfactant concentration leads to a decline in the oscillation amplitude and hence light emission intensity. Numerical simulations support this result, showing that under the driving pressures required to achieve single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), the surface properties, namely, the surface elasticity and dilatational viscosity, contribute to the damping of the radial amplitude in the bubble oscillation. In most cases this stabilizes the bubble surface, and contributes to a decreased light intensity. A stronger driving pressure is necessary to achieve equivalent light emission to a surfactant-free bubble. However, as the driving pressure is increased, the surface stability also decreases, making it practically very difficult for a bubble to achieve high SBSL intensities in concentrated surfactant solutions. Although more stable owing to more mild pulsations, the instability mechanism for a surfactant-coated bubble at higher ambient radii is more likely to be of the Rayleigh-Taylor type than that of a clean bubble at the same given acoustic parameters, which can lead to bubble disintegration before correcting mechanisms can bring the bubble back into the stable sonoluminescence regime.

  8. Effects of structure dissymmetry on aggregation behaviors of quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactants in a protic ionic liquid EAN.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xudong; Li, Qintang; Chen, Xiao; Li, Zhihong

    2012-12-01

    The aggregation behaviors of a series of dissymmetric cationic Gemini surfactants, [C(m)H(2m+1)(CH(3))(2)N(CH(2))(2)N(CH(3))(2)C(n)H(2n+1)]Br(2), designated as m-2-n (with a fixed m + n = 24, m = 16, 14, 12) have been investigated in a protic ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN). Surface tension, polarized optical microscopy (POM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological measurements are adopted to investigate the micellization and lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) formation. The obtained results indicate that the structure dissymmetry plays an important role in aggregation process of m-2-n. With increasing degree of dissymmetry, the critical micellization concentration, the maximum reduction of solvent surface tension, and the minimum area occupied per surfactant molecule at the air/EAN interface all become smaller. The thermostability of formed LLCs is therefore improved because of the more compact molecules. These characteristics can be explained by the enhancement of solvophobic effect due to the increased structure dissymmetry of Gemini surfactants. PMID:23140416

  9. Stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsions: recent advances and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juntao; Quinlan, Patrick James; Tam, Kam Chiu

    2015-05-14

    Pickering emulsions possess many advantages over traditional surfactant stabilized emulsions. For example, Pickering emulsions impart better stability against coalescence and, in many cases, are biologically compatible and environmentally friendly. These characteristics open the door for their use in a variety of industries spanning petroleum, food, biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Depending on the application, rapid, but controlled stabilization and destabilization of an emulsion may be necessary. As a result, Pickering emulsions with stimuli-responsive properties have, in recent years, received a considerable amounts of attention. This paper provides a concise and comprehensive review of Pickering emulsion systems that possess the ability to respond to an array of external triggers, including pH, temperature, CO2 concentration, light intensity, ionic strength, and magnetic field. Potential applications for which stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsion systems would be of particular value, such as emulsion polymerization, enhanced oil recovery, catalyst recovery, and cosmetics, are discussed. PMID:25864383

  10. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2002-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop a knowledge base that is helpful for the design of improved processes for mobilizing and producing oil left untapped using conventional techniques. The main goal was to develop and evaluate mixtures of new or modified surfactants for improved oil recovery. In this regard, interfacial properties of novel biodegradable n-alkyl pyrrolidones and sugar-based surfactants have been studied systematically. Emphasis was on designing cost-effective processes compatible with existing conditions and operations in addition to ensuring minimal reagent loss.

  11. Maximizing the stability of pyrolysis oil/diesel fuel emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several emulsions consisting of biomass pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in diesel fuel were produced and analyzed for stability over time. An ultrasonic probe was used to generate microscopic droplets of bio-oil suspended in diesel fuel, and this emulsion was stabilized using surfactant chemicals. The most...

  12. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

  13. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles

  14. ISSN:1369 7021 Elsevier Ltd 2008APRIL 2008 | VOLUME 11 | NUMBER 418 Designer emulsions

    E-print Network

    Rowat, Amy C.

    of small drops in another liquid that forms a continuous phase1­4. Common types of emulsions include oil of emulsions: the surfactant molecules migrate to the liquid-liquid interface and inhibit droplet coalescence1. Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices are also used to generate picoliter-scale water-in-oil emulsions at rates

  15. Modified Structural Model for Predicting Particle Size in the Microemulsion and Emulsion Polymerization of

    E-print Network

    Wu, Chi

    Modified Structural Model for Predicting Particle Size in the Microemulsion and Emulsion and emulsion polymerization of styrene at 70 °C in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, surfactant.Laserlightscatteringwasusedtocharacterizetheresultantpolystyrenelatexparticles formed at different polymerization stages. The influence of the initial emulsion composition, that is

  16. A cationic azobenzene-surfactant-modified graphene hybrid: unique photoresponse and electrochemical behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Bao, Lin; Ou, Encai; Peng, Chang; Wang, Weimao; Xu, Weijian

    2015-11-19

    Surfactant-modified graphene hybrids containing azobenzene groups were for the first time prepared, and the electrochemical performance was investigated. The hybrids were obtained by electrostatic interactions between cationic azobenzene-surfactants and negatively charged graphene oxide in water. The electrostatic interactions, chemical structure and photoresponse of the hybrids were measured by using zeta potential values, fluorescence spectra, FTIR, XPS, XRD, SEM, UV-Vis absorption, AFM and Raman spectra. The electrochemical performance was estimated using cyclic voltammetry. The results show that strong electrostatic interactions exist between the azobenzene surfactants and graphene oxide. Notably, this azobenzene-graphene hybrid can self-assemble into aggregation structures in aqueous solution. Besides, the self-assembly can be reversibly controlled by ultraviolet light (365 nm) and blue light (455 nm) irradiation. This process is driven by the photoinduced polarity change of the cationic azobenzene surfactant and is responsible for the graphene hybrids' electrochemical performance. It is the first example of the reversible self-assembly of graphene driven by light irradiation. PMID:26553111

  17. General rules for the scaling behavior of linear wormlike micelles formed in catanionic surfactant systems

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    cationic and anionic surfactant systems can be close to that predicted by the Cates model Wormlike micelles have attracted considerable attention in both fundamental and applied science due response of these solutions [11­16]. An attractive result is that the viscoelasticity of wormlike micelles

  18. Adsorption behaviors of cationic surfactants and wettability in polytetrafluoroethylene-solution-air systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Xu, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Lan; Zhang, Lu; Wei, Tian-Xin; Zhao, Sui

    2012-12-11

    Measurements of the advancing contact angle (?) and adsorption properties were carried out for aqueous solutions of four cationic surfactants, hexadecanol glycidyl ether ammonium chloride (C(16)PC), Guerbet alcohol hexadecyl glycidyl ether ammonium chloride (C(16)GPC), hexadecanol polyoxyethylene(3) glycidyl ether ammonium chloride(C(16)(EO)(3)PC), and Guerbet alcohol hexadecyl polyoxyethylene(3) glycidyl ether ammonium chloride (C(16)G(EO)(3)PC), on the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface using the sessile drop analysis. The obtained results indicate that the contact angle decreases to a minimum with the increasing concentration for all cationic surfactants. Surfactants with branched chain show lower ? values. Moreover, an increase of adhensional tension on the PTFE-water interface has been observed for the four cationic surfactants, and the branched ones have larger increases of adhensional tension. It is very interesting that the sharp decrease of ? appears mainly after critical micelle concentration (cmc) for C(16)GPC, C(16)(EO)(3)PC, and C(16)G(EO)(3)PC, which is quite different from traditional cationic surfactants reported in the literature. Especially for C(16)G(EO)(3)PC, there are two saturated adsorption stages on PTFE surface after cmc (which means the saturated adsorption film at air-solution interface has been formed). In the first saturated stage, the C(16)G(EO)(3)PC molecules are oriented parallel to the PTFE surface with saturated monolayer formed through hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond. In the second saturated stage, the hemimicelle has been formed on the PTFE surface, which can be supported by the QCM-D and SPR measurements. PMID:23148857

  19. Spreading of Emulsions on Glass Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kavehpour, Pirouz

    2012-11-01

    The wettability of emulsions is an important factor with explicit influence in an extensive variety of industrial applications ranging from the petroleum to food industries. Surprisingly, there is no comprehensive study of emulsion spreading to date; this is due to the complexity of the structure of the emulsions and non-homogeneity of the dispersed phase bubbles in size as well as distribution through the emulsion. The spreading of water/silicone oil emulsions on glass substrates was investigated. The emulsions were prepared with varying volume fractions of water dispersed in silicone oil, with addition of small amounts of surfactant to stabilize the emulsion structure. The time dependent variation of dynamic contact angle, base diameter, and the spreading rate of the droplets of an emulsion are different from a pure substance. The effect of water/silicone oil weight percentage as well as the droplet size and dispersed phase bubble size were also investigated. The weight percentage of water/silicone oil emulsion and droplet size did not have significant influence on the spreading dynamics; however the dispersed phase drop size affected the spreading dynamics substantially.

  20. Emulsion Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibette, Jerome; Leal-Calderon, F.; Schmitt, V.; Poulin, P.

    This book will present the basic physics that governs both the compressibility and the shear elasticity of dense emulsions as a function of droplet packing. The role of disorder has been revealed to be of great importance and to dictate the subtle scaling of the shear elastic modulus. The production of emulsions is certainly one of the most important aspects related to the industrial use of these materials. After a brief review of the currently employed techniques, this book aims to present recent advances in making controlled-size emulsions on a large scale and at a high production rate. It will be shown that controlled shear applied to a polydisperse emulsion can transform it into a calibrated emulsion through a Rayleigh instability. Finally, the very rich domain of double emulsions is discussed. The book presents a quite detailed description of these materials, owing to their very promising potential in various applications, in addition to their remarkable contribution in understanding the metastability of thin films.

  1. Preparation of emulsions by rotor-stator homogenizer and ultrasonic cavitation for the cosmeceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Han, Ng Sook; Basri, Mahiran; Abd Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin; Abd Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Ismail, Zahariah

    2012-01-01

    Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions play an important key role in transporting bioactive compounds into a range of cosmeceutical products to the skin. Small droplet sizes have an inherent stability against creaming, sedimentation, flocculation, and coalescence. O/W emulsions varying in manufacturing process were prepared. The preparation and characterization of O/W nanoemulsions with average diameters of as low as 62.99 nm from palm oil esters were carried out. This was achieved using rotor-stator homogenizer and ultrasonic cavitation. Ultrasonic cell was utilized for the emulsification of palm oil esters and water in the presence of mixed surfactants, Tween 80 and Span 80 emulsions with a mean droplet size of 62.99 nm and zeta potential value at -37.8 mV. Results were comparable with emulsions prepared with rotor-stator homogenizer operated at 6000 rpm for 5 min. The stability of the emulsions was evaluated through rheology measurement properties. This included non-Newtonian viscosity, elastic modulus G', and loss modulus G?. A highly stable emulsion was prepared using ultrasonic cavitation comprising a very small particle size with higher zeta potential value and G' > G? demonstrating gel-like behavior. PMID:23089355

  2. Phase behavior and rheological properties of a salt-free catanionic surfactant TTAOH/LA/H2O system.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongguang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2008-08-28

    Conventional cationic and anionic (catanionic) surfactant mixtures tend to form precipitates at the mixing molar ratio of the cationic and anionic surfactant of 1:1 because of the excess salt formed by their counterions. By using OH- and H+ as the counterions, however, excess salt can be eliminated, and salt-free catanionic systems can be obtained. Here, we report the detailed phase behavior and rheological properties of salt-free catanionic surfactant system of tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (TTAOH)/lauric acid (LA)/H2O. With the variation of mixing molar ratio of LA to TTAOH (rho=nLA/nTTAOH), the system exhibits much richer phase behavior induced by growth and transition of aggregates. Correspondingly, the rheological property of the system changes significantly. Take the series of samples with fixed total surfactant concentration (cT) to be 15 mg.mL(-1), the system only forms a low viscous L 1 phase with a Newton fluid character at the TTAOH-rich side. With increasing rho, first a shear-thickening L1 phase region is observed at 0.70or=1.05, and finally, at rho>or=1.13, the excess LA will separate from the bulk solution and form a white top layer. Investigations were also carried out by varying c T at fixed rho and by changing temperature, respectively. It was found micelle growth would be greatly suppressed at higher temperatures. However, the vesicle phases showed a considerable resistance against temperature rise. PMID:18671361

  3. Surfactant reduction of cerebral infarct size and behavioral deficit in a rat model of cerebrovascular arterial gas embolism

    PubMed Central

    Armstead, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Gas embolism occurs commonly in cardiac and vascular surgery and decompression sickness. The goals of this study were to develop a new in vivo rat model of cerebrovascular arterial gas embolism and to determine the effects of exogenous surfactants on resultant brain infarct volume and accompanying long-term neurological dysfunction using the model. Unilateral cerebral arterial gas embolism was induced in Sprague Dawley rats, including groups receiving intravenous Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) and Oxycyte perflourocarbon surfactant pretreatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 24 and 72 h postembolism to determine infarct volume. The elevated body swing test (EBST), limb-placement test, proprioception forelimb and hindlimb tests, whisker tactile test, and Morris Water Maze test were performed to assess motor behavior, somatosensory deficit, and spatial cognitive function out to 29 days after embolization. A stable stroke model was developed with MRI examination revealing infarction in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. Gas embolized rats had significant cognitive and sensorimotor dysfunction, including approximately threefold increase in Morris Water Maze latency time, ?20% left-sided biasing in EBST performance, 0.5 to 1.5 (mean) point score elevations in the proprioception and whisker tactile tests, and 3.0 point (mean) elevation in the limb-placement test, all of which were persistent throughout the postembolic period. Surfactant prophylaxis with either PF-127 or Oxycyte rendered stroke undetectable by MRI scanning and markedly reduced the postembolic deficits in both cognitive and sensorimotor performance in treated rats, with normalization of EBST and whisker tactile tests within 7 days. PMID:23845977

  4. Liquid crystal Janus emulsion droplets: preparation, tumbling, and swimming.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Joonwoo; Gross, Adam; Wei, Wei-Shao; Tu, Fuquan; Lee, Daeyeon; Collings, Peter J; Yodh, A G

    2015-09-14

    This study introduces liquid crystal (LC) Janus droplets. We describe a process for the preparation of these droplets, which consist of nematic LC and polymer compartments. The process employs solvent-induced phase separation in emulsion droplets generated by microfluidics. The droplet morphology was systematically investigated and demonstrated to be sensitive to the surfactant concentration in the background phase, the compartment volume ratio, and the possible coalescence of multiple Janus droplets. Interestingly, the combination of a polymer and an anisotropic LC introduces new functionalities into Janus droplets, and these properties lead to unusual dynamical behaviors. The different densities and solubilities of the two compartments produce gravity-induced alignment, tumbling, and directional self-propelled motion of Janus droplets. LC Janus droplets with remarkable optical properties and dynamical behaviors thus offer new avenues for applications of Janus colloids and active soft matter. PMID:26171829

  5. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-02-27

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  6. Performance evaluation of organic emulsion liquid membrane on phenol removal

    E-print Network

    Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

    2014-01-01

    The percentage removal of phenol from aqueous solution by emulsion liquid membrane and emulsion leakage was investigated experimentally for various parameters such as membrane:internal phase ratio, membrane:external phase ratio, emulsification speed, emulsification time, carrier concentration, surfactant concentration and internal agent concentration. These parameters strongly influence the percentage removal of phenol and emulsion leakage. Under optimum membrane properties, the percentage removal of phenol was as high as 98.33%, with emulsion leakage of 1.25%. It was also found that the necessity of carrier for enhancing phenol removal was strongly dependent on the internal agent concentration.

  7. Transient behavior of simultaneous flow of gas and surfactant solution in consolidated porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Baghdikian, S.Y.; Handy, L.L.

    1991-07-01

    The main objective of this experimental research was to investigate the mechanisms of foam generation and propagation in porous media. Results obtained give an insight into the conditions of foam generation and propagation in porous media. The rate of propagation of foam is determined by the rates of lamellae generation, destruction, and trapping. Several of the factors that contribute to foam generation have studied with Chevron Chaser SD1000 surfactant. Interfacial tension (IFT) measurements were performed using a spinning drop apparatus. The IFT of two surfactant samples of different concentrations were measured with dodecane and crude oil from the Huntington Beach Field as a function of temperature and time. Foam was used as an oil-displacing fluid. However, when displacing oil, foam was not any more effective than simultaneous brine and gas injection. A series of experiments was performed to study the conditions of foam generation in Berea sandstone cores. Results show that foam may be generated in sandstone at low flow velocities after extended incubation periods. The effect of pregenerating foam before injection into the sandstone was also studied. The pressure profiles in the core were monitored using three pressure taps along the length of the core. A systematic study of foaming with different fluid velocities and foam qualities provides extensive data for foam flow conditions. 134 refs., 57 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Influence of hydrocarbon surfactant on the aggregation behavior of silicone surfactant: observation of intermediate structures in the vesicle-micelle transition.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yun; Hoffmann, Heinz; Drechsler, Markus; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Makarsky, Elena

    2006-03-23

    Intermediate structures of the aggregates in the aqueous solution of an ABA-type silicone surfactant and in the process of an SDS-induced vesicle-micelle transition are reported. In single ABA silicone surfactant aqueous solutions, large multilamellar vesicles (MLV), small single lamellar vesicles (SLV), threadlike micelles (TLM), and spheroidal micelles were observed. Interestingly, a large amount of TLMs were found entrapped into the large MLVs, but not in SLVs. Disintegration of the small vesicles inside the MLVs indicates that the entrapped TLM are from the disintegrated membrane of the entrapped small vesicles. Addition of SDS induced a transition from vesicles or threadlike micelles to spheroidal micelles. The intermediate structures, such as the appearance of small holes in the vesicle membrane, the budding of threadlike micelles from the membrane fracture, and the clusters of spheroidal micelles, were observed with increase of the SDS concentration. The electrical conductivity measurements indicated that complex micelles of SDS and silicone surfactant were formed in the solution due to the interaction between the SDS and PEO part of the silicone surfactant. PMID:16539505

  9. Adsorption behavior of oxyethylated surfactants at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Miller, R; Fainerman, V B; Möhwald, H

    2002-03-01

    Literature data for homologous series of nonionic and ionic surfactants, such as C(n)OH, C(n)EO(m), Tritons, C(n)SO4Na, and C(n)EO(m)SO4Na, were analyzed on the basis of the Frumkin and reorientation models. The thermodynamic quantities obtained from the reorientation model agree best with the experimental data. They yield the standard free energy of adsorption which can be split into contributions from the alkyl chain, and the polar head group. An additional contribution to the increment of the polar group deltaG0(P) from m EO groups deltaG0(EO(m)) is extracted which can be accounted for by deltaG0(EO(m)) = -2.35 square root(m) kJ/mol. The standard free energy of adsorption is well understood by the increment method used. PMID:16290456

  10. Stability of water/crude oil emulsions based on interfacial dilatational rheology.

    PubMed

    Dicharry, Christophe; Arla, David; Sinquin, Anne; Graciaa, Alain; Bouriat, Patrick

    2006-05-15

    The dilatational viscoelasticity behaviors of water/oil interfaces formed with a crude oil and its distilled fractions diluted in cyclohexane were investigated by means of an oscillating drop tensiometer. The rheological study of the w/o interfaces at different frequencies has shown that the stable w/o emulsions systematically correspond to interfaces which present the rheological characteristics of a 2D gel near its gelation point. The stability of emulsions was found to increase with both the gel strength and the glass transition temperature of the gel. As expected, the indigenous natural surfactants responsible for the formation of the interfacial critical gel have been identified as the heaviest amphiphilic components present in the crude oil; i.e., asphaltenes and resins. Nevertheless, we have shown that such a gel can also form in the absence of asphaltene in the oil phase. PMID:16324706

  11. Perfluoro-alcohol-induced complex coacervates of polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures: phase behavior and analysis.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Mahboubeh M; Khaledi, Morteza G

    2015-05-26

    Perfluorinated alcohols and acids such as hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), trifluoroethanol, trifluoroacetic acid, pentafluoropropionic acid, and heptafluorobutyric acid induce coacervation and phase separation in aqueous solutions of a wide variety of individual and mixed amphiphiles [ Khaledi Langmuir 2013 , 29 , 2458 ]. This paper focuses on HFIP-induced complex coacervate formation in the mixtures of anionic polyelectrolytes, such as sodium salt of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) or poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cationic surfactants of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides. In purely aqueous media and over a wide concentration range, mixtures of PMA and CTAB form the catanionic complex (CTA(+)PM(-)) that is insoluble in water (white precipitate). Upon addition of a small percentage of HFIP, the mixture goes through phase transition and formation of two distinctly clear liquid phases. The phase diagram for the HFIP-PMA-CTAB coacervate system was studied. The coacervate volume was determined as a function of system variables such as charge ratio as well as total and individual concentrations of the system components. These results, combined with the chemical composition analysis of the separated aqueous top-phase and coacervate bottom-phase, shed light on the coacervation mechanism. The results suggest that exchange of counterions and ion-pair formation play critical roles in the coacervation process. This process facilitated by HFIP through solvation of the head groups and dehydration of the hydrophobic moieties of the catanionic complex. Because of the presence of HFIP, coacervation occurs over a wide range of concentrations and charge ratios of the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte and surfactant. PMID:25920513

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF SURFACTANTS IN TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behavior of a number of anionic, nonionic and cationic surfactants in manipulations associated with toxicity identification evaluations was studied. t was found that toxicity of the surfactants could be removed from aqueous samples via aeration, apparently through sublation. ...

  13. Effect of Surface Tension Variations on the Pinch-Off Behavior of Small Fluid Drops in the Presence of Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roché, M.; Aytouna, M.; Bonn, D.; Kellay, H.

    2009-12-01

    It is shown experimentally that surfactants can change the thinning rate of fluid necks undergoing rupture. In the case of two-fluid pinch-off, two or three linear regimes are observed for the variation of the neck radius versus time. The surface tension in the neck region changes with time, as a result of surfactant depletion. Similar results are obtained for the case of a single fluid pinching in air. The depletion of surfactant can be either partial or complete depending on the rate of transport of the surfactant from the bulk to the surface.

  14. Dynamics of oppositely charged emulsion droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhou; Wyss, Hans M.; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Shum, Ho Cheung

    2015-08-01

    We study the dynamics of two pinned droplets under the influence of an applied electric stress. We find that at a sufficiently strong field, this stress is sufficient to induce contact of the droplets. Interestingly, upon such contact, the dynamic behavior sensitively depends on the separation distance between the droplets. Besides the classical "coalescence" regime, we identify two other dynamic regimes: "fuse-and-split" and "periodic non-coalescence." In the "fuse-and-split" regime, the droplets first fuse to form a jet, which subsequently breaks up into two droplets. In the "periodic non-coalescence" regime, the droplets contact and bounce away periodically without coalescence. Further analysis indicates that while the electric stress stretches the droplets into shapes that depend on the initial droplet separation, the surface tension stress dominates over the electric stress as soon as the droplets touch. We show that the shapes of the contacting droplets determine their subsequent dynamics. Our work provides a rationale for understanding the interplay between surface tension and electric stresses that govern the behavior of charged droplets and could inspire new methods for characterizing emulsion stability and surfactant performance.

  15. Understanding and exploiting the phase behavior of mixtures of oppositely charged polymers and surfactants in water.

    PubMed

    Piculell, Lennart

    2013-08-20

    Complexes of oppositely charged polymers and surfactants (OCPS) in water come in many varieties, including liquid-crystalline materials, soluble complexes, structured nanoparticles, and water-insoluble surface layers. The range of available structures and properties increases even further with the addition of other amphiphilic substances that may enter, or even dissolve, the complexes, depending on the nature of the additive. Simple operations may change the properties of OCPS systems dramatically. For instance, dilution with water can induce a phase separation in an initially stable OCPS solution. More complicated processes, involving chemical reactions, can be used to either create or disintegrate OCPS particles or surface layers. The richness of their properties has made OCPS mixtures ubiquitous in everyday household products, such as shampoos and laundry detergents, and also attractive ingredients in the design of new types of responsive particles, surfaces, and delivery agents of potential use in future applications. A challenge for the rational design of an OCPS system is, however, to obtain a good fundamental understanding of how to select molecular shapes and sizes and how to tune the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions such that the desired properties are obtained. Recent studies of OCPS phase equilibria, using a strategy where the minimum number of components is always used to address a particular question, have brought out general rules and trends that can be used for such a rational design. Those fundamental studies are reviewed here, together with more application-oriented studies where fundamental learning has been put to use. PMID:23701384

  16. BEHAVIOR OF SURFACTANT MIXTURES AT SOLID/LIQUID AND OIL/LIQUID INTERFACES IN CHEMICAL FLOODING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. P. Somasundaran

    2002-09-30

    The aim of the project is to develop and evaluate efficient novel surfactant mixtures for enhanced oil recovery. Surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation depends to a great extent on the type of surfactant complexes and aggregates formed. Such information as well as techniques to generate the information is lacking currently particularly for surfactant mixtures and surfactant/polymer systems. A novel analytical centrifuge application is explored during the last period to generate information on structures-performance relationship for different surfactant aggregates in solution and, in turn, at interfaces. To use analytical untracentrifuge for surfactant mixtures, information on partial specific volumes of single surfactants and their mixtures is required. Towards this purpose, surface tension and density measurements were performed to determine critical micellar concentrations (cmc), partial specific volumes of n-dodecyl-{beta}-Dmaltoside (DM), nonyl phenol ethoxylated decyl ether (NP-10) and their 1:1 mixtures at 25 C. Durchschlag's theoretical calculation method was adopted to calculate the partial specific volumes. Effects of temperature and mixing, as well as methods used for estimation on micellization and partial specific volumes were studied during the current period. Surface tension results revealed no interaction between the two surfactants in mixed micelles. Partial specific volume measurements also indicated no interaction in mixed micelles. Maximum adsorption density, area per molecule and free energy of micellization were also calculated. Partial specific volumes were estimated by two experimental methods: d{sub {rho}}/dc and V{sub {sigma}}. The difference between the results of using the two methods is within 0.5% deviation. It was found that the partial specific volume is concentration dependent and sensitive to changes in temperature. The information generated in this study will be used for the study of surfactant aggregate mass distribution in mixed systems. Such information will in future be used to identify optimum surfactant.

  17. Differences between the detonation behavior of emulsion explosives sensitized with glass or with polymeric micro-balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, R.; Ribeiro, J.; Plaksin, I.; Campos, J.; Tavares, B.

    2014-05-01

    The differences between the detonation behaviour of ammonium nitrate based emulsion explosives sensitized with polymeric and those sensitized with glass micro-balloons is presented and discussed. Expancel® are hollow polymeric micro-balloons that contain a hydrocarbon gas. The mean particle size of these particles is 30 ?m with a wall thickness of about 0.1 ?m. The detonation velocity and the failure diameter of the emulsion explosive sensitized with different amounts of these particles have been measured in cylindrical charges by optical fibers. The detonation velocity demonstrates non-linear behaviour in relation to density and reaches the maximum value for a density lower than that of the matrix. The detonation fails when the density approaches that of the matrix. The detonation in the emulsion explosives extinguishes itself at a porosity value that seems to be independent from the nature of the sensitizing agent. For low densities, the detonation velocity is almost independent of the charge diameter, and is close to the values predicted by BKW equation of state.

  18. A Surfactant Bridge Model for the Nonlinear Electrorheological Effects of Surfactant-Activated ER Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Dae

    2001-04-15

    In surfactant-activated electrorheological (ER) suspensions it is observed that the ER response shows linear ER behavior (F~E(2)) at small surfactant concentrations and nonlinear ER behavior (F~E(n), n approximately 1) at large surfactant concentrations. Here, a surfactant bridge model is developed to explain the nonlinear ER behavior of surfactant-activated ER suspensions. The model shows that the formation and size of a surfactant bridge depend on various variables, especially the electric field strength, the surfactant surface tension, and the initially adsorbed amount of surfactants on particles. The predicted dependence of the formation and size of a surfactant bridge on the electric field strength and the initially adsorbed amount of surfactants is consistent with the observations. Also, the model indicates that there is a critical minimum electric field E(crit) for the formation of a surfactant bridge, and the estimated E(crit) shows good agreement with the observations. The force acting between particles is composed of the electrostatic force and force associated with surface tension. However, it is found that the contribution of the force associated with surface tension can be ignored and the electrostatic force is dominant regardless of the formation of surfactant bridges between particles. When surfactant bridges are formed between particles, the predicted force shows nonlinear ER behavior (F~E(n), n approximately 1), consistent with the observed nonlinear ER behavior at large surfactant concentrations. When no surfactant bridge is formed, the predicted force is proportional to the electric field squared (F~E(2)), consistent with the interfacial polarization. The model can successfully predict the nonlinear ER behavior at large surfactant concentrations, confirming that the nonlinear ER behavior of surfactant-activated ER suspensions arises from the observed formation of surfactant bridges between particles. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401368

  19. Synthesis of Fluorosurfactants for Emulsion-Based Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Microemulsion represents an attractive platform for fundamental and applied biomedical research because the emulsified droplets can serve as millions of compartmentalized micrometer-sized reactors amenable to high-throughput screening or online monitoring. However, establishing stable emulsions with surfactants that are compatible with biological applications remains a significant challenge. Motivated by the lack of commercially available surfactants suitable for microemulsion-based biological assays, this study describes the facile synthesis of a biocompatible fluorosurfactant with nonionic tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl (Tris) polar head groups. We have further demonstrated compatibility of the developed surfactant with diverse emulsion-based applications, including DNA polymeric nanoparticle synthesis, enzymatic activity assay, and bacterial or mammalian cell culture, in the setup of both double- and multiphases of emulsions. PMID:24646088

  20. Self-limiting droplet fusion in ionic emulsions.

    PubMed

    Fryd, Michael M; Mason, Thomas G

    2014-07-14

    We make an oil-in-water emulsion, which is initially stabilized using a first ionic surfactant, and mix it with a solution of a second ionic surfactant having the opposite charge, thereby inducing massively parallel droplet fusion. A transient disruption of the screened-charge repulsive barrier between interacting droplets, caused by the second ionic surfactant, arises from significant yet temporary charge neutralization of the first ionic surfactant on the surfaces of the oil droplets while mixing occurs. Interestingly, if a moderate molar excess of one surfactant exists, then the resulting emulsion re-stabilizes after limited droplet fusion. By adjusting the droplet volume fraction, concentrations of first and second surfactants, and volumes of the emulsion and the solution of the second surfactant, we control the degree of droplet coalescence and achieve a self-limiting droplet fusion process. Using optical microscopy, we observe that flat, thin, crystalline films can form between the two oil compartments after fusion of two or more immiscible microscale droplets. However, no such crystalline films are seen on the highly curved oil-oil interfaces inside nanoscale droplets that are composed of two or more immiscible oils and have been fused in the same manner, as revealed by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. PMID:24839170

  1. Nanoscale and Microscale Iron Emulsions for Treating DNAPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Cherie L.

    2002-01-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using emulsified nanoscale and microscale iron particles to enhance dehalogenation of (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) DNAPL free-phase. The emulsified system consisted of a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable oil-in-water emulsion with nanoscale or microscale iron particles contained within the emulsion droplets. It was demonstrated that DNAPLs, such as trichloroethene (TCE), diffuse through the oil membrane of the emulsion particle whereupon they reach an aqueous interior and the surface of an iron particle where dehalogenation takes place. The hydrocarbon reaction by-products of the dehalogenation reaction, primarily ethene (no chlorinated products detected), diffuse out of the emulsion droplet. This study also demonstrated that an iron-emulsion system could be delivered in-situ to the DNAPL pool in a soil matrix by using a simulated push well technique. Iron emulsions degraded pure TCE at a rate comparable to the degradation of dissolved phase TCE by iron particles, while pure iron had a very low degradation rate for free-phase TCE. The iron-emulsion systems can be injected into a sand matrix where they become immobilized and are not moved by flowing water. It has been documented that surfactant micelles possess the ability to pull pooled TCE into emulsion droplets where degradation of TCE takes place.

  2. Optimization of Metalworking Fluid Microemulsion Surfactant

    E-print Network

    Clarens, Andres

    /desorption kinetics, queueing theory, and coalescence kinetics of emulsion droplets, is verified experimentally systems minimally adsorb to membranes and lead to a high activation energy of coalescence results is maximized for a given combination of oil type, oil concentration, and surfactant types. Optimal MWF

  3. Reversible assembly of pH responsive branched copolymer-stabilised emulsion via electrostatic forces.

    PubMed

    Maçon, Anthony L B; Rehman, Saif Ur; Bell, Robert V; Weaver, Jonathan V M

    2015-12-15

    The judicious compositional and structural design of a branched co-polymeric surfactant allows for the production of highly stable oil in water emulsion droplets with reversible electrostatic aggregation behaviour. PMID:26503757

  4. Experimental Study of Solvent Based Emulsion Injection to Enhance Heavy Oil Recovery 

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Fangda

    2011-08-08

    This study presents the results of nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsion core flooding studies under laboratory conditions that investigate the recovery mechanisms of chemical flooding in a heavy oil reservoir. In the study...

  5. Theoretical Prediction and experimental measurement of the mixed flocculation/coalescence rate of ionic Hexadecane-in-water nano-emulsions

    E-print Network

    German Urbina-Villalba; Neyda Garcia-Valera; Kareem Rahn-Chique

    2015-07-07

    Theoretical calculations of the mixed aggregation/coalescence (kFC) rate corresponding to a set of hexadecane-in-water nano-emulsions stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different NaCl concentrations are presented. The rates were obtained through the change of the total number of aggregates of the dispersions as a function of time, predicted by Emulsion Stability Simulation (ESS). Two different models were implemented in order to mimic the dependence of the surface excess of the surfactant on the salt concentration. Experimental measurements of kFC were also made, based on the change of the turbidity of the emulsions as a function of time. A satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment is only attained if the model of surfactant adsorption accounts for the balance between the salting out of the surfactant solution and the partial screening of the surface charge of the drops induced by the increase of the ionic strength of the continuous phase. The observed behavior cannot be justified on the grounds of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Instead, the reversible flocculation of the aggregates of any size is proposed as an alternative mechanism to explain the dependence of kFC as a function of the salt concentration.

  6. Celebrating Soft Matter's 10th anniversary: stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsion polymerized smart fluids.

    PubMed

    Piao, Shang Hao; Kwon, Seung Hyuk; Zhang, Wen Ling; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2015-01-28

    The Pickering emulsion process is an important and interesting way of forming hybrid soft matter particles stabilized by solid particles as surfactants instead of the extensive use of conventionally available organic surfactant molecules. This Highlight briefly reviews stimuli-responsive polymer/inorganic hybrid materials fabricated by Pickering emulsion polymerization along with the rheological characteristics of their electrorheological and magnetorheological smart fluids under electric and magnetic fields, respectively. PMID:25515644

  7. Oil banking phenomena in surfactant/polymer and caustic flooding: droplet coalescence and entrapment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T; Milos, F.S.; DiNardo, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of our basic study of coalescence phenomena, emulsion formation and stability, and dynamic interfacial properties when crude oils are contacted with aqueous solutions of surfactant/polymer and alkaline agents. These measurements are correlated with each other and with observations on oil bank formation and displacement and recovery efficiency by chemical flooding in microwave monitored core flooding experiments using the soluble oil and the aqueous surfactant systems. Cinephotomicrographic observations into the mechanism of tertiary oil displacement were conducted in a model porous medium. These observations suggest that in situ formation of stable emulsions severely detracts from a successful surfactant/polymer recovery process and that the slowly coalescing system leaves more reentrapped oil behind. The beneficial role of alcohols or cosolvents in tertiary oil recovery is discussed. The acidic crude oil from California has been fractionated, and the dynamic interfacial behavior of each fraction has been examined and compared with that of the whole crude. Acidic resins naturally occurring in crudes have been found to be responsible for a variety of interfacial phenomena in acidic oil-aqueous alkaline systems. Microwave monitored core flooding tests have been conducted using the two acidic crude oils versus sodium hydroxide and sodium orthosilicate systems. In addition, microvisual observations of the mechanisms of tertiary oil displacement have been made. It has been concluded that oil swelling in addition to interfacial tension, emulsification phenomena and wettability reversal may be a major contributing factor in the alkaline stimulated oil recovery processes. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Extension of the surfactant bridge model for the electrorheological effects of surfactant-activated suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Dae; Nam, Suk Woo

    2004-01-01

    Surfactants influence the electrorheological (ER) response in two ways. At low surfactant concentrations, they enhance the ER response by enhancing the particle polarizability; at high concentrations, the response degrades (nonlinear ER response). The nonlinear ER behavior arises from the formation of surfactant bridges between the particles at high surfactant concentrations. A surfactant bridge model was introduced to explain the nonlinear behavior (tau0 proportional to En, n approximately 1) of surfactant-activated ER suspensions when surfactant bridges were formed between the particles. Here, the surfactant bridge model is extended for the prediction of both the linear and nonlinear ER behaviors of surfactant-activated ER suspensions over the low and high surfactant concentrations (for Brij 30, from 0 to 7 wt%), regardless of the formation of surfactant bridges between the particles. For 20 wt% neutral alumina suspensions in silicone oil activated by Brij 30, the predicted ER behaviors show almost the same Brij 30 concentration and electric field strength dependence. It predicts the linear E2 dependence of the ER response at low surfactant concentrations and the nonlinear ER behavior at high surfactant concentrations. Also, the estimated yield stresses show fairly good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:14651914

  9. Light and neutron scattering study of PEG-oleate and its use in emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    van Gruijthuijsen, Kitty; Rufier, Chantal; Phou, Ty; Obiols-Rabasa, Marc; Stradner, Anna

    2012-07-17

    Steric stabilization of colloids forms a robust mechanism to obtain colloids that are stable in a variety of environments, and that can be used to study the phase behavior of hard or soft spheres. We report the synthesis of sterically stabilized colloids in an aqueous environment using readily dissolvable surfactants, with an unsaturated hydrophobic tail. We synthesized a new surfactant by esterification of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain of 4.1 kg/mol with oleic acid, called PEG4OA. The micellization of PEG4OA was characterized by light and neutron scattering, which yielded values for the aggregation number and the overall size that are in excellent agreement with a comparable surfactant with a saturated octadecane chain, Brij 700. We successfully used PEG4OA in the emulsion polymerization of polystyrene colloids. In comparison with the smaller surfactant Tween 80, PEG4OA yielded smaller colloids with radii around 50 nm, and the addition of 1-dodecanethiol reduced the formation of aggregates during the synthesis. A contrast variation study with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) showed that a dense PEG layer was grafted to the colloid surface. PMID:22708656

  10. Effect of thermal behavior of ?-lactoglobulin on the oxidative stability of menhaden oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Phoon, Pui Yeu; Narsimhan, Ganesan; San Martin-Gonzalez, Maria Fernanda

    2013-02-27

    This study reports how emulsion oxidative stability was affected by the interfacial structure of ?-lactoglobulin due to different heat treatments. Four percent (v/v) menhaden oil-in-water emulsions, stabilized by 1% (w/v) ?-lactoglobulin at pH 7, were prepared by homogenization under different thermal conditions. Oxidative stability was monitored by the ferric thiocyanate peroxide value assay. Higher oxidative stability was attained by ?-lactoglobulin in the molten globule state than in the native or denatured state. From atomic force microscopy of ?-lactoglobulin adsorbed onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite in buffer, native ?-lactoglobulin formed a relatively smooth interfacial layer of 1.2 GPa in Young's modulus, whereas additional aggregates of similar stiffness were found when ?-lactoglobulin was preheated to the molten globule state. For denatured ?-lactoglobulin, although aggregates were also observed, they were larger and softer (Young's modulus = 0.45 GPa), suggesting increased porosity and thus an offset in the advantage of increased layer coverage on oxidative stability. PMID:23356684

  11. Comparison of phase behavior between water soluble and insoluble surfactants at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Mufazzal; Iimura, Kenichi; Kato, Teiji

    2010-11-01

    The surface phase behavior of 2-hydroxyethyl myristate (2-HEM) has been studied in Langmuir monolayers by measuring surface pressure ( ?)-area ( A) isotherms with a film balance and observing monolayer morphology with a Brewster angle microscope (BAM). These results are compared with the phase behavior of 2-hydroxyethyl laurate (2-HEL) in Gibbs monolayers studied by measuring ?-time ( t) curves and observing monolayer morphology. The ?- A isotherms of 2-HEM show a first-order phase transition from a liquid expanded (LE) phase to a liquid condensed (LC) phase in the temperature range between 5 and 35 °C whereas the ?- t curves of 2-HEL represent a similar phase transition in the temperature range between 2 and 25 °C. The critical surface pressure, ?c necessary for the phase transitions increases with increasing temperature in both the cases. The LC domains formed in 2-HEM show circular shapes, which are independent of the temperature. In contrast, the circular domains having stripe texture formed at lower temperatures show a shape transition to fingering domains with uniform brightness at 15 °C. The amphiphile, 2-HEM having 13-carbon chain has higher line tension than 2-HEL that has 11-carbon chain as tail. Thus, for 2-HEM, this high line tension always dominates over other factors giving rise to circular domains at the all studied temperatures.

  12. Rheological Behavior of Aqueous Solutions of Cationic Guar in Presence of Oppositely Charged Surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-zhen; Yang, Hai-yang; Xie, Yong-jun; Li, Hua-yu; He, Ping-sheng

    2010-08-01

    The cationic guar (CG) is synthesized and the rheological behavior of aqueous solutions of CG in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is studied in detail. The steady viscosity measurements show that the zero shear viscosity enhancement can be almost 3 orders of magnitude as the concentration of SDS increases from 0 to 0.043%. The gel-like formation is observed as the concentration of SDS is greater than 0.016%. The oscillatory rheological measurements of CG solutions in the presence of SDS show that the crossover modulus is almost independent of the concentration of SDS whereas the apparent relaxation time increases swiftly upon increasing the concentration of SDS. The experimental results indicate that the strength rather than the number of the cross-links is greatly affected by SDS molecules. The mechanism concerning the effect of SDS upon the rheology of CG solutions can be coined by the two-stage model. Before the formation of cross-links at the critical concentration, the electrostatic interaction between SDS and cationic site of CG chains plays a key role and the SDS molecules bind to CG chains through the electrostatic interaction. After the formation of cross-links at the concentration greater than the critical concentration, the cooperative hydrophobic interaction become dominant and SDS molecules bind to the cross-links through the hydrophobic interaction. The rheological behavior of aqueous solutions of CG in the presence of SDS is chiefly determined by the micelle-like cross-links between CG chains. In fact, the flow activation energy of CG solution, obtained from the temperature dependence of the apparent relaxation time, falls in the range of transferring a hydrophobic tail of SDS from the micelle to an aqueous environment.

  13. Droplet-Based Microfluidics for Emulsion and Solvent Evaporation Synthesis of Monodisperse Mesoporous Silica Microspheres

    E-print Network

    Droplet-Based Microfluidics for Emulsion and Solvent Evaporation Synthesis of Monodisperse surfactant templating was discovered more than a decade ago.1 A variation of the procedure, known as evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA), involves confining all silica precursor and templating surfactant

  14. Conductivity study of microemulsions. Dependence of structural behavior of water/oil systems on surfactant, cosurfactant, oil, and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bisal, S.; Bhattacharya, P.K.; Moulik, S.P. )

    1990-01-11

    Structural features of w/o microemulsions have been conductometrically evaluated. The radius of the water pool, the effective radius of the droplets, their number per unit volume, the effective surface area of the water pool, and the aggregation number of the surfactant and cosurfactant molecules per droplet in the oil/water interphase have been estimated. Three oils (n-heptane, n-decane, and xylene), three surfactants (CTAB, SDS, and AOT) and two cosurfactants (1-butanol and n-hexylamine) have been used; their effects on the structural properties of microemulsions have been studied at two different temperatures, 293 and 303 K, at two weight ratios of surfactant/cosurfactant, 0.33 and 0.50. The droplet radius has been found to be oil dependent and follows the order n-heptane < n-decane < xylene. The values at 293 K are greater than those at 303 K. The dependence of the radius on the surfactant is in the order SDS > AOT > CTAB. 1-Butanol yields greater radius than n-hexylamine with SDS and AOT, and the order is reversed with CTAB. The aggregation number of the surfactant and cosurfactant per droplet increases and decreases, respectively, with elevation of temperature. The R{sub e}/R{sub W} (ratio of the effective radius of the droplet and the radius of its water core) remains fairly constant under all situations, the average value being 1.15 {plus minus} 0.10.

  15. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested. The problem of characterizing emulsions in porous media is very important in enhanced oil recovery applications. This is usually accomplished by externally added or in situ generated surfactants that sweep the oil out of the reservoir. Emulsification of the trapped oil is one of the mechanisms of recovery. The ability to detect emulsions in the porous medium is therefore crucial to designing profitable flood systems. The capability of microwave dielectric techniques to detect emulsions in porous medium is demonstrated by mathematical modeling and by experiments. This quarter the shape dependence of the complex dielectric properties of W/O and O/W type dispersions in the microwave frequency region were analyzed using the generalized effective medium theory of Hanai. The computations show that the authors earlier finding for spherical dispersions can now be extended to include nonspherical geometries. The computed results show that the difference in dielectric behavior of the two emulsion types are a strong function of the shape of the dispersions, with the differences vanishing when the two phases are oriented as layers parallel and perpendicular to the electromagnetic field.

  16. The vaporizing behavior of the fuel droplet of water-in-oil emulsions on the hot surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimoto, Kyoji; Owashi, Yukio; Omae, Yoshihiro

    1986-12-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate qualitatively the effects of the emulsion internal phase structure, such as the size distribution of water droplets, on the microexplosion phenomena of water-in-'A'-heavy-oil emulsified droplets vaporizing on a hot surface. The results confirm that the size distribution of water droplets in the emulsified fuels plays a very important role in the boilng phenomena, in spite of the same water content included in the fuels. That is, emulsified fuel 1 with fine- and uniform-size distribution of the internal water droplets has a longer life time than the neat fuel ('A' heavy oil) due to a distinctive feature such as 'two stage vaporization'. In contrast, emulsified fuel 2 with coarse droplets has a life time less than a half of the neat fuel in the film boiling region. High-speed motion analyses revealed that such a remarkable promotion effect of vaporization was caused by the destruction of the vapor film due to the 'violent microexplosion' of coarse-coalescent water droplets.

  17. Inverse Pickering Emulsions with Droplet Sizes below 500 nm.

    PubMed

    Sihler, Susanne; Schrade, Anika; Cao, Zhihai; Ziener, Ulrich

    2015-09-29

    Inverse Pickering emulsions with droplet diameters between 180 and 450 nm, a narrow droplet size distribution, and an outstanding stability were prepared using a miniemulsion technique. Commercially available hydrophilic silica nanoparticles were used to stabilize the emulsions. They were hydrophobized in situ by the adsorption of various neutral polymeric surfactants. The influence of different parameters, such as kind and amount of surfactant as hydrophobizing agent, size and charge of the silica particles, and amount of water in the dispersed phase, as well as the kind of osmotic agent (sodium chloride and phosphate-buffered saline), on the emulsion characteristics was investigated. The systems were characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), thermogravimetric analysis, and semiquantitative attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. Cryo-SEM shows that some silica particles are obviously rendered hydrophilic and form a three-dimensional network inside the droplets. PMID:26348090

  18. Solubilization of octane in cationic surfactant-anionic polymer complexes: effect of polymer concentration and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Deng, Lingli; Zeeb, Benjamin; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-07-15

    Polymers may alter the ability of oppositely charged surfactant micelles to solubilize hydrophobic molecules depending on surfactant-polymer interactions. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of polymer concentration and temperature on the solubilization thermodynamics of an octane oil-in-water emulsion in mixtures of an anionic polymer (carboxymethyl cellulose) and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant micelles using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Results showed that the CTAB binding capacity of carboxymethyl cellulose increased with increasing temperature from 301 to 323 K, and correspondingly the thermodynamic behavior of octane solubilization in CTAB micelles, either in the absence or presence of polymer, was found to depend on temperature. The addition of carboxymethyl cellulose caused the solubilization in CTAB micelles to be less endothermic, and increased the solubilization capacity. Based on the phase separation model, the solubilization was suggested to be mainly driven by enthalpy gains. Results suggest that increasing concentrations of the anionic polymer gave rise to a larger Gibbs energy decrease and a larger unfavorable entropy increase for octane solubilization in cationic surfactant micelles. PMID:25841059

  19. Solubilization of octane in cationic surfactant-anionic polymer complexes: Effect of ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Deng, Lingli; Sun, Ping; Que, Fei; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Polymers may alter the ability of oppositely charged surfactant micelles to solubilize hydrophobic molecules depending on surfactant-polymer interactions. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ionic strength on the solubilization thermodynamics of an octane oil-in-water emulsion in mixtures of an anionic polymer (carboxymethyl cellulose) and cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant micelles using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Results indicated that the CTAB binding capacity of carboxymethyl cellulose increased with increasing NaCl concentrations up to 100mM, and the thermodynamic behavior of octane solubilization in CTAB micelles, either in the absence or presence of polymer, was found to have a strong dependence on ionic strength. The increasing ionic strength caused the solubilization in CTAB micelles to be less endothermic or even exothermic, but increased the solubilization capacity. Based on the phase separation model, the solubilization was suggested to be driven by enthalpy. It is indicated that increasing ionic strength gave rise to a larger Gibbs energy decrease but a smaller unfavorable entropy increase for octane solubilization in cationic surfactant micelles. PMID:26397914

  20. Emulsion separation rate enhancement with high frequency energy

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E.R.

    1997-06-01

    The preponderance of stable oil/water emulsions, commonly encountered as pit oils or tank bottoms and known as sludges, presents an ever worsening remediation problem to oil producers and refiners. As the world`s crudes become heavier, the problem of emulsion generation becomes larger. Increasing regulatory and worldwide environmental controls also drive the need for cost effective reclamation of emulsions and sludges. Traditional methods of heating emulsions to force them to separate are difficult to practice. Emulsions can be hard to pump or may leave residue on heat transfer surfaces. High temperature processing can lead to loss of valuable volatiles. Revolutionary, cost effect technology for high frequency (RFM) energy separation of oil emulsions has been developed by Imperial Petroleum Recovery Corporation. RFM energy energizes the aqueous, surfactant and solid particulate components selectively, providing differential energy input. Proper choice of frequency provides dynamic coupling of the energy field to the natural frequency of the water component of the emulsion, accelerating coalescence of the water droplets into a separated phase. Field results have demonstrated the unique capabilities of RFM energy to accelerate separation of oil/water emulsions.

  1. Emulsion design to improve the delivery of functional lipophilic components.

    PubMed

    McClements, David Julian

    2010-01-01

    The food industry has used emulsion science and technology for many years to create a diverse range of food products, such as milk, cream, soft drinks, nutritional beverages, dressings, mayonnaise, sauces, dips, deserts, ice cream, margarine, and butter. The majority of these food products are conventional oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsions. Recently, there has been increasing interest within the food industry in either improving or extending the functional performance of foods using novel structured emulsions. This article reviews recent developments in the creation of structured emulsions that could be used by the food and other industries, including nanoemulsions, multiple emulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. These structured emulsions can be produced from food-grade [generally recognized as safe (GRAS)] ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals), using simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, production, performance, and potential applications of each type of structured emulsion system are discussed. PMID:22129337

  2. Influence of Binary Surfactant Mixtures on the Rheology of Associative Polymer Solutions

    E-print Network

    Khan, Saad A.

    Vised Manuscript ReceiVed May 19, 2008 Hydrophobically modified alkali-soluble emulsion polymers (HASE) are a class­9 Hydrophobically modified alkali-soluble emulsion (HASE) polymers are a class of associative polymersInfluence of Binary Surfactant Mixtures on the Rheology of Associative Polymer Solutions Sachin

  3. Surfactants in droplet-based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Surfactants are an essential part of the droplet-based microfluidic technology. They are involved in the stabilization of droplet interfaces, in the biocompatibility of the system and in the process of molecular exchange between droplets. The recent progress in the applications of droplet-based microfluidics has been made possible by the development of new molecules and their characterizations. In this review, the role of the surfactant in droplet-based microfluidics is discussed with an emphasis on the new molecules developed specifically to overcome the limitations of 'standard' surfactants. Emulsion properties and interfacial rheology of surfactant-laden layers strongly determine the overall capabilities of the technology. Dynamic properties of droplets, interfaces and emulsions are therefore very important to be characterized, understood and controlled. In this respect, microfluidic systems themselves appear to be very powerful tools for the study of surfactant dynamics at the time- and length-scale relevant to the corresponding microfluidic applications. More generally, microfluidic systems are becoming a new type of experimental platform for the study of the dynamics of interfaces in complex systems. PMID:22011791

  4. Solution Behavior and Interaction of Pepsin with Carnitine Based Cationic Surfactant: Fluorescence, Circular Dichroism, and Calorimetric Studies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Dolai, Subhrajyoti; Patra, Trilochan; Dey, Joykrishna

    2015-10-01

    The present work reports the pH-induced conformational changes of pepsin in solution at room temperature. The conformational change makes the protein surface active. The protein was found to be present in the partially denatured state at pH 8 as well as at pH 2. The fluorescence probe and circular dichroism (CD) spectra suggested that the most stable state of pepsin exists at pH 5. The binding affinities of pepsin in its native and denatured states for a d,l-carnitine-based cationic surfactant (3-hexadecylcarbamoyl-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (C16-CAR) were examined at very low concentrations of the surfactant. The thermodynamics of the binding processes were investigated by use of isothermal titration calorimetry. The results were compared with those of (3-hexadecylcarbamoylpropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (C16-PTAC), which is structurally similar to C16-CAR, but without the secondary -OH functionality near the headgroup. None of the surfactants were observed to undergo binding with pepsin at pH 2, in which it exists in the acid-denatured state. However, both of the surfactants were found to spontaneously bind to the most stable state at pH 5, the partially denatured state at pH 8, and the alkaline denatured state at pH 11. Despite the difference in the headgroup structure, both of the surfactants bind to the same warfarin binding site. Interestingly, the driving force for binding of C16-CAR was found to be different from that of C16-PTC at pH ? 5. The steric interaction of the headgroup in C16-CAR was observed to have a significant effect on the binding process. PMID:26348532

  5. Liquid films, foams and emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, D.

    1999-06-01

    Studies of thin liquid films, made from surfactant solutions, are presented. The film drainage and the interaction between film surfaces are characterized with an experimental device called "Thin Film Balance". Cases where film stratification is observed will be discussed. These experiments allow to model thin films which form between bubbles and drops in foams and emulsions respectively. Nous présentons des études de films liquides formés à partir de solutions de tensioactifs. Nous avons étudié le drainage et les forces entre surfaces à l'aide d'un dispositif expérimental appelé "Balance à Films". Dans certains cas, on observe des phénomènes de stratification que l'on décrira. Ces expériences permettent de modéliser les films entre bulles et gouttes que l'on rencontre dans les mousses et les émulsions respectivement.

  6. Synthesis of amphipathic block copolymers based on polyisobutylene and polyoxyethylene and their application in emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Sar, B.

    1992-12-31

    Polymer colloids stabilized by polymeric surfactants are of great interest both commercially and academically. It has been found that these materials enhance latex stabilization in a number of applications. The polymeric surfactants are amphipathic block and graft copolymers containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. The current study involved the synthesis of a series of amphipathic triblock copolymers, polyisobutylene-block-polyoxyethylene-block-polyisobutylene (PIB-b-POE-b-PIB), for use in the emulsion polymerization of styrene (STY), methyl methacrylate (MMA), and vinyl acetate (VAc). The stabilizing effectiveness of these triblock copolymers was studied as a function of their blocklength. When the molecular weight of the POE center block was changed from M{sub n} = 2,000 to 20,000 g/mole, stable lattices were obtained in emulsion polymerization with MMA, STY, and VAc as the monomers. In all cases, the polymerization rates remained constant, while the number of particles/volume decreased with increasing POE chain length. When the molecular weight of the PIB end blocks was changed from M{sub n} = 400 to 2,600 g/mole keeping the molecular weight of the POE center block constant at M{sub n} = 20,000 g/mole, the poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) lattices exhibited similar behavior, i.e., the number of particles and particle sizes remained the same, but the rate of polymerization reached a maximum at 87 wt% POE content. In the case of poly(styrene) both the rate of polymerization and the number of particles remained constant. The emulsion polymerization of other monomers such as butadiene, acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, and butyl acrylate was carried out by using one triblock copolymer, i.e., PIB(400)-b-POE (8,000)-b-PIB-(400). Stable lattices were also formed in all cases.

  7. Flow of Super-Concentrated Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masalova, Irina; Malkin, Alexander Ya.

    2006-05-01

    Super concentrated emulsions, e.g., emulsion explosives, are two-phase systems consisting of aqueous droplets dispersed in an oil phase. The concentration of the disperse phase is 92-96 w.%, liquid droplets, containing a supersaturated aqueous solution of inorganic oxidizer salts. The flow of such emulsions is determined by their Theological properties as well as the time-dependent processes of "aging" which take place due to the thermodynamic instability of these emulsions. This work presents the results of experimental studies of the main effects that accompany the flow of such materials: non-Newtonian flow behavior, rheopexy which manifests as a slow increase of viscosity in the low shear rate domain, linear viscoelastic behavior, and the transition of elastic modulus to non-linearity at high amplitudes of deformation. The emulsions under study are non-Newtonian liquids. Experiments with the shear rate sweep demonstrate that the upward and downward branches of the flow curves coincide above some specific shear rate value. The upward experiments show the existence of a Newtonian section of the flow curve in the low-shear-rate domain, while the effect of yielding is observed on the downward curve. The wall slip in the flow of the emulsions under study is negligible. The elastic modulus is constant over a wide frequency range. Hence, viscoelastic relaxation processes might be expected at characteristic times of either >>100s or <0.01s. Strong non-linear behavior was observed in high amplitude experiments. The elastic modules (measured in oscillating testing and in elastic recovery) as well as the yield stress are proportional to D-2, while the Newtonian viscosity is proportional to D-1. Concentration dependence of rheological parameters is also discussed. The possible mechanism of emulsion flow is proposed. Aging leads to enhancement of the solid-like properties of emulsions, which can be treated as an "emulsion-to-suspension transition". However, this transition is incomplete because dispersions retain an ability to flow at stresses exceeding the yield stress value. It is shown that the aging of emulsions is caused by the slow crystallization of a supercooled salt solution without any noticeable coalescence effect. The evolution of mechanical properties of emulsions is correlated with the kinetics of structural changes during aging. The problem of transport characteristics of such emulsions is also discussed. It is shown that the choice of the flow curve fitting equation is not crucial for pipe flow design. The result can be used for practical applications in designing pipe transportation systems.

  8. Recent Emulsion Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ariga, A.

    2011-10-06

    Emulsion technologies are very much developed in the last decade and still developing in both the emulsion gel and the data taking. Emulsion detectors are suitable for the neutrino experiments because they can distinguish all 3 flavors of neutrino. The OPERA experiment, a recent pillar in the emulsion experiments aiming at the first observation of the neutrino oscillation in CNGS beam in appearance mode, is running, showing the good capability to separate 3 flavor neutrino interactions. In this poster, the recent developments and prospects of the emulsions for the next generation experiments are reported.

  9. Polymer-grafted lignin surfactants prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R

    2014-08-12

    Kraft lignin grafted with hydrophilic polymers has been prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization and investigated for use as a surfactant. In this preliminary study, polyacrylamide and poly(acrylic acid) were grafted from a lignin RAFT macroinitiator at average initiator site densities estimated to be 2 per particle and 17 per particle. The target degrees of polymerization were 50 and 100, but analysis of cleaved polyacrylamide was consistent with a higher average molecular weight, suggesting not all sites were able to participate in the polymerization. All materials were readily soluble in water, and dynamic light scattering data indicate polymer-grafted lignin coexisted in isolated and aggregated forms in aqueous media. The characteristic size was 15-20 nm at low concentrations, and aggregation appeared to be a stronger function of degree of polymerization than graft density. These species were surface active, reducing the surface tension to as low as 60 dyn/cm at 1 mg/mL, and a greater decrease was observed than for polymer-grafted silica nanoparticles, suggesting that the lignin core was also surface active. While these lignin surfactants were soluble in water, they were not soluble in hexanes. Thus, it was unexpected that water-in-oil emulsions formed in all surfactant compositions and solvent ratios tested, with average droplet sizes of 10-20 ?m. However, although polymer-grafted lignin has structural features similar to nanoparticles used in Pickering emulsions, its interfacial behavior was qualitatively different. While at air-water interfaces, the hydrophilic grafts promote effective reductions in surface tension, we hypothesize that the low grafting density in these lignin surfactants favors partitioning into the hexanes side of the oil-water interface because collapsed conformations of the polymer grafts improve interfacial coverage and reduce water-hexanes interactions. We propose that polymer-grafted lignin surfactants can be considered as random patchy nanoparticles with mixed hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains that result in unexpected interfacial behaviors. Further studies are necessary to clarify the molecular basis of these phenomena, but grafting of hydrophilic polymers from kraft lignin via radical polymerization could expand the use of this important biopolymer in a broad range of surfactant applications. PMID:25046477

  10. Effect of surfactants on the electrochemical behavior of LiFePO4 cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    batteries K. Bazzi a , B.P. Mandal a , M. Nazri a , V.M. Naik b , V.K. Garg c , A.C. Oliveira c , P of lauric acid may be a promising material for lithium secondary batteries. a r t i c l e i n f o Article online 26 April 2014 Keywords: Lithium battery Surfactant Mossbauer Nanomaterials a b s t r a c

  11. Multiple emulsions High-Order Multiple Emulsions Formed in

    E-print Network

    Multiple emulsions High-Order Multiple Emulsions Formed in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microfluidics** A. R. Abate and D. A. Weitz* Multiple emulsions are nested sets of drops.[1,2] Drops of one kind of yet another fluid. Such ``emulsions within emulsions'' are very useful for many applications

  12. I.Phys: Condens. Matter 4 (1992) 6715-6728. Printed in the UK The effect of surfactants on the dynamics of phase separation

    E-print Network

    Grant, Martin

    1992-01-01

    and foams [l, 21. This is due to the fact that the head of a surfactant molecule interacts attractively of interfaces composed of surfactant films. Amphiphiles are typical surfactants: these molecules have hydrophilic polar heads and hydrophobic tails and can therefore form emulsions, microemulsions and colloids

  13. Karanjkar, J. L., J. Morris (2012). "Surfactant Effects on Hydrate Crystallization at the Water-Oil Interface: Hollow-Conical Crystals." American Chemical Society 12: 3817-3824.

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    of surfactant to decrease the surface tension and create a stable emulsion. The three types of surfactantKaranjkar, J. L., J. Morris (2012). "Surfactant Effects on Hydrate Crystallization at the Water, hydrate formation decreases. In addition, hydrate formation at various water fractions

  14. Exploring the charging mechanisms in non-aqueous multiphase surfactant solutions, emulsions and colloidal systems via conductivity behaviors predicted with eyring's rate process theory.

    PubMed

    Hao, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The common charging agents and charging mechanisms in non-aqueous multiphase systems available in the literature are analyzed, and the conductivity equations derived on the basis of the charging mechanisms with the Eyring's rate process theory are compared with experimental observations. The popular charging mechanisms in non-aqueous systems, such as the ion preferential absorption, ion pair dissociation, and micelle disproportionation/fluctuation models, are found to be incapable of explaining all experimental evidences. Particularly, the ion pair dissociation and micelle disproportionation/fluctuation models apparently suffer a major drawback: how charges are separated and most importantly how charging entities are stabilized in non-aqueous systems, are not adequately addressed; in low dielectric constant non-aqueous media separated ions tend to bind together rather than stay separately. A new charging mechanism incorporating an electric field internally available or externally applied into the charging process is proposed to explain charge separations and stabilizations. The conductivity equations derived on the basis of this new mechanism predict that conductivity should linearly increase with both the electric field and the concentrations of inverse micelles in very low concentration regions, which is consistent with experimental evidences. PMID:26617064

  15. Ultrasonication-assisted preparation and characterization of emulsions and emulsion gels for topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinay K; Behera, Baikuntha; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal

    2015-03-01

    The current study describes the use of ultrasonication for the preparation of biphasic emulsions and emulsion gels for topical drug delivery. Sorbitan monostearate (SMS) was used as the surfactant for stabilizing the interface of sesame oil (apolar phase) and water (polar phase). Emulsions were formed at lower concentrations of SMS, whereas emulsion gels were formed at higher concentrations of SMS. The formulations were characterized by fluorescent microscopy, X-ray diffraction, viscosity, stress relaxation, spreadability, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Fluorescence microscopy suggested formation of oil-in-water type of formulations. There was an increase in the viscosity, bulk resistance, and firmness of the formulations as the proportions of SMS was increased. The emulsion gels were viscoelastic in nature. Thermal studies suggested higher thermodynamic stability at higher proportions of either SMS or water. Metronidazole, a model antimicrobial drug, was incorporated within the formulations. The release of the drug from the formulations was found to be diffusion mediated. The drug-loaded formulations showed sufficient antimicrobial efficiency to be used as carriers for topical antimicrobial drug delivery. PMID:25470664

  16. Modified montmorillonite clay microparticles for stable oil-in-seawater emulsions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiannan; Worthen, Andrew J; Foster, Lynn M; Chen, Yunshen; Cornell, Kevin A; Bryant, Steven L; Truskett, Thomas M; Bielawski, Christopher W; Johnston, Keith P

    2014-07-23

    Environmentally benign clay particles are of great interest for the stabilization of Pickering emulsions. Dodecane-in-synthetic seawater (SSW) emulsions formed with montmorillonite (MMT) clay microparticles modified with bis(2-hydroxyethyl)oleylamine were stable against coalescence, even at clay concentrations down to 0.1% w/v. Remarkably, as little as 0.001% w/v surfactant lowered the hydrophilicity of the clay to a sufficient level for stabilization of oil-in-SSW emulsions. The favorable effect of SSW on droplet size reduction and emulsion stability enhancement is hypothesized to be due to reduced electrostatic repulsion between adsorbed clay particles and a consequent increase in the continuous phase (an aqueous clay suspension) viscosity. Water/oil (W/O) emulsions were inverted to O/W either by decreasing the mass ratio of surfactant-to-clay (transitional inversion) or by increasing the water volume fraction (catastrophic inversion). For both types of emulsions, coalescence was minimal and the sedimentation or creaming was highly correlated with the droplet size. For catastrophic inversions, the droplet size of the emulsions was smaller in the case of the preferred curvature. Suspensions of concentrated clay in oil dispersions in the presence of surfactant were stable against settling. The mass transfer pathways during emulsification of oil containing the clay particles were analyzed on the droplet size/stability phase diagrams to provide insight for the design of dispersant systems for remediating surface and subsurface oceanic oil spills. PMID:24932773

  17. Microemulsion versus emulsion as effective carrier of hydroxytyrosol.

    PubMed

    Chatzidaki, Maria D; Arik, Nehir; Monteil, Julien; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Xenakis, Aristotelis

    2016-01-01

    Two edible Water-in-Oil (W/O) dispersions, an emulsion that remains kinetically stable and a microemulsion which is spontaneously formed, transparent and thermodynamically stable, were developed for potential use as functional foods, due to their ability to be considered as matrices to encapsulate biologically active hydrophilic molecules. Both systems contained Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) as the continuous phase and were used as carriers of Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a hydrophilic antioxidant of olive oil. A low energy input fabrication process of the emulsion was implemented. The obtained emulsion contained 1.3% (w/w) of surfactants and 5% (w/w) aqueous phase. The spontaneously formed microemulsion contained 4.9% (w/w) of surfactants and 2% (w/w) aqueous phase. A comparative study in terms of structural characterization of the systems in the absence and presence of HT was carried out. Particle size distribution obtained by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technique and interfacial properties of the surfactants' layer, examined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy indicated the involvement of HT in the surfactant membrane. Finally, the proposed systems were studied for the scavenging activity of the encapsulated antioxidant toward galvinoxyl stable free radical showing a high scavenging activity of HT in both systems. PMID:25999235

  18. Oscillation patterns in active emulsion networks

    E-print Network

    Shashi Thutupalli; Stephan Herminghaus

    2012-06-13

    We study water-in-oil emulsion droplets, running the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, that form a new type of active matter unit. These droplets, stabilised by surfactants dispersed in the oil medium, are capable of internal chemical oscillations and also self-propulsion due to dynamic interfacial instabilities that result from the chemical reactions. The chemical oscillations can couple via the exchange of activator and inhibitor type of reaction intermediates across the droplets under precise conditions of surfactant bilayer formation between the droplets. Here we present the synchronization behaviour of networks of such chemical oscillators and show that the resulting dynamics depend on the network topology. Further, we demonstrate that the motion of droplets can be synchronized with the chemical oscillations inside the droplets, leading to exciting possibilities in future studies of active matter.

  19. Mechanism of oil-bank formation, coalescence in porous media, and emulsion stability. Third annual report, June 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1983-09-01

    In this report we present results of a basic study of the various mechanisms of oil bank formation and propagation in chemical flooding processes involving surfactants and alkaline agents. Also presented are the results of modeling and simulation studies of our microwave monitored laboratory core flooding experiments in alkaline flooding and in drainage and stability of thin surfactant films associated with foam and emulsion systems. This work encompasses two topics: 1) Alkaline Flooding, and 2) Surfactant Flooding. 59 references, 63 figures, 19 tables.

  20. Adsorption behavior of direct red 80 and congo red onto activated carbon/surfactant: process optimization, kinetics and equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhengjun; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Xiao; Jiang, Xiaohui; Li, Tian

    2015-02-25

    Adsorptions of congo red and direct red 80 onto activated carbon/surfactant from aqueous solution were optimized. The Box-Behnken design (BBD) has been employed to analyze the effects of concentration of surfactant, temperature, pH, and initial concentration of the dye in the adsorption capacity. Their corresponding experimental data could be evaluated excellently by second order polynomial regression models and the two models were also examined based on the analysis of variance and t test statistics, respectively. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: Cs=34.10 ?M, T=50°C, pH=3.5, and CCR=160 mg/L for the congo red system, and Cs=34.10 ?M, T=50°C, pH=6.1, and CDR80=110 mg/L for the direct red 80 system. And in these conditions, the measured experimental maximum adsorption capacities for the congo red and direct red 80 removals were 769.48 mg/g and 519.90 mg/g, which were consistent with their corresponding predicted values, with small relative errors of -2.81% and -0.67%, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics for the two dye adsorptions onto AC/DDAC were also investigated. The experimental data were fitted by four isotherm models, and Langmuir model presented the best fit. The kinetic studies indicated that the kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order model. PMID:25305604

  1. Rapid crystallization and morphological adjustment of zeolite ZSM-5 in nonionic emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ying; Jin Chao

    2011-01-15

    Zeolite ZSM-5 was synthesized for the first time in a nonionic emulsion composed of polyoxyethylated alkylphenol, butanol, cyclohexane and tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH)-containing zeolite synthesis mixture. The crystallization kinetics in the emulsion was investigated and the ZSM-5 product was characterized in detail by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TG, N{sub 2} adsorption and CHN analysis techniques. Compared with the conventionally hydrothermal synthesis with the same structure directing agent TEAOH, the emulsion system allows rapid crystallization of ZSM-5. The ZSM-5 product exhibits unusual agglomerated structure and possesses larger specific surface area. The FT-IR, TG results plus CHN analysis show the encapsulation of a trace of emulsion components in the emulsion ZSM-5. Control experiments show the emulsion system exerts the crystallization induction and morphological adjustment effects mainly during the aging period. The effects are tentatively attributed to the confined space domains, surfactant-water interaction as well as surfactant-growing crystals interaction existing in the emulsion. -- Graphical abstract: The nonionic emulsion synthesis allows rapid crystallization and morphological adjustment of zeolite ZSM-5 compared with the conventional hydrothermal synthesis. Display Omitted

  2. Thixotropy and Physical Aging in Acrylic Emulsion Paint Bharat Baldewa, Yogesh M. Joshi

    E-print Network

    Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

    Thixotropy and Physical Aging in Acrylic Emulsion Paint Bharat Baldewa, Yogesh M. Joshi Department thixotropic and time-dependent rheological behavior of commercial acrylic emulsion paint using a framework of soft glassy rheology. We observe that acrylic emulsion paint, which shows thix- otropic rheological

  3. Dynamically reconfigurable complex emulsions via tunable interfacial tensions.

    PubMed

    Zarzar, Lauren D; Sresht, Vishnu; Sletten, Ellen M; Kalow, Julia A; Blankschtein, Daniel; Swager, Timothy M

    2015-02-26

    Emulsification is a powerful, well-known technique for mixing and dispersing immiscible components within a continuous liquid phase. Consequently, emulsions are central components of medicine, food and performance materials. Complex emulsions, including Janus droplets (that is, droplets with faces of differing chemistries) and multiple emulsions, are of increasing importance in pharmaceuticals and medical diagnostics, in the fabrication of microparticles and capsules for food, in chemical separations, in cosmetics, and in dynamic optics. Because complex emulsion properties and functions are related to the droplet geometry and composition, the development of rapid, simple fabrication approaches allowing precise control over the droplets' physical and chemical characteristics is critical. Significant advances in the fabrication of complex emulsions have been made using a number of procedures, ranging from large-scale, less precise techniques that give compositional heterogeneity using high-shear mixers and membranes, to small-volume but more precise microfluidic methods. However, such approaches have yet to create droplet morphologies that can be controllably altered after emulsification. Reconfigurable complex liquids potentially have great utility as dynamically tunable materials. Here we describe an approach to the one-step fabrication of three- and four-phase complex emulsions with highly controllable and reconfigurable morphologies. The fabrication makes use of the temperature-sensitive miscibility of hydrocarbon, silicone and fluorocarbon liquids, and is applied to both the microfluidic and the scalable batch production of complex droplets. We demonstrate that droplet geometries can be alternated between encapsulated and Janus configurations by varying the interfacial tensions using hydrocarbon and fluorinated surfactants including stimuli-responsive and cleavable surfactants. This yields a generalizable strategy for the fabrication of multiphase emulsions with controllably reconfigurable morphologies and the potential to create a wide range of responsive materials. PMID:25719669

  4. Dynamically reconfigurable complex emulsions via tunable interfacial tensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzar, Lauren D.; Sresht, Vishnu; Sletten, Ellen M.; Kalow, Julia A.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Swager, Timothy M.

    2015-02-01

    Emulsification is a powerful, well-known technique for mixing and dispersing immiscible components within a continuous liquid phase. Consequently, emulsions are central components of medicine, food and performance materials. Complex emulsions, including Janus droplets (that is, droplets with faces of differing chemistries) and multiple emulsions, are of increasing importance in pharmaceuticals and medical diagnostics, in the fabrication of microparticles and capsules for food, in chemical separations, in cosmetics, and in dynamic optics. Because complex emulsion properties and functions are related to the droplet geometry and composition, the development of rapid, simple fabrication approaches allowing precise control over the droplets' physical and chemical characteristics is critical. Significant advances in the fabrication of complex emulsions have been made using a number of procedures, ranging from large-scale, less precise techniques that give compositional heterogeneity using high-shear mixers and membranes, to small-volume but more precise microfluidic methods. However, such approaches have yet to create droplet morphologies that can be controllably altered after emulsification. Reconfigurable complex liquids potentially have great utility as dynamically tunable materials. Here we describe an approach to the one-step fabrication of three- and four-phase complex emulsions with highly controllable and reconfigurable morphologies. The fabrication makes use of the temperature-sensitive miscibility of hydrocarbon, silicone and fluorocarbon liquids, and is applied to both the microfluidic and the scalable batch production of complex droplets. We demonstrate that droplet geometries can be alternated between encapsulated and Janus configurations by varying the interfacial tensions using hydrocarbon and fluorinated surfactants including stimuli-responsive and cleavable surfactants. This yields a generalizable strategy for the fabrication of multiphase emulsions with controllably reconfigurable morphologies and the potential to create a wide range of responsive materials.

  5. Dynamically reconfigurable complex emulsions via tunable interfacial tensions

    PubMed Central

    Zarzar, Lauren D.; Sresht, Vishnu; Sletten, Ellen M.; Kalow, Julia A.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Swager, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Emulsification is a powerful, well-known technique for mixing and dispersing immiscible components within a continuous liquid phase. Consequently, emulsions are central components of medicine, food and performance materials. Complex emulsions, including multiple emulsions and Janus droplets which contain hemispheres of differing material, are of increasing importance1 in pharmaceuticals and medical diagnostics2, in the fabrication of microparticles and capsules3–5 for food6, in chemical separations7, in cosmetics8, and in dynamic optics9. Because complex emulsion properties and functions are related to the droplet geometry and composition, the development of rapid, simple fabrication approaches allowing precise control over the droplets’ physical and chemical characteristics is critical. Significant advances in the fabrication of complex emulsions have been made using a number of procedures, ranging from large-scale, less precise techniques that give compositional heterogeneity using high-shear mixers and membranes10, to small-volume but more precise microfluidic methods11,12. However, such approaches have yet to create droplet morphologies that can be controllably altered after emulsification. Reconfigurable complex liquids potentially have greatly increased utility as dynamically tunable materials. Here we describe an approach to the one-step fabrication of three- and four-phase complex emulsions with highly controllable and reconfigurable morphologies. The fabrication makes use of the temperature-sensitive miscibility of hydrocarbon, silicone and fluorocarbon liquids, and is applied to both the microfluidic and the scalable batch production of complex droplets. We demonstrate that droplet geometries can be alternated between encapsulated and Janus configurations by varying the interfacial tensions using hydrocarbon and fluorinated surfactants including stimuli-responsive and cleavable surfactants. This yields a generalizable strategy for the fabrication of multiphase emulsions with controllably reconfigurable morphologies and the potential to create a wide range of responsive materials. PMID:25719669

  6. Method of breaking and emulsion and an emulsion-emulsion breaker composition

    SciTech Connect

    Salathiel, W. M.

    1985-05-14

    This invention relates to a composition of matter and to a method for producing a controllable, residue-free break of an emulsion or a dispersion of a water-in-oil emulsion. An emulsion breaker is incorporated into the emulsion. It is temporarily-protected (deactivated) so that breaking of the emulsion is initially avoided. By removing the protection, the breaker becomes active, and it acts to break the emulsion into its separate phases.

  7. Modeling of metallurgical emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zuohua; Guthrie, R. I. L.

    1994-12-01

    Emulsification behavior caused by gas bubbles rising through a slag/metal interface has been studied in both a thin-slice model and a three-dimensional model using low-temperature oil/aqueous and oil/mercury analogues. A generalized model characterizing the transitional volume of droplets entrained in the upper phase in the emulsification process was developed. The transient volume of “metal” entrained, V d(t), following the start of bubbling followed the relation V d(t) = V ?(1 - e (t/?)). This model is also of general significance to other metallurgical emulsification processes, such as those induced by iron ore reduction and top blowing, regardless of the mechanisms of droplet generation. Based on this model, the birth rate and mean residence time of droplets dispersed by rising bubbles can be quantified. Dimensional analysis was used to express the volume of lower liquid carried up into the emulsion per bubble, thereby allowing better estimates of the droplet birth rate in a practical emulsification process induced by bottom blowing. Emulsification behaviors in industrial in-bath smelting processes were interpreted with the present modeling results.

  8. Synthesis of nanocrystalline CeO{sub 2} particles by different emulsion methods

    SciTech Connect

    Supakanapitak, Sunisa; Boonamnuayvitaya, Virote; Jarudilokkul, Somnuk

    2012-05-15

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using three different methods of emulsion: (1) reversed micelle (RM); (2) emulsion liquid membrane (ELM); and (3) colloidal emulsion aphrons (CEAs). Ammonium cerium nitrate and polyoxyethylene-4-lauryl ether (PE4LE) were used as cerium and surfactant sources in this study. The powder was calcined at 500 Degree-Sign C to obtain CeO{sub 2}. The effect of the preparation procedure on the particle size, surface area, and the morphology of the prepared powders were investigated. The obtained powders are highly crystalline, and nearly spherical in shape. The average particle size and the specific surface area of the powders from the three methods were in the range of 4-10 nm and 5.32-145.73 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. The CeO{sub 2} powders synthesized by the CEAs are the smallest average particle size, and the highest surface area. Finally, the CeO{sub 2} prepared by the CEAs using different cerium sources and surfactant types were studied. It was found that the surface tensions of cerium solution and the type of surfactant affect the particle size of CeO{sub 2}. - Graphical Abstract: The emulsion droplet size distribution and the TEM images of CeO{sub 2} prepared by different methods: reversed micelle (RM), emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) and colloidal emulsion aphrons (CEAs). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-sized CeO{sub 2} was successfully prepared by three different emulsion methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The colloidal emulsion aphrons method producing CeO{sub 2} with the highest surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface tensions of a cerium solution have slightly effect on the particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size control could be interpreted in terms of the adsorption of the surfactant.

  9. The effect of different surfactants/plastisizers on the electrical behavior of CNT nano-modified cement mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla, P. T.; Alafogianni, P.; Tragazikis, I. K.; Exarchos, D. A.; Dassios, K.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    Cement-based materials have in general low electrical conductivity. Electrical conductivity is the measure of the ability of the material to resist the passage of electrical current. The addition of a conductive admixture such as Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a cement-based material increases the conductivity of the structure. This research aims to characterize nano-modified cement mortars with MWCNT reinforcements. Such nano-composites would possess smartness and multi-functionality. Multifunctional properties include electrical, thermal and piezo-electric characteristics. One of these properties, the electrical conductivity, was measured using a custom made apparatus that allows application of known D.C. voltage on the nano-composite. In this study, the influence of different surfactants/plasticizers on CNT nano-modified cement mortar specimens with various concentrations of CNTs (0.2% wt. cement CNTs - 0.8% wt. cement CNTs) on the electrical conductivity is assessed.

  10. Microfluidics with Gel Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, Craig; Surenjav, Enkhtuul; Herminghaus, Stephan; Seemann, Ralf

    2006-03-01

    Microfluidic processing is usually achieved using single phase liquids. Instead, we use monodisperse emulsions to compartment liquids within microchannel geometries. At low continuous phase volume fractions, droplets self-organize to form well-defined arrangements, analogous to foam. While it is well-known that confined geometries can induce rearrangement of foam compartments at the millimeter-scale, similar dynamics are also expected for gel emulsions. We have studied online generation, organization and manipulation of gel emulsions using a variety of microchannel geometries. ``Passive'' reorganization, based on fixed channel geometries, can be supplemented by ``active'' manipulation by incorporating a ferrofluid phase. A ferromagnetic phase facilitates reorganization of liquid compartments on demand using an electromagnetic trigger. Moreover, coalescence between adjacent compartments within a gel emulsion can be induced using electrical potential. Microfluidics using gel emulsions will be well-suited for combinatorial chemistry, DNA sequencing, drug screening and protein crystallizations.

  11. Droplet-based microfluidics and the dynamics of emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Jean-Christophe; Brosseau, Quentin; Semin, Benoit; Qu, Xiaopeng

    2012-02-01

    Emulsions are complex fluids already involved for a long time in a wide-range of industrial processes, such as, for example, food, cosmetics or materials synthesis [1]. More recently, applications of emulsions have been extended to new fields like biotechnology or biochemistry where the compartmentalization of compounds in emulsion droplets is used to parallelise (bio-) chemical reactions [2]. Interestingly, these applications pinpoint to fundamental questions dealing with surfactant dynamics, dynamic surface tension, hydrodynamic interactions and electrohydrodynamics. Droplet-based microfluidics is a very powerful tool to quantitatively study the dynamics of emulsions at the single droplet level or even at the single interface level: well-controlled emulsions are produced and manipulated using hydrodynamics, electrical forces, optical actuation and combination of these effects. We will describe here how droplet-based microfluidics is used to extract quantitative informations on the physical-chemistry of emulsions for a better understanding and control of the dynamics of these systems [3].[4pt] [1] J. Bibette et al. Rep. Prog. Phys., 62, 969-1033 (1999)[0pt] [2] A. Theberge et al., Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed. 49, 5846 (2010)[0pt] [3] J.-C. Baret et al., Langmuir, 25, 6088 (2009)

  12. The development of self-emulsifying oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant and an evaluation of the impact of droplet size on performance.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ruchi R; Dodd, Stephanie; Schaefer, Mary; Ugozzoli, Mildred; Singh, Manmohan; Otten, Gillis R; Amiji, Mansoor M; O'Hagan, Derek T; Brito, Luis A

    2015-04-01

    Microfluidization is an established technique for preparing emulsion adjuvant formulations for use in vaccines. Although this technique reproducibly yields high-quality stable emulsions, it is complex, expensive, and requires proprietary equipment. For this study, we developed a novel and simple low shear process to prepare stable reproducible emulsions without the use of any proprietary equipment. We found this process can produce a wide range of differently sized emulsions based on the modification of ratios of oil and surfactants. Using this process, we prepared a novel 20-nm-sized emulsion that was stable, reproducible, and showed adjuvant effects. During evaluation of this emulsion, we studied a range of emulsions with the same composition all sized below 200; 20, 90, and 160 nm in vivo and established a correlation between adjuvant size and immune responses. Our studies indicate that 160-nm-sized emulsions generate the strongest immune responses. PMID:25600347

  13. Phase Behavior and Emulsion Stability of the Aot/Decane/ Water/NaCl System at Very Low Volume Fractions of Oil

    E-print Network

    Yithanllili Bastidas; Lisset Hernaandez; Issarly Rivas; Kareem Rahn-Chique; German Urbina-Villalba

    2014-10-09

    The stability of a ternary system composed of decane/water/Aerosol-OT and salt is revisited. Phase diagrams and emulsions similar in composition to those previously studied by Hofman and Stein [Hofman, 1991] were made. Ac- cording to our results, and contrary to the common experience, these systems exhibit a maximum of stability very close to the balance zone.

  14. Mesoscale models of dispersions stabilized by surfactants and colloids.

    PubMed

    van der Sman, R G M; Meinders, M B J

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we discuss and give an outlook on numerical models describing dispersions, stabilized by surfactants and colloidal particles. Examples of these dispersions are foams and emulsions. In particular, we focus on the potential of the diffuse interface models based on a free energy approach, which describe dispersions with the surface-active agent soluble in one of the bulk phases. The free energy approach renders thermodynamic consistent models with realistic sorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics. The free energy approach is attractive because of its ability to describe highly complex dispersions, such as emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants, or surfactant mixtures and dispersions with surfactant micelles. We have classified existing numerical methods into classes, using either a Eulerian or a Lagrangian representation for fluid and for the surfactant/colloid. A Eulerian representation gives a more coarse-grained, mean field description of the surface-active agent, while a Lagrangian representation can deal with steric effects and larger complexity concerning geometry and (amphiphilic) wetting properties of colloids and surfactants. However, the similarity between the description of wetting properties of both Eulerian and Lagrangian models allows for the development of hybrid Eulerian/Lagrangian models having advantages of both representations. PMID:24980050

  15. Structures of octenylsuccinylated starches: effects on emulsions containing ?-carotene.

    PubMed

    Sweedman, Michael C; Hasjim, Jovin; Schäfer, Christian; Gilbert, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    Starches with different amylopectin contents and different molecular sizes prepared using acid hydrolysis were hydrophobically modified using octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA). The OSA-modified starches were used as surfactants to stabilize emulsions of ?-carotene and canola oil dispersed in water. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between starch molecular structure and the chemical stability of the emulsified ?-carotene, as well as the colloidal stability of emulsion droplets during storage. The oil droplet size in emulsions was smaller when starch had (a) lower hydrodynamic volume (Vh) and (b) higher amylopectin content. The oxidative stability of ?-carotene was similar across samples, with higher results at increased amylopectin content but higher Vh. Steric hindrance to coalescence provided by adsorbed OSA-modified starches appears to be improved by more rigid molecules of higher degree of branching. PMID:25129720

  16. Smart enrichment and facile separation of oil from emulsions and mixtures by superhydrophobic/superoleophilic particles.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chunting; Zhu, Tang; Guo, Jing; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Xiaofang; Wang, Hao; Xu, Xun; Jin, Yan; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2015-05-20

    The separation and removal of oil or organic pollutants from water is highly imperative. The oil phases in surfactant-free oil-in-water emulsions or in free oil/water mixtures can be smartly enriched and transported by using superhydrophobic/superoleophilic iron particles (SHIPs) under a magnetic field. For water-in-oil emulsion, SHIPs-based composite membranes selectively allow the oil to pass through. Their convenient and scalable preparation, excellent separation performance, and good reusability are of great advantages for practical applications in wastewater treatment, the cleanup of oil spills, emulsion concentration, and fuel purification. PMID:25918874

  17. Solvent-free formation of hydroxyapatite coated biodegradable particles via nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masahiro; Fujii, Syuji; Nishimura, Taiki; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Takeda, Shoji; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle-coated biodegradable polymer particles were fabricated from a nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion in the absence of any molecular surfactants or organic solvents. First, a polymer melt-in-water emulsion was prepared by mixing a water phase containing nanosized HAp particles as a particulate emulsifier and an oil phase consisting of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) or poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)) above its melting point. It was clarified that the interaction between ester/carboxyl groups of the polymers and the HAp nanoparticles at the polymer-water interface played a crucial role to prepare the nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion. The HAp nanoparticle-coated biodegradable polymer particle (a polymer solid-in-water emulsion) was fabricated by cooling the emulsion. The particle morphology and particle size were evaluated using scanning electron microscope.

  18. Kinetics of Surfactant Adsorption at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces: Surfactant Mixtures

    E-print Network

    Ariel, Gil

    Kinetics of Surfactant Adsorption at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces: Surfactant Mixtures Gil Ariel, Haim-active agents and another fluid (air or oil) phase is addressed theoretically. We derive the kinetic equations of the system at various temporal stages. In particular, we relate the kinetic behavior of the mixture

  19. Development of fat emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wretlind, A

    1981-01-01

    The studies on the possibility of preparing IV fat emulsions began in the 1920's; since then, a very large number of emulsions with various fats and emulsifiers have been investigated. However, none of the early fat emulsions could be used safely in man. By the trial and error technique, a method was finally found to prepare soybean oil and egg yolk phospholipids to make a fat emulsion that had a low incidence of adverse reactions. A newly devised biological test system based on nutritional concepts was of crucial importance. It meant that any energy supplying nutrient should be tested in animals in relation to the energy requirement of the species used and not identical to the human dose/kg body weight as in the "classical" toxicity and tolerance tests. With the development of well-tolerated IV fat emulsions it has been possible to devise a TPN regimen that is adequate from a nutritional point of view as well as an adequate alternative to the ordinary oral food. This regimen, which can be administered by the peripheral route, means that the original aims for developing IV fat emulsions were finally achieved. PMID:6788972

  20. Effects of Oligomerization and Secondary Structure on the Surface Behavior of Pulmonary Surfactant Proteins SP-B and SP-C

    PubMed Central

    Wüstneck, N.; Wüstneck, R.; Perez-Gil, J.; Pison, U.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship among protein oligomerization, secondary structure at the interface, and the interfacial behavior was investigated for spread layers of native pulmonary surfactant associated proteins B and C. SP-B and SP-C were isolated either from butanol or chloroform/methanol lipid extracts that were obtained from sheep lung washings. The proteins were separated from other components by gel exclusion chromatography or by high performance liquid chromatography. SDS gel electrophoresis data indicate that the SP-B samples obtained using different solvents showed different oligomerization states of the protein. The CD and FTIR spectra of SP-B isolated from all extracts were consistent with a secondary structure dominated by ?-helix. The CD and FTIR spectra of the first SP-C corresponded to an ?-helical secondary structure and the spectra of the second SP-C corresponded to a mixture of ?-helical and ?-sheet conformation. In contrast, the spectra of the third SP-C corresponded to antiparallel ?-sheets. The interfacial behavior was characterized by surface pressure/area (?-A) isotherms. Differences in the oligomerization state of SP-B as well as in the secondary structure of SP-C all produce significant differences in the surface pressure/area isotherms. The molecular cross sections determined from the ?-A isotherms and from dynamic cycling experiments were 6 nm2/dimer molecule for SP-B and 1.15 nm2/molecule for SP-C in ?-helical conformation and 1.05 nm2/molecule for SP-C in ?-sheet conformation. Both the oligomer ratio of SP-B and the secondary structure of SP-C strongly influence organization and behavior of these proteins in monolayer assemblies. In addition, ?-helix ? ?-sheet conversion of SP-C occurs simply by an increase of the summary protein/lipid concentration in solution. PMID:12609896

  1. Release of surfactant cargo from interfacially-active halloysite clay nanotubes for oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Owoseni, Olasehinde; Nyankson, Emmanuel; Zhang, Yueheng; Adams, Samantha J; He, Jibao; McPherson, Gary L; Bose, Arijit; Gupta, Ram B; John, Vijay T

    2014-11-18

    Naturally occurring halloysite clay nanotubes are effective in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions and can serve as interfacially-active vehicles for delivering oil spill treating agents. Halloysite nanotubes adsorb at the oil-water interface and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions that are stable for months. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) imaging of the oil-in-water emulsions shows that these nanotubes assemble in a side-on orientation at the oil-water interface and form networks on the interface through end-to-end linkages. For application in the treatment of marine oil spills, halloysite nanotubes were successfully loaded with surfactants and utilized as an interfacially-active vehicle for the delivery of surfactant cargo. The adsorption of surfactant molecules at the interface serves to lower the interfacial tension while the adsorption of particles provides a steric barrier to drop coalescence. Pendant drop tensiometry was used to characterize the dynamic reduction in interfacial tension resulting from the release of dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DOSS) from halloysite nanotubes. At appropriate surfactant compositions and loadings in halloysite nanotubes, the crude oil-saline water interfacial tension is effectively lowered to levels appropriate for the dispersion of oil. This work indicates a novel concept of integrating particle stabilization of emulsions together with the release of chemical surfactants from the particles for the development of an alternative, cheaper, and environmentally-benign technology for oil spill remediation. PMID:25346266

  2. Adsorption of Gemini surfactants onto clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Salako, O; Lo, C; Couzis, A; Somasundaran, P; Lee, J W

    2013-12-15

    This work addresses the adsorption of two Gemini surfactants at the cyclopentane (CP) hydrate-water interface. The Gemini surfactants investigated here are Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 that have two anionic head groups and one hydrophobic tail group. The adsorption of these surfactants was quantified using adsorption isotherms and the adsorption isotherms were determined using liquid-liquid titrations. Even if the Gemini surfactant adsorption isotherms show multi-layer adsorption, they possess the first Langmuir layer with the second adsorption layer only evident in the 2A1 adsorption isotherm. Zeta potentials of CP hydrate particles in the surfactant solution of various concentrations of Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 were measured to further explain their adsorption behavior at the CP hydrate-water interface. Zeta potentials of alumina particles as a model particle system in different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 were also measured to confirm the configuration of all the surfactants at the interface. The determination of the isotherms and zeta-potentials provides an understanding framework for the adsorption behavior of the two Gemini surfactants at the hydrate-water interface. PMID:24144366

  3. Viscoelastic properties of sterically stabilised emulsions and their stability.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Tharwat

    2015-08-01

    The interaction forces between emulsion droplets containing adsorbed polymeric surfactants and the theory of steric stabilisation are briefly described. The results for the viscoelastic properties of O/W emulsions that are stabilised with partially hydrolysed poly(vinyl acetate) that is commonly referred to as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with 4% vinyl acetate are given. The effect of the oil volume fraction, addition of electrolytes and increasing temperature is described. This allows one to obtain various parameters such as the adsorbed layer thickness, the critical flocculation concentration of electrolyte (CFC) and critical flocculation temperature (CFT) at constant electrolyte concentration. The viscoelastic properties of O/W emulsions stabilised with an A-B-A block copolymer of polyethylene oxide (A) and polypropylene oxide (B) are described. These emulsions behave as viscoelastic liquids showing a cross-over-point between G' (the elastic component of the complex modulus) and G? (the viscous component of the complex modulus) at a characteristic frequency. Plots of G' and G? versus oil volume fraction ? show the transition from predominantly viscous to predominantly elastic response at a critical volume fraction ?(c). The latter can be used to estimate the adsorbed layer thickness of the polymeric surfactants. Results are also shown for W/O emulsions stabilised with an A-B-A block copolymer of polyhydroxystearic acid (PHS, A) and polyethylene oxide (PEO, B). The viscosity volume fraction curves could be fitted to the Dougherty-Krieger equation for hard-spheres. The results could be applied to give an estimate of the adsorbed layer thickness ? which shows a decrease with increase of the water volume fraction. This is due to the interpenetration and/or compression of the PHS layers on close approach of the water droplets on increasing the water volume fraction. The last section of the review gives an example of O/W emulsion stability using an AB(n) graft copolymer of polyfructose (A) to which several C12 alkyl chains are grafted. The emulsions are stable both at high temperature and in the presence of high electrolyte concentrations (2 mol dm(-3) NaCl). This high stability is due to the strong adsorption ("anchoring") of the graft copolymer with several C12 alkyl chains and the strong hydration of the polyfructose chains both in water and in the presence of high electrolyte concentrations and temperature. Evidence for this high stability is obtained using disjoining pressure measurements which show a highly stable film between the emulsion droplets and absence of its rupture up to high pressures. PMID:25900262

  4. Micellization of true amphoteric surfactants.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunxiang; Holmberg, Krister; Bordes, Romain

    2013-12-01

    The physical chemical behavior of a series of N-alkyl amino acid-based surfactants has been investigated. The series comprises four different types of amino acids as polar headgroups: glycine, aminomalonic acid, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, and for each type three homologues were synthesized: the octyl, decyl and dodecyl derivative. Aminomalonic acid, aspartic acid and glutamic acid are dicarboxylic amino acids with one, two and three methylene groups as spacer between the carboxylic groups, respectively. Compared with the more common N-acyl surfactants based on the same amino acids, many of the N-alkyl derivatives exhibited relatively high Krafft temperatures. The N-alkyl derivatives also had considerably lower critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) and they gave low values of surface tension at the CMC. The length of the spacer between the two carboxylic groups did not much influence the micellization. Some of the surfactants, in particular the lower homologues of N-alkylglycinate surfactants, gave unusually low surface tension values. The low values are most likely due to formation of a mixed monolayer at the surface, comprising of alternating anionic N-alkylglycinate and cationic N-protonated-N-alkylglycine. In a plot of conductivity vs. surfactant concentration there was no kink on the curve around the CMC, as determined by tensiometry. The absence of such a kink is in accordance with the view that self-assembly of the N-alkyl amino acid-based surfactants involves formation of mixed micelles consisting of alternating N-alkyl amino acid anion and N-protonated-N-alkyl amino acid also in the bulk solution. The protonation of the N-alkyl amino acid anion, which generates hydroxyl ions, is driven by the energetically favorable formation of mixed micelles consisting of anionic and cationic amphiphiles. PMID:24112839

  5. Novel stabilization of emulsions via the heteroaggregation of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Liu, Wenhui; Rodrigues, Jhonny A

    2008-05-01

    The stabilization of emulsions by a mixture of oppositely charged nanoparticles is investigated in relation to their behavior in water before emulsification. No emulsion can be prepared using either negatively or positively charged silica particles alone because the particles are too hydrophilic. Certain mixtures of the two particle types lead to heteroaggregation and a lowering of the net charge. Such mixtures, of increased hydrophobicity as verified by contact angle measurements, are capable of forming stable oil-in-water emulsions of excellent coalescence stability. The increased viscosity of the continuous phase also contributes to such stability. PMID:18361536

  6. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    SciTech Connect

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  7. Magnetofluid emulsion: New magnetocontrolled media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashtovoi, Victor G.; Yarmolchik, Yuri P.

    1994-03-01

    This study has shown that flow dynamics of emulsion consisting of magnetic and nonmagnetic fluids depends on applied magnetic field. So these emulsions may be considered as a magnetic field controlled medium, and in particular as a magnetic field controlled heat carrier. The new dates on rheological properties of these emulsions in the presence of magnetic field are described.

  8. LEHIGH UNIVERSITY EMULSION POLYMERS INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    LEHIGH UNIVERSITY EMULSION POLYMERS INSTITUTE LIAISON PROGRAM MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION AND AGREEMENT This Application and Agreement for Liaison Program Membership in the Emulsion Polymers Institute (EPI) at Lehigh Coordinator: The University coordinator of the Emulsion Polymers Institute's Industrial Liaison Program is Dr

  9. Stability of cellulose lyotropic liquid crystal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier, T.; Heppenstall-Butler, M.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2005-12-01

    We studied a new kind of W/O emulsions based on a lyotropic liquid crystal as the aqueous droplet phase. The cholesteric phase, a solution hydroxypropyl cellulose in water was dispersed in the continuous oil matrix, paraffin oil or heptane. We made a specific choice of surfactant in order to impose director anchoring conditions at the oil-water interface and orient the liquid crystal inside the droplet. The strong anchoring conditions resulted in a topological defect inside the droplets of size above the critical value R^*. The defect elastic energy creates a barrier against droplet coalescence, the effect of topological size selection. We have studied the orientation of the director inside the droplets and their size distribution.

  10. Theoretical and simulations-based modeling of micellization in linear and branched surfactant systems

    E-print Network

    Mendenhall, Jonathan David

    2012-01-01

    Surfactants are chemically-heterogeneous molecules possessing hydrophilic (head) and hydrophobic (tail) moieties. This dual nature of surfactants leads to interesting phase behavior in aqueous solution as a function of ...

  11. Pickering emulsions: what are the main parameters determining the emulsion type and interfacial properties?

    PubMed

    Destribats, Mathieu; Gineste, Stéphane; Laurichesse, Eric; Tanner, Hugo; Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Héroguez, Valérie; Schmitt, Véronique

    2014-08-12

    We synthesized surface-active lipophilic core-hydrophilic shell latex particles, and we probed their efficiency as emulsion stabilizers. The relative weight percentage of the shell, RS/P, was varied to trigger the balance between lipophilicity and hydrophilicity of the particles. Particle wettability could concomitantly be tuned by the pH of the aqueous phase determining the surface charge. Emulsions covering a wide range of RS/P and pH values were fabricated, and their type, oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O), and kinetic stability were systematically assessed. By adapting the particle gel trapping technique to pH-variable systems and by exploiting the limited coalescence process, we were able to determine the proportion of oil/water interfacial area, C, covered by the particles as well as their contact angle, ?. All of these data were gathered into a single generic diagram showing good correlation between the emulsion type and the particle contact angle (O/W for ? < 90° and W/O for ? > 90°) in agreement with the empirical Finkle rule. Interestingly, no stable emulsion could be obtained when the wettability was nearly balanced and a "bipolar"-like behavior was observed, with the particles adopting two different contact angles whose average value was close to 90°. For particles such that ? < 90°, O/W emulsions were obtained, and, depending on the pH of the continuous phase, the same type of particles and the same emulsification process led to emulsions characterized either by large drops densely covered by the particles or by small droplets that were weakly covered. The two metastable states were also accessible to emulsions stabilized by particles of variable origins and morphologies, thus proving the generality of our findings. PMID:25055160

  12. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  13. Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic PVDF membranes for effective separation of water-in-oil emulsions with high flux.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbin; Shi, Zhun; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xia; Jin, Jian; Jiang, Lei

    2013-04-11

    A superhydrophobic-superoleophilic PVDF membrane is fabricated via an inert solvent-induced phase inversion for effective separation of both micrometer and nanometer-sized surfactant-free and surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions solely driven by gravity, with high separation efficiency (oil purity in filtrate after separation > 99.95 wt%) and high flux, which is several times higher than those of commercial filtration membranes and reported materials with similar permeation properties. PMID:23418068

  14. Partition behavior of surfactants, butanol, and salt during application of density-modified displacement of dense non-aqueous phase liquids.

    PubMed

    Damrongsiri, S; Tongcumpou, C; Sabatini, D A

    2013-03-15

    Density-modified displacement (DMD) is a recent approach for removal of trapped dense NAPL (DNAPL). In this study, butanol and surfactant are contacted with the DNAPL to both reduce the density as well as release the trapped DNAPL (perchloroethylene: PCE). The objective of the study was to determine the distribution of each component (e.g., butanol, surfactant, water, PCE) between the original aqueous and PCE phases during the application of DMD. The results indicated that the presence of the surfactant increased the amount of n-butanol required to make the NAPL phase reach its desired density. In addition, water and anionic surfactant were found to partition along with the BuOH into the PCE phase. The water also found partitioned to reverse micelles in the modified phase. Addition of salt was seen to increase partitioning of surfactant to BuOH containing PCE phase. Subsequently, a large amount of water was solubilized into reverse micelles which lead to significantly increase in volume of the PCE phase. This work thus demonstrates the role of each component and the implications for the operation design of an aquifer treatment using the DMD technique. PMID:23385206

  15. Stabilization of Pickering Emulsions with Oppositely Charged Latex Particles: Influence of Various Parameters and Particle Arrangement around Droplets.

    PubMed

    Nallamilli, Trivikram; Binks, Bernard P; Mani, Ethayaraja; Basavaraj, Madivala G

    2015-10-20

    In this study we explore the fundamental aspects of Pickering emulsions stabilized by oppositely charged particles. Using oppositely charged latex particles as a model system, Pickering emulsions with good long-term stability can be obtained without the need for any electrolyte. The effects of parameters like oil to water ratio, mixed particle composition, and pH on emulsion type and stability are explored and linked to the behavior of the aqueous particle dispersion prior to emulsification. The particle composition is found to affect the formation of emulsions, viz., stable emulsions were obtained close to a particle number ratio of 1:1, and no emulsion was formed with either positively or negatively charged particles alone. The emulsions in particle mixtures exhibited phase inversion from oil-in-water to water-in-oil beyond an oil volume fraction of 0.8. Morphological features of emulsion droplets in terms of particle arrangement on the droplets are discussed. PMID:26411316

  16. SURFACTANT - POLYMER INTERACTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-10-01

    The goal of this research is to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, adsorption and mobility control. Surfactant--polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation high adsorption and viscous/heterogeneity fingering. A mixture comprising a ''pseudo oil'' with appropriate surfactant and polymer has been selected to study micellar-polymer chemical flooding. The physical properties and phase behavior of this system have been determined. A surfactant-polymer slug has been designed to achieve high efficiency recovery by improving phase behavior and mobility control. Recovery experiments have been performed on linear cores and a quarter 5-spot. The same recovery experiments have been simulated using a commercially available simulator (UTCHEM). Good agreement between experimental data and simulation results has been achieved.

  17. Deformation of double emulsions under conditions of flow cytometry hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shaohua; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Balabani, Stavroula

    2015-10-27

    Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) microfluidics double emulsions offer a new route to compartmentalise reagents into isolated aqueous microenvironments while maintaining an aqueous carrier fluid phase; this enables compatibility with commercial flow cytometry systems such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Double emulsion (inner core) deformation under hydrodynamic focusing conditions that mimic the environment double emulsions experience in flow cytometry applications is of particular importance for droplet stability and cell viability. This paper reports on an experimental study of the dynamic deformation of aqueous cores of w/o/w double emulsions under hydrodynamic focusing, with the sheath flow directed at 45° to the sample flow. A number of factors affecting the inner core deformation and recovery were examined. Deformation was found to depend significantly on the core or shell viscosity, the droplet-to-sheath flow velocity ratio, and core and shell sizes. Core deformation was found to depend more on the type of surfactant rather concentration with high molecular weight surfactant exhibiting a negligible effect on deformation whereas low molecular weight surfactant enhancing deformation at low concentrations due to their lateral mobility at the interface. PMID:26394745

  18. Amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Lipowski, S. A.

    1985-11-12

    An amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion is prepared which contains a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer and an amphoteric vinyl monomer or a terpolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer, an anionic vinyl monomer and a cationic vinyl monomer in the aqueous phase, a hydrocarbon oil for the oil phase, a water-in-oil emulsifying agent and an inverting surfactant. An example of a copolymer is a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide and an amphoteric vinyl monomer such as a reaction product of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and monochloracetic acid. An example of a terpolymer is a terpolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide, an anionic vinyl monomer such as sodium acrylate and a cationic vinyl monomer such as triethyl ammonium ethyl methacrylate methosulfate salt. The emulsion is useful in papermaking, treatment of sewage and industrial wastes, drilling muds and secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum by water flooding.

  19. Formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of cold pressed rice bran oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Thanonkaew, Amonrat; Wongyai, Surapote; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David J

    2015-10-01

    Cold pressed rice bran oil (CPRBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health and functional attributes. The purpose of this work was to study the formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsion of CPRBO. The influence of oil (10-40 % CPRBO) and surfactant (1-5 % glyceryl monostearate (GMS)) concentration on the properties of emulsions were studied. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of CPRBO emulsions decreased as GMS concentration increased, which was attributed to a decrease in droplet size after homogenization. The CPRBO emulsion was stable during storage at room temperature for 30 days. Increasing the oil concentration in the CPRBO emulsions increased their antioxidant activity, which can be attributed to the corresponding increase in phytochemical content. However, GMS concentration had little impact on the antioxidant activity of CPRBO emulsions. The storage of CPRBO emulsion at room temperature showed that lipid oxidation markers gradually increased after 30 days of storage, which was correlated to a decrease in gamma oryzanol content and antioxidant activity. These results have important implications for the utilization of rice bran oil (RBO) as a function ingredient in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:26396397

  20. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of Nystatin micro emulsion based gel.

    PubMed

    Maqsood, Iram; Masood, Muhammad Irfan; Bashir, Sajid; Nawaz, Hafiz Muhammad Awais; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Shahzadi, Iram; Ahmad, Mahmood; Imran Masood, Imran Masood

    2015-09-01

    Nystatin is a polyene antimycotic obtained from Streptomyces noursei used in the treatment of topical and transdermal fungal infection. Nystatin is nearly insoluble in water (<0.1) and it is amphoteric in nature. The aim of the present study was to design and develop Nystatin micro emulsion based gel for efficient delivery of drug to the skin by water titration method. The Pseudoternary phase diagrams 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 were constructed by water titration method. Micro emulsion based gel was prepared by using oleic acid, Tween 20, propylene glycol as an oil phase, surfactant and cosurfactant respectively. Cabopol 940 was used as a gelling agent. In vitro evaluation of micro emulsion based gel was done for pH, Viscosity, spreadability and droplet size. Micro emulsion based gel showed greater antifungal activity against Candida albicansas compared to control formulations. In vitro drug release studies were conducted for micro emulsion based gel and control formulation using Franz diffusion cell. Drug penetration through synthetic skin followed Zero order model as the values for R2 higher in case of zero order equation. The optimized micro emulsion based gel was found to be stable and showed no physical changes when exposed to different temperatures for a period of 4 week. The results indicated that the micro emulsion based gel system studied would be a promising tool for enhancing the percutaneous delivery of Nystatin. PMID:26408879

  1. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  2. Formation of Oil-in-Water Emulsions from Natural Emulsifiers Using Spontaneous Emulsification: Sunflower Phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Komaiko, Jennifer; Sastrosubroto, Ashtri; McClements, David Julian

    2015-11-18

    This study examined the possibility of producing oil-in-water emulsions using a natural surfactant (sunflower phospholipids) and a low-energy method (spontaneous emulsification). Spontaneous emulsification was carried out by titrating an organic phase (oil and phospholipid) into an aqueous phase with continuous stirring. The influence of phospholipid composition, surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), initial phospholipids location, storage time, phospholipid type, and preparation method was tested. The initial droplet size depended on the nature of the phospholipid used, which was attributed to differences in phospholipid composition. Droplet size decreased with increasing SOR and was smallest when the phospholipid was fully dissolved in the organic phase rather than the aqueous phase. The droplets formed using spontaneous emulsification were relatively large (d > 10 ?m), and so the emulsions were unstable to gravitational separation. At low SORs (0.1 and 0.5), emulsions produced with phospholipids had a smaller particle diameter than those produced with a synthetic surfactant (Tween 80), but at a higher SOR (1.0), this trend was reversed. High-energy methods (microfluidization and sonication) formed significantly smaller droplets (d < 10 ?m) than spontaneous emulsification. The results from this study show that low-energy methods could be utilized with natural surfactants for applications for which fine droplets are not essential. PMID:26528859

  3. Lipid injectable emulsions: 2006.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, David F

    2006-08-01

    Lipid injectable emulsions are an essential source of fatty acids, as well as a daily source of calories. They have been used in the clinical setting for almost 40 years, but despite this, there are no established official standards governing pharmaceutical quality. After 15 years of development, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), which writes such standards for all FDA-approved pharmaceuticals, is poised to adopt an official monograph for lipid injectable emulsions that sets pharmaceutical requirements on all manufacturers placing limits on pH, free fatty acid concentrations and globule size (both mean droplet size and the population of large fat globules larger than 5 micrometers). Recent animal data has shown pathophysiologic changes in vital organs for lipids that fall outside the USP-proposed globule size limits. From a clinical perspective, newer lipid injectable emulsions show great promise in certain patient settings, most notably in the intensive care unit in both adults and infants. The clinical use of alternative oils, such as medium-chain triglycerides, fish oil and olive oil show benefits over conventional soybean oil formulations. In adults, for example, the administration of omega-fatty acids via soybean oil-based lipids produces a heightened inflammatory response via production of 2-series prostaglandins, whereas substitution of a portion of the lipid with omega-3 fatty acids via fish oil can favorably dampen the inflammatory response. In infants, for example, substitution of soybean oil with fish oil has recently been shown to reverse parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. These advances should lead to safer infusion therapy in patients receiving lipid injectable emulsions. PMID:16870806

  4. Stabilization of water/gas oil emulsions by desulfurizing cells of Gordonia alkanivorans RIPI90A.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, Ghasemali; Ball, Andrew; Kaytash, Ashk; Rasekh, Behnam

    2007-05-01

    It has been previously reported that resting-cells, non-proliferating cells, of Gordonia alkanivorans RIPI90A can convert dibenzothiophene (DBT) to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) via the 4S pathway in a biphasic system. The main goal of the current work was to study the behaviour of resting-cells of this strain in biphasic organic media. Resting-cells showed strong affinity for sulfurous organic substrates and were able to stabilize water/gas oil emulsions by attaching to the interface without decreasing the surface tension of their environment. This was consistent with the behaviour of the whole cells but not the surfactants, suggesting that microbial cell-mediated emulsification occurs. It was found that the emulsion-stabilizing activity of the resting-cells was influenced by the growth stage, but was not directly influenced by the metabolic activity of the resting-cells. This activity may be related to cell-surface hydrophobicity, which results from the unique chemical structure of the cell surface. In some biphasic biodesulfurization (BDS) bioreactors, emulsions are created without addition of any surfactant. Cell surface-mediated stabilization helps prolong the emulsions and therefore overcomes mass-transfer limitations in bioreactors. The simultaneous occurrence of emulsion-stabilizing and desulfurization activities of resting-cells was observed for what is believed to be the first time. The results suggest that this strain may have potential for the BDS of diesel oils. PMID:17464072

  5. Anisotropic microparticles created by phase separation of polymer blends confined in monodisperse emulsion drops.

    PubMed

    Min, Nam Gi; Kim, Bomi; Lee, Tae Yong; Kim, Dahin; Lee, Doh C; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2015-01-27

    Anisotropic microparticles are promising as a new class of colloidal or granular materials due to their advanced functionalities which are difficult to achieve with isotropic particles. However, synthesis of the anisotropic microparticles with a highly controlled size and shape still remains challenging, despite their intense demands. Here, we report a microfluidic approach to create uniform anisotropic microparticles using phase separation of polymer blends confined in emulsion drops. Two different polymers are homogeneously dissolved in organic solvent at low concentration, which is microfluidically emulsified to produce oil-in-water emulsion drops. As the organic solvent diffuses out, small domains are formed in the emulsion drops, which are then merged, forming only two distinct domains. After the drops are fully consolidated, uniform anisotropic microparticles with two compartments are created. The shape of the resulting microparticles is determined by combination of a pair of polymers and type of surfactant. Spherical microparticles with eccentric core and incomplete shell are prepared by consolidation of polystyrene (PS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA), and microparticles with single crater are formed by consolidation of PS and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA); both emulsions are stabilized with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). With surfactants of triblock copolymer, acorn-shaped Janus microparticles are obtained by consolidating emulsion drops containing PS and PLA. This microfluidic production of anisotropic particles can be further extended to any combination of polymers and colloids to provide a variety of structural and chemical anisotropy. PMID:25549662

  6. Charm studies in emulsion

    E-print Network

    Kalinin, Sergey

    Neutrino-nucleon scattering is an effective way to investigate the inner structure of the nucleon, to extract the Standard Model parameters and to explore heavy quarks production dynamics. In the last decades, several experiments have been constructed to study weak interactions of neutrinos with nucleons. One of them was CERN-WA95 experiment operated by the CHORUS collaboration. It is based on a hybrid detector with nuclear emulsion as a target followed by electronic devices. Nuclear emulsion provides three dimensional spatial information with an outstanding resolution of the order of one micron. Therefore, it is ideal to detect short-lived particles. A special technique has been developed to reconstruct events in the emulsion which allows to perform a detailed investigation of events such as charmed hadrons production by neutrinos. As a result, the backround in the selected charm sample is up to six times lower compared to similar experiments. Such a method also permits to make direct measurements of some qu...

  7. Emulsion-Assisted Synthesis of Nickel Sulfide Hierarchical Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Pai; Xue, Dongfeng

    We herein demonstrated the preparation of nickel sulfide hierarchical architectures via an emulsion-assisted route in hydrothermal system. Scanning electron microscope images of the products at different reaction stages indicated that the construction of the nanostructured hierarchical nickel sulfide was accomplished through oriented attachment accompanied by an encapsulation procedure, and the as-obtained products exhibited uniform architectures assembled by various primary units (e.g. nanorods, nanosheets). In addition, the effect of different surfactants on the shape of nickel sulfide nanostructures was further studied. The results indicated that the hierarchical architectures can only be achieved with the assistance of anionic surfactant (e.g. sodium dodecyl sulfate). These as-prepared novel hierarchical nanostructures may be used in various areas, including industrial catalysis, and energy storage etc.

  8. LNAPL Removal from Unsaturated Porous Media using Surfactant Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2012-11-19

    A series of unsaturated column experiments was performed to evaluate light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) fate and removal during surfactant solution infiltration. Surfactant-LNAPL phase behavior tests were conducted to optimize the remedial solutions. Packed sand and site sediment columns were first processed to establish representative LNAPL smear zone under unsaturated conditions. Infiltration of low-concentration surfactant was then applied in a stepwise flush mode, with 0.3 column pore volume (PV) of solution in each flush. The influence of infiltrated surfactant solution volume and pH on LNAPL removal was assessed. A LNAPL bank was observed at the very front of the first surfactant infiltration in each column, indicating that a very low surfactant concentration is needed to reduce the LNAPL-water interfacial tension sufficiently enough to mobilize trapped LNAPL under unsaturated conditions. More LNAPL was recovered as additional steps of surfactant infiltration were applied. Up to 99% LNAPL was removed after six infiltration steps, with less than 2.0 PV of total surfactant solution application, suggesting surfactant infiltration may be an effective method for vadose zone LNAPL remediation. The influence of pH tested in this study (3.99~10.85) was insignificant because the buffering capacity of the sediment kept the pH in the column higher than the zero point charge, pHzpc, of the sediment and therefore the difference between surfactant sorption was negligible.

  9. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1980-08-20

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  10. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Jr., James S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Westmoreland, Clyde G. (Rockwood, TN)

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  11. Multi-scale approach for the rheological characteristics of emulsions using molecular dynamics and lattice Boltzmann method

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Bin; Yoon, Hong Min; Lee, Joon Sang

    2014-01-01

    An emulsion system was simulated under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using a hierarchical multi-scale approach. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to describe the interface of droplets in an emulsion. The equations derived from the MD simulation relative to interfacial tension, temperature, and surfactant concentration were applied as input parameters within lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) calculations. In the LBM simulation, we calculated the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear rate along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The equations from the MD simulation showed that the interfacial tension of the droplets tended to decrease with an increase in temperature and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity from the LBM simulation decreased with an increase in temperature. The shear thinning phenomena explaining the inverse proportion between shear rate and viscosity were observed. An increase in the surfactant concentration caused an increase in the relative viscosity for a decane-in-water emulsion, because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress. PMID:25332732

  12. Membrane-Integrated Glass Capillary Device for Preparing Small-Sized Water-in-Oil-in-Water Emulsion Droplets.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Kazuki; Kanasugi, Shosuke; Nakao, Shin-ichi; Weitz, David A

    2015-06-30

    In this study, a membrane-integrated glass capillary device for preparing small-sized water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion droplets is demonstrated. The concept of integrating microfluidics to prepare precise structure-controlled double emulsion droplets with the membrane emulsification technique provides a simple method for preparing small-sized and structure-controlled double emulsion droplets. The most important feature of the integrated device is the ability to decrease droplet size when the emulsion droplets generated at the capillary pass through the membrane. At the same time, most of the oil shell layer is stripped away and the resultant double emulsion droplets have thin shells. It is also demonstrated that the sizes of the resultant double emulsion droplets are greatly affected by both the double emulsion droplet flux through membranes and membrane pore size; when the flux is increased and membrane pore size is decreased, the generated W/O/W emulsion droplets are smaller than the original. In situ observation of the permeation behavior of the W/O/W emulsion droplets through membranes using a high-speed camera demonstrates (1) the stripping of the middle oil phase, (2) the division of the double emulsion droplets to generate two or more droplets with smaller size, and (3) the collapse of the double emulsion droplets. The first phenomenon results in a thinner oil shell, and the second division phenomenon produces double emulsion droplets that are smaller than the original. PMID:26057203

  13. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (SS-6656, Alfoterra 35, 38, 63,65,68) have been identified which can change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. All the carbonate surfaces (Lithographic Limestone, Marble, Dolomite and Calcite) show similar behavior with respect to wettability alteration with surfactant 4-22. Anionic surfactants (5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38 and Alfoterra-68), which lower the interfacial tension with a West Texas crude oil to very low values (<10{sup -2} nM/m), have also been identified. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability, mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  14. Interfacial properties of pulmonary surfactant layers.

    PubMed

    Wüstneck, R; Perez-Gil, J; Wüstneck, N; Cruz, A; Fainerman, V B; Pison, U

    2005-12-14

    The composition of the pulmonary surfactant and the border conditions of normal human breathing are relevant to characterize the interfacial behavior of pulmonary layers. Based on experimental data methods are reviewed to investigate interfacial properties of artificial pulmonary layers and to explain the behavior and interfacial structures of the main components during compression and expansion of the layers observed by epifluorescence and scanning force microscopy. Terms like over-compression, collapse, and formation of the surfactant reservoir are discussed. Consequences for the viscoelastic surface rheological behavior of such layers are elucidated by surface pressure relaxation and harmonic oscillation experiments. Based on a generalized Volmer isotherm the interfacial phase transition is discussed for the hydrophobic surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, as well as for the mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) with these proteins. The behavior of the layers depends on both the oligomerisation state and the secondary structure of the hydrophobic surfactant proteins, which are controlled by the preparation of the proteins. An example for the surface properties of bronchoalveolar porcine lung washings of uninjured, injured, and Curosurf treated lavage is discussed in the light of surface behavior. An outlook summarizes the present knowledge and the main future development in this field of surface science. PMID:16120435

  15. Analyzing Benzene and Cyclohexane Emulsion Droplet Collisions on Ultramicroelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Deng, Haiqiang; Dick, Jeffrey E; Bard, Allen J

    2015-11-01

    We report the collisions of single emulsion oil droplets with extremely low dielectric constants (e.g., benzene, ? of 2.27, or cyclohexane, ? of 2.02) as studied via emulsion droplet reactor (EDR) on an ultramicroelectrode (UME). By applying appropriate potentials to the UME, we observed the electrochemical effects of single-collision signals from the bulk electrolysis of single emulsion droplets. Different hydrophobic redox species (ferrocene, decamethyl-ferrocene, or metalloporphyrin) were trapped in a mixed benzene (or cyclohexane) oil-in-water emulsion using an ionic liquid as the supporting electrolyte and emulsifier. The emulsions were prepared using ultrasonic processing. Spike-like responses were observed in each i-t response due to the complete electrolysis of all of the above-mentioned redox species within the droplet. On the basis of these single-particle collision results, the collision frequency, size distribution, i-t decay behavior of the emulsion droplets, and possible mechanisms are analyzed and discussed. This work demonstrated that bulk electrolysis can be achieved in a few seconds in these attoliter reactors, suggesting many applications, such as analysis and electrosynthesis in low dielectric constant solvents, which have a much broader potential window. PMID:26461801

  16. Development of stable flaxseed oil emulsions as a potential delivery system of ?-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Upadhyay, Neelam; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit; Lal, Darshan; Sabikhi, Latha

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a stable flaxseed oil emulsion for the delivery of omega-3 (?-3) fatty acids through food fortification. Oil-in-water emulsions containing 12.5 % flaxseed oil, 10 % lactose and whey protein concentrate (WPC)-80 ranging from 5 to 12.5 % were prepared at 1,500, 3,000 and 4,500 psi homogenization pressure. Flaxseed oil emulsions were studied for its physical stability, oxidative stability (peroxide value), particle size distribution, zeta (?)-potential and rheological properties. Emulsions homogenized at 1,500 and 4,500 psi pressure showed oil separation and curdling of WPC, respectively, during preparation or storage. All the combinations of emulsions (homogenized at 3,000 psi) were physically stable for 28 days at 4-7?ºC temperature and did not show separation of phases. Emulsion with 7.5 % WPC showed the narrowest particle size distribution (190 to 615 nm) and maximum zeta (?)-potential (-33.5 mV). There was a slight increase in peroxide value (~20.98 %) of all the emulsions (except 5 % WPC emulsion), as compared to that of free flaxseed oil (~44.26 %) after 4 weeks of storage. Emulsions showed flow behavior index (n) in the range of 0.206 to 0.591, indicating higher shear thinning behavior, which is a characteristic of food emulsions. Results indicated that the most stable emulsion of flaxseed oil (12.5 %) can be formulated with 7.5 % WPC-80 and 10 % lactose (filler), homogenized at 3,000 psi pressure. The formulated emulsion can be used as potential omega-3 (?-3) fatty acids delivery system in developing functional foods such as pastry, ice-creams, curd, milk, yogurt, cakes, etc. PMID:26139890

  17. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption of surfactants on particles affects their distribution, fate, and effects in natural waters. xperiments were conducted to study the properties of surfactant (charge and structure), solution [H+], [Ca2+], and [Na+]), and sorbent (e.g., organic carbon and cation exchange...

  18. SURFACTANTS IN LUBRICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surfactants are one of the most widely applied materials by consumers and industry. The application areas for surfactants span from everyday mundane tasks such as cleaning, to highly complex processes involving the formulation of pharmaceuticals, foods, pesticides, lubricants, etc. Even though sur...

  19. Use of surfactants for the remediation of contaminated soils: a review.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xuhui; Jiang, Rui; Xiao, Wei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2015-03-21

    Due to the great harm caused by soil contamination, there is an increasing interest to apply surfactants to the remediation of a variety of contaminated soils worldwide. This review article summarizes the findings of recent literatures regarding remediation of contaminated soils/sites using surfactants as an enhancing agent. For the surfactant-based remedial technologies, the adsorption behaviors of surfactants onto soil, the solubilizing capability of surfactants, and the toxicity and biocompatibility of surfactants are important considerations. Surfactants can enhance desorption of pollutants from soil, and promote bioremediation of organics by increasing bioavailability of pollutants. The removal of heavy metals and radionuclides from soils involves the mechanisms of dissolution, surfactant-associated complexation, and ionic exchange. In addition to the conventional ionic and nonionic surfactants, gemini surfactants and biosurfactants are also applied to soil remediation due to their benign features like lower critical micelle concentration (CMC) values and better biocompatibility. Mixed surfactant systems and combined use of surfactants with other additives are often adopted to improve the overall performance of soil washing solution for decontamination. Worldwide the field studies and full-scale remediation using surfactant-based technologies are yet limited, however, the already known cases reveal the good prospect of applying surfactant-based technologies to soil remediation. PMID:25528485

  20. A Catalyst Platform for Unique Cationic (Co)Polymerization in Aqueous Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Irina V; Yeong, Hui Yee; Delgado, Marco; Ouardad, Samira; Peruch, Frédéric; Voit, Brigitte; Ganachaud, François; Kostjuk, Sergei V

    2015-10-19

    Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (DBSNa) surfactants, with a polydisperse and hyperbranched structure, combined with different rare earth metal salts generate highly water-dispersible Lewis acid surfactant combined catalysts (LASCs). This platform of new complexes promotes fast, efficient cationic polymerization of industrially relevant monomers in direct emulsion at moderate temperature. The process described here does not require high shearing, long polymerization time, or large catalyst content. It allows the reproducible generation of high-molar-mass homopolymers of pMOS, styrene, and isoprene, as well as random or multiblock copolymers of the latter two, in a simple and straightforward one-pot reaction. PMID:26013180

  1. Synergistic effect of mixed cationic and anionic surfactants on the corrosion inhibitor behavior of mild steel in 3.5% NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadian, Soheila; Yousefi, Ali; Neshati, Jaber

    2013-11-01

    The corrosion inhibition characteristics of cation-rich and anion-rich catanionic mixtures of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as corrosion inhibitor of mild steel (MS), in aqueous solution of 3.5% NaCl were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solutions of CTAB/SDS mixtures showed more appropriate inhibition properties compared to the solutions of the individual surfactants, due to strong adsorption on the metal surface and formation of a protective film. Potentiodynamic polarization investigations indicated that the inhibitors studied were mixed type inhibitors. Adsorption of the inhibitors on the mild steel surface obeyed the Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherm. Furthermore, the values of the adsorption free energy (?G°ads) in both mixtures decreased compared with a single surfactant which is attributed to stronger interactions in mixtures.

  2. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of nifedipine: impact of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance and molecular structure of mixed surfactants.

    PubMed

    Weerapol, Yotsanan; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Sriamornsak, Pornsak

    2014-04-01

    A simple but novel mixed surfactant system was designed to fabricate a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) based on hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value. The impacts of HLB and molecular structure of surfactants on the formation of SNEDDS were investigated. After screening various oils and surfactants, nifedipine (NDP)-loaded liquid SNEDDS was formulated with Imwitor(®) 742 as oil and Tween(®)/Span(®) or Cremophor(®)/Span(®) as mixed surfactant. Droplet size of the emulsions obtained after dispersing SNEDDS containing Tween(®)/Span(®) in aqueous medium was independent of the HLB of a mixed surfactant. The use of the Cremophor(®)/Span(®) blend gave nanosized emulsion at higher HLB. The structure of the surfactant was found to influence the emulsion droplet size. Solid SNEDDS was then prepared by adsorbing NDP-loaded liquid SNEDDS comprising Cremophor(®) RH40/Span(®) 80 onto Aerosil(®) 200 or Aerosil(®) R972 as inert solid carrier. Solid SNEDDS formulations using higher amounts (30-50% w/w) of Aerosil(®) 200 exhibited good flow properties with smooth surface and preserved the self-emulsifying properties of liquid SNEDDS. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies of solid SNEDDS revealed the transformation of the crystalline structure of NDP due to its molecular dispersion state. In vitro dissolution study demonstrated higher dissolution of NDP from solid SNEDDS compared with NDP powder. PMID:24452500

  3. Optimization of the canola oil based vitamin E nanoemulsions stabilized by food grade mixed surfactants using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Tahir

    2015-09-15

    The objective of the present study was to prepare canola oil based vitamin E nanoemulsions by using food grade mixed surfactants (Tween:80 and lecithin; 3:1) to replace some concentration of nonionic surfactants (Tween 80) with natural surfactant (soya lecithin) and to optimize their preparation conditions. RBD (Refined, Bleached and Deodorized) canola oil and vitamin E acetate were used in water/vitamin E/oil/surfactant system due to their nutritional benefits and oxidative stability, respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the preparation conditions. The effects of homogenization pressure (75-155MPa), oil concentrations (4-12% w/w), surfactant concentrations (3-11% w/w) and vitamin E acetate contents (0.4-1.2% w/w) on the particle size and emulsion stability were studied. RSM analysis has shown that the experimental data could be fitted well into second-order polynomial model with the coefficient of determinations of 0.9464 and 0.9278 for particle size and emulsion stability, respectively. The optimum values of independent variables were 135MPa homogenization pressure, 6.18% oil contents, 6.39% surfactant concentration and 1% vitamin E acetate concentration. The optimized response values for particle size and emulsion stability were 150.10nm and 0.338, respectively. Whereas, the experimental values for particle size and nanoemulsion stability were 156.13±2.3nm and 0.328±0.015, respectively. PMID:25863602

  4. Rubberized asphalt emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, E.

    1986-09-02

    A method is described of making a rubberized asphalt composition which comprises the steps of: (a) combining asphalt with a hydrocarbon oil having a flash point of 300/sup 0/F. or more to provide a homogenous asphalt-oil mixture or solution, (b) then combining the asphalt-oil mixture with a particulate rubber at a temperature sufficient to provide a homogenous asphalt-rubber-oil gel, and (c) emulsifying the asphalt-rubber-oil gel by passing the gel, water, and an emulsifying agent through a colloid mill to provide an emulsion.

  5. Formation of Novel Aqueous Two-Phase Systems with Piperazinium-Based Ionic Liquids and Anionic Surfactants: Phase Behavior and Microstructure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxing; Cao, Qi; Yu, Jing; Lei, Qunfang; Xie, Hujun; Fang, Wenjun

    2015-09-01

    Two novel aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) involving protic piperazinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) and anionic surfactants were found in the 1-ethylpiperazinium tetrafluoroborate ([C2pi][BF4]) + sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) + H2O system and the 1-phenylpiperazinium tetrafluoroborate ([Phpi][BF4]) + sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) + H2O system. The ATPS regions in the ternary phase diagrams were determined, and the compositions and the microstructures of the conjugated phases were analyzed by UV-vis, (1)H NMR, DLS, and cryogenic TEM measurements. The results demonstrate size-enhanced micelles for both ATPSs. The strong electrostatic interactions between the cationic moiety of IL and the anionic surfactant play a very important role in the assembly of the large aggregates, and the cation-? interactions are involved in the [Phpi][BF4] + SDBS + H2O ATPS. In addition, the small cationic moiety of [C2pi][BF4] can be packed in the micelles, while the larger hydrophilic cationic moiety of [Phpi][BF4] makes it difficult to get into the micelles, leading to the different size enhancement effects. The driving force of phase separation is the formation and distribution of the large aggregates in the aqueous solutions. This work presents a novel nonaromatic ATPS formed by a piperazinium-based IL and an anionic surfactant, in which considerable size enhancement of aggregates takes place without the assistance of aromaticity in contrast to the other aromatic ATPSs. PMID:26258649

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Surfactant Application to Improve Oil Recovery

    E-print Network

    Liu, Zhijun

    2011-09-16

    The objective of this research was to identify high performance surfactant formulations and design efficient core floods for a limestone reservoir with high salinity formation brine. Microemulsion phase behavior experiments ...

  7. Emulsion-liquid-membrane extraction of copper using a hollow-fiber contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S.Y.B.; Wiencek, J.M.

    1998-03-01

    A novel extraction technique using an emulsion liquid membrane within a hollow-fiber contactor was developed and utilized to extract copper using LIX 84 extractant. Emulsion liquid membranes are capable of extracting metals from dilute waste streams to levels much below those possible by equilibrium-limited solvent extraction. Utilizing an emulsion liquid membrane within a hollow-fiber contactor retains the advantages of emulsion-liquid-membrane extraction, namely, simultaneous extraction and stripping, while eliminating problems encountered in dispersive contacting methods, such as swelling and leakage of the liquid membrane. Mathematical models for extraction in hollow-fiber contactors were developed. The models satisfactorily predict the outcome of both simple solvent extraction and emulsion-liquid-membrane extraction of copper by LIX 84 in a hollow-fiber contactor over a wide range of conditions. Emulsion-liquid-membrane extraction performs exceptionally well when the extraction is close to equilibrium limit. It is also capable of extracting a solute f/rom very dilute solutions. Stability of the liquid membrane is not crucial when used in hollow-fiber contactors; the surfactant in liquid membrane can be reduced or even eliminated without severely impairing the performance.

  8. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p < 0.05; 120 consumers). This study shows a promising new approach for sodium reduction in liquid and semi-liquid emulsion based foods. PMID:25865459

  9. Molecular simulations of droplet coalescence in oil/water/surfactant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekvig, Live; Frenkel, Daan

    2007-10-01

    We report a molecular simulation study of the mechanism by which droplets covered with a surfactant monolayer coalesce. We study a model system where the rate-limiting step in coalescence is the rupture of the surfactant film. Our simulations allow us to focus on the stages at the core of the coalescence process: the initial rupture of the two surfactant monolayers, the rearrangement of the surfactant molecules to form a channel connecting the two droplets, and the expansion of the radius of the resulting channel. For our numerical study, we made use of the dissipative particle dynamics method. We used a coarse-grained description of the oil, water, and surfactant molecules. The rupture of the surfactant film is a rare event on the molecular time scale. To enhance the sampling of the rupture of the surfactant film, we used forward flux sampling (FFS). FFS not only allows us to estimate coalescence rates, it also provides insight into the molecular structure and free energy of the "transition" state. For an oil-water-oil film without surfactant, the rupture rate decreases exponentially with increasing film thickness. The critical state is different in thin and thick films: Thin films break following a large enough thickness fluctuation. Thicker films break only after a sufficiently large hole fluctuation—they can heal. Next, we designed surfactant molecules with positive, zero, and negative natural curvatures. For a water film between two surfactant-covered oil droplets, the rupture rate is highest when the surfactant has a negative natural curvature, lowest when it has zero natural curvature, and lying in between when it has a positive natural curvature. This nonmonotonic variation with curvature stems from two effects: First, the surfactants with a large absolute value of the natural curvature have lower interfacial tension and bending rigidity. This promotes the interfacial fluctuations required to nucleate a channel. Second, the sign of the natural curvature determines whether there is a critical channel radius at which the channel free energy has a maximum. The latter is in agreement with the hole-nucleation theory of Kabalnov and Wennerström [Langmuir 12, 276 (1996)]. Our simulations seriously overestimate the relative stability of surfactant free emulsions. We argue that this is due to the fact that our model does not allow for nanobubble formation and capillary evaporation—processes that are presumably of key importance in the coalescence of surfactant-free emulsions.

  10. Metathesis depolymerizable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Tucson, AZ); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Long, Timothy M. (Evanston, IL); McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-15

    A class of surfactant molecules whose structure includes regularly spaced unsaturation in the tail group and thus, can be readily decomposed by ring-closing metathesis, and particularly by the action of a transition metal catalyst, to form small molecule products. These small molecules are designed to have increased volatility and/or enhanced solubility as compared to the original surfactant molecule and are thus easily removed by solvent extraction or vacuum extraction at low temperature. By producing easily removable decomposition products, the surfactant molecules become particularly desirable as template structures for preparing meso- and microstructural materials with tailored properties.

  11. An emulsion polymerization process for soluble and electrically conductive polyaniline

    SciTech Connect

    Kinlen, P.J.; Ding, Y.; Graham, C.R.; Liu, J.; Remsen, E.E.

    1998-07-01

    A new emulsion process has been developed for the direct synthesis of the emeraldine salt of polyaniline (PANI) that is soluble in organic solvents. The process entails forming an emulsion composed of water, a water soluble organic solvent (e.g., 2-butoxyethanol), a water insoluble organic acid (e.g., dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid) and aniline. Aniline is protonated by the organic acid to form a salt which partitions into the organic phase. As oxidant (ammonium peroxydisulfate) is added, PANI salt forms in the organic phase and remains soluble. As the reaction proceeds, the reaction mixture changes from an emulsion to a two phase system, the soluble PANI remaining in the organic phase. With dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (DNNSA) as the organic acid, the resulting product is truly soluble in organic solvents such as xylene and toluene (not a dispersion), of high molecular weight (M{sub w} > 22,000), film forming and miscible with many polymers such as polyurethanes, epoxies and phenoxy resins. As cast, the polyaniline film is only moderately conductive, (10{sup {minus}5} S/cm), however treatment of the film with surfactants such as benzyltriethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) or low molecular weight alcohols and ketones such as methanol and acetone increases the conductivity 2--3 orders of magnitude.

  12. An enzyme containing microemulsion based on skin friendly oil and surfactant as decontamination medium for organo phosphates: phase behavior, structure, and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Ralf; Schulreich, Christoph; Wellert, Stefan; Gäb, Jürgen; Blum, Marc-Michael; Kehe, Kai; Richardt, Andras; Lapp, Alain; Hellweg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution presents a microemulsion system containing cosmetic oil and sugar surfactant and the enzyme diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) as active agent for the decontamination of human skin. The bicontinuous structure and the physical properties of the microemulsion are characterized by dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering. The DFPase from the squid Loligo vulgaris is catalyzing the hydrolysis of highly toxic organophosphates. The effect of the enzyme on the structure of the microemulsion is investigated. Moreover, the enzyme/microemulsion system is also studied with respect to its activity using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy leading to promising results. A fast decomposition of the nerve agent sarin is achieved. PMID:24183440

  13. Long-term stability of crystal-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Supratim; Pradhan, Mamata; Patel, Tejas; Haj-Shafiei, Samira; Rousseau, Dérick

    2015-12-15

    The impact of cooling rate and mixing on the long-term kinetic stability of wax-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions was investigated. Four cooling/mixing protocols were investigated: cooling from 45°C to either 25°C or 4°C with/without stirring and two cooling rates - slow (1°C/min) and fast (5°C/min). The sedimentation behaviour of the emulsions was significantly affected by cooling protocol. Stirring was critical to the stability of all emulsions, with statically-cooled (no stirring) emulsions suffering from extensive aqueous phase separation. Emulsions stirred while cooling showed sedimentation of a waxy emulsion layer leaving a clear oil layer at the top, with a smaller separation and droplet size distribution at 4°C compared to 25°C, indicating the importance of the amount of crystallized wax on emulsion stability. Light microscopy revealed that crystallized wax appeared both on the droplet surface and in the continuous phase, suggesting that stirring ensured dispersibility of the water droplets during cooling as the wax was crystallizing. Wax crystallization on the droplet surface provided stability against droplet coalescence while continuous phase wax crystals minimized inter-droplet collisions. The key novel aspect of this research is in the simplicity to tailor the spatial distribution of wax crystals, i.e., either at the droplet surface or in the continuous phase via use of a surfactant and judicious stirring and/or cooling. Knowledge gained from this research can be applied to develop strategies for long-term storage stability of crystal-stabilized W/O emulsions. PMID:26343977

  14. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Quarterly report, October 1--December 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested. The problem of characterizing emulsions in porous media is very important in enhanced oil recovery applications. This is usually accomplished by externally added or insitu generated surfactants that sweep the oil out of the reservoir. Emulsification of the trapped oil is one of the mechanisms of recovery. The ability to detect emulsions in the porous medium is therefore crucial to designing profitable flood systems. The capability of microwave dielectric techniques to detect emulsions in porous medium is demonstrated by mathematical modelling and by experiments. This quarter the dielectric properties of porous media are shown to be predicted adequately by treating it an an O/W type dispersion of sand grains in water. Dielectric measurements of emulsion flow in porous media show that dielectric techniques may be applied to determine emulsion characteristics in porous media. The experimental observations were confirmed by theoretical analysis.

  15. Waterflooding employing amphoteric surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Stournas, S.

    1980-08-05

    Process for the recovery of oil from a subterranean oil reservoir involving the injection into the reservoir of an aqueous solution of an amphoteric surfactant having an inner quaternary ammonium group linked to a terminal sulfonate or carboxylate group is described. The amphoteric surfactants may be employed in relatively low concentrations within the range of 0.0005 to 0.1% by weight and injected in a slug of at least 0.5 pv. The apparatus may be applied in situations in which the reservoir waters and/or the waters employed in formulating the surfactant solution contain relatively high amounts of divalent metal ions. Specifically described amphoteric surfactants include hydrocarby dialkyl or dihydroxyalkyl ammonium alkane sulfonates and carboxylates in which the hydrocarbyl group contains from 8 to 26 carbon atoms. 29 claims.

  16. Self-Assembly of Gemini Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yethiraj, Arun; Mondal, Jagannath; Mahanthappa, Mahesh

    2013-03-01

    The self-assembly behavior of Gemini (dimeric or twin-tail) dicarboxylate disodium surfactants is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. This gemini architecture, in which two single tailed surfactants are joined through a flexible hydrophobic linker, has been shown to exhibit concentration-dependent aqueous self-assembly into lyotropic phases including hexagonal, gyroid, and lamellar morphologies. Our simulations reproduce the experimentally observed phases at similar amphiphile concentrations in water, including the unusual ability of these surfactants to form gyroid phases over unprecedentedly large amphiphile concentration windows. We demonstrate quanitative agreement between the predicted and experimentally observed domain spacings of these nanostructured materials. Through careful conformation analyses of the surfactant molecules, we show that the gyroid phase is electrostatically stabilized related to the lamellar phase. By starting with a lamellar phase, we show that decreasing the charge on the surfactant headgroups by carboxylate protonation or use of a bulkier tetramethyl ammonium counterion in place of sodium drives the formation of a gyroid phase.

  17. Phytosterol colloidal particles as Pickering stabilizers for emulsions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu; Tang, Chuan-He

    2014-06-01

    Water-insoluble phytosterols were developed into a kind of colloidal particle as Pickering stabilizers for emulsions by a classic anti-solvent method using 100% ethanol as the organic phase to solubilize the phytosterols and whey protein concentrate (WPC) as the emulsifier. The colloidal particles in the dispersion, with morphology of stacked platelet-like sheets, had a mean diameter of 44.7 and 24.7 ?m for the volume- and surface-averaged sizes, respectively. The properties and stability of the emulsions stabilized by these colloidal particles were highly dependent upon the applied total solid concentration (c; in the dispersion) and oil fraction (ø). The results indicated that (1) at a low c value (<1.0%, w/v) the emulsions were susceptible to phase separation, even at a low ø of 0.2, (2) at low ø values (e.g., 0.2 or 0.3) and a relatively high c value (1.0%, w/v, or above), a severe droplet flocculation occurred for the emulsions, and (3) when both c and ø were appropriately high, a kind of self-supporting gel-like emulsions could be formed. More interestingly, a phase inversion of the emulsions from the oil-in-water to water-in-oil type was observed, upon the ø increasing from 0.2 to 0.6 (especially at high c values, e.g., 3.0%, w/v). The elaborated Pickering emulsions stabilized by the phytosterol colloidal particles with a gel-like behavior would provide a candidate to act as a novel delivery system for active ingredients. PMID:24848560

  18. A practicable process for phenol removal with liquid surfactant membrane permeation column

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, Takeshi; Osaki, Katsuhiko; Nishiki, Tadaaki

    1997-05-01

    A practicable liquid surfactant membrane process for phenol removal is proposed with a stirred countercurrent column used as the liquid membrane contact equipment. The constituents of liquid membranes, such as internal aqueous phase and surfactant, the type of column, and the operating conditions for efficient and continuous performance of the liquid surfactant membrane process, have been examined. When NaOH solution was used as the internal aqueous phase and ECA4360J was used as the surfactant, the W/O emulsion was stable for the duration of column operation. More than 97% phenol could be removed from the feed solution. Nearly complete demulsification was also achieved by gentle agitation with an electrostatic demulsifier.

  19. Numerical analysis of electromagnetic cascades in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plyasheshnikov, A. V.; Vorobyev, K. V.

    1985-01-01

    A new calculational scheme of the Monte Carlo method assigned for the investigation of the development of high and extremely high energy electromagnetic cascades (EMC) in the matter was elaborated. The scheme was applied to the analysis of angular and radial distributions of EMC electrons in the atmosphere. By means of this scheme the EMC development in dense medium is investigated and some preliminary data are presented on the behavior of EMC in emulsion chambers. The results of more detailed theoretical analysis of the EMC development in emulsion chambers are discussed.

  20. A Surface Force Study of Polymer-Surfactant Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Carlos; Anthony, O.; Richetti, P.

    1997-03-01

    We study the interactions between a cationic modified guar and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS). The bulk properties have been investigated by rheology and spectrofluorimetry. A Surface Force Apparatus (SFA) was used to determine the structure of the adsorbed polymer-surfactant layer. The bulk behavior is typical of a polymer-surfactant solution where the polymer and the surfactant bear opposite charges. For low enough SDS concentrations, the surfactant and the polymer mix in a single phase. A two phase region is reached at charge equivalence and redissolution of a very low viscosity solution by charge inversion is observed for higher SDS concentrations. At the mica surface, the cationic polymer adsorbs in a configuration with thickness of the order of 250 nm. When SDS is added, the change in both the layer thickness and the forces profile indicate a strong structural modification upon increasing surfactant concentration of the adsorbed layer.

  1. Aqueous Gemini Surfactant Self-Assembly into Complex Lyotropic Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanthappa, Mahesh; Sorenson, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    In spite of the potentially wide-ranging applications of aqueous bicontinuous lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs), the discovery of amphiphiles that reliably form these non-constant mean curvature morphologies over large phase windows remains largely serendipitous. Recent work has established that cationic gemini surfactants exhibit a pronounced tendency to form bicontinuous cubic (e.g. gyroid) phases as compared to their parent single-tail amphiphiles. The universality of this phenomenon in other surfactant systems remains untested. In this paper, we will report the aqueous LLC phase behavior of a new class of anionic gemini surfactants derived from long chain carboxylic acids. Our studies show that these new surfactants favor the formation of non-constant mean curvature gyroid and primitive (``Plumber's Nightmare'') structures over amphiphile concentration windows up to 20 wt% wide. Based on these observations, we will discuss insights gained into the delicate force balance governing the self-assembly of these surfactants into aqueous bicontinuous LLCs.

  2. Stabilization of phase inversion temperature nanoemulsions by surfactant displacement.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jiajia; McClements, David Julian

    2010-06-01

    Nanoemulsions are finding increasing utilization in the food and beverage industry to encapsulate and protect lipophilic functional components. Low-intensity methods, such as the phase inversion temperature (PIT) approach, are of particular interest for forming food-grade nanoemulsions because of their ease of formation and relatively low energy costs. Nevertheless, this type of emulsion tends to be highly unstable to droplet coalescence after preparation. In this study, we develop a potential solution to this problem using model water/surfactant (Brij 30, C(12)E(4))/oil (tetradecane) systems. The PIT and system morphology were determined by monitoring the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity, turbidity, and microstructure of the emulsions. Nanoemulsions were formed by holding water/surfactant/oil mixtures at their PIT and then rapidly cooling them. The influence of storage temperature on emulsion stability was investigated, which indicated that the optimum temperature (13 degrees C) was about 27 degrees C lower than the PIT (approximately 40 degrees C). Higher storage temperatures resulted in an increase in droplet growth rate due to coalescence, while lower temperatures led to gelation. Nanoemulsions that were relatively stable to coalescence could be formed at ambient temperatures by adding either Tween 80 (0.2 wt %) or SDS (0.1 wt %) to displace the Brij 30 from the droplet surfaces. We propose that these surfactants increase nanoemulsion stability by changing the optimum curvature of the interfacial layer, as well as by increasing the repulsive interactions (steric or electrostatic) between the droplets. This study may lead to a novel approach to create stable nanoemulsion-based delivery systems that are suitable for utilization within the food industry. PMID:20476765

  3. Kenaf as a deep-bed filter medium to remove oil from oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Varghese, B.K.; Cleveland, T.G.

    1998-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of deep-bed filtration using kenaf (agricultural fiber) media for the removal of oil from oil-in-waste emulsions. Continuous flow, constant pressure filtrations were conducted using surfactant stabilized emulsions. Removal of oil and grease varied from 70 to 95% for 500 mg/L oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by surfactants. Oil removal was better for larger oil drops, finer media particles, higher filtration pressure, lower pH, cationic surfactant, and deeper media. Moisture contents and heating values of the spent media were determined. Moisture content decreased with increasing filtration pressure and decreasing particle size of the media. Heating values of the spent media increased with the volume of emulsion filtered. Heating values were high enough to produce surplus energy after accounting for the energy required for driving out the moisture. The results indicated that it may be possible to dispose of the spent medium by combustion without further drying and extract net energy in the process.

  4. Thermocapillary Motion in an Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukhnachov, Vladislav V.; Voinov, Oleg V.

    1996-01-01

    The phenomenological model for the motion of an emulsion or a gas-liquid mixture exposed to thermocapillary forces and micro-acceleration is formulated. The analytical and numerical investigation of one-dimensional flows for these media is fulfilled, the structure of discontinuous motion is studied. The stability conditions of a space-uniform state and of the interface between an emulsion and a pure liquid are obtained.

  5. Rheological characterization of O/W emulsions incorporated with neutral and charged polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Vianna-Filho, Ricardo Padilha; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia Oliveira; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira

    2013-03-01

    The effects of polysaccharides, including xyloglucan from Hymenaea courbaril (XG), galactomannans from Schizolobium parahybae (GMSP) and Mimosa scabrella (GMMS), xanthan gum (XT), sodium hyaluronate (HNa) and Fucogel(®) (FG), on the rheological behavior of cosmetic emulsions were evaluated. These incorporations gave rise to six emulsified systems, denoted XGE, GMSPE, GMMSE, XTE, HNaE and FGE, respectively. The emulsion consistency was found to follow the trend GMSPE>XGE>HNaE>FGE>XTE>GMMSE. In general, the addition of polysaccharides increased the viscoelastic properties of the emulsions and decreased the creep compliance. The neutral polysaccharides (GMSPE, GMMSE) led to better stability of the emulsions after storing for 20 days relative to charged polymers. It was found that polysaccharides XG, GMSP and GMMS, which come from the seeds of native Brazilian plant species, might be used to modify the flow properties and stabilities of oil-water emulsions. PMID:23465929

  6. Separation Properties of Wastewater Containing O/W Emulsion Using Ceramic Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF) Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuho; Matsumoto, Kanji

    2013-01-01

    Washing systems using water soluble detergent are used in electrical and mechanical industries and the wastewater containing O/W emulsion are discharged from these systems. Membrane filtration has large potential for the efficient separation of O/W emulsion for reuses of treated water and detergent. The separation properties of O/W emulsions by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration were studied with ceramic MF and UF membranes. The effects of pore size; applied pressure; cross-flow velocity; and detergent concentration on rejection of O/W emulsion and flux were systematically studied. At the condition achieving complete separation of O/W emulsion the pressure-independent flux was observed and this flux behavior was explained by gel-polarization model. The O/W emulsion tended to permeate through the membrane at the conditions of larger pore size; higher emulsion concentration; and higher pressure. The O/W emulsion could permeate the membrane pore structure by destruction or deformation. These results imply the stability of O/W emulsion in the gel-layer formed on membrane surface play an important role in the separation properties. The O/W emulsion was concentrated by batch cross-flow concentration filtration and the flux decline during the concentration filtration was explained by the gel- polarization model. PMID:24958621

  7. Food grade duplex emulsions designed and stabilised with different osmotic pressures.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Aleksandra; Cox, Philip W; Norton, Ian T

    2010-12-01

    In this study we have investigated the production of food grade W(1)/O/W(2) duplex emulsions with salt partitioned into one water phase but not the other. Investigations were carried out with and without balancing osmotic pressures with glucose. A stable 30% primary W(1)/O emulsions containing salt could be produced with more than or equal to 2% polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) in the oil phase. We suggest that the addition of salt strengthens the interactions between surfactant molecules in the adsorbed film. This is supported by interfacial viscosity and elasticity measurements both of which increased on addition of salt and the fact that in the presence of salt the emulsion was more stable. These simple emulsions were then processed to construct duplex emulsions. When osmotic pressures were balanced with glucose there was still a release of salt in storage. The extent and rate of release was proportional to glucose concentration. This effect was followed over a period of 60days. These data suggest that the release is driven by the chemical potential difference between the two water compartments rather than the unbalanced osmotic pressures. These observations are explained in the context of a water structuring effect from the added glucose, which lowers the interfacial tension of oil-water interface and thus facilitates micellar transport of hydrated salt ions across the oil layer. PMID:20828706

  8. Adsorption of Glycosidic Surfactants at the Mercury Electrode

    PubMed

    Mousty; Maurice; Mousset; Schollhorn; Lefeuvre; Plusquellec

    1996-12-25

    The adsorption of glycosidic surfactants from aqueous electrolyte solutions on a mercury electrode was studied by means of differential capacitive measurements (tensammetric method). The adsorption behavior of the mono- and disaccharidic surfactants studied is discussed in relation to their micellar properties, in particular their respective critical micellar concentration (CMC). With monosaccharidic surfactants, a broad and bell-shaped peak is observed on the tensammetric curves and it suggests the formation of a monolayer called hemimicelle at the mercury electrode. For disaccharidic compounds, the split capacity peak observed at concentrations above the CMC suggests the formation of a multilayer of micelles throughout the electrical double layer. PMID:8978573

  9. statistical physics canonical ensemble Surfactants

    E-print Network

    the surface tension on the surface of a liquid. Surfactants find great usage in a variety of chemical applications, such as paints, inks, detergents, adhesives and shampoo; a typical surfactant is a molecule

  10. Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haracz, S.; Hilgendorff, M.; Rybka, J. D.; Giersig, M.

    2015-12-01

    For different medical applications nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined magnetic properties have to be used. Coating ligand can change the magnetic moment on the surface of nanostructures and therefore the magnetic behavior of the system. Here we investigated magnetic NPs in a size of 13 nm conjugated with four different kinds of surfactants. The surface anisotropy and the magnetic moment of the system were changed due to the presence of the surfactant on the surface of iron oxide NPs.

  11. Wettability of Freon hydrates in crude oil/brine emulsions.

    PubMed

    Høiland, S; Askvik, K M; Fotland, P; Alagic, E; Barth, T; Fadnes, F

    2005-07-01

    The surface energy of petroleum hydrates is believed to be a key parameter with regard to hydrate morphology and plugging tendency in petroleum production. As of today, the surface energy of natural gas hydrates is unknown, but will depend on the fluids in which they grow. In this work, the wettability of Freon hydrates is evaluated from their behavior in crude oil emulsions. For emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles, the particle wettability is a governing parameter for the emulsion behavior. The transition between continuous and dispersed phases as a function of brine volume in crude oil-brine emulsions containing Freon hydrates has been determined for 12 crude oils. Silica particles are used for comparison. The results show that phase inversion is highly dependent on crude oil properties. Based on the measured points of phase inversion, the wettability of the Freon hydrates generated in each system is evaluated as being oil-wet, intermediate-wet, or water-wet. Generation of oil-wet hydrates correlates with low hydrate plugging tendency. The formation of oil-wet hydrates will prevent agglomeration into large hydrate aggregates and plugs. Hence, it is believed that the method is applicable for differentiating oils with regard to hydrate morphology. PMID:15914170

  12. Synthesis of organic rectorite with novel Gemini surfactants for copper removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guocheng; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Shijie; Sun, Runcang

    2014-10-01

    Three novel Gemini surfactants were used to prepare organic rectorite (OREC) under microwave irradiation, in comparison with single-chain surfactant ester quaternary ammonium salt (EQAS) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The structure and morphology of OREC were characterized by XRD, BET, FT-IR, TEM and TGA. The removal of Cu2+ on OREC from aqueous solution was performed. The results reveal that Gemini surfactants modified REC had larger interlayer distance and higher surface area than single-chain surfactants EQAS and CTAB, and the increasing amount or chain length of Gemini surfactants led to larger layer spacing and higher adsorption capacities. The adsorption behavior of Gemini surfactant modified REC can be better described by Freundlich adsorption isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 15.16 mg g-1. The desorption and regeneration experiments indicate good reuse property of Gemini modified REC adsorbent. Therefore, this study may widen the utilization of Gemini surfactants modified layered silicates.

  13. Micromixers to produce cosmetic emulsions.

    PubMed

    Tromeur, M; Mahé, C; Schwesinger, N; Tranchant, J-F

    2003-04-01

    In the cosmetics industry, emulsions play a key-role in active solubilization and texture/efficacy optimization. However, depending on their physico-chemical properties, the active ingredients are often more stable in a single phase: for example, Vitamin A is more stable in an oily phase than in a water phase. We have developed a special mixing device which produces an emulsion in the body of the pump, immediately before application on the skin. The mixing unit consists of two silicon chips. Each chip has several Y-shaped microchannels and intersections etched on its upper surface. When the two etched surfaces are bonded together, they produce series of interconnecting micromixing elements which permit the repeat mixing of the two phases, thus producing an extremely homogenous emulsion. These micromixers require carefully designed formulae in which the physico-chemical properties of each raw material are essential to obtain a spontaneous emulsion. This device has been incorporated into a spray pack and optimized to deliver the spontaneous emulsion when finger pressure is applied. PMID:18494875

  14. Hydraulic resistance to emulsion flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ermakov, V.I.; Blokhin, A.V.; Shevelev, A.V.

    1984-03-01

    This article demonstrates how the starting emulsion viscosity can be used to calculate hydraulic resistance. The emulsions for the experiments were prepared by saturating the liquid in an apparatus with a stirrer by a gas or a second liquid (water) acting as the disperse phase. The hydraulic resistance in emulsion flow through straight tubes was determined by measuring the pressure differential in a 1-m-long tube section in a circulation type apparatus by using tubes of different diameters. Water-in-oil type emulsion is formed in oil exploitation and desalination processes as well as in polymer synthesis when the polymer and its solution is washed off the catalyst residues with water. It is determined that in calculating the hydraulic resistance it is proper to use the starting emulsion viscosity since the end value under real conditions will be unknown because it depends on the initial state of dispersion of the water drops and the packing parameters which determine the packing capacity from drop enlargements.

  15. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Sergio; van Konigsveld, Gerrit A; Vereijken, Johan M; Merck, Karin B; Gruppen, Harry; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2005-03-23

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet size, surface excess, and the occurrence of coalescence and/or droplet aggregation. Sunflower proteins were shown to form stable emulsions, with the exception of SFAs at neutral and alkaline pH values. Droplet aggregation occurred in emulsions made with SI, helianthinin, and SFAs. Droplet aggregation and subsequent coalescence of emulsions made with SFAs could be prevented at pH 3. Calcium was found to cause droplet aggregation of emulsions made with helianthinin, at neutral and alkaline pH values. Treatments that increase conformational flexibility of the protein molecule improved the emulsion properties of sunflower proteins. PMID:15769166

  16. Fractional crystallization of oil droplets in O/W emulsions dispersed by Synperonic F127.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Gómez, Juan Ramón; Balmori-Ramírez, Heberto; Durán-Páramo, Enrique

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this works is to study an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized with a triblock copolymer Synperonic F127 which presents a double size distribution of oil droplets. The emulsions were studied experimentally by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The DSC analysis was carried out focusing on the cooling behavior of the emulsion. The cooling thermograms of the oil-in-water emulsion revealed two crystallization peaks with Gaussian profile; the interesting characteristic is that both peaks are separated in temperature. In accordance to previous works for a single oil dispersed within an aqueous phase, the DSC technique must show a single Gaussian peak of crystallization attributable to a size distribution of droplets. In the present case of emulsions stabilized with 1 g/L of Synperonic F127, the aggregation behavior of triblock as a function of temperature allows to produce an emulsion with a double size droplet distribution. Comparison with emulsions stabilized with 2 and 4 wt% of non-ionic Tween 20 are also presented. PMID:22652588

  17. Effect of salts on formation and stability of vitamin E-enriched mini-emulsions produced by spontaneous emulsification.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Amir Hossein; Fang, Yuan; McClements, David Julian

    2014-11-19

    Emulsion-based delivery systems are being utilized to incorporate lipophilic bioactive components into various food, personal care, and pharmaceutical products. This study examined the influence of inorganic salts (NaCl and CaCl2) on the formation, stability, and properties of vitamin E-enriched emulsions prepared by spontaneous emulsification. These emulsions were simply formed by titration of a mixture of vitamin E acetate (VE), carrier oil (MCT), and nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) into an aqueous salt solution with continuous stirring. Salt type and concentration (0-1 N NaCl or 0-0.5 N CaCl2) did not have a significant influence on the initial droplet size of the emulsions. On the other hand, the isothermal and thermal stabilities of the emulsions depended strongly on salt levels. The cloud point of the emulsions decreased with increasing salt concentration, which was attributed to accelerated droplet coalescence in the presence of salts. Dilution (2-6 times) of the emulsions with water appreciably improved their thermal stability by increasing their cloud point, which was mainly attributed to the decrease in aqueous phase salt levels. The isothermal storage stability of the emulsions also depended on salt concentration; however, increasing the salt concentration decreased the rate of droplet growth, which was the opposite of its effect on thermal stability. Potential physicochemical mechanisms for these effects are discussed in terms of the influence of salt ions on van der Waals and electrostatic interactions. This study provides important information about the effect of inorganic salts on the formation and stability of vitamin E emulsions suitable for use in food, personal care, and pharmaceutical products. PMID:25343750

  18. Preparation and characterization of surfactant-modified hydroxyapatite/zeolite composite and its adsorption behavior toward humic acid and copper(II).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yanhui; Lin, Jianwei; Li, Jia

    2013-04-01

    A novel composite material, i.e., surfactant-modified hydroxyapatite/zeolite composite, was used as an adsorbent to remove humic acid (HA) and copper(II) from aqueous solution. Hydroxyapatite/zeolite composite (HZC) and surfactant-modified HZC (SMHZC) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscope. The adsorption of HA and copper(II) on SMHZC was investigated. For comparison purposes, HA adsorption onto HZC was also investigated. SMHZC exhibited much higher HA adsorption capacity than HZC. The HA adsorption capacity for SMHZC decreased slightly with increasing pH from 3 to 8 but decreased significantly with increasing pH from 8 to 12. The copper(II) adsorption capacity for SMHZC increased with increasing pH from 3 to 6.5. The adsorption kinetic data of HA and copper(II) on SMHZC obeyed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption of HA and copper(II) on SMHZC took place in three different stages: fast external surface adsorption, gradual adsorption controlled by both film and intra-particle diffusions, and final equilibrium stage. The equilibrium adsorption data of HA on SMHZC better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich isotherm model. The equilibrium adsorption data of copper(II) on SMHZC could be described by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The presence of copper(II) in solution enhanced HA adsorption onto SMHZC. The presence of HA in solution enhanced copper(II) adsorption onto SMHZC. The mechanisms for the adsorption of HA on SMHZC at pH 7 may include electrostatic attraction, organic partitioning, hydrogen bonding, and Lewis acid-base interaction. The mechanisms for the adsorption of copper(II) on SMHZC at pH 6 may include surface complexation, ion exchange, and dissolution-precipitation. The obtained results indicate that SMHZC can be used as an effective adsorbent to simultaneously remove HA and copper(II) from water. PMID:22961484

  19. Transfer of antioxidants at the interfaces of model food emulsions: distributions and thermodynamic parameters.

    PubMed

    Losada-Barreiro, Sonia; Sánchez-Paz, Verónica; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos

    2015-01-21

    Knowledge on the driving force for the hydrophobic effect that partitions antioxidants (AOs) between the oil (O), aqueous (W) and interfacial (I) regions of food emulsions is crucial to predict their efficiency in inhibiting lipid oxidation and to preserve the organoleptic properties of lipid-based foods. Here, we have investigated the effects of temperature and surfactant volume fraction (?I) on the distribution of two representative AOs, the water insoluble ?-tocopherol (TOC) and the oil insoluble caffeic acid (CA), in a model food emulsion composed of stripped corn oil, acidic water and the nonionic surfactant Tween 20. The distribution of the AOs is assessed in the intact emulsions by employing a well-established kinetic method based on the reaction between a hydrophobic arenediazonium ion and the AOs. The variations of the observed rate constant, kobs, with ?I are interpreted on the grounds of the pseudophase kinetic model, which provides values for the interfacial rate constant kI and the partition constants between the aqueous-interfacial (P) and oil-interfacial (P) regions of the emulsions. From the variations of P, P and kI at a series of temperatures, we determined the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy values for the transfer of CA from the water to the interfacial (W ? I) region and of TOC from the oil to the interfacial (O ? I) regions of the emulsions, and the activation parameters for the reaction in the interfacial region. Activation energy values are in line with those expected for a bimolecular reaction. Results show that the W ? I and O ? I transfer processes are spontaneous and entropy driven. PMID:25408193

  20. Electrostatic analogy for surfactant assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Chandler, D.; Smit, B.

    1992-05-14

    We develop a concept of frustrating charges to create a theory of self-assembly. In particular, we note that the constraints of stoichiometry frustrate ordinary phase equilibria and lead to self-assembly of systems such as oil-water-surfactant mixtures. Further we note that at long wavelengths, the constraints of stoichiometry are isomorphic to the constraints of charge neutrality in a specific electrostatic analogy. We expand upon this analogy, first noted by Stillinger, and show that it can be used to derive useful analytical estimates. In addition we use the analogy to create a new model for frustrated systems, and we present Monte Carlo results for this charge frustrated Ising system that exhibits varied behaviors of self-assembly. The Monte Carlo calculations are made possible through the development of an algorithm which permits cluster moves. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  1. New surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration in hydrocarbon flowlines and seabed oil capture.

    PubMed

    Sun, Minwei; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2013-07-15

    Anti-agglomeration is a promising solution for gas hydrate risks in deepsea hydrocarbon flowlines and oil leak captures. Currently ineffectiveness at high water to oil ratios limits such applications. We present experimental results of a new surfactant in rocking cell tests, which show high efficiency at a full range of water to oil ratios; there is no need for presence of the oil phase. We find that our surfactant at a very low concentration (0.2 wt.% of water) keeps the hydrate particles in anti-agglomeration state. We propose a mechanism different from the established water-in-oil emulsion theory in the literature that the process is effective without the oil phase. There is no need to emulsify the water phase in the oil phase for hydrate anti-agglomeration; with oil-in-water emulsion and without emulsion hydrate anti-agglomeration is presented in our research. We expect our work to pave the way for broad applications in offshore natural gas production and seabed oil capture with very small quantities of an eco-friendly surfactant. PMID:23660023

  2. Spontaneous vesicle phase formation by linear pseudo-oligomeric surfactant in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Nan; Shi, Lijuan; Lu, Fei; Xie, Shuting; Sun, Panpan; Zheng, Liqiang

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, we reported a novel linear pseudo-oligomeric surfactant, which is formed by mixing dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) and a linear tricationic imidazolium bromide salt (LTIB) in a molar ratio of 3:1. The aggregation behavior, aggregate structures, and interactions between SDBS and LTIB were investigated by surface tension measurement, dynamic light scattering, turbidity, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and (1)H NMR techniques. When SDBS is mixed with LTIB in aqueous solutions, three SDBS molecules may be "bridged" to one cationic LTIB molecule by intermolecular interactions, behaving like a linear oligomeric surfactant. Vesicles can be formed by this kind of linear pseudo-oligomeric surfactant. The aggregation behavior of the LTIB/SDBS mixed aqueous solutions behaves ratio- and concentration- dependence. Our work paves a convenient way for constructing surfactant systems with the characteristics of linear pseudo-oligomeric surfactant through intermolecular interactions between commercially available single-chain surfactants and linear tricationic imidazolium counterions. PMID:25667953

  3. Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  4. Surfactant remediation field demonstration using a vertical circulation well

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, R.C.; Sabatini, D.A.; Harwell, J.H.; Brown, R.E.; West, C.C.; Blaha, F.; Griffin, C.

    1997-11-01

    A field demonstration of surfactant-enhanced solubilization was completed in a shallow unconfined aquifer located at a Coast Guard Station in Traverse City, Michigan. The primary objectives of the study were: (1) to assess the ability of the vertical circulation well (VCW) system for controlling chemical extractants added to the subsurface; and (2) to assess the behavior of the surfactant solution in the subsurface, with a goal of maximum surfactant recovery. A secondary objective was to demonstrate enhanced removal of PCE and recalcitrant components of a jet fuel. The analytical results showed that the surfactant increased the contaminant mass extracted by 40-fold and 90-fold for the PCE and jet fuel constituents, respectively. The surfactant solution demonstrated minimal sorption (retardation) and did not precipitate in the subsurface formation. In addition, the VCW system was able to capture in excess of 95% of the injected surfactant solution. Additional field testing and full-scale implementation of surfactant-enhanced subsurface remediation should be performed.

  5. Emulsion Droplet Combustion in Microgravity: Water/Heptane Emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    This presentation reviews a series of experiments to further examine parametric effects on sooting processes of droplet flames in microgravity. The particular focus is on a fuel droplet emulsified with water, specifically emulsions of n-heptane as the fuel-phase and water as the dispersed phase. Water was selected as the additive because of its anticipated effect on soot formation, and the heptane fuel phase was chosen to theoretically reduce the likelihood of microexplosions because its boiling point is nearly the same as that of water: 100 C for water and 98 C for heptane. The water content was varied while the initial droplet diameter was kept within a small range. The experiments were carried out in microgravity to reduce the effects of buoyancy and to promote spherical symmetry in the burning process. Spherically symmetric droplet burning is a convenient starting point for analysis, but experimental data are difficult to obtain for this situation as evidenced by the fact that no quantitative data have been reported on unsupported emulsion droplet combustion in a convection-free environment. The present study improves upon past work carried out on emulsion droplet combustion in microgravity which employed emulsion droplets suspended from a fiber. The fiber can be instrusive to the emulsion droplet burning process as it can promote coalescence of the dispersed water phase and heterogeneous nucleation on the fiber. Prior work has shown that the presence of water in liquid hydrocarbons can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the combustion process. Water is known to reduce soot formation and radiation heat transfer to combustor walls Gollahalli (1979) reduce flame temperatures and thereby NOx emissions, and encourage secondary droplet atomization or microexplosion. Water also tends to retard ignition and and promote early extinction. The former effect restricted the range of water volume fractions as discussed below.

  6. Recovery of kraft lignin from pulping wastewater via emulsion liquid membrane process.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Zing-Yi; Harruddin, Norlisa; Othman, Norasikin

    2015-09-01

    Kraft lignin (KL) is a renewable source of many valuable intermediate biochemical products currently derived from petroleum. An excessive of lignin comes from pulping wastewater caused an adverse pollution problems hence affecting human and aquatic life. A comprehensive study pertaining to emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) extraction of lignin from pulping wastewater was presented. ELM formulation contains Aliquat 336 as carrier, kerosene as diluent, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) as stripping agent and Span 80 as surfactant. The emulsion stability was investigated at different surfactant concentrations, homogenizer speed and emulsification time. Modifier (2-ethyl-1-hexanol) was added to avoid segregation of third phase while improving the emulsion stability. At optimum conditions, 95% and 56% of lignin were extracted and recovered, respectively at 10 min of extraction time, 0.007 M of Aliquat 336, 0.1 M of NaHCO3 and 1:5 of treat ratio. Additional of modifier was contributed to highest recovery up to 98%. The ELM process was found to be equally feasible and quite effective in the recovery of KL from real pulping wastewater. Therefore, ELM process provides a promising alternative technology to recover KL from pulping wastewater while solving the environmental problems simultaneously. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 31:1305-1314, 2015. PMID:26101101

  7. A Solvothermal Route Decorated on Different Substrates: Controllable Separation of an Oil/Water Mixture to a Stabilized Nanoscale Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifeng; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Chen, Yuning; Xu, Liangxin; Lin, Xin; Feng, Lin

    2015-12-01

    A facile solvothermal route is developed to fabricate polydivinylbenzene (PDVB) and decorate the polymer onto porous substrates. "Controllable" separation can be realized by selecting substrates with different pore sizes. The PDVB-modified mesh shows superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity, and can be used for oil/seawater mixture separation, while the PDVB-modified membrane exhibits high hydrophobicity/superoleophilicity, and is able to separate surfactant stabilized nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions. PMID:26489016

  8. Relationships between the properties of self-emulsifying pellets and of the emulsions used as massing liquids for their preparation.

    PubMed

    Nikolakakis, Ioannis; Panagopoulou, Athanasia; Salis, Andrea; Malamataris, Stavros

    2015-02-01

    Self-emulsifying pellets were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose, emulsions of caprylic/capric triglyceride, and three Cremophors (ELP, RH40, and RH60) at 1.5 and 2.3 weight ratios, and two drugs (furosemide and propranolol) of different lipophilicity. Droplet size, zeta potential (?) and viscosity of emulsions, and pellet size, shape, friability, tensile strength, disintegration, and drug migration in pellets were determined. Evaluation of reconstituted emulsions was based on droplet size and ?. Factorial design and 3-way ANOVA was applied to estimate the significance of the effects of the drug, surfactant and oil/surfactant ratio. It was found that droplet size, viscosity and ? of emulsions, and size, shape, and friability of pellets were affected by the studied factors and were significant interactions between their effects on pellet size and friability. Migration of drug towards the pellet surface was higher for the less lipophilic furosemide and higher oil content. Linear relationships were found between the emulsion viscosity and the shape parameters of the pellets (for the aspect ratio R (2)?=?0.796 for furosemide and R (2)?=?0.885 for propranolol and for the shape factor, e R R (2)?=?0.740 and R (2)?=?0.960, respectively). For all the formulations examined, an exponential relationship was found between migration (M%) and the product of viscosity (?) and solubility of drug in oil/surfactant mixture (S) (M%?=?98.1e-0.016 [?•S], R (2)?=?0.856), which may be useful in formulation work. PMID:25212898

  9. Optimization of isothermal low-energy nanoemulsion formation: hydrocarbon oil, non-ionic surfactant, and water systems.

    PubMed

    Komaiko, Jennifer; McClements, David Julian

    2014-07-01

    Nanoemulsions can be fabricated using either high-energy or low-energy methods, with the latter being advantageous because of ease of implementation, lower equipment and operation costs, and higher energy efficiency. In this study, isothermal low-energy methods were used to spontaneously produce nanoemulsions using a model system consisting of oil (hexadecane), non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) and water. Rate and order of addition of surfactant, oil and water into the final mixture were investigated to identify optimal conditions for producing small droplets. The emulsion phase inversion (EPI) and spontaneous emulsion (SE) methods were found to be the most successful, which both require the surfactant to be mixed with the oil phase prior to production. Order of addition and surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR) influenced the particle size distribution, while addition rate and stirring speed had a minimal effect. Emulsion stability was strongly influenced by storage temperature, with droplet size increasing rapidly at higher temperatures, which was attributed to coalescence near the phase inversion temperature. Nanoemulsions with a mean particle diameter of approximately 60 nm could be produced using both EPI and SE methods at a final composition of 5% hexadecane and 1.9% Brij 30, and were relatively stable to droplet growth at temperatures <25 °C. PMID:24776664

  10. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  11. Microwave emulsion treater with internal coalescer

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, N.O.; Seidner, D.S.

    1989-08-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a microwave-based emulsion treating system comprising a microwave energy source and a microwave energy applicator having an inlet for an oil and water emulsion to be treated with microwave energy and an outlet for discharge of treated oil and water. The improvement comprising a coalescer medium having a dielectric constant at 2450 MHz of from about 0.1 to about 15 and a loss factor of less than 2 positioned inside the applicator for contacting the emulsion simultaneously with treatment of the emulsion by microwave energy wherein the emulsion contacts the coalescer medium while the emulsion contains the most heat energy from the microwave source to enhance separation of the water from the emulsion.

  12. Amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Lipowski, S. A.; Miskel Jr., J. J.

    1985-03-19

    An amphoteric water-in-oil self-inverting polymer emulsion is prepared which contains a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer and an amphoteric vinyl monomer or a terpolymer of (1) a nonionic vinyl monomer, an anionic vinyl monomer and a cationic vinyl monomer in the aqueous phase, a hydrocarbon oil for the oil phase, a water-in-oil emulsifying agent and an inverting surfactant. An example of a copolymer is a copolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide and an amphoteric vinyl monomer such as a reaction product of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and monochloroacetic acid. An example of a terpolymer is a terpolymer of a nonionic vinyl monomer such as acrylamide or methacrylamide, an anionic vinyl monomer such as sodium acrylate and a cationic vinyl monomer such as a triethyl ammonium ethyl methacrylate methosulfate salt. The emulsion is useful in papermaking, treatment of sewage and industrial wastes, drilling muds and secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum by water flooding.

  13. High-Internal-Phase Emulsion Tailoring Polymer Amphiphilicity towards an Efficient NIR-Sensitive Bacteria Filter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Youdi; Shi, Jiezhong; Ngo, Huynh Thien; Shen, Chaohua; Du, Wenbin; Wang, Yapei

    2015-10-01

    Emulsions having a high internal-phase volume fraction-termed as HIPEs for high internal phase emulsions-are in high demand as templates for functional macroporous materials. Designing molecular surfactants with appropriate amphiphilicity plays a critical role in the HIPE preparation. In this study, successful tailoring of the amphiphilicity of the originally hydrophobic block co-polymer of polystyrene-b-polyvinylpyridine (PS-b-P4VP) is reported. In combination with trifluoroacetic acid, less than 5 wt% of the polymer-CF3 COOH system is feasible as a surfactant for HIPE preparation; this is lower than the amounts typically needed for commonly used commercial surfactants. Using the HIPEs as templates, well-defined closed- and open-cell macroporous triacrylate-based monoliths are fabricated simply through the adjustment of the ratio of the water phase to oil phase. After coating the resulting macroporous material with polypyrrole nanoparticles, the system can be exploited as an NIR-sensitive filter for bacteria; it not only excludes oversized bacteria, but it also kills the bacteria with the help of NIR-induced heat. PMID:26110234

  14. Atomistic Simulations of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Surfactants in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Lauren J.; Stevens, Mark J.

    2015-03-01

    The amphiphilic polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) displays a sharp phase transition at its LCST around 32 °C, which results from competing interactions of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups with water. This thermoresponsive behavior can be exploited in more complex architectures, such as block copolymers or surfactants, to provide responsive PNIPAM head groups. In these systems, however, changes to the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance can alter the transition behavior. In this work, we perform atomistic simulations of PNIPAM-alkyl surfactants to study the temperature dependence of their structures. A single chain of the surfactant does not show temperature-responsive behavior. Instead, below and above the LCST of PNIPAM, the surfactant folds to bring the hydrophobic alkyl tail in contact with the PNIPAM backbone, shielding it from water. In addition to single chains, we explore the self-assembly of multiple surfactants into micelles and how the temperature-dependent behavior is changed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Role of interfacial protein membrane in oxidative stability of vegetable oil substitution emulsions applicable to nutritionally modified sausage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2015-11-01

    The potential health risk associated with excessive dietary intake of fat and cholesterol has led to a renewed interest in replacing animal fat with nutritionally-balanced unsaturated oil in processed meats. However, as oils are more fluid and unsaturated than fats, one must overcome the challenge of maintaining both physical and chemical (oxidative) stabilities of prepared emulsions. Apart from physical entrapments, an emulsion droplet to be incorporated into a meat protein gel matrix (batter) should be equipped with an interactive protein membrane rather than a small surfactant, and the classical DLVO stabilization theory becomes less applicable. This review paper describes the steric effects along with chemical roles (radical scavenging and metal ion chelation) of proteins and their structurally modified derivatives as potential interface-building materials for oxidatively stable meat emulsions. PMID:26008711

  16. Introducing diffusing wave spectroscopy as a process analytical tool for pharmaceutical emulsion manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Reufer, Mathias; Machado, Alexandra H E; Niederquell, Andreas; Bohnenblust, Katharina; Müller, Beat; Völker, Andreas Charles; Kuentz, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Emulsions are widely used for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic applications. To guarantee that their critical quality attributes meet specifications, it is desirable to monitor the emulsion manufacturing process. However, finding of a suitable process analyzer has so far remained challenging. This article introduces diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) as an at-line technique to follow the manufacturing process of a model oil-in-water pharmaceutical emulsion containing xanthan gum. The DWS results were complemented with mechanical rheology, microscopy analysis, and stability tests. DWS is an advanced light scattering technique that assesses the microrheology and in general provides information on the dynamics and statics of dispersions. The obtained microrheology results showed good agreement with those obtained with bulk rheology. Although no notable changes in the rheological behavior of the model emulsions were observed during homogenization, the intensity correlation function provided qualitative information on the evolution of the emulsion dynamics. These data together with static measurements of the transport mean free path (l*) correlated very well with the changes in droplet size distribution occurring during the emulsion homogenization. This study shows that DWS is a promising process analytical technology tool for development and manufacturing of pharmaceutical emulsions. PMID:25302803

  17. The emulsion chamber technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Photographic emulsion has the unique property of recording tracks of ionizing particles with a spatial precision of 1 micron, while also being capable of deployment over detector areas of square meters or 10's of square meters. Detectors are passive, their cost to fly in Space is a fraction of that of instruments of similar collecting. A major problem in their continued use has been the labor intensiveness of data retrieval by traditional microscope methods. Two factors changing the acceptability of emulsion technology in space are the astronomical costs of flying large electronic instruments such as ionization calorimeters in Space, and the power and low cost of computers, a small revolution in the laboratory microscope data-taking. Our group at UAH made measurements of the high energy composition and spectra of cosmic rays. The Marshall group has also specialized in space radiation dosimetry. Ionization calorimeters, using alternating layers of lead and photographic emulsion, to measure particle energies up to 10(exp 15) eV were developed. Ten balloon flights were performed with them. No such calorimeters have ever flown in orbit. In the ECT program, a small emulsion chamber was developed and will be flown on the Shuttle mission OAST-2 to resolve the principal technological questions concerning space exposures. These include assessments of: (1) pre-flight and orbital exposure to background radiation, including both self-shielding and secondary particle generation; the practical limit to exposure time in space can then be determined; (2) dynamics of stack to optimize design for launch and weightlessness; and (3) thermal and vacuum constraints on emulsion performance. All these effects are cumulative and affect our ability to perform scientific measurements but cannot be adequately predicted by available methods.

  18. Adsorption of surfactants and polymers at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Orlando Jose

    Surface tension and high-resolution laser light scattering experiments were used to investigate the adsorption of isomeric sugar-based surfactants at the air/liquid interface in terms of surfactant surface packing and rheology. Soluble monolayers of submicellar surfactant solutions exhibited a relatively viscous behavior. It was also proved that light scattering of high-frequency thermally-induced capillary waves can be utilized to study surfactant exchange between the surface and the bulk solution. Such analysis revealed the existence of a diffusional relaxation mechanism. A procedure based on XPS was developed for quantification, on an absolute basis, of polymer adsorption on mica and Langmuir-Blodgett cellulose films. The adsorption of cationic polyelectrolytes on negatively-charged solid surfaces was highly dependent on the polymer ionicity. It was found that the adsorption process is driven by electrostatic mechanisms. Charge overcompensation (or charge reversal) of mica occurred after adsorption of polyelectrolytes of ca. 50% charge density, or higher. It was demonstrated that low-charge-density polyelectrolytes adsorb on solid surfaces with an extended configuration dominated by loops and tails. In this case the extent of adsorption is limited by steric constraints. The conformation of the polyelectrolyte in the adsorbed layer is dramatically affected by the presence of salts or surfactants in aqueous solution. The phenomena which occur upon increasing the ionic strength are consistent with the screening of the electrostatic attraction between polyelectrolyte segments and solid surface. This situation leads to polyelectrolyte desorption accompanied by both an increase in the layer thickness and the range of the steric force. Adsorbed polyelectrolytes and oppositely charged surfactants readily associate at the solid/liquid interface. Such association induces polyelectrolyte desorption at a surfactant concentration which depends on the polyelectrolyte charge density. In practical systems the adsorption phenomena were found to be far more complex. Electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions play a major role in the adsorption of cationic polyelectrolytes on cellulosic substrates. Cationic and underivatized guar gum macromolecules form complexes with fines and dissolved and colloidal carbohydrates which are then retained on the cellulose fibers. The extent of the adsorption and association depends on the charge and nature of all the components present in pulp suspensions.

  19. Advanced and economical ambient drying method for controlled mesopore polybenzoxazine-based carbon xerogels: Effects of non-ionic and cationic surfactant on porous structure.

    PubMed

    Thubsuang, Uthen; Ishida, Hatsuo; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra; Chaisuwan, Thanyalak

    2015-12-01

    Polybenzoxazine has been successfully synthesized by a facile quasi-solventless method and used as a precursor for producing carbon xerogels via an ambient drying method, rather than usually used CO2 critical or freeze drying. In this work, we aim to study the effect of non-ionic (Synperonic NP30) and cationic (CTAB) surfactants on porous structure of polybenzoxazine-based carbon xerogels. Of particular interest is the formation of inter-connected structure of mesoporous carbon xerogels with mesopore diameters in the range of 15-36 nm by using different concentrations of the cationic surfactant. In addition, carbon xerogel nanospheres with the size of 50-200 nm are also obtained through the emulsion process. The mesopore diameters start to decrease when the carbon xerogel nanospheres are formed at the cationic surfactant concentration of equal to or exceeding 0.030 M. By using the non-ionic surfactant, the properties of the obtained carbon xerogels are shifted from mesoporous materials for the reference carbon xerogel (no surfactant added) to microporous materials at higher concentrations of the non-ionic surfactant (0.009-0.180 M). The carbon xerogel microspheres with the diameter size of about 2.5 ?m are also obtained through the emulsion process when the concentration of the non-ionic surfactant is at 0.180 M. PMID:26298286

  20. Optimization of a gelled emulsion intended to supply ?-3 fatty acids into meat products by means of response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Poyato, Candelaria; Ansorena, Diana; Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2014-12-01

    The optimization of a gelled oil-in-water emulsion was performed for use as fat replacer in the formulation of ?-3 PUFA-enriched cooked meat products. The linseed oil content, carrageenan concentration and surfactant-oil ratio were properly combined in a surface response design for maximizing the hardness and minimizing the syneresis of the PUFA delivery system. The optimal formulation resulted in a gelled emulsion containing 40% of oil and 1.5% of carrageenan, keeping a surfactant-oil ratio of 0.003. The gel was applied as a partial fat replacer in a Bologna-type sausage and compared to the use of an O/W emulsion also enriched in ?-3. Both experimental sausages contributed with higher ?-3 PUFA content than the control. No sensory differences were found among formulations. The selected optimized gelled oil-in-water emulsion was demonstrated to be a suitable lipophilic delivery system for ?-3 PUFA compounds and applicable in food formulations as fat replacer. PMID:25089785

  1. Production of W/O/W (water-in-oil-in-water) multiple emulsions: droplet breakup and release of water.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Anna; Deiters, Philipp; Henne, Julius; Köhler, Karsten; Schuchmann, Heike P

    2013-07-15

    We investigate breakup of W/O/W double emulsion droplets at high viscosity ratios and coalescence of inner water droplets dependent on the dispersed phase content (DPC) of the inner emulsion. The rheological analyses of the inner emulsions confirm the behavior expected from literature - increasing viscosity with increasing DPC and elastic behavior for high DPC. The resulting droplet sizes seem to be influenced only by the viscosity ratio calculated using the viscosity of the inner emulsion. An influence of the elastic properties of the inner emulsions could not be observed. Moreover, breakup of double emulsion droplets seems to follow the same rules as breakup of Newtonian droplets. In the second part of the paper we focus on the release of water from double emulsions by coalescence. A direct correlation between resulting double emulsion droplet sizes and encapsulation efficiency was found for each system. The initial inner dispersed phase content has a big influence on the release rate. This can partly be explained by the influence of the dispersed phase content on collision rate. Moreover, it was found that for high internal phase concentrations inner droplets coalesce with each other. The so formed bigger inner droplets seem to increase the overall release rate. PMID:23643254

  2. Block copolymer stabilized nonaqueous biocompatible sub-micron emulsions for topical applications.

    PubMed

    Atanase, Leonard Ionut; Riess, Gérard

    2013-05-20

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400/Miglyol 812 non-aqueous sub-micron emulsions were developed due to the fact that they are of interest for the design of drug-loaded biocompatible topical formulations. These types of emulsions were favourably stabilized by poly (2-vinylpyridine)-b-poly (butadiene) (P2VP-b-PBut) copolymer with DPBut>DP2VP, each of these sequences being well-adapted to the solubility parameters of PEG 400 and Miglyol 812, respectively. This type of block copolymers, which might limit the Ostwald ripening, appeared to be more efficient stabilizers than low molecular weight non-ionic surfactants. The emulsion characteristics, such as particle size, stability and viscosity at different shear rates were determined as a function of the phase ratio, the copolymer concentration and storage time. It was further shown that Acyclovir, as a model drug of low water solubility, could be incorporated into the PEG 400 dispersed phase, with no significant modification of the initial emulsion characteristics. PMID:23566926

  3. Some general features of limited coalescence in solid-stabilized emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arditty, S.; Whitby, C. P.; Binks, B. P.; Schmitt, V.; Leal-Calderon, F.

    2003-07-01

    We produce direct and inverse emulsions stabilized by solid mineral particles. If the total amount of particles is initially insufficient to fully cover the oil-water interfaces, the emulsion droplets coalesce such that the total interfacial area between oil and water is progressively reduced. Since it is likely that the particles are irreversibly adsorbed, the degree of surface coverage by them increases until coalescence is halted. We follow the rate of droplet coalescence from the initial fragmented state to the saturated situation. Unlike surfactant-stabilized emulsions, the coalescence frequency depends on time and particle concentration. Both the transient and final droplet size distributions are relatively narrow and we obtain a linear relation between the inverse average droplet diameter and the total amount of solid particles, with a slope that depends on the mixing intensity. The phenomenology is independent of the mixing type and of the droplet volume fraction allowing the fabrication of both direct and inverse emulsion with average droplet sizes ranging from micron to millimetre.

  4. Polymer-surfactant complexes for microencapsulation of vitamin E and its release.

    PubMed

    Sharipova, A A; Aidarova, S B; Grigoriev, D; Mutalieva, B; Madibekova, G; Tleuova, A; Miller, R

    2016-01-01

    Microencapsulation of vitamin E directly from oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions was carried out by means of a novel practically relevant approach. For the first time, a preformed polyelectrolyte-surfactant complex (sodium polystyrene sulfonate/dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) was simultaneously used as an electrosteric emulsion stabilizer and as a charged precursor for the following build up of microcapsules. Subsequently, a layer-by-layer technique was applied to emulsions leading to the formation of core-shell microcapsules with oily cores and polyelectrolyte shells. The effect of the complexes on the process of emulsion formation and on the stability and characteristics of the resulting emulsions was investigated by measurements of dynamic and equilibrium interfacial tension, size distribution (DLS) and interfacial charge (zeta-potential). The resulting microcapsules were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), Cryo-SEM, size distribution and zeta-potential measurements on each stage of the shell assembly. The release kinetics of vitamin E was monitored during the consecutive steps of the encapsulation procedure using UV-vis spectroscopy and showed the progressive enhancement of sustainability. The developed approach may be promising for the practical use in the cosmetic and food industry. PMID:25891520

  5. Electrophoretic separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips using mixtures of ionic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qian; Noblitt, Scott D.; Henry, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of surfactant mixtures to affect both electroosmotic flow (EOF) and separation selectivity in electrophoresis with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates is reported, and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D) is introduced for EOF measurement on PDMS microchips. First, the EOF was measured for two nonionic surfactants (Tween 20 and Triton X-100), mixed ionic/nonionic surfactant systems (SDS/Tween 20 and SDS/Triton X-100), and finally for the first time, mixed zwitterionic/nonionic surfactant systems (TDAPS/Tween 20 and TDAPS/Triton X-100). EOF for the nonionic surfactants decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. The addition of SDS or TDAPS to a nonionic surfactant increased EOF. After establishing the EOF behavior, the separation of model catecholamines was explored to show the impact on separations. Similar analyte resolution with greater peak heights was achieved with mixed surfactant systems containing Tween 20 and TDAPS relative to the single surfactant system. Finally, the detection of catecholamine release from PC12 cells by stimulation with 80 mM K+ was performed to demonstrate the usefulness of mixed surfactant systems to provide resolution of biological compounds in complex samples. PMID:23019105

  6. Preparation and characterization of narrow sized (o/w) magnetic emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagne, F.; Mondain-Monval, O.; Pichot, C.; Mozzanega, H.; Ela??ssari, A.

    2002-09-01

    The preparation of well-defined (o/w) magnetic emulsions from an organic ferrofluid is reported. The ferrofluid synthesis is first described and a complete characterization is achieved by using numerous techniques. The ferrofluid is found to be composed of superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles, with a diameter below 10 nm, stabilized in octane by a surrounding oleic acid layer. This magnetic fluid is then emulsified in aqueous media in order to obtain stable ferrofluid droplets. The use of a couette mixer and a size sorting step under magnetic field allowed to produce magnetic emulsion with a narrow size distribution. Morphology and chemical composition of the magnetic emulsion are investigated. Magnetic properties of both ferrofluid and magnetic emulsion are also compared and discussed. In particular, it is showed that the superparamagnetic behavior is still observed after the emulsification process.

  7. Anionic surfactant remediation of soil columns contaminated by nonaqueous phase liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarakanath, V.; Kostarelos, K.; Pope, Gary A.; Shotts, Doug; Wade, William H.

    1999-06-01

    A variety of column experiments have been completed for the purpose of selecting and evaluating suitable surfactants for remediation of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The various NAPLs tested in the laboratory experiments were tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), jet fuel (JP4) and a dense nonaqueous phase liquid from a site at Hill Air Force Base, UT. Both Ottawa sand and Hill field soil were used in these experiments. Surfactant candidates were first screened using phase behavior experiments and only the best ones were selected for the subsequent column experiments. Surfactants which showed high contaminant solubilization, fast coalescence times, and the absence of liquid crystal phases and gels during the phase behavior experiments were tested in soil column experiments. The primary objective of the soil column experiments was to identify surfactants that recovered at least 99% of the contaminant. The secondary objective was to identify surfactants that show low adsorption and little or no loss of hydraulic conductivity during the column experiments. Results demonstrated that up to 99.9% of the contaminants were removed as a result of surfactant flooding of the soil columns. The addition of xanthan gum polymer to the surfactant solution was shown to increase remediation efficiency as a lower volume of surfactant was required for recovering a given volume of NAPL. Based on these experimental results, guidelines for designing highly efficient and robust surfactant floods have been developed and applied to a field demonstration.

  8. The effect of butter grains on physical properties of butter-like emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rønholt, Stine; Buldo, Patrizia; Mortensen, Kell; Andersen, Ulf; Knudsen, Jes C; Wiking, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat exists as globules in its natural state in milk. The potential of using globular fat to modulate the rheological properties and crystallization behavior in butter-like emulsions was studied in the present work. We conducted a comparative study of butter-like emulsions, with a fat phase consisting of 0, 10, 25, 50, or 100% anhydrous milk fat (AMF), the remaining fat being butter grains, and all samples containing 20% water, to obtain systematic variation in the ratio of globular fat. All emulsions were studied over 4wk of storage at 5°C. By combining small and large deformation rheology, we conducted a detailed characterization of the rheological behavior of butter-like emulsions. We applied differential scanning calorimetry to monitor thermal behavior, confocal laser scanning microscopy for microstructural analysis, and low-field pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry to measure solid fat content. By combining these techniques, we determined that increasing the fraction of globular fat (by mixing with butter grains) decreases the hardness of butter-like emulsions up to an order of magnitude at d 1. However, no difference was observed in thermal behavior as a function of butter grain content, as all emulsions containing butter grains revealed 2 endothermal peaks corresponding to the high (32.7°C ± 0.6) and medium (14.6°C ± 0.1) melting fractions of fatty acids. In terms of microstructure, decreasing the amount of butter grains in the emulsions resulted in formation of a denser fat crystal network, corresponding to increased hardness. Moreover, microstructural analysis revealed that the presence of butter grains resulted in faster formation of a continuous fat crystal network compared with the 100% AMF sample, which was dominated by crystal clusters surrounded by liquid oil. During storage, hardness remained stable and no changes in thermal behavior were observed, despite an increase in solid fat content of up to 5%. After 28d of storage, we observed no difference in either microstructural or rheological properties, indicating that formation of primary bonds occurs primarily within the first day of storage. The rheological behavior of butter-like emulsions is not determined solely by hardness, but also by stiffness related to secondary bonds within the fat crystal network. The complex rheological behavior of milk fat-based emulsions is better characterized using multiple parameters. PMID:24485691

  9. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine metabolism and surfactant function in preterm, ventilated lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Jobe, A.H.; Ikegami, M.; Seidner, S.R.; Pettenazzo, A.; Ruffini, L.

    1989-02-01

    Preterm lambs were delivered at 138 days gestational age and ventilated for periods up to 24 h in order to study surfactant metabolism and surfactant function. The surfactant-saturated phosphatidylcholine pool in the alveolar wash was 13 +/- 4 mumol/kg and did not change from 10 min to 24 h after birth. Trace amounts of labeled natural sheep surfactant were mixed with fetal lung fluid at birth. By 24 h, 80% of the label had become lung-tissue-associated, yet there was no loss of label from phosphatidylcholine in the lungs when calculated as the sum of the lung tissue plus alveolar wash. De novo synthesized phosphatidylcholine was labeled with choline given by intravascular injection at 1 h of age. Labeled phosphatidylcholine accumulated in the lung tissue linearly to 24 h, and the labeled phosphatidylcholine moved through lamellar body to alveolar pools. The turnover time for alveolar phosphatidylcholine was estimated to be about 13 h, indicating an active metabolic pool. A less surface-active surfactant fraction recovered as a supernatant after centrifugation of the alveolar washes at 40,000 x g increased from birth to 10 min of ventilation, but no subsequent changes in the distribution of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in surfactant fractions occurred. The results were consistent with recycling pathway(s) that maintained surface-active surfactant pools in preterm ventilated lambs.

  10. Dilution of protein-surfactant complexes: A fluorescence study

    PubMed Central

    Azadi, Glareh; Chauhan, Anuj; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2013-01-01

    Dilution of protein–surfactant complexes is an integrated step in microfluidic protein sizing, where the contribution of free micelles to the overall fluorescence is reduced by dilution. This process can be further improved by establishing an optimum surfactant concentration and quantifying the amount of protein based on the fluorescence intensity. To this end, we study the interaction of proteins with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) using a hydrophobic fluorescent dye (sypro orange). We analyze these interactions fluourometrically with bovine serum albumin, carbonic anhydrase, and beta-galactosidase as model proteins. The fluorescent signature of protein–surfactant complexes at various dilution points shows three distinct regions, surfactant dominant, breakdown, and protein dominant region. Based on the dilution behavior of protein–surfactant complexes, we propose a fluorescence model to explain the contribution of free and bound micelles to the overall fluorescence. Our results show that protein peak is observed at 3 mM SDS as the optimum dilution concentration. Furthermore, we study the effect of protein concentration on fluorescence intensity. In a single protein model with a constant dye quantum yield, the peak height increases with protein concentration. Finally, addition of CTAB to the protein–SDS complex at mole fractions above 0.1 shifts the protein peak from 3 mM to 4 mM SDS. The knowledge of protein–surfactant interactions obtained from these studies provides significant insights for novel detection and quantification techniques in microfluidics. PMID:23868358

  11. Experiment S009: Nuclear Emulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, F. W.; Shapiro, M. M.; Silberberg, R.; Stiller, B.; Tsao, C. H.; Durgaprasad, N.; Fichtel, C. E.; Guss, D. E.; Reames, D. V.

    1971-01-01

    The first exposure on a spacecraft of a nuclear emulsion apparatus designed to collect 1000 high quality tracks of heavy nuclei under a negligible thickness of matter (0.07 g/sq cm) is described. The cosmic ray detector consisted of a stack of nuclear emulsions that were designed to register at least 400 heavy nuclei tracks for each 10 hours of useful exposure. The spacecraft had to be oriented in a heads-up attitude during the 10-hour period to eliminate atmospheric albedo particles. The results are as follows: (1) a definite odd-even effect, with low abundances for elements of atomic number 7, 9, and 11; (2) a ratio O/C approximately 0.9; (3) Ne/C, Mg/C, and Si/C ratios between 0.2 and 0.3; (4) an abundance gap in the region 15 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 19; and (5) a ratio (20 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28)/C 0.2, with a large concentration at Z = 26. These results are indicative that successful exposures of nuclear emulsions were obtained on the Gemini 11 mission.

  12. Formation of wrinkled silica mesostructures based on the phase behavior of pseudoternary systems.

    PubMed

    Moon, Doo-Sik; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2014-12-30

    Water-surfactant-oil ternary systems have various phase behaviors and substructures that depend on their chemical composition and component ratio. These substructures can be used as templates for the synthesis of a variety of nanostructures. In this study, the phase behavior of a pseudoternary system consisting of aqueous urea-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (and n-butanol)-cyclohexane is analyzed. Additionally, wrinkled silica mesostructures (WSMs) with various morphologies are synthesized using the microemulsion layer in the multiphase areas of the pseudoternary system with restricted degrees of freedom as a template. The particle size of the wrinkled silica nanoparticles (WSNs) and the connective morphology of the WSMs can be controlled via the catalytic conditions. In addition, some materials that are difficult to produce, such as radially branched WSNs and shuttlecock-shaped Janus nanoparticles, are prepared using a gradual seed-growth mechanism of silica in the emulsion system. PMID:25454837

  13. Demulsification of oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, D.N.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a process of demulsifying an oil-in-water emulsion which comprises admixing with the emulsion a water-soluble polymer of monoallylamine that causes formation of and separation between an oil phase and an aqueous phase to occur. The emulsion has a pH in the range of about 5 to about 10 and the polymer has a weight average molecular weight of at least 1000 and contains at least 95% by weight of monoallylamine.

  14. Impact of acoustic cavitation on food emulsions.

    PubMed

    Krasulya, Olga; Bogush, Vladimir; Trishina, Victoria; Potoroko, Irina; Khmelev, Sergey; Sivashanmugam, Palani; Anandan, Sambandam

    2016-05-01

    The work explores the experimental and theoretical aspects of emulsification capability of ultrasound to deliver stable emulsions of sunflower oil in water and meat sausages. In order to determine optimal parameters for direct ultrasonic emulsification of food emulsions, a model was developed based on the stability of emulsion droplets in acoustic cavitation field. The study is further extended to investigate the ultrasound induced changes to the inherent properties of raw materials under the experimental conditions of sono-emulsification. PMID:26603612

  15. Nanostructure of electrically conducting polyaniline prepared by a novel emulsion polymerization process

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Kinlen, P.J.; Graham, C.R.

    1998-07-01

    A soluble polyaniline (PANI) salt with moderate conductivity was synthesized by a novel emulsion polymerization process. The conductivity of the processed PANI films can be substantially increased by treating the polymer films with surfactants or with low molecular weight alcohols. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of thin polymer films revealed the existence of small islands of conducting PANI embedded in a non-conducting, dopant matrix. The conductivity of the PANI films is affected by the spatial distribution and the connectivity of these small islands. The conductivity enhancement observed upon treatment with surfactants is due to self-assembly of conducting PANI molecules into an interconnected network morphology. In the case of alcohol treatment the film conductivity is enhanced due to extraction of excess dopant phase and the subsequent densification of PANI islands to form highly conducting pathways.

  16. A modified emulsion gelation technique to improve buoyancy of hydrogel tablets for floating drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Yom-Tov, Ortal; Seliktar, Dror; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2015-10-01

    The use of buoyant or floating hydrogel tablets is of particular interest in the sustained release of drugs to the stomach. They have an ability to slow the release rates of drugs by prolonging their absorption window in the upper part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this study we synthesized bioactive hydrogels that have sustainable release rates for drugs in the stomach based on a hydrogel preparation technique that employs emulsifying surfactants. The emulsion gelation technique, which encapsulates oil droplets within the hydrogels during crosslinking, was used to decrease their specific gravity in aqueous environments, resulting in floating drug release depots. Properties such as swelling, buoyancy, density and drug release were manipulated by changing the polymer concentrations, surfactant percentages and the oil:polymer ratios. The relationship between these properties and the hydrogel's floating lag time was documented. The potential for this material to be used as a floating drug delivery system was demonstrated. PMID:26117764

  17. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2005-04-30

    The aim of this project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on critical solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems were conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) has been studied. The effects of solution pH, surfactant mixing ratio and different salts on surfactant adsorption on alumina have been investigated in detail. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of the mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. Solution properties of C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na/DM mixtures were also studied to identify surfactant interactions that affect the mixed aggregate formation in solution. Adsorption of SDS on gypsum and limestone suggested stronger surfactant/mineral interaction than on alumina, due to the precipitation of surfactant by dissolved calcium ions. The effects of different salts such as sodium nitrate, sodium sulfite and sodium chloride on DM adsorption on alumina have also been determined. As surfactant hemimicelles at interface and micelles in solution have drastic effects on oil recovery processes, their microstructures in solutions and at mineral/solution interfaces were investigated by monitoring micropolarity of the aggregates using fluorescence technique. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed with the increase in surfactant concentration. The importance of this lies in that the resulting polarity/hydrophobicity change of the mixed micelles will affect the adsorption of surfactant mixtures on reservoir minerals, surfactant/oil emulsion formation and wettability, as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes in EOR.

  18. Theoretical and Simulations-Based Modeling of Micellization in Linear and Branched Surfactant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendenhall, Jonathan D.

    Surfactants are chemically-heterogeneous molecules possessing hydrophilic (head) and hydrophobic (tail) moieties. This dual nature of surfactants leads to interesting phase behavior in aqueous solution as a function of surfactant concentration, including: (i) formation of surfactant monolayers at surfaces and interfaces, and (ii) self-assembly into finite aggregates (micelles) in the bulk solution beyond the critical micelle concentration (cmc). This concentration-dependent phase behavior induces changes in solution properties. For example, the surface activity of surfactants can decrease the surface tension, and self-assembly in bulk solution can lead to changes in viscosity, equivalent conductivity, solubilization capacity, and other bulk properties. These effects make surfactants quite attractive and unique for use in product formulations, where they are utilized as detergents, dispersants, emulsifiers, solubilizers, surface and interfacial tension modifiers, and in other contexts. The specific chemical structure of the surfactant head and tail is essential in determining the overall performance properties of a surfactant in aqueous media. The surfactant tail drives the self-assembly process through the hydrophobic effect, while the surfactant head imparts a certain extent of solubility to the surfactant in aqueous solution through preferential interactions with the hydrogen-bonding network of water. The interplay between these two effects gives rise to the particular phase diagram of a surfactant, including the specific cmc at which micelles begin to form. In addition to serving as a quantitative indicator of micelle formation, the cmc represents a limit to surface monolayer formation, and hence to surface and interfacial tension reduction, because surfactant adsorption at interfaces remains approximately constant beyond the cmc. In addition, the cmc represents the onset of changes in bulk solution properties. This Thesis is concerned with the prediction of cmc's and other micellization properties for a variety of linear and branched surfactant chemical architectures which are commonly encountered in practice. Single-component surfactant solutions are investigated, in order to clarify the specific contributions of the surfactant head and tail to the free energy of micellization, a quantity which determines the cmc and all other aspects of micellization. First, a molecular-thermodynamic (MT) theory is presented which makes use of bulk-phase thermodynamics and a phenomenological thought process to describe the energetics related to the formation of a micelle from its constituent surfactant monomers. Second, a combined computer-simulation/molecular-thermodynamic (CSMT) framework is discussed which provides a more detailed quantification of the hydrophobic effect using molecular dynamics simulations. A novel computational strategy to identify surfactant head and tail using an iterative dividing surface approach, along with simulated micelle results, is proposed. Force-field development for novel surfactant structures is also discussed. Third, a statistical-thermodynamic, single-chain, mean-field theory for linear and branched tail packing is formulated, which enables quantification of the specific energetic penalties related to confinement and constraint of surfactant tails within micelles. Finally, these theoretical and simulations-based strategies are used to predict the micellization behavior of 55 linear surfactants and 28 branched surfactants. Critical micelle concentration and optimal micelle properties are reported and compared with experiment, demonstrating good agreement across a range of surfactant head and tail types. In particular, the CSMT framework is found to provide improved agreement with experimental cmc's for the branched surfactants considered. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  19. Physical chemistry of highly concentrated emulsions.

    PubMed

    Foudazi, Reza; Qavi, Sahar; Masalova, Irina; Malkin, Alexander Ya

    2015-06-01

    This review explores the physics underlying the rheology of highly concentrated emulsions (HCEs) to determine the relationship between elasticity and HCE stability, and to consider whether it is possible to describe all physicochemical properties of HCEs on the basis of a unique physical approach. We define HCEs as emulsions with a volume fraction above the maximum closest packing fraction of monodisperse spheres, ?m=0.74, even if droplets are not of polyhedron shape. The solid-like rheological behavior of HCEs is characterized by yield stress and elasticity, properties which depend on droplet polydispersity and which are affected by caging at volume fractions about the jamming concentration, ?j. A bimodal size distribution in HCEs diminishes caging and facilitates droplet movement, resulting in HCEs with negligible yield stress and no plateau in storage modulus. Thermodynamic forces automatically move HCEs toward the lowest free energy state, but since interdroplet forces create local minimums - points beyond which free energy temporarily increases before it reaches the global minimum of the system - the free energy of HCEs will settle at a local minimum unless additional energy is added. Several attempts have been undertaken to predict the elasticity of HCEs. In many cases, the elastic modulus of HCEs is higher than the one predicted from classical models, which only take into account spatial repulsion (or simply interfacial energy). Improved models based on free energy calculation should be developed to consider the disjoining pressure and interfacial rheology in addition to spatial repulsion. The disjoining pressure and interfacial viscoelasticity, which result in the deviation of elasticity from the classical model, can be regarded as parameters for quantifying the stability of HCEs. PMID:25869114

  20. Chemical demulsification of petroleum emulsions using oil-soluable demulsifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, M.A.; Wasan, D.T.; Shetty, C.S. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper investigates the factors affecting the coalescence and interfacial behavior of water- in-crude-oil emulsions in the presence of oil-soluble demulsifiers. The emulsion-breaking characteristics and interfacial properties of East Texas Crude and a model system were compared. The variation of interfacial tension with demulsifier concentration for the model system was ascertained by measuring the interfacial tensions between the oil and water phase. Interfacial activity, adsorption kinetics, and partitioning were shown to be the most important parameters governing demulsifier performance. A conceptual model of drop-drop coalescence process in demulsification was presented which indicates that the interfacial activity of the demulsifier must be high enough to suppress the interfacial tension gradient. This accelerates the rate of film drainage, thus promoting coalescence.

  1. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  2. NATURAL SURFACTANTS IN PAPER RECYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to introduce new types of surfactants based on renewable materials (sugar surfactants) for use in ink removal from recycled paper. By applying green chemistry approaches we not only will solve an important industry and environmental problem but...

  3. Surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Improved process of coal liquefaction utilizing nonaqueous surfactant has increased oil yield from 50 to about 80%. Asphaltene molecule formation of colloid particles is prevented by surfactant. Separated molecules present more surface area for hydrogenation reaction. Lower requirements for temperature, pressure, and hydrogen lead to reduction in capital and operation costs.

  4. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation

    DOEpatents

    Mullen, Ken I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  5. Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, C.T.; Harrison, R.J.

    1980-01-08

    Petroleum is separated from an oil-in-water emulsion containing water-soluble polymer such as polyacrylamide prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations (Zn, Al, Sn, and Co) to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal. 11 claims.

  6. Treatment of oil-in-water emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.J.; Presley, C.T.

    1980-01-08

    Petroleum is separated from an ''oil-in-water'' emulsion containing water-soluble polymer prior to refining by adding amphoteric metal cations to the emulsion to form a flocculate and then treating the resulting flocculate with a strong base to recover the oil and metal.

  7. Dynamic modeling of emulsion polymerization reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Penlidis, A.; Hamielec, A.E.; MacGregor, J.F.

    1985-06-01

    This paper is a survey of recent published works on the dynamic and steady state modeling of emulsion homo- and copolymerization in batch, semicontinuous , and continuous latex reactors. Contributions to our understanding of diffusion-controlled termination and propagation reactions, molecular weight, long chain branching and crosslinking development, polymer particle nucleation, and of the dynamics of continuous emulsion polymerization are critically reviewed.

  8. Kinetics of crosslinking in emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Ghielmi, A.; Fiorentino, S.; Morbidelli, M.

    1996-12-31

    A mathematical model for evaluating the chain length distribution of nonlinear polymers produced in emulsions is presented. The heterogeneous emulsion polymerization process is described. The aim of the analysis is the distribution of active polymer chains and pairs of chains with a given growth time in latex particles in state.

  9. 8. Particle detectors 8.1 Emulsions

    E-print Network

    Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

    8. Particle detectors 8.1 Emulsions Nuclear emulsions can be used to give 3-dimensional information-altitude balloons. A second way of measuring energetic charged particles involves scintillation detectors. Here of the detectors is low, so they are not ideal at particle energies below about 100 keV, but they are simple

  10. Nuclear emulsions in the OPERA experiment

    E-print Network

    Donato Di Ferdinando; for the OPERA Collaboration

    2008-12-02

    The use of emulsions as particles detector has a long and successful life. The recent development of fast automatized analysis systems has allowed the use of huge amount of emulsions films with no precedence in the history of particle physics. The OPERA experiment, running in the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), for the confirmation of the neutrino oscillation in the $\

  11. Suppression of Ostwald ripening in active emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable since they coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Stability of emulsions is relevant not only in complex fluids but also in biological cells, which contain liquidlike compartments, e.g., germ granules, Cajal bodies, and centrosomes. Such cellular systems are driven away from equilibrium, e.g., by chemical reactions, and thus can be called active emulsions. In this paper, we study such active emulsions by developing a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics, which we analyze for two different chemical reaction schemes. We first consider the simple case of first-order reactions, which leads to stable, monodisperse emulsions in which Ostwald ripening is suppressed within a range of chemical reaction rates. We then consider autocatalytic droplets, which catalyze the production of their own droplet material. Spontaneous nucleation of autocatalytic droplets is strongly suppressed and their emulsions are typically unstable. We show that autocatalytic droplets can be nucleated reliably and their emulsions stabilized by the help of chemically active cores, which catalyze the production of droplet material. In summary, different reaction schemes and catalytic cores can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties. PMID:26274171

  12. Emulsions Droplet Capture Mechanism in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidani, Khalil; Polikar, Marcel

    2006-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the physics of emulsion flow in porous media. The objective of experiments were to study the applicability of oil-in-water emulsion as a plugging agent in the vicinity of the well bore for thousands of Canadian gas wells that are continuously leaking gas to surface. The motion of oil droplets and the capture mechanisms were investigated through visualized experiments. Well-characterized emulsions were injected into a micro model resembling a two parallel plate model packed with glass beads. Effects of emulsion properties and wettability of the medium were studied on a plugging mechanism. The results demonstrate the reduction in permeability mainly due to droplets size exclusion compared to the pore constrictions. Also, smaller droplets may lodge and coalesce in pores crevices thereby accelerating the blockage process. Moreover, more viscous emulsions are more effective compared with the less viscous ones due to combined effects of capillary and viscous forces. The deposition of droplets was adjusted through utilizing different preflush solutions. Criteria were set for enhancing emulsion penetration depth thereby defining the extent of the blocked region. In conclusion, this work characterizes the physics of emulsion flow in porous media and demonstrates its application as a novel sealant in near well bore region. The novelty, which constitutes a step-change in technology, is a method that emplaces an emulsion at a desired location in underground media.

  13. Metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haorong; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Medforth, Craig J

    2013-10-29

    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  14. Suppression of Ostwald ripening in active emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable since they coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Stability of emulsions is relevant not only in complex fluids but also in biological cells, which contain liquidlike compartments, e.g., germ granules, Cajal bodies, and centrosomes. Such cellular systems are driven away from equilibrium, e.g., by chemical reactions, and thus can be called active emulsions. In this paper, we study such active emulsions by developing a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics, which we analyze for two different chemical reaction schemes. We first consider the simple case of first-order reactions, which leads to stable, monodisperse emulsions in which Ostwald ripening is suppressed within a range of chemical reaction rates. We then consider autocatalytic droplets, which catalyze the production of their own droplet material. Spontaneous nucleation of autocatalytic droplets is strongly suppressed and their emulsions are typically unstable. We show that autocatalytic droplets can be nucleated reliably and their emulsions stabilized by the help of chemically active cores, which catalyze the production of droplet material. In summary, different reaction schemes and catalytic cores can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties.

  15. The Effect of Temperature on Thermodynamic Parameters of Micellization of Some Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan Noudeh, Gholamreza; Housaindokht, Mohammadreza; Sedigeh Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi

    The micellization of anionics surfactants (SDS, sodium dodecyl sulphate and SU, surfactin) and cationic surfactants (BC, benzalkonium chloride, TTAB, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide and HTAB, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) were investigated at various temperatures using a du Nouy ring tensiometer. The cmc decreased to a certain minimum and then increased with the temperature, displaying a U-shaped behavior. This behavior was analyzed using a power-law equation. The thermodynamic parameters of micellization, ?Gm, ?Hm and ?Sm were obtained at different temperatures.

  16. Polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant suitable for endovascular applications.

    PubMed

    Morral-Ruíz, Genoveva; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; García, María Luísa; Solans, Conxita; García-Celma, María José

    2014-01-30

    The design of new, safe and effective nanotherapeutic systems is an important challenge for the researchers in the nanotechnology area. This study describes the formation of biocompatible polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant formed from O/W nano-emulsions by polymerization at the droplet interfaces in systems composed by aqueous solution/Kolliphor(®) ELP/medium chain triglyceride suitable for intravenous administration. Initial nano-emulsions incorporating highly hydrophilic materials were prepared by the phase inversion composition (PIC) method. After polymerization, nanoparticles with a small particle diameter (25-55 nm) and low polydispersity index were obtained. Parameters such as concentration of monomer, O/S weight ratio as well as the polymerization temperature were crucial to achieve a correct formation of these nanoparticles. Moreover, FT-IR studies showed the full conversion of the monomer to polyurethane and polyurea polymers. Likewise the involvement of the surfactant in the polymerization process through their nucleophilic groups to form the polymeric matrix was demonstrated. This could mean a first step in the development of biocompatible systems formulated with polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactants. In addition, haemolysis and cell viability assays evidenced the good biocompatibility of KELP polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles thus indicating the potential of these nanosystems as promising drug carriers. PMID:24275445

  17. Use of amine oxide surfactants for chemical flooding EOR (enhanced oil recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.

    1989-11-01

    The use of amine oxides with and without alcohols as cosolvents, and in combination with other surfactants as mixed micellar formulations for enhanced oil recovery by surfactant flooding was investigated. Amine oxides are a salt-tolerant class of surfactants that produce low interfacial tension and can develop viscosity without the addition of polymers. These salt-tolerant formulations generate three-phase regions with hydrocarbons over a broad salinity range, develop moderate solubilization, and produce low interfacial tensions, however oil recovery from amine oxide-alcohol phase behavior optimized formulations was directly dependent upon the quantity of surfactant injected. The large pore volume and high concentration of surfactant required prohibits their economic use as the primary surfactant in chemical flooding EOR. Dimethylalkylamine oxides are useful as cosurfactants and viscosifiers in formulations with other surfactants for chemical flooding EOR but the use of ethoxylated and propoxylated amine oxides should be avoided due to the decomposition of these amine oxides under reservoir conditions. Phase behavior, phase inversion temperatures, and viscosity scans have been correlated with surfactant structures to provide a guide for amine oxide applications in chemical flooding. 36 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Pulmonary surfactant for neonatal respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jeffrey D; Ballard, Roberta A

    2003-04-01

    Surfactant therapy has revolutionized neonatal care and is used routinely for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Recent investigation has further elucidated the function of surfactant-associated proteins and their contribution toward surfactant and lung immune defense functions. As the field of neonatology moves away from intubation and mechanical ventilation of preterm infants at birth toward more aggressive use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure, the optimal timing of exogenous surfactant therapy remains unclear. Evidence suggests that preterm neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and prolonged mechanical ventilation also experience surfactant dysfunction; however, exogenous surfactant therapy beyond the first week of life has not been well studied. Surfactant replacement therapy has been studied for use in other respiratory disorders, including meconium aspiration syndrome and pneumonia. Commercial surfactant preparations currently available are not optimal, given the variability of surfactant protein content and their susceptibility to inhibition. Further progress in the treatment of neonatal respiratory disorders may include the development of "designer" surfactant preparations. PMID:12640270

  19. Non-aqueous Isorefractive Pickering Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Non-aqueous Pickering emulsions of 16–240 ?m diameter have been prepared using diblock copolymer worms with ethylene glycol as the droplet phase and an n-alkane as the continuous phase. Initial studies using n-dodecane resulted in stable emulsions that were significantly less turbid than conventional water-in-oil emulsions. This is attributed to the rather similar refractive indices of the latter two phases. By utilizing n-tetradecane as an alternative oil that almost precisely matches the refractive index of ethylene glycol, almost isorefractive ethylene glycol-in-n-tetradecane Pickering emulsions can be prepared. The droplet diameter and transparency of such emulsions can be systematically varied by adjusting the worm copolymer concentration. PMID:25844544

  20. Coalescence in concentrated Pickering emulsions under shear.

    PubMed

    Whitby, Catherine P; Krebsz, Melinda

    2014-07-21

    We have investigated the rheology of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by silanised silica nanoparticles. The emulsions behave like highly elastic solids in response to small, uniform strains. They become unstable and begin to break down, however, on yielding. We show that the emulsion elasticity is correlated with the salt concentration in the water and hence the particle aggregation in emulsions at a given drop volume fraction. A supporting observation is that destabilisation is favoured by minimising the attractive interactions between the particles. Microscopic observations revealed that coalesced drops have anisotropic shapes and wrinkled surfaces, direct evidence of the interfacial particle layer acting like a mechanical barrier to bulk emulsion destabilisation. PMID:24862445

  1. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  2. Aging mechanism in tunable Pickering emulsion

    E-print Network

    S. Fouilloux; A. Thill; J. Daillant; F. Malloggi

    2015-04-16

    We study the stability of a model Pickering emulsion system. A special counter-flow microfluidics set-up was used to prepare monodisperse Pickering emulsions, with oil droplets in water. The wettability of the monodisperse silica nanoparticles (NPs) could be tuned by surface grafting and the surface coverage of the droplets was controlled using the microfluidics setup. A surface coverage as low as 23$\\%$ is enough to stabilize the emulsions and we evidence a new regime of Pickering emulsion stability where the surface coverage of emulsion droplets of constant size increases in time, in coexistence with a large amount of dispersed phase. Our results demonstrate that the previously observed limited coalescence regime where surface coverage tends to control the average size of the final droplets must be put in a broader perspective.

  3. Development of novel cosmetic base using sterol surfactant. II. Solubilizing of sparingly soluble ultraviolet ray absorbers.

    PubMed

    Teshigawara, Takashi; Miyahara, Reiji; Fukuhara, Tadao; Oka, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that O/W emulsion prepared using a surfactant with phytosterol as the hydrophobic moiety exhibited unique morphology; a lamellar structure was present on the surface of the emulsified particles. It is suggested that such a unique self-organized structure was due to the large and bulky planar structure of the sterol. On the other hand, sparingly soluble compounds including ultraviolet ray absorbers and medicines (e.g., indomethacine and finasteride) have been used after they are dissolved mainly in polar oils. However, it is very difficult to dissolve them in bases that contain small amounts of oil components such as lotions. Moreover, many of these sparingly soluble compounds have planar structures such as aromatic rings and are easy to crystallize in polar oil. In this study, sterol surfactants were considered suitable for solubilizing sparingly soluble compounds, since they have a bulky planar structure in their molecules. On this basis, the solubilization of ultraviolet ray absorbers using sterol surfactants was investigated. Methods to solubilize ultraviolet ray absorbers stably and effectively by using a surfactant that had a phytosterol structure have been clarified. Further, the following features were also suggested: (1) the microemulsion of phytosterol surfactant is different from that of other surfactants and (2) a rigid core that has solubilized compounds between the hydrophobic moieties was considered; further, the core was surrounded by a polyoxyethylene chain that prevented the self-aggregation. Analysis using NMR measurements suggested that (1) the polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene random copolymer dimethyl ether squeezed in a narrow gap between the hydrophobic moieties of the surfactant, and (2) this eventually increased the solubilized amount of an ultraviolet ray absorber. PMID:19075505

  4. Fundamental Study of Emulsions Stabilized by Soft and Rigid Particles.

    PubMed

    Li, Zifu; Harbottle, David; Pensini, Erica; Ngai, To; Richtering, Walter; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-06-16

    Two distinct uniform hybrid particles, with similar hydrodynamic diameters and comparable zeta potentials, were prepared by copolymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and styrene. These particles differed in their styrene to NIPAM (S/N) mass ratios of 1 and 8 and are referred to as S/N 1 and S/N 8, respectively. Particle S/N 1 exhibited a typical behavior of soft particles; that is, the particles shrank in bulk aqueous solutions when the temperature was increased. As a result, S/N 1 particles were interfacially active. In contrast, particle S/N 8 appeared to be rigid in response to temperature changes. In this case, the particles showed a negligible interfacial activity. Interfacial shear rheology tests revealed the increased rigidity of the particle-stabilized film formed at the heptane-water interface by S/N 1 than S/N 8 particles. As a result, S/N 1 particles were shown to be better emulsion stabilizers and emulsify a larger amount of heptane, as compared with S/N 8 particles. The current investigation confirmed a better performance of emulsion stabilization by soft particles (S/N 1) than by rigid particles (S/N 8), reinforcing the importance of controlling softness or deformability of particles for the purpose of stabilizing emulsions. PMID:25835257

  5. Solution and interfacial behavior of modified silicone polymers and their interactions with solid substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Parag

    Surface treatment is very important step in many applications such as fabric finishing, coatings, cosmetics and personal care. Silicone polymers are a class of organic/inorganic materials that show unique properties such as weak intermolecular forces and high flexibility enabling even a very high molecular weight chain to achieve optimal orientation on surfaces. Material properties such as softness, repellency, bounciness and friction can therefore be tailored by using appropriately modified silicone polymers. Despite wide applications, the underlying mechanisms of material modification are unknown and tailoring silicones for applications remains mostly empirical. Thus the objective of this research is to understand the solution and interfacial behavior of functionalized silicone polymers, which govern their performance in material modification. Modified silicones are simultaneously hydrophobic and oleophobic in nature and due to this nearly universal non-compatibility, the studies of these polymers present unusual challenges. Due to this incompatible nature, the functionalized silicone polymers were emulsified into O/W emulsions to study their solution and interfacial properties. The colloidal properties such as electrokinetic and droplet distribution of these emulsions are assumed to play an important role in the observed surface and physical properties of solid substrates (in present study, cellulosic substrates) as well the stability of emulsions itself. To understand the effects of modified silicones on cellulosic substrates a variety of techniques such as frictional analysis, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy that can probe from macro to nano level were used. It is hypothesized that the size distribution and charge of silicone emulsions as well as the physiochemical conditions such as pH, control silicone conformation which in turn affect the modification of the substrate properties. With bimodal droplet distribution of silicone emulsions, the nano-sized droplets can penetrate deeper into the substrate to provide bounciness, whereas macro-sized droplets can coat the top layer leading to friction reduction. It was observed that at pH 5.5 the silicone treatment resulted in charge reversal of fibers as opposed to treatment at pH 9.5. On a macroscopic scale 20% reduction in frictional coefficient of the fabric was observed after treatment with quaternized (cationically modified) silicones as compared to untreated fibers. It was also observed using AFM that the fibrils treated with quaternized silicones are uniform, well stacked and smoother than the untreated fibers. Spectroscopic analysis of treated fibers using Raman spectroscopy indicated a decrease in fiber stress as a function of modification of silicone polymer and the interaction pH. It is concluded that the protonated amine functional silicone (below pH 7) as well as the quaternized silicone interacts with the negatively charged cellulose fibers primarily through electrostatic interactions. It is proposed that this initial surface coating is a uniform thin film which allows further deposition of polymer from the emulsion. It was observed that at high pH the zetapotential of silicone emulsions decreases drastically and the nano emulsions turn turbid. It is proposed that the observed electrophoretic and nephelometric behavior at high pH is due to flocculation of nanosized droplets to micron size, which eventually leads to droplets coalescing and emulsion destabilization. It is also postulated that the nano emulsion possess a critical dilution concentration (CDC), above which dilution leads to rapid coalescence. This critical dilution phase was further confirmed through polarity parameter and excimer formation studies which show significantly different polymer and surfactant microstructures near the CDC. Hence it is concluded that the observed surface properties of the substrate obtained above the CDC are significantly different than those below the CDC. The results reveal the vital role of physiochemical parameters such as pH, droplet size,

  6. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  7. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation/conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

  8. Influence of emulsification process on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by layered double hydroxide particles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nana; Zhang, Li; Sun, Dejun

    2015-04-28

    This paper reports the influence of emulsification process on the packing of layered double hydroxide (LDH) particles at the aqueous/oil phase interface and the properties of the resulting Pickering emulsions. Emulsions prepared by ultrasonication display superior long-term stability and gel-like characteristics at the dispersed phase volume fraction well below the random close packing limit, whereas emulsions with same compositions prepared by vortex mixing show some extent of sedimentation and liquid-like behaviors. Rheological measurements demonstrate that the zero-shear elastic modulus and yield stress of gel-like emulsions exhibit power-law dependences on particle concentration and independence on aqueous/oil phase ratio. The microstructural origin of this behavior is investigated by optical microscopy, revealing the droplets become strongly adhesive and a heterogeneous percolating network is formed among neighboring droplets. Fluorescent confocal microscopy measurements further confirm that the droplet adhesion is due to particle layers bridging opposite interfaces. In contrast, homogeneous, isolated, and densely packed droplets are present in emulsions prepared by vortex mixing, which results in these systems being dominantly viscous like the suspending fluid. This study shows that the emulsification process can be used as a trigger to modify long-term stability and rheology of solid-stabilized multiphase mixtures, which greatly expands their potential technological applications. PMID:25853297

  9. Atrazine and Diuron partitioning within a soil-water-surfactant system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Keller, A.

    2006-12-01

    The interaction between pesticide and soil and water is even more complex in the presence of surfactants. In this study, batch equilibrium was employed to study the sorption of surfactants and the partitioning behaviors of Atrazine and Diuron within a soil-water-surfactant system. Five soils and four surfactants (nonionic Triton- 100, cationic Benzalkonium Chloride (BC), anionic Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS), and anionic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)) were used. All surfactant sorption isotherms exhibited an initial linear increase at low surfactant concentrations but reached an asymptotic value as the surfactant concentrations increased. Among the surfactants, BC had the highest sorption onto all soils, followed by Triton-100 and then by LAS and SDS, implying that the nature of the charge significantly influences surfactant sorption. Sorption of either Triton-100 or BC was highly correlated with soil Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) while that of LAS and SDS was complicated by the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the aqueous phase and the CEC sites. Both LAS and SDS formed complexes with Ca2+ and Mg2+, resulting in a significant decrease in the detergency of the surfactants. At high surfactant concentrations and with micelles present in the aqueous phase, the micelles formed a more competitive partitioning site for the pesticides, resulting in less pesticide sorbed to the soil. At low Triton-100 and BC concentration, the sorption of the surfactants first resulted in less Atrazine sorption but more Diuron sorption, implying competition between the surfactants and Atrazine, which serves as an indirect evidence that there is a different sorption mechanism for Atrazine. Atrazine is a weak base and it protonates and becomes positively charged near particle surfaces where the pH is much lower than in the bulk solution. The protonated Atrazine may then be held on the CEC sites via electrostatic attraction. Triton-100, LAS and SDS sorbed on the soil showed similar sequestration efficiency for Atrazine and Diuron while BC sorbed on the soils with lower CECs showed much higher Atrazine and Diuron sequestration efficiency than the other surfactants, suggesting that the sorbed BC on these soils with less CEC forms bulk-like partitioning media more easily than the soils with higher CECs. These results significantly improve our understanding of partitioning of pesticides within soil-water-surfactant systems. These findings can serve to improve the pesticide removal efficiency of soil washing systems. Also, our results show that by studying the effect of surfactants on pesticide sorption can serve as a new method to study pesticide sorption mechanisms.

  10. Surfactant instabilities on thin films

    E-print Network

    Aessopos, Angelica

    2005-01-01

    The deposition of a surfactant drop over a thin liquid film may be accompanied by a fingering instability. In this work, we present experimental results which identify the critical parameters that govern the shape and ...

  11. Cometabolic Degradation of TCE Vapors in a Foamed Emulsion

    E-print Network

    Cometabolic Degradation of TCE Vapors in a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor E U N S U N G K A N A N D M)vaporsinanovelgas-phasebioreactorcalledthefoamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) was demonstrated. Toluene vapors were used as the primary growth substrate-phase bioreactor called the foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) was developed (20). The FEBR consists of an emulsion

  12. Supporting Information Self-Assembled Liquid Crystal Gels in Emulsion

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Yue

    Supporting Information Self-Assembled Liquid Crystal Gels in Emulsion Xia Tong,1 Jong Won Chung,2 emulsion. Fig. S1. Image a is the photomicrograph (reflection mode) of an emulsion cast on a glass slide. Polarizing photomicrographs showing (a) the droplets of liquid crystal emulsion without gelator and (b

  13. Biophysicochemical Interaction of a Clinical Pulmonary Surfactant with Nanoalumina.

    PubMed

    Mousseau, F; Le Borgne, R; Seyrek, E; Berret, J-F

    2015-07-01

    We report on the interaction of pulmonary surfactant composed of phospholipids and proteins with nanometric alumina (Al2O3) in the context of lung exposure and nanotoxicity. We study the bulk properties of phospholipid/nanoparticle dispersions and determine the nature of their interactions. The clinical surfactant Curosurf, both native and extruded, and a protein-free surfactant are investigated. The phase behavior of mixed surfactant/particle dispersions was determined by optical and electron microscopy, light scattering, and zeta potential measurements. It exhibits broad similarities with that of strongly interacting nanosystems such as polymers, proteins or particles, and supports the hypothesis of electrostatic complexation. At a critical stoichiometry, micron-sized aggregates arising from the association between oppositely charged vesicles and nanoparticles are formed. Contrary to the models of lipoprotein corona or of particle wrapping, our work shows that vesicles maintain their structural integrity and trap the particles at their surfaces. The agglomeration of particles in surfactant phase is a phenomenon of importance that could change the interactions of the particles with lung cells. PMID:26075579

  14. Surfactant effects on the dynamics of an intravascular bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Eckmann, David; Ayyaswamy, P. S.

    2004-11-01

    The effects of a surfactant on the dynamics of gas bubble behavior in the arteriolar vasculature are numerically investigated. The equations for momentum in the bulk fluid (blood) and the bubble, and the convection-diffusion equations for mass transport both in the bulk fluid and on the gas-liquid interface are numerically solved using a front tracking method. Both soluble and insoluble surfactants are considered. The adsorption/desorption dynamics of the soluble surfactant is accurately resolved. For a nearly occluded bubble, a faster rate of depletion of the surfactant from the region adjacent to the wall of the vessel is observed. In several cases studied here, the bulk medium is treated as non-Newtonian (power law, Casson), although the majority of cases treat blood as Newtonian. Results show that the adsorbed surfactant serves to prevent blood proteins and other macromolecules from occupying the interface. This prevents clotting or adhesion of the bubble to the vessel wall. The results obtained have significance in the study of intravascular gas embolism. Supported by NIH R01 HL67986

  15. Study of the Formation and Solution Properties of Worm-Like Micelles Formed Using Both N-Hexadecyl-N-Methylpiperidinium Bromide-Based Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhihu; Dai, Caili; Feng, Haishun; Liu, Yifei; Wang, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of worm-like micelles formed by mixing the cationic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide (C16MDB) with the anionic surfactant sodium laurate (SL) in aqueous solutions were investigated using rheological measurements. The effects of sodium laurate and temperature on the worm-like micelles and the mechanism of the observed shear thinning phenomenon and pseudoplastic behavior were systematically investigated. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further ascertained existence of entangled worm-like micelles. PMID:25296131

  16. Drops deformation and magnetic permeability of a ferrofluid emulsion

    E-print Network

    Arthur Zakinyan; Yury Dikansky

    2011-04-17

    In the paper the novel soft magnetic composite system is investigated. A ferrofluid emulsion studied demonstrates the strong magnetic properties which are atypical for commonly known emulsions. Interaction of ferrofluid emulsions with a magnetic field is considered. Structural transformations in these media, such as deformation of emulsion microdroplets and emulsion inversion, are studied. The changes in the relative permeability of emulsion associated with structural transformations are investigated. The theory of the observed phenomena is developed, and the feasibility of effectively controlling the magnetic properties of ferrofluid emulsions by applying a magnetic field is demonstrated.

  17. Adsorption at air-water and oil-water interfaces and self-assembly in aqueous solution of ethoxylated polysorbate nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun X; Petkov, Jordan T; Tucker, Ian; Webster, John R P; Terry, Ann E

    2015-03-17

    The Tween nonionic surfactants are ethoxylated sorbitan esters, which have 20 ethylene oxide groups attached to the sorbitan headgroup and a single alkyl chain, lauryl, palmityl, stearyl, or oleyl. They are an important class of surfactants that are extensively used in emulsion and foam stabilization and in applications associated with foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. A range of ethoxylated polysorbate surfactants, with differing degrees of ethoxylation from 3 to 50 ethylene oxide groups, have been synthesized and characterized by neutron reflection, small-angle neutron scattering, and surface tension. In conjunction with different alkyl chain groups, this provides the opportunity to modify their surface properties, their self-assembly in solution, and their interaction with macromolecules, such as proteins. Adsorption at the air-water and oil-water interfaces and solution self-assembly of the range of ethoxylated polysorbate surfactants synthesized are presented and discussed. PMID:25697294

  18. An explanation of dispersion states of single-walled carbon nanotubes in solvents and aqueous surfactant solutions using solubility parameters.

    PubMed

    Ham, Hyeong Taek; Choi, Yeong Suk; Chung, In Jae

    2005-06-01

    Dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes in various solvents and aqueous surfactant emulsions were investigated to correlate the degree of dispersion state with Hansen solubility parameters (deltat2=deltad2+deltap2+deltah2). It was found that the nanotubes were dispersed or suspended very well in the solvents with certain dispersive component (deltad) values. They were precipitated in the solvents with high polar component (deltap) values or hydrogen-bonding component (deltah) values. The solvents in the dispersed group occupied a certain region in a 3-dimensional space of three components. The surfactants with a lipophilic group equal to and longer than decyl, containing 9 methylene groups and 1 methyl group, contributed to the dispersion of nanotubes in water. The surfactants in the dispersed group had a lower limit in the dispersive component (deltad) of the Hansen parameter. PMID:15848419

  19. Evaluation of zidovudine encapsulated ethylcellulose microspheres prepared by water-in-oil-in-oil (w/o/o) double emulsion solvent diffusion technique.

    PubMed

    Das, Malay Kumar; Rao, Kalakuntala Rama

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of zidovudine-loaded ethylcellulose microspheres by w/o/o double emulsion solvent diffusion method with high entrapment capacity and sustained release is described. A mixed solvent system (MSS) consisting of acetonitrile and dichloromethane in a 1:1 ratio and light liquid paraffin was selected as primary and secondary oil phases, respectively. Span 80 was used as the secondary surfactant for stabilizing the external oil phase. Spherical free flowing microspheres were obtained. The prepared microspheres were characterized by entrapment efficiency, in vitro release behavior, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The drug-loaded microspheres showed 32 - 55% entrapment capacity. The in vitro release profile could be altered significantly by changing various processing and formulation parameters to give sustained release of drug from the microspheres. The DSC thermograms confirmed the absence of any drug-polymer interaction. SEM studies showed that the microspheres were spherical and porous in nature. The in vitro release profiles from microspheres of different polymer-drug ratios were best fitted to Higuchi model with high correlation coefficient and the n value obtained from Korsmeyer-Peppas model was ranged between 0.23 - 0.54. The drug release was found to be diffusion controlled mechanism. PMID:17514878

  20. Physico-chemical characterization of Intralipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, M; Rubin, M; Bor, A; Meyuhas, D; Talmon, Y; Lichtenberg, D

    1991-11-27

    Fat emulsions containing soy triacylglycerols (100-300 g/l) and egg-yolk phospholipids (12 g/l) are often used for intravenous feeding. Previous studies have shown that these emulsions contain chylomicron-like emulsion particles of diameters of 300-400 nm and excess phospholipids aggregated as vesicles (liposomes), which remain in the infranatant upon floatation of the emulsion particles by ultracentrifugation. This work is devoted to the characterization of the commercial lipid emulsions commonly denoted Intralipids, with special emphasis on the presently ill-defined liposomes. The lipid particles composing commercial lipid emulsions (10%, 20% and 30% Intralipids, Kabivitrum Nutrition) were characterized by the combined use of physical and chemical methods. Each of the emulsions was fractionated by ultracentrifugation in saline into a 'cream' layer which floats to the top of the dispersion upon ultracentrifugation and a relatively transparent infranatant. The cream layer contains large emulsion particles of diameters ranging from 300 to 400 nm, in agreement with theoretical considerations based on their chemical composition as determined by chemical analysis. The infranatants contain about 1 g/l triacylglycerols in addition to phospholipids (from 7.2 g/l in 10% Intralipid to 2.4 g/l in 30% Intralipid) in the form of smaller particles of 70-100 nm diameter. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy shows that the infranatants contain vesicles (mostly unilamellar) at the side of residual small emulsion particles. This conclusion is also consistent with the distribution of phospholipids between outer and inner lamellae, as determined by 31P-NMR. PMID:1742317

  1. Polymer/Pristine Graphene Based Composites: From Emulsions to Strong, Electrically Conducting Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltornist, Steven; Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Xu, Thomas; Dobrynin, Andrey; Adamson, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    The unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of graphene make it a perfect candidate for applications in graphene/graphite based polymer composites, yet challenges due to the lack of solubility of pristine graphene/graphite in water, common organic solvents, and polymer solutions and melts have limited its practical utilization. Here we report a scalable and environmentally friendly technique to form water-in-oil type emulsions stabilized by a graphitic skin consisting of overlapping pristine graphene sheets that enables the synthesis of open cell foams containing a continuous graphitic skin network. At the heart of our technique is the strong attraction of graphene to high-energy oil and water interfaces. This allows for the creation of stable water-in-oil emulsions with controlled droplet size and overlapping graphene sheets playing the role of surfactant by covering the droplet surface and stabilizing the interfaces with a thin graphitic skin. These emulsions are used as templates for the synthesis of the open cell foams with densities below 0.35 g/cm3 and exhibiting remarkable mechanical and electrical properties including compressive moduli up to ~ 100 MPa, compressive strengths of over 8.3 MPa, and bulk conductivities approaching 7 S/m.

  2. A lipid based multi-compartmental system: Liposomes-in-double emulsion for oral vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Liau, Jin Jau; Hook, Sarah; Prestidge, Clive A; Barnes, Timothy J

    2015-11-01

    The gastric mucosa provides the entry point for the majority of pathogens, as well as being the induction site for protective immunity; however, there remain few examples of oral vaccines due to the challenges presented by the gastrointestinal route. In this study, we develop a lipid-based multi-compartmental system for oral vaccine delivery. Specifically, we have optimised the formulation of a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion prepared from a triglyceride - soya bean oil, using surfactants Span 80/Tween 80 and Pluronic F127 to stabilise the internal and external water phases, respectively. Into the internal water phase, we also incorporated a PEGylated liposome, prepared using hydrogenated phosphatidyl choline as a carrier for our model protein, FITC-labelled ovalbumin. We demonstrated the successful incorporation of intact liposomes into the internal water phase of the double emulsion using imaging techniques including cryo-SEM and confocal microscopy. Finally, we use in vitro release studies of FITC-ovalbumin, to provide further confirmation of the multi-compartmental structure of the double emulsion system and demonstrate significant extended release of the entrapped model antigen compared with PEG-liposomes; these characteristics are attractive for oral vaccine delivery. PMID:26455337

  3. Nozzleless Fabrication of Oil-Core Biopolymeric Microcapsules by the Interfacial Gelation of Pickering Emulsion Templates.

    PubMed

    Leong, Jun-Yee; Tey, Beng-Ti; Tan, Chin-Ping; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-08-01

    Ionotropic gelation has been an attractive method for the fabrication of biopolymeric oil-core microcapsules due to its safe and mild processing conditions. However, the mandatory use of a nozzle system to form the microcapsules restricts the process scalability and the production of small microcapsules (<100 ?m). We report, for the first time, a nozzleless and surfactant-free approach to fabricate oil-core biopolymeric microcapsules through ionotropic gelation at the interface of an O/W Pickering emulsion. This approach involves the self-assembly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles at the interface of O/W emulsion droplets followed by the addition of a polyanionic biopolymer into the aqueous phase. Subsequently, CaCO3 nanoparticles are dissolved by pH reduction, thus liberating Ca(2+) ions to cross-link the surrounding polyanionic biopolymer to form a shell that encapsulates the oil droplet. We demonstrate the versatility of this method by fabricating microcapsules from different types of polyanionic biopolymers (i.e., alginate, pectin, and gellan gum) and water-immiscible liquid cores (i.e., palm olein, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, and toluene). In addition, small microcapsules with a mean size smaller than 100 ?m can be produced by selecting the appropriate conventional emulsification methods available to prepare the Pickering emulsion. The simplicity and versatility of this method allows biopolymeric microcapsules to be fabricated with ease by ionotropic gelation for numerous applications. PMID:26148344

  4. Pump safety tests regarding emulsion explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perlid, H.

    1996-12-31

    In the handling of emulsion explosives pumping is a key operation. A number of serious accidents has shown that pumping can be a risky operation and should be carefully considered and investigated. This is the background behind a series of pump tests carried out by Nitro Nobel. This paper refers to pump safety tests with an eccentric screw pump (progressive cavity) and emulsion explosives. A selection of emulsions unsensitized as well as sensitized were tested. The tests were performed in a circulation system against dead head and as dry pumping.

  5. Fast automated scanning of OPERA emulsion films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirri, G.; Opera Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    The use of nuclear emulsions to record tracks of charged particles with an accuracy of better than 1 micron is possible in large physics experiments thanks to the recent improvements in the industrial production of emulsions and to the development of fast automated microscopes. The European Scanning System (ESS) is a fast automatic system developed for the mass scanning of the emulsions of the OPERA experiment, which requires microscopes with scanning speeds of about 20 cm 2/h. Recent improvements in the technique and measurements with ESS are reported.

  6. Double emulsions in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannacci, Nicolas; Lockhart, Thibaut; Willaime, Hervé; Tabeling, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    Double emulsions (emulsion of two liquids dispersed in a third liquid phase) are widely used in cosmetics, medicine or food industry. We are interested in producing very well controlled double emulsions in a microfluidic device and predicting the morphology (complete engulfing, non-engulfing or partial engulfing called ``janus'') from classical energetic considerations. We use a double flow focusing geometry with a 100 micrometers cross section for the PDMS microsystem. We compare theoretical and experimental morphologies flowing thirty triplets of immiscible fluids. We observe quite a good agreement and show that microfluidic technology may permit to get non standard objects.

  7. SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECTION OF SURFACTANT FORMULATIONS FOR IOR FROM FRACTURED CARBONATE RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu; Seung Soon Jang

    2005-07-01

    This topical report presents details of the laboratory work performed to complete Task 1 of this project; developing rapid screening methods to assess surfactant performance for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The desired outcome is to identify surfactant formulations that increase the rate and amount of aqueous phase imbibition into oil-rich, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. Changing the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet is one key to enhancing this water-phase imbibition process that in turn recovers additional oil from the matrix portion of a carbonate reservoir. The common laboratory test to evaluate candidate surfactant formulations is to measure directly the aqueous imbibition rate and oil recovery from small outcrop or reservoir cores, but this procedure typically requires several weeks. Two methods are presented here for the rapid screening of candidate surfactant formulations for their potential IOR performance in carbonate reservoirs. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant performance reported in the literature.

  8. Development of lamellar gel phase emulsion containing marigold oil (Calendula officinalis) as a potential modern wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Okuma, C H; Andrade, T A M; Caetano, G F; Finci, L I; Maciel, N R; Topan, J F; Cefali, L C; Polizello, A C M; Carlo, T; Rogerio, A P; Spadaro, A C C; Isaac, V L B; Frade, M A C; Rocha-Filho, P A

    2015-04-25

    Appropriate therapeutics for wound treatments can be achieved by studying the pathophysiology of tissue repair. Here we develop formulations of lamellar gel phase (LGP) emulsions containing marigold (Calendula officinalis) oil, evaluating their stability and activity on experimental wound healing in rats. LGP emulsions were developed and evaluated based on a phase ternary diagram to select the best LGP emulsion, having a good amount of anisotropic structure and stability. The selected LGP formulation was analyzed according to the intrinsic and accelerated physical stability at different temperatures. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out on wound healing rats as a model. The LGP emulsion (15.0% marigold oil; 10.0% of blend surfactants and 75.0% of purified water [w/w/w]) demonstrated good stability and high viscosity, suggesting longer contact of the formulation with the wound. No cytotoxic activity (50-1000 ?g/mL) was observed in marigold oil. In the wound healing rat model, the LGP (15 mg/mL) showed an increase in the leukocyte recruitment to the wound at least on days 2 and 7, but reduced leukocyte recruitment after 14 and 21 days, as compared to the control. Additionally, collagen production was reduced in the LGP emulsion on days 2 and 7 and further accelerated the process of re-epithelialization of the wound itself. The methodology utilized in the present study has produced a potentially useful formulation for a stable LGP emulsion-containing marigold, which was able to improve the wound healing process. PMID:25684193

  9. Hydrodynamic model for drying emulsions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huanhuan; Sprakel, Joris; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2015-08-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model for film formation in a dense oil-in-water emulsion under a unidirectional drying stress. Water flow through the plateau borders towards the drying end leads to the buildup of a pressure gradient. When the local pressure exceeds the critical disjoining pressure, the water films between droplets break and the droplets coalesce. We show that, depending on the critical pressure and the evaporation rate, the coalescence can occur in two distinct modes. At low critical pressures and low evaporation rates, coalescence occurs throughout the sample, whereas at high critical pressures and high evaporation rate, coalescence occurs only at the front. In the latter case, an oil layer develops on top of the film, which acts as a diffusive barrier and slows down film formation. Our findings, which are summarized in a state diagram for film formation, are in agreement with recent experimental findings. PMID:26382507

  10. Hydrodynamic model for drying emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Sprakel, Joris; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2015-08-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model for film formation in a dense oil-in-water emulsion under a unidirectional drying stress. Water flow through the plateau borders towards the drying end leads to the buildup of a pressure gradient. When the local pressure exceeds the critical disjoining pressure, the water films between droplets break and the droplets coalesce. We show that, depending on the critical pressure and the evaporation rate, the coalescence can occur in two distinct modes. At low critical pressures and low evaporation rates, coalescence occurs throughout the sample, whereas at high critical pressures and high evaporation rate, coalescence occurs only at the front. In the latter case, an oil layer develops on top of the film, which acts as a diffusive barrier and slows down film formation. Our findings, which are summarized in a state diagram for film formation, are in agreement with recent experimental findings.

  11. Adsorption of protein-surfactant complexes at the water/oil interface.

    PubMed

    Pradines, Vincent; Fainerman, Valentin B; Aksenenko, Eugene V; Krägel, Jürgen; Wüstneck, Rainer; Miller, Reinhard

    2011-02-01

    Interfacial tension measurements have been performed at the water/hexane interface on mixtures of the bovine milk protein ?-lactoglobulin and positively charged cationic surfactants (alkytrimethylammonium bromides). The addition of surfactants with different chain lengths leads to the formation of protein-surfactant complexes with different adsorption properties as compared to those of the single protein. In this study, the formation of complexes has been observed clearly for protein-long chain surfactant (TTAB and CTAB) mixtures, which has shown in addition to specific electrostatic interactions the relevance of hydrophobic interactions between surfactant molecules and the protein. The modeling of interfacial tension data by using a mixed adsorption model provides a quantitative understanding of the mixture behavior. Indeed, the value of the adsorption constant of the protein obtained in the presence of surfactants has strongly varied as compared to the single protein. Actually, this parameter which represents the affinity of the molecule for the interface is representative of the hydrophobic character of the compound and so of its surface activity. Even if a more hydrophobic and more surface active protein-surfactant complex has been formed, the replacement of this complex from the interface by surfactants close to their cmc was observed. PMID:21188992

  12. Amphiphilic Polymerizable Porphyrins Conjugated to a Polyglycerol Dendron Moiety as Functional Surfactants for Multifunctional Polymer Particles.

    PubMed

    Moriishi, Masako; Kitayama, Yukiya; Ooya, Tooru; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2015-12-01

    An amphiphilic polyglycerol dendron (PGD) conjugated porphyrin (PGP) bearing a polymerizable group was successfully synthesized. The PGP was used as an effective surfactant in emulsion and microsuspension polymerization systems to prepare styrene and methacrylate polymer particles, and the use of PGP provided the simple polymer particles with fluorescence derived from the metalloporphyrin and high colloidal stability due to the PGD. Furthermore, based on confocal laser scanning microscopy, we observed that the particles spontaneously formed a core-shell morphology with the PGP localized in the shell region during the polymerization and demonstrated drug loading in the shell region using rhodamine B as a model drug. The results indicate that the use of the functional surfactant PGP led to the preparation of multifunctional polymer particles from simple monomer species, and the resulting particles possessed high colloidal stability, fluorescence, and drug loading capability. PMID:26569154

  13. Current Application of Lipid- and Surfactant-based Vesicles for Cosmeceuticals: A Review.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tzung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Skincare products with multiple beneficial functions are currently of great interest to most cosmeceutical consumers in the world, which provides a strong driving force for the search of new bio-active ingredients. Along with the development of cosmeceuticals, seeking the efficient delivery systems to convey these active substances to the human skin has also gained increasing attention in the field of research and development. In order to elevate the delivery efficacy of cosmetics/drugs, colloidal carriers such as vesicles, nano/micro-emulsions, and nano/micro-particles have been widely developed. This review focuses on the recent investigations of lipid- and surfactant-based vesicles for cosmeceutical applications. Categories, preparation methods, physicochemical characteristics, and safety and efficacy evaluations of lipid- and surfactant-based vesicles capable of delivering cosmeceuticals are discussed in this review. PMID:26343129

  14. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-03-01

    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

  15. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Annual report, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    In this report, the authors present the results of experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties.

  16. Evaluation of the stability of concentrated emulsions for lemon beverages using sequential experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Ferraz, Helen Conceição

    2015-01-01

    The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%), starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30%) and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L), including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations. PMID:25793301

  17. Evaluation of the Stability of Concentrated Emulsions for Lemon Beverages Using Sequential Experimental Designs

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Ferraz, Helen Conceição

    2015-01-01

    The study of the stability of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is imperative to provide a scientific approach for an important problem in the beverage industry, contributing to abolish the empiricism still present nowadays. The use of these emulsions would directly imply a reduction of transportation costs between production and the sales points, where dilution takes place. The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of the main components of a lemon emulsion on its stability, aiming to maximize the concentration of oil in the beverage and to correlate its physicochemical characteristics to product stability, allowing an increase of shelf life of the final product. For this purpose, analyses of surface and interface tension, electrokinetic potential, particle size and rheological properties of the emulsions were conducted. A 24-1 fractional factorial design was performed with the following variables: lemon oil/water ratio (30% to 50%), starch and Arabic gum concentrations (0% to 30%) and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (0 mg/L to 100 mg/L), including an evaluation of the responses at the central conditions of each variable. Sequentially, a full design was prepared to evaluate the two most influential variables obtained in the first plan, in which concentration of starch and gum ranged from 0% to 20%, while concentration of lemon oil/water ratio was fixed at 50%, without dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. Concentrated emulsions with stability superior to 15 days were obtained with either starch or Arabic gum and 50% lemon oil. The most stable formulations presented viscosity over 100 cP and ratio between the surface tension of the emulsion and the mucilage of over 1. These two answers were selected, since they better represent the behavior of emulsions in terms of stability and could be used as tools for an initial selection of the most promising formulations. PMID:25793301

  18. Influence of ripening and creaming on the aggregation rate of dodecane-in-water nanoemulsions. Is the creaming rate an appropriate measure of emulsion stability?

    E-print Network

    Yorlis Mendoza; Kareem Rahn-Chique; Antonio M. Puertas; Manuel S. Romero-Cano; German Urbina-Villalba

    2013-05-31

    The behavior of four oil-in-water (O/W) ioinic nanoemulsions composed of dodecane, and mixtures of dodecane with squalene and tetra-chloro-ethylene is studied. These nanoemulsions were stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The behavior of the turbidity and the average radius of the emulsions were followed as a function of time. The results illustrate the shortcomings of characterizing the stability of emulsions by their creaming rate.

  19. Influence of droplet size on the efficacy of oil-in-water emulsions loaded with phenolic antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Terjung, Nino; Löffler, Myriam; Gibis, Monika; Hinrichs, Jörg; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-03-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of droplet size on the antimicrobial activity of emulsions containing two essential oil compounds that are known for their antimicrobial effectiveness: carvacrol and eugenol. Coarse emulsions were prepared by blending a triacylglyceride (Miglyol 812N) containing various concentrations of carvacrol or eugenol (5, 15, 30, 50 wt%) at an oil droplet mass fraction of 10 wt% with an aqueous phase containing 2 wt% Tween 80(®). Premixes were then further dispersed using a high shear blender, a high pressure homogenizer at different pressures or an ultrasonicator to produce droplets with a variety of mean diameters. Microscopy and light scattering storage stability studies over 10 days indicated that manufactured emulsions were stable, i.e. that no aggregation, creaming or other destabilization mechanisms occurred and droplet size distributions remained unchanged. The antimicrobial activity of emulsions was assessed against two model microorganisms, the Gram negative Escherichia coli C 600 and the Gram positive Listeria innocua, by determining growth over time behavior. The analysis yielded the unexpected result that emulsions with larger droplet sizes were more effective at inhibiting growth and inactivating cells than smaller ones. For example, emulsions with a mean oil droplet size of 3000 nm at a concentration of 800 ppm carvacrol completely inhibited L. innocua, while for 80 nm emulsions, only a delay of growth could be observed. Measurements of the concentration of the antimicrobial compounds in the aqueous phase indicated that concentrations of eugenol and carvacrol decreased with decreasing oil droplet sizes. Determination of interfacial tension further showed that eugenol and carvacrol are preferentially located in the oil-water interfaces. Theoretical calculations of Tween 80(®) concentrations needed to saturate interfaces suggested that in small emulsions for the given formulation less Tween 80(®) micelles are present in the aqueous phase. We therefore attribute the fact that antimicrobial nanoemulsions are less active than macroemulsions due to an increased sequestering of antimicrobials in emulsion interfaces and a decreased solubilization in excess Tween 80(®) micelles. PMID:22183117

  20. Biomedical Applications of Emulsion Templated Scaffolds 

    E-print Network

    Moglia, Robert Scott

    2014-03-28

    . To this end, we have utilized emulsion templating to create injectable polyHIPE scaffolds that are biodegradable, highly porous, polymerize at body temperature, and possess appropriate and tunable mechanical properties for tissue regeneration. Poly...

  1. Multi-body coalescence in Pickering emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tong; Wang, Haitao; Jing, Benxin; Liu, Fang; Burns, Peter C.; Na, Chongzheng

    2015-01-01

    Particle-stabilized Pickering emulsions have shown unusual behaviours such as the formation of non-spherical droplets and the sudden halt of coalescence between individual droplets. Here we report another unusual behaviour of Pickering emulsions—the simultaneous coalescence of multiple droplets in a single event. Using latex particles, silica particles and carbon nanotubes as model stabilizers, we show that multi-body coalescence can occur in both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. The number of droplets involved in the nth coalscence event equals four times the corresponding number of the tetrahedral sequence in close packing. Furthermore, coalescence is promoted by repulsive latex and silica particles but inhibited by attractive carbon nanotubes. The revelation of multi-body coalescence is expected to help better understand Pickering emulsions in natural systems and improve their designs in engineering applications.

  2. Multi-body coalescence in Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Wang, Haitao; Jing, Benxin; Liu, Fang; Burns, Peter C; Na, Chongzheng

    2015-01-01

    Particle-stabilized Pickering emulsions have shown unusual behaviours such as the formation of non-spherical droplets and the sudden halt of coalescence between individual droplets. Here we report another unusual behaviour of Pickering emulsions-the simultaneous coalescence of multiple droplets in a single event. Using latex particles, silica particles and carbon nanotubes as model stabilizers, we show that multi-body coalescence can occur in both water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. The number of droplets involved in the nth coalscence event equals four times the corresponding number of the tetrahedral sequence in close packing. Furthermore, coalescence is promoted by repulsive latex and silica particles but inhibited by attractive carbon nanotubes. The revelation of multi-body coalescence is expected to help better understand Pickering emulsions in natural systems and improve their designs in engineering applications. PMID:25581366

  3. Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

    1984-01-01

    Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

  4. Phase and foam behavior study of CO{sub 2}-based foams at reservoir temperature and pressure. Final report, August 20, 1990--July 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, W.B.; Lim, K.H.

    1993-10-01

    A major objective of the Enhanced Oil Recovery Program at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to develop technologies based on CO{sub 2}, foams, emulsions, or other fluid dispersions that will alleviate viscous fingering and mobility control problems that severely limit the production of oil by miscible CO{sub 2}, flooding. In this project, data on the phase behavior of a model surfactant/water system were generated both to help in modeling work for phase behavior and dispersion morphologies and to provide an efficient experimental methodology for determination of these data from flow calorimetric measurements. The project consists of two separate but compatible subtasks, the results of which are described in detail in the two parts of the main body of this report.

  5. Development of cyclosporine A-loaded dry-emulsion formulation using highly purified glycerol monooleate for safe inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Kumiko; Kojo, Yoshiki; Kawabata, Yohei; Mizumoto, Takahiro; Yamada, Shizuo; Onoue, Satomi

    2013-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to improve the safety and oxidative stability of glycerol monooleate (GMO)-based dry-emulsion (DE) formulation containing cyclosporine A (CsA) for inhalation therapy. GMO or highly purified GMO (hpGMO) was used as surfactant for the DE formulations (GMO/DE or hpGMO/DE), the toxicological and physicochemical properties of which were characterized with a focus on oxidative stability, in vitro/in vivo toxicity, and dissolution property. Incubation of GMO at oxidation accelerating conditions for 10 days at 60°C resulted in the formation of lipid peroxides as evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (111 ?mol/mg); however, hpGMO samples exhibited increase of only 20.7 ?mol/mg in malondialdehyde level. No significant acute cytotoxicity was observed in rat alveolar L2 cells exposed to hpGMO (0.28mM), and intratracheal administration of hpGMO powder in rats did not cause an increase of the plasma LDH level. The hpGMO/DE exhibited marked improvement in dissolution behavior of CsA, and stable fine micelles with a mean diameter of 320 nm were formed when suspended in water. A respirable powder formulation of hpGMO/DE (hpGMO/DE-RP) was newly prepared, and its in vitro inhalation property and in vivo efficacy were also evaluated. The hpGMO/DE-RP exhibited high dispersibility in laser diffraction analysis and significantly improved potency to attenuate recruitment of inflammatory cells into airway and thickening of airway wall in an animal model. Thus, the strategic use of hpGMO would improve oxidative stability and local toxicity compared with a GMO-based DE formulation, and its application to RP formulation could be a promising approach for effective inhalation therapy. PMID:23528280

  6. Comparison of the droplets size and rheology of two emulsions of heavy and light oils mixed with aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, José; Soto, Enrique; de la Torre, Rocío G.; Ramírez-González, Patsy V.; Quiñones-Cisneros, Segio H.

    2014-03-01

    Two kinds of emulsions have been studied: the first with a heavy oil and the second with a light oil. The emulsions were made by mixing at several controlled conditions and ratios of aqueous solution. For all cases the oil was the continuous phase. The morphology of the dispersed aqueous phase was studied showing a clear trend for increase viscosity with decrease in droplet size. After a period of time, the viscosity of the emulsions changes due to drops coalescence. For the heavy oil emusions, the viscosity increased when the bigger drops coalesced and segregate, so the average drops size decreases too. In case the light oil emulsions, however, the opposite behavior was observed.

  7. Shear-stabilized emulsion flooding process

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C.W.; Reed, R.L.

    1982-06-29

    Additional amounts of crude oil are recovered from a subterranean formation by flooding with a translucent emulsion comprising an upper- or middle-phase microemulsion as an external phase and a polymer-containing brine solution as an internal phase. The translucent emulsion tends to coalesce into its component phases under conditions of no shear, but is stabilized by low shears such as those imposed on fluids flowing through a subterranean formation.

  8. Effects of carbon nanotubes on a very low surfactant concentration lyotropic liquid crystal host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hye Ran; Yamamoto, Jun; Lagerwall, Jan; Scalia, Giusy

    2014-02-01

    Lyotropic Liquid Crystals (LCs) are attractive materials as host systems for nanoparticles, in particular for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), due to the LC templating and dispersing action. Since carbon nanotubes have many remarkable properties their presence could also influence the aligning hosts and such effects need to be taken into account in CNTLC composites. CNTs can be dispersed efficiently in surfactant-based lyotropic hosts that can be removed after their templating action, being water based. However, residual surfactant has a detrimental effect on the nanotube properties and it becomes important to find ways to minimize its amount in CNT composites. In the present work we use, for CNT alignment, a lyotropic nematic LC host with a very low surfactant concentration, based on charge combination of cationic and anionic surfactant molecules. Small variations in the molar ratio of the two surfactants, still at a fixed total surfactant amount, yield a very different LC behavior. CNTs could be successfully dispersed in the host forming an overall low-surfactant composite. Interestingly, the presence of nanotubes strongly influences the behavior of the host, bringing a stabilization of the LC phase.

  9. Sticky superhydrophobic filter paper developed by dip-coating of fluorinated waterborne epoxy emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiangxuan; Wen, Xiufang; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2012-09-01

    A superhydrophobic and superoleophilic coating for oil filter paper was synthesized based on waterborne bisphenol-A novolac epoxy emulsion. The benzoic acid (BA) and maleic anhydride (MA) were used as modification agents to give the epoxy resin hydrophilic groups (carboxyl) and Cdbnd C double bonds. And the fluorinated waterborne epoxy emulsion was prepared by free radical solution polymerization of dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA) monomer. The covalent bound low free energy fluorinated chains in the monomer reduce the surface energy of solidification polymers sufficiently to give rise to superhydrophobic behavior while conserving superoleophilicity. Surfaces prepared show a sticky property, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 152° for a 5 ?L droplet that does not slid off even when the sample is held upside down. This synthetic emulsion is simple and convenient as impregnating agent for filter paper, which can be considered as a suitable candidate for various substrates such as cotton textiles, E-glass and artificial fiber, and so on.

  10. Physicochemical properties of ?-carotene emulsions stabilized by chlorogenic acid-lactoferrin-glucose/polydextrose conjugates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuguo; Wang, Di; Xu, Honggao; Sun, Cuixia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of chlorogenic acid (CA)-lactoferrin (LF)-glucose (Glc) conjugate and CA-LF-polydextrose (PD) conjugate on the physicochemical characteristics of ?-carotene emulsions was investigated. Novel emulsifiers were formed during Maillard reaction between CA-LF conjugate and Glc/PD. The physicochemical properties of ?-carotene emulsions were characterized by droplet size, ?-potential, rheological behavior, transmission changes during centrifugal sedimentation and ?-carotene degradation. Results showed that the covalent attachment of Glc or PD to CA-LF conjugate effectively increased the hydrophilicity of the oil droplets surfaces and strengthened the steric repulsion between the oil droplets. Glucose was better than polydextrose for the conjugation with CA-LF conjugate to stabilize ?-carotene emulsions. In comparison with LF and CA-LF-Glc/PD mixtures, CA-LF-Glc/PD ternary conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties and improved physical stability of ?-carotene emulsions during the freeze-thaw treatment. In addition, CA-LF-Glc/PD conjugates significantly enhanced chemical stability of ?-carotene in the emulsions against ultraviolet light exposure. PMID:26593499

  11. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1996-05-01

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12. 0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are discussed.

  12. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01

    In this report, the authors present the results of their experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are summarized.

  13. Cold processed oil-in-water emulsions for dermatological purpose: formulation design and structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Sara; Salgado, Ana; Eccleston, Gillian; Urbano, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work is to develop, optimize and characterize cold process emulsions that are stable at acidic pH. The main surfactant was selected according to the hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) concept and surface tension, whereas polymers were selected by viscoelastic measurements and analytical centrifugation. It was showed that the inclusion of methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride copolymer crosslinked with decadiene (PVM/MA) increased the storage modulus (G') of the gels (23.9-42.1?Pa) two-fold and the droplet migration decreased from 3.66% to 0.95%/h. Cetrimide was selected as a preservative based on its microbiological results and additional contribution to the stability of the emulsions. Four emulsions were developed that differed by the co-emulsifier used (PEG-20 glyceril laurate and polyglyceryl-4-isostearate) and the glycol (2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol and ethoxydiglycol). Viscoelastic measurements and droplet size/microscopic analysis showed that the structure of PEG-20 glyceril laurate emulsion (?'?=?76.0?Pa.s at 0.01?Hz and 32.9?±?3.7?µm, respectively) was stronger compared to polyglyceryl-4-isostearate (?'?=?37.4?Pa.s at 0.01?Hz and 37.8?±?15.7?µm, respectively). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results were in accordance with the latter and showed that PEG-20 glyceril laurate with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol corresponded to the strongest structure (|224.4|?W?°C?g(-1)). This cold process allowed a total production savings of more than 17% when compared to the traditional hot process. PMID:23617265

  14. Method for treating tar sands emulsion and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Bialek, R.F.

    1986-04-15

    A method is described for resolving a hot bitumen emulsion comprised primarily of bitumen, water and chemical diluents. The method consists of: providing separate but communicated emulsion mixing, and emulsion settling chamber, passing the hot bitumen emulsion through a first elongated mixing passage in the mixing chamber wherein a rapidly flowing stream of recycled emulsion is combined with a minor portion of unrecycled bitumen emulsion, to form a combined bitumen emulsion stream, thereafter passing the combined bitumen emulsion stream into an elongated discontinuous mixing passage comprised of vertically arranged and interconnected mixing passages within the emulsion mixer, where in the combined bitumen emulsion stream passes at a slower rate than in the first elongated mixing passage, passing the combined bitumen emulsion stream into an overflow passage communicated with the second elongated mixing passage, introducing a part of the combined emulsion stream from the overflow passage into the emulsion settling chamber, recycling the remainder of the combined emulsion stream from the overflow passage into the first elongated mixing passage, and removing separated flows of bitumen and water from the settling chamber.

  15. Kinetics of Anionic Surfactant Anoxic Degradation 

    E-print Network

    Camacho, Julianna G.

    2010-07-14

    commonly present in personal cleansing products and detergents; anionic, nonionic, and amphoteric. The surfactant used in this study is an anionic surfactant. Anionic synthetic detergents may be classified into sulfates and sulfonates (Figure 1). R...

  16. Surfactant recovery from water using foam fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Tharapiwattananon, N.; Osuwan, S.; Scamehorn, J.F.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of foam fractionation to recover surfactant from water. A simple continuous mode foam fractionation was used and three surfactants were studied (two anionic and one cationic). The effects of air flow rate, foam height, liquid height, liquid feed surfactant concentration, and sparger porosity were studied. This technique was shown to be effective in either surfactant recovery or the reduction of surfactant concentration in water to acceptable levels. As an example of the effectiveness of this technique, the cetylpyridinium chloride concentration in water can be reduced by 90% in one stage with a liquid residence time of 375 minutes. The surfactant concentration in the collapsed foam is 21.5 times the feed concentration. This cationic surfactant was easier to remove from water by foam fractionation than the anionic surfactants studied.

  17. Surfactant for Pediatric Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Willson, Douglas F.; Chess, Patricia R.; Notter, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews exogenous surfactant therapy and its use in mitigating acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in infants, children, and adults. Biophysical and animal research documenting surfactant dysfunction in ALI/ARDS is described, and the scientific rationale for treatment with exogenous surfactant is discussed. Major emphasis is on reviewing clinical studies of surfactant therapy in pediatric and adult patients with ALI/ARDS. Particular advantages from surfactant therapy in direct pulmonary forms of these syndromes are described. Also discussed are additional factors affecting the efficacy of exogenous surfactants in ALI/ARDS, including the multifaceted pathology of inflammatory lung injury, the effectiveness of surfactant delivery in injured lungs, and composition-based activity differences among clinical exogenous surfactant preparations. PMID:18501754

  18. The ability of single-chain surfactants to emulsify an aqueous-based liquid crystal oscillates with odd-even parity of alkyl-chain length.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Nisha; Shetye, Gauri S; Yang, Sijie; Wilkens, Stephan; Smith, Robert P; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2013-12-15

    The physical properties of many organic molecules often oscillate when the number of carbons in their aliphatic chains changes from odd to even. This odd-even effect for single-chain surfactants in solution is rarely observed. Here, we report the ability of single-chain surfactants to emulsify a class of non-amphiphilic organic salts, disodium cromoglycate (5'DSCG) oscillates as a function of the odd or even number of the aliphatic carbons. This system provides a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion, in which aqueous droplets of 5'DSCG in liquid crystal phases are coated with single-chain surfactants in a bulk carrying aqueous solution. For both surfactants of [Formula: see text] and CH3(CH2)nCOO(-)Na(+), the ability to emulsify 5'DSCG molecules in water is stronger for surfactants with an odd number of sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms in the aliphatic chains than those with an even number. This observed odd-even effect is consistent with the notion that conventional micelles possess a core of randomly arranged surfactant hydrocarbon tails. However, this water-in-oil-in-water resembles a vesicle system in which the surfactants assemble in a highly ordered structure that separates two aqueous systems. These new self-assembled phases have potential application in the formulation and design of new organic soft materials. PMID:24144379

  19. Mechanism of oil bank formation, coalescence in porous media and emulsion stability. Annual report, June 1978-May 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes results of a basic study of coalescence phenomena, emulsion formation and stability, and dynamic interfacial properties when crude oils are contacted with aqueous solutions of surfactant/polymer and alkaline agents. These measurements are correlated with each other and with oil displacement efficiency by chemical flooding in laboratory experiments. Crude oils from Salem, Loudon, Huntington Beach and Wilmington fields, and two pure hydrocarbons, namely n-octane and n-dodecane, were used in the present study. The six chemical recovery agents employed were Petrostep 420, TRS 10-80, TRS 10-410, orthoxylene sulfonate, sodium hydroxide and sodium orthosilicate. 45 figures, 6 tables.

  20. Biofoams and natural protein surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring foam constituent and surfactant proteins with intriguing structures and functions are now being identified from a variety of biological sources. The ranaspumins from tropical frog foam nests comprise a range of proteins with a mixture of surfactant, carbohydrate binding and antimicrobial activities that together provide a stable, biocompatible, protective foam environment for developing eggs and embryos. Ranasmurfin, a blue protein from a different species of frog, displays a novel structure with a unique chromophoric crosslink. Latherin, primarily from horse sweat, but with similarities to salivary, oral and upper respiratory tract proteins, illustrates several potential roles for surfactant proteins in mammalian systems. These proteins, together with the previously discovered hydrophobins of fungi, throw new light on biomolecular processes at air–water and other interfaces. This review provides a perspective on these recent findings, focussing on structure and biophysical properties. PMID:20615601

  1. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber... manufacture of emulsion crumb rubber, other than acrylonitrilebutadiene rubber....

  2. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber... manufacture of emulsion crumb rubber, other than acrylonitrilebutadiene rubber....

  3. 40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section 467.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions... the rolling with emulsions subcategory....

  4. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber... manufacture of emulsion crumb rubber, other than acrylonitrilebutadiene rubber....

  5. 40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section 467.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions... the rolling with emulsions subcategory....

  6. Analysis of electrical property changes of skin by oil-in-water emulsion components

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, CB; Han, JY; Cho, JC; Suh, KD; Nam, GW

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis ObjectivesAs the ‘Dry Skin Cycle’ produces continuous deterioration, cosmetic xerosis (flaky, dry skin) is one of the major concerns to most consumers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisturizing effect of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion components. There are numerous types of oils, waxes, polyols and surfactants used as ingredients in skincare products. However, the moisturizing effect of each ingredient and understanding each use to make an effective moisturizing products are still not well understood. Methods To provide answers to these questions, we investigated the moisturizing effect of widely used 41 components (four different classes) in a simple O/W emulsion using capacitance methods. 106 different single oils, and combinations of oil with oil, wax, humectants, and surfactant were formulated and tested. Results In this study, we found that most of the O/W emulsion components had hydration effects on the skin. (i) The average relative water content increase (RWCI) rate of a single oil-based emulsion was 11.8 ± 5.2% (SE) and 7.9 ± 6.0% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. (ii) An oil combination emulsion showed an average RWCI rate similar to that of a single oil-based emulsion, 12.6 ± 6.0% (SE) and 12.1 ± 6.4% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively (iii) A combination of waxes with oil showed an average RWCI rate of 16 ± 5.6% (SE) and 12.4 ± 4.5% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. (iv) Humectant combinations showed the highest average RWCI rate 28 ± 7.3% (SE) and 22.2 ± 7.5% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively (v) Surfactant combinations had an average RWCI of 10.8 ± 4.5% (SE) and 6.0 ± 4.0% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. Conclusion Interestingly, it was difficult to find moisturizing power differences among samples in the same group. Only the humectants group showed significant differences among samples. Glycerine and urea showed significant skin hydration effects compared with other humectants. We also found a significant moisturizing effect by analysing the chemical functional groups; amide class had a higher hydration effect than betaines and disaccharides in humectants combination. Résumé Objectif Puisque le «cycle de la peau sèche” produit une détérioration continue, la xérose cosmétique (squameuse, peau sèche) est l’une des préoccupations majeures pour la plupart des consommateurs. Le but de cette étude était d’étudier l’effet hydratant des composants d’émulsions H / E. Il existe de nombreux types d’huiles, des cires, de polyols, et des tensioactifs utilisés comme ingrédients dans les produits de soins de la peau. Cependant, l’effet hydratant de chaque ingrédient et de leur utilisation dans des produits hydratants efficaces ne sont pas encore bien compris. MethodesPour apporter des réponses à ces questions, nous avons étudié l’effet hydratant des 41 éléments (4 classes différentes) largement utilisés dans une émulsion simple O/W en utilisant des méthodes de capacitance. 106 huiles individuelles différentes et des combinaisons d’huile avec de l’huile, de la cire, des humectants, et de tensioactifs ont été formulées et testées. ResultatsDans cette étude, nous avons constaté que la plupart des composants des émulsions huile-dans-eau (H/E) possédaient des effets d’hydratation de la peau. (i) Le taux moyen d’augmentation d’eau (RWCI = relative water content increase) d’une émulsion à base d’une seule huile était de 11,8 ± 5,2% (SE) et de 7,9 ± 6,0% (SE) à 3 et 6 h, respectivement. (ii) Une émulsion de combinaison d’huile montrait une RWCI similaire à celle d

  7. Experimental Characterization of Canola Oil Emulsion Combustion in a Modified Furnace 

    E-print Network

    Bhimani, Shreyas Mahesh

    2012-07-16

    , the surfactant is called an anionic surfactant and if the charge is positive, it is called a cationic surfactant. There are surfactants whose heads have two oppositely charged groups. They are referred to as zwitterionic/amphoteric surfactants. 2. Nonionic...

  8. Molecular mobility in the monolayers of foam films stabilized by porcine lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Lalchev, Z I; Todorov, R K; Christova, Y T; Wilde, P J; Mackie, A R; Clark, D C

    1996-01-01

    Certain physical properties of a range of foam film types that are believed to exist in vivo in the lung have been investigated. The contribution of different lung surfactant components found in porcine lung surfactant to molecular surface diffusion in the plane of foam films has been investigated for the first time. The influence of the type and thickness of black foam films, temperature, electrolyte concentration, and extract composition on surface diffusion has been studied using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique. Fluorescent phospholipid probe molecules in foam films stabilized by porcine lung surfactant samples or their hydrophobic extracts consisting of surfactant lipids and hydrophobic lung surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, exhibited more rapid diffusion than observed in films of its principal lipid component alone, L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl. This effect appears to be due to contributions from minor lipid components present in the total surfactant lipid extracts. The minor lipid components influence the surface diffusion in foam films both by their negative charge and by lowering the phase transition temperature of lung surfactant samples. In contrast, the presence of high concentrations of the hydrophillic surfactant protein A (SP-A) and non-lung-surfactant proteins in the sample reduced the diffusion coefficient (D) of the lipid analog in the adsorbed layer of the films. Hysteresis behavior of D was observed during temperature cycling, with the cooling curve lying above the heating curve. However, in cases where some surface molecular aggregation and surface heterogeneity were observed during cooling, the films became more rigid and molecules at the interfaces became immobilized. The thickness, size, capillary pressure, configuration, and composition of foam films of lung surfactant prepared in vitro support their investigation as realistic structural analogs of the surface films that exist in vivo in the lung. Compared to other models currently in use, foam films provide new opportunities for studying the properties and function of physiologically important alveolar surface films. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:8913597

  9. SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION WITH SURFACTANT REGENERATION/REUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation was conducted during the spring of 1999 at Marine Corps Base, Camp LeJeune, NC. A PCE-DNAPL zone was identified and delineated by extensive soil sampling in 1997, and was further characteized by a partitioning interwell t...

  10. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is not the major surfactant phospholipid species in all mammals.

    PubMed

    Lang, Carol J; Postle, Anthony D; Orgeig, Sandra; Possmayer, Fred; Bernhard, Wolfgang; Panda, Amiya K; Jürgens, Klaus D; Milsom, William K; Nag, Kaushik; Daniels, Christopher B

    2005-11-01

    Pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, lowers the surface tension in terminal air spaces and is crucial for lung function. Within an animal species, surfactant composition can be influenced by development, disease, respiratory rate, and/or body temperature. Here, we analyzed the composition of surfactant in three heterothermic mammals (dunnart, bat, squirrel), displaying different torpor patterns, to determine: 1) whether increases in surfactant cholesterol (Chol) and phospholipid (PL) saturation occur during long-term torpor in squirrels, as in bats and dunnarts; 2) whether surfactant proteins change during torpor; and 3) whether PL molecular species (molsp) composition is altered. In addition, we analyzed the molsp composition of a further nine mammals (including placental/marsupial and hetero-/homeothermic contrasts) to determine whether phylogeny or thermal behavior determines molsp composition in mammals. We discovered that like bats and dunnarts, surfactant Chol increases during torpor in squirrels. However, changes in PL saturation during torpor may not be universal. Torpor was accompanied by a decrease in surfactant protein A in dunnarts and squirrels, but not in bats, whereas surfactant protein B did not change in any species. Phosphatidylcholine (PC)16:0/16:0 is highly variable between mammals and is not the major PL in the wombat, dunnart, shrew, or Tasmanian devil. An inverse relationship exists between PC16:0/16:0 and two of the major fluidizing components, PC16:0/16:1 and PC16:0/14:0. The PL molsp profile of an animal species is not determined by phylogeny or thermal behavior. We conclude that there is no single PL molsp composition that functions optimally in all mammals; rather, surfactant from each animal is unique and tailored to the biology of that animal. PMID:16037124

  11. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Park, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat.

  12. The atomization of water-oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Broniarz-Press, L.; Ochowiak, M.; Rozanski, J.; Woziwodzki, S.

    2009-09-15

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies on atomization of the emulsions flowing through twin-fluid atomizers obtained by the use of the digital microphotography method. The main elements of the test installation were: nozzle, reservoir, pump and measurement units of liquid flow. The photographs were taken by a digital camera with automatic flash at exposure time of 1/8000 s and subsequently analyzed using Image Pro-Plus. The oils used were mineral oils 20-90, 20-70, 20-50 and 20-30. The studies were performed at flow rates of liquid phase changed from 0.0014 to 0.011 (dm{sup 3}/s) and gas phase changed from 0.28 to 1.4 (dm{sup 3}/s), respectively. The analysis of photos shows that the droplets being formed during the liquid atomization have very different sizes. The smallest droplets have diameters of the order of 10 {mu}m. The experimental results showed that the changes in physical properties of a liquid phase lead to the significant changes in the spray characteristics. The analysis of the photos of water and emulsions atomization process showed that the droplet sizes are dependent on gas and liquid flow rates, construction of nozzle and properties of liquid. The differences between characteristics of atomization for water and emulsions have been observed. Analysis of photos on forming the droplets in air-water and air-emulsions systems showed that droplets are bigger in air-emulsion system (at the same value of gas to liquid mass ratio). The values of Sauter mean diameter (SMD) increased with increase of volume fraction of oil in emulsion. The droplet size increased with emulsion viscosity. (author)

  13. A computer simulation and molecular-thermodynamic framework to model the micellization of ionic branched surfactants in aqueous solution

    E-print Network

    Lin, Shangchao

    2008-01-01

    Surfactants, or surface active agents, are chemicals exhibiting amphiphilic behavior toward a solvent. This amphiphilic character leads to increased activity at interfaces and to self-assembly into micellar aggregates ...

  14. Avalanches of rearrangements in quasi-2D emulsion hopper flow

    E-print Network

    Xia Hong; Kenneth W. Desmond; Dandan Chen; Eric R. Weeks

    2015-03-25

    We experimentally study the flow of a quasi-two-dimensional emulsion through a constricting hopper shape. Our area fractions range from 0.83 to 0.99, such that the droplets are always in contact with one another and are in many cases highly deformed. At the lowest flow rates, the droplets exit the hopper via intermittent avalanches. At the highest flow rates, the droplets exit continuously. The transition between these two types of behaviors is a fairly smooth function of the mean strain rate. The avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution of the time interval between droplets exiting the hopper, with long intervals between the avalanches. There is little or no dependence of the flow behavior on the area fraction of the system.

  15. Liquid Fuel Emulsion Jet-in-Crossflow Penetration and Dispersion Under High Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Guillermo Andres

    The current work focuses on the jet-in-crossflow penetration and dispersion behavior of water-in-oil emulsions in a high pressure environment. Both fuel injection strategies of using a water-in-oil emulsion and a jet-in-crossflow have demonstrated unique benefits in improving gas turbine performance from an emissions and efficiency standpoint. A jet-in-crossflow is very practical for use in gas turbine engines, rocket propulsion, and aircraft engines since it utilizes already available crossflow air to atomize fuel. Injecting water into a combustion chamber in the form of a water-in-oil emulsion allows for pollutant emissions reduction while reducing efficiency loses that may result from using a separate water or steam injection circuit. Dispersion effects on oil droplets are expected, therefore investigating the distribution of both oil and water droplets in the crossflow is an objective in this work. Understanding the synchronization and injection behavior of the two strategies is of key interest due to their combined benefits. A water-to-oil ratio and an ambient pressure parameter are developed for emulsion jet-in-crossflow trajectories. To this end, a total of 24 emulsion jet-in-crossflow tests were performed with varying ambient pressures of 2-8 atm and momentum flux ratios of 50, 85, and 120. Sobel edge filtering was applied to each averaged image obtained from a high speed video of each test case. Averaged and filtered images were used to resolve top and bottom edges of the trajectory in addition to the overall peak intensity up to 40 mm downstream of the injection point. An optimized correlation was established and found to differ from literature based correlations obtained under atmospheric pressure conditions. Overall it was found that additional parameters were not necessary for the top edge and peak intensity correlations, but a need for a unique emulsion bottom edge and width trajectory correlation was recognized. In addition to investigating emulsion jet-in-crossflow trajectory correlations, a unique Dual Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (Dual-PLIF) method was applied for the first time on emulsions at elevated pressure conditions. From the Dual-PLIF results, qualitative observations provided insight into the unique dispersion of oil and water concentrations within a cross-sectional plane down stream of the jet-in-crossflow injection.

  16. Surfactant-based critical phenomena in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaler, Eric W.; Paulaitis, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to characterize by experiment and theoretically both the kinetics of phase separation and the metastable structures produced during phase separation in a microgravity environment. The particular systems we are currently studying are mixtures of water, nonionic surfactants, and compressible supercritical fluids at temperatures and pressures where the coexisting liquid phases have equal densities (isopycnic phases). In this report, we describe experiments to locate equilibrium isopycnic phases and to determine the 'local' phase behavior and critical phenomena at nearby conditions of temperature, pressure, and composition. In addition, we report the results of preliminary small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments to characterize microstructures that exist in these mixtures at different fluid densities.

  17. Aerosol delivery of synthetic lung surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Juviel, José M.; Waring, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is a widely accepted technique of non-invasive respiratory support in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome due to lack of lung surfactant. If this approach fails, the next step is often intubation, mechanical ventilation (MV) and intratracheal instillation of clinical lung surfactant. Objective. To investigate whether aerosol delivery of advanced synthetic lung surfactant, consisting of peptide mimics of surfactant proteins B and C (SP-B and SP-C) and synthetic lipids, during nCPAP improves lung function in surfactant-deficient rabbits. Methods. Experimental synthetic lung surfactants were produced by formulating 3% Super Mini-B peptide (SMB surfactant), a highly surface active SP-B mimic, and a combination of 1.5% SMB and 1.5% of the SP-C mimic SP-Css ion-lock 1 (BC surfactant), with a synthetic lipid mixture. After testing aerosol generation using a vibrating membrane nebulizer and aerosol conditioning (particle size, surfactant composition and surface activity), we investigated the effects of aerosol delivery of synthetic SMB and BC surfactant preparations on oxygenation and lung compliance in saline-lavaged, surfactant-deficient rabbits, supported with either nCPAP or MV. Results. Particle size distribution of the surfactant aerosols was within the 1–3 µm distribution range and surfactant activity was not affected by aerosolization. At a dose equivalent to clinical surfactant therapy in premature infants (100 mg/kg), aerosol delivery of both synthetic surfactant preparations led to a quick and clinically relevant improvement in oxygenation and lung compliance in the rabbits. Lung function recovered to a greater extent in rabbits supported with MV than with nCPAP. BC surfactant outperformed SMB surfactant in improving lung function and was associated with higher phospholipid values in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; these findings were irrespective of the type of ventilatory support (nCPAP or MV) used. Conclusions. Aerosol delivery of synthetic lung surfactant with a combination of highly active second generation SP-B and SP-C mimics was effective as a therapeutic approach towards relieving surfactant deficiency in spontaneously breathing rabbits supported with nCPAP. To obtain similar results with nCPAP as with intratracheal instillation, higher dosage of synthetic surfactant and reduction of its retention by the delivery circuit will be needed to increase the lung dose. PMID:24918030

  18. Dispersion and rheology of surfactant-mediated silver nanoparticle suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Nan; Huang, Chih-Ta; Tseng, Wenjea J.; Wei, Ming-Hsiung

    2010-11-01

    Polycrystalline silver (Ag) nanoparticles were dispersed in solvent mixtures consisting of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (BCA) and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (CA) in a BCA:CA weight ratio of 5:1. Three commercially available polymeric surfactants were used, and the gravitational sedimentation, agglomerate-size distribution, isothermal adsorption, and rheological behavior of the nanoparticle suspensions were examined. One of the surfactants (hereafter termed 9250) was found effective in stabilizing the Ag nanoparticle suspensions. Both the adsorption isotherm and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the preferential adsorption of the 9250 surfactant molecules on the nanoparticle surface, forming a Langmuir-type monolayer adsorption in the given solvents so that a steric stabilization was rendered. An optimal surfactant concentration of 5 wt.% (in terms of the solids weight) was determined experimentally. In addition, the Ag suspensions with a broad range of solids concentration (? = 1-16 vol.%) showed a shear-thinning flow character over a shear-rate range from 1 to 4000 s-1, revealing that an attractive interparticle interaction was operative. Relative viscosity (?r) of the nanoparticle suspensions deviated from the linearity when ? was greater than ˜10 vol.%; at which, the attractive potential began to dominate the interparticle interactions. This ?r-? dependence was compared with various existing models and the (viscosity) predictive capability of the models was discussed.

  19. Surface engineering of graphene quantum dots and their applications as efficient surfactants.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Hee; Yang, Hyunseung; Kang, Dong Jin; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2015-04-29

    The surface properties of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) control their dispersion and location within the matrices of organic molecules and polymers, thereby determining various properties of the hybrid materials. Herein, we developed a facile, one-step method for achieving systematic control of the surface properties of highly fluorescent GQDs. The surfaces of the as-synthesized hydrophilic GQDs were modified precisely depending on the number of grafted hydrophobic hexylamine. The geometry of the modified GQDs was envisioned by conducting simulations using density functional theory. In stark contrast to the pristine GQDs, the surface-modified GQDs can effectively stabilize oil-in-water Pickering emulsions and submicron-sized colloidal particles in mini-emulsion polymerization. These versatile GQD surfactants were also employed in liquid-solid systems; we demonstrated their use for tailoring the dispersion of graphite in methanol. Finally, the particles produced by the GQD surfactants were fluorescent due to luminescence of the GQDs, which offers great potential for various applications, including fluorescent sensors and imaging. PMID:25825823

  20. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOEpatents

    Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

    1994-01-01

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  1. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524.802 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications...milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor ....

  2. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524.802 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications...milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor ....

  3. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524.802 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications...milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor ....

  4. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524.802 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications...milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor ....

  5. Emulsion characteristics associated with an alkaline water flooding process

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M.M.; Wasan, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    This work presents the results of an investigation of emulsions containing an acidic crude oil from Wilmington field, California, and sodium hydroxide/sodium orthosilicate solutions. The effect of alkaline water formulation on emulsion characteristics was determined. The characteristics of emulsions were evaluated as a function of salinity, alkali type, and alkali concentrations in the aqueous phase. Emulsion stability, as defined by the coalescence rate of oil droplets in water-external emulsion, was determined as a function of salinity and alkali type. The results indicate that there is some optimum salinity in the aqueous phase which needs to be maintained to minimize the problems associated with viscous emulsions. Also, the emulsions formed with sodium hydroxide are different from those formed with sodium orthosilicate, especially in the presence of divalent ion salts, so that different salinities are required to minimize the shear viscosity of emulsions for the 2 systems. 18 references.

  6. An anionic surfactant for EOR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagir, Muhammad; Tan, Isa M.; Mushtaq, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    This work is to investigate the new anionic surfactants for the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) application. Sulfonated anionic surfactant was produced by attaching SO3 to an ethoxylated alcohol to increase the performance of the surfactant. Methallyl chloride and ethoxylated alcohol was reacted followed by the reaction with sodium bisulfite to produce anionic sulfonated surfactant in 80.3 % yield. The sulfonation reaction parameters such as reactants mole ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst amount were optimized. The generation and stability of foam from the synthesized surfactant is also tested and results are reported. The synthesized novel surfactant was further investigated for the effect on the CO2 mobility in porous media and the findings are presented here. This in house developed surfactant has a great potential for CO2- EOR applications.

  7. Surfactant-assisted synthesis and characterization of stable silver bromide nanoparticles in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Moumita; Hsiao, Fang-Wei; Naskar, Bappaditya; Chang, Chien-Hsiang; Panda, Amiya Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Colloidal dispersions of silver bromide (AgBr) in aqueous surfactant medium have been prepared using a surfactant-assisted synthesis approach with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The surfactant acts both as source of bromide ion as well as the stabilizing agent. Upon progressive addition of silver nitrate to aqueous CTAB solution, stable AgBr dispersions were obtained. Formation of surfactant cation (CTA(+)) stabilized AgBr was confirmed by way of XRD, FTIR and NMR studies. Thermal behavior of the isolated nanoparticles was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), where the occurrence of phase transition in the surfactant-stabilized nanoparticles was observed. Kinetics of the particle growth was investigated by dynamic light scattering measurements, which predicted the formation of surfactant bilayered structures associated with the nanoparticles of AgBr. Band gap of the nanoparticles was determined by suitably analyzing the UV-visible spectral data, which concluded that the particles behaved like insulators. Morphology of the particles, studied by TEM measurements, was found to be spherical. Finally, enthalpy of formation of surfactant-stabilized AgBr, determined calorimetrically, was found to be dependent on the concentration of the precursors. PMID:22512457

  8. Investigation of the electrokinetic properties of paraffin suspension. 2. In cationic and anionic surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Chibowski, Emil; Wiacek, Agnieszka; Holysz, Lucyna; Terpilowski, Konrad

    2005-08-16

    Electrical phenomena at nonionogenic hydrophobic surfaces (solid or liquid) in water, electrolyte, and/or surfactant solutions still attract research. In part 1 of this paper we described the electrokinetic behavior of paraffin wax suspension in water and electrolyte solutions (NaCl or LaCl3). On the basis of the latest data of water structure near hydrophobic surfaces it was concluded that immobilized water dipoles at the interface can play an essential role in the zeta potential formation. In this paper were investigated the zeta potentials of paraffin wax in cationic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, C16H33(CH3)3NBr, and octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride, C18H37(CH3)3NCl, and anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate, C12H25SO4Na. Also changes in wettability of the paraffin surface due to the surfactant's adsorption were studied via wetting contact angle measurements and calculation of the surface free energy. It was concluded that at a low surfactant concentration (10(-6) M) the water dipole structure still contributes to the zeta potential, but at a higher one the zeta potential is determined by the surfactant molecules' adsorption. A special role of OH- ions is also clearly seen. Moreover, a functional relationship was found between the surface free energy of the surfactant-covered paraffin surface and the zeta potential. PMID:16089367

  9. Partitioning of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOC) into anionic and cationic surfactant-modified sorbents.

    PubMed

    Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Sabatini, David A; Bowman, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Surfactant-modified sorbents have been proposed for the removal of organic compounds from aqueous solution. In the present study, one cationic (HDTMA) and three anionic (DOWFAX-8390, STEOL-CS330, and Aerosol-OT) surfactants were tested for their sorptive behavior onto different sorbents (alumina, zeolite, and Canadian River Alluvium). These surfactant-modified materials were then used to sorb a range of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) of varying properties (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene), and their sorption capacity and affinity (organic-carbon-normalized sorption coefficient, K(oc)) were quantified. The HDTMA-zeolite system proved to be the most stable surfactant-modified sorbent studied because of the limited surfactant desorption. Both anionic and cationic surfactants resulted in modified sorbents with higher sorption capacity and affinity than the unmodified Canadian River Alluvium containing only natural organic matter. The affinities of the surfactant-modified sorbents (K(oc)) for most HOCs are lower than octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) normalized to the organic carbon content (f(oc)) and the density of octanol (K(oc) octanol); naphthalene and phenanthrene are the exceptions to this rule. PMID:15707643

  10. Stabilization of diketo tautomer of curcumin by premicellar anionic surfactants: UV-Visible, fluorescence, tensiometric and TD-DFT evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Anisha; Boruah, Bornali; Manna, Arun K.; Gohain, Biren; Saikia, Palash M.; Dutta, Robin K.

    2013-03-01

    A newly observed UV band of aqueous curcumin, a biologically important molecule, in presence of anionic surfactants, viz., sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDSN) in buffered aqueous solutions has been studied experimentally and theoretically. The 425 nm absorption band of curcumin disappears and a new UV-band is observed at 355 nm on addition of the surfactants in the submicellar concentration range which is reversed as the surfactant concentration approaches the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The observed spectral absorption, fluorescence intensity and surface tension behavior, under optimal experimental conditions of submicellar concentration ranges of the surfactants in the pH range of 2.00-7.00, indicate that the new band is due to the ?-diketo tautomer of curcumin stabilized by interactions between curcumin and the anionic surfactants. The stabilization of the diketo tautomer by submicellar anionic surfactants described here as well as by submicellar cationic surfactant, reported recently, is unique as this is the only such behavior observed in presence of submicellar surfactants of both charge types. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations using ab initio density functional theory combined with time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations.

  11. LOWER COST METHODS FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY (IOR) VIA SURFACTANT FLOODING

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Seung Soon Jang; Shiang-Tai Lin; Prabal Maiti; Yongfu Wu; Stefan Iglauer; Xiaohang Zhang

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed in this 3-year project sponsored by DOE. The overall objective of this project is to identify new, potentially more cost-effective surfactant formulations for improved oil recovery (IOR). The general approach is to use an integrated experimental and computational chemistry effort to improve our understanding of the link between surfactant structure and performance, and from this knowledge, develop improved IOR surfactant formulations. Accomplishments for the project include: (1) completion of a literature review to assemble current and new surfactant IOR ideas, (2) Development of new atomistic-level MD (molecular dynamic) modeling methodologies to calculate IFT (interfacial tension) rigorously from first principles, (3) exploration of less computationally intensive mesoscale methods to estimate IFT, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR), and cohesive energy density (CED) calculations, (4) experiments to screen many surfactant structures for desirable low IFT and solid adsorption behavior, and (5) further experimental characterization of the more promising new candidate formulations (based on alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and alkyl propoxy sulfate surfactants). Important findings from this project include: (1) the IFT between two pure substances may be calculated quantitatively from fundamental principles using Molecular Dynamics, the same approach can provide qualitative results for ternary systems containing a surfactant, (2) low concentrations of alkyl polyglycoside surfactants have potential for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) applications from a technical standpoint (if formulated properly with a cosurfactant, they can create a low IFT at low concentration) and also are viable economically as they are available commercially, and (3) the alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants have promising IFT performance also, plus these surfactants can have high optimal salinity and so may be attractive for use in higher salinity reservoirs. Alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants are not yet available as large volume commercial products. The results presented herein can provide the needed industrial impetus for extending application (alkyl polyglycoside) or scaling up (alkylpropoxy sulfates) of these two promising surfactants for enhanced oil recovery. Furthermore, the advanced simulations tools presented here can be used to continue to uncover new types of surfactants with promising properties such as inherent low IFT and biodegradability.

  12. The Role of Surfactant in Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Christopher Cheng-Hwa; Ma, Sze

    2012-01-01

    The key feature of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the insufficient production of surfactant in the lungs of preterm infants. As a result, researchers have looked into the possibility of surfactant replacement therapy as a means of preventing and treating RDS. We sought to identify the role of surfactant in the prevention and management of RDS, comparing the various types, doses, and modes of administration, and the recent development. A PubMed search was carried out up to March 2012 using phrases: surfactant, respiratory distress syndrome, protein-containing surfactant, protein-free surfactant, natural surfactant, animal-derived surfactant, synthetic surfactant, lucinactant, surfaxin, surfactant protein-B, surfactant protein-C. Natural, or animal-derived, surfactant is currently the surfactant of choice in comparison to protein-free synthetic surfactant. However, it is hoped that the development of protein-containing synthetic surfactant, such as lucinactant, will rival the efficacy of natural surfactants, but without the risks of their possible side effects. Administration techniques have also been developed with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and selective surfactant administration now recommended; multiple surfactant doses have also reported better outcomes. An aerosolised form of surfactant is being trialled in the hope that surfactant can be administered in a non-invasive way. Overall, the advancement, concerning the structure of surfactant and its mode of administration, offers an encouraging future in the management of RDS. PMID:22859930

  13. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 041404 (2011) Rheology of attractive emulsions

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 041404 (2011) Rheology of attractive emulsions Sujit S. Datta,1 Dustin D show how attractive interactions dramatically influence emulsion rheology. Unlike the repulsive case, attractive emulsions below random close packing, RCP, can form soft gel-like elastic solids. However, above

  14. Polymersomes Fabrication of Polymersomes using Double-Emulsion

    E-print Network

    Polymersomes Fabrication of Polymersomes using Double-Emulsion Templates in Glass-Coated Stamped-stabilized water/organic solvent/water (W/O/W) double emulsions in microfluidic devices.[10,11] The assembly of the copolymers is directed by the double-emulsion droplets during evaporation of the organic solvent in which

  15. Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors

    E-print Network

    Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors Eunsung Kan, Marc A called the foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) has been investigated. The effect of several liquid feeding have developed a new vapor phase bioreactor named the foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) that over

  16. Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: II. Model Parametric Sensitivity

    E-print Network

    ARTICLE Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: II. Model Parametric Sensitivity Eunsung Kan: The sensitivity of a conceptual model of a foam emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) used for the control of toluene vapors high perfor- mance bioreactor system called the foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR). The FEBR consists

  17. Synthesis of perfluoroalkylated xylitol ethers and esters: new surfactants for biomedical uses.

    PubMed

    Zarif, L; Greiner, J; Pace, S; Riess, J G

    1990-04-01

    New, well-defined surfactants and cosurfactants were synthesized with the objective of enhancing the stability of fluorocarbon emulsions destined to serve as oxygen carriers for biomedical applications. Monoperfluoroalkylated ethers of xylitol were achieved by addition of perfluoroalkyl iodide on the double bond of a protected xylitol allyl ether in a one-step addition-elimination reaction. Monoesters were obtained specifically on position 5 by treating 1,2:3,4-di-O-isopropylidenexylitol with perfluoroalkylated acid chlorides of various chain lengths in pyridine at room temperature. The products display strong surface activity and produce a remarkable synergistic stabilization of a fluorocarbon/Pluronic F-68 type emulsion. Biocompatibility data are reported, which include in vitro toxicity tests on Namalva cell cultures and hemolysis tests on human blood cells; the latter was found to decrease as the length of the F-alkyl chain increased. IV injection in mice (n = 10) showed that these products were innocuous at 400-1000 mg/kg of body weight. Preliminary exchange-perfusion experiments on rats with an emulsion containing the F-octyl xylitol ether were encouraging. PMID:2319569

  18. Influence of droplet deformability on the coalescence rate of emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro-Mendoza, Jhoan; Lozsan, Aileen; Garcia-Sucre, Maximo; Castellanos S., Aly J.; Urbina-Villalba, German

    2010-01-01

    In this article the influence of deformation on the coalescence rates of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is analyzed. Calculations for doublets and many-particles systems were performed based on a Brownian dynamics algorithm. Extensional and bending energies were included in order to quantify the effect of the changes in the surface geometry on the coalescence rates. Also, the hydrodynamic resistance due to the flat film was included through a correction to the diffusion coefficient in the lubrication limit. Results of two particles calculations were compared with previous analytical evaluations of the coalescence time in absence of highly repulsive barriers [Danov , Langmuir 9, 1731 (1993)]. Lifetime of doublets was calculated as a function of the particle radius from 100 nm to 100?m . It was found that the doublets lifetime strongly depends on the interplay between the potential of interaction between the droplets and the hydrodynamic resistance. Depending on the repulsive barrier either a monotonous increase of the lifetime with the droplet size or a maximum value is observed. Finally, the evolution of O/W emulsions with a volume fraction of ?=0.10 was studied. For these many-particle systems, the results show a sensitive dependence of the aggregation behavior on the interfacial tension. The procedure reported here allows us to include Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) and non-DLVO forces and the film drainage velocity of many different systems.

  19. Method for selective plugging using resin emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.

    1982-10-05

    Methods and compositions are provided for selectively plugging the water-rich strata of subterranean formations, including injection into the formation of a water-insoluble, oil-soluble resin emulsion. A series of chemical reactions is initiated insitu such that the emulsion demulsifies, resulting in the coalescence of resin droplets. The coalesced water-insoluble, oil-soluble resin droplets are effective to selectively plug the water-rich strata over a relatively long distance and over a relatively long period of time.

  20. Emergent hyperuniformity in periodically-driven emulsions

    E-print Network

    Joost H. Weijs; Raphaël Jeanneret; Rémi Dreyfus; Denis Bartolo

    2015-04-28

    We report the emergence of large-scale hyperuniformity in microfluidic emulsions. Upon periodic driving confined emulsions undergo a first-order transition from a reversible to an irreversible dynamics. We evidence that this dynamical transition is accompanied by structural changes at all scales yielding macroscopic yet finite hyperuniform structures. Numerical simulations are performed to single out the very ingredients responsible for the suppression of density fluctuations. We show that as opposed to equilibrium systems the long-range nature of the hydrodynamic interactions are not required for the formation of hyperuniform patterns, thereby suggesting a robust relation between reversibility and hyperuniformity which should hold in a broad class of periodically driven materials.

  1. Biophysicochemical interaction of a clinical pulmonary surfactant with nano-alumina

    E-print Network

    Mousseau, F; Seyrek, E; Berret, J -F

    2015-01-01

    We report on the interaction of pulmonary surfactant composed of phospholipids and proteins with nanometric alumina (Al2O3) in the context of lung exposure and nanotoxicity. We study the bulk properties of phospholipid/nanoparticle dispersions and determine the nature of their interactions. The clinical surfactant Curosurf, both native and extruded, and a protein-free surfactant are investigated. The phase behavior of mixed surfactant/particle dispersions was determined by optical and electron microscopy, light scattering and zeta potential measurements. It exhibits broad similarities with that of strongly interacting nanosystems such as polymers, proteins or particles, and supports the hypothesis of electrostatic complexation. At a critical stoichiometry, micron sized aggregates arising from the association between oppositely charged vesicles and nanoparticles are formed. Contrary to the models of lipoprotein corona or of particle wrapping, our work shows that vesicles maintain their structural integrity and...

  2. Micro-emulsion-assisted synthesis of ZnS nanospheres and their photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yao; He Xiaoyan; Cao Minhua

    2008-11-03

    ZnS nanospheres with rough surface were synthesized by using a micro-emulsion-assisted solvothemal process. The molar ratio of [water]/[surfactant] played an important role in controlling the size of the ZnS nanospheres. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used for the characterization of the resulting ZnS nanospheres. A possible formation mechanism was proposed. These ZnS nanospheres exhibited a good photocatalytic activity for degradation of an aqueous p-nitrophenol solution and the total organic carbon (TOC) of the degradation product has also been investigated.

  3. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding with weak alkalis

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of Project BE4B in FY90 was to develop cost-effective and efficient chemical flooding formulations using surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemical systems. Chemical systems were studied that mitigate the deleterious effects of divalent ions. The experiments were conducted with carbonate mixtures and carbonate/phosphate mixtures of pH 10.5, where most of the phosphate ions exist as the monohydrogen phosphate species. Orthophosphate did not further reduce the deleterious effect of divalent ions on interfacial tension behavior in carbonate solutions, where the deleterious effect of the divalent ions is already very low. When added to a carbonate mixture, orthophosphate did substantially reduce the adsorption of an atomic surfactant, which was an expected result; however, there was no correlation between the amount of reduction and the divalent ion levels. For acidic oils, a variety of surfactants are available commercially that have potential for use between pH 8.3 and pH 9.5. Several of these surfactants were tested with oil from Wilmington (CA) field and found to be suitable for use in that field. Two low-acid crude oils, with acid numbers of 0.01 and 0.27 mg KOH/g of oil, were studied. It was shown that surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding does have merit for use with these low-acid crude oils. However, each low-acid oil tested was found to behave differently, and it was concluded that the applicability of the method must be experimentally determined for any given low-acid crude oil. 19 refs., 10 figs. 4 tabs.

  4. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration and air stripping for surfactant-contaminant separation and surfactant reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Lipe, K.M.; Sabatini, D.A.; Hasegawa, M.A.; Harwell, J.H.

    1996-05-01

    Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) and air stripping were evaluated for surfactant-contaminant separation and surfactant recovery. Two linear alkyl diphenyloxide disulfonate (DPDS) surfactants were evaluated with the contaminants naphthalene and trichloroethylene. A separation model developed from micellar partitioning principles showed a good correlation to batch MEUF studies, whereas flux analysis highlighted concentration polarization effects in relation to hydrophobe length. MEUF effectively concentrated the surfactant-contaminant system (93 to 99% retention); however, this did not result in surfactant-contaminant separation. Batch and continuous flow air stripping models were developed based upon air/water ratio, surfactant concentration, and micellar partitioning; model predictions were validated by experimental data. Sensitivity analyses illustrated the decline in contaminant-surfactant separation with increasing surfactant concentration (e.g., TCE removal efficiency declines from 83% to 37% as C-16 DPDS concentration increases from 0 to 55 mM). This effect is greater for more hydrophobic contaminants (naphthalene vs. TCE) and surfactants with greater solubilization potential (C16-DPDS vs. C-12 DPDS). The resulting design equations can account for this effect and thus properly size air strippers to achieve the desired removal efficiency in the presence of surfactant micelles. Proper selection and design of surfactant-contaminant separation and surfactant recovery systems are integral to optimizing surfactant-enhanced subsurface remediation.

  5. Kinetic Release of Alkalinity from Particle-Containing Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, K.; Chapra, S. C.; Ramsburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions are typically employed during remediation to promote biotic reduction of contaminants. Emulsions, however, hold promise for encapsulated delivery of many types of active ingredients required for successful site remediation or long-term site stewardship. Our research is currently focused on using alkalinity-containing particles held within oil-in-water emulsions to sustain control of subsurface pH. Here we describe results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling conducted to quantify the kinetics associated with the emulsion delivery and alkalinity release process. Kinetically stable oil-in-water emulsions containing (~60 nmCaCO3 or ~100 nm MgO particles) were previously developed using soybean oil and Gum Arabic as a stabilizing agent. Batch and column experiments were employed to assess the accessibility and release of the alkalinity from the emulsion. Successive additions of HCl were used in batch systems to produce several pH responses (pH rebounds) that were subsequently modeled to elucidate release mechanisms and rates for varying emulsion compositions and particle types. Initial results suggest that a linear-driving-force model is generally able to capture the release behavior in the batch system when the temporally-constant, lumped mass-transfer coefficient is scaled by the fraction of particle mass remaining within the droplets. This result suggests that the rate limiting step in the release process may be the interphase transfer of reactive species at the oil-water interface. 1-d column experiments were also completed in order to quantify the extent and rate of alkalinity release from emulsion droplets retained in a sandy medium. Alkalinity release from the retained droplets treated a pH 4 influent water for 25-60 pore volumes (the duration depended on particle type and mass loading), and the cessation in treatment corresponded to exhaustion of the particle mass held within the oil. Column experiments were simulated using a transport code containing the linear-driving-force expression evaluated in the batch experiments. In these simulations the lumped mass transfer coefficient was fit and compared with values predicted using existing correlations for liquid-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces in porous media.

  6. Protein-based pickering emulsion and oil gel prepared by complexes of zein colloidal particles and stearate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wu, Na-Na; Wang, Li-Juan; Wang, Jin-Mei; Guo, Jian; Yin, Shou-Wei

    2014-03-26

    This paper describes the successful preparation of a protein-based Pickering emulsion, with superior stability against both coalesence and creaming, through a novel strategy of facilitating the formation of protein particles and small molecular weight surfactant complexes; these complexes are able to overcome multiple challenges including limited solubility, poor diffusive mobility, and low interfacial loading. Soluble complexes of water-insoluble corn protein, zein colloidal particles, and surfactant sodium stearate (SS) were fabricated by simple ultrasonication. Gel trapping technology combined with SEM was applied to characterize the adsorbed particles monolayer at the oil-water interface; results revealed an enhanced adsorption and targeted accumulation of zein particles at the interface with the increase of SS concentration. Partial unfolding of zein particles modified by SS above its critical complexation concentration triggered the aggregation and close packing of particles at the oil-water interface and endowed a steric barrier against the coalescence of oil droplets. Moreover, protein-based oil gels without oil leakage were obtained by one-step freeze-drying of the zein-stabilized Pickering emulsions, which could be developed to a viable strategy for structuring liquid oils into semisolid fats without the use of saturated or trans fats. PMID:24621373

  7. Mechanism of oil bank formation, coalescence in porous media and emulsion stability. Annual report, June 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1981-02-01

    This report presents results of a basic study of coalescence phenomena, emulsion formation and stability, and dynamic interfacial properties when crude oils and pure hydrocarbons are contacted with aqueous solutions of surfactant/polymer and alkaline agents. These measurements are correlated with each other and with observations on oil bank formation and displacement and recovery efficiency by chemical flooding in microwave monitored laboratory core flooding experiments. The scope of this work includes three interrelated tasks: I - Caustic Flooding of Heavy Crude, II - Surfactant/Polymer Flooding, and III - Thin Liquid Films: drainage and stability of foam and emulsion films. Results obtained in each of these three tasks are summarized: Crude oils from Huntington Beach, Wilmington Field, Salem and El Dorado and the hydrocarbon, decane were used. The chemical agents employed were: n-hexanol, Dow Pusher 700, sodium lauryl sulfate, lauryl alcohol, petroleum sulfonate, TRS 10-80, TRS 10-410, iBuOH, NaCl brine, sodium orthosilicate, sodium hydroxide, Petrostep 465, and C/sub 3/ to C/sub 5/ alcohols.

  8. Comparing effectiveness of rhamnolipid biosurfactant with a quaternary ammonium salt surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration.

    PubMed

    York, J Dalton; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2008-01-24

    Natural gas is projected to be the premium fuel of the 21st century because of availability, as well as economical and environmental considerations. Natural gas is coproduced with water from the subsurface forming gas hydrates. Hydrate formation may result in shutdown of onshore and offshore operations. Industry practice has been usage of alcohols--which have undesirable environmental impacts--to affect bulk-phase properties and inhibit hydrate formation. An alternative to alcohols is changing the surface properties through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5-3 wt % of coproduced water. One group of low-dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) are kinetic inhibitors, which affect nucleation rate and growth. A second group of LDHI are anti-agglomerants, which prevent agglomeration of small hydrate crystallites. Despite great potential, reported work on hydrate anti-agglomeration is very limited. In this paper, our focus is on the use of two vastly different surfactants as anti-agglomerants. We use a model oil, water, and tetrahydrofuran as a hydrate-forming species. We examine the effectiveness of a quaternary ammonium salt (i.e., quat). Visual observation measurements show that a small concentration of the quat (0.01%) can prevent agglomeration. However, a quat is not a green chemical and therefore may be undesirable. We show that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant can be effective to a concentration of 0.05 wt %. One difference between the two surfactants is the stability of the water-in-oil emulsions created. The biosurfactant forms a less stable emulsion, which makes it very desirable for hydrate application. PMID:18171051

  9. Model study of enhanced oil recovery by flooding with aqueous surfactant solution and comparison with theory.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Paul D I; Savory, Luke D; Woods, Freya; Clarke, Andrew; Howe, Andrew M

    2015-03-17

    With the aim of elucidating the details of enhanced oil recovery by surfactant solution flooding, we have determined the detailed behavior of model systems consisting of a packed column of calcium carbonate particles as the porous rock, n-decane as the trapped oil, and aqueous solutions of the anionic surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT). The AOT concentration was varied from zero to above the critical aggregation concentration (cac). The salt content of the aqueous solutions was varied to give systems of widely different, post-cac oil-water interfacial tensions. The systems were characterized in detail by measuring the permeability behavior of the packed columns, the adsorption isotherms of AOT from the water to the oil-water interface and to the water-calcium carbonate interface, and oil-water-calcium carbonate contact angles. Measurements of the percent oil recovery by pumping surfactant solutions into calcium carbonate-packed columns initially filled with oil were analyzed in terms of the characterization results. We show that the measured contact angles as a function of AOT concentration are in reasonable agreement with those calculated from values of the surface energy of the calcium carbonate-air surface plus the measured adsorption isotherms. Surfactant adsorption onto the calcium carbonate-water interface causes depletion of its aqueous-phase concentration, and we derive equations which enable the concentration of nonadsorbed surfactant within the packed column to be estimated from measured parameters. The percent oil recovery as a function of the surfactant concentration is determined solely by the oil-water-calcium carbonate contact angle for nonadsorbed surfactant concentrations less than the cac. For surfactant concentrations greater than the cac, additional oil removal occurs by a combination of solubilization and emulsification plus oil mobilization due to the low oil-water interfacial tension and a pumping pressure increase. PMID:25749192

  10. Shear-induced transitions and instabilities in surfactant wormlike micelles

    E-print Network

    Sandra Lerouge; Jean-Francois Berret

    2009-10-09

    In this review, we report recent developments on the shear-induced transitions and instabilities found in surfactant wormlike micelles. The survey focuses on the non-linear shear rheology and covers a broad range of surfactant concentrations, from the dilute to the liquid-crystalline states and including the semi-dilute and concentrated regimes. Based on a systematic analysis of many surfactant systems, the present approach aims to identify the essential features of the transitions. It is suggested that these features define classes of behaviors. The review describes three types of transitions and/or instabilities : the shear-thickening found in the dilute regime, the shear-banding which is linked in some systems to the isotropic-to-nematic transition, and the flow-aligning and tumbling instabilities characteristic of nematic structures. In these three classes of behaviors, the shear-induced transitions are the result of a coupling between the internal structure of the fluid and the flow, resulting in a new mesoscopic organization under shear. This survey finally highlights the potential use of wormlike micelles as model systems for complex fluids and for applications.

  11. Emulsions stabilised by whey protein microgel particles: towards food-grade Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Destribats, Mathieu; Rouvet, Martine; Gehin-Delval, Cécile; Schmitt, Christophe; Binks, Bernard P

    2014-09-28

    We have investigated a new class of food-grade particles, whey protein microgels, as stabilisers of triglyceride-water emulsions. The sub-micron particles stabilized oil-in-water emulsions at all pH with and without salt. All emulsions creamed but exhibited exceptional resistance to coalescence. Clear correlations exist between the properties of the microgels in aqueous dispersion and the resulting emulsion characteristics. For conditions in which the particles were uncharged, fluid emulsions with relatively large drops were stabilised, whereas emulsions stabilized by charged particles contained smaller flocculated drops. A combination of optical microscopy of the drops and spectrophotometry of the resolved aqueous phase allowed us to estimate the interfacial adsorption densities of the particles using the phenomenon of limited coalescence. We deduce two classes of particle arrangement. Complete adsorption of the particles was obtained when they were neutral or when their charges were screened by salt resulting in at least one particle monolayer at the interface. By contrast, only around 50% of the particles adsorbed when they were charged with emulsion drops being covered by less than half a monolayer. These findings were supported by direct visualization of drop interfaces using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Uncharged particles were highly aggregated and formed a continuous 2-D network at the interface. Otherwise particles organized as individual aggregates separated by particle-free regions. In this case, we suggest that some particles spread at the interface leading to the formation of a continuous protein membrane. Charged particles displayed the ability to bridge opposing interfaces of neighbouring drops to form dense particle disks protecting drops against coalescence; this is the main reason for the flocculation and stability of emulsions containing sparsely covered drops. PMID:24675994

  12. Phase inversion of ionomer-stabilized emulsions to form high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Xu, Zhiguang; Cai, Zengxiao; Guo, Qipeng

    2015-06-28

    Herein, we report the phase inversion of ionomer-stabilized emulsions to form high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) induced by salt concentration and pH changes. The ionomers are sulfonated polystyrenes (SPSs) with different sulfonation degrees. The emulsion types were determined by conductivity measurements, confocal microscopy and optical microscopy, and the formation of HIPE organogels was verified by the tube-inversion method and rheological measurements. SPSs with high sulfonation degrees (water-soluble) and low sulfonation degrees (water-insoluble) can stabilize oil-in-water emulsions; these emulsions were transformed into water-in-oil HIPEs by varying salt concentrations and/or changing the pH. SPS, with a sulfonation degree of 11.6%, is the most efficient, and as low as 0.2 (w/v)% of the organic phase is enough to stabilize the HIPEs. Phase inversion of the oil-in-water emulsions occurred to form water-in-oil HIPEs by increasing the salt concentration in the aqueous phase. Two phase inversion points from oil-in-water emulsions to water-in-oil HIPEs were observed at pH 1 and 13. Moreover, synergetic effects between the salt concentration and pH changes occurred upon the inversion of the emulsion type. The organic phase can be a variety of organic solvents, including toluene, xylene, chloroform, dichloroethane, dichloromethane and anisole, as well as monomers such as styrene, butyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. Poly(HIPEs) were successfully prepared by the polymerization of monomers as the continuous phase in the ionomer-stabilized HIPEs. PMID:26028420

  13. Nuclear Emulsion - Skylab Experiment S009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph shows Skylab's Nuclear Emulsion experiment, a Skylab science facility that was mounted inside the Multiple Docking Adapter used to record the relative abundance of primary, high-energy heavy nuclei outside the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  14. Probing Interfacial Emulsion Stability Controls using Electrorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuyu; Brandvik, Amy; Alvarado, Vladimir

    2010-11-01

    The stability of water-in-oil emulsions is controlled by interfacial mechanisms that include oil film rheology of approaching drops and the strength of drop interfaces. Film drainage is mainly a function of the continuous phase rheology. Temperature is used to regulate the viscosity of the continuous phase and hence determine its effect on emulsion stability through film drainage, in contrast with interfacial strength. In this study, one crude oil is used to formulate water-in-oil emulsions. Oil-water interfacial tension is measured to gauge other interfacial changes with temperature. The critical field value, used as proxy of emulsion stability, approaches a plateau value for each crude oil- aqueous solution pair, at sufficiently high temperature (50 ^oC), which is interpreted to reflect the intrinsic drop-coating film resistance to coalescence. Interfacial tension does vary significantly with either aqueous phase composition or temperature. From comparison with previous results, we speculate that drop coating film is composed of a fraction of asphaltic compunds.

  15. Topical delivery of acetyl hexapeptide-8 from different emulsions: influence of emulsion composition and internal structure.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Reznicek, Gottfried; Kählig, Hanspeter; Kotisch, Harald; Resch, Günter P; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-02-20

    Acetyl hexapeptide-8 (AH-8) is a well-known component of anti-aging products and was recently explored as a promising topical treatment of blepharospasm. Although AH-8 appears in a variety of cosmetic products, its skin penetration is sparsely studied and controversially discussed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the vehicle type on the AH-8 delivery to the skin. Besides skin permeation experiments with Franz type diffusion cells, the spatial distribution of AH-8 in the stratum corneum after a real in-use application was investigated by in vitro tape stripping on porcine ear skin. By applying LC-MS/MS for quantification of AH-8, we demonstrated that a multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion can significantly increase penetration of AH-8 into porcine skin compared to simple O/W and W/O emulsions. The internal structure of the developed multiple emulsion was confirmed by electron microscopic investigations and NMR self diffusion studies. In general, a clear superiority of water-rich W/O/W and O/W emulsions over an oil-rich W/O emulsion in terms of dermal delivery of AH-8 was found. This enhanced delivery of AH-8 could be explained by an increased absorption of the water-rich emulsions into the skin, confirmed by combined ATR-FTIR and tape stripping experiments. PMID:25497319

  16. Superelastic and superhydrophobic nanofiber-assembled cellular aerogels for effective separation of oil/water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Si, Yang; Fu, Qiuxia; Wang, Xueqin; Zhu, Jie; Yu, Jianyong; Sun, Gang; Ding, Bin

    2015-04-28

    Many applications proposed for functional nanofibers require their assembly into a monolithic cellular structure. The ability to maintain structural integrity upon large deformation is essential to ensure a macroscopic cellular material that functions reliably. However, it remains a great challenge to achieve high elasticity in three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous networks. Here, we report a strategy to create fibrous, isotropically bonded elastic reconstructed (FIBER) aerogels with a hierarchical cellular structure and superelasticity by combining electrospun nanofibers and the freeze-shaping technique. Our approach allows the intrinsically lamellar deposited electrospun nanofibers to assemble into elastic bulk aerogels with tunable porous structure and wettability on a large scale. The resulting FIBER aerogels exhibit the integrated properties of ultralow density (<30 mg cm(-3)), rapid recovery from 80% compression strain, superhydrophobic-superoleophilic wettability, and high pore tortuosity. More interestingly, the FIBER aerogels can effectively separate surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions, solely using gravity, with high flux (maximum of 8140 ± 220 L m(-2) h(-1)) and high separation efficiency, which match well with the requirements for treating the real emulsions. The synthesis of FIBER aerogels also provides a versatile platform for exploring the applications of nanofibers in a self-supporting, structurally adaptive, and 3D macroscopic form. PMID:25853279

  17. Stable emulsions prepared by self-assembly of hyaluronic acid and chitosan for papain loading.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Donghua; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Ye; Sun, Jianhua; Hu, Qiong; Liu, Xiaoya

    2015-04-01

    A simple, green and effective process is developed to fabricate hyaluronic acid (HA)/chitosan (CS) complex colloidal particles through electrostatic interactions. The obtained complexes can be used as biocompatible emulsifiers and novel potential carriers for papain loading. An HA/CS mass ratio of 2 is the optimal condition leading to the smallest Dh (420.9 nm). The complexes with eight different mass ratios are used to stabilize white oil/water emulsions. The structure of the complexes at the oil-water interface varies in response to the mass ratio and can be classified into two typical structures, similar to typical polymeric surfactants and solid particulate emulsifiers. Furthermore, papain is introduced into the complex systems. Formation of the papain/HA/CS complexes in a compact form can protect the enzyme. Here, a novel strategy is introduced to fabricate a biocompatible emulsion from the HA/CS complexes and demonstrate that the stable complex is a suitable enzyme delivery system. PMID:25594587

  18. Ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy of emulsions with droplet sizes greater than 10 microm.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andreas; Voigt, Tino; Ripperger, Siegfried

    2007-11-15

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurement is a frequently used tool for non-destructive determination of dispersion characteristics. Useful information like particle or droplet size and their concentration can be obtained, if the relation between size and attenuation of the dispersion is known. In this work, the theoretical model by Faran for the intermediate sound wave regime (IWR) is presented in combination with experimental data. In the IWR, the acoustic behavior is governed by elastic scattering rather than by dissipative effects. Experiments with emulsion of droplet sizes greater than 10 mum were carried out. Silicone oil, sunflower oil and olive oil were selected for the disperse phase of the oil-in-water emulsions. First, emulsions having droplets in the micrometer range were created. Afterwords, attenuation measurements of different concentrated emulsion were carried out. Some adjustments reflecting concentration influence were performed to outline the agreement between calculations and measurements. The validity of the model can be confirmed, if the volume fraction of the disperse phase is considered as a variable. Finally, droplet size distributions from theoretical attenuation spectra could be calculated based on a log-normal distribution. PMID:17720180

  19. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-10-30

    Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals and their dissolved species in chemical loss by precipitation or adsorption of surfactants/polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Emphasis will be on the type and nature of different minerals in the oil reservoirs. Macroscopic adsorption, precipitation, wettability and nanoscopic orientation/conformation studies for aggregates of various surfactant/polymer mixtures on reservoir rocks systems is planned for exploring the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals proposed in this study: sandstone, limestone, gypsum, kaolinite and pyrite, have been characterized to obtain their particle size distribution and surface area, which will be used in the analysis of adsorption and wettability data. The effect of surfactant mixing ratio on the adsorption of mixture of C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} Gemini surfactant (synthesized during last period) and sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) has been studied. It was discovered that even trace amounts of Gemini in the mixture is sufficient to force significant adsorption of DM. DM adsorption on silica increased from relatively negligible levels to very high levels. It is clear form analysis of the results that desired adsorption of either surfactant component in the mixtures can be obtained by controlling the mixing ratio, the total mixture concentration, pH etc. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of Gemini/DM mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. With increasing total surfactant adsorption, the silica mineral undergoes a wettability change from hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic and then revert to hydrophilic surface. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition point is determined also by surfactant mixing ratio. The corresponding solution behavior of mixed systems has been studied, and interaction parameters between the component surfactants have been determined, in comparison with the surfactant interactions at solid/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces. Mineral surface modification due to the adsorption of mixed surfactants of DM and Gemini under optimal conditions, can be employed to control the mineral wettability to facilitate oil liberation in improved oil recovery processes.

  20. Intensification of evaporation processes using surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifullin, V. N.; Sharifullin, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of a group of low molecular surfactants on the evaporation rate during nucleate boiling of water is investigated. It is found that the vaporization rate and heat flux from the heater increase by 4-8% in an electric boiler with surfactants. The analysis of the process based on the model of the phase contact surface restoration made it possible to formulate the mechanism of the effect of considered surfactants.

  1. Droplet Deformation in an Extensional Flow: The Role of Surfactant Physical Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebe, Kathleen J.

    1996-01-01

    Surfactant-induced Marangoni effects strongly alter the stresses exerted along fluid particle interfaces. In low gravity processes, these stresses can dictate the system behavior. The dependence of Marangoni effects on surfactant physical chemistry is not understood, severely impacting our ability to predict and control fluid particle flows. A droplet in an extensional flow allows the controlled study of stretching and deforming interfaces. The deformations of the drop allow both Marangoni stresses, which resist tangential shear, and Marangoni elasticities, which resist surface dilatation, to develop. This flow presents an ideal model system for studying these effects. Prior surfactant-related work in this flow considered a linear dependence of the surface tension on the surface concentration, valid only at dilute surface concentrations, or a non-linear framework at concentrations sufficiently dilute that the linear approximation was valid. The linear framework becomes inadequate for several reasons. The finite dimensions of surfactant molecules must be taken into account with a model that includes surfaces saturation. Nonideal interactions between adsorbed surfactant molecules alter the partitioning of surfactant between the bulk and the interface, the dynamics of surfactant adsorptive/desorptive exchange, and the sensitivity of the surface tension to adsorbed surfactant. For example, cohesion between hydrocarbon chains favors strong adsorption. Cohesion also slows the rate of desorption from interfaces, and decreases the sensitivity of the surface tension to adsorbed surfactant. Strong cohesive interactions result in first order surface phase changes with a plateau in the surface tension vs surface concentration. Within this surface concentration range, the surface tension is decoupled from surface concentration gradients. We are engaged in the study of the role of surfactant physical chemistry in determining the Marangoni stresses on a drop in an extensional flow in a numerical and experimental program. Using surfactants whose dynamics and equilibrium behavior have been characterized in our laboratory, drop deformation will be studied in ground-based experiment. In an accompanying numerical study, predictive drop deformations will be determined based on the isotherm and equation of state determined in our laboratory. This work will improve our abilities to predict and control all fluid particle flows.

  2. Immune modulation by parenteral lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wanten, Geert J A; Calder, Philip C

    2007-05-01

    Total parenteral nutrition is the final option for nutritional support of patients with severe intestinal failure. Lipid emulsions constitute the main source of fuel calories and fatty acids (FAs) in parenteral nutrition formulations. However, adverse effects on patient outcomes have been attributed to the use of lipids, mostly in relation to impaired immune defenses and altered inflammatory responses. Over the years, this issue has remained in the limelight, also because technical advances have provided no safeguard against the most daunting problems, ie, infectious complications. Nevertheless, numerous investigations have failed to produce a clear picture of the immunologic characteristics of the most commonly used soybean oil-derived lipid emulsions, although their high content of n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) has been considered a drawback because of their proinflammatory potential. This concern initiated the development of emulsions in which part of the n-6 FA component is replaced by less bioactive FAs, such as coconut oil (rich in medium-chain saturated FAs) or olive oil (rich in the n-9 monounsaturated FA oleic acid). Another approach has been to use fish oil (rich in n-3 PUFA), the FAs of which have biological activities different from those of n-6 PUFAs. Recent studies on the modulation of host defenses and inflammation by fish-oil emulsions have yielded consistent data, which indicate that these emulsions may provide a tool to beneficially alter the course of immune-mediated conditions. Although most of these lipids have not yet become available on the US market, this review synthesizes available information on immunologic characteristics of the different lipids that currently can be applied via parenteral nutrition support. PMID:17490951

  3. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  4. Temperature-Sensitive Aqueous Surfactant Two-Phase System Formation in Cationic-Anionic Surfactant Systems

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    Temperature-Sensitive Aqueous Surfactant Two-Phase System Formation in Cationic-Anionic Surfactant in a series of conventional mixed cationic-anionic surfactant systems. On the basis of the investigations-sorbitol, urea, or NaBr. The hydrophobic interaction and cooperative effect between cationic and anionic

  5. Biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant function by polymeric nanoparticles: role of surfactant protein B and C.

    PubMed

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Ruppert, Clemens; Schmehl, Thomas; Günther, Andreas; Seeger, Werner

    2014-11-01

    The current study investigated the mechanisms involved in the process of biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by polymeric nanoparticles (NP). The minimal surface tension of diverse synthetic surfactants was monitored in the presence of bare and surface-decorated (i.e. poloxamer 407) sub-100 nm poly(lactide) NP. Moreover, the influence of NP on surfactant composition (i.e. surfactant protein (SP) content) was studied. Dose-elevations of SP advanced the biophysical activity of the tested surfactant preparation. Surfactant-associated protein C supplemented phospholipid mixtures (PLM-C) were shown to be more susceptible to biophysical inactivation by bare NP than phospholipid mixture supplemented with surfactant protein B (PLM-B) and PLM-B/C. Surfactant function was hindered owing to a drastic depletion of the SP content upon contact with bare NP. By contrast, surface-modified NP were capable of circumventing unwanted surfactant inhibition. Surfactant constitution influences the extent of biophysical inhibition by polymeric NP. Steric shielding of the NP surface minimizes unwanted NP-surfactant interactions, which represents an option for the development of surfactant-compatible nanomedicines. PMID:25087869

  6. Coalescence of Pickering emulsion droplets induced by an electric field

    E-print Network

    Guo Chen; Peng Tan; Shuyu Chen; Jiping Huang; Weijia Wen; Lei Xu

    2013-02-26

    Combining high-speed photography with electric current measurement, we investigate the electrocoalescence of Pickering emulsion droplets. Under high enough electric field, the originally-stable droplets coalesce via two distinct approaches: normal coalescence and abnormal coalescence. In the normal coalescence, a liquid bridge grows continuously and merges two droplets together, similar to the classical picture. In the abnormal coalescence, however, the bridge fails to grow indefinitely; instead it breaks up spontaneously due to the geometric constraint from particle shells. Such connecting-then-breaking cycles repeat multiple times, until a stable connection is established. In depth analysis indicates that the defect size in particle shells determines the exact merging behaviors: when the defect size is larger than a critical size around the particle diameter, normal coalescence will show up; while abnormal coalescence will appear for coatings with smaller defects.

  7. PEGylated Nanoparticles Obtained through Emulsion Polymerization as Paclitaxel Carriers.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Claudio; Morosi, Lavinia; Bello, Ezia; Ferrari, Raffaele; Licandro, Simonetta Andrea; Lupi, Monica; Ubezio, Paolo; Morbidelli, Massimo; Zucchetti, Massimo; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Moscatelli, Davide; Frapolli, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanoparticles (NPs) represent a promising way to deliver poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs without the use of unwanted excipients, whose presence can be the cause of severe side effects. In this work, a Cremophor-free formulation for paclitaxel (PTX) has been developed by employing PEGylated polymer nanoparticles (NPs) as drug delivery carriers based on modified poly(?-caprolactone) macromonomers and synthesized through free radical emulsion polymerization. Paclitaxel was loaded in the NPs in a postsynthesis process which allowed to obtain a drug concentration suitable for in vivo use. In vivo experiments on drug biodistribution and therapeutic efficacy show comparable behavior between the NPs and the Cremophor formulation, also showing good tolerability of the new formulation proposed. PMID:26623665

  8. Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2013-03-01

    During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

  9. Derivatives of glutamic acid as new surfactants.

    PubMed

    Rodehüser, L; Chaumette, H; Meyers, A; Rogalska, E; Gérardin, C; Selve, C

    2000-01-01

    Starting from glutamic acid, different types of surfactants have been synthesised by using original trimodular strategies. Monosubstituted zwitterionic amides of glutamic acid obtained with excellent yields show good surface activity. The grafting of a second hydrophobic side-chain leads to bicatenar cationic surfactants or to disubstituted nonionic cyclic compounds. In order to reduce the hydrophobic character of the bicatenar surfactants, a second synthetic method has been developed, allowing the introduction of a polar sugar group into these molecules. The surfactant properties of several of the products have been determined by physico-chemical methods such as surface tension measurements and compression isotherm studies by means of a Langmuir balance. PMID:10794135

  10. Transport of TiO2 nanoparticles in soil in the presence of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peide; Zhang, Keke; Fang, Jing; Lin, Daohui; Wang, Minhao; Han, Jingyi

    2015-09-15

    This paper aimed to investigate the influences of surfactants on the nanoparticle transport behavior in soil. The transport behaviors of TiO2 nanoparticles (nTiO2) in soil with three different surfactants, including Triton X-100 (TX-100), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and cationic cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were studied. Results showed that all the three surfactants decreased the mobility of nTiO2 in soil column, which were mainly caused by the strong adsorption of surfactants on soil and nTiO2. The inhibition order was as follows: CTAB>SDBS>TX-100. Combined effect experiments showed that when solution ionic strength (IS) increased, TX-100 or CTAB inhibited the mobility of nTiO2 in soil. However, the effect of SDBS on nTiO2 transport shifted from inhibition to facilitation when IS increased from 0.1 to 5mM. This was mainly attributed to the decreasing adsorption of SDBS on soil with increased IS, whereas the adsorption of TX-100 and CTAB was independent of IS. This innovative information motivates further insight into the role of surfactants on nanoparticle transport behavior in soil. PMID:25981940

  11. Impact of Acid Additives on Elastic Modulus of Viscoelastic Surfactants 

    E-print Network

    Khan, Waqar Ahmad

    2012-02-14

    are water soluble and surfactants with larger tails are oil soluble. There are five different types of surfactants namely anionic, cationic, nonionic, amphoteric and zwitterionic. Anionic surfactants have a negatively charged head. Cationic surfactants... have a positively charged head. Nonionic surfactants have no charge. Amphoteric surfactants are pH sensitive and have a positively charged head for acidic pH, no charge for neutral pH and a negative charge for alkaline pH. Carbonate formations...

  12. Enhanced adsorption affinity of anionic perylene-based surfactants towards smaller-diameter SWCNTs.

    PubMed

    Backes, Claudia; Mundloch, Udo; Schmidt, Cordula D; Coleman, Jonathan N; Wohlleben, Wendel; Hauke, Frank; Hirsch, Andreas

    2010-11-22

    We present evidence from multiple characterization methods, such as emission spectroscopy, zeta potential, and analytical ultracentrifugation, to shed light on the adsorption behavior of synthesized perylene surfactants on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). On comparing dispersions of smaller-diameter SWCNTs prepared by using cobalt-molybdenum catalysis (CoMoCAT) with the larger-diameter SWCNTs prepared by high-pressure carbon monoxide decomposition (HiPco), we find that the CoMoCAT-perylene surfactant dispersions are characterized by more negative zeta potentials, and higher anhydrous specific volumes (the latter determined from the sedimentation coefficients by analytical ultracentrifugation), which indicates an increased packing density of the perylene surfactants on nanotubes of smaller diameter. This conclusion is further supported by the subsequent replacement of the perylene derivatives from the nanotube sidewall by sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), which first occurs on the larger-diameter nanotubes. The enhanced adsorption affinity of the perylene surfactants towards smaller-diameter SWCNTs can be understood in terms of a change in the supramolecular arrangement of the perylene derivatives on the scaffold of the SWCNTs. These findings represent a significant step forward in understanding the noncovalent interaction of ?-surfactants with carbon nanotubes, which will enable the design of novel surfactants with enhanced selectivity for certain nanotube species. PMID:20878796

  13. Temperature-induced vesicle to micelle transition in cationic/cationic mixed surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjuan; Liu, Lifei; Huang, Xin; Tan, Xiuniang; Luo, Tian; Li, Wei

    2015-11-11

    Temperature-induced vesicle to micelle transition (VMT), which has rarely been reported in cationic/cationic mixed surfactant systems, was systemically studied in a didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)/dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) aqueous solution. We investigated the effect of temperature on DDAB/DTAC aqueous solutions by means of turbidity, conductivity, cryo-TEM, a UV-vis spectrophotometer, and a steady-state fluorescence spectrometer. It was found that increasing temperature could induce the transformation from the vesicle to the micelle in this cationic/cationic mixed surfactant system. The degree of transformation can be easily controlled by the operation temperature. Additionally, by adjusting the proportion of the mixed cationic/cationic systems and employing cationic surfactants with different chain-lengths, we were able to conclude that the hydrophobic tail length of the surfactant affects the aggregation behavior of cationic/cationic mixed surfactant systems as a function of temperature. It is universal to induce the transformation from the vesicle to the micelle by temperature in cationic/cationic mixed surfactant systems. A possible mechanism for the temperature-induced VMT was proposed based on the experimental results. PMID:26395000

  14. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Danielle B; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V

    2015-06-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation - a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes. PMID:25812797

  15. The future of surfactant therapy for patients with acute lung injury - new requirements and new surfactants.

    PubMed

    Spragg, Roger G

    2002-01-01

    New requirements must be considered when designing trials of new lung surfactants for patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Radiographic inclusion criteria must be carefully applied if they are to generate reproducible patient groups. Strategies for ventilation are now known to significantly affect outcome and also must be clearly defined and applied. Similar mortality rates in patients with different degrees of gas exchange and radiographic abnormalities suggest that prior clinical distinctions should be re-examined. Current trials of surfactant therapy for ALI are examining the efficacy of a natural surfactant, a surfactant containing recombinant SP-C and a surfactant based on an SP-B-like peptide. PMID:12011562

  16. Double emulsion solvent evaporation techniques used for drug encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2015-12-30

    Double emulsions are complex systems, also called "emulsions of emulsions", in which the droplets of the dispersed phase contain one or more types of smaller dispersed droplets themselves. Double emulsions have the potential for encapsulation of both hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic drugs, cosmetics, foods and other high value products. Techniques based on double emulsions are commonly used for the encapsulation of hydrophilic molecules, which suffer from low encapsulation efficiency because of rapid drug partitioning into the external aqueous phase when using single emulsions. The main issue when using double emulsions is their production in a well-controlled manner, with homogeneous droplet size by optimizing different process variables. In this review special attention has been paid to the application of double emulsion techniques for the encapsulation of various hydrophilic and hydrophobic anticancer drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotic drugs, proteins and amino acids and their applications in theranostics. Moreover, the optimized ratio of the different phases and other process parameters of double emulsions are discussed. Finally, the results published regarding various types of solvents, stabilizers and polymers used for the encapsulation of several active substances via double emulsion processes are reported. PMID:26522982

  17. Control of stain geometry by drop evaporation of surfactant containing dispersions.

    PubMed

    Erbil, H Yildirim

    2015-08-01

    Control of stain geometry by drop evaporation of surfactant containing dispersions is an important topic of interest because it plays a crucial role in many applications such as forming templates on solid surfaces, in ink-jet printing, spraying of pesticides, micro/nano material fabrication, thin film coatings, biochemical assays, deposition of DNA/RNA micro-arrays, and manufacture of novel optical and electronic materials. This paper presents a review of the published articles on the diffusive drop evaporation of pure liquids (water), the surfactant stains obtained from evaporating drops that do not contain dispersed particles and deposits obtained from drops containing polymer colloids and carbon based particles such as carbon nanotubes, graphite and fullerenes. Experimental results of specific systems and modeling attempts are discussed. This review also has some special subtopics such as suppression of coffee-rings by surfactant addition and "stick-slip" behavior of evaporating nanosuspension drops. In general, the drop evaporation process of a surfactant/particle/substrate system is very complex since dissolved surfactants adsorb on both the insoluble organic/inorganic micro/nanoparticles in the drop, on the air/solution interface and on the substrate surface in different extends. Meanwhile, surfactant adsorbed particles interact with the substrate giving a specific contact angle, and free surfactants create a solutal Marangoni flow in the drop which controls the location of the particle deposition together with the rate of evaporation. In some cases, the presence of a surfactant monolayer at the air/solution interface alters the rate of evaporation. At present, the magnitude of each effect cannot be predicted adequately in advance and consequently they should be carefully studied for any system in order to control the shape and size of the final deposit. PMID:25217332

  18. Theoretical model of viscous friction inside steadily sheared foams and concentrated emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N. D.; Golemanov, K.; Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P.; Lips, A.

    2008-07-01

    In a recent Letter [N. D. Denkov , Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138301 (2008)] we calculated theoretically the macroscopic viscous stress of steadily sheared foam or emulsion from the energy dissipated inside the transient planar films, formed between neighboring bubbles or drops in the shear flow. The model predicts that the viscous stress in these systems should be proportional to Ca1/2 , where Ca is a capillary number and n=1/2 is the power-law index. In the current paper we explain our model in detail and develop it further in several aspects: First, we extend the model to account for the effects of viscous friction in the curved meniscus regions, surrounding the planar films, on the dynamics of film formation and on the total viscous stress. Second, we consider the effects of surface forces (electrostatic, van der Waals, etc.) acting between the surfaces of the neighboring bubbles or drops and show that these forces could be important in emulsions, due to the relatively small thickness of emulsion films (often comparable to the range of action of surface forces). In contrast, the surface forces are usually negligible in steadily sheared foams, because the dynamic foam films are thicker than the extent of surface forces, except for foams containing micrometer-sized bubbles and/or at very low shear rates. Third, additional consideration is made for bubbles or drops exhibiting high surface viscosity, for which we demonstrate an additional contribution to the macroscopic viscous stress, created by the surface dissipation of energy. The new upgraded model predicts that the energy dissipation at the bubble or drop surface leads to power-law index n<1/2 , whereas the contribution of the surface forces leads to n>1/2 , which explains the rich variety of foam or emulsion behaviors observed upon steady shear. Various comparisons are made between model predictions and experimental results for both foams and emulsions, and very good agreement is found.

  19. Theoretical model of viscous friction inside steadily sheared foams and concentrated emulsions

    E-print Network

    S. Tcholakova; N. D. Denkov; K. Golemanov; K. P. Ananthapadmanabhan; A. Lips

    2008-05-28

    In a recent letter (Denkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 100 (2008) p. 138301) we calculated theoretically the macroscopic viscous stress of steadily sheared foam/emulsion from the energy dissipated inside the transient planar films, formed between neighboring bubbles/drops in the shear flow. The model predicts that the viscous stress in these systems should be a proportional to Ca^1/2, where Ca is the capillary number and n = 1/2 is the power-law index. In the current paper we explain in detail our model and develop it further in several aspects: First, we extend the model to account for the effects of viscous friction in the curved meniscus regions, surrounding the planar films, on the dynamics of film formation and on the total viscous stress. Second, we consider the effects of surface forces (electrostatic, van der Waals, etc.) acting between the surfaces of the neighboring bubbles/drops and show that these forces could be important in emulsions, due to the relatively small thickness of emulsion films (often comparable to the range of action of the surface forces). Third, additional consideration is made for bubbles/drops exhibiting high surface viscosity, for which we demonstrate an additional contribution to the macroscopic viscous stress, created by the surface dissipation of energy. The new upgraded model predicts that the energy dissipation at the bubble/drop surface leads to power-law index n 1/2, which explains the rich variety of foam/emulsion behaviors observed upon steady shear. Various comparisons are made between model predictions and experimental results for both foams and emulsions, and a very good agreement is found.

  20. Morphologies of emulsions of conjugate phase pairs of amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; Nwosu, S.N.; Johnson, G.K.

    1992-04-01

    Electrical conductivity measurements were made on emulsions formed, respectively, from the conjugate top-middle, top-bottom, and middle-bottom phase pairs that define the three sides of various nonionic amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles. Effective-medium conductivity models and observations of creaming behavior were used to substantiate assignments of steady-state emulsion morphologies. The phase volume fractions at which morphology changes occurred were measured for both directions along each tie line, and the hysteresis was obtained as the difference between the volume fractions for the two directions. The results support the dispersion morphology diagram previously postulated, including the formation of mixtures of emulsions whose morphologies are the inverse of each other. 31 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.